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Sample records for raik valentin tihhomirov

  1. Valentine's Day: a Brief History and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Valentine's Day presents an opportunity to show loved ones they are appreciated. Sweethearts, spouses, and families exchange gifts to express affection. Beyond traditional celebrations, new customs such as a romantic dinner, attending movies, and exchanging jewelry have been added. This article presents a brief history of Valentine's Day and a…

  2. 75 FR 15740 - Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination... of Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc., Norton, Massachusetts. The petitioner has requested that...

  3. Associations between 'valentine' heart shape, atrial enlargement and cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D; Giglio, Robson F; Berry, Clifford R; Reese, David J; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2015-06-01

    'Valentine' heart shape is a common qualifier used in veterinary radiology to describe a cardiac silhouette with focal enlargement at the level of the base of the heart in feline patients. Anecdotally, this sign has been thought to be related to biatrial enlargement and also to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, to our knowledge, there has been no study performed to assess the association between cardiac chamber enlargement and cardiac disease with the 'valentine'-shaped heart. The aim of this study was to verify the association between the 'valentine' heart shape observed in ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs and the presence of singular or combined cardiac chamber enlargement, and also the presence and type of cardiomyopathy (CM) in cats. A search of the database of the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Florida for cats with a radiology report of thoracic radiographs that contained the words 'valentine' and 'biatrial', and echocardiography performed within 1 week, was undertaken; 41 cases met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two percent of the cats of the study sample had some form of CM. The 'valentine' heart shape was associated with biatrial enlargement in 41% of the patients in our study sample that had some form of CM and just 8% of cases diagnosed with HCM, suggesting that the 'valentine' heart shape has a low association with HCM or biatrial enlargement; however, it should be considered a sign of feline CM.

  4. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals.

  5. Mainstream legitimization of homosexual men through Valentine's Day gift-giving and consumption rituals.

    PubMed

    Newman, P J; Nelson, M R

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the gay community has received increased attention from marketers through specially-made television commercials, direct mail pieces, and other media messages. However, little research in consumer behavior has examined the potential attitudinal and behavioral differences and similarities between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Specifically, this paper provides an exploratory look at the meaning and practices surrounding the consumer ritual of Valentine's Day from the perspective of homosexual men. Using depth interviews within an interpretative framework, our research suggests similarities exist for the celebration of Valentine's Day between homosexual and heterosexual singles, while differences may exist for the functions of Valentine's Day gift-giving between these groups. Some homosexual couples feel they cannot "legitimately participate" in the dominant rituals associated with the holiday due to oppression by a "heterosexual society". Marketing implications are discussed.

  6. [Severe infection by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin: reports of two cases].

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Martín; Pérez, Guadalupe; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Sarkis, Claudia; Romero, Romina; Mastroianni, Alejandra; Casimir, Lidia; Venuta, María E; Gómez Bonduele, Verónica; Bologna, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications. It is essential the suspected diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic treatment and early surgical management to improve the approach of these infections. Epidemiological surveillance should be mantained to detect the frequency of infections caused by these bacteria.

  7. Designing a Fair Test with Valentine Candy To Teach Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Soo; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students attempt to design a fair test--a test in which one variable at a time is changed--that will result in the slow melting of a single piece of valentine heart candy in the mouth. Students identified and defined "normal placement" as a control variable and measured melting time to establish baseline data. (WRM)

  8. Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine toxin skin infection in a medical laboratory technician.

    PubMed

    Pougnet, Richard; Pougnet, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    This report exposes the case of a Staphylococcus aureus infection occurring in a microbiology laboratory technician. He was a 52 year-old man without medical history. He presented an abscess on the anterior aspect of the left forearm. Analysis showed that it was a Staphylococcus aureus secreting the Panton-Valentine toxin. The study of the workplace found the frequency of exposure. The study of workstation showed the link between the technician position and the infection. Indeed, this man touched an area where the biocleaning was hard to do. This is the first case of infection with PVL described for a laboratory technician.

  9. Disseminated Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Staphylococcus aureus infection in a child.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Yanik, Keramettin; Paksu, Muhammet S; Sensoy, Gulnar; Aykanat, Alper; Yener, Nazik; Belet, Nursen; Ceyhan, Meltem

    2016-04-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  10. A case of epididymitis associated with Panton-Valentine leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Malini; Chew, Pei Ru

    2012-08-01

    A new pattern of disease caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus is emerging in the UK and worldwide. Community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) is more likely to produce PVL, a pore-forming cytotoxin inducing leucocyte lysis, which often infects young healthy individuals. The worldwide emergence and continually increasing prevalence of community-acquired PVL-MRSA have recently attracted high-profile media attention and prompted concern regarding the transmissibility and virulence. This paper reports a case of genitourinary tract infection associated with PVL-positive community-associated MRSA in an immunocompetent young man.

  11. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement Supersonic Flight Operations in the Valentine Military Operations Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-04

    sorties per month in both MOA’s (Valentine and Reserve) to minimize the number of sonic booms each area would receive. The primary environmental...concern associated with the proposed action is the effects of sonic booms. It is projected an individual would hear no more than 2 to 3 sonic booms per day...could occur in the area. Concerns have been raised about significant indirect impacts to the economy by sonic booms impacting ranching operations and

  12. Global Distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Bes, Michele; Meugnier, Helene; Lina, Gerard; Bozdogan, Bülent; Courvalin, Patrice; Reverdy, Marie-Elisabeth; Enright, Mark C.; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    We determined the agr type, multilocus sequence type, protein A gene type (spa typing), toxin gene profile, and antimicrobial drug resistance profile of 469 isolates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (PVL-positive CA-MRSA). The isolates had been collected from around the world from 1999 through 2005 by the French National Reference Center for Staphylococci. We found that some continent-specific clones described in 2003, such as clone ST8, have now spread all over the world. Likewise, some PVL-positive CA-MRSA have spread to several countries on various continents. New clones have emerged (e.g., ST377) on new genetic backgrounds. PVL-positive CA-MRSA that were usually susceptible to most antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents have acquired new resistance determinants (e.g., to gentamicin) in certain countries. The major trait shared by all these clones is a short staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec element of type IV or V. PMID:17553275

  13. Investigations of fluvial sediments of the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Matejka, D.Q.; Hubbell, David Wellington

    1953-01-01

    This report contains results of observations that were made from the time when a natural constriction was formed in the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebr., to the time when it was widened by high flows. After the constriction was widened, insufficient turbulence was developed to suspend most of the sediment. The report gives information on the amount and characteristics of the sediment that moves as unmeasured load at normal sections of the stream near the constriction and at the measuring sections at the Sparks gaging station. Lateral distributions of depth, velocity, and concentration are shown for the sections where sediment discharge was measured. In addition, vertical distributions of concentration, velocity, and percentage of particles coarser than 0.25 mm are shown for the contracted section. The vertical distributions seem to indicate that the total sediment load of the stream was usually in suspension at the contracted section. Exclusive of the period during the winter when upstream reservoirs. were not flushed, the measured discharge of suspended sediment at the normal sections near the contraction averaged 47 percent and at the Sparks gaging station 41 percent of the measured sediment discharge at the contracted section. Particle sizes of suspended sediment and bed material are tabulated, and some size distributions are plotted. In conformity with bedload theory, the computed particle sizes of the unmeasured load were slightly smaller than the average particle sizes in the samples of bed material.

  14. Red Roses and Gift Chocolates Are Judged More Positively in the U.S. Near Valentine's Day: Evidence of Naturally Occurring Cultural Priming.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Vivian; Pandey, Gayathri; Tabak, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes are not static, but constructed at the moment of the evaluation, incorporating temporary contextual influences. How do meaningful events that naturally occur within a culture, such as a national holiday, shape evaluative judgments of objects related to the holiday? We focused on evaluations of red roses and gift chocolates, which are everyday objects, but also iconic of Valentine's Day in the U.S. We reasoned that if cultural events shape evaluations, then roses and chocolates would be evaluated differently near Valentine's Day. Using a large and diverse U.S. sample, we found that as Valentine's Day neared, evaluations of roses and chocolates (but not a comparison object) were evaluated more positively. Increases in positivity of roses and chocolates covaried with their increased cultural relevance, as quantified by the volume of web search queries involving these terms. These findings provide a demonstration of naturally occurring cultural priming by which the salience of cultural events shape evaluations.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is a Very Potent Cytotoxic Factor for Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Bettina; Hussain, Muzaffar; Grundmeier, Matthias; Brück, Michaela; Holzinger, Dirk; Varga, Georg; Roth, Johannes; Kahl, Barbara C.; Proctor, Richard A.; Peters, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The role of the pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in severe necrotizing diseases is debated due to conflicting data from epidemiological studies of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections and various murine disease-models. In this study, we used neutrophils isolated from different species to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of PVL in comparison to other staphylococcal cytolytic components. Furthermore, to study the impact of PVL we expressed it heterologously in a non-virulent staphylococcal species and examined pvl-positive and pvl-negative clinical isolates as well as the strain USA300 and its pvl-negative mutant. We demonstrate that PVL induces rapid activation and cell death in human and rabbit neutrophils, but not in murine or simian cells. By contrast, the phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), a newly identified group of cytolytic staphylococcal components, lack species-specificity. In general, after phagocytosis of bacteria different pvl-positive and pvl-negative staphylococcal strains, expressing a variety of other virulence factors (such as surface proteins), induced cell death in neutrophils, which is most likely associated with the physiological clearing function of these cells. However, the release of PVL by staphylococcal strains caused rapid and premature cell death, which is different from the physiological (and programmed) cell death of neutrophils following phagocytosis and degradation of virulent bacteria. Taken together, our results question the value of infection-models in mice and non-human primates to elucidate the impact of PVL. Our data clearly demonstrate that PVL acts differentially on neutrophils of various species and suggests that PVL has an important cytotoxic role in human neutrophils, which has major implications for the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA infections. PMID:20072612

  16. Dissemination of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yoshiko; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus closely associated with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have been identified worldwide, including in the USA; however, few studies have reported the presence of these strains in Japan. In this study, we prospectively investigated the prevalence of PVL in S. aureus strains from outpatients presenting with SSTI in Okinawa and characterized the PVL-positive S. aureus strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). From 2008-2010, 499 clinical samples were obtained from 497 people. S. aureus was identified in 274 samples, and 36% (99 of 274) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Seventeen (6.2%) PVL-positive S. aureus strains were detected by PCR, and 12 of the 17 PVL-positive strains were MRSA. Most PVL-positive S. aureus caused furuncles or carbuncles. Nine of the 17 PVL-positive isolates had an ST8 MRSA genotype and most harbored SCCmec type IVa and the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element, which is identical to the USA300 clone prevalent in the USA. PVL-positive S. aureus strains were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin (65%) and levofloxacin (53%). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have emerged and are spreading as a causative pathogen for SSTI in Okinawa.

  17. [Identification and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Tokashiki, Yoshino T; Nakasone, Isamu; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Nago, Tamami T; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2010-09-01

    We experienced hospital-acquired infection in March 2008 that three nurses became infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Accordingly, we performed the retrospective study to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus in Okinawa. A total of 731 clinical isolates, consisting of 600 MRSA and 131 methicillin-susceptible isolates in Okinawa, were included. Of the isolates, 16 were positive for PVL gene (lukS-PV-lukF-PV). All the PVL-positive isolates were MRSA, and the first appeared in March 2008. The isolates from the University Hospital were characterized as staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type IVa. Through the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 16 PVL-positive MRSA isolates were divided in three groups. One isolate (the first group) from the other hospital was less similar (< 40% similarity) when compared with the remaining 15 isolates from the University Hospital. The second group consisted of two respective paired isolates from the same department wards, and those were very similar with each other, indicating possible patient-to-patient transmission. The 11 isolates were characterized as the third group with >80% similarity. The DiversiLab system (bioMérieux) based on repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing demonstrated that the isolates of the third group were similar and indistinguishable with the strains of USA300 clone. However, the first and second groups were not determinable which USA clone was the origin. With these, we could conclude that the PVL-positive MRSA close to USA300 clone first appeared in Okinawa in 2008 and is now becoming prevalent multi-focally. Also, person-to-person transmission is already likely in a hospital setting.

  18. The Origin of Convex Waterfalls Along the Niobrara River by Valentine, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, D. T.; Mason, L. J.; Goble, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Waterfalls on tributaries along a stretch of the Niobrara River east of Valentine, Nebraska have a convex-downstream geometry in the horizontal plane and an arc in the vertical plane. Siltstone forming the cliff face is only slightly indurated and should be easily eroded by stream water. This is not the case as the cliff face on either side of the waterfalls clearly undergoes more rapid erosion than the face of the falls forming a convex geometry. This differential erosion rate includes points where waterfalls occur immediately along the banks of the Niobrara River. At these points, riverbank erosion is clearly more effective upstream and downstream of a waterfall as evidenced by the protrusion of the waterfall face into the river. There appears to be repetitive-cycles of waterfall evolution along the tributaries. The convexity increases until collapse occurs on the face of the falls, headward erosion then occurs, followed by the development of a new convex waterfall. The waterfalls have a more typical geometry (convex upstream) on tributaries in the lower reaches of the Niobrara River, where cliff faces become coarser grained. The tributaries are fed by springs. Several processes interact to form the convex geometry. Freeze/thaw erosion is more effective on either side of the waterfalls. Water enters the face of the falls and wicks into the cliff causing negative pore pressures. Clay coatings on mineral grains appear to play a role in protection from erosion. Algae and lichen growth aids in protecting the face of the falls. Small groundwater flow systems, represented by seepage into the streambed above the falls and discharge to the side of the falls can cause seepage erosion and enhancement of freeze/thaw erosion.

  19. Staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leucocidin as a major virulence factor associated to furuncles.

    PubMed

    Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Sina, Haziz; Scheftel, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Brigitte; Sainte-Marie, Dominique; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Prévost, Gilles; Couppié, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), one of the β-barrel pore-forming staphylococcal leucotoxins, is known to be associated to furuncles and some severe community pneumonia. However, it is still uncertain how many other virulence factors are also associated to furuncles and what the risk factors of furuncles are in immuno-compromised status of patients, especially the HIV (+) patients. In this paper, we use antigen immunoprecipitation and multiplex PCR approach to determine the presence of 19 toxins, 8 adhesion factors and the PFGE profiles associated to furuncles in three independent patient study groups of S. aureus (SA) isolates collected from the Cayenne General Hospital (French Guiana). The patient groups were made of: 16 isolates from HIV (-) patients, 9 from HIV (+) patients suffering from furuncles, and 30 control isolates from patients with diverse secondary infected dermatitis. Our data reveals that the majority (96%) of SA strains isolated from HIV patient-derived furuncles significantly produced PVL (p<10(-7)), whereas only 10% of SA strains produced this toxin in secondary infected dermatosis. A high prevalence of LukE-LukD-producing isolates (56 to 78%) was recorded in patient groups. Genes encoding clumping factor B, collagen- and laminin-binding proteins (clfB, cna, lbp, respectively) were markedly frequent (30 to 55%), without being associated to a specific group. Pulse field gel electrophoresis evidenced 24 overall pulsotypes, whereas the 25 PVL-producing isolates were distributed into 15 non clonal fingerprints. These pulsotypes were not specific PVL-producing isolates. PVL appears to be the major virulence factor associated to furuncles in Europe and in South America regardless of the immune status of the HIV patients.

  20. Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcal aureus infections of the head and neck: case series and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hanratty, John; Changez, Huma; Smith, Andrew; Wales, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by some clones of Staphylococcus aureus that is associated with infections ranging from uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia. PVL S aureus-associated maxillofacial infections are rarely reported; therefore, a high degree of clinical suspicion is warranted and close liaison with microbiologists and appropriate samples are required for optimal management. This report discusses the management and learning points from 3 such cases managed by the Greater Glasgow and Clyde National Health Service maxillofacial surgical teams.

  1. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin associated with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a case report and review of interim guidelines.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, L N; Lowe, A D

    2008-07-01

    We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. The causative organism was positive for the toxin Panton-Valentine Leukocidin. This resulted in a severe pneumonia requiring a prolonged stay on our intensive care unit. This infection is becoming more common in the United Kingdom. It can cause a far more aggressive illness than the hospital acquired infection with a high mortality if it becomes an invasive infection. The Department of Health has recently produced interim guidelines for its treatment which we have also reviewed.

  2. Characterization of a Novel Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Encoding Staphylococcal Phage and Its Naturally PVL-Lacking Variant

    PubMed Central

    El Haddad, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    A new siphophage (LH1) was isolated from raw milk using a Staphylococcus aureus ST352 host. Its genome (46,048 bp, 57 open reading frames) includes the two genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a virulence factor usually harbored by S. aureus prophages. Nine structural proteins were identified, including a tail protein generated through a +1 frameshift. A phage lytic mutant was isolated, and its analysis revealed the deletion of genes coding for the PVL and an integrase. The deletion likely occurred through recombination between direct repeats. PMID:23396328

  3. Characterization of a Novel Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-encoding staphylococcal phage and its naturally PVL-lacking variant.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Moineau, Sylvain

    2013-04-01

    A new siphophage (LH1) was isolated from raw milk using a Staphylococcus aureus ST352 host. Its genome (46,048 bp, 57 open reading frames) includes the two genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a virulence factor usually harbored by S. aureus prophages. Nine structural proteins were identified, including a tail protein generated through a +1 frameshift. A phage lytic mutant was isolated, and its analysis revealed the deletion of genes coding for the PVL and an integrase. The deletion likely occurred through recombination between direct repeats.

  4. Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Dupieux, C; Blondé, R; Bouchiat, C; Meugnier, H; Bes, M; Laurent, S; Vandenesch, F; Laurent, F; Tristan, A

    2015-06-11

    We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus argenteus, harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). These two sporadic cases were community-acquired, and identified in France in 2014. Both had an epidemiological link with Mayotte, an overseas department of France located in the Indian Ocean off the south-eastern African coast. This report illustrates that, contrary to previous descriptions, S. argenteus can acquire important virulence factors and be responsible for severe infections.

  5. Discovering the Structure of Nerve Tissue: Part 2: Gabriel Valentin, Robert Remak, and Jan Evangelista Purkyně.

    PubMed

    Chvátal, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    During the 1830s, the use of improved microscopic techniques together with new histological methods, including tissue fixation, allowed more precise data to be obtained concerning the structure of nerve tissue of animals as well as humans. The present article, based on the translations of original texts never before published, brings together for the first time the discoveries of famous scholars Gustav Valentin, Robert Remak, and Jan Evangelista Purkyně, who made their significant discoveries in the field of neuroscience almost simultaneously and shows how their findings affected each other. In addition, this article also contains digitally remastered and reconstructed figures published in the original works of Valentin, Remak, and Purkyně and they are displayed for the first time in high quality. Although the fundamental discoveries of these famous scholars did not imply the discovery of nerve cells as we know them today, they were certainly a very important basis for further research of many other eminent scholars during the second half of the nineteenth century.

  6. A Probe-Based Method for Confirmation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and TST Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Seifried, Steven E.; Jinno, Sadao; Perkins, Rosalie; Singh, Seema; Ying, Claire.; Tice, Alan D.; Kim, Wesley; Hayden, Randall T.

    2016-01-01

    Probe-based detection of mecA, lukS/F-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin) and tst virulence genes in 435 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus had comparable sensitivity and specificity to end point polymerase chain reaction as a reference standard. PMID:21658873

  7. Combined action of influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin provokes severe lung epithelium damage.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Silke; Ehrhardt, Christina; Medina, Eva; Warnking, Kathrin; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Heitmann, Vanessa; Ludwig, Stephan; Peters, Georg; Löffler, Bettina

    2012-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia is a life-threatening disease that is frequently preceded by influenza infection. The S. aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is most likely causative for necrotizing diseases, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms of PVL and a possible contribution of influenza virus remain to be elucidated. In this study, we present a model that explains how influenza virus and PVL act together to cause necrotizing pneumonia: an influenza infection activates the lung epithelium to produce chemoattractants for neutrophils. Upon superinfection with PVL-expressing S. aureus, the recruited neutrophils are rapidly killed by PVL, resulting in uncontrolled release of neutrophil proteases that damage the airway epithelium. The host counteracts this pathogen strategy by generating PVL-neutralizing antibodies and by neutralizing the released proteases via protease inhibitors present in the serum. These findings explain why necrotizing infections mainly develop in serum-free spaces (eg, pulmonary alveoli) and open options for new therapeutic approaches.

  8. Outbreak of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a regional burns unit.

    PubMed

    Teare, L; Shelley, O P; Millership, S; Kearns, A

    2010-11-01

    Over a 16 month period, 30 individuals (19 patients, one relative and 10 members of staff) on a regional burns and plastics unit became colonised or infected with a single strain of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MRSA). The strain was resistant to ciprofloxacin, neomycin and gentamicin and belonged to a community-associated MRSA lineage known to be circulating in the UK. The outbreak occurred in four stages, the first being in burns outpatients, the second and third being on the burns unit itself and the final stage on a plastics ward. In spite of closing the affected unit and deep cleaning, including steam cleaning and hydrogen peroxide treatment, the outbreak continued. It was not until staff carriage was fully addressed that the outbreak was controlled.

  9. The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation and Di-1-p-Menthene on the Phytotoxicity of 2,4-D Applications to Black Valentine Bean Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    dimer of beta - pinene ), the dimethylamine salt of (2,4- dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, and the combination of the latter two. Greenhouse- grown bean...plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine) were exposed for various time periods to a mid-ultraviolet light source having a major emission peak at...254 nm. The energy level recorded at plant height was 350 ergs/sq cm/ sec. Plants exposed to this light source for 1 hr had chlorotic, malformed

  10. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Valentine Dam (NJ00297) Delaware River Basin, Branch of the Pequest River, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    B WOODEN STOPLOG (4’xlx2) HOUSE a15 Via T CHANNEL SECTION APPROX. 900’ DOWNSTREAM OF DAM SEEPAGELAKE VALENTINE 15 WOODEN FOOTBRIDGE r(4’xl’xe... FOOTBRIDGE (Wooden Deck) ]HOUSE HOUSE PLAN cufl DATA FROM FIELD INSPECTION 11/9/79 Anderson- Nichols 5 Ca, Inc [U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DIST PHIL ADELPH4IA CORPS

  11. St. Valentine--patron saint of epilepsy: illustrating the semiology of seizures over the course of six centuries.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Gerhard; Kudernatsch, Verena

    2009-01-01

    From the 15th century to the present day, Christian art has portrayed people who suffer from epilepsy as attributes in illustrations of Saint Valentine (SV). The objective of our study was to interpret the works of art from a modern epileptological perspective on the basis of a collection of portrayals of SV in Europe that was as comprehensive as possible. The people depicted as attributes were analyzed with respect to their age, gender, social status, and possible seizure semiology. Three hundred forty-one illustrations of SV from Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Scotland, Slovakia, and Switzerland were systematically analyzed. Irrespective of the age of the work of art, among the 143 pictures of people with possible epilepsy characteristics, there were more males than females from various levels of society. As far as could be interpreted, there were 17 infants, 35 children, 7 adolescents, and 84 adults. With respect to possible seizure semiology, infantile spasms (n=10), atonic seizures (n=13), tonic seizures (n=53), absences (n=2), psychogenic seizures (n=4), and postictal or undefinable states (n=61) were differentiated in a subjective assessment. Despite the fact that from a modern perspective, the 15th to 20th centuries in Europe seemed to be dominated by a rather superstitious attitude toward epilepsy, there is striking accuracy in the detail of the semiology in many of the historic portrayals, and a well-founded knowledge of epilepsy is apparent.

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: An international survey.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Viñas, Marina; Conly, John; Francois, Patrice; Aschbacher, Richard; Blanc, Dominique S; Coombs, Geoffrey; Daikos, George; Dhawan, Benu; Empel, Joanna; Etienne, Jerome; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; George Golding Cnisp; Han, Lizhong; Kim, Hong Bin; Köck, Robin; Larsen, Anders; Layer, Franziska; Lo, Janice; Maeda, Tadashi; Mulvey, Michael; Pantosti, Annalisa; Saga, Tomoo; Schrenzel, Jacques; Simor, Andrew; Skov, Robert; Van Rijen, Miranda; Wang, Hui; Zakaria, Zunita; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates reported from 17 countries in the Americas, Europe and, Australia-Asia were analysed. Among a total of 3236 non-duplicate isolates, the lowest susceptibility was observed to erythromycin in all regions. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin showed large variation (25%, 75% and 84% in the Americas, Europe and Australia-Asia, respectively). Two vancomycin-intermediate PVL-positive MRSA isolates were reported, one from Hong Kong and the other from The Netherlands. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and linezolid was <1%. Among 1798 MRSA isolates from 13 countries that were tested for the requested 10 non-β-lactam antibiotics, 49.4% were multisusceptible. However, multiresistant isolates (resistant to at least three classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics) were reported from all regions. Sequence type 30 (ST30) was reported worldwide, whereas ST80 and ST93 were exclusive to Europe and Australia, respectively. USA300 and related clones (ST8) are progressively replacing the ST80 clone in several European countries. Eight major clusters were discriminated by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat assay (MLVA), showing a certain geographic specificity. PVL-positive MRSA isolates frequently remain multisusceptible to non-β-lactam agents, but multiresistance is already prevalent in all regions. Surveillance of MRSA susceptibility patterns should be monitored to provide clinicians with the most current information regarding changes in resistance patterns.

  13. [Investigation of the presence of panton-valentin leucocidin (PVL) in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples].

    PubMed

    Ozkul, Hilal; Oktem, I M Ali; Gülay, Zeynep

    2007-07-01

    Panton-Valentin leucocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin which causes tissue necrosis by degradating leucocytes and other cell types. PVL has recently become very up to date as it has been shown to be the major virulance factor of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. In this study, the presence of PVL was investigated in methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) strains which were isolated from clinical samples between January 2005-May 2006 at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir. Fifty five MRSA and 79 MSSA strains which were isolated from blood, wound and respiratory tract samples were randomly included to the study. The presence of PVL was evaluated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which detects pvl and S. aureus-specific nuc genes. As a result, PVL positivities were detected in two (5%) of 40 MSSA and four (10.3%) of 39 MSSA strains isolated in the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. None of the MRSA isolates had pvl gene. Although this cytotoxin was rarely detected among MSSA isolates, it was interesting to note that the prevalence of PVL was twice more in the year 2006 compared to 2005. It was also worth to notify that four of six (66.7%) PVL positive strains had been isolated from the patients of general surgery inpatient or outpatient clinics.

  14. Delta Hemolysin and Phenol-Soluble Modulins, but Not Alpha Hemolysin or Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Induce Mast Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hodille, Elisabeth; Cuerq, Charlotte; Badiou, Cédric; Bienvenu, Françoise; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Cartier, Régine; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Plesa, Adriana; Le, Vien T. M.; Diep, Binh A.; Lina, Gérard; Dumitrescu, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are located at host interfaces, such as the skin, and contribute to the first-line defense against pathogens by releasing soluble mediators, including those that induce itching and scratching behavior. Here, we show that delta-hemolysin (Hld) and phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) PSMα1 and PSMα3, but not alpha-hemolysin (Hla) or Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), induce dose-dependent tryptase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by the HMC-1 human mast cell line. Using supernatants from isogenic strains, we verified that tryptase and LDH release was Hld- and PSMα-dependent. PSMα1 and Hld production was detected in 65 and 17% of human Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin abscess specimens, respectively, but they were produced in vitro by all clinical isolates. The results suggest that Hld and PSM-α1 produced in vivo during S. aureus skin infections induce the release of mast cell mediators responsible for itching and scratching behavior, which may enhance skin to skin transmission of S. aureus via the hands. As Hld and PSMs are upregulated by accessory gene regulator (agr), their association may contribute to the elective transmission of S. aureus strains with a functional agr system. PMID:28018862

  15. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children in Tripoli-Libya.

    PubMed

    Al-haddad, Omaima H; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonized children are at an increased risk of developing infections than methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonized children. Nasal specimens from inpatient children, mothers of inpatient children, healthcare workers, and outpatient children at Tripoli Children Hospital (TCH) were examined for MRSA by chromogenic MRSA ID medium. Susceptibility of MRSA isolates to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA among inpatient children (8.3%, 24 of 289), their mothers (11%, 22 of 200), and healthcare workers (12.4%, 22 of 178) was significantly higher than among outpatient children (2.2%, 2 of 91) (P < 0.05, P < 0.02, and P < 0.006, respectively). Of the examined MRSA isolates (N = 35) 10 (28.6%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes by polymerase chain reaction. Multidrug resistance was found in 24.3% (17 of 70) of MRSA isolates. Nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive MRSA is not uncommon among inpatient children and their mothers in Tripoli.

  16. [Influence of reaction optimization on the results of PCR amplification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates].

    PubMed

    Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Dolapçi, Iştar; Tekeli, Alper

    2009-10-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an important virulence determinant of Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genes encoding PVL is the most widely used method for determining PVL-positivity. In this study, we used two different primer sets and different annealing temperatures for each set to investigate the effect of optimization of PCR parameters on the amplification results. A total of 321 S. aureus clinical isolates (84.4% methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 76.9% nosocomial) were included to the study. Two different primer sets and two different annealing temperatures were applied for the amplification of PVL gene. For this purpose while luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers and 55 degrees C and 58 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 433 bp region inhabiting the luk-S PV and luk-F PV genes, PVLup and PVLdn primers and 50 degrees C and 48 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 1918 bp region inhabiting the same genes. luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers yielded amplicons at 55 degrees C in 50.2% (161/321) and at 58 degrees C in 1.6% (5/321) of the isolates. To discriminate the positive amplicons from the crossly amplified PCR products, restriction endonuclease analysis was performed and it was observed that the five amplicons generated by luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C were cut by BspH1 enzyme as expected for the positive amplicons. None of the isolates yielded amplicons by PVLup and PVLdn primers at 50 degrees C, however, only 1.6% of the isolates yielded amplicons at 48 degrees C. These isolates were the same with the ones that were PVL positive with luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C. These data revealed that only 1.6% of the study isolates were PVL positive. These results showed that inappropriate cycling conditions may lead to false-negative or false-positive results in PVL-gene amplification. Restriction endonuclease or sequence analysis may be used to differentiate

  17. Identification of ORF636 in phage phiSLT carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, acting as an adhesion protein for a poly(glycerophosphate) chain of lipoteichoic acid on the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Jun; Narita-Yamada, Sachiko; Wakabayashi, Yukari; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    The temperate phage phiSLT of Staphylococcus aureus carries genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Here, we identify ORF636, a constituent of the phage tail tip structure, as a recognition/adhesion protein for a poly(glycerophosphate) chain of lipoteichoic acid on the cell surface of S. aureus. ORF636 bound specifically to S. aureus; it did not bind to any other staphylococcal species or to several gram-positive bacteria.

  18. Unusually high prevalence of panton-valentine leukocidin genes among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains carried in the Indonesian population.

    PubMed

    Severin, Juliëtte A; Lestari, Endang Sri; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Melles, Damian C; Pastink, Martijn; Peeters, Justine K; Snijders, Susan V; Hadi, Usman; Duerink, D Offra; van Belkum, Alex; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2008-06-01

    Few data on the molecular characteristics and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from Indonesia are available. The purpose of the present study was to define S. aureus reservoirs in both the Indonesian community and hospital using a collection of 329 nasal carriage isolates obtained during a survey of 3,995 healthy individuals and patients from Java, Indonesia. Only one strain (0.3%) was identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus by mecA gene PCR. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 35 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains (10.6%). Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 329 isolates showed extensive genetic diversity among both PVL-positive and PVL-negative strains. In Surabaya, Indonesia, however, a cluster was identified that was strongly associated with the presence of the PVL locus (P < 0.0001). As determined by high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism, PVL-positive strains occurred throughout all major AFLP clusters (I to IV). Multilocus sequence typing of a subset of isolates showed that most PVL-positive strains belonged to sequence type (ST) 188, while most PVL-negative isolates belonged to ST45. The high prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus strains in certain regions of Indonesia is of concern since these strains may cause severe infections in the community and in hospitals.

  19. A real-time PCR assay to detect the Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin in staphylococci: screening Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans strains from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Scott; O'Shea, Kathleen; Morris, Daniel; Robb, Andrew; Morrison, Donald; Rankin, Shelley

    2005-04-25

    Recent reports suggest that methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans are now commonly isolated from dogs. Given the association of a potentially mobile SCCmec type IV element with lysogenic phage-encoded Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains we hypothesized that methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains may also encode PVL toxin genes. Forty S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals were studied. Susceptibility to oxacillin was determined by broth microdilution and all isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of the mecA gene. SCCmec typing was performed on 14 isolates. A real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of the PVL genes using a SmartCycler. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine whether S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains were homogeneous. Twenty-eight of the 40 isolates (70%) were resistant to oxacillin and 26/28 possessed the mecA gene by PCR. SCCmec IV was identified in seven strains; the other seven isolates were not typable by this technique. All 40 strains were negative for the PVL toxin gene. PFGE showed a heterogeneous population and 13 different profiles were determined. In conclusion, this study showed that PVL toxin genes were not detected in a heterogeneous population of methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals.

  20. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S.; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S.; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A.; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    2014-01-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals. PMID:24567320

  1. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-04-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals.

  2. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin associated Staphylococcus aureus infections in London, England: clinical and socio-demographic characterisation, management, burden of disease and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Michael; Kearns, Angela; Cordery, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Routine notification of Staphylococcus aureus producing the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin toxin (PVL-SA) to the North East & Central London Health Protection Unit, a communicable disease control unit covering a population of 2.8 million, identified 115 cases in 2009-2010, including 99 skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 15 severe infections and one asymptomatic colonisation. Most cases occurred in children and young adults, unequally distributed geographically and socio-economically. The majority of infections were community acquired and 60% were caused by methicillin resistant strains. Overall, 27% of cases had previous SSTIs, and 32% had contacts with SSTIs suggestive of PVL-SA albeit these were not confirmed microbiologically. This suggests that characteristics of PVL-SA infection in cases and their families are not recognised as such leading to delay in diagnosis and low case ascertainment. A lack of governance around effective case management may also be contributing to the burden of disease. Further studies are recommended to evaluate key aspects of PVL-SA management including the effectiveness of decolonisation in the elimination of carriage and prevention of local spread.

  3. Above and beyond C5a Receptor Targeting by Staphylococcal Leucotoxins: Retrograde Transport of Panton–Valentine Leucocidin and γ-Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Prévost, Gilles; Jover, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton–Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca2+ release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway. Immunolabeling and confocal microscopic techniques were used to analyze the presence of leucotoxins in endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. The two leucotoxins apparently followed retrograde transport similar to that of the C5a peptide-activated receptor. However, HlgC/HlgB reached the Golgi network very early, whereas LukS-PV/LukF-PV followed slower kinetics. The HlgC/HlgB leucotoxin remained in neutrophils 6 h after a 10-min incubation of the cells in the presence of the toxin with no signs of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was observed 3 h after neutrophils were incubated with LukS-PV/LukF-PV. Such retrograde transport of leucotoxins provides a novel understanding of the cellular effects initiated by sublytic concentrations of these toxins. PMID:28117704

  4. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  5. Common skin infection due to Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains in asylum seekers from Eritrea: a genome-based investigation of a suspected outbreak.

    PubMed

    Jaton, L; Pillonel, T; Jaton, K; Dory, E; Prod'hom, G; Blanc, D S; Tissot, F; Bodenmann, P; Greub, G

    2016-08-01

    Since late 2014, multiple cases of abscesses and boils due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) expressing the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) were observed in Eritrean asylum seekers in Lausanne, Switzerland. Strains isolated from infected Eritrean and non-Eritrean patients were compared by whole genome sequencing to determine whether these numerous cases result from an outbreak. The genome of S. aureus PVL-producing strains were sequenced and compared. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients infected by PVL-producing strains were investigated. This work reports 15 cases of infections due to PVL-producing strains affecting mostly asylum seekers (n = 10), people working with refugees and/or exposed to Africans (n = 3). Most infections were due to closely related strains of CC152 (n = 8) and CC15 (n = 3), two distantly related (>34 000 core single nucleotide polymorphisms) clonal complexes. An epidemiological link between the 15 cases could be ruled out by whole genome sequencing (33 to 172 core single nucleotide polymorphisms between the different strains of a given complex). Altogether, these results reflect the probable high incidence of CC15 and CC152 PVL-producing strains in eastern Africa. Clinicians facing unusual skin infections in African refugees (or in any person returning from this region of high endemicity) should consider S. aureus PVL-producer before suspecting rare infections such as leishmaniasis or rickettsiosis. Clinicians should also remember that PVL are frequently expressed by MSSA in some regions of the world and that antibiotics that are efficient on toxin expression, such as clindamycin, represent the best therapeutic option.

  6. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Various Types of Hospital Infections in Pediatrics: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec SCCmec Phenotypes and Antibiotic Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus has long been considered as a major pathogen of hospital infections. Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the distribution of Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec (SCCmec) types, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) gene and antibiotic resistance properties of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from various types of infections found in Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: Two-hundred and fifty-five clinical specimens were collected from four major provinces of Iran. Samples were cultured and the MRSA strains were subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The patterns of antibiotic resistance were determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Seventy-four out of 255 (29.01%) clinical samples were positive for MRSA. Of the 74 MRSA strains, 47 (63.51%) were PVL positive. The clinical samples of respiratory tract infections (36.36%), those from the Shiraz province (37.87%) and samples collected during the summer season (56.48%) were the most commonly infected samples. The most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were tetK (89.18%), mecA (71.62%), msrA (56.75%) and tetM (54.05%). Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus had the highest levels of resistance against penicillin (100%), tetracycline (98.64%), ampicillin (93.24%) and oxacillin (93.24%). The most commonly detected SCCmec types in the MRSA strains were type V (18.91%) and III (17.56%). Conclusions: Regular surveillance of hospital-associated infections and monitoring of the antibiotic sensitivity patterns are required to reduce the prevalence of MRSA. We recommend initial management of children affected by MRSA with imipenem, lincomycin and cephalothin prescriptions. PMID:26862375

  7. Evolution and virulence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST30 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the past 30 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hirokazu; Takano, Tomomi; Nishiyama, Akihito; Hung, Wei-Chun; Kuniyuki, Shuichi; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Reva, Ivan; Yabe, Shizuka; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Khokhlova, Olga E; Okubo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) includes hospital-acquired MRSA (HAMRSA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive multilocus sequence type 30 (ST30) MRSA is one of worldwide CA-MRSA, which has also persisted in Japan since the 1980s. However, unexpectedly, it was not the same ST30 clone throughout. Before 2000, it was HA-MRSA with spa43 and ψSa3sea (phage Sa3 carrying the sea gene) and only one PVL-positive MRSA in Japan; in the 1980s, ST30 MRSA accounted for 23.5% of HA-MRSA, showed multidrug resistance, had high MICs for oxacillin and imipenem, and caused decubitus and pneumonia in hospitalized patients. A dynamic clonal change (spa43/ψSa3sea→ spa19) occurred around 2000-2002. A rare spa43/ψSa3sea/SCCmecI-IE25923 genotype also emerged. After 2002, the prevalent spa19 clone was CA-MRSA; it accounted for only 0.3% (or less) of MRSA in hospitals but 7.6% of CA-MRSA. Since 2007, PVL-positive CA-MRSA with other ST types (such as ST8, ST22, and ST59) also emerged in Japan, albeit at a low frequency. ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA occasionally caused severe invasive infections and a novel ST1335/spa19 genotype emerged. These ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA and variants were identified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Further analysis revealed that PVL-positive ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA is a highlyvirulent, successful clone, having a potential of clonal expansion.

  8. Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: evaluation from the CANVAS studies.

    PubMed

    Tong, Amy; Tong, Steven Y C; Zhang, Yurong; Lamlertthon, Supaporn; Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas; Ahn, Sun Hee; Ruffin, Felicia; Llorens, Lily; Tamarana, Ganesh; Biek, Donald; Critchley, Ian; Fowler, Vance G

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the severity of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL presence in both methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of cSSSI (the CANVAS 1 and 2 programs). Isolates from all microbiologically evaluable patients with monomicrobial MRSA or MSSA infections (n = 473) were genotyped by PCR for pvl and underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genes encoding pvl were present in 266/473 (56.2%) isolates. Infections caused by pvl-positive S. aureus were associated with younger patient age, North American acquisition, and presence of major abscesses (P<0.001 for each). Cure rates of patients infected with pvl-positive and pvl-negative S. aureus were similar overall (93.6% versus 92.8%; P = 0.72), and within MRSA-infected (94.5% vs. 93.1%; P = 0.67) and MSSA-infected patients (92.2% vs. 92.7%; P = 1.00). This finding persisted after adjustment for multiple patient characteristics. Outcomes were also similar when USA300 PVL+ and non-USA300 PVL+ infections were compared. The results of this contemporary, international study suggest that pvl presence was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with cSSSI due to either MRSA or MSSA.

  9. Prevalence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin and phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm formation among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Shahsavan, Shadi; Dabiri, Hossein; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2015-12-01

    Adenoids as a first line of host defense against respiratory microbes play an important role in majority of upper airway infectious and noninfectious illnesses. Bacterial pathogen can colonize on the adenoid tissue and probably act as a reservoir for them. To determine phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm forming capacity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy and prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene we collected 17 consecutive, clinically significant S. aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy with one or more of the upper airway obstruction symptoms, nasal obstruction, mouth breathing, snoring, or sleep apnea. Biofilm formation was evaluated by colorimetric microtiter plate's assay. Gene encoding PVL and adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes were targeted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. According to the results, all strains produced biofilm. Seven (41.2%) isolates produced strong biofilm whereas 7 (41.2%) isolates produced week and 3 (17.6%) isolates produced medium biofilm. Regarding the adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes, 16 (94.1%) isolates were positive for the gene eno, 13(76.4%) for icaA, 13 (76.4%) for icaD, 10 (58.8%) for fib, 10 (58.8%) for fnbB, 4(23.5%) for can, and 1(5.8%) for fnbA. The high prevalence of genes encoding biofilms and adhesins and phenotypic ability to form a biofilm by S. aureus strains emphasizes the pathogenic character of strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy.

  10. Application of monoclonal antibodies generated against Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL-S) toxin for specific identification of community acquired methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Niveditha Sundar; Ramlal, Shylaja; Urs, Radhika Madan; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-12-01

    Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) produced by community acquired methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) involved in skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia comprised of two fractions, namely PVL S and PVL F. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies designated as MAb1, MAb9 and MAb10 were generated against recombinant PVL-S (35kDa) protein of S. aureus. All the three MAbs specifically reacted to confirm PVL-S positive strains of S. aureus recovered from clinical samples in Western blot analysis. Similarly all the three MAbs did not show any binding to other tested 14 different pathogenic bacteria belonging to other genera and species in Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a simple dot-ELISA method was standardized for the identification of PVL-S toxin containing S. aureus strains. Initially in dot-ELISA, Protein A (Spa) of S. aureus posed background noise problems due to the non-specific binding of antibodies resulting in false positive reactions. With the addition of 10mM diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) along with 5% milk in PBS in the blocking step prevented this non-specific binding of Spa to mouse anti-PVL monoclonal antibodies in dot-ELISA. Once standardized, this simple dot-ELISA was evaluated with nine PVL positive strains recovered from food, environmental and clinical samples and the results were compared with PCR assay for the presence of PVL toxin genes and also with Western blot analysis. A 100% correlation was found between dot-ELISA, PCR assay and Western blot analysis. Collectively our results suggest the newly developed simple dot-ELISA system can be of immense help in providing, rapid detection of the PVL toxin containing S. aureus strains at a relatively low cost and will be a valuable tool for the reliable identification of CA-MRSA.

  11. Rapid Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus Cultures by Use of a Lateral Flow Assay Based on Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Elke; Buechler, Joseph; Rejman, John; Stieber, Bettina; Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Bandt, Dirk; Burris, Rob; Coombs, Geoffrey; Hidalgo-Arroyo, G. Aida; Hughes, Peter; Kearns, Angela; Abós, Sonia Molinos; Pichon, Bruno; Skakni, Leila; Söderquist, Bo; Ehricht, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, which is associated with skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia. To develop a rapid phenotypic assay, recombinant PVL F component was used to generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display. These antibodies were spotted on protein microarrays and screened using different lukF-PV preparations and detection antibodies. This led to the identification of the optimal antibody combination that was then used to establish a lateral flow assay. This test was used to detect PVL in S. aureus cultures. The detection limit of the assay with purified native and recombinant antigens was determined to be around 1 ng/ml. Overnight cultures from various solid and liquid media proved suitable for PVL detection. Six hundred strains and clinical isolates from patients from America, Europe, Australia, Africa, and the Middle East were tested. Isolates were genotyped in parallel by DNA microarray hybridization for confirmation of PVL status and assignment to clonal complexes. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the assay in this trial were 99.7, 98.3, 98.4, and 99.7%, respectively. A total of 302 clinical isolates and reference strains were PVL positive and were assigned to 21 different clonal complexes. In summary, the lateral flow test allows rapid and economical detection of PVL in a routine bacteriology laboratory. As the test utilizes cultures from standard media and does not require sophisticated equipment, it can be easily integrated into a laboratory's workflow and might contribute to timely therapy of PVL-associated infections. PMID:23175260

  12. Co-detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin encoding genes and cotrimoxazole resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in Gabon: implications for HIV-patients’ care

    PubMed Central

    Kraef, Christian; Alabi, Abraham S.; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten; Kremsner, Peter G.; Rossatanga, Elie G.; Mellmann, Alexander; Grobusch, Martin P.; Zanger, Philipp; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are frequently exposed to antimicrobial agents. This might have an impact on the resistance profile, genetic background and virulence factors of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus. Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be endemic for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive S. aureus which can be associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). We compared S. aureus from nasal and pharyngeal swabs from HIV patients (n = 141) and healthy controls (n = 206) in Gabon in 2013, and analyzed determinants of colonization with PVL positive isolates in a cross-sectional study. S. aureus isolates were screened for the presence of selected virulence factors (incl. PVL) and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotyping. In HIV patients, S. aureus was more frequently detected (36.9 vs. 31.6%) and the isolates were more frequently PVL positive than in healthy controls (42.1 vs. 23.2%). The presence of PVL was associated with cotrimoxazole resistance (OR = 25.1, p < 0.001) and the use of cotrimoxazole was a risk factor for colonization with PVL positive isolates (OR = 2.5, p = 0.06). PVL positive isolates were associated with the multilocus sequence types ST15 (OR = 5.6, p < 0.001) and ST152 (OR = 62.1, p < 0.001). Participants colonized with PVL positive isolates reported more frequently SSTI in the past compared to carriers of PVL negative isolates (OR = 2.7, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the novelty of our study is that cotrimoxazole might increase the risk of SSTI in regions where cotrimoxazole resistance is high and associated with PVL. This finding needs to be confirmed in prospective studies. PMID:25699036

  13. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  14. Engineering of the LukS-PV and LukF-PV subunits of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus produces several toxins, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The involvement of PVL in primary skin infections, necrotizing pneumonia, musculoskeletal disorders, brain abscess, and other diseases, some of which are life-threatening, has been reported. Following expert opinion, we aimed to provide the tools for establishment of sequence-based diagnostics and therapeutics for those conditions. We engineered the synergistic S and F (LukS-PV and LukF-PV respectively) pro-toxin subunits from Staphylococcus aureus USA400 into separate expression E. coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS hosts. Results Following Nickel affinity chromatography (NAC), the F subunit came out without bands of impurity. The S sub-unit did not come off very pure after NAC thus necessitating further purification by size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. The purification plots showed that the BioLogic-LP and AKTA systems are reliable for following the progress of the chromatographic purification in real-time. Computer predicted Mw for the 6His-LukF-PV and 6His-LukS-PV were 35645.41 Da and 33530.04 Da respectively, while the mass spectrometry results were 35643.57 Da and 33528.34 Da respectively. Conclusion The BioLogic-LP and AKTA systems are commendable for reliability and user-friendliness. As a recent work elsewhere also reported that a second round of chromatography was necessary to purify the S subunit after the first attempt, we speculate that the S subunit might contain yet unidentified motif(s) requiring further treatment. The purified S and F sub-units of PVL were supplied to the Nottingham Cancer Immunotherapy group who used them to establish sequence-based monoclonal antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic uses targeting PVL. PMID:24252611

  15. Typing of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding phages carried by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, A; Del Grosso, M; Villa, L; Ammendolia, M G; Superti, F; Monaco, M; Pantosti, A

    2014-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is the hallmark of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) but can also be found in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) sharing pathogenic and epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA. PVL is encoded by two co-transcribed genes that are carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. We applied an extended PCR-based typing scheme for the identification of two morphological groups (elongated-head group and icosahedral-head group I phages) and specific PVL phage types in S. aureus isolates recovered in Italy. We examined 48 PVL-positive isolates (25 MSSA and 23 MRSA) collected from different hospital laboratories from April 2005 to May 2011. spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing were applied to categorize the isolates. Phage typeability was 48.0% in MSSA and 91.3% in MRSA, highlighting the limitation of the PCR typing scheme when applied to PVL-positive MSSA. Five different PVL phages and two variants of a known phage were detected, the most prevalent being ΦSa2usa, recovered in 15 out of 48 (31.2%) isolates, and carried by both MSSA and MRSA belonging to CC8 and CC5. The recently described ΦTCH60 was recovered in four isolates. A PVL phage (ΦSa119) from an ST772 MRSA, that was not detected using the previous typing scheme, was sequenced, and new primers were designed for the identification of the icosahedral-head group II PVL phages present in ST772 and ST59 MRSA. A comprehensive PVL-phage typing can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of PVL-positive MSSA and MRSA.

  16. Transcription of the phage-encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus is dependent on the phage life-cycle and on the host background.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Christiane; Witte, Wolfgang; Wolz, Christiane; Goerke, Christiane

    2009-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming, bi-component toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus strains epidemiologically associated with diseases such as necrotizing pneumonia and skin and soft-tissue infections. Here we demonstrate that transcription of the phage-encoded PVL (encoded in the luk-PV operon) is dependent on two major determinants: the phage life-cycle and the host chromosomal background. Mitomycin C induction of PVL-encoding prophages from different community-acquired MRSA strains led to an increase in the amount of luk-PV mRNA as a result of read-through transcription from latent phage promoters and an increase in phage copy numbers. Failing prophage excision was reflected in a constant expression of luk-PV as in the case of strain USA300, suggesting that phi Sa2USA300 is a replication-defective prophage. Additionally, we could show that luk-PV transcription is influenced by the S. aureus global virulence regulators agr and sae. We found a strong impact of the host background on prophage induction and replication when analysing PVL phages in different S. aureus strains. For example phage phi Sa2mw was greatly induced by mitomycin C in its native host MW2 and in strain Newman but to a considerably lesser extent in strains 8325-4, RN6390 and ISP479c. This discrepancy was not linked to the SOS response of the bacteria since recA transcription did not vary between the strains. These results suggest a fine tuning between certain phages and their host, with major impact on the expression of phage-encoded virulence genes.

  17. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  18. Typing of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Phages and lukSF-PV Gene Sequence Variation in Staphylococcus aureus from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Jin, Shu; Xu, Xiaogang; Zou, Yuhan; Ding, Baixing; He, Chunyan; Gong, Fang; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, encoded by lukSF-PV genes), a bi-component and pore-forming toxin, is carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. The prevalence of PVL in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported around the globe. However, the data on PVL-encoding phage types, lukSF-PV gene variation and chromosomal phage insertion sites for PVL-positive S. aureus are limited, especially in China. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PVL-positive S. aureus, an integrated and modified PCR-based scheme was applied to detect the PVL-encoding phage types. Phage insertion locus and the lukSF-PV variant were determined by PCR and sequencing. Meanwhile, the genetic background was characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) locus typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy eight (78/1175, 6.6%) isolates possessed the lukSF-PV genes and 59.0% (46/78) of PVL-positive strains belonged to CC59 lineage. Eight known different PVL-encoding phage types were detected, and Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL (n = 13) and ΦPVL (n = 12) were the most prevalent among them. While 25 (25/78, 32.1%) isolates, belonging to ST30, and ST59 clones, were unable to be typed by the modified PCR-based scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at five locations in the lukSF-PV genes, two of which were non-synonymous. Maximum-likelihood tree analysis of attachment sites sequences detected six SNP profiles for attR and eight for attL, respectively. In conclusion, the PVL-positive S. aureus mainly harbored Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL and ΦPVL in the regions studied. lukSF-PV gene sequences, PVL-encoding phages, and phage insertion locus generally varied with lineages. Moreover, PVL-positive clones that have emerged worldwide likely carry distinct phages. PMID:27536288

  19. [Investigation of the presence of mecC and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens during seven years period].

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Abdullah; Doğan, Eyüp; Kaya, Sinem; Baysallar, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical microbiology laboratories are important for the selection of appropriate treatment and obtaining epidemiological data. mecC gene, is a mecA homologue, showing almost 69% DNA similarity with the mecA gene and the encoded protein by this gene shows almost 63% similarity with the PBP2a/2' protein. Several studies indicated that mecC positive MRSA strains can be transmitted from the livestock to humans by cross contamination. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a potent cytotoxin of S.aureus is also considered as an important virulence factor. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and prevalence of mecC and pvl genes among S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 1700 S.aureus isolates including 1177 methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and 523 MRSA, isolated in our hospital between January 2007 to December 2014, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by both conventional methods and BD Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with oxacillin (1 μg) and cefoxitin (30 μg) according to the CLSI standards. The presence of mecA gene was investigated by the use of real-time PCR, and the presence of pvl and mecC genes were detected by conventional PCR method. Among the patients, 44.6% (759/1700) were outpatients, 65.8% (1119/1700) were male and the mean age of of patients was 39.7 years. Of 1700 isolates evaluated in this study, 523 (30.7%) were positive for mecA gene, however all of them were negative for mecC gene. A total of 32 (1.8%) isolates were positive for pvl gene including 23 (1.9%) out of 1177 MSSA and nine (1.7%) out of 523 MRSA strains. Eighteen (56.2%) of the PVL-positive S.aureus strains were isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. The frequency of PVL detected in this study was similar to the

  20. Panton-Valentine leukocidin and some exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of staphylococci isolated from milks of small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Nilgün; Askar, Şinasi; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Sakarya, Fatma; Altun, Belgin; Yıldırım, Murat

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the existence of pvl gene, some toxin genes, and mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from sheep milk and to examine antimicrobial resistance profiles in staphylococci from sheep and goats' milk. The milk samples were collected from 13 different small ruminant farms in Kirikkale province from February to August 2009. A total of 1,604 half-udder milk samples from 857 ewes and 66 half-udder milk samples from 33 goats were collected. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated and identified from the samples. Toxin genes and mecA gene among S. aureus strains were determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci was examined by the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar, and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The prevalence of subclinical intramammary infection in both ewes and goats was 5.2%. The most prevalent subclinical mastitis agents were coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus with prevalences 2.8% (n:46) and 1.3% (n = 21), respectively. The prevalence of resistances in isolated Staphylococcus spp. to penicilin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and enrofloxacin were found as 26.9% (18), 7.5% (5), 6.0% (4), 3.0% (2), and 1.5% (1), respectively. Only 3 of the 21 S. aureus ewe isolates (13.4%) were shown to harbor enterotoxin genes being either seh, sej or sec. However, fourteen (66.6%) of the 21 S. aureus isolates had pvl gene while none of the isolates harbored mecA gene. In conclusion, Staphylococci were shown to be the most prevalent bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis of ewes and goats and these isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics. In addition, S. aureus strains isolated from ewes were harboring few staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. However, Panton-Valentine leukocidin produced by S. aureus could be an important virulence factor and contribute to subclinical mastitis pathogenicity.

  1. Valentines Day X2 Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    Active region 1158 let loose with an X2.2 flare at 0153 UT or 8:50 pm ET on February 15, 2011, the largest flare since Dec. 2006 and the biggest flare so far in Solar Cycle 24. This video was taken...

  2. Jim Dine-Inspired Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, April

    2011-01-01

    Jim Dine was born in 1935 in Cincinnati. He earned a BFA from Ohio University in 1957 and then moved to New York in 1959, where he fell in with a group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg. Dine is best known as a Pop innovator, whose paintings, sculptures, and prints were layered with everyday objects, including ties, tools, and even a…

  3. [Investigation of SCCmec types and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-acquired and nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus strains: comparing skin and soft tissue infections to the other infections].

    PubMed

    Gülmez, Dolunay; Sancak, Banu; Ercis, Serpil; Karakaya, Jale; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2012-07-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important health care problems since they are usually multidrug resistant. Although MRSA is isolated especially from nosocomial infections, community-acquired MRSA infections are increasing. Methicillin resistance is due to the expression of mecA gene, which is located on SCCmec gene cassette. Different SCCmec types can be detected in hospital-acquired and community-acquired (CA-) MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains might harbour Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), an important virulence factor in skin and soft tissue infections. Strains carrying PVL has the ability to penetrate undamaged skin and cause more severe infections. The aim of this study was to detect SCCmec types and PVL gene in S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to compare with strains isolated from other infections in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections (n= 285) and a control group consisting of 161 strains isolated from other infections (53 blood, 48 lower respiratory tract samples, 30 sterile body fluids, 30 genitourinary tract samples) chosen by stratification and random selection method, were included in the study. Among skin and soft tissue infection strains 46.7% were from the hospitalized patients and 48.4% of skin and soft tissue infection strains were from female patients. The mean age of the skin and soft tissue infection patients was 45.5 years. Among the control strains 60.9% were from the hospitalized patients and 41.6% of the control patients were female. The mean age of the control patients was 50.2 years. Strains were identified by the Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA) and identification was confirmed by tube coagulase test. Methicillin resistance was determined by the Phoenix system which determines both oxacillin and cefoxitin minimum inhibitor concentrations and, confirmed by oxacillin agar screening and

  4. Elderly infection in the community due to ST5/SCCmecII methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (the New York/Japan clone) in Japan: Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative necrotizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga; Tomita, Yusuke; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    An 89-year-old man suffered from and died of necrotizing pneumonia with rapid progression and cavity formation due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). He was at no risk for hospital-acquired MRSA infection. His MRSA exhibited genotype ST5/spa2(t002)/agr2/SCCmecII/coagulaseII and was negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, indicating the New York/Japan clone (the predominant epidemic hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan). However, this strain expressed the cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin or δ-hemolysin) genes at high level, similar to USA300 (the most common community-acquired MRSA in the United States), indicating a variant of the New York/Japan clone with an important feature of community-acquired MRSA.

  5. Emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with high cytolytic peptide expression in association with community-acquired pediatric osteomyelitis complicated by pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sawanobori, Emi; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Hachuda, Koji; Horiuchi, Tadahiro; Higuchi, Wataru; Hung, Wei-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Reva, Galina; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    A 15-year-old boy, who had had a furuncle on his femur, developed femoral pyomyositis and osteomyelitis complicated by septic pulmonary embolism. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was isolated from pus and blood. Chemotherapy was started with cefazolin, followed by combination therapy with meropenem/vancomycin with surgery. The MSSA (strain KS1) was positive for increased levels of cytolytic peptide (psmα and hld) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and manifested IS1216V-mediated multidrug resistance (to erythromycin, clindamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol), similar to a genome-analyzed reference strain (PM1) of ST59/SCCmecV(5C2&5) community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (Taiwan CA-MRSA), but unlike another reference strain (M013) of Taiwan CA-MRSA in terms of resistance. The data suggest that CA-MSSA KS1, characterized by PVL, increased levels of cytolytic peptide, SEB, and multidrug resistance, is a possible ancestral strain of Taiwan CA-MRSA and causes the unique association of osteomyelitis and septic pulmonary embolism, requiring complicated management.

  6. Detection of ST772 Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Bengal Bay clone) and ST22 S. aureus isolates with a genetic variant of elastin binding protein in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, R.H.; Aung, M.S.; Thapa, B.; Chaudhary, R.; Mishra, S.K.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Urushibara, N.; Kobayashi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic characteristics were analysed for recent clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA respectively) in Kathmandu, Nepal. MRSA isolates harbouring Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were classified into ST1, ST22 and ST88 with SCCmec-IV and ST772 with SCCmec-V (Bengal Bay clone), while PVL-positive MSSA into ST22, ST30 and ST772. ST22 isolates (PVL-positive MRSA and MSSA, PVL-negative MRSA) possessed a variant of elastin binding protein gene (ebpS) with an internal deletion of 180 bp, which was similar to that reported for ST121 S. aureus previously outside Nepal. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ebpS variant in ST22 might have occurred independently of ST121 strains. This is the first report of ST772 PVL-positive MRSA in Nepal and detection of the deletion variant of ebpS in ST22 S. aureus. PMID:27014464

  7. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Positive Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Are Associated with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Colonized Mainly by Infective PVL-Encoding Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiwen; Cheng, Hang; Yuan, Wenchang; Zeng, Fangyin; Shang, Weilong; Tang, Dahai; Xue, Wencheng; Fu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Renjie; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Hu, Zhen; Yuan, Jizhen; Zhang, Xia; Rao, Qing; Li, Shu; Chen, Zhijin; Hu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xingan

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have also been detected in health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and the distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages in HA-MRSA have not been determined. In this study, a total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in the MRSA isolates were characterized by PCR. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs but not with pneumonia or bacteremia. The PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, Φ7247PVL, ΦSLT, and ΦSa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence. PMID:25339405

  8. Prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive S. aureus in general practice patients with skin and soft tissue infections in the northern and southern regions of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, D; Rijnders, M I A; Roede, B M; Stobberingh, E; Möller, A V M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus in general practice (GP) patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in the northern (Groningen and Drenthe) and southern (Limburg) regions of The Netherlands. Secondary objectives were to assess the possible risk factors for patients with SSTI caused by S. aureus and PVL-positive S. aureus using a questionnaire-based survey. From 2007 to 2008, wound and nose cultures were obtained from patients with SSTI in general practice. These swabs were analysed for the presence of S. aureus and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined. The presence of the PVL toxin gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the genetic background with the use of spa typing. A survey was performed to detect risk factors for S. aureus infection and for the presence of PVL toxin.S. aureus was isolated from 219 out of 314 (70%) patients with SSTI, of which two (0.9%) patients were MRSA-positive. In 25 (11%) patients, the PVL toxin gene was found. A higher prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus of patients with SSTI was found in the northern region compared to the south (p < 0.05). Regional differences were found in the spa types of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates, and for PVL-negative S. aureus isolates, the genetic background was similar in both regions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA in GP patients with SSTI in The Netherlands is low. Regional differences were found in the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates from GP patients with SSTI. Household contacts having similar symptoms were found to be a risk factor for SSTI with S. aureus.

  9. Population structure analyses of Staphylococcus aureus at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, reveals a diverse population, a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and unique local methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, W F; Orth, H; Lombard, C J; Sinha, B; Wasserman, E

    2014-07-01

    Studies reporting on the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in South Africa have focused only on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study describes the population structure of S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from patients at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape province. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), agr typing and SCCmec typing were used to characterize strains. Of 367 non-repetitive S. aureus isolates collected over a period of 1 year, 56 (15.3%) were MRSA. Skin and soft tissue infections were the most frequent source (54.8%), followed by bone and joint (15.3%) and respiratory tract infections (7.7%). For strain typing, PFGE was the most discriminative method, and resulted in 31 pulsotypes (n = 345, 94.0%), as compared with 16 spa clonal complexes (CCs) (n = 344, 93.4%). Four MLST CCs were identified after eBURST of sequence types (STs) of selected isolates. One hundred and sixty isolates (MSSA, n = 155, 42.2%) were PVL-positive, and agr types I-IV and SCCmec types I-V were identified. Our S. aureus population consisted of genotypically diverse strains, with PVL being a common characteristic of MSSA. MSSA and MRSA isolates clustered in different clones. However, the dominant MRSA clone (ST612) also contained an MSSA isolate, and had a unique genotype. Common global epidemic MRSA clones, such as ST239-MRSA-III and ST36-MRSA-II, were identified. A local clone, ST612-MRSA-IV, was found to be the dominant MRSA clone.

  10. Environmental Assessment, Valentine Military Operations Area, Texax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Owls Screech Owl R Flawmulated Owl S Great-Horned Owl R Burrowing Owl WB Spotted Owl Rr I34 ! I TABLE 111-6 (cont’d) 3 Birds Reported from the MOA...booms could cause rockfall, avalanches, and earth slides. In such instances sonic booms may be the ultimate triggering factor to a natural process...efficiency of the afterburners used during supersonic flight. These pollutants would be emitted over the MOA area at an elevation ranging from 8,000 ft

  11. 2011 Valentines Day X-Class Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    The video clip of the large X2 flare seen by Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in extreme ultraviolet light on February 15, 2011, has been enlarged and superimposed on a video of SOHO's C2 coronagra...

  12. Romance of a Mathematician: Celebrating St Valentine's Day in a Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekimoglu, Serkan

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics should not be studied simply because it is useful; mathematics should be also studied because it nurtures both the mind and soul with its beauty. By completing the four activities described in this paper, students will appreciate mathematical ideas both rationally and emotionally. Since students' appreciation of mathematical ideas…

  13. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including "cold temperature," "thermoneutral temperature," and "warm-sensitive" and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception?

  14. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious

    PubMed Central

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including “cold temperature,” “thermoneutral temperature,” and “warm-sensitive” and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception? PMID:27226997

  15. Environmental Impact Statement Supersonic Flight Operations in the Valentine Military Operations Area, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    HIGHWAYS E .EEA-IRCTOR ROBERT C. LAIER. CHAIRMAN AND PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MARK G. GOOES ROBERT H. OEDMAN AUSTIN, TEA 711781 JOHN A. BUTLER. J...simioar statement Paso and in San Diego, Calif., I find West Teas tostumdies on the iffects of-’ prephred for Reserve, be astonishingly, blissfully...quiet mountainous West Tea r He asked why a decibel ratethTuesday, VoWgt pointed out, warning that chland that supports eatTe, wildlife and He a"we’ll be

  16. Proceedings of the 2016 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America Meeting (Editors: G. Burow, M. Jugulam & K.E. Valentin)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2016 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA), held on September 19-21, 2016 with the theme “The New Faces of Sorghum,” was a resounding success. The meeting was attended by nearly 200 participants that represented a diverse cross section of the sorghum industry from both public a...

  17. Panton-valentine leukocidin-positive and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French multicenter prospective study in 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, USSR Council of Ministers & Officials: Biographies, Interviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Industry 34 PAVLOV , Valentin Sergeyevich 34 Minister of Finance 34 PERVYSHIN, Erlen Kirikovich 35 Minister of Communications 35 PUGIN...Administrator of Affairs, Council of Ministers 47 SILAYEV, Ivan Stepanovich 48 Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Chairman of the...labor-intensive orders. PAVLOV , Valentin Sergeyevich Minister of Finance [Text] Born in 1937, Russian. Graduated from the Moscow Institute of

  19. 75 FR 33853 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... date. Although a time limit is given, comments and suggestions in connection with items for inclusion... Commission. Andrea D. Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  20. 78 FR 53737 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be... assistive technology services. Dated: August 22, 2013. Stephanie Valentine, Acting Director,...

  1. Arts/Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Described are various arts and crafts ideas, mostly with a February theme. Included are: ceramic boxes, valentine ideas, and patriotic projects--symbols of our country, silhouettes of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, and stars and stripes. (KC)

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of Mrs. James A. Dunlap, Jr. REAR OF HOUSE, CARRIAGE HOUSE, AND STABLE LOOKING EAST - Valentine-Fuller House & Garden, 125 Prospect Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 75 FR 1658 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    .... Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal...

  4. Analysis of the 918th Contracting Battalion and 410th Contracting Support Brigade Utilizing the Contract Management Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Program Graduate School of Business & Public Policy - iii - Naval Postgraduate School ABOUT THE AUTHORS CPT Gary Croston was born and raised in...management. He was awarded the Combat Action Badge during deployments to both Iraq, and Afghanistan where he was earned the Bronze Star Medal...married to Louise Carolyn Valentine of Valley City, Ohio. They have one son, Wyatt Lee Valentine, who was born on July 4, 2013

  5. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  6. Public Library YA Program Roundup. VOYA's Most Valuable Program 2002: Munching on Books; Really Getting Graphic: A Teen Read Week Art Show Preview; Masquerades and Millionaires: An After-hours Teen Extravaganza; Teen Time Travelers Make Listening a "Hobbit"; Teens Take a Humongous Bite Out of Newly Seasoned Reading Program; Putting a Stake through Valentine's Day; Celebrating the Day of the Dead; Legos in the Library Window; "So that You May Know": Teen Rading Group Meets Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck, Kara; Kan, Kat; Fletcher-Spear, Kristin; Solomon, Beth B.; Dunford, Karen; Rinella, Kay Walsh; Shenoy, Ravi; McIntosh, Jennifer R.; Socha, Debbie; Dudeck, Sharon; Duwel, Lucretia; Stackpole, Diane; Blosveren, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    These nine articles describe public library programs for young adults. Highlights include a read-a-thon with snacks; graphic novels and art; costume party and trivia contest; activities based on "The Hobbit"; a summer reading program that included teen volunteers; writing epitaphs for Day of the Dead celebration; Legos displays; and…

  7. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  8. Thinking Outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kippie

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Amanda Valentin, a 22-year-old woman with cerebral palsy who is a quadriplegic and nonverbal, who uses assistive technology to improve her life. The author was Amanda's assistive technology specialist who trained her to utilize software and hardware efficiently. She describes the steps she took to ensure that the assistive…

  9. Using Meta-Analysis to Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results: The Role of Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Hart, Cassandra M.D.; Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Head Start was designed as a holistic intervention to improve economically disadvantaged, preschool-aged children's cognitive and social development by providing a comprehensive set of educational, health, nutritional, and social services, as well as opportunities for parent involvement (Zigler & Valentine, 1979). Given the current interest in ECE…

  10. “More than skin deep”: Recurrent primary hand abscesses in a warehouse operative

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, L.; O’Connor, C.; Fitzpatrick, F.; O’Sullivan, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old male right-hand dominant warehouse operator presented with two hand infections within 12 weeks both requiring surgical drainage and antimicrobial therapy. Subsequent testing confirmed Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA). This case highlights the need for prompt multidisciplinary management of hand infections to consider, diagnose and manage atypical infections. PMID:27252979

  11. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  12. Integrating Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on integrating learning and performance in human resource development (HRD). "Action Imperatives that Impact Knowledge Performance and Financial Performance in the Learning Organization: An Exploratory Model" (Gary L. Selden, Karen E. Watkins, Thomas Valentine, Victoria J. Marsick)…

  13. Eurasianism: A Historical and Contemporary Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    the Russian Idea,” in Nested Identities: Nationalism, Territory, and Scale, ed. Guntram Henrik Herb and David H. Kaplan (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and...and Valentin Bogorov. “Reimagining the Russian Idea.” In Nested Identities: Nationalism, Territory, and Scale. Edited by Guntram Henrik Herb and

  14. Music Curriculum for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picht, Harriet

    This kindergarten music curriculum provides a year-long program of a sequenced series of activities designed to develop music concepts. Topics of the units in this guide are: self-concept (beginning of the year), fall, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, winter, a circus, Valentine's Day, spring, and farms. A scope and sequence chart of concepts…

  15. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  16. What's Happening in February?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  17. A Historical Vignette: Language Learning Eighteenth-Century Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalwies, Howard H.

    1977-01-01

    French became the foremost medium of communication in Europe in the 18th century. In Germany the most widely used French textbook was Johan Valentin Meidinger's "Practische Franzoesische Grammatik." This textbook was apparently a huge success from the pedagogical and the commerical points of view. With a few minor revisions, it would…

  18. Football or Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  19. The Leonid Fireball Night from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Berinde, S.

    1999-02-01

    An overview of the 1998 Leonid activity as seen from Romania by SARM members, with a description of the event on November 16-17 as seen by Valentin Grigore (GRIVA) at Targoviste, lambda=25deg 29' 00'' E, phi=44deg 57' 18'' N, h=350m.

  20. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  1. 75 FR 63501 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... energy efficient bathroom exhaust fans and linoleum flooring for the Fairmont Street, Valentine Street and Jackson Street projects, and for the purchase and installation of energy efficient, hot water... was granted by HUD on the basis that the relevant manufactured goods (energy efficient...

  2. Mental Health in Head Start: Leave No Child Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.; Bishop-Josef, Sandra J.; Murphy, Michael; Zigler, Edward F.

    2005-01-01

    The original vision of Head Start called for a program that would "get kids ready so they would have a chance in school...a chance in life" (Sargent Shriver; quoted in Zigler and Valentine, 1997, p. 59). President George W. Bush's recent emphasis on literacy and school achievement in Head Start highlights the academic aspect of the Head…

  3. February Folklore: You'll Love It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David

    1980-01-01

    Folk tales which are particularly suited to February cover legends about George Washington, the Chinese zodiac, and Groundhog Day. Also included is a calendar of activities for February. These activities are appropriate for Groundhog Day, Valentine's Day, Chinese New Year, President's (Washington and Lincoln) Day, and Leap Year. (KC)

  4. "More than skin deep": Recurrent primary hand abscesses in a warehouse operative.

    PubMed

    Kearney, L; O'Connor, C; Fitzpatrick, F; O'Sullivan, J B

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old male right-hand dominant warehouse operator presented with two hand infections within 12 weeks both requiring surgical drainage and antimicrobial therapy. Subsequent testing confirmed Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA). This case highlights the need for prompt multidisciplinary management of hand infections to consider, diagnose and manage atypical infections.

  5. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on September 27, 2012, Avalon...

  6. Courtside: NCLB=New Cause for Litigious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the children of parents Latasha Gibbs, Carmella Glass, Laverne Jones, Charlene Mingo, Deborah Powell-Jasper, Eunice Staton, and Keikola Valentine were attending New York City public schools that the state education department identified as needing improvement -- in other words, failing -- under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)…

  7. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of Mrs. James A. Dunlap, Jr. FRONT (EAST) WALL, STABLE AND CARRIAGE HOUSE (HON. and MRS. ROBERT O. FULLER IN FOREGROUND) - Valentine-Fuller House & Garden, 125 Prospect Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  9. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  10. Maintenance of Paraoxonase 2 Activity as a Strategy to Attenuate P. Aeruginosa Virulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    U., and Horke, S. (2011) Beyond reduction of atherosclerosis : PON2 provides apoptosis resistance and stabilizes tumor cells. Cell Death and Disease...exacerbates the development of atherosclerosis . Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 14, 341-351 40. Valentine, C. D., Zhang, H., Phuan, P. W., Nguyen, J., Verkman

  11. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  12. Using Video Cases to Scaffold Mentoring Competencies: A Program Design from the Young Women Leaders Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bryan Rossiter

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project conducted an intervention using video cases to scaffold traditional methods of concept presentation in a youth mentoring program. Video cases delivered online were chosen as a methodology to strengthen the support and practitioner aspects indicative of mentoring program success rates (D. L. DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, &…

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs, Reference Aid, Directory of the USSR Ministry of Railways.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1933) (appointed deputy minister) Abdullayev, Mukhamedzhan Besedin, Ivan Sergeyevich Isayeva, Galina Anatolyevna Razuvayev, Dmitriy Ivanovich...Nikolayevich Malkhazov, Georgiy Rubenovich Mostovich, Yuriy Iosifovich Belyakov, N.A. Grigoryuk, V.F. Kozlov, Ivan Fedorovich Malakhov, Viktor...Sergeyevich Glukhov, Ivan Andreyevich Pogorelyy, Boleslav Grigoryevich (transfer to other work) Fayershteyn, Valentin Oskarovich Kucherenko

  14. Insecure? Keeping New England Campuses Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2009-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, Seung-Hui Cho traded in his title as "student" for one of "gunman." That day, Cho, a student at Virginia Tech, was responsible for the deadliest shooting spree by a single person in U.S. history, killing 33 people, including himself. Ten months later on Valentine's Day, Steven Kazmierczak joined Cho in the…

  15. New Perspectives in Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These three papers are from a symposium on new perspectives in human resource development (HRD). "Developing an Instrument to Measure the Use of Play-Based Training Methods in Healthcare Education" (Rebecca J. Adams, Karen E. Watkins, Tom Valentine) reports preliminary findings from a pilot study that tested data collection procedures…

  16. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Galiana, Antonio; Pedreira, Walter; Mowszowicz, Martin; Christophersen, Inés; Machiavello, Silvia; Lope, Liliana; Benaderet, Sara; Buela, Fernanda; Vicentino, Walter; Albini, María; Bertaux, Olivier; Constenla, Irene; Bagnulo, Homero; Llosa, Luis; Ito, Teruyo

    2005-01-01

    A novel, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (Uruguay clone) with a non–multidrug-resistant phenotype caused a large outbreak, including 7 deaths, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene. PMID:15963301

  17. Holidays. Instructional Media Advisory List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Media Evaluation Service.

    This annotated bibliography is directed at teachers of students in grades preK-6 and covers books about holidays. The holidays for which materials are listed are: Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, Sukkot, Thanksgiving, and Valentine's Day. A directory of publishers from whom these items are available is…

  18. Holidays. Advisory List: Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Media and Technology Services.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of instructional materials that deal with subjects relating to holidays. Topics include Christmas, Earth Day, Easter, Halloween, Hannukah, Independence Day, Martin Luther King Day, Thanksgiving, Valentine's Day, and "More than One Holiday." Works cited include illustrated stories, poems,…

  19. Relational Framing Theory and Coming-Out Narratives: A Data Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helens-Hart, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Coming-out scenarios have been described as potentially traumatic events that change the parent-child relationship (MacDonald, 1983). Little research in the field of communication studies has been conducted on how the process of coming out unfolds within families (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The exercise described in this article…

  20. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin contents of various rhubarb (Rheum-spp.) varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...

  1. A multidimensional scaling analysis of own- and cross-race face spaces.

    PubMed

    Papesh, Megan H; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-08-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race categories. Participants made speeded "same-different" judgments to all possible combinations of faces, from which we generated psychological spaces, with "different" RTs as the measure of similarity. Consistent with the MDS framework, all faces were pseudo-normally distributed around the (unseen) prototype. The distribution of faces was consistent with Valentine's (1991) predictions: despite their physical identity to the White faces, Black faces had lower mean inter-object distances in psychological space. Other-race faces are more densely clustered in psychological space, which could underlie well-known recognition deficits.

  2. Necrotizing pneumonia in children: report of 41 cases between 2006 and 2011 in a French tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Chloé; Angoulvant, François; Gabor, Flaviu; Makhoul, Juliette; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Naudin, Jérôme; Alison, Marianne; Faye, Albert; Bingen, Edouard; Lorrot, Mathie

    2013-10-01

    Forty-one children hospitalized for necrotizing pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. Necrotizing pneumonia represented 0.8% of community-acquired pneumonia and 6% of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia. The chest radiograph revealed necrosis on admission in onethird of cases. Twenty-one cases (51%) were documented, including 13 Staphylococcus aureus, all Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, 7 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 1 Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  3. Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-02

    793–810. 39. Wagatsuma H, Yamaguchi Y (2007) Neural dynamics of the cognitive map in the hippocampus. Cognitive Neurodynamics 1: 119–141. 40. Kifer Y...Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making Mikhail I. Rabinovich1*, Ramón Huerta1,2, Pablo Varona2, Valentin S. Afraimovich3 1...Óptica, UASLP, San Luis de Potosı́, Mexico Abstract The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively

  4. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale…

  5. Industry Study Paper: The Aircraft Industry, AY 2004, Seminar 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Orozco, European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS) Company CDR Thomas J. Payne, USN Ms. Mary C. Puckett, Dept. of Air Force COL Jorge L. Silveira...Logistics Agency, Defense Supply Center Richmond COL Jorge L. Silveira, USA and Col (Sel) Ricky Valentine, USAF CAPT Stephen Morris, USN, Faculty Advisor...Interview with Rich Golaszewski from Gelman Research Associates, 27 Feb 2004. xlvii Industry Study Session Number 4 with Teal Group, 11 Feb 2004

  6. Gorbachev’s Presidential Council

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    writer Valentin Rasputin told a Literaturnaya gazeta editor that his presence, and that of Chingis Aitmatov, on the Council was to ensure that the...president hear "another language a writer’s language." Also. Rasputin said, he would be able to convey to the president "specific Russian interests...and abroad. "It is very important." Council member Rasputin explains, "that the Presidential Council anticipates the probability of a critical

  7. The Role of United States Army Special Forces in Operation NOBEL OBELISK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    effective use of special operations forces (SOF) in NEOs. SOF have contributed in some manner to almost every U.S. NEO conducted in the past thirty years...their primary operational methods. This RUF insurgency had such a destabilizing effect on Sierra Leone that Valentine Strasser led a military coup...conduct effective battalion-sized operations in the interior, without looting, raping, or terrorizing local citizens, immediate gains would be made

  8. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  9. JPRS Report: East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    entire Alternative Socialist Party and a large proportion of the members of the Nikola Petkov Bulgarian National Agrarian Union. Ivan Rostov was...Minister Val- entin Pavlov , who has joined Prime Minister Ante Markovic in trying to find a solution for the collapse of trade between the two countries...amounted to $439 million, and exports under the liquidation account have not even begun yet. Soviet prime minister Valentin Pavlov listened to all

  10. Meta-Analysis of Armed service Vocational Aptitude Battery Subtest Validity Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 591-599. 51 Hawk, J. (1986). Real world implications of g. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 411...New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Jensen, A. R. (1983). Effects of inbreeding on mental ability factors. Personality and Individual Differences , 4... and Individual Differences , 7, 201-207. Palmer, P., Hartke, D. D., Ree, M. J., Welsh, J. R. & Valentine, L. D. Jr. (1988). Armed Services

  11. Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Larry J.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Butman, Bradford; Ackerman, Seth D.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, Dave S.; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2006-01-01

    The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder data collected off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data. The basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment and sedimentary environments. Presented verification data include new and historical sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam data, which cover a narrow band of the sea floor extending from Provincetown around the northern tip of Cape Cod and south southeastward to off Monomoy Island, were collected during transits between concurrent mapping projects in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (Valentine and others, 2001; Butman and others, 2004; and Valentine, 2005) and Great South Channel (Valentine and others, 2003a, b, c, d). Although originally collected to maximize the use of time aboard ship, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities in this part of the Gulf of Maine (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. These data and interpretations also support ongoing modeling studies of the lower Cape's aquifer system (Masterson, 2004) and of erosional hotspots along the Cape Cod National Seashore (List and others, 2006).

  12. Simulating the 'other-race' effect with autoassociative neural networks: further evidence in favor of the face-space model.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Roberto; Hervé, Abdi

    2006-01-01

    Other-race (OR) faces are less accurately recognized than same-race (SR) faces, but faster classified by race. This phenomenon has often been reported as the 'other-race' effect (ORE). Valentine (1991 Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology 43 161-204) proposed a theoretical multidimensional face-space model that explained both of these results, in terms of variations in exemplar density between races. According to this model, SR faces are more widely distributed across the dimensions of the space than OR faces. However, this model does not quantify nor state the dimensions coded within this face space. The aim of the present study was to test the face-space explanation of the ORE with neural network simulations by quantifying its dimensions. We found the predicted density properties of Valentine's framework in the face-projection spaces of the autoassociative memories. This was supported by an interaction for exemplar density between the race of the learned face set and the race of the faces. In addition, the elaborated face representations showed optimal responses for SR but not for OR faces within SR face spaces when explored at the individual level, as gender errors occurred significantly more often in OR than in SR face-space representations. Altogether, our results add further evidence in favor of a statistical exemplar density explanation of the ORE as suggested by Valentine, and question the plausibility of such coding for faces in the framework of recent neuroimaging studies.

  13. ROLE OF FERREDOXIN IN THE METABOLISM OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN.

    PubMed

    VALENTINE, R C; WOLFE, R S

    1963-05-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana) and R. S. Wolfe. Role of ferredoxin in the metabolism of molecular hydrogen. J. Bacteriol. 85:1114-1120. 1963.-The metabolism of molecular hydrogen by Clostridium pasteurianum, Micrococcus lactilyticus (Veillonella alcalescens), and several other anaerobic bacteria was studied. Oxidation of hydrogen, using several electron-accepting substrates including triphosphopyridine nucleotide, uric acid, xanthine, nitrite, and hydroxylamine, required ferredoxin in conjunction with hydrogenase. Evolution of hydrogen from pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, hypoxanthine, and dithionite was mediated by ferredoxin. On the basis of these findings, a unitary hypothesis for biological hydrogen evolution is proposed in which ferredoxin plays a key role.

  14. Critical pneumonia complicating early-stage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mercieri, Marco; Di Rosa, Roberta; Pantosti, Annalisa; De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Pinto, Giovanni; Arcioni, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia, Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, in a woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting this critical lung infection occurring during an early phase of pregnancy. This case study alerts physicians to the increasing worldwide spread of these uncommon yet virulent and potentially lethal infections. In our patient, antibiotic therapy with linezolid plus rifampin started at 14 weeks of pregnancy had a successful outcome without inducing toxicity or teratogenesis in the fetus.

  15. At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

  16. Study of comets at wavelengths between 0.5 and 18 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Net, E. P.; Gehrz, R. D.

    1986-09-01

    Since 1969 every bright comet was measured which has reached a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun. Observing techniques were developed which make it possible to observe as close as elongation 3 deg., and to find, track and measure comets at all wavelengths in full daylight. Comet Halley was measured on twenty four occasions between December 12, 1985 and March 25, 1986. Clear weather seems to come on holidays, and days on which are observed including Winter Solstice, Christmas, New Years, Valentines day, Super Bowl Sunday and the Vernal Equinox. Halley is observed within hours of perihelion passage.

  17. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: novel mutation in the aminomethyl transferase gene. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Çavuşoğlu, Dilek; Özbeyler, Ömer; Kaya, Özge Ö; Baydan, Figen; Olgac Dundar, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  18. The Perseids Aug 11-12, 1996 in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojurova, E.; Trukchev, I.

    As every year Astroclub "Canopus" organized an extended Perseid observing campaign. Members of the club took part in expedition to Avren village near Varna, at the National Astronomical Observatory (Rojen) and at the National Yought Astronomical Camp in Belite Brezi (South Bulgaria). Here we present some results derived on the basis of data obtained by Biliana Ognianova, Diana Tisheva, Diliana Antonova, Eva Bojurova, Elena Surbinska, Irena Stavreva, Katia Koleva, Lilia Porojanova, Anton Antonov, Denis Mechmedov, Doichin Docinski, Galin Genchev, Ivan Trukhchev, Valentin Velkov. More than 2000 Perseids were recorded. Some other showers were also observed.

  19. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  20. ["A shot at the father: a student's assault". Sigmund Freud and the case of Ernst Haberl].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 1922, the Freud family was involved in a criminal case: The son of Mathilde Freud's nursing sister, Ernst Haberl, had shot at his father. With the help of August Aichhorn the Viennese Juvenile Court's social assistance department was engaged on behalf of the young man. Freud commissioned the lawyer Valentin Teirich to defend him in court. The Viennese dailies reported the deed and the trial extensively (Haberl was acquitted). That a comment published in the Neue Freie Presse was written by Freud himself, as Teirich believed, is, according to Anna Freud, highly improbable.

  1. Review of Military Mountain Medicine Technology and Research Barriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Tbilisi email: liza.genesis@access.sanet.ge KYRGYZ REPUBLIC Dr. Valentin Mahnovsky Director, International Institute of Mountains 22 Manas...Cet environnement difficile réduit la supériorité technologique militaire de l’OTAN en limitant l’utilisation de l’appui aérien et des véhicules de...troupes vers ces régions montagneuses. Cependant, l’ascension rapide de personnels non acclimatés vers des environnements montagneux élevés (>1200

  2. Differences in habitat use by blanding's turtles, Emydoidea blandingii, and painted turtles, Chysemys picta, in the Nebraska sandhills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Germano, David J.

    2003-01-01

    We sampled a variety of wetlands in the Nebraska sandhills at Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Significantly more individuals of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) occurred in lakes and open waters than in marshes or small ponds, and the opposite was true for Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii). Besides this marked difference in habitat use, 46% of the captured E. blandingii in pond/marsh habitat were juveniles, but only 31.6% in lakes and open water. Current information suggests that marshes and small ponds are important habitat for juvenile turtles, especially Emydoidea blandingii.

  3. Study of a Structural Plasma Influence on Characteristics of Viscous Friction and Separated Near-Surface Zone Position Under High-Speed Airflow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Herzberg Gerhard 1971 The spectra and structure of simple free radicals, Cornell University Press Ithaca and London. 7. Kovacs I 1969 Rotational...Valentin I Gibalov and Gerhard J Pietsch “The development of dielectric barrier discharges in gas gaps and on surfaces”, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33...of the Second positive system. Table 2.1.4.1. Molecular constants according to Herzberg [8]. Constants C3Πu B3Πg Te (cm-1) 89136,88 59619,3 ωe (cm

  4. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  5. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteremia at a major hospital in southern Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Dhritiman; Batte, Justin L; Brown, Stephanie N; Crosby, Angela G; Marcos, Luis A; Elasri, Mohamed O

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant cause of bacteremia worldwide. We assessed the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant S aureus isolates causing bacteremia in southern Mississippi. Diverse genetic backgrounds in terms of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing types of methicillin-resistant S aureus were identified as causing bacteremia in Mississippi. A strong association of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes with elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration is one of the important findings of our study.

  6. Age of acquisition effects on an object-name verification task.

    PubMed

    Catling, J C; Johnston, R A

    2006-02-01

    Naming latencies for words, objects and faces have been shown to be affected by the age at which an item is acquired (AoA). Originally, this effect was explained in terms of differential access to name representations. However, a number of recent studies have found AoA effects in tasks which do not require access to names (e.g. Brysbaert, Van Wijnendaele, & De Deynes, 2000; Lewis, 1999; Moore, Smith Spark, & Valentine, 2004; Moore & Valentine, 1999). Ellis and Lambon Ralph (2000) propose an alternative account of AoA, predicting that the effect should arise in any task where previously stored information is retrieved. The current study explored the effect of AoA on an object-name verification task. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that early acquired objects were verified significantly faster than later acquired objects. A third experiment collected naming latencies for the same picture stimuli in order to allow a comparison of the magnitude of the AoA effect for object verification and naming. The implications of these findings for accounts of AoA and its locus of effect are discussed.

  7. Recognition of own-race and other-race caricatures: implications for models of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Byatt, G; Rhodes, G

    1998-08-01

    Valentine's (Valentine T. Q J Exp Psychol 1991;43A:161-204) face recognition framework supports both a norm-based coding (NBC) and an exemplar-only, absolute coding, model (ABC). According to NBC; (1) faces are represented in terms of deviations from a prototype or norm; (2) caricatures are effective because they exaggerate this norm deviation information; and (3) other-race faces are coded relative to the (only available) own-race norm. Therefore NBC predicts that, for European subjects, caricatures of Chinese faces made by distorting differences from the European norm would be more effective than caricatures made relative to the Chinese norm. According to ABC; (1) faces are encoded as absolute values on a set of shared dimensions with the norm playing no role in recognition; (2) caricatures are effective because they minimise exemplar density and (3) the dimensions of face-space are inappropriate for other-race faces leaving them relatively densely clustered. ABC predicts that all faces would be recognised more accurately when caricatured against their own-race norm. We tested European subjects' identification of European and Chinese faces, caricatured against both race norms. The ABC model's prediction was supported. European faces were also rated as more distinctive and recognised more easily than Chinese faces. However, the own-race recognition bias held even when the races were equated for distinctiveness which suggests that the ABC model may not provide a complete account of race effects in recognition.

  8. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  9. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day.

  10. Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: effects of affective valence, response latency, and visual field.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anna; Valentine, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Participants who were unable to detect familiarity from masked 17 ms faces (Stone and Valentine, 2004 and Stone and Valentine, in press-b) did report a vague, partial visual percept. Two experiments investigated the relative strength of the visual percept generated by famous and unfamiliar faces, using masked 17 ms exposure. Each trial presented simultaneously a famous and an unfamiliar face, one face in LVF and the other in RVF. In one task, participants responded according to which of the faces generated the stronger visual percept, and in the other task, they attempted an explicit familiarity decision. The relative strength of the visual percept of the famous face compared to the unfamiliar face was moderated by response latency and participants' attitude towards the famous person. There was also an interaction of visual field with response latency, suggesting that the right hemisphere can generate a visual percept differentiating famous from unfamiliar faces more rapidly than the left hemisphere. Participants were at chance in the explicit familiarity decision, confirming the absence of awareness of facial familiarity.

  11. Congress moves to set priorities for EPA research spending

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.

    1993-05-31

    Research and development spending at the Environmental Protection Agency is slated to rise more than 5% in President Bill Clinton's fiscal 1994 budget. Congress is stepping in, however, and may have something to say not only about how much money is spent, but also how it is spent. For the first time in a decade, formal authorization of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is moving through Congress. The ORD authorization was approved May 20 in the House Science Committee's Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation. Introduced by subcommittee chairman Rep. Tim Valentine (D.-N.C.), the authorization bill (H.R. 1994) would provide $475 million in funding for fiscal 1994. This equals the amount proposed by Clinton, $536 million, if about $60 million earmarked for Superfund-related research is removed. The Valentine bill would set out programmatic guidelines for EPA research, requiring fundamental research in ecology, health, and risk reduction. It would also require the agency's Science Advisory Board to review these programs and submit progress reports to Congress every two years. Another part of the bill would require EPA to consolidate agency efforts to identify, compare, and assess risk to public health and the environment posed by pollution.

  12. Effect of Butanedioic Acid Mono (2,2-Dimethylhydrazide) on the Activity of Membrane-Bound Succinate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    See, Raymond M.; Foy, Chester L.

    1982-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from hypocotyls of five-day-old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Black Valentine') seedlings rapidly oxidized succinate, malate, and NADH. Oxidation rates, respiratory control, and ADP:O ratios obtained with saturating concentrations of all three substrates indicated that the mitochondria were tightly coupled. The mitochondrial preparation was then employed to investigate the respiration-inhibiting effects of butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethyl-hydrazide) (daminozide) a plant growth retardant having structural similarity to an endogenous respiratory substrate (succinate). Daminozide markedly inhibited the activity of membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase. Inhibition was of the competitive type (apparent Ki, 20.2 millimolar) with respect to succinate. Although not excluding other hypotheses, the results support an active role for daminozide in the suppression of respiration as an important metabolic site of its action as a plant growth regulator. PMID:16662493

  13. Immunotherapeutic strategies to combat staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Ohlsen, Knut; Lorenz, Udo

    2010-08-01

    Antibiotic-resistant staphylococci are the leading cause of nosocomial infections in many hospitals around the world. Meanwhile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spread also in the community where highly virulent strains infect healthy adults that have no predisposing risk factors. Although a few novel antibiotics have been recently introduced into clinical practice, the search for alternative strategies to efficiently combat staphylococcal infections is urgently demanded to decrease the enormous burden caused by pathogenic staphylococci. In particular, immunological strategies based on vaccine development or therapeutic antibodies may significantly enhance the efficiency of anti-staphylococcal therapy. Most approaches are directed against surface components of staphylococci such as cell wall-linked adhesins, teichoic acids, capsule, the biofilm component PIA/PNAG, or soluble virulence determinants such as alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, or superantigenic enterotoxins. Although 2 recent clinical trials have failed, several novel promising vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are currently in preclinical and clinical development.

  14. Blood and the Revenant in Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In Sir Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth; or St Valentine's Day (1828), the resuscitated subject is referred to as a revenant, a term that Scott borrowed from Henry Thomson's Blackwoodian tale 'Le Revenant' (1827), meaning 'dead-alive'. Taking its cue from the sanguinary subtext of The Fair Maid of Perth, which is fascinated with the shedding of blood and transfusion of fluids, this chapter reads the Scottish revenant as a literary reflection on the extraordinary promise of blood transfusion in the 1820s: that death could be understood as a process, rather than an absolute state, and that medical intervention could restore life to those on the brink of death and even to the recently deceased.

  15. A Novel Method for Producing Transgenic Enzymes and Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    M. Liebergesell, M. H . Madkour , F. Mayer, U. Pieper-Furst, A. Pries, H . E. Valentin, et al. 1995. Considerations on the structure and biochemistry...co nc en tr at io n (g D C W /L ) 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 S pe ci fic A ct iv ity o f O P H fo r P ar ao xo n (U /m g) OUR...DNA region analyzed. The open reading frame of the oph gene is indicated in the figure while H refers to the HindIII restriction sites. A

  16. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery.

  17. Daptomycin efficacy in the central nervous system of a patient with disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen in the last decades and also represents the second most common pathogen isolated from patients in outpatient settings. Although methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections were traditionally limited to hospitals, community-associated cases of methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections have been reported. In our case, we observed an unexpected event during treatment. Case presentation A 60-year-old Caucasian man developed fever and multiple muscle and brain abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Conclusion Although our patient was given antimicrobials active against the isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, it was only after the introduction of daptomycin that his skin, soft tissue and muscle lesions and also brain manifestations improved. PMID:22938025

  18. Early NACA human computers at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The women of the Computer Department at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station are shown busy with test flight calculations. The computers under the direction of Roxanah Yancey were responsible for accurate calculations on the research test flights made at the Station. There were no mechanical computers at the station in 1949, but data was reduced by human computers. Shown in this photograph starting at the left are: Geraldine Mayer and Mary (Tut) Hedgepeth with Friden calculators on the their desks; Emily Stephens conferring with engineer John Mayer; Gertrude (Trudy) Valentine is working on an oscillograph recording reducing the data from a flight. Across the desk is Dorothy Clift Hughes using a slide rule to complete data calculations. Roxanah Yancey completes the picture as she fills out engineering requests for further data.

  19. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, F; Alabi, A S; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2014-07-01

    Research on African Staphylococcus aureus has been largely neglected in the past, despite the cultural and geographical diversity in Africa, which has a significant impact on the epidemiology of this pathogen. The polarity between developed urban societies and remote rural populations (e.g. Pygmies), combined with close contact with animals (e.g. livestock and domestic animals, and wildlife), makes the epidemiology of S. aureus on the African continent unique and fascinating. Here, we try to draw an epidemiological picture of S. aureus colonization and infection in Africa, and focus on the wide spread of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive isolates, the emergence of the hypervirulent methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone USA300, and the dissemination of the typical African clone MRSA sequence type 88.

  20. Site Description for the University of Nebraska's Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory is operated by the University of Nebraska. The laboratory is located in the south-central part of the Nebraska Sandhills near Tryon, Nebraska (41 deg. 37' N; 100 deg. 50' W). The laboratory is surrounded on the west and south by native rangeland vegetation, on the south by a large field of corn irrigated by a center pivot, and on the east by wheat stubble. This site is appropriate for moisture stress studies since rainfall is almost always inadequate to meet evaporative demands of agricultural crops during most of the growing season and the sandy soils (Valentine fine sand) at the site do not store large quantities of water. Various levels of water stress are achieved through irrigation from solid set sprinklers.

  1. A method for the concentration of fine-grained rutile (TiO2) from sediment and sedimentary rocks by chemical leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Valentine, Page C.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the sample analyzed by the method described were marine muds collected from the Gulf of Maine (Valentine and Commeau, 1990). The silt and clay fraction (up to 99 wt% of the sediment) is composed of clay minerals (chiefly illite-mica and chlorite), silt-size quartz and feldspar, and small crystals (2-12 um) of rutile and hematite. The bulk sediment samples contained an average of 2 to 3 wt percent CaCO3. Tiher samples analyzed include red and gray Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones and siltstones exposed around the Bay of Fundy region and Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, and shales from northern Maine and New Brunswick. These rocks are probable sources for the fine-grained rutile found in the Gulf of Maine.

  2. Molecular nature of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus derived from explosive nosocomial outbreaks of the 1980s in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taneike, Ikue; Otsuka, Taketo; Dohmae, Soshi; Saito, Kohei; Ozaki, Kyoko; Takano, Misao; Higuchi, Wataru; Takano, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2006-04-17

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes is increasing worldwide. Nosocomial outbreak-derived (hospital-acquired) MRSA (HA-MRSA) in Japan in the 1980s was also largely PVL(+). PVL(+) HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA shared the same multi-locus sequence type (ST30) and methicillin resistance cassette (SCCmecIV), but were divergent in oxacillin resistance, spa typing, PFGE analysis or clfA gene analysis. PVL(+) HA-MRSA, which probably originated in PVL(+)S. aureus ST30, was highly adhesive (carrying cna and bbp genes), highly-toxic (carrying luk(PV) and sea genes) and highly drug-resistant. PVL(+) HA-MRSA was once replaced by other PVL(-) HA-MRSA (e.g., ST5), and is re-emerging as CA-MRSA.

  3. The naming game: A discrepancy among the medical community.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Aly, Islam; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    As anatomists we rely on the nomenclature of structures in order to describe them appropriately, particularly their orientation in respect to their surrounding. The terminology used by the anatomist to describe an organ, muscle, or nerve within the body is taught to medical students as law. Students learn to describe structures in the "anatomical position", which has been accepted in the literature since the original Latin Nomina Anatomica. They therefore familiarize themselves with the use of terms such as superior, inferior, posterior and anterior to describe all anatomical structures, except in respect of the heart. The heart is still described in the original Valentine position. As anatomists we owe it to the medical and research community to correct the nomenclature to minimize confusion, and to describe the heart properly in respect to its surrounding structures.

  4. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: spread of specific lineages among patients in different wards at a Brazilian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, F S; Schuenck, R P; Ferreira, D C; da Costa, C R; Nouér, S A; dos Santos, K R N

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineages circulating in a Brazilian teaching hospital. MRSA isolates from nasal swabs were evaluated to assess antimicrobial susceptibility, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), Panton-Valentine leucocidin status, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) analysis. Eighty-three MRSA isolates were analysed. SCCmec III (43.4%) and IV (49.4%) were predominant. ST1-IV (USA400) was more common in internal medicine (P = 0.002) whereas 'clone M' (SCCmec III) was more common in the medical and surgical intensive care unit (P = 0.004), and all isolates were ST5-IV (USA800) in dermatology (P < 0.001). These data improved the understanding of the MRSA epidemiology inside the hospital and helped to establish effective control measures.

  5. Clinical photography and patient rights: the need for orthopraxy.

    PubMed

    Berle, I

    2008-02-01

    The increasing use of digital image recording devices, whether they are digital cameras or mobile phone cameras, has democratised clinical photography in the UK. However, when non-professional clinical photographers take photographs of patients the issues of consent and confidentiality are either ignored or given scant attention. Whatever the status of the clinician, the taking of clinical photographs must be practised within the context of a professional etiquette. Best practice recognises the need for informed consent and the constraints associated with confidentiality. Against the background of the poverty of the current discourse of these issues, as presented during the Valentine GMC Fitness to Practice hearing, the paper considers the need for orthopraxy in the use of clinical photography.

  6. GLYOXYLATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS ALLANTOICUS

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R. C.; Drucker, H.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Drucker, and R. S. Wolfe. Glyoxylate fermentation by Streptococcus allantoicus. J. Bacteriol. 87:241–246. 1964.—Extracts of Streptococcus allantoicus were found to degrade glyoxylate, yielding tartronic semialdehyde and CO2. Tartronic semialdehyde was prepared chemically, and its properties were compared with the enzymatic product: reduction by sodium borohydride yielded glycerate; heating at 100 C yielded glycolaldehyde and CO2; autoxidation yielded mesoxalic semialdehyde; periodate oxidation yielded glyoxylate and a compound presumed to be formate. Tartronic semialdehyde reductase was present in extracts of S. allantoicus and in a species of Pseudomonas grown on allantoin. A scheme for the synthesis of acetate from glyoxylate by S. allantoicus is discussed. PMID:14151040

  7. Automatic Biological Cell Counting Using a Modified Gradient Hough Transform.

    PubMed

    Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul

    2017-02-01

    We present a computational method for pseudo-circular object detection and quantitative characterization in digital images, using the gradient accumulation matrix as a basic tool. This Gradient Accumulation Transform (GAT) was first introduced in 1992 by Kierkegaard and recently used by Kaytanli & Valentine. In the present article, we modify the approach by using the phase coding studied by Cicconet, and by adding a "local contributor list" (LCL) as well as a "used contributor matrix" (UCM), which allow for accurate peak detection and exploitation. These changes help make the GAT algorithm a robust and precise method to automatically detect pseudo-circular objects in a microscopic image. We then present an application of the method to cell counting in microbiological images.

  8. On sliding of a puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    Aleksandr Yul'evich Ishlinsky liked to consider a problem with some "special thrill" at the end of the Seminar meeting of the Chair of Applied Mathematics at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. For example, in 1978 he asked the author of this paper to describe the process of sliding of a rotating hockey puck on ice. Somewhat later, on such a seminar, the author made his report and demonstrated the experimental results, which was approved by Aleksandr Yul'evich. But the small paper on this topic, delivered to the journal "Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta," was published only in 1981 [1] thanks to the support of Valentin Vitalievich Rumyantsev. The author thanks the Editorial Board of this journal for the possibility of discussing one of "Ishlinsky's problems" once again.

  9. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Suk-Kyung; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Park, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Choi, Min-Jung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-Cho; Song, Si-Wook; Wee, Sung-Hwan

    2010-04-01

    A total of 2,858 meat samples collected during 2003-2008 in Korea were investigated, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated from 1.0% (9/890) of beef, 0.3% (4/1,055) of pork, and 0.3% (3/913) of chicken meat samples, respectively. MRSA isolates showed the two sequence types (STs), ST72 from beef and pork and ST692 from chicken meat. MRSA isolates from beef and pork were Panton-Valentine leukocidin -negative, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa strain with ST 72, which is the most prevalent type of community acquired-MRSA in Korea. An identical pulse-field gel electrophoresis pattern was detected among 10 of 16 MRSA isolates: 9 strains from beef (n=5) and pork (n=4) in 2008, respectively, and one strain from beef in 2005.

  10. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly.

    PubMed

    Wan, T-W; Tomita, Y; Saita, N; Konno, K; Iwao, Y; Hung, W-C; Teng, L-J; Yamamoto, T

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)(-)/spat5110/SCCmecV(+) versus PVL(+)/spat159((etc.))/SCCmec (-), but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type) and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  11. Life-threatening MRSA sepsis with bilateral pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis of the knee in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Petersen, Klaus K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia, arthritis of the knee, and osteomyelitis of the tibia. Radiological investigation and interpretation directed the treatment, especially the surgical debridement, and combined with clinical and biochemical findings lead to close interdisciplinary treatment with frequent surgical interventions and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis, using different imaging modalities to guide the surgical and antibiotic treatment. PMID:27867536

  12. Photographs of the Sea Floor of Western Massachusetts Bay, Offshore of Boston, Massachusett, July 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Butman, Bradford; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains photographs and sediment sample analyses of the sea floor obtained at 142 sites in western Massachusetts Bay (Figure 1) during a research cruise (USGS cruise ISBL99024) aboard the Fishing Vessel (FV) Isabel S. (Figure 2) conducted July 18-21, 1999. These photographs and samples provide critical ground truth information for the interpretation of shaded relief and backscatter intensity maps created using data collected with a multibeam echo sounder system (Butman and others, in press, a, b, c; Valentine and others, in press, a, b, c). Collection of these photographs and samples was undertaken in support of a large project whose overall objective is to map and describe the sea floor of Massachusetts Bay.

  13. Precise leveling, space geodesy and geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, R.

    1981-01-01

    The implications of currently available leveling data on understanding the crustal dynamics of the continental United States are investigated. Neotectonic deformation, near surface movements, systematic errors in releveling measurements, and the implications of this information for earthquake prediction are described. Vertical crustal movements in the vicinity of the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake which may represent coseismic deformation are investigated. The detection of vertical fault displacements by precise leveling in western Kentucky is reported. An empirical basis for defining releveling anomalies and its implications for crustal deformation in southern California is presented. Releveling measurements in the eastern United States and their meaning in the context of possible crustal deformation, including uplift of the Appalachian Mountains, eastward tilting of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and apparent movements associated with a number of structural features along the east coast, are reported.

  14. Manganese Dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, E.; House, C.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the anaerobic oxidation is not only important for understanding hydrocarbon degradation but it also important for understanding the global carbon cycle. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a large sink for methane consuming 5-20% of today's methane flux (Valentine and Reeburgh, 2000), yet the requirements for this process are not well understood. It has been suggested that no other electron acceptors other than sulfate can be used in the AOM (Nauhaus, 2005). However, our new data suggests that manganese, in the form of birnessite, can be used as an electron acceptor instead of sulfate (Beal et al., in prep). Methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, CA was incubated with methane, 13C-labeled methane, and carbon dioxide. Because the net result of the AOM is the production of carbon dioxide from methane, the rate of the AOM in each of the incubations can be determined by measuring the incorporation of 13C in the carbon dioxide. Using this method, it was found that cultures incubated with nitrate showed inhibition of the AOM, while cultures incubated with iron gave inconclusive results. The only positive results that were found for alternate electron acceptors are the incubations that were given manganese and no sulfate, which showed methane oxidation. Further, when more manganese was injected into these incubations, the rate of AOM increased. Preliminary analysis of the microbial population using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) targeting the mcr gene showed an unidentified organism in these cultures. Future work with TRFLP, as well as clone libraries, will help to identify the organisms responsible for this process. Nauhaus, K., 2005, Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities: Environmental microbiology, v. 7, p. 98. Valentine, D.L., and Reeburgh, W.S., 2000, New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation: Environmental Microbiology, v. 2, p

  15. Evolved massive stars in W33 and in GMC 23.3-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Najarro, Francisco; Rich, Michael; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, Rosie; Davies, Ben; MacKenty, John W.

    2015-08-01

    We have conducted an infrared spectroscopic survey for massive evolved stars and/or clusters in the Galactic giant molecular clouds G23.3-0.3 and W33. A large number of extraordinary sub-clumps/clusters of massive stars were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of these massive stars yields information on the star formation history of the clouds.In G23.3-0.3, we discovered a dozen massive O-type stars, one candidate luminous blue variable, and several red supergiants. The O-type stars have masses from 25 to 50 Msun and ages of 5-8 Myr, while the RSGs belong to a burst that occurred 20-30 Myr ago. Therefore, GMC G23.3-0.3 has had one of the longest known histories of star formation (20-30 Myr). GMC G23.3-0.3 is rich in HII regions and supernova remnants; we detected massive stars in the cores of SNR W41 and of SNR G22.7-0.2.In W33, we detected a few evolved O-type stars and one Wolf-Rayet star, but none of the late-type objects has the luminosity of a red supergiant. W33 is characterized by discrete sources and has had at least 3-5 Myr of star formation history, which is now propagating from west to east. While our detections of massive evolved stars in W33 are made on the west side of the cloud, several dense molecular cores that may harbor proto clusters have recently been detected on the east side of the cloud by Immer et al. (2014).Messineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Ivanov, Valentin D.Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John W.; Trombley, Christine 2014A&A...569A..20MMessineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Francisco, Najarro; Rich, R. Michael; Menten, Karl M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, C.H. Rosie; Davies, Ben; submitted to ApJ.

  16. Paper Birch Decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, Microclimate, and Birch Stand Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980's. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  17. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Drougka, E.; Foka, A.; Posantzis, D.; Giormezis, N.; Anastassiou, E.D.; Petinaki, E.; Spiliopoulou, I.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred. PMID:26623381

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  19. Hyphal tip extension in Aspergillus nidulans requires the manA gene, which encodes phosphomannose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Payton, M A

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus nidulans carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the manA gene produces cell walls depleted of D-mannose and forms hyphal tip balloons at the restrictive temperature (B.P. Valentine and B.W. Bainbridge, J. Gen. Microbiol. 109:155-168, 1978). We have isolated and characterized the manA gene and physically located it between 3.5 and 5.5 kb centromere distal of the riboB locus on chromosome VIII. The manA gene contains four introns and encodes a 50.6-kDa protein which has significant sequence identity to type I phosphomannose isomerase proteins from other eukaryotes. We have constructed by integrative transformation a null mutation in the manA gene which can only be maintained in a heterokaryotic strain with wild-type manA+ nuclei. Thus, a manA null mutation is lethal in A. nidulans. The phenotype of the mutation was analyzed in germinating conidia. Such conidia are able to commence germination but swell abnormally, sometimes producing a misshapen germ tube, before growth ceases. The reason for the lethality is probably the lack of synthesis of mannose-containing cell wall polymers that must be required for normal cell wall development in growing hyphae. Images PMID:8065336

  20. Characterization of human antibody-reactive epitopes encoded by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18.

    PubMed Central

    Jenison, S A; Yu, X P; Valentine, J M; Galloway, D A

    1991-01-01

    We have previously reported that the most common human serum immunoglobulin G antibody reactivities to human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 (HPV16 and HPV18)-encoded proteins are directed against the minor capsid proteins (HPV16 L2 and HPV18 L2) and to the E7 protein of HPV16 (S. A. Jenison, X.-P. Yu, J. M. Valentine, L. A. Koutsky, A. E. Christiansen, A. M. Beckmann, and D. A. Galloway, J. Infect. Dis. 162:60-69, 1990). In this study, the antibody-reactive segments of the HPV16 E7, HPV16 L2, and HPV18 L2 polypeptides were mapped by using nested sets of deleted recombinant proteins. A single major immunoreactive region was identified in the HPV16 E7 polypeptide between amino acids (aa) 21 and 34 (DLYCYE-QLNDSSEE). In contrast, three distinct immunoreactive regions of the HPV16 L2 polypeptide were present in the segment between aa149 and aa204, and three distinct immunoreactive regions of the HPV18 L2 polypeptide were present in the segment between aa110 and aa211. With the exception of one serum sample, serum immunoglobulin G antibodies which reacted with HPV16 L2 polypeptides or with HPV18 L2 polypeptides were not cross-reactive. Images PMID:1704924

  1. International report Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Valentin Shashin, the world's first dynamically positioned ice-class drillship for Arctic conditions, has been completed by Rauma-Repola Oy's Mantyluoto Works in Pori, Finland and delivered to V/O Sudoimport, the Soviet Union. This drillship is the first of three such vessels ordered by the Soviet Union in 1979 for oil exploration in Russia's Arctic waters. All three drillships will be capable of operating in water depths to 300 m and of drilling to 20,000 ft in winds of 23 m/sec, in significant wave heights to 4.7 m and currents to 1 m/sec. Since the vessels are to be used in hostile Arctic conditions, the design incorporates a great deal of sophisticated equipment for operating in heavy seas and avoiding hazards, such as icebergs, that may exist in the drilling area. Included is a quick disconnect system that will allow the ship to detach from the drilling mode in approximately three minutes.

  2. Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W; Chapman, Benjamin P; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has examined individual differences in affective forecasting; however, we are aware of no published study to date linking psychopathology symptoms to affective forecasting problems. Pitting cognitive theory against depressive realism theory, we examined whether dysphoria was associated with negatively biased affective forecasts or greater accuracy. Participants (n=325) supplied predicted and actual emotional reactions for three days surrounding an emotionally evocative relational event, Valentine's Day. Predictions were made a month prior to the holiday. Consistent with cognitive theory, we found evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias-the tendency of individuals in dysphoric states to overpredict negative emotional reactions to future events. The dysphoric forecasting bias was robust across ratings of positive and negative affect, forecasts for pleasant and unpleasant scenarios, continuous and categorical operationalisations of dysphoria, and three time points of observation. Similar biases were not observed in analyses examining the independent effects of anxiety and hypomania. Findings provide empirical evidence for the long-assumed influence of depressive symptoms on future expectations. The present investigation has implications for affective forecasting studies examining information-processing constructs, decision making, and broader domains of psychopathology.

  3. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA.

  4. Gischig receives 2011 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Valentin Gischig has been awarded the AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Gischig's thesis is entitled “Kinematics and failure mechanisms of the Randa rock slope instability (Switzerland).” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Gischig received his M.Sc. in geophysics and glaciology at Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, in Switzerland, in 2007. In 2011 he attained a Ph.D. in engineering geology/rock mechanics/landslide analysis under the supervision of Simon Loew, Jeffrey R. Moore, Florian Amann, and Keith F. Evans at ETH Zürich. Gischig is currently conducting postdoctoral research at ETH Zürich. His research interests include landslides, induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems, and coupled processes in rock mechanics.

  5. A Big Year for Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; Erickson, K.

    2013-10-01

    2013 is a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system’s unsung heroes, small bodies. The Cosmic Valentine of Asteroid 2012 DA14 which passed within ~ 3.5 Earth radii of the Earth's surface (February 15, 2013), Comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS and the Thanksgiving 2013 pass of Comet ISON, which will pass less than 0.012 AU (1.8 million km) from the solar surface and could be visible during the day. All this in addition to Comet Lemmon and a host of meteor showers makes 2013 a landmark year to deliver the excitement of planetary science to the audiences worldwide. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system’s small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA’s JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like “Eyes on the Solar System” and more culminating in the Thanksgiving Day Comet ISON perihelion passage. This talk will highlight NASA’s focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  6. Sequelae of pediatric osteoarticular infection.

    PubMed

    Ilharreborde, B

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and diagnosis of osteoarticular infections (OAI) have changed considerably in recent years, partly due to the development of molecular biology. Kingella kingae is now recognized as the most frequent pathogen in children under 4 years of age, while methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has been increasingly reported. Although the clinical course of OAI is mostly benign, with shorter antibiotic regimens and simplified treatments, serious functional impairments and life-threatening complications can still occur, especially in case of delayed diagnosis or infection caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing strains of SA. Newborns and patients with sickle cell disease have greater risk of orthopaedic sequelae, which need to be detected and managed early. The main sequelae of osteomyelitis are angular limb deformity, due to partial growth arrest, and lower limb discrepancy. Therapeutic options are guided by the patient's age and predictions at maturity. The main complications of septic arthritis are joint stiffness and osteonecrosis. The procedures to consider are arthrodesis, joint reconstruction in immature children, and arthroplasty at the end of growth.

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from milk of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bardiau, M; Yamazaki, K; Duprez, J-N; Taminiau, B; Mainil, J G; Ote, I

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among a (S. aureus) collection (n = 430) isolated from milk of cows suffering from mastitis in Belgium and to compare their genotypic as well as phenotypic characteristics. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based typing techniques (MLST, spa, SCCmec, and agr typing) have been applied and supplemented by capsule serotyping, biofilm production quantification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nineteen MRSA were isolated. Seven distinct ApaI PFGE patterns were observed. All isolates, except one, were identified as ST398 strains. Three spa types (t011, t567 and t108) and two SCCmec types (IV and V) were identified. All isolates belonged to agr type I and capsule type 5 and were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative. All isolates produced biofilm in TSBglc , whereas the majority did not in milk serum. Twelve resistance patterns were observed, with almost two-thirds of the isolates being resistant to at least six antibiotics, including penicillin and tetracycline. Our study confirms that the emerging ST398 LA-MRSA clone has attained Belgian cattle. With regard to genotypic and phenotypic typing, the 19 MRSA isolated in this study form a homogenous group and do not differ much from one another, neither from what has been previously described.

  8. Epidemiology of necrotizing infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes at an Iowa hospital.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; O'Brien, Ashley M; Wardyn, Shylo E; Smith, Tara C

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to characterize the epidemiology of necrotizing soft tissue infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (n=14) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=14) isolates collected at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. An additional 9 S. pyogenes isolates were collected from patients being treated for mild respiratory infections and served as a comparison sample in the analysis. Patient data corresponding to the isolates (n=37) were also collected in order to identify risk factors or comorbid conditions possibly correlated with necrotizing fasciitis (NF). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus among the study isolates was 35.7% (5/14), and the prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was 57% (8/14). The S. pyogenes NF (wound) isolates (n=14) belonged to 10 different emm types, none of which appeared to be associated with more severe disease when compared to the milder infection (throat) samples (n=9). Comorbid conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly associated with NF. The results indicate that there may be a high prevalence of the PVL virulence factor in NF infections and that spa type t008 may be responsible for the increasing incidence of S. aureus NF infections in Iowa.

  9. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Hamed, Maha I; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-11-10

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin's ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections.

  10. European National Society Cardiovascular Journals: Background, rationale and mission statement of the 'Editors' Club' (Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology).

    PubMed

    Alfonso, F; Ambrosio, G; Pinto, F J; van der Wall, E E

    2008-06-01

    Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane k MD, Jørgen Videbaek MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (European National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations).

  11. Waves and Patterns in Chemical and Biological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinney, Harry L.; Krinsky, Valentin I.

    1991-12-01

    These 28 contributions by leading researchers - from such diverse disciplines as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, and physiology - describe recent experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical analyses of the formation of spatial patterns in chemical and biological systems. Chemical patterns have been systematically studied since the field was established by Alan Turing's landmark 1952 paper, "The chemical basis for morphogenesis," yet only recently have new experimental techniques and numerical analyses of reaction-diffusion equations opened the way to understanding stationary and traveling wave patterns. This collection summarizes the exciting developments in this rapidly growing field. It shows that some biological patterns have been found to be strikingly similar to patterns found in simple, well-controlled laboratory chemical systems, that new chemical reactor designs make it possible to sustain chemical patterns and to study transitions between different kinds of patterns, and that nearly 40 years after Turing's paper, the patterns predicted by Turing have finally been observed in laboratory experiments. Harry L. Swinney is Sid Richardson Foundation Regents Chair, Department of Physics, and Director of the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin. Valentin I. Krinsky is Head of the Autowave Laboratory, Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, USSR. Chapters cover: Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Experiments. Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Theory and Simulations. Fronts and Turing Patterns. Waves and Patterns in Biological Systems.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin and Pus Samples of Outpatients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Okamura, Sakiko; Miura, Yuri; Koyama, Shinobu; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now endemic in the United States. In Japan, CA-MRSA infections and CA-MRSA surveillance have been scarcely reported. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of CA-MRSA in Japan. We collected MRSA strains isolated from outpatients with skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) at 107 medical facilities from 24 prefectures in 2010 and 2012. Among 10,385 clinical samples from SSTI patients, 3,581 S. aureus isolates (35%) were obtained and 673 of the S. aureus strains (19%) were identified as MRSA. Among 625 MRSA strains tested in this study, 266 strains (43%) and 114 strains (18%) were classified as SCCmec types IV and V, respectively. Detection of virulence genes was as follows: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (57 strains, 9%), exfoliative toxin (ET) gene (179 strains, 29%), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene (195 strains, 31%), or none. PVL-positive strains were classified into eight sequence types (STs) (i.e., ST1, ST5, ST8, ST22, ST30, ST452, ST59, and ST154) and six clonal complexes (i.e., CC1, CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30, and CC59). Only 10 PVL-positive strains (2%) were pulsed-field type USA300 clone. There were a wide variety of CA-MRSA clones in Japan, which were different from the situation in the United States.

  13. Typing of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Using DNA Fingerprints by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Rebic, Velma; Budimir, Ana; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Vranic, Sabina Mahmutovic; Rebic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a wide spectrum of nosocomial and community associated infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze MRSA strains from the general population in Canton Sarajevo, B&H. Methods: Our investigation including either phenotypic and genotypic markers such as antimicrobial resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCC typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection. Results: Antimicrobial susceptibility: all MRSA isolates were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics tested, and all isolates were susceptible trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole, rifampicin, fusidic acid, linezolid and vancomycin. Sixty-eight per cent of the MRSA isolates were resistant to erythromycin, 5% to clindamycin, 5% to gentamicin and 4% to ciprofloxacin. After the PFGE analysis, the isolates were grouped into five similarity groups: A-E. The largest number of isolates belonged to one of two groups: C: 60 (60%) and D: 27 (27%). In both groups C and D, SCCmec type IV was predominant (60% and 88, 8%, respectively). A total of 24% of the isolates had positive expression of PVL genes, while 76% showed a statistically significantly greater negative expression of PVL genes. Conclusion: SCCmec type IV, together with the susceptibility profile and PFGE grouping, is considered to be typical of CA-MRSA PMID:27708486

  14. An outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China)

    PubMed Central

    Kwok-ming, Poon; Yuen-kong, Wan; Shuk-kwan, Chuang; Lai-key, Kwok; Sik-on, Pak

    2014-01-01

    Background In November 2012, an outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections affecting students at a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China) was detected. Methods A case was defined as any student or staff notified with MRSA infection from 25 October 2012 to 5 July 2013 with the clinical isolate being of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV or V and positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. We conducted field investigations, advised on control measures and enhanced surveillance for skin and soft tissue infections at the school. Decolonization therapies were offered to all cases and contacts, and carrier screening was conducted. Results There were five cases; two (40%) were hospitalized and three (60%) required surgical treatments. Initial screening comprised 240 students and 81 staff members. Overall, four cases (80%) plus eight other students (3.3%) were carriers, with eight of 12 (66.7%) from the same dormitory. All staff members screened negative. After intensified control measures, the number of students screened positive for CA-MRSA decreased from nine to one with no more cases identified in the school. Conclusion Identification of carriers, decolonization therapy, monitoring of cases and contacts and strengthening of environmental and personal hygiene were control measures that helped contain this CA-MRSA outbreak in a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China). PMID:24734211

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Haack, Sheridan K; Johnson, Heather E; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA+femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci 'excellent' recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  16. Characteristics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Strains Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Lorena; Machado, Virginia; Mollerach, Marta; Mota, María Inés; Tuchscherr, Lorena P. N.; Gadea, Pilar; Gardella, Noella; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Vola, Magdalena; Schelotto, Felipe; Varela, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed 90 nonduplicates community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections. All strains were mecA positive. Twenty-four of the 90 strains showed inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. All strains produced α-toxin; 96% and 100% of them displayed positive results for lukS-F and cna genes, respectively. Eigthy-five strains expressed capsular polysaccharide serotype 8. Six different pulsotypes were discriminated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three predominant groups of CA-MRSA strains (1, 2, and 4) were identified, in agreement with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strains of group 1 (pulsotype A, CP8+, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+) were the most frequently recovered and exhibited a PFGE band pattern identical to other CA-MRSA strains previously isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Three years after the first local CA-MRSA report, these strains are still producing skin and soft-tissue infections demonstrating the stability over time of this community-associated emerging pathogen. PMID:20016669

  17. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G.; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H.; Coller, Barry S.; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most—46 of the 63–wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL+) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26063853

  18. Cross-modality priming for people's adjectivized names: failure to support the adjectivization hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Akira

    2005-04-01

    This experiment tested a prediction derived from Hollis and Valentine's 2001 adjectivization hypothesis, that having an adjectival form is the key factor that makes certain classes of proper names, i.e., country names, exhibit a common name-like pattern of long-term priming. The hypothesis predicted that, when adjectivized historical celebrity names, e.g., William Shakespeare/Shakespearean, were compared with nonadjectivized historical celebrity names, e.g., Emile Zola, cross-modality long-term priming in a familiarity decision task would occur only for nonadjectivized name stimuli. 32 students of literature, history, or philosophy (21 women and 11 men; age range 18-41 years, M age = 22.4 yr.) were tested. Priming was measured by latency of response. Analysis showed that the mean RT to primed items was faster than the mean RT to unprimed items when the prime task was presented in both visual and auditory modalities both for the adjectivized and nonadjectivized names. Contrary to the hypothesis, cross-modality priming was observed regardless of the adjectivization of name stimuli. The findings of the present experiment did not support the adjectivization hypothesis.

  19. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  20. Design of acoustic wave biochemical sensors using micro-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Jane E.; Przybycien, Todd M.; Hauan, Steinar

    2007-03-01

    Acoustic wave biochemical sensors work by detecting the frequency shifts resulting from the binding of target molecules to a functionalized resonator. Resonator types currently in use or under development include macroscopic quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as well as a number of different integrated Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) structures. Due to an increased resonator surface area to mass ratio, we believe that membrane-based MEMS systems are particularly promising with regard to sensitivity. Prototypes have been developed [S. Hauan et al., U.S. Patent Application (filed 6 Nov. 2003)] and preliminary calculations [M. J. Bartkovsky et al., paper 385e presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003; J. E. Valentine et al., paper 197h presented at the AICHE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003] indicate significant improvements over other methods, both macroscopic and MEMS based. In this article we describe our work on a MEMS-based acoustic wave biochemical sensor using a membrane resonator. We demonstrate the effects of spatial distributions of mass on the membrane on sensitivity and show how to use this spatial sensitivity to detect multiple targets simultaneously. To do so we derive a function approximating the membrane response surface to spatial mass loadings under the applicable range of conditions. We verify the agreement using finite element methods, and present our initial sensitivity calculations demonstrating the advantages of variable mass loadings.

  1. Fatal endocarditis with methicilin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus and major complications: rhabdomyolysis, pericarditis, and intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Anca Meda; Azamfirei, Leonard; Szalman, Krisztina; Szekely, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type. Case: We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review. The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome. The strains recovered from sequential blood culture sets and pericardial fluid were MSSA negative for genes encoding for staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1 and Panton–Valentine leukocidin. C, G, and I enterotoxin genes were detected. Conclusions: This case with unusually severe evolution underlines the limited ability of vancomycin to control some MSSA infections, possibly due to potential involvement of SA virulence factors, hence the importance of clinical vigilance for community SAB cases. PMID:27741135

  2. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Kim, Hyun-Soo; McGrath, Patrick B

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.'s and Peters et al.'s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.'s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.'s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed.

  3. Interactions of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Polymicrobial Wound Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Gil, Joel; Patel, Shailee B.; Chen, Juan; Valdes, Jose; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Lisa R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Davis, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathology resulting from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial wound infections is of great importance due to their ubiquitous nature, increasing prevalence, growing resistance to antimicrobial agents, and ability to delay healing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 is the leading cause of community-associated bacterial infections resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We utilized a well-established porcine partial thickness wound healing model to study the synergistic effects of USA300 and P. aeruginosa on wound healing. Wound re-epithelialization was significantly delayed by mixed-species biofilms through suppression of keratinocyte growth factor 1. Pseudomonas showed an inhibitory effect on USA300 growth in vitro while both species co-existed in cutaneous wounds in vivo. Polymicrobial wound infection in the presence of P. aeruginosa resulted in induced expression of USA300 virulence factors Panton-Valentine leukocidin and α-hemolysin. These results provide evidence for the interaction of bacterial species within mixed-species biofilms in vivo and for the first time, the contribution of virulence factors to the severity of polymicrobial wound infections. PMID:23451098

  4. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Hamed, Maha I.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin’s ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  5. Targeting Multidrug-resistant Staphylococci with an anti-rpoA Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugated to the HIV-1 TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Abushahba, Mostafa FN; Mohammad, Haroon; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK) in order to target the RNA polymerase α subunit gene (rpoA) required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations) in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin). This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27434684

  6. Tlazolteotl, the Aztec goddess of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy has afflicted humanity during most of the extent of documented history. The Aztecs believed that illnesses were punishments that were sent from a furious goddess. In particular, epilepsy was considered in Aztec culture as a "sacred disease", and convulsions were traditionally associated with a deified woman who had died at childbirth. As the goddess Shiva and Apasmâra in ancient India and Saint Valentine in Germany, Tlazolteotl was considered able to bring about and send away epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive review to identify Tlazolteotl depictions and its historical context related with epilepsy. Tlazolteotl is one of the most endearing and complex goddesses of the Mesoamericans. She was the deity of the black fertile and fecund earth that gains its energy from death and in turn feeds life. Associated with purification, expiation, and regeneration, she embodied fertility and turned all garbage, physical and metaphysical, into rich life. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with Tlazolteotl. We also present a modern depiction of the Aztec goddess of epilepsy from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino, displaying the supernatural view of epilepsy in America.

  7. A molecular epidemiological study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations in Guangzhou of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, J L; Peng, Y; Ou, Q T; Lin, D X; Li, Y; Ye, X H; Zhou, J L; Yao, Z J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused a series of public health problems since it was first found in 1961. However, there are few research studies on the MRSA environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine MRSA environmental contamination in public transport stations. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 380 surface samples from three railway stations (180) and four coach stations (200) in Guangzhou were collected to isolate and determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococci strains. 39·21% of all samples were Staphylococci isolates, 1·58% of Staphylococci isolates were MRSA isolates, and 6·05% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The proportion of multidrug resistant among 149 Staphylococci isolates was 75·84%. None of MRSA isolates was identified with the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes, and one of them was identified with the qac gene. Four MRSA isolates were Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec IVa, and the other two were nontypeable. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were classified into several sequence types (STs), and STs showed possible cross-transmissions of isolates from various sources. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci contamination prevalence was high, and the environment of stations may be the vectors transmitting the Staphylococci to passengers.

  8. Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany: A Cross-Sectional Geographic Correlation Study.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Ulla; Alabi, Abraham; Kazimoto, Theckla; Vubil, Delfino C; Akulenko, Ruslan; Abdulla, Salim; Alonso, Pedro; Bischoff, Markus; Germann, Anja; Grobusch, Martin P; Helms, Volkhard; Hoffmann, Jonas; Kern, Winfried V; Kremsner, Peter G; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Schubert, Sabine; Strauß, Lena; Tanner, Marcel; Briesen, Hagen von; Wende, Laura; Müller, Lutz von; Herrmann, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Clonal clusters and gene repertoires of Staphylococcus aureus are essential to understand disease and are well characterized in industrialized countries but poorly analysed in developing regions. The objective of this study was to compare the molecular-epidemiologic profiles of S. aureus isolates from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany. S. aureus isolates from 600 staphylococcal carriers and 600 patients with community-associated staphylococcal disease were characterized by DNA hybridization, clonal complex (CC) attribution, and principal component (PCA)-based gene repertoire analysis. 73% of all CCs identified representing 77% of the isolates contained in these CCs were predominant in either African or German region. Significant differences between African versus German isolates were found for alleles encoding the accessory gene regulator type, enterotoxins, the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, immune evasion gene cluster, and adhesins. PCA in conjunction with silhouette analysis distinguished nine separable PCA clusters, with five clusters primarily comprising of African and two clusters of German isolates. Significant differences between S. aureus lineages in Africa and Germany may be a clue to explain the apparent difference in disease between tropical/(so-called) developing and temperate/industrialized regions. In low-resource countries further clinical-epidemiologic research is warranted not only for neglected tropical diseases but also for major bacterial infections.

  9. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among imprisoned males from Brazil without exposure to healthcare: risk factors and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies report high prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among imprisoned populations. However, there are no data on that prevalence in Brazilian correctional institutions. Findings We tested 302 male prisoners for nasopharyngeal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus from February 2009 through April 2010. The overall isolation rate of S. aureus was 16.5% (50/302). Men who had sex with men, users of inhalatory drugs and those with previous lung or skin diseases were more likely to be colonized with S. aureus. MRSA was isolated from 0.7% of subjects (2/302). The two Community-associated (CA)-MRSA belonged to ST5 but were unrelated based on the PFGE results. Both harbored SCCmec IV, and did not possess the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene. Conclusion We found low prevalence of S. aureus and CA-MRSA among prisoners. MRSA isolates ST5 from two subjects harboured SCCmec IV and presented different PFGE patterns. PMID:24990470

  10. Key genetic elements and regulation systems in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), popularly known as a type of superbug, has been a serious challenge for animal and human health. S. aureus has developed methicillin resistance mainly by expression of β-lactamase and PBP2a, which is regulated by the blaZ-blaI-blaR1 and mecA-mecI-mecRI systems. Other genetic elements, including murE and femA, also participate in expression of methicillin resistance, but the mechanism remains unclear. The evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec determines the epidemiological risk of MRSA. The plasmid-located gene cfr might contribute to multiresistance and transmission of MRSA. Some virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol-soluble modulin, arginine catabolic mobile element and other toxin elements enhance the pathogenesis and fitness of MRSA. Two-component regulation systems (agr, saeRS and vraRS) are closely associated with pathogenesis and drug resistance of MRSA. The systematic exploration of key genetic elements and regulation systems involved in multidrug resistance/pathogenesis/transmission of MRSA is conclusively integrated into this review, providing fundamental information for the development of new antimicrobial agents and the establishment of reasonable antibiotic stewardship to reduce the risk of this superbug.

  11. Development and evaluation of hexaplex PCR for rapid detection of methicillin, cadmium/zinc and antiseptic-resistant staphylococci, with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sasmita; Kar, Sarita; Choudhury, Ranginee; Sharma, Savitri; Singh, Durg V

    2014-03-01

    We developed a multiplex PCR to detect the presence of methicillin- (mecA), cadmium/zinc-(czrC) and antiseptic-resistant (qacA/B) staphylococci and to identify Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from infected and healthy eyes. The assay was validated on 177 staphylococci comprising of 55 each of S. aureus and CoNS isolated from infected eyes and five S. aureus and 62 CoNS isolated from healthy eyes and nine direct ocular samples. Nine direct ocular samples for in situ testing consisted of corneal scrapings (4), conjunctiva swabs (2) and others (3). Multiplex PCR result was correlated with genotype data obtained with single PCR and dot-blot assay. The control strains that were positive in multiplex PCR for 16S rRNA, nuc, mecA, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes were also positive in the dot-blot assay. The specificity of amplified genes obtained with reference strains was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. The single step-hexaplex PCR method can be used for rapid detection of mecA, nuc, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes in staphylococci with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative S. aureus and CoNS from a variety of ocular samples.

  12. Metro system in Guangzhou as a hazardous reservoir of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci: findings from a point-prevalence molecular epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yang; Ou, Qianting; Lin, Dongxin; Xu, Ping; Li, Ying; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Junli; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococci are common causes of healthcare-associated and community-associated infections. However, limited data are available on the prevalence, phenotypes and molecular characteristics of Staphylococci in metro system around the world. 320 surface samples were collected from the Guangzhou metro system to isolate and characterize Staphylococci strains. Of the samples, 75.6% (242/320) were contaminated with Staphylococci. The Staphylococci isolates, especially the methicillin resistant isolates, were resistance to most of the antibiotics, with 79.8% (193/242) classified as multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. 8 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carried a range of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types [I (1), II (3), III (2) and NT (2)]. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were classified into several ST types and showed possible cross transmissions of strains from various sources. All MRSA strains were positive for the qac gene, and only one methicillin-susceptible Staphylococci aureus (MSSA) strain was positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study demonstrated that environmental surfaces in the Guangzhou metro system may be a hazardous reservoir for transmission of Staphylococci to passengers. The resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants observed among isolates was also noteworthy. PMID:26513750

  13. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Goose Feces from State Parks in Northeast Ohio.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Dalman, Mark; Kadariya, Jhalka; Little, Katie; Mansell, Victoria; Taha, Mohammed Y; Grenier, Dylan; Smith, Tara C

    2017-03-10

    Staphylococcus aureus can colonize a range of species. Although numerous studies have isolated pathogenic bacteria from wild birds, very little is known regarding S. aureus and their potential to spread methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in geese fecal samples collected from ten state parks across Northeast Ohio (NEO). A total of 182 fecal samples from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were collected in April 2015. Isolates were characterized using multi-locus sequence (MLST) and spa typing, as well as PCR to detect the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mecA, and scn genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done via Vitek-2 system. The overall contamination by S. aureus in fecal samples was 7.1% (13/182); 7/182 (3.8%) were MRSA and 6/182 (3.3%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). One isolate was positive for PVL. A total of eight different spa types were observed. MLST included ST5, ST8, ST291, ST298, and ST2111. One (7.7%) MSSA isolate was multi-drug resistant. The S. aureus contamination in NEO state parks ranged from 0% (park 1, 4, 8, 9) to 35% (7/20) (park 5). Parks 2, 3, 6, and 7 had 5% (1/20) positive. The results of this study indicate that the feces of geese collected at various state parks in NEO may harbor S. aureus.

  14. Fatal S. aureus hemorrhagic pneumonia: genetic analysis of a unique clinical isolate producing both PVL and TSST-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Stevens, Dennis L; Hamilton, Stephanie M; Parimon, Tanyalak; Ma, Yongsheng; Kearns, Angela M; Ellis, Richard W; Bryant, Amy E

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, an unusual strain of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA68111), producing both Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), was isolated from a fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. Because PVL/TSST-1 co-production in S. aureus is rare, we characterized the molecular organization of these toxin genes in strain 68111. MSSA68111 carries the PVL genes within a novel temperate prophage we call ФPVLv68111 that is most similar, though not identical, to phage ФPVL--a phage type that is relatively rare worldwide. The TSST-1 gene (tst) in MSSA68111 is carried on a unique staphylococcal pathogenicity island (SaPI) we call SaPI68111. Features of SaPI68111 suggest it likely arose through multiple major recombination events with other known SaPIs. Both ФPVLv68111 and SaPI68111 are fully mobilizable and therefore transmissible to other strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that hypervirulent S. aureus have the potential to emerge worldwide.

  15. Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology.

  16. Size-to-charge dispersion of collision-induced dissociation product ions for enhancement of structural information and product ion identification.

    PubMed

    Zinnel, Nathanael F; Russell, David H

    2014-05-20

    Ion mobility is used to disperse product ions formed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) on the basis of charge state and size-to-charge ratio. We previously described an approach for combining CID with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) for dispersing fragment ions along charge state specific trend lines (Zinnel, N. F.; Pai, P. J.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 3390; Sowell, R. A.; Koeniger, S. L.; Valentine, S. J.; Moon, M. H.; Clemmer, D. E. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 15, 1341; McLean, J. A.; Ruotolo, B. T.; Gillig, K. J.; Russell, D. H. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2005, 240, 301), and this approach was used to assign metal ion binding sites for human metallothionein protein MT-2a (Chen, S. H.; Russell, W. K.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 3229). Here, we use this approach to distinguish b-type N-terminal fragment ions from both internal fragment ions and y-type C-terminal fragment ions. We also show that in some cases specific secondary structural elements, viz., extended coils or helices, can be obtained for the y-type fragment ions series. The advantage of this approach is that product ion identity can be correlated to gas-phase ion structure, which provides rapid identification of the onset and termination of extended coil structure in peptides.

  17. Foucault on methadone: beyond biopower.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2009-09-01

    This essay reviews four texts which critically analyse methadone maintenance therapy using Foucault as a key theoretical framework: [Friedman, J., & Alicea, M. (2001). Surviving heroin: Interviews with women in methadone clinics. Florida: University Press of Florida], [Bourgois, P. (2000). Disciplining addictions: The bio-politics of methadone and heroin in the United States. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry, 24, 165-195], [Bull, M. (2008). Governing the heroin trade: From treaties to treatment. Ashgate: Aldershot], and [Fraser, S., & valentine, k. (2008). Substance & substitution: Methadone subjects in liberal societies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan]. Taken together these works demonstrate one trajectory in the development of critical drug studies over the past decade. While all four view MMT as a regulatory technology which aims to create productive and obedient subjects, their understandings of the power relations of the clinic are quite distinct. The first two texts emphasise the social control of drug users, the third, issues of governmentality and liberal political practice, while the fourth engages with ontological questions about substances themselves. Thus while Foucauldian analysis has become familiar in social studies of drugs and alcohol, new uses for its conceptual tools continue to emerge.

  18. Molecular typing of MRSA and of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iaşi, Romania.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Vremeră, Teodora; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV ("USA300") and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings.

  19. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic discrimination of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hamid, Marwa I; Bendary, M M

    2015-09-26

    The present study was designed to elucidate the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of S. aureus isolates in Egypt. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of 133 identified S. aureus isolates revealed that over 70% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Fifty MDR isolates were characterized using antibiotyping and different molecular typing methods. Amplification of mecA gene confirmed 30 strains as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 20 as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Generally, 22 MRSA (73.33%) and ten MSSA (50%) harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene with no statistically significant difference (p=0.093). Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing revealed that 48% of the typeable MRSA isolates possessed SCCmec type IV. SCCmec and antimicrobial susceptibility typing signified the presence of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA in Egypt. Surprisingly, all isolates of SCCmec types I, II and III and 50% of both MRSA isolates of SCCmec types IV and V possessed pvl gene. It was clear that staphylococcal protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) typing discriminated the isolates into eight different groups, whilst polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of coagulase gene yielded ten distinct RFLP banding patterns. This study presented the first baseline information on the characterization of MRSA and MSSA in Egypt.

  20. The Physics of Cardiac Fibrillation: Strings that kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2009-03-01

    Fibrillation is a state of spatio-temporal chaos in a 3d-biological excitable medium, namely the heart muscle. The building blocks are wave-emitting three-dimensional topological singularities in the electric excitation field of the tissue. These string like singularities send out a rotating wave fields with very fast frequencies (up to 10 times normal heart rate) and thus dominate over the pacemaker. The incoherent electrical excitation of the spatio-temporal chaotic dynamics leads to an unsynchronized contraction of the cardiac muscle and to the loss of the pumping action, and if untreated to death. Due to the topological nature of the spatio-temporal chaotic state it is very difficult to control. Current defibrillation technologies use strong electric field pulses (1 kV, 30 A, 12 ms) to reset the whole muscle. Here we report that natural muscle heterogeneities act as wave emitting sites when a weak electric field pulse is applied across the tissue. We report theoretical predictions on the physics and support the findings by results from experiment. This work was conducted in collaboration with Stefan Luther (MPIDS), Falvio Fenton ( Cornell), Amgad Squires (Cornell), Robert Gilmour (Cornell), Valentin Krinsky (MPIDS), Alain Pumir (NIce).

  1. Purification of Staphylococcal β-Hemolysin and Its Action on Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Chesbro, William R.; Heydrick, Fred P.; Martineau, Roland; Perkins, Gail N.

    1965-01-01

    Chesbro, William R. (University of New Hampshire, Durham), Fred P. Heydrick, Roland Martineau, and Gail N. Perkins. Purification of staphylococcal β-hemolysin and its action on staphylococcal and streptococcal cell walls. J. Bacteriol. 89:378–389. 1965.—After growth of bovine-derived strains of Staphylococcus aureus in a completely dialyzable medium, the β-hemolysin in the culture supernatant fluids was purified by gradient-elution chromatography on cellulose phosphate. The purified hemolysin contained two components, demonstrable by immunodiffusion or electrophoresis, but was free from α-hemolysin, coagulase, Δ-hemolysin, enterotoxins A and B, glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, lipase, muramidase, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phosphatase, and protease. The hemolysin was heat-labile and sulfhydryl-dependent, and the preparation was leukocidal for guinea pig macrophages. When rabbit red blood cell (RBC) stroma and staphylococcal or enterococcal cell walls were treated with the purified hemolysin, it liberated mucopolysaccharides from the rabbit RBC stroma, polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides (or mucopeptides) from the staphyloccoal cell walls, and rhamnose, glucose, an unidentified monosaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine, and at least two polysaccharides from the enterococcal cell walls. The hemolytic and cell-wall degradative activities had similar thermal inactivation kinetics, pH optima, sedimentation coefficients, and chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities; both required Mg and were inhibited by thiol-inactivating agents. Consequently, it seems likely that both activities are expressions of the same enzyme. PMID:14255704

  2. A Study of Sympathetic Flaring Using a Full-Sun Event Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.; Schrijver, C. J.; Title, A. M.; Bloomfield, D.; Gallagher, P.

    2013-12-01

    There has been a trove of papers published on the statistics of flare occurrence. These studies are trying to answer the question of whether or not subsequent solar flares are related. The majority of these works have not included both flare location information and the physical properties of the regions responsible for the eruptions, and none have taken advantage of full-Sun event coverage. Now that SDO/AIA is available and the STEREO spacecraft have progressed past 90 degrees from Earth's heliographic longitude, this new information is available to us. This work aims to quantify how common sympathetic events are, and how important they are in the forecasting of solar flares. A 3D plot of detected and clustered flare events for a full solar rotation, including the Valentine's Day Event of 2011. A full-Sun image in the EUV (304A) including both STEREO view points and AIA. The GOES X-ray light curves during the February period of 2011 are shown in the bottom panel. Detected flare events are indicated by the green dashed lines and the time stamp of this image is denoted by the red line.

  3. Sulfur dioxide inhibition of translocation in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Teh, K.H.; Swanson, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of the source leaf of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine) for 2 hours to 2.9 microliters per liter SO/sub 2/ inhibited the net photosynthetic rate an average of 75% and, simultaneously, the translocation rate an average of 45%. Calculations indicated that the experimentally determined translocation rates from SO/sub 2/-stressed leaves were lower than were the rates expected on the basis of the observed reductions in photosynthesis. It is inferred that, under SO/sub 2/ stress, the phloem-loading system becomes a major limiting step in controlling the translocation rate. Following removal of SO/sub 2/, photosynthesis recovered quite rapidly (to about 60% of its preexposure rate within 2 hours), but the translocation rate failed to increase during this time interval. This delayed response of translocation to removal of SO/sub 2/ does not appear to be due to an injury effect of SO/sub 2/ inasmuch as a similar effect was obtained by exposing the source leaf to a short (2-hour) interval of dark.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  5. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H; Coller, Barry S; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most-46 of the 63-wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing.

  6. Different types of cell death induced by enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Huang, Wei-Ching; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Hong, Ming-Yuan

    2010-08-01

    The infection of bacterial organisms generally causes cell death to facilitate microbial invasion and immune escape, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In addition to the intercellular infectious processes, pathogen-produced/secreted enterotoxins (mostly exotoxins) are the major weapons that kill host cells and cause diseases by inducing different types of cell death, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. Blocking these enterotoxins with synthetic drugs and vaccines is important for treating patients with infectious diseases. Studies of enterotoxin-induced apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms have helped us to create efficient strategies to use against these well-characterized cytopathic toxins. In this article, we review the induction of the different types of cell death from various bacterial enterotoxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli, Shiga toxins, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, heat-labile enterotoxins, and the cholera toxin, Vibrio cholerae. In addition, necrosis caused by pore-forming toxins, apoptotic signaling through cross-talk pathways involving mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and lysosomal injury is discussed.

  7. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections samples and healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region.

    PubMed

    Svent-Kucina, Natasa; Pirs, Mateja; Kofol, Romina; Blagus, Rok; Smrke, Dragica Maja; Bilban, Marjan; Seme, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important human pathogens. It is associated with different infections and is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of our study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with SSTIs with isolates obtained from healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity by clonal complex (CC)/sequence type, spa type, and by toxin gene profiling. In total, 274 S. aureus isolates were collected prospectively by culturing wound samples from 461 SSTI patients and nasal samples from 451 healthy carriers. We have demonstrated high heterogeneity in terms of CCs and spa type in both groups of isolates. The main clone among SSTI strains was Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) positive CC121, whereas the main clone among carrier strains was CC45 carrying a large range of toxin genes. The main spa type in both groups was t091. Pvl was more frequently present in SSTI strains (31.2% SSTI vs 3.6% carrier strains) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C was more frequently present in carrier strains (1.6% SSTI vs 17.0% carrier strains). We have also demonstrated that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was a rare cause (2.8%) of SSTIs in our region.

  8. Mass Spectrometry and Multiplex Antigen Assays to Assess Microbial Quality and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Clinical and Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Attien, Paul; Sina, Haziz; Moussaoui, Wardi; Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Dadié, Thomas; Keller, Daniel; Riegel, Philippe; Edoh, Vincent; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Djè, Marcellin; Prévost, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the microbial quality of meat products and on some clinical samples in Abidjan focused on Staphylococcus genus and the toxin production profile of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated. Bacteria were collected from 240 samples of three meat products sold in Abidjan and 180 samples issued from clinical infections. The strains were identified by both microbiological and MALDI-TOF-MS methods. The susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The production of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, LukE/D, and epidermolysins was screened using radial gel immunodiffusion. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1 was screened by a Bio-Plex Assay. We observed that 96/240 of meat samples and 32/180 of clinical samples were contaminated by Staphylococcus. Eleven species were isolated from meats and 4 from clinical samples. Forty-two S. aureus strains were isolated from ours samples. Variability of resistance was observed for most of the tested antibiotics but none of the strains displays a resistance to imipenem and quinolones. We observed that 89% of clinical S. aureus were resistant to methicillin against 58% for those issued from meat products. All S. aureus isolates issued from meat products produce epidermolysins whereas none of the clinical strains produced these toxins. The enterotoxins were variably produced by both clinical and meat product samples. PMID:24987686

  9. PVL-positive MRSA in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Metz-Gercek, S; Mittermayer, H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present, for the first time, an overview of the existing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in Austria and to compare the situation with that found in other countries. Between 2001 and 2006 we analysed 1150 MRSA isolates - from infections as well as from colonisation - for the presence of PVL genes. The most common multilocus sequence types of the 94 PVL-positive MRSA strains were ST8, ST152, ST30, ST80, and ST5; the ST22, and ST777 sequences were also detected. During 2005 and 2006, 3.7-7.7% of the isolates were PVL-positive. The age distribution of the patients revealed that nosocomial MRSA mainly occurs in elderly people, whereas PVL-positive MRSA mainly appears in younger people. We observed a relatively high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. Several MRSA clones containing the PVL genes are spreading throughout Austria, including two strains not yet widespread in Western Europe.

  10. MRSA in Austria--an overview.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Sagel, U; Witte, W; Mittermayer, H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of predominant and sporadic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in large regions of Austria, and to compare the results with those from other European countries. In total, 1439 MRSA isolates, collected routinely between January 1996 and June 2006 from five Austrian federal provinces, were investigated. The isolates were confirmed as MRSA using mecA/femA multiplex PCR assays. Genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which are characteristic of community-acquired MRSA, were also detected by PCR. Subtyping was performed using SmaI macrorestriction digestion of genomic DNA, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and cluster analysis. Isolates that could not be assigned to clusters were further analysed by spa typing and/or multilocus sequence typing. The predominant clones detected in Austria were ST228 (southern German epidemic clone), ST5 (Rhine-Hessen MRSA), the ST8 Austrian clone and CC8/ST8. Whereas the frequencies of lineages corresponding to ST247, ST45 and ST22 remained comparably low, an increase in the frequency of lineages corresponding to ST5 and to ST228 was recorded. Overall, 20 different MRSA types and 321 subtypes were recognised according to PFGE analysis. The prevalence of different strains varied considerably in the different Austrian regions. When compared to other European countries, the situation in Austria was most similar to that found in Germany.

  11. [Antibiotics resistance of meticilline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: detection of the first glycopeptides low sensibility strains in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Mastouri, M; Nour, M; Ben Nejma, M; Bouallegue, O; Hammami, M; Khedher, M

    2006-02-01

    The adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to the hospital environment led to the acquisition of resistance to all antibiotics available in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated in the F. Bourguiba hospital of Monastir (Tunisia). We determined the antibiotype of all Staphylococcus aureus strains identified. Susceptibility rates to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin were 7%, 3%, 2% and 0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA was 15.5% (96 strains); their susceptible to gentamicin progressively increased. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of oxacillin, vancomycin and teicoplanin were evaluated for the 96 MRSA strains. We identified two MRSA strains (M4 and M41) showing reduced glycopeptides susceptibility. Further analysis revealed that M4 and M41 harbor the gene encoding the class S and class F proteins specific for the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). The mecA gene was detected only in strain M41 which harbors the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome (SCCmec) type III. This is the first reported MRSA showing reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides in Tunisia. Regulatory surveillance of susceptibility to antibiotics is needed to reduce the morbidity and the mortality rates as well as societal costs of S. aureus infections.

  12. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from residents and the environment in a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Ludden, C; Brennan, G; Morris, D; Austin, B; O'Connell, B; Cormican, M

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major public health concern associated with residence in a long-term care facility (LTCF). The aim of this prospective study was to characterize MRSA isolated from residents over a 1-year period and their physical environment over a 2-year period. MRSA was recovered from 17/64 residents (R) of a LTCF and from 42 environmental (E) sites. All isolates carried the mecA gene and lacked the mecC and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Thirteen spa types were identified with t032 being the most frequent (41% of total; n = 8R, 16E), followed by t727 (22% of total; n = 13E), and t8783 (10% of total; n = 6E). Five spa types were each represented by single isolates. Thirty-nine isolates were of spa types associated with the multilocus sequence type ST22 (t032, 41%; spa-CC22, 68%) and reflect the predominance of ST22 in Irish hospitals. The uncommon spa types t727, t8783, t1372, t3130, t10038 were present in the environment but not detected in residents and are infrequently observed in Ireland.

  13. Current concepts on the virulence mechanisms of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael Z.; Salata, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause both health care and community-associated infections. Increasing resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics has made MRSA a serious threat to public health throughout the world. The USA300 strain of MRSA has been responsible for an epidemic of community-associated infections in the US, mostly involving skin and soft tissue but also more serious invasive syndromes such as pneumonia, severe sepsis and endocarditis. MRSA strains are particularly serious and potentially lethal pathogens that possess virulence mechanisms including toxins, adhesins, enzymes and immunomodulators. One of these is Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin associated with abscess formation and severe necrotizing pneumonia. Earlier studies suggested that PVL was a major virulence factor in community-associated MRSA infections. However, some recent data have not supported this association while others have, leading to controversy. Therefore, investigators continue to search for additional mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the biological basis of MRSA virulence and explore future directions for research, including potential vaccines and antivirulence therapies under development that might allow clinicians to more successfully treat and prevent MRSA infections. PMID:22745137

  14. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from pet animals and veterinary staff in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanjiang; Hao, Zhihui; Wang, Yang; Cao, Xingyuan; Logue, Catherine M; Wang, Bing; Yang, Jing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wu, Congming

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from pet animals and veterinary staff and the characteristics of these isolates. A total of 22 MRSA isolates were isolated from nasal swabs from dogs, cats and veterinary staff in six pet hospitals in six cities, and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of resistance genes, Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene lukF-lukS, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC) mec typing, spa tying, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Of 22 MRSA isolates, 21 were recovered from pet animals, and one was isolated from a member of sstaff. All 22 MRSA strains were resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, azithromycin, clindamycin and ceftriaxone, and harboured mecA, ermB and linA genes. The lukF-lukS gene was not detected in any of the MRSA isolates. Eighteen MRSA strains from Qingdao belonged to ST59-MRSA-IV-spa t437. Of four MRSA isolates from Beijing, one belonged to ST398-MRSA-V-spa t034, and three belonged to ST239-MRSA-III-spa t030 profiles. Two PFGE types (A and B) were identified. Two isolates originating from dogs and one isolate originating from a staff member in Beijing shared similar PFGE patterns. Our cumulative data suggested that cross-transmission of MRSA may have occurred between pet animals and veterinary staff.

  15. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  16. Purification, cloning, and expression of a murine phosphoprotein that binds the kappa B motif in vitro identifies it as the homolog of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein. Description of a novel DNA-dependent phosphorylation process.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, J; Van Seuningen, I; Seger, R; Rauch, C T; Sleath, P R; McMullen, B A; Bomsztyk, K

    1994-07-01

    The kappa B enhancer element regulates expression of many genes involved in immune responses and other processes. kappa B motif binds a number of proteins, some but not all, are related to the NF-kappa B family of transcription factors. We have previously identified a 65-kDa phosphoprotein that is specifically recognized by the kappa B motif (Ostrowski, J., Sims, J. E., Sibley, C. H., Valentine, M. A., Dower, S. K., Meier, K. E., and Bomsztyk, K. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 12722-12733). This protein is closely associated with a serine/threonine kinase that is responsive to treatment of cells with interleukin-1 and other agents. We report here purification, cloning, and expression of this kappa B motif-binding phosphoprotein. The primary structure deduced from the isolated murine cDNA, identifies the protein as the homolog of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein. Antipeptide antibodies and expression of the cloned cDNA in Escherichia coli, demonstrated that the K protein is the authentic phosphoprotein that binds the kappa B motif in vitro. We also demonstrate that the in vitro phosphorylation of the natural and the recombinant K proteins by the associated kinase is stimulated by the kappa B motif.

  17. [About the origin, evolution and irradiation of Mexican cardiology].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican cardioangiology started in the nineteen century thanks to first endeavors of surgeons and physicians related to local academies and to School of Medicine, established in 1833 by Dr. Valentin Gómez Farías. Dr. Manuel Carpio, the future first head of department of physiology in this school, translated to Spanish language and published, in 1823, the article On pectoriloquo of the French physician Marat and later performed some experiments on the heart' motion. During the Secont Empire (1864-1867), the physician Samuel von Basch performed studies to define the arterial hypertension, called by him "latent atherosclerosis", i.e. the "essential hypertension". Once he had returned to his country, he invented in 1880, a sphygmomanometer of mercury column, that was the model for the instrument constructed by the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci and presented in 1896. In our time, Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares systematized a metabolic therapy called "polarizing therapy", i.e. capable of repolarizing the heart's cells partly depolarized due to hypoxia or direct aggressions. These were the first steps in Mexico on the way to a promising medicine starting and the great adventure of Mexican cardiology.

  18. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health.

  19. Paleo- and Neoproterozoic magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of the Isla Cristalina de Rivera (Nico Pérez Terrane, Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wagner-Eimer, Martin; Wemmer, Klaus; Schulz, Bernhard; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2012-10-01

    The Isla Cristalina de Rivera crystalline complex in northeastern Uruguay underwent a multistage magmatic and metamorphic evolution. Based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon, Th-U-Pb monazite (CHIME-EPMA method) and K-Ar age data from key units several events can be recognized: (1) multistage magmatism at 2,171-2,114 Ma, recorded on zircon of the granulitic orthogneisses and their 2,093-2,077 Ma overgrowths; (2) a distinct amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~1,980 Ma, recorded by monazite; (3) greenschist facies reworking and shearing at ca. 606 Ma (monazite and K-Ar on muscovite) along the Rivera Shear Zone, and finally (4) intrusion of the post-tectonic Sobresaliente and Las Flores granites at around 585 Ma. Lithological similarities, geographic proximity and coeval magmatic and metamorphic events indicate a similar tectonometamorphic evolution for the Isla Cristalina de Rivera, the Valentines Block in Uruguay and the Santa María Chico Granulitic Complex in southern Brazil, since at least 2.1 Ga.

  20. Characteristics of the community-genotype sequence type 72 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates that underlie their persistence in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Ji-Young; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2016-06-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST72, known as a major community-associated MRSA in Korea, has emerged as an important pathogen in hospitals. To understand bacterial properties that underlie transformation of this clone into a nosocomial pathogen, we compared characteristics of the community-genotype ST72 MRSA isolates with those of ST5 and ST239 MRSA, which have been predominant nosocomial MRSA clones in Korea. Several genes associated with adhesion and virulence were absent or rarely found in ST72 isolates. Many ST72 isolates (70.1%) belonged to agr group I, but the agr group of other ST72 isolates could not be determined. As indicated by d-hemolysin production, ST72 isolates expressed fully functional agr, whereas agr dysfunction was observed in ST5 and ST239 isolates. In the biofilm formation assay, no upregulation of biofilm-forming activity of ST72 MRSA was detected. However, ST72 isolates demonstrated persistence under hypotonic and desiccating conditions (survival rates 72.3% and 33.9%, respectively), which was similar to characteristics of ST5 or ST239 isolates. ST72- MRSA isolates showed low virulence, but properties of their functional agr system could facilitate their spread in hospitals. In conclusion, tolerance to stressful environments, e.g., hypotonic and dry conditions, may also contribute to survival of the community-associated MRSA clones in healthcare facilities.

  1. Putative link between Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage serotype and community association.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, D H; Saberesheikh, S; Kearns, A M; Saunders, N A

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from humans can be broadly separated into 3 groups: healthcare-associated (HA), community-associated (CA), and livestock-associated (LA) MRSA. Initially based on epidemiological features, division into these classes is becoming increasingly problematic. The sequencing of S. aureus genomes has highlighted variations in their accessory components, which likely account for differences in pathogenicity and epidemicity. In particular, temperate bacteriophages have been regarded as key players in bacterial pathogenesis. Bacteriophage-associated Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes (luk-PV) are regarded as epidemiological markers of the CA-MRSA due to their high prevalence in CA strains. This paper describes the development and application of a partial composite S. aureus virulence-associated gene microarray. Epidemic, pandemic, and sporadic lineages of UK HA and CA S. aureus were compared. Phage structural genes linked with CA isolates were identified and in silico analysis revealed these to be correlated with phage serogroup. CA strains predominantly carried a PVL-associated phage either of the A or Fb serogroup, whilst HA strains predominantly carried serogroup Fa or B phages. We speculate that carriage of a serogroup A/Fb PVL-associated phage rather than the luk-PV genes specifically is correlated with CA status.

  2. Palaeoceanographic significance of sedimentary features at the Argentine continental margin revealed by multichannel seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The thermohaline circulation in the Argentine Basin today is characterized by the interaction of northward flowing Antarctic water masses (Antarctic Intermediate Water, AAIW; Circumpolar Deep Water, CDW; Antarctic Bottom Water, AABW) and southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The transfer of heat and energy via both AABW and NADW constitutes an important component in maintaining the global conveyor belt. We aim at a better understanding of both paths and intensity of this current system in the past by investigating an extensive (> 11000 km) set of high quality seismic reflection profiles from the Argentine continental margin. The profiles show a significant contourite system containing both erosive and depositional features that formed through the evolution of water masses and their modifications (path, physical and chemical properties) due to plate tectonic events such as the opening of the Drake Passage or the extensive emplacement of volcanic flows at the Rio Grande Rise. Overall the depositional features indicate that along slope (contour current) transport dominates over down slope (turbiditic) processes at the southern Argentine margin south of 45° S. Further to the North down slope transport was more extensive as indicated by the presence of submarine canyons crossing the slope down to a depth of ~3500 m. Here we present preliminary results from the southern part of the continental margin (42°-50° S) where we focus on a set of ~50 km wide terraces on the slope and rise separated by contouritic channels. The terraces developed over time in alternating constructional (depositional) and erosive phases. An initial age frame was developed by mapping regional reflectors and seismic units known from previous studies. The sedimentary layer between regional reflectors AR 4 and AR 5 spanning roughly the time interval from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary to the early middle Miocene is thin (0.1 - 0.4 s TWT) below the Valentine Feilberg Terrace but

  3. Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus Isolate Genotypes and Infections from the Dawn of the Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Epidemic Era in Chicago, 1994 to 1997.

    PubMed

    David, Michael Z; Acree, Mary Ellen; Sieth, Julia J; Boxrud, Dave J; Dobbins, Ginette; Lynfield, Ruth; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Widespread infections with community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have occurred in the United States with the dissemination of the USA300 strain beginning in 2000. We examined 105 isolates obtained from children treated at the University of Chicago from 1994 to 1997 (75 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and 30 MRSA isolates) in order to investigate for possible evidence of USA300 during this period. Infections were defined epidemiologically based on medical record review. The isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), as well as assays for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, the protein A gene (spa), and arcA and opp3, proxy markers for the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), characteristic of USA300 MRSA. MRSA isolates also underwent staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping. MSSA isolates belonged to 17 sequence type (ST) groups. The 12 epidemiologically defined CA-MRSA infection isolates were either ST1 (n = 4) or ST8 (n = 8). They belonged to 3 different PFGE types: USA100 (n = 1), USA400 (n = 5), and USA500 (n = 6). Among the CA-MRSA infection isolates, 8 (67%) were PVL(+). None of the MRSA or MSSA isolates contained arcA or opp3. Only one MRSA isolate was USA300 by PFGE. This was a health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolate, negative for PVL, that carried SCCmec type II. USA300 with its characteristic features was not identified in the collection from the years 1994 to 1997.

  4. Cortical GABA Levels in Primary Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Peter T.; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Mason, Graeme F.; Forselius, Erica; Fasula, Madonna; Valentine, Gerald W.; Sanacora, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: GABA is increasingly recognized as an important neurotransmitter for the initiation and maintenance of sleep. We sought to measure cortical GABA content through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in persons with and without primary insomnia, and relate brain GABA levels to polysomnographic sleep measures. Design: Two-group comparison study. Setting: Outpatient study at a university research clinic. Participants: Non-medicated persons with primary insomnia (N = 16) and no sleep complaints (N = 17). Interventions: Participants kept sleep diaries and a regular time-in-bed schedule for 9 days, culminating in 2 consecutive nights of ambulatory polysomnography and a single proton MRS session. The main outcome measure was occipital GABA/creatine ratios; secondary measures included sleep measurements and relationship between polysomnographically measured time awake after sleep onset and occipital GABA content. Measurements and Results: The primary insomnia group was distinguished from persons with no sleep complaints on self-reported and polysomnographically measured sleep. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, body mass index, habitual bed- and wake-times, napping, use of caffeine, or use of cigarettes. Mean occipital GABA level was 12% higher in persons with insomnia than in persons without sleep complaints (P < 0.05). In both groups, GABA levels correlated negatively with polysomnographically measured time awake after sleep onset (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Increased GABA levels in persons with insomnia may reflect an allostatic response to chronic hyperarousal. The preserved, negative relationship between GABA and time awake after sleep onset supports this notion, indicating that the possible allostatic response is adaptive. Citation: Morgan PT; Pace-Schott EF; Mason GF; Forselius E; Fasula M; Valentine GW; Sanacora G. Cortical GABA levels in primary insomnia. SLEEP 2012;35(6):807-814. PMID:22654200

  5. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Yamazaki, Kazuko; Ote, Isabelle; Misawa, Naoaki; Mainil, Jacques G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in a collection of S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from dogs and cats with dermatitis in Japan and to compare their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Clonal relationships were determined by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Biofilm formation assay was performed using safranin staining in microplates. Three virulence genes coding for S. intermedius exfoliative toxin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (siet, lukS-PV and lukF-PV) were searched for in a collection of strains. Antimicrobial resistance against 15 antibiotics was studied by a disc diffusion method. Twenty-seven MRSP were isolated. According to PFGE results the isolates were not closely related except for a few strains. MLST showed that the strains belonged to five groups, ST71 and ST26 being the two most prevalent. Three types of SCCmec (II, II-III and V) were identified. All isolates were siet-positive but PVL-negative. Most strains (except for two) produced strong biofilm in tryptic soy broth with glucose. Seventy-eight percent of the isolates were resistant or intermediate to twelve or more antibiotics. Our study demonstrates that the ST71 lineage is widespread in Japan and that ST26 could represent an emerging lineage. Moreover, most of our strains are capable of forming strong biofilm and possess siet gene, two virulence characteristics that probably help the bacteria to persist and spread. Finally, our MRSP strains show a strong resistance profile to antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine.

  6. Structure of the Marfa Basin, Trans-Pecos Texas: An Integrated Geophysical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueity, J.; Keller, G.; Doser, D. I.

    2002-12-01

    The Marfa Basin is the southwesternmost segment of the Permian Basin region that initially formed in the late Paleozoic as a result of the Ouachita orogeny. This area has experienced several major tectonic events, extending from the Precambrian (Grenville orogeny) into the late Cenozoic (Laramide orogeny, and Basin and Range/Rio Grande rift extension). The basins in Trans-Pecos Texas are one important key to understanding these tectonic events and are also important from the standpoint of groundwater resources and petroleum potential. Abundant fault scarps and the Valentine earthquake in 1931 attest to the continuing tectonic activity. We are studying the subsurface structure in this area by integrating gravity, magnetics, remote sensing, GIS technology, and drill hole information. Thus, we are compiling a large database of geological, geophysical, and other geospatial data. The gravity field in this region is a product of both Phanerozoic features and the heterogeneity of the Precambrian basin. We have constructed four integrated cross-sections by modeling gravity profiles. In each case, thickness variations of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks explain a major portion of the observed gravity anomalies. However, as we proceed southward from the Van Horn, Texas area, the importance of the pre-Cenozoic strata increases. The best example of this phenomenon is the Chalk Draw fault to the south. This fault bounds the Paleozoic Marfa basin and is associated with a steep gravity gradient. In order to model the gravity high south of this fault a mafic body in the upper crust was used. Another mafic body is necessary to produce the gravity high that correlates spatially with the Davis Mountains. We are using the experience our group has gained by studying areas to the north to further investigate basement structures in the area.

  7. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Children in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Benedikt; Azuure, Clinton; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Gajdiss, Mike; Brunke, Melanie; Sarpong, Nimako; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; May, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015. S. aureus isolates were characterized by their antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and further differentiated by spa-typing and multi-locus-sequence-typing. Results Out of 544 children 120 (22.1%) were colonized with S. aureus, with highest carriage rates during the rainy seasons (27.2%; p = 0.007), in females aged 6–8 years (43.7%) and males aged 8–10 years (35.2%). The 123 isolates belonged to 35 different spa-types and 19 sequence types (ST) with the three most prevalent spa-types being t355 (n = 25), t84 (n = 18), t939 (n = 13), corresponding to ST152, ST15 and ST45. Two (2%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), classified as t1096 (ST152) and t4454 (ST45), and 16 (13%) were resistant to three or more different antimicrobial classes. PVL and TSST-1 were detected in 71 (58%) and 17 (14%) isolates respectively. Conclusion S. aureus carriage among Ghanaian children seems to depend on age, sex and seasonality. While MRSA rates are low, the high prevalence of PVL is of serious concern as these strains might serve not only as a source for severe invasive infections but may also transfer genes, leading to highly virulent MRSA clones. PMID:28107412

  8. Risk of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections among Children Found to be Staphylococcus aureus MRSA USA300 Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Jain, Shabnam; Ray, Susan M.; Mayberry, Robert; Satola, Sarah; Parker, Trisha Chan; Yuan, Keming; Mohammed, Anaam; Jerris, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. Methods We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). We further categorized S. aureus carriers into MRSA USA300 carriers or non-MRSA USA300 carriers. Results We found the MRSA USA300 carriage rate was higher in children less than two years of age, those with an SSTI, children with recent antibiotic use, and those with a family history of SSTI. MRSA USA300 carriers were also more likely to have lower income compared to non-MRSA USA300 carriers and no S. aureus carriers. Rates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were higher in MRSA carriage isolates with an SSTI, compared to MRSA carriage isolates of patients without an SSTI. There was an association between MRSA USA300 carriage and presence of PVL in those diagnosed with an abscess. Conclusion Children younger than two years were at highest risk for MRSA USA300 carriage. Lower income, recent antibiotic use, and previous or family history of SSTI were risk factors for MRSA USA300 carriage. There is a high association between MRSA USA300 nasal/axillary carriage and presence of PVL in those with abscesses. PMID:28210352

  9. Seismicity on the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, A.; Sanford, S.; Wallace, T.; Barrows, L.; Sheldon, J.; Ward, R.; Johansen, S.; Merritt, L.

    1980-05-01

    Since April 1974, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMIMT) has operated a short-period vertical-component seismograph 7 km from the center of the WIPP site. Peak magnifications ranged from 405 K to 1400 K. In the time period from April 1974 to February 1979, approximately 500 earthquakes were recorded by the instrument to distances as great as 660 km. With the aid of readings from stations operated by other organizations, epicenters and magnitudes for 159 earthquakes within about 300 km of the WIPP site were obtained. The greatest concentration of seismic activity is centered on the Central Basin Platform. This zone of activity, approximately 120 km in a NS direction and 100 km in an EW direction, approaches to within 60 km of the site. Other significant clusters of earthquakes occur near Synder, Big Springs and Valentine, Texas. Comparable levels of earthquake activity are observed within 100, 200, and 300 km of the site. Most reported Quaternary faulting lies to the west of 104.3/sup 0/W longitude. Comparable levels of activity were observed to the east and west of this longitude indicating the observed distribution of earthquake activity is probably not representative of the long-term (500,000 years) seismicity of the region. Several lines of evidence suggest that most earthquakes from the Delaware Basin eastward are induced by the production of hydrocarbons, but absolutely convincing proof is lacking. If due to natural tectonic forces, an extrapolation of the observed earthquake-frequency relation indicates an earthquake of magnitude 5 1/2 is possible somewhere within 300 km of the site each 100 years.

  10. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Food and Food Products of Poultry Origin in Germany ▿

    PubMed Central

    Feßler, Andrea T.; Kadlec, Kristina; Hassel, Melanie; Hauschild, Tomasz; Eidam, Christopher; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    During a survey of fresh chicken and turkey meat as well as chicken and turkey meat products for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Germany, 32 (37.2%) of 86 samples were MRSA positive. Twenty-eight of these MRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex 398 (CC398), which is widespread among food-producing animals. These CC398 isolates carried SCCmec elements of type IV or V and exhibited spa type t011, t034, t899, t2346 or t6574 and either the known dru types dt2b, dt6j, dt10a, dt10q, dt11a, dt11v, and dt11ab or the novel dru types dt6m, dt10as, and dt10at. In addition, two MRSA sequence type 9 (ST9) isolates with a type IV SCCmec cassette, spa type t1430, and dru type dt10a as well as single MRSA ST5 and ST1791 isolates with a type III SCCmec cassette, spa type t002, and dru type dt9v were identified. All but two isolates were classified as multiresistant. A wide variety of resistance phenotypes and genotypes were detected. All isolates were negative for the major virulence factors, such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, or exfoliative toxins. In contrast to the MRSA CC398 isolates, the four ST9, ST5, or ST1791 isolates harbored the egc gene cluster for enterotoxin G, I, M, N, O, and U genes. Although the relevance of contamination of fresh poultry meat or poultry products with MRSA is currently unclear, the presence of multiresistant and, in part, enterotoxigenic MRSA emphasizes the need for further studies to elucidate possible health hazards for consumers. PMID:21724898

  11. Rapid Probabilistic Source Inversion Using Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaeufl, P.; Valentine, A. P.; Trampert, J.

    2013-12-01

    Determination of earthquake source parameters is an important task in seismology. For many applications, it is also valuable to understand the uncertainties associated with these determinations, and this is particularly true in the context of earthquake early warning and hazard mitigation. We present a framework for probabilistic centroid moment tensor point source inversions in near real-time, applicable to a wide variety of data-types. Our methodology allows us to find an approximation to p(m|d), the conditional probability of source parameters (m) given observations, (d). This approximation is obtained by smoothly interpolating a set of random prior samples, using a machine learning algorithm able to learn the mapping from d to m. The approximation obtained can be evaluated within milliseconds on a standard desktop computer for a new observation (d). This makes the method well suited for use in situations such as earthquake early warning, where inversions must be performed routinely, for a fixed station geometry, and where it is important that results are obtained rapidly. This is a major advantage over traditional sampling based techniques, such as Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods, where a re-sampling of the posterior is necessary every time a new observation is made. We demonstrated the method by applying it to a regional static GPS displacement data set for the 2010 MW 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake in Baja California and obtained estimates of logarithmic magnitude, centroid location and depth, and focal mechanism (Käufl et al., submitted). We will present an extension of this approach to the inversion of full waveforms and explore possibilities for jointly inverting seismic and geodetic data. (1) P. Käufl, A. P. Valentine, T.B. O'Toole, J. Trampert, submitted, Geophysical Journal International

  12. CALL FOR PAPERS: Photorefractive Materials and Effects for Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Guest editors: Professor Valentin Vlad National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest, Romania Professor Eugenio Fazio Università di Roma `La Sapienza', Italy Professor Mike Damzen Imperial College, London, UK A topical issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics will be devoted to papers reporting new results in the field of photorefractive effects and their applications in photonics. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletnew photorefractive materials (fast, sensitive in IR) bulletwave mixing in photorefractives bulletphotorefractive phase conjugators bulletholographic storage in photorefractive materials bulletphotorefractive spatial solitons bulletadaptive interconnection with photorefractive devices bulletphase conjugate interferometry bulletoptical analogue and digital computing (including optical correlators) bulletother applications and devices using photorefractive effects. The topical issue is scheduled for publication in November 2003. All papers will be peer reviewed and the normal refereeing standards of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics will be maintained. Manuscripts should be prepared according to the general guidelines for authors published in the journal. Full details on how to structure an article, including specific information on figures, tables and references, are available from our Web site at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopa. There are no page charges. In addition to the usual 25 free offprints, the contributing author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Manuscripts should be submitted to the Publisher by 1 May 2003, although authors are strongly encouraged to submit their work as soon as possible. Please include a covering letter stating that the submission is intended for the Photorefractive Materials and Effects for Photonics special issue, to avoid treatment as a regular submission. Submission address: Dr Claire Blay

  13. Characterization of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections: a multicenter study in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhe; Yang, Zhou; Sun, Juan; Ma, Lin

    2016-12-21

    We evaluated the epidemiological and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children and adult patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in China. Prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTI surveillance was conducted in 23 hospitals over a 24-month period. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials was evaluated using the agar dilution method. StatApriori was used to determine statistically significant association trends. The genotypic characteristics of CA-MRSA isolates were tested by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. The presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) genes was determined. Overall, 71.6% (1946/2716) of cases were community-associated S. aureus. CA-MRSA accounted for 2.6% (51). Out of 1895 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains, 97.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 96.6% to penicillin and 89.1% to clindamycin. No S. aureus strains were resistant to vancomycin. Thirteen sequence types (STs) and 17 spa types were detected among the CA-MRSA strains. The most prevalent sequence type was ST121 (19/51, 37.3%), followed by ST59 (13/51, 25.5%). In addition, t437 was predominant, accounting for 43.1% (22/51). Only five (9.8%) of the CA-MRSA strains harbored pvl genes. There were no significant differences in antibiotic sensitivity profiles between ST121 and non-ST121 MRSA isolates. However, ST121 strains tended to be more resistant to cefazolin, whereas non-ST121 strains were more resistant to chloramphenicol. In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections are rare among Chinese SSTI patients. MRSA strains in China have diverse genetic backgrounds, with ST121 being the predominant clone. Fusidic acid and mupirocin remain effective for topical treatment.

  14. A multicentre study of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in China: susceptibility to ceftaroline and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Zhao, Ying; Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to ceftaroline of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates causing acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) in China and to examine their relationship by genotyping. A total of 251 HA-MRSA isolates causing ABSSSIs were collected from a multicentre study involving 56 hospitals in 38 large cities across 26 provinces in mainland China. All isolates were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing and detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined by broth microdilution and were interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. The ceftaroline MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs that inhibit 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively) were 1 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively; 33.5% (n=84) of the isolates studied were ceftaroline-non-susceptible, with MICs of 2 μg/mL, but no isolate exhibited ceftaroline resistance (MIC>2 μg/mL). All of the ceftaroline-non-susceptible isolates belonged to the predominant HA-MRSA clones: 95.2% (n=80) from MLST clonal complex 8 (CC8), with the remaining 4.8% (n=4) from CC5. The high rate of non-susceptibility to ceftaroline amongst HA-MRSA causing ABSSSIs in China is concerning.

  15. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, F S; Abad, E D; Lyra, Y C; Saintive, S B; Ribeiro, M; Ferreira, D C; Santos, K R N dos

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec typing, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureus isolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD.

  16. A new approach for the discovery of antibiotics by targeting non-multiplying bacteria: a novel topical antibiotic for staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanmin; Shamaei-Tousi, Alireza; Liu, Yingjun; Coates, Anthony

    2010-07-27

    In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates.

  17. Increased Age-Dependent Risk of Death Associated With lukF-PV-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Trine A.; Skov, Robert; Petersen, Andreas; Larsen, Anders R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Panton-Valentine leucocidin is a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV that is infrequent in S aureus bacteremia (SAB), and, therefore, little is known about risk factors and outcome of lukF-PV/lukS-PV-positive SAB. Methods. This report is a register-based nationwide observational cohort study. lukF-PV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with the presence of lukF-PV were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Adjusted 30-day hazard ratios of mortality associated with lukF-PV status were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results. Of 9490 SAB cases, 129 were lukF-PV-positive (1.4%), representing 14 different clonal complexes. lukF-PV was associated with younger age, absence of comorbidity, and methicillin-resistant S aureus. In unadjusted analysis, mortality associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB was comparable to SAB. However, lukF-PV-positive SAB nonsurvivors were significantly older and had more comorbidity. Consequently, by adjusted analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was increased by 70% for lukF-PV-positive SAB compared with SAB (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.42; P = .003). Conclusions. lukF-PV-positive SAB is rare in Denmark but associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Although the risk of lukF-PV-positive SAB was highest in the younger age groups, >80% of deaths associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB occurred in individuals older than 55 years. PMID:27957504

  18. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the Decade following Implementation of an Active Detection and Isolation Program

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Melissa U.; Bizzarro, Matthew J.; Baltimore, Robert S.; Dembry, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent source of infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), often associated with significant morbidity. Active detection and isolation (ADI) programs aim to reduce transmission. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of MRSA in an NICU between 2003 and 2013, in the decade following the implementation of an MRSA ADI program. Molecular analyses included strain typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, mec and accessory gene regulator group genotyping by multiplex PCR, and identification of toxin and potential virulence factor genes via PCR-based assays. Of 8,387 neonates, 115 (1.4%) had MRSA colonization and/or infection. The MRSA colonization rate declined significantly during the study period from 2.2 to 0.5/1,000 patient days (linear time, P = 0.0003; quadratic time, P = 0.006). There were 19 cases of MRSA infection (16.5%). Few epidemiologic or clinical differences were identified between MRSA-colonized and MRSA-infected infants. Thirty-one different strains of MRSA were identified with a shift from hospital-associated to combined hospital- and community-associated strains over time. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive USA300 strains caused 5 of the last 11 infections. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types II and IVa and agr groups 1 and 2 were most predominant. One isolate possessed the gene for toxic shock syndrome toxin; none had genes for exfoliative toxin A or B. These results highlight recent trends in MRSA colonization and infection and the corresponding changes in molecular epidemiology. Continued vigilance for this invasive pathogen remains critical, and specific attention to the unique host, the neonate, and the distinct environment, the NICU, is imperative. PMID:26019206

  19. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, virulence traits, antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and genetic lineages in healthy humans in Spain, with detection of CC398 and CC97 strains.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Benito, Daniel; Aspiroz, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    S. aureus nasal carriage was investigated in 278 healthy humans, determining the antibiotic resistance mechanisms, virulence traits, and genetic lineages of recovered isolates. Nasal samples were cultured in specific media for S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) recovery. S. aureus was detected in 53 of 278 nasal samples (19.1%): MRSA was found in one sample (0.4%) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) in the remaining 52 samples. The MRSA isolate was typed as ST1649-t701-agrI-SCCmec-IVc and only exhibited resistance to beta-lactams. A high diversity of spa types (n=37) was identified among the 52 MSSA, identifying 5 new spa-types. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) typing was performed in 30 selected MSSA, detecting 16 different sequence types, 2 of them being new. MSSA strains presented agr types I (30.2%), II (30.2%), III (34%), and IV (5.6%). Eleven strains showed erythromycin resistance and harbored different combinations of erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), and msr(A) genes. Two strains exhibited ciprofloxacin resistance, and one of them presented amino acid changes in GyrA and GrlA proteins. The presence of 28 genes encoding staphylococcal toxins was investigated by PCR in all 53 S. aureus isolates. The toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in 15 MSSA isolates (11 of them typed within the clonal complex CC30) and the gene of exfoliative toxin A in 2 strains. Different combinations of enterotoxin genes were identified among S. aureus strains. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Two MSSA presented the sequence-type ST398 [harboring erm(T) gene], and 2 additional isolates were typed as ST97. Interestingly, MSSA CC398 and CC97 isolates were detected. These clonal complexes are associated with food-producing animals.

  20. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bloodstream infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Vandendriessche, S; De Boeck, H; Deplano, A; Phoba, M-F; Lunguya, O; Falay, D; Dauly, N; Verhaegen, J; Denis, O; Jacobs, J

    2017-01-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is known worldwide as an invasive pathogen, but information on S. aureus from bloodstream infections in Central Africa remains scarce. A collection of S. aureus blood culture isolates recovered from hospitals in four provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2009-2013) was assessed. A total of 27/108 isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), of which >70% were co-resistant to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides and lincosamides. For MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, resistance to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was <10%. However, 66.7% (72/108) of all isolates harboured the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrG. More than three-quarters (84/108, 77.8%) of isolates belonged to CC5, CC8, CC121 or CC152. Genetic diversity was higher among MSSA (31 spa types) compared to MRSA (four spa types). Most MRSA (23/27, 85.2%) belonged to CC8-spa t1476-SCCmec V and 17/23 (73.9%) MRSA ST8 were oxacillin susceptible but cefoxitin resistant. Among MRSA and MSSA combined, 49.1% (53/108) and 19.4% (21/108) contained the genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (lukS-lukF PV, PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst, TSST-1), respectively. PVL was mainly detected among MSSA (51/53 isolates harbouring PVL were MSSA, 96.2%) and associated with CC121, CC152, CC1 and CC5. TSST-1 was associated with CC8-spa t1476-SCCmec V. The immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes scn, sak and chp were detected in 81.5% of isolates (88/108, equally represented among MSSA and MRSA). The present study confirms the occurrence of MRSA with high levels of multidrug co-resistance and PVL-positive MSSA among invasive S. aureus isolates in Central Africa.

  1. Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel A; Weeks, Justin W; Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; McEvoy, Peter M; Horswill, Samantha C; Heimberg, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) are companion scales developed to measure anxiety in social interaction and performance situations, respectively. The measures have strong discriminant and convergent validity; however, their factor structures remain debated, and furthermore, the combined administration length (i.e., 39 items) can be prohibitive for some settings. There have been 4 attempts to assess the factor structures of the scales and reduce the item content: the 14-item Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009), the 12-item SIAS-6/SPS-6 (Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012), the 21-item abbreviated SIAS/SPS (ASIAS/ASPS; Kupper & Denollet, 2012), and the 12-item Readability SIAS and SPS (RSIAS/RSPS; Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012). The current study compared the short forms on (a) factor structure, (b) ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations, (c) sensitivity to change following therapy, and (d) convergent validity with related measures. Participants included 3,607 undergraduate students (55% women) and 283 patients with social anxiety disorder (43% women). Results of confirmatory factor analyses, sensitivity analyses, and correlation analyses support the robust utility of items in the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 relative to the other short forms; furthermore, the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 were also supported by convergent validity analyses within the undergraduate sample. The RSIAS/RSPS and the ASIAS/ASPS were least supported, based on the current results and the principle of parsimony. Accordingly, researchers and clinicians should consider carefully which of the short forms will best suit their needs.

  2. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment.

  3. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Baño, J; Angeles Domínguez, M; Blas Millán, A; Borraz, C; Pau González, M; Almirante, B; Cercenado, E; Padilla, B; Pujol, M

    2009-12-01

    A prospective cohort study including all new cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization or infection in 64 Spanish hospitals during June 2003 was performed to investigate the epidemiology of MRSA in Spain. Only patients who yielded clinical MRSA-positive samples were included. Epidemiological and clinical data for a total of 370 cases were collected. Genotyping was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes and the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) were identified in representative isolates. MRSA was considered to be nosocomially acquired in 202 cases (55%), healthcare-associated (HCA) in 139 cases (38%), community-acquired (CA) in three cases, and of uncertain mode of acquisition in 26 (7%) cases. The pooled population-based rate was 2.31 cases/100,000 population/month, and the pooled nosocomial rate was 0.21 cases/1000 hospital stays (20.2% of S. aureus). Peripheral vascular disease, respiratory tract infections, catheter infections, bloodstream infections and crude mortality were more frequent among HCA cases, whereas neoplasia and urinary tract infections were more frequent among nosocomially acquired cases. Two clones related to the paediatric clone ST5-IV accounted for 71% of the isolates; EMRSA-16 has emerged in two different geographical areas. Only one isolate belonged to the formerly predominant Iberian clone. The three CA isolates were related to the USA300 clone. SCCmec type IV was the most frequent type in nosocomial and HCA isolates. The epidemiology of MRSA has changed in Spain; outpatients with previous healthcare contact represent a very important reservoir of MRSA, and community isolates are emerging.

  4. List of Organizing Committees and Conference Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Romanian Neutron Scattering Society Sponsors Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, Czech Republic Programme Committee Valentin Gordely (chairman)Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Heinrich StuhrmannGermany Jose TeixeiraLaboratoire Leon Brillouin, France Pavel ApelJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Pavol BalgavyComenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Alexander BelushkinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Georg BueldtInstitute of Structural Biology and Biophysics (ISB), Germany Leonid BulavinTaras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine Emil BurzoBabes-Bolyai University, Romania Vadim CherezovThe Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, USA Ion IonitaRomanian Society of Neutron Scattering, Romania Alexei KhokhlovMoscow State University, Russia Aziz MuzafarovInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Alexander OzerinInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Gerard PepyResearch Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungary Josef PlestilInstitute of Macromolecular Chemistry CAS, Czech Republic Aurel RadulescuJuelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Germany Maria BalasoiuJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Alexander KuklinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Local Organizing Committee Alexander Kuklin - Chairman Maria Balasoiu - Co-chairman Tatiana Murugova - Secretary Natalia Malysheva Natalia Dokalenko Julia Gorshkova Andrey Rogachev Oleksandr Ivankov Dmitry Soloviev Lilia Anghel Erhan Raul The PDF also contains the Conference Programme.

  5. Direct, Specific and Rapid Detection of Staphylococcal Proteins and Exotoxins Using a Multiplex Antibody Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, Bettina; Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background S. aureus is a pathogen in humans and animals that harbors a wide variety of virulence factors and resistance genes. This bacterium can cause a wide range of mild to life-threatening diseases. In the latter case, fast diagnostic procedures are important. In routine diagnostic laboratories, several genotypic and phenotypic methods are available to identify S. aureus strains and determine their resistances. However, there is a demand for multiplex routine diagnostic tests to directly detect staphylococcal toxins and proteins. Methods In this study, an antibody microarray based assay was established and validated for the rapid detection of staphylococcal markers and exotoxins. The following targets were included: staphylococcal protein A, penicillin binding protein 2a, alpha- and beta-hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, enterotoxins A and B as well as staphylokinase. All were detected simultaneously within a single experiment, starting from a clonal culture on standard media. The detection of bound proteins was performed using a new fluorescence reading device for microarrays. Results 110 reference strains and clinical isolates were analyzed using this assay, with a DNA microarray for genotypic characterization performed in parallel. The results showed a general high concordance of genotypic and phenotypic data. However, genotypic analysis found the hla gene present in all S. aureus isolates but its expression under given conditions depended on the clonal complex affiliation of the actual isolate. Conclusions The multiplex antibody assay described herein allowed a rapid and reliable detection of clinically relevant staphylococcal toxins as well as resistance- and species-specific markers. PMID:26624622

  6. Characterization of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections: a multicenter study in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhe; Yang, Zhou; Sun, Juan; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the epidemiological and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children and adult patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in China. Prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTI surveillance was conducted in 23 hospitals over a 24-month period. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials was evaluated using the agar dilution method. StatApriori was used to determine statistically significant association trends. The genotypic characteristics of CA-MRSA isolates were tested by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. The presence of Panton–Valentine leukocidin (pvl) genes was determined. Overall, 71.6% (1946/2716) of cases were community-associated S. aureus. CA-MRSA accounted for 2.6% (51). Out of 1895 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains, 97.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 96.6% to penicillin and 89.1% to clindamycin. No S. aureus strains were resistant to vancomycin. Thirteen sequence types (STs) and 17 spa types were detected among the CA-MRSA strains. The most prevalent sequence type was ST121 (19/51, 37.3%), followed by ST59 (13/51, 25.5%). In addition, t437 was predominant, accounting for 43.1% (22/51). Only five (9.8%) of the CA-MRSA strains harbored pvl genes. There were no significant differences in antibiotic sensitivity profiles between ST121 and non-ST121 MRSA isolates. However, ST121 strains tended to be more resistant to cefazolin, whereas non-ST121 strains were more resistant to chloramphenicol. In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections are rare among Chinese SSTI patients. MRSA strains in China have diverse genetic backgrounds, with ST121 being the predominant clone. Fusidic acid and mupirocin remain effective for topical treatment. PMID:27999423

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses’ hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention. PMID:28030828

  8. Carriage of Staphylococcus species in the veterinary visiting dog population in mainland UK: molecular characterisation of resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Jamrozy, Dorota; Fielder, Mark D; Donovan, David; Nuttall, Tim; Williams, Nicola J

    2014-05-14

    This study investigated the prevalence of nasal carriage of staphylococci in dogs and determined the characteristics of the isolates. A total of 724 dogs from 87 veterinary practices across the mainland UK were screened for carriage of Staphylococcus spp. All isolates were examined for meticillin resistance (MR) and the presence of the mecA gene investigated in those isolates showing resistance. All coagulase-positive staphylococci and MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Spa typing and DNA microarray analysis of resistance and virulence genes was carried out on all MR S. aureus (MRSA) and a subset of meticillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Staphylococci were isolated from 399 (55.1%) of the dogs; only seven (1%) carried MRSA, all of which were identified as the dominant UK healthcare-associated strain (EMRSA-15, ST22). MSSA was identified in 47 (6.5%) dogs, the sequence types of which have been suggested as precursors to successful MRSA clones. Forty (5.5%) dogs carried MRCoNS, while no dogs carried MR S. pseudintermedius, although this is increasingly reported in mainland Europe. Resistance to antimicrobials among the isolates varied between species, with multidrug resistance (MDR) in 87.5% of MRCoNS and 21.8% of coagulase positive staphylococci. Microarray analysis of MRSA and a subset of MSSA isolates identified numerous virulence genes associated with pathogenesis, which are commonly identified in isolates of human origin. However, no isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study suggests that MRSA carriage is low in the vet visiting dog population, but there is a diverse range of virulence and resistance determinants in canine S. aureus and MRCoNS isolates.

  9. Development of a new pentaplex real-time PCR assay for the identification of poly-microbial specimens containing Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci, with simultaneous detection of staphylococcal virulence and methicillin resistance markers.

    PubMed

    Okolie, Charles E; Wooldridge, Karl G; Turner, David P; Cockayne, Alan; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains harbouring genes encoding virulence and antibiotic resistance are of public health importance. In clinical samples, pathogenic S. aureus is often mixed with putatively less pathogenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), both of which can harbour mecA, the gene encoding staphylococcal methicillin-resistance. There have been previous attempts at distinguishing MRSA from MRCoNS, most of which were based on the detection of one of the pathognomonic markers of S. aureus, such as coa, nuc or spa. That approach might suffice for discrete colonies and mono-microbial samples; it is inadequate for identification of clinical specimens containing mixtures of S. aureus and CoNS. In the present study, a real-time pentaplex PCR assay has been developed which simultaneously detects markers for bacteria (16S rRNA), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cns), S. aureus (spa), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) and methicillin resistance (mecA). Staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal bacterial strains (n = 283) were used to validate the new assay. The applicability of this test to clinical samples was evaluated using spiked blood cultures (n = 43) containing S. aureus and CoNS in mono-microbial and poly-microbial models, which showed that the 5 markers were all detected as expected. Cycling completes within 1 h, delivering 100% specificity, NPV and PPV with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(1) to 3.0 × 10(1) colony forming units (CFU)/ml, suggesting direct applicability in routine diagnostic microbiology. This is the most multiplexed real-time PCR-based PVL-MRSA assay and the first detection of a unique marker for CoNS without recourse to the conventional elimination approach. There was no evidence that this new assay produced invalid/indeterminate test results.

  10. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal samples of healthy farm animals and pets in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharsa, Haythem; Ben Slama, Karim; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Messadi, Lilia; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    A total of 261 healthy farm and pet animals (75 cattle, 52 goats, 100 dogs, and 34 cats) from different regions of Tunisia were screened for Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Molecular typing of isolates (by spa- and multilocus sequence-typing) was performed, and their antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes were determined by PCR and sequencing. S. aureus isolates were detected in 17 of 261 tested samples (6.5%). All S. aureus isolates recovered were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), and one isolate/sample was further studied. Eight different spa types were detected (t189, t279, t582, t701, t1166, t1268, t1534, and t1773), and eight different sequence types were identified (ST6, ST15, ST45, ST133, ST188, ST700 [clonal complex CC130], ST2057, and a new ST2121). MSSA from pets (six isolates) showed resistance to (number of isolates, resistance gene): penicillin (six, blaZ), tetracycline (one, tet[M]), erythromycin one, erm[A]), streptomycin (one, ant[6]-Ia), and ciprofloxacin (one). All isolates from farm animals showed susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials, except for two penicillin-resistant isolates. Five S. aureus isolates from goats and cats harbored the lukF/lukS-PV genes, encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and six isolates from goats harbored the tst virulence gene. In addition, diverse combinations of enterotoxin genes were detected, including two variants of the egc cluster. Goats and cats could represent a reservoir of important toxin genes, with potential implications in animal and human health.

  11. UK Health Secretary launches family planning initiatives.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    British Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley and Family Planning Association (FPA) President Anna Ford recently announced some new initiatives to promote wider use of family planning (FP) and contraception which will be carried out by the FPA with a special grant from the Department of Health. The grant will finance 3 FPA projects: 1) the Growing Up project, 3 booklets providing information for parents, young people, and children; 2) an information project at the work place on FP and sexual health for women and men; and 3) a primary health care project to aid general practitioners (G)s) and nurses engaged in the improvement of FP services. 1 in 3 pregnancies is unplanned, and teenage pregnancy rates are rising, thus sex education and public information are vital. The FPA chose St. Valentines Day to introduce How Your Body Changes, its new pamphlet for teenagers. In the UK over 85% of FP services are provided by family doctors and 15% or less by special community FP clinics. those who oppose further closures that health authorities contemplate stress that the special clinics provide: an anonymous service for younger women, especially those aged 16 or under, a wider choice of methods (some GPs do not offer the IUD, the diaphragm, or free condoms), a better service (most GPs are too busy and have had no training in FP, and postgraduate training for nurses and doctors (more clinic closures will impair FP education). Better FP education is crucial, especially for the age group 12-16 in view of over 180,000 legal abortions occurring each year in the UK.

  12. Spa Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Clinical Specimens of Patients With Nosocomial Infections in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infection is increasing annually and becoming a true global challenge. The pattern of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (spa) types in different geographic regions is diverse. Objectives This study determined the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and different spa types in S. aureus clinical isolates. Materials and Methods During a six-month period, 90 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 320 clinical specimens. The in vitro susceptibility of various S. aureus isolates to 16 antibiotic discs was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Molecular typing was carried out with S. aureus protein A typing via polymerase chain reaction. Results The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in our study was 88.9%. Twenty-three (25.5%) isolates were positive for panton-valentine leukocidin encoding genes. S. aureus presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (100%) and penicillin (100%). No resistance was observed to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The rates of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested varied between 23.3% and 82.2%. The rate of multidrug resistance among these clinical isolates was 93.3%. The 90 S. aureus isolates were classified into five S. aureus protein A types: t037 (33.3%), t030 (22.2%), t790 (16.7%), t969 (11.1%), and t044 (7.7%). Eight (8.9%) isolates were not typable using the S. aureus protein A typing method. Conclusions We report a high methicillin-resistant S. aureus rate in our hospital. Additionally, t030 and t037 were the predominant spa-types among hospital-associated S. aureus. Our findings emphasize the need for continuous surveillance to prevent the dissemination of multidrug resistance among different S. aureus protein A types in Iran. PMID:27679706

  13. High Resolution Magnetic and Gravity Surveys to Constrain Maar Geometry and Eruption Mechanisms, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Harburger, A.; Richardson, J. A.; Courtland, L. M.; Farrell, A. K.; Kiflu, H. G.; Malservisi, R.; McNiff, C. M.; Njoroge, M.; Nushart, N.; Rookey, K.

    2013-12-01

    Located 25 kilometers east of Flagstaff, Arizona, Rattlesnake Crater is an oblong phreatomagmatic feature in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The shallow crater is approximately 1.4 kilometers at its widest point, and surrounded by an uneven tuff ring which is overlapped by a scoria cone volcano on the southeastern side. Improved understanding of its formation and evolution requires geophysical study because there are very few outcrops, and no digging is permitted on site. Geologic features related to the crater are further obscured by deposits from the overlapping scoria cone, as well as tephra from eruptions at nearby Sunset Crater. We present the results of a detailed magnetic and gravity survey in and around Rattlesnake Crater. A substantial NW-SE trending elongate magnetic anomaly (1400 nT) and a smaller similarly trending anomaly are observed inside the crater, as well as a longer wavelength positive gravitational anomaly (+1.0-1.5 mGal) across the crater. The magnetic survey was completed on foot with a 50 meter line spacing inside the crater, and 100 meter line spacing across a portion of the surrounding area outside the crater. The gravity survey was done on two intersecting survey lines - one running west to east, and another roughly north to south, with recordings every 100 meters extending at least 1000 meters outside the crater in all four directions. 2D models of the magnetic and gravity data are presented illustrating the possible geometry of the diatreme, and the approximate size and shape of the major intrusive features. Eruption estimates based on the models are calculated, and the models are favorably compared to the size and depth estimates given in a recent publication (Valentine 2012) that used xenolith content to estimate the size and depth of the diatreme.

  14. Dissemination of multiple MRSA clones among community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from Japanese children with impetigo.

    PubMed

    Hisata, Ken; Ito, Teruyo; Matsunaga, Nobuaki; Komatsu, Mitsutaka; Jin, Jingxun; Li, Shanshuang; Watanabe, Shinya; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2011-10-01

    The proportion of MRSA strains that cause skin and soft infections has recently increased. In 3 months we have characterized 17 MRSA strains isolated from children with impetigo at a Japanese hospital. Seventeen MRSA strains belonged to 7 clones defined by clonal complex (CC) in MLST genotype and type of SCCmec, which were rarely identified among healthcare-associated MRSA: CC 91-SCCmecIIb (4 strains); CC91-SCCmecIIn (2 strains); CC91-SCCmecIVa (2 strains); CC91-SCCmecV (4 strains); CC88-SCCmecIVg (3 strains); CC1-SCCmecIVc (1 strain); and CC5-SCCmecIVn (1 strain). Although one strain belonged to CC5, which has been commonly identified in healthcare-associated MRSA, it did not carry type II SCCmec, but carried type IV SCCmec. Fourteen of the 17 strains carried exfoliative toxin a or b gene, and none carried Panton-Valentine leukocidine gene. Furthermore, we determined the entire nucleotide sequences of two type V SCCmec elements carried by strains JCSC5952, a CC91 strain, and TSGH17, a Taiwanese CC59 strain. The structure of SCCmecJCSC5952 was more than 99% homologous in nucleotide identity with those of Taiwanese PVL-positive ST59 MRSA strains TSGH17 and PM1, which were designated as type V (5C2&5). Identification of multiple MRSA clones distinct from those disseminating at the hospital suggests that MRSA strains might be emerging in the community from MSSA strains by acquiring SCCmec elements on various occasions. Carriage of the similar type V(5C2&5) SCCmec element by strains of distinct genetic backgrounds, CC91 and CC59, suggested horizontal transfer of the SCCmec element.

  15. Physical properties of NxTiO2 prepared by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahimi, Razika; Bessekhouad, Yassine; Trari, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    The compounds NxTiO2(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) with the anatase structure have been synthesized by Sol-Gel method using Tri-ethyl Amine as nitrogen source and their optical, electrical and electrochemical properties are investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power are measured in the temperature rang 300-600 K. The samples exhibit p-type behavior in contrast to TiO2. The doped-samples exhibit two optical transitions (2.35≤Eh-Vis(eV)≤2.55; 1.97≤El-Vis (eV)≤2.06) directly allowed in the visible region, while only one transition is observed in UV region (EUV∼3.00 eV). Pure TiO2 shows direct band gap transition of 3.17 eV. The results confirm experimentally the calculations of Di. Valentin et al. [42]. The transitions Eh-Vis and El-Vis are attributed respectively to the promotion of electrons from the localized N 2p and π* N-O bond to the conduction band. In all cases, EUV is associated to the forbidden band energy. Though that the conductivity is generally improved by doping process, only N0.05TiO2 and N0.1TiO2 shows an enhanced mobility. The mechanism of conduction takes place by small polaron hopping. The band edge positions of NxTiO2 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) at room temperature is predicted from the obtained physical properties. This study proves experimentally the principal role of nitrogen in doping process and permits the electronic states localization associated with N-impurities in TiO2 anatase.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Beefpacking Workers in a Midwestern United States Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    Leibler, Jessica H.; Jordan, Jeanne A.; Brownstein, Kirsten; Lander, Lina; Price, Lance B.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation. PMID:26866374

  17. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  18. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Malaysian tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Zetti Zainol; Bahari, Norazlah; Othman, Amizah; Jaafar, Roslinda; Mohamed, Nurul Azmawati; Jabbari, Idimaz; Sulong, Anita; Hashim, Rohaidah; Ahmad, Norazah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a pathogen recognized to be distinct in both phenotype and genotype from hospital-acquired MRSA. We have identified CA-MRSA cases in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, including their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genotypic characteristics. Cases were identified during January to December 2009 from routine clinical specimens, where culture and antibiotic susceptibility results yielded pauci-resistant MRSA isolates suspected as being CA-MRSA. The patients' clinical data were collected and their specimens were sent for molecular confirmation and analysis. Five cases of CA-MRSA were identified, which had a multi-sensitive pattern on antibiotic susceptibility tests and were resistant to only penicillin and oxacillin. All cases were skin and soft-tissue infections, including diabetic foot with gangrene, infected scalp hematoma, philtrum abscess in a healthcare worker, thrombophlebitis complicated with abscess and infected bedsore. All five cases were confirmed MRSA by detection of mecA. SCCmec typing (ccr and mec complex) revealed SCCmec type IV for all cases except the infected bedsore case. Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was positive in all isolates. As clinical features among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, CA-MRSA and "nosocomial CA-MRSA" are indistinct, early recognition is necessary in order to initiate appropriate antibiotics and infection control measures. Continual surveillance of pauci-resistant MRSA and molecular analysis are necessary in order to identify emerging strains as well as their epidemiology and transmission, both in the community and in healthcare setting.

  19. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. Methods In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S.argenteus) were found in Fiji. From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. Conclusions S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji. PMID:24655406

  20. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    OsO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A1 and A2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF6, for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ν3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues (192OsO4, 190OsO4, 189OsO4, 188OsO4), by considering the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues (187OsO4, 186OsO4, 184OsO4). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

  1. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Botucatu, Brazil: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Fabiana Venegas; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Abraão, Lígia Maria; Martins, Patrícia Y. F.; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the incidence and severity of staphylococcal infections renewed interest in studies that assess the burden of asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the community setting. We conducted a population-based survey in the city of Botucatu, Brazil (122,000 inhabitants), in order to identify the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains). Nasal swabs were obtained from 686 persons over one year of age. Resistance to methicillin was assessed through phenotypic methods, identification of the mecA gene and typing of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were characterized using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and spa typing. Polymerase chain reaction was applied to identify genes coding for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) in isolates. The prevalence of overall S. aureus carriage was 32.7% (95%CI, 29.2%–36.2%). Carriers were significantly younger (mean age, 28.1 versus 36.3 for non-carriers; OR for age, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.97–0.99) and likely to report recent skin infection (OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 1.03–3.34). Carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found in 0.9% of study subjects (95%CI, 0.4%–1.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IV, and belonged to spa types t002 or t021, but none among them harbored genes coding for PLV. In MLST, most isolates belonged to clones ST5 or ST1776. However, we found one subject who carried a novel clone, ST2594. Two out of six MRSA carriers had household contacts colonized with isolates similar to theirs. Our study pointed to dissemination of community-associated MRSA among the Brazilian population. PMID:24663818

  2. Quantifying the Convexity of Waterfalls Along the Niobrara River, Cherry, Keya Paha, and Brown Counties, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, L. J.; Pederson, D. T.; Goble, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Numerous waterfalls are present along the spring branch canyons of the Niobrara River, downstream of Cornell Dam, Valentine, Nebraska. Although the sizes of the waterfalls are variable, a majority of the waterfall faces have a convex outward geometry. In order to gain a better understanding of the processes responsible for the development of this profile, it is useful to quantify the convexity of the waterfall face. Due to the rugged topography of the spring branch canyon environment, traditional techniques, such as pin-flag and tape measurements are not practical and even dangerous. The waterfall faces are often greater than 3 meters high, steep, and algae covered. The spring branch canyon walls are also steep with actively creeping scree slopes along the bases. Therefore, due to this topography there is no easy way to access the waterfall faces for accurate measurements. The measurement problem was overcome by using a hand-held laser meter mounted on a tripod. A baseline was established below the waterfall face. The length of the baseline was measured using the hand-held laser meter. Measurements were taken on distinct features across the waterfall face and sidewalls from both endpoints of the baseline. The angle of the laser off the baseline and off the horizontal were measured using a compass with mirror. With these measurements, the waterfall faces profile relative to the baseline was reconstructed. A hand-held laser meter is an important tool for measuring waterfalls and other geomorphic features in hazardous environments because measurements can be taken from a safe location. It is possible for one person to take accurate measurements. New baselines can readily be established to measure relative erosion along the waterfall face over time.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Beefpacking Workers in a Midwestern United States Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Leibler, Jessica H; Jordan, Jeanne A; Brownstein, Kirsten; Lander, Lina; Price, Lance B; Perry, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.

  4. A fatal intoxication of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rachel Y; Baker, Daniel D; Kelly, Nancy E; McGuire, Calvin E; Fassette, Timothy C; Gorniak, Jan M

    2014-10-01

    Designer drugs appear to be increasing in popularity because of the ease of obtaining these constituents, the lack of ability to identify the substance(s) in routine drug screening, the appeal of the drug(s) being 'safe' due to them being marketed as a 'legal high' and possibly due to stronger restrictions that are being placed on prescription drugs. As components of designer drugs are identified and regulated by the DEA, new constituents, or analogs, of these designer drugs are being manufactured to circumvent legislation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine (DOC) is a substituted alpha-methylated phenethylamine and acts as a selective serotonin receptor partial agonist. There is limited literature on this particular compound and no literature that attributes death to use of this drug alone. We present a case of a 37-year-old male found at home lying face down next to a book titled 'Psychedelic Chemistry' by Michael Valentine Smith and in the early stages of decomposition. The decedent was a known methamphetamine abuser. A peripheral blood sample collected at autopsy was sent to toxicology for routine analysis. Results yielded negative for the drugs of abuse classes on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screen but was positive for DOC during routine GC-MS analysis. A urine sample collected at autopsy was subjected to a routine urine liquid/liquid analysis via GC-MS, and the specimen was positive for DOC. Quantification analyses showed DOC concentration levels to be 377 ng/mL in iliac blood; 3,193 ng/mL in urine; 3,143 ng/g in liver and 683 ng/g in brain. DOC was not detected in the gastric contents. Caffeine was the only other compound detected in blood and urine. Due to the lack of literature, we believe that this is the first case where death can be attributed to DOC alone.

  5. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Igor; Künzel, Frank; Licka, Theresia; Simhofer, Hubert; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate

    2014-01-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, resistance gene patterns and genetic relatedness of a collection of Austrian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 89 non-repetitive MRSA isolates collected during routine veterinary microbiological examinations from April 2004 to the end of 2012, and one isolate from 2013 were used for this study. The presence of mecA and other resistance genes was confirmed by PCR. Isolates were genotyped by spa typing, two multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) analyses, SCCmec typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR targeting Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) was performed using PCR assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Five sequence types (STs-ST398, ST254, ST22, ST5 and ST1), SCCmec types II, IVa, V, and non-type-abele, 8 spa-types (t003, t011, t036, t127, t386, t1348, and t4450), and two isolates could not be assigned, 21 MLVA-14Orsay types Multiplex-PCR MLVA (mMLVA) displayed 17 different MLVA types. The present study is the most comprehensive dealing with MRSA from Austrian companion animals and horses. The results confirm that MRSA ST398 is present in a wide range of animal species and is predominant especially in horses. In other companion animals it is unclear whether the infections with the different MRSA isolates investigated in the present study truly represents a rare phenomenon or may be an emerging problem in companion animals.

  6. Comparative Whole-Genome Mapping To Determine Staphylococcus aureus Genome Size, Virulence Motifs, and Clonality

    PubMed Central

    Pantrang, Madhulatha; Stahl, Buffy; Briska, Adam M.; Stemper, Mary E.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Zentz, Emily B.; Callister, Steven M.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Henkhaus, John K.; Dykes, Colin W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being a clonal pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus continues to acquire virulence and antibiotic-resistant genes located on mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands, prophages, pathogenicity islands, and the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) by horizontal gene transfer from other staphylococci. The potential virulence of a S. aureus strain is often determined by comparing its pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or multilocus sequence typing profiles to that of known epidemic or virulent clones and by PCR of the toxin genes. Whole-genome mapping (formerly optical mapping), which is a high-resolution ordered restriction mapping of a bacterial genome, is a relatively new genomic tool that allows comparative analysis across entire bacterial genomes to identify regions of genomic similarities and dissimilarities, including small and large insertions and deletions. We explored whether whole-genome maps (WGMs) of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) could be used to predict the presence of methicillin resistance, SCCmec type, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing genes on an S. aureus genome. We determined the WGMs of 47 diverse clinical isolates of S. aureus, including well-characterized reference MRSA strains, and annotated the signature restriction pattern in SCCmec types, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), and PVL-carrying prophage, PhiSa2 or PhiSa2-like regions on the genome. WGMs of these isolates accurately characterized them as MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus based on the presence or absence of the SCCmec motif, ACME and the unique signature pattern for the prophage insertion that harbored the PVL genes. Susceptibility to methicillin resistance and the presence of mecA, SCCmec types, and PVL genes were confirmed by PCR. A WGM clustering approach was further able to discriminate isolates within the same PFGE clonal group. These results showed that WGMs could be used not only to genotype S. aureus but also to

  7. Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), USA300 Sequence Type 8 Lineage in Latin-America

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jinnethe; Rincón, Sandra; Díaz, Lorena; Panesso, Diana; Contreras, Germán A.; Zurita, Jeannete; Carrillo, Carlos; Rizzi, Adele; Guzmán, Manuel; Adachi, Javier; Chowdhury, Shahreen; Murray, Barbara E.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-associated (CA) pathogen. Recently, a variant of the MRSA USA300 clone emerged and disseminated in South-America causing important clinical problems. Methods S. aureus isolates were prospectively collected (2006 to 2008) from 32 tertiary hospitals in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. MRSA isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and categorized as healthcare-associated (HA)-like or CA-like clones based on genotypic characteristics and detection of genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) IV. Additionally, MLST of representative isolates of each major CA-MRSA pulsotype, and detection of USA300-associated toxins and the arcA gene were performed in all isolates categorized as CA-MRSA. Results A total of 1570 S. aureus were included; 651 were MRSA (41%), with the highest rates of MRSA isolation in Peru (62%), and lowest in Venezuela (26%) and 71%, 27%, and 2% were classified as HA-like, CA-like, and non-CA/HA-like clones, respectively. Only 9 MRSA isolates were confirmed to have reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides (GISA phenotype). The most common pulsotype (designated ComA) amongst the CA-like MRSA strains was found in 96% of isolates with the majority (81%) having ≤6 bands difference with the USA300-0114 strain. Representative isolates of this clone were ST8 but, unlike the USA300-0114 strain, they harbored a different SCCmec IV subtype and lacked arcA (an indicator of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME)). Conclusion A variant CA-MRSA USA300 clone has now become established in South America and, in some countries, is endemic in hospital settings. PMID:19911971

  8. MRSA and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. retail meats, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beilei; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Davis, Johnnie A; Tran, Thu Thuy T; Yang, Qianru; Abbott, Jason W; Ayers, Sherry L; Young, Shenia R; Crarey, Emily T; Womack, Niketta A; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3.5%), followed by pork (1.9%), beef (1.7%), and chicken (0.3%). Whole-genome sequencing was performed for all 66 non-redundant MRSA. Among five multilocus sequence types identified, ST8 (72.7%) and ST5 (22.7%) were most common and livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was assigned to one pork isolate. Eleven spa types were represented, predominately t008 (43.9%) and t2031 (22.7%). All four types of meats harbored t008, whereas t2031 was recovered from turkey only. The majority of MRSA (84.8%) possessed SCCmec IV and 62.1% harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that all ST8 MRSA belonged to the predominant human epidemic clone USA300, and others included USA100 and USA200. We conclude that a diverse MRSA population was present in U.S. retail meats, albeit at low prevalence.

  9. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of shanghai.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-24

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses' hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention.

  10. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (p<0.05). Twenty-six pets and five VP carried PVL-positive S. aureus. In total, 60 S. aureus strains were recovered (53 from pets, seven from VP) of which 16 were MRSA (26.7%), 12 mecA- and four mecC-positive. MRSA showed higher resistance rates against other antimicrobials as compared to methicillin-susceptible ones. Strains were classified by MLST in 13 STs, with the predominance of ST80 and ST15. In MRSA, SCCmec types II, IV and XI were identified. The most frequent spa types were t5559 and t7558. Fifty-six strains were classified into 15 PFGE types. Comparison of genetic markers shows that identical or very similar strains disseminate among animals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans.

  11. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Luanda, Angola: first description of the spread of the MRSA ST5-IVa clone in the African continent.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Teresa; Coelho, Céline; Santos-Silva, Isabel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen worldwide, and although surveillance studies are available in the most developed countries, data from Angola are inexistent. In June 2012, 295 inpatients and 199 healthcare workers from three hospitals in Luanda, Angola were nasal swabbed for S. aureus and MRSA carriage. A total of 117 individuals (23.7%) were S. aureus nasal carriers, out of which 68 (58.1%) were colonized with MRSA. The majority of the MRSA isolates (74%) belonged to a single clonal lineage, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) A-ST5-IVa associated with three spa types (spa types t105/t311/t11657), followed by PFGE C-ST88-IVa (spa types t186/t325/t786/t1951/t3869) (n=9; 12%); the other 11 MRSA isolates were representatives of 4 additional lineages. Almost half (49%) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates belonged to three major clones: PFGE B-ST508 (spa types t050/t861/t1346/t1574/t2626/t12218), PFGE D-ST45 (spa types t939/t11656), and PFGE E-ST30 (spa types t1202/t9118). MSSA isolates presented a high variability of virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidine (7.9%). MRSA carriage in Luanda is considerably high, and the major clone corresponds to a worldwide epidemic lineage, so far scarcely reported in Africa. Additional infection control measures in this metropolis are mandatory for a global MRSA control.

  12. Probing the face-space of individuals with prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mayu; Doyle, Jaime; Humphreys, Kate; Behrmann, Marlene

    2010-05-01

    A useful framework for understanding the mental representation of facial identity is face-space (Valentine, 1991), a multi-dimensional cognitive map in which individual faces are coded relative to the average of previously encountered faces, and in which the distance among faces represents their perceived similarity. We examined whether individuals with prosopagnosia, a disorder characterized by an inability to recognize familiar faces despite normal visual acuity and intellectual abilities, evince behavior consistent with this underlying representational schema. To do so, we compared the performance of 6 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), with a group of age- and gender-matched control participants in a series of experiments involving judgments of facial identity. We used digital images of male and female faces and morphed them to varying degrees relative to an average face, to create caricatures, anti-caricatures, and anti-faces (i.e. faces of the opposite identity). Across 5 behavioral tasks, CP individuals' performance was similar to that of the control group and consistent with the face-space framework. As a test of the sensitivity of our measures in revealing face processing abnormalities, we also tested a single acquired prosopagnosic (AP) individual, whose performance on the same tasks deviated significantly from the control and CP groups. The findings suggest that, despite an inability to recognize individual identities, CPs perceive faces in a manner consistent with norm-based coding of facial identity, although their representation is likely supported by a feature-based strategy. We suggest that the apparently normal posterior cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, serve as the neural substrate for at least a coarse, feature-based face-space map in CP and that their face recognition impairment arises from the disconnection between these regions and more anterior cortical sites.

  13. Application of a Propionyl Coenzyme A Synthetase for Poly(3-Hydroxypropionate-co-3-Hydroxybutyrate) Accumulation in Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Henry E.; Mitsky, Timothy A.; Mahadeo, Debbie A.; Tran, Minhtien; Gruys, Kenneth J.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic operon for propionic acid degradation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contains an open reading frame designated prpE which encodes a propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) synthetase (A. R. Horswill and J. C. Escalante-Semerena, Microbiology 145:1381–1388, 1999). In this paper we report the cloning of prpE by PCR, its overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the substrate specificity of the enzyme. When propionate was utilized as the substrate for PrpE, a Km of 50 μM and a specific activity of 120 μmol · min−1 · mg−1 were found at the saturating substrate concentration. PrpE also activated acetate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), and butyrate to their corresponding coenzyme A esters but did so much less efficiently than propionate. When prpE was coexpressed with the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthetic genes from Ralstonia eutropha in recombinant E. coli, a PHA copolymer containing 3HP units accumulated when 3HP was supplied with the growth medium. To compare the utility of acyl-CoA synthetases to that of an acyl-CoA transferase for PHA production, PHA-producing recombinant strains were constructed to coexpress the PHA biosynthetic genes with prpE, with acoE (an acetyl-CoA synthetase gene from R. eutropha [H. Priefert and A. Steinbüchel, J. Bacteriol. 174:6590–6599, 1992]), or with orfZ (an acetyl-CoA:4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA transferase gene from Clostridium propionicum [H. E. Valentin, S. Reiser, and K. J. Gruys, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 67:291–299, 2000]). Of the three enzymes, PrpE and OrfZ enabled similar levels of 3HP incorporation into PHA, whereas AcoE was significantly less effective in this capacity. PMID:11097899

  14. Optimisation explains global leaf trait patterns and plant adaptations to global change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, R. C.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Measured values of four key leaf traits (leaf area per unit mass, nitrogen concentration, photosynthetic rate and leaf lifespan) co-vary globally according to relationships that hold across all the world’s terrestrial plants. The same leaf traits respond consistently to altered environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen supply). Explaining observed global leaf trait patterns and leaf responses to environmental change is a prerequisite to understanding and predicting vegetation responses to global change more generally across a range of time scales. Recently [1] we have shown, using a simple model of plant carbon-nitrogen economy, that all of these leaf trait patterns and responses are consistent with an optimisation hypothesis that cumulative carbon export from leaves over their lifespan is maximised. Various closely-related optimisation hypotheses also explain other plant adaptations to environmental change, such as stomatal responses and altered patterns of growth allocation [2]. Incorporating plant optimisation into large scale vegetation-atmosphere models would ensure they are consistent with global leaf trait relationships, and would improve predictions of vegetation responses to global change. The challenge, both scientific and operational, is to do this consistently over a wide range of time scales. This talk will review our recent work using plant optimisation models [1,2] and highlight the potential of Maximum Entropy Production as a unifying optimisation principle for plant and ecosystem function across different time scales [3]. [1] McMurtrie RE, Dewar RC. 2009. Global variation of leaf traits explained from an hypothesis of optimal plant function. Manuscript in preparation. [2] Dewar RC, Franklin O, Makela A, McMurtrie RE, Valentine HT. 2009. Optimal function explains forest responses to global change. BioScience 59:127-139. [3] Dewar RC. 2009. Maximum entropy production and plants. Submitted to Phil

  15. Cartographic Production for the FLaSH Map Study: Generation of Rugosity Grids, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Hansen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Project Summary This series of raster data is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Series release from the Florida Shelf Habitat Project (FLaSH). This disc contains two raster images in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) raster grid format, jpeg image format, and Geo-referenced Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF). Data is also provided in non-image ASCII format. Rugosity grids at two resolutions (250 m and 1000 m) were generated for West Florida shelf waters to 250 m using a custom algorithm that follows the methods of Valentine and others (2004). The Methods portion of this document describes the specific steps used to generate the raster images. Rugosity, also referred to as roughness, ruggedness, or the surface-area ratio (Riley and others, 1999; Wilson and others, 2007), is a visual and quantitative measurement of terrain complexity, a common variable in ecological habitat studies. The rugosity of an area can affect biota by influencing habitat, providing shelter from elements, determining the quantity and type of living space, influencing the type and quantity of flora, affecting predator-prey relationships by providing cover and concealment, and, as an expression of vertical relief, can influence local environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture. In the marine environment rugosity can furthermore influence current flow rate and direction, increase the residence time of water in an area through eddying and current deflection, influence local water conditions such as chemistry, turbidity, and temperature, and influence the rate and nature of sedimentary deposition. State-of-the-art computer-mapping techniques and data-processing tools were used to develop shelf-wide raster and vector data layers. Florida Shelf Habitat (FLaSH) Mapping Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/flash) endeavors to locate available data, identify data gaps, synthesize existing information, and expand our understanding of geologic processes in our dynamic

  16. Occurrence, Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Chicken Products and Humans.

    PubMed

    El Bayomi, Rasha M; Ahmed, Heba A; Awadallah, Maysa A I; Mohsen, Rasha A; Abd El-Ghafar, Abeer E; Abdelrahman, Mahmoud A

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus in food is a consequence of inadequate hygienic handling and processing, posing a potential risk to public health. The current study aimed to characterize virulence factors, as well as antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from retail chicken products and hand swabs from vendors in Egypt. In addition, genetic relatedness of the isolates from chicken and humans was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using protein A as a target. A total of 110 samples were collected from chicken products (n = 80) and vendors (n = 30). Overall, 30 (37.5%) chicken products samples were positive for S. aureus, whereas hand swabs from meat handlers revealed that 18 (60%) were positive. Ten MRSA strains were characterized by the presence of the mecA gene, comprising seven isolates from chicken and three from humans. Virulence-associated factors were evaluated by PCR, revealing that 31.3% of S. aureus isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, whereas 10.4% were positive for the sea and sed genes each, and only two isolates were positive for γ-hemolysin-associated gene. Genotyping using spa PCR-RFLP showed identical restriction banding patterns of MRSA isolates of human and chicken meat origin, indicating the genetic relatedness of the isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize PVL-positive MRSA from chicken products and to utilize spa-RFLP for evaluating the genetic relatedness between MRSA of human and chicken origin in Egypt.

  17. Virulence determinants in clinical Staphylococcus aureus from monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shettigar, Kavitha; Jain, Spoorthi; Bhat, Deepika V; Acharya, Raviraj; Ramachandra, Lingadakai; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Murali, Thokur Sreepathy

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing was performed, and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin and leukotoxins DE and M were screened. Biofilm production was also quantified by the tissue culture plate method. Strains were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and repetitive sequence PCR methods. Polymicrobial infections were present in 115 samples, 61 samples showed monomicrobial infection and 24 samples were culture negative. Polymicrobial infections were significantly higher in patients with previous amputation history. Of the 86 samples infected with S. aureus, virulence genes were found in 81 isolates, and 41 isolates possessed more than one virulence gene. Strains which contained pvl gene alone or luk-DE alone were significantly higher in polymicrobial wounds. Based on biofilm production, 18.6 % of isolates were classified as high, 24.4 % as moderate and 57 % as low biofilm producers. Genotyping of 30 strains revealed 10 different sequence types with a strong association among sequence types, specific virulence markers and antibiotic resistance profiles. Moreover, isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wounds differed significantly in their virulence potential and the sequence types to which they belonged, and these are helpful in mapping the evolution of the identified strains of S. aureus.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abdulgader, Shima M.; Shittu, Adebayo O.; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a serious global problem, with considerable impact on patients and substantial health care costs. This systematic review provides an overview on the clonal diversity of MRSA, as well as the prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA in Africa. A search on the molecular characterization of MRSA in Africa was conducted by two authors using predefined terms. We screened for articles published in English and French through to October 2014 from five electronic databases. A total of 57 eligible studies were identified. Thirty-four reports from 15 countries provided adequate genotyping data. CC5 is the predominant clonal complex in the healthcare setting in Africa. The hospital-associated MRSA ST239/ST241-III [3A] was identified in nine African countries. This clone was also described with SCCmec type IV [2B] in Algeria and Nigeria, and type V [5C] in Niger. In Africa, the European ST80-IV [2B] clone was limited to Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia. The clonal types ST22-IV [2B], ST36-II [2A], and ST612-IV [2B] were only reported in South Africa. No clear distinctions were observed between MRSA responsible for hospital and community infections. The community clones ST8-IV [2B] and ST88-IV [2B] were reported both in the hospital and community settings in Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, and São Tomé and Príncipe. The proportion of PVL-positive MRSA carriage and/or infections ranged from 0.3 to 100% in humans. A number of pandemic clones were identified in Africa. Moreover, some MRSA clones are limited to specific countries or regions. We strongly advocate for more surveillance studies on MRSA in Africa. PMID:25983721

  19. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space

    PubMed Central

    Faerber, Stella J.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  20. Infections Caused By Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus European Clone (ST80) In Slovenia Between 2006 And 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jurca, Tomaž; Harlander, Tatjana; Košir, Marta; Zajc, Urška; Golob, Majda; Zdovc, Irena; Grmek Košnik, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction According to the existing literature, a heterogeneous sequence type (ST) or clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) circulate in Europe. In Europe, the European clone that belongs to sequence type ST80 is predominant. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and epidemiological data of CA-MRSA ST80 and its occurrence in Slovenia. We retrospectively analyzed those CA-MRSA isolates that were isolated during microbiological procedures in microbiological laboratories between 2006 and 2013. Only CA-MRSA isolates from the national collection of CA-MRSA strains that belonged to ST80 (European clone) were analyzed. We determined the Pantone-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mec A genes, exfoliative toxin genes and type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We determined also spa type and sequence type. Results ST80 was confirmed in only 2 (0.5%) out of 385 CA-MRSA isolates, collected in a national collection of CAMRSA. Both isolates were positive for the PVL genes, mec A gene, exfoliative toxin type D gene and SCCmec IV. One CA-MRSA isolate was confirmed in a wound swab taken from a 47-year-old male, and the second was isolated from blood cultures of a 69-year-old female. No epidemiological connections between them were found. Conclusions In Slovenia CA-MRSA infections caused by ST80 are rare. In the future, it is necessary that a surveillance study of CA-MRSA at the national level continues and CA-MRSA be considered as a public health threat. PMID:27284382

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 resistant to tetracycline at a Spanish hospital over 12 years.

    PubMed

    Camoez, Mariana; Sierra, Josep M; Pujol, Miquel; Hornero, Ana; Martin, Rogélio; Domínguez, M Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398, associated with livestock animals, was described in 2003 as a new lineage infecting or colonizing humans. We evaluated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of MRSA ST398 isolated in the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge from January 2000 to June 2011. Tetracycline resistant (Tet-R) MRSA isolates from single patients (pts) were screened by SmaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Nontypable MRSA strains by SmaI (NT Sma I)-MRSA were further analysed by ApaI-PFGE, spa, SCCmec, agr, MLST typing, and by DNA microarray hybridization. Among 164 pts harboring Tet-R MRSA, NT Sma I-MRSA ST398-agrI was found in 33 pts (20%). Although the first pt was detected in 2003, 22/33 pts (67%) were registered in the 2010-2011 period. Ten pts (30%) were infected and cancer was the most frequent underlying disease. In one case, death was due to MRSA-ST398-related infection. Five pulsotypes (A-E) were detected using ApaI-PFGE, with type A accounting for 76% of the strains. The majority of the studied isolates presented spa type t011 (70%) and SCCmec type V (88%). One strain was spa negative both by PCR and microarray analysis. Forty-nine percent of the studied isolates showed resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes, in addition to beta-lactams. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 67%. Tet-R was mediated by tet(M) and tet(K) in 26 isolates. All isolates lacked Panton-Valentine Leukocidin production, as well as other significant toxins. This study displays the molecular features of MRSA-ST398 clone and shows the increase in tetracycline resistance together with arise in MRSA-ST398 isolates infecting or colonizing patients in our clinical setting.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Israel.

    PubMed

    Biber, A; Parizade, M; Taran, D; Jaber, H; Berla, E; Rubin, C; Rahav, G; Glikman, D; Regev-Yochay, G

    2015-08-01

    Data on community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Israel are scarce. The objective of this study was to characterize the major CA-MRSA clones in Israel. All clinical MRSA isolates detected in the community during a period of 2.5 years (2011-2013) from individuals insured by a major health maintenance organization in Israel were collected, with additional data from medical records. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing were determined. SCCmec IV and V isolates were further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and detection of a panel of toxin genes. MRSA were detected in 280 patients, mostly from skin infections. Patients with SCCmec IV (n = 120, 43 %) were younger (p < 0.0001) and reported less contact with healthcare facilities. Almost all isolates were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole susceptible (98 %). spa-CC032, a typical nosocomial MRSA clone, accounted for 28 % of SCCmec IV. The two major CA-MRSA clones were t008 USA300 (13 %) and t991 (10 %); t991 was isolated mainly from children (75 %), was Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative but eta-positive, and was typically susceptible to most antibiotic groups. PVL-positive strains (n = 31) included mainly USA300 (52 %) and t019 (13 %). While multiple genetic lineages were evident among community-onset MRSA in Israel, approximately 20 % are typical CA-MRSA clones, mainly USA300 and a local clone, t991.

  3. Origin and Evolution of European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Andersen, Paal S.; Skov, Robert L.; De Grassi, Anna; Simões, Patricia Martins; Tristan, Anne; Petersen, Andreas; Aziz, Maliha; Kiil, Kristoffer; Cirković, Ivana; Udo, Edet E.; del Campo, Rosa; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahmad, Norazah; Tokajian, Sima; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Givskov, Michael; Driebe, Elizabeth E.; Vigh, Henrik E.; Shittu, Adebayo; Ramdani-Bougessa, Nadjia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Price, Lance B.; Vandenesch, Francois; Larsen, Anders R.; Laurent, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s. It has since been identified throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, with recent sporadic reports in sub-Saharan Africa. While strongly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, it is rarely found among asymptomatic carriers. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) CC80 strains are extremely rare except in sub-Saharan Africa. In the current study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a global collection of both MSSA and MRSA CC80 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the European epidemic CA-MRSA lineage is derived from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the tree topology suggests a single acquisition of both the SCCmec element and a plasmid encoding the fusidic acid resistance determinant. Four canonical SNPs distinguish the derived CA-MRSA lineage and include a nonsynonymous mutation in accessory gene regulator C (agrC). These changes were associated with a star-like expansion into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the early 1990s, including multiple cases of cross-continent imports likely driven by human migrations. PMID:25161186

  4. Clinical outcomes and treatment approach for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in Israel.

    PubMed

    Berla-Kerzhner, E; Biber, A; Parizade, M; Taran, D; Rahav, G; Regev-Yochay, G; Glikman, D

    2017-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are increasingly documented worldwide. We recently identified two major CA-MRSA clones in Israel: USA300 and t991. Here, we assessed clinical outcomes by CA-MRSA clones and the physicians' treatment approach to CA-MRSA infections. All community-onset, clinical MRSA isolates detected during 2011-2013 by Maccabi Healthcare Services were collected and characterized phenotypically and genotypically; data were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records. Of 309 patients with MRSA infections, 64 were identified as CA-MRSA (21 %). Of the CA-MRSA infections, 72 % had skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 38 % were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+, the major clone being USA300 (n = 13, 54 %). Of PVL- isolates (n = 40, 62 %), t991 was the major clone. Age was the only predictor for PVL+ CA-MRSA infection (p < 0.001). Patients with PVL+ CA-MRSA had higher incidence of SSTI recurrences (1.061 vs. 0.647 events per patient/per year, p < 0.0001) and were more likely to have the SSTI drained (64 % vs. 21 %, p = 0.003) when compared to PVL- CA-MRSA. USA300 was more common among adults, while t991 was more common among children (p = 0.002). The physician's referral to culture results and susceptibility were the only predictors of appropriate antibiotic therapy (p < 0.001). However, only a minority of physicians referred to culture results, regardless of subspecialties. PVL+ CA-MRSA isolates caused significantly more recurrences of SSTIs and increased the need for drainage compared with PVL- isolates. Physicians' awareness of CA-MRSA as a cause of SSTIs in the community was suboptimal. Culturing of pus-producing SSTIs is crucial for providing adequate antimicrobials and elucidating MRSA epidemiology.

  5. Genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from milk and dairy products in South Italy.

    PubMed

    Basanisi, M G; La Bella, G; Nobili, G; Franconieri, I; La Salandra, G

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen emerging in hospitals as well as community and livestock. MRSA is a significant and costly public health concern because it may enter the human food chain and contaminate milk and dairy products causing foodborne illness. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and the characteristics of MRSA isolated from 3760 samples of milk and dairy products in a previous survey conducted in southern Italy during 2008-2014. Overall out of 484 S. aureus strains isolated, 40 (8.3%) were MRSA and were characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCCmec typing, Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes and ability to form biofilm. The most frequently recovered STs were ST152 (t355-67.5%), followed by ST398 (t899, t108-25%), ST1 (t127-5%) and ST5 (t688-2.5%). All isolates harboured the SCCmec type V (92.5%) or IVa (25%). In one isolate (2.5%), ST398/t899, the SCCmec resulted not detected. Three isolates (7.5%) carried one or more enterotoxin encoding genes (one strain had seg, sei, sem, sen and seo genes; two strains had seh gene). The 50% of isolated strains harboured PVL-encoding genes. Molecular analysis for icaA and icaD genes showed: 72.5% icaA and icaD positive, 25% only icaD gene and one icaA and icaD negative. The detection of MRSA in food of animal origin is a potential health hazard, thus it is necessary monitoring of food-producing animals and improving hygiene standards in food practices in order to reduce the microbiological risk to minimum.

  6. Foods from black market at EU border as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    PubMed

    Oniciuc, Elena-Alexandra; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Bolocan, Andrei-Sorin; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rovira, Jordi; Hernández, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-09-16

    The illegal entrance of foods to EU through black markets at the EU borders can constitute a neglected route of dissemination of foodborne pathogens, and in particular of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have assessed the presence of MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border (the southeast part of Romania, on the border with Republic of Moldavia). We performed a search for MRSA among 200 food samples collected from 2012 to 2013. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 32 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 16 food samples (8%). One isolate detected in a pork lard sample was MRSA (0.5%). PFGE with the restriction enzyme SmaI revealed 12 genotypes among the 32 S. aureus isolates. The MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type 398, harbored SCCmec type V, tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes and was resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and cefazolin, besides all β-lactams. Among 31 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 29% were resistant to penicillin, 9.7% to tetracycline and 3.2% to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, in this study we report the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border: ST398-MRSA-V. These results confirm the potential role of food in the dissemination of MRSA lineages among population, and the potential role of illegally introduced food to EU in the prevalence and evolution of MRSA clones in the community.

  7. Characterization of PVL/ACME-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (genotypes ST8-MRSA-IV and ST5-MRSA-II) isolated from a university hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Yamamoto, Dai; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Shinagawa, Masaaki; Watanabe, Naoki; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-02-01

    The ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, known as USA300, is a prevalent community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone in the United States and has been spreading worldwide. The USA300 characteristically harbors Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes and the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME, type I). Prevalence and molecular characteristics of PVL(+) and/or ACME(+) S. aureus were investigated in a university hospital located in northern Japan, for 1,366 S. aureus isolates, including 601 MRSA strains derived from clinical specimens collected from 2008 to 2010. The PVL gene was identified in three MRSA strains with SCCmec IV, which belonged to ST8, spa type t008, coagulase type III, and agr type I. Two PVL-positive MRSA strains had also type I ACME, and were isolated from skin abscess of outpatients who have not travelled abroad recently. One of these PVL(+)/ACME(+) strains carried tet(K), msrA, and aph(3')-IIIa, showing resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, suggesting acquisition of more resistance than ST8 CA-MRSA reported in Japan previously. In contrast, another PVL(+)/ACME(+) strain and a PVL(+)/ACME(-) strain were susceptible to more antimicrobials and had less virulence factors than PVL(-)/ACME(+) MRSA strains. Besides the two PVL(+) MRSA strains, ACME (type-ΔII) was identified into seven MRSA strains with SCCmec II belonging to ST5, one of the three spa types (t002, t067, and t071), coagulase type II, and agr type II. These PVL(-)/ACME(+) MRSA strains showed multiple drug resistance and harbored various toxin genes as observed for ST5 PVL(-)/ACME(-) MRSA-II. The present study suggested the spread of ST8-MRSA-IV in northern Japan, and a potential significance of ACME-positive ST5-MRSA-II as an emerging MRSA clone in a hospital.

  8. Demography and Intercontinental Spread of the USA300 Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Philippe; Martins-Simões, Patrícia; Villain, Adrien; Barbier, Maxime; Tristan, Anne; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Bes, Michele; Laurent, Frederic; Guillemot, Didier; Wirth, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized worldwide during the 1990s; in less than a decade, several genetically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes have emerged on every continent. Most notably, in the United States, the sequence type 18-IV (ST8-IV) clone known as USA300 has become highly prevalent, outcompeting methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other MRSA strains in both community and hospital settings. CA-MRSA bacteria are much less prevalent in Europe, where the European ST80-IV European CA-MRSA clone, USA300 CA-MRSA strains, and other lineages, such as ST22-IV, coexist. The question that arises is whether the USA300 CA-MRSA present in Europe (i) was imported once or on very few occasions, followed by a broad geographic spread, anticipating an increased prevalence in the future, or (ii) derived from multiple importations with limited spreading success. In the present study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a collection of French USA300 CA-MRSA strains responsible for sporadic cases and micro-outbreaks over the past decade and United States ST8 MSSA and MRSA isolates. Genome-wide phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the population structure of the French isolates is the product of multiple introductions dating back to the onset of the USA300 CA-MRSA clone in North America. Coalescent-based demography of the USA300 lineage shows that a strong expansion occurred during the 1990s concomitant with the acquisition of the arginine catabolic mobile element and antibiotic resistance, followed by a sharp decline initiated around 2008, reminiscent of the rise-and-fall pattern previously observed in the ST80 lineage. A future expansion of the USA300 lineage in Europe is therefore very unlikely. PMID:26884428

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Theoretical Physics: Dubna-Nano 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Vladimir; Nesterenko, Valentin; Shukrinov, Yury M.

    2012-11-01

    The International Conference 'Dubna-Nano2012' was held on 9-14 July 2012 at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia. The conference was the third one in the series started in 2008. 'Dubna-Nano2012' provided an opportunity for presentations and discussions about theoretical and experimental advances in the rapidly growing area of nanophysics. The multidisciplinary character of the conference allowed an effective exchange of ideas between different areas of nanophysics. The following topics were covered: graphene and other carbon nanostructures, topological insulators, quantum transport, quantum dots, atomic clusters, Josephson junctions and applications of nanosystems. About 100 scientists from 22 countries participated in the conference. The program included 38 oral talks and 39 posters. This volume contains 35 contributions. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions. We are deeply indebted to the members of the International Advisory Committee Professors K S Novoselov, T Ando, T Chakraborty, J Fabian, V M Galitski, F Guinea, M Z Hasan, P Hawrylak, K Kadowaki, R Kleiner, T Koyama, Yu I Latyshev, Yu E Lozovik, M Machida, B K Nikolic, N F Pedersen, P-G. Reinhard, J M Rost and A Ya Vul. Financial support from BLTP JINR, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Heisenberg-Landau Program and Bogoliubov-Infeld Program was of a great importance. Further information about 'Dubna-Nano2012' is available on the homepage http://theor.jinr.ru/~nano12. Vladimir Osipov, Valentin Nesterenko and Yury Shukrinov Editors

  10. PREFACE International Conference on Theoretical Physics Dubna-Nano 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Vladimir; Nesterenko, Valentin; Shukrinov, Yury

    2010-11-01

    The International Conference on Theoretical Physics 'Dubna-Nano2010' was held on 5-10 July 2010, at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia. The previous conference of this series was at Dubna in 2008. The conference provided the opportunity for the presentation and discussion of theoretical and experimental advances in the rapidly growing area of nanophysics, with the accent on its theoretical aspects. The multidisciplinary character of the conference allowed an effective exchange of ideas between different areas of nanophysics. The following topics were covered: carbon nanosystems (graphene, nanotubes, fullerenes), quantum dots, quantum transport, spectroscopy and dynamics of atomic clusters, Josephson junctions, modelling, applications and perspectives. Approximately 120 scientists from 26 countries participated in the conference. The program included 63 oral talks and 70 posters. The 62 contributions are included in these proceedings. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions, which made the conference indeed successful. We are deeply indebted to the members of the International Advisory Committee (Professors T Ando, J Fabian, F Guinea, P Hawrylak, K Kadowaki, T Koyama, Yu I Latushev, Yu E Lozovik, M Machida, B K Nikolic, N F Pedersen, P-G Reinhard, J M Rost, A Ya Vul') and the Local Organizing Committee for their fruitful work. The financial support of BLTP JINR, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Heisenberg-Landau Program and Bogoliubov-Infeld Program was of a great importance. Additional information about 'Dubna-Nano2010' is available at the homepage http://theor.jinr.ru/~nano10. Vladimir Osipov, Valentin Nesterenko and Yury Shukrinov Editors

  11. PREFACE: The International Conference on Theoretical Physics `Dubna-Nano2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. A.; Nesterenko, V. O.; Shukrinov, Y. M.

    2008-07-01

    The International Conference on Theoretical Physics `Dubna-Nano2008' was held on 7-11 July 2008 at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia. The conference provided the opportunity for the presentation and discussion of theoretical and experimental advances in the rapidly growing area of the nanophysics, with the accent on its theoretical aspects. The multidisciplinary character of the conference allowed an effective exchange of ideas between different areas of nanophysics. The following topics were covered: carbon nanosystems (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene), quantum dots, electron and spin transport, spectroscopy and dynamics of atomic clusters, Josephson junctions, bio-complexes, and applications of nanosystems. Approximately 90 scientists from 16 countries participated in the conference. The program included 48 oral talks and 40 posters. The 51 contributions are included in this proceedings. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions, which made the conference so successful. We are deeply indebted to the members of the International Advisory Committee (Professors T Ando, S Datta, A V Eletskii, J Fabian, F Guinea, P Hawrylak, K Kadowaki, T Koyama, Yu I Latushev, N F Pedersen, P-G Reinhard, J M Rost, A Ya Vul') and the Local Organizing Committee for their fruitful work. The financial support of BLTP JINR, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Heisenberg-Landau Program and Bogoliubov-Infeld Program was of a great importance. Additional information about `Dubna-Nano2008' is available at the homepage http://theor.jinr.ru/~nano08. Vladimir Osipov, Valentin Nesterenko and Yury Shukrinov Editors

  12. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  13. Phenol-Soluble Modulins Contribute to Early Sepsis Dissemination Not Late Local USA300-Osteomyelitis Severity in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Davido, Benjamin; Saleh-Mghir, Azzam; Laurent, Frédéric; Danel, Claire; Couzon, Florence; Gatin, Laure; Vandenesch, François; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In bone and joint infections (BJIs), bacterial toxins are major virulence factors: Panton—Valentine leukocidin (PVL) expression leads to severe local damage, including bone distortion and abscesses, while α-hemolysin (Hla) production is associated with severe sepsis-related mortality. Recently, other toxins, namely phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) expressed by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA300 (LAC WT) were shown to have ex vivo intracellular cytotoxic activity after S. aureus invasion of osteoblasts, but their in vivo contribution in a relatively PVL-sensitive osteomyelitis model remains poorly elucidated. Materials and Methods We compared the outcomes of experimental rabbit osteomyelitises induced with pvl+hla+psms+ LAC WT and its isogenic Δpsm derivatives (LAC Δpsmα and LAC Δpsmαβhld) using an inoculum of 3 × 108 CFUs. Mortality, hematogenous spread (blood culture, spleen and kidney), lung and bone involvements were assessed in two groups (non-survivors of severe sepsis and survivors sacrificed on day (D) 14). Results Severe sepsis-related mortality tended to be lower for Δpsm derivatives (Kaplan—Meier curves, P = .06). Non-survivors’ bone LAC-Δpsmα (6.9 log10 CFUs/g of bone, P = .04) or -Δpsmαβhld (6.86 log10 CFUs/g of bone, P = .014) densities were significantly higher than LAC WT (6.43 log10 CFUs/g of bone). Conversely, lung Δpsmαβhld CFUs were significantly lower than LAC WT (P = .04). LAC Δpsmα, Δpsmαβhld and WT induced similar bone damage in D14 survivors, with comparable bacterial densities (respectively: 5.89, 5.91, and 6.15 log10 CFUs/g of bone). Meanwhile, pulmonary histological scores of inflammation were significantly higher for LAC Δpsmα- and Δpsmαβhld-infected rabbits compared to LAC WT (P = .04 and .01, respectively) but with comparable lung bacterial densities. Conclusion Our experimental results showed that deactivating PSM peptides significantly

  14. Nonproportionality of Scintillator Detectors: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Stephen; Cherepy, Nerine; Hull, Giulia; Valentine, John; Moses, William; Choong, Woon-Seng

    2009-08-17

    On the basis of nonproportionality data obtained for several scintillators, we have developed a theory to describe the carrier dynamics to fit the light yield versus electron energy. The theory of Onsager was adapted to explain how the carriers form excitons or sequentially arrive at the activators to promote the ion to an excited state, and the theory of Birks was employed to allow for exciton-exciton annihilation. We then developed a second theory to deduce the degradation in resolution that results from nonproportionality by evoking Landau fluctuations, which are essentially variations in the deposited energy density that occur as the high energy electron travels along its trajectory. In general there is good agreement with the data, in terms of fitting the nonproportionality curves and reproducing the literature values of nonproportionality's contribution to the scintillator resolution. With the resurgence of interest in developing scintillator detectors that have good energy resolution, an improved understanding of nonproportionality has become a crucial matter since it presents the fundamental limit to the achievable resolution. In order to hasten an improved understanding of scintillator nonproportionality, we have constructed an instrument referred to as SLYNCI (Scintillator Light Yield Nonproportionality Compton Instrument). This is a second-generation instrument to the original device developed by Valentine and coworkers, wherein several new principles of operation have served to increase the data rate by an order of magnitude as discussed in detail in References. In the present article, the focus is on a theory to describe the measured electron response, which is the light yield as a function of the electron energy. To do this, we account for transport of carriers and excitons, in terms of how they transfer their energy to the activators with competition from nonradiative decay pathways. This work builds on the original work of Murray and coworkers, and

  15. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among Swiss veterinary health care providers: detection of livestock- and healthcare-associated clones.

    PubMed

    Wettstein Rosenkranz, K; Rothenanger, E; Brodard, I; Collaud, A; Overesch, G; Bigler, B; Marschall, J; Perreten, V

    2014-07-01

    We screened a total of 340 veterinarians (including general practitioners, small animal practitioners, large animal practitioners, veterinarians working in different veterinary services or industry), and 29 veterinary assistants for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) at the 2012 Swiss veterinary annual meeting. MRSA isolates (n = 14) were detected in 3.8 % (95 % CI 2.1 - 6.3 %) of the participants whereas MRSP was not detected. Large animal practitioners were carriers of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398-t011-V (n = 2), ST398-t011-IV (n = 4), and ST398-t034-V (n = 1). On the other hand, participants working with small animals harbored human healthcare-associated MRSA (HCA-MRSA) which belonged to epidemic lineages ST225-t003-II (n = 2), ST225-t014-II (n = 1), ST5-t002-II (n = 2), ST5-t283-IV (n = 1), and ST88-t186-IV (n = 1). HCA-MRSA harbored virulence factors such as enterotoxins, β-hemolysin converting phage and leukocidins. None of the MRSA isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). In addition to the methicillin resistance gene mecA, LA-MRSA ST398 isolates generally contained additional antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance to tetracycline [tet(M) and tet(K)], trimethoprim [dfrK, dfrG], and the aminoglycosides gentamicin and kanamycin [aac(6')-Ie - aph(2')-Ia]. On the other hand, HCA-MRSA ST5 and ST225 mainly contained genes conferring resistance to the macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics [erm(A)], to spectinomycin [ant(9)-Ia], amikacin and tobramycin [ant(4')-Ia], and to fluoroquinolones [amino acid substitutions in GrlA (S84L) and GyrA (S80F and S81P)]. MRSA carriage may represent an occupational risk and veterinarians should be aware of possible MRSA colonization and potential for developing infection or for transmitting these strains. Professional exposure to animals should be reported upon hospitalization and before medical

  16. Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96

  17. Acute haematogenous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in an adult: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has of late emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among immunocompetent adults without risk factors. Skin and soft tissue infections represent the majority of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clinical presentations, whilst invasive and life-threatening illness like necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis, osteomyelitis and sepsis syndrome are less common. Although more widely described in the pediatric age group, the occurrence of CA-MRSA osteomyelitis in adults is an uncommonly reported entity. Case presentation We describe an invasive CA-MRSA infection in a 28 year-old previously healthy male, manifesting with bacteraemia, osteomyelitis of femur, pyomyositis and septic arthritis of the knee. Initially a preliminary diagnosis of osteosarcoma was suggested by imaging studies and patient underwent a bone biopsy. MRSA was subsequently isolated from blood cultures taken on day of admission, bone, tissue and pus cultures. Incision and drainage of abscess was performed and patient was treated with vancomycin, with fusidic acid added later. It took 6 months for the inflammatory markers to normalize, warranting 6-months of anti-MRSA therapy. Patient was a fervent deer hunter and we speculate that he acquired this infection from extensive direct contact with deer. Molecular characterization of this isolate showed that it belonged to multilocus sequence type (MLST) ST30 and exhibited the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV, staphylococcus protein A (spa) type t019, accessory gene regulator (agr) type III and dru type dt10m. This strain harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) genes together with 3 other virulent genes; sei (enterotoxin), hlg (hemolysin) and fnbA (fibronectin binding protein). Conclusion This case study alerts physicians that beyond the most commonly encountered skin and soft tissue infections, pvl

  18. Pneumonia Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Does Vancomycin Heteroresistance Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Kimberly C.; Lagnf, Abdalhamid M.; Hallesy, Jessica A.; Compton, Matthew T.; Gravelin, Alison L.; Davis, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin remains the mainstay treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, including pneumonia. There is concern regarding the emergence of vancomycin tolerance, caused by heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), and subsequent vancomycin treatment failure. Pneumonia is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially with delays in appropriate therapy. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of patients with hVISA pneumonia compared to those with vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) pneumonia. A retrospective cohort of patients with MRSA pneumonia from 2005 to 2014 was matched at a ratio of 2:1 VSSA to hVISA infections to compare patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. hVISA was determined by the 48-h population analysis profile area under the curve. Characteristics between VSSA and hVISA infections were compared by univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine independent risk factors of inpatient mortality. Eighty-seven patients were included, representing 29 hVISA and 58 VSSA cases of pneumonia. There were no significant differences in demographics or baseline characteristics. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were a median of 7 (interquartile ratio [IQR], 5 to 8) in hVISA patients and 5 (IQR, 3 to 8) in VSSA (P = 0.092) patients. Inpatient mortality was significantly higher in hVISA patients (44.8% versus 24.1%; P = 0.049). Predictors of inpatient mortality upon multivariable regression were SOFA score (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.70), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positivity (aOR, 6.63; 95% CI, 1.79 to 24.64), and hVISA phenotype (aOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.18 to 13.21). Patients with hVISA pneumonia experienced significantly higher inpatient mortality than those with VSSA pneumonia. There is a need to consider the presence of vancomycin heteroresistance in pneumonia caused by MRSA in order to

  19. Thyroid Hormones and Moderate Exposure to Perchlorate during Pregnancy in Women in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin; Blount, Benjamin C.; Miller, Mark D.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; DeLorenze, Gerald; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Liaw, Jane

    2015-01-01

    , Miller MD, Pearce EN, Valentin-Blasini L, DeLorenze G, Hoofnagle AN, Liaw J. 2016. Thyroid hormones and moderate exposure to perchlorate during pregnancy in women in Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 124:861–867; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409614 PMID:26485730

  20. Skin and soft tissue infections in intercontinental travellers and the import of multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Europe.

    PubMed

    Nurjadi, D; Friedrich-Jänicke, B; Schäfer, J; Van Genderen, P J J; Goorhuis, A; Perignon, A; Neumayr, A; Mueller, A; Kantele, A; Schunk, M; Gascon, J; Stich, A; Hatz, C; Caumes, E; Grobusch, M P; Fleck, R; Mockenhaupt, F P; Zanger, P

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is emerging globally. Treatment of infections is complicated by increasing antibiotic resistance. We collected clinical data and swabs of returnees with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) at 13 travel-clinics in Europe (www.staphtrav.eu). Sixty-two percent (196/318) SSTI patients had S. aureus-positive lesions, of which almost two-thirds (122/196) were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive. PVL was associated with disease severity, including hospitalization for SSTI (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.5-18.2). In returnees with SSTI, longer travel and more intense population contact were risk factors for nasal colonization with PVL-positive S. aureus. Imported S. aureus frequently proved resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21%), erythromycin (21%), tetracycline (20%), ciprofloxacin (13%), methicillin (12%) and clindamycin (8%). Place of exposure was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with predominant resistance phenotypes and spa genotypes: Latin America (methicillin; t008/CC24/304), Africa (tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; t084/CC84, t314/singleton, t355/CC355), South Asia (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin; t021/CC21/318), South-East Asia (clindamycin; t159/CC272). USA300-like isolates accounted for 30% of all methicillin-resistant S. aureus imported to Europe and were predominantly (71%) acquired in Latin America. Multi-resistance to non-β-lactams were present in 24% of imports and associated with travel to South Asia (ORcrude 5.3, 95% CI 2.4-11.8), even after adjusting for confounding by genotype (ORadjusted 3.8, 95% 1.5-9.5). Choosing randomly from compounds recommended for the empiric treatment of severe S. aureus SSTI, 15% of cases would have received ineffective antimicrobial therapy. These findings call for the development of regionally stratified guidance on the antibiotic management of severe imported S. aureus disease and put the infected and colonized traveller at the centre of interventions against the

  1. Contamination of public buses with MRSA in Lisbon, Portugal: a possible transmission route of major MRSA clones within the community.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Teresa; Diamantino, Fernanda; Coelho, Céline; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that public buses in Oporto, the second largest city in Portugal, were highly contaminated with MRSA. Here we describe the results of a similar study performed in another urban area of Portugal-Lisbon, the capital. Between May 2011 and May 2012, hand touched surfaces of 199 public buses in Lisbon were screened for MRSA contamination. Subsequently, the hands of 575 passengers who frequently use these bus lines were also screened. All hand carriers of MRSA were further screened for nasal carriage. The isolates were characterized by PFGE, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing, spa typing, MLST and were tested for the presence of mecA, Panton-Valentine leukocidin and arginine catabolic mobile element genes. MRSA contamination was shown in 72 buses (36.2%). The majority of the isolates belonged to three major clones: Clone A was identified as EMRSA-15 defined by pattern PFGE A, spa types t2357/t747/t025/t379/t910, ST22, and SCCmec IVh (n = 21; 29%). Clone B was the New York/Japan clone characterized by PFGE B-t002/t10682-ST5-II (n = 15; 21%). Clone C included isolates with characteristics of the international community-acquired USA300 or related clones, PFGE C-t008-ST8-IVa/IVc/IVg/IVnt/VI (n = 19; 26%). The first two clones are currently the two major lineages circulating in Portuguese hospitals. The hands of 15 individuals were contaminated with MRSA belonging to the nosocomial clones A or B. Eleven of these individuals were not nasal carriers of MRSA and all but one had travelled by public transportation, namely by bus, prior to sampling. In conclusion, public buses in two major cities in Portugal are often contaminated with MRSA representing clones dominant in hospitals in the particular geographic area. MRSA contamination of public transport and the transfer of the bacteria to the hands of passengers may represent a route through which hospital-acquired MRSA clones may spread to the community.

  2. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-11-20

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  3. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  4. Proterozoic geochronologic and isotopic boundary in NW Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, K.R.; Bowring, S.A. )

    1990-05-01

    U-Pb ages determined from zircon, sphene, and apatite in conjunction with Pb isotopic analyses of alkali feldspar establish a regional geochronological framework and constrain the location of a major north-trending Proterozoic crustal boundary in northwestern Arizona. Two regions west of the boundary (Hualapai Mountains and Lost Basin Range-Garnet Mountain) are characterized by complex U-Pb zircon systematics, evidence for inheritance of an older zircon component (1.8-2.3 Ga), and elevated {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb from feldspars compared to the east. Although the discordia patterns are complex, supracrustal rocks are interpreted to be ca. 1.73 Ga and are intruded by plutonic rocks ca. 1.70 Ga. Deformation is younger than ca. 1.70 Ga foliated granites and older than the 1,682 {plus minus} 4 Ma Garnet Mt. monzogranite. The rocks in one area east of the boundary (Cottonwood Cliffs) are characterized by relatively simple U-Pb zircon systematics, no evidence for inheritance of any older component, and feldspar {sup 207}/{sup 204}Pb near model mantle values. Supracrustal rocks are older than 1.73 Ga, as they are intruded by a 1,730 {plus minus} 9 Ma foliated granodiorite. Timing of deformation is constrained by the late syn-kinematic Valentine granite dated at 1,713 {plus minus} 12 Ma. Mineral ages indicate that the rocks on either side of the boundary had different cooling histories and inferentially, different uplift histories. West of the boundary, the cooling history is inferred from minerals separated from an amphibolite: metamorphic zircon is 1,687 +13/{minus}8 Ma, sphene is 1,660 {plus minus} 5 Ma, hornblende has a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age of 1,552 {plus minus} 5 Ma, and apatite has a U-Pb age of 1,520 {plus minus} 45 Ma. East of the boundary an amphibolite has sphene with an age of 1,670 {plus minus} 11 Ma and apatite with an age of 1,630 {plus minus} 8 Ma.

  5. Molecular Characteristic and Virulence Gene Profiles of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Li, Xia; Liu, Wei; Huang, Weichun; Fu, Qihua; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing. The detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl), superantigenic and exfoliative toxins, and adhesin genes was also performed. Overall, 16 distinct sequence types (STs) were identified among the 80 isolates. Among them, ST59 was found to be the most prevalent, followed by ST398 (11.3%, 9/80) and ST88 (8.8%, 7/80). SCCmec types IV and V were observed, at 60 and 40%, respectively. Thirty spa types were identified, spa t437 (23.8%) was the most predominant type. All 80 isolates exhibited carriage of at least four virulence genes. Thirty-four (42.5%, 34/80) isolates harbored ≥10 tested virulence genes. Adhesion genes were present in most of the MRSA isolates, including the following: icaA (100%), clfA (100%), sdrC (95%), and sdrE (63.8%). The prevalence of pvl gene was 20%, and multidrug resistance was observed in 36% of all strains. In addition, ST59-MRSA-IV with t437 accounted for 21.3% of occurrences, making it the most prevalent clone. Isolates that were carriers of toxin genes, and hla (100%) and hlg (87.5%) were the most frequent. In conclusion, simultaneous carriage of multiple virulence genes and genetically considerable diversity were very common among CA-MRSA from pediatric patients in Shanghai. ST59-MRSA-IV with t437 was still the most predominant type. The combination of

  6. Occurrence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from Japanese retail ready-to-eat raw fish.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Ahmed M; Watanabe, Wataru; Fujii, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    the S. aureus isolates carried the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) encoding genes, lukF-PV and lukS-PV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show MRSA and MR-CoNS isolated from retail ready-to-eat food in Japan. Our results showed that sashimi is a likely vehicle for transmission of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic staphylococci.

  7. Shifts in the Clonal Distribution of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Kuwait Hospitals: 1992-2010

    PubMed Central

    Boswihi, Samar S.; Udo, Edet E.; Al-Sweih, Noura

    2016-01-01

    Background As the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is constantly changing globally, determining the prevailing MRSA clones in a local healthcare facility is important for better management of infections. This study investigated clonal composition and distribution of MRSA isolates in Kuwait’s hospitals using a combination of molecular typing methods. Materials and Methods In total, 400 non-repeat MRSA isolates were obtained between 1992 and 2010 in 13 public hospitals and were characterized using antibiogram, SCCmec typing, spa typing, and multilocus-sequence typing. Clonal assignment and detection of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes were performed by DNA microarray. Results The isolates were resistant to kanamycin (74.2%), erythromycin (69.5%), tetracycline (66.7%), gentamicin (61%), ciprofloxacin, (61%), fusidic acid (53.5%), clindamycin (41.5%), high-level mupirocin resistance (5.2%) and carried aphA3, aacA-aphD, ermA, ermC, mupA, tetK, tetM, fusC and far1. Molecular typing revealed 31 different MRSA clones consisting of ST239-MRSA-III (52.2%), ST22-MRSA-IV (9.2%), ST80-MRSA-IV (7.5%), ST5-MRSA-II/IV/V/VI (6.5%), ST30-MRSA-IV (3.5%), ST241-MRSA-III (2.7%), ST6-MRSA-IV (2.2%), ST36-MRSA-II (2%) and ST772-MRSA-V (1.75%). The isolates differed in the carriage of genes for enterotoxins, Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst-1), arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and exfoliative toxins. The number of clones increased from one (ST239-III-t037) in 1992 to 30 in 2010 including ST8-IV-t008 [PVL+] [ACME+] (USA300), ST772-V (Bengal Bay clone) and ST2816 identified for the first time in Kuwait. Conclusion The study revealed that the MRSA isolates belonged to diverse clones that changed in numbers and diversity overtime. Although ST239-MRSA-III, a healthcare-associated clone remained the dominant MRSA clone overtime, the newly emerged clones consisted mostly of community-associated. PMID

  8. The other "Irish question".

    PubMed

    Browne, H

    1992-05-01

    The influence of the Roman Catholic Church on Irish society makes it difficult for sex and health educators and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Divorce, abortion, consensual sex between consenting adult men, and contraception for those under 18 years is banned in Ireland. Public opinions and recent court decisions do appear to bring a measure of hope for more lenient attitudes. The trends vary from the recent Supreme Court case of the 14-year old rape victim being permitted an abortion because she was suicidal to a radio talk show host, Father Michael Cleary who suspected she was "set-up" to test the ban on abortion. Father Cleary also outraged health educators by stating inaccurately that condoms did not prevent AIDS. It is estimated that 500 Irish women have abortions each year in Britain; there have been 262 reported AIDS cases and estimates of up to 10,000 HIV infected out of a population of 3.5 million. An AIDS education campaign was mounted in 1987, but in the 37-minute Department of Health video only 1 minute was devoted to condoms and no sex was promoted as the only safe sex. Access is limited to consenting pharmacies and clinics for people 18 years of older; rural chemists may exercise discretion and refuse sales. In 1991, the government proposed lowering the age to 17 years for condom availability and assigning the regional health boards, the responsibility of determining who sells contraceptives. A university lecturer reported that inaction on this bill was close to "criminal inactivity." Challenges in February 1991 were made by the Irish Family Planning Association (IFPA) in setting up a condom sales kiosk in Dublin. The IFPA was fined, but opinion polls indicated that 57% supported condom availability for 16 year olds. On Valentines Day in 1992, condom vending machines, which are illegal, were installed in pubs and nightclubs, police action has been cautious. A new health minister is concerned about AIDS prevention and the republic's first woman President

  9. Changes in Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the ROSETTA Era - Shape, Topography and Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, Robert W.; Jorda, Laurent; Sierks, Holger; Gutiérrez, Pedro; Faurschou Hviid, Stubbe; Keller, Horst Uwe; Mottola, Stefano; Capanna, Claire; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    The ROSETTA orbiter began mapping comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 1 Aug 2014. It was high summer on the comet, with a subsolar latitude of 45 degrees, meaning that little of the South was illuminated. At that time, the comet was rotating at a rate of 696 deg/day and was 3.6 AU from the Sun. From September through January 2015, ROSETTA was mostly within 30 km of the comet, at times venturing within 10 km. This allowed for detailed mapping of 67P's northern hemisphere. By the end of January, with the Sun still at 27 degrees North, the comet was at 2.4 AU and was becoming too active for close operations. At the same time, torques due to this activity began slowing the rotation rate until it reached a minimum of 694 deg/day around the end of April, shortly before the autumnal equinox. Except for a daring close approach (8 km) on Valentine's day 2015, ROSETTA would not get within 30 km for another year, just before the vernal equinox, precluding very high resolution mapping of the South. Meanwhile, increasing torques as the comet passed through perihelion in mid August 2015 (1.24 AU) were increasing the rotation rate - it is currently at 716 deg/day - while the direction of the pole has remained unchanged. Some areas of the comet, most notably in the Imhotep region, have shown significant changes in topography during the comet's passage by the Sun. These are being mapped and it is hoped that we shall be able to map additional changes by comparing early and late imaging. By the end of the mission in late September, 67P will have receded to about 3.8 AU and the rotation rate will probably have stabilized to its new value. By early August, the Sun will be about 16 degrees North, but the increased distance from the Sun will reduce the power available and an increasing distance from Earth will reduce data rates. 1 Aug 2016 will be our data cutoff for this work. Removing pre-perihelion images with subsolar latitude > 15 deg still provided enough data to map the North, so

  10. Transition from unsteady to steady jet behavior in pulsing explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, J.; Valentine, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Field studies of deposits (Paricutin, Lathrop Wells) associated with scoria cone volcanoes and observations of recent eruptions (e.g., Etna 2001) show that explosive basaltic eruptions can have significant sustained columns that produce fallout deposits that blanket hundreds of square kilometers. Such eruptions also typically have phases characterized by discrete explosions (commonly referred to as "Strombolian," after the type location for such activity), but tephra dispersal mainly occurs during periods of sustained eruption columns (so-called "violent Strombolian"). Transitions between Strombolian and violent Strombolian behavior depend, among many other factors, upon the frequency of explosions. Valentine et al. (2005, Geology, v. 33, 629-632) hypothesized that if explosion frequency increases to a value that is similar to or greater than the characteristic roll-over frequency of large eddies as the eruptive mixture exits the vent, then flow pulses will be swamped and mixed by turbulence such that the flow will effectively behave as a steady eruption column. We present results of numerical experiments that allow quantification of the explosion frequency below which each explosion maintains its separate integrity, and above which the "signal" of each explosion is mixed within one or two vent radii downstream from the vent, therefore producing an effectively steady jet (in the sense of the mean flow). Between these two end-members is a regime of behavior where the explosion pulses do not blend together until some height in the jet that is related to the downstream growth of eddy length scales. In such cases, an effectively steady jet is still obtained, but at some distance above the vent. This transitional regime is one way to define the boundary between true Strombolian and violent Strombolian eruptive behaviors, and in turn can help define the role of bubble dynamics in the rising magma column on eruptive behavior. If it is agreed that the term "Strombolian

  11. FOREWORD: V S Letokhov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. Henry; Linnartz, Harold

    2012-04-01

    Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) endeavors periodically to devote an issue to the life and accomplishments of physicists who have made significant contributions to the fields represented in this journal. Vladilen Letokhov is certainly one of them. For a number of years he was also a CAMOP Correspondent. We are grateful to Professor Victor Balykin for having organized this CAMOP special section. It is particularly significant to one of us (HHS) to remember a person who has made seminal advances in so many areas which to this day are at the forefront of studies by a number of physicists. But over the years this acquaintance developed into friendship and gave the wife of one of us, Norma, and HHS the opportunity to host Tina and Vladik in their home, and get to know both a bit better. There was also the seminal International School on Laser Applications in Physics in Vilnius organized by Letokhov, and then a visit to Troitsk and his group at the Institute of Spectroscopy (and even the organization of a couple of piano recitals by one of our daughters, Marija, who accompanied her parents in the then USSR). Our interests crossed in a couple of fields: laser interactions with atoms and sensitive spectroscopy of radioactive atoms. Letokhov was a participant in the early organization of laser spectroscopy at CERN and was instrumental in providing copper vapour lasers to the isotope separator facility, ISOLDE. To this day laser ion sources are under the aegis of Valentin Fedoseyev who came to CERN from Troitsk. The interaction of lasers with atoms, in particular the process of slowing atoms, is discussed by Balykin. It was Christmas time when a card arrived from Oleg Tumanov of the Institute of Spectroscopy: it included a graph of temperature achieved by laser cooling as a function of calendar date. The results of Letokhov's group were the earliest (see figure 1), even though lower temperatures achieved subsequently by others extended our knowledge

  12. Detection and genetic characterization of PVL-positive ST8-MRSA-IVa and exfoliative toxin D-positive European CA-MRSA-Like ST1931 (CC80) MRSA-IVa strains in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Ghosh, Souvik; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Chand; Jilani, Md Shariful Alam; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful; Ahmed, Abdullah Akhtar; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2014-08-01

    Severe skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection are associated with production from bacterial cells of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a typical virulence factor of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), as well as other toxins represented by exfoliative toxins. Through a retrospective study of 26 S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions of diabetic patients admitted to a hospital in Bangladesh, 2 PVL-gene-positive MRSA-IVa strains and 8 PVL-negative, exfoliative toxin D (ETD) gene (etd)-positive MRSA-IVa strains were isolated. A PVL-positive MRSA-IVa strain had a type I arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), belonged to ST8/agr-type I/spa-type t121 (a variant of t008), and harbored blaZ, tet(K), msrA, and aph(3')-IIIa, which are mostly typical characteristics found in USA300, a predominant CA-MRSA clone in the United States. Another PVL-positive MRSA strain, belonging to ST1929 (CC88)/agr-type III/spa-type t3341, was negative for ACME, but possessed blaZ and tet(K). The etd-positive MRSA-IVa strains possessed the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (EDIN-B)-encoding gene (edinB) and belonged to ST1931 (CC80)/agr-type III/spa-type t11023 (a variant of t044), which was genetic trait similar to that of the European CA-MRSA ST80 clone. However, unlike the European ST80 strains, the etd-positive MRSA strains detected in the present study harbored seb, sek, and seq, while they were negative for tet(K), aph(3')-IIIa, and fusB, showing susceptibility to fusidic acid. These findings suggested that etd-positive ST1931 MRSA strains belong to the same lineage as the European ST80 MRSA clone, evolving from a common ancestral clone via acquisition of a different pathogenicity island. This is the first report of a USA300-like MRSA-IV strain, PVL-positive ST1929 (CC88) MRSA-IV, and European ST80 CA-MRSA-like etd-positive ST1931 (CC80) MRSA-IV strains isolated in Bangladesh.

  13. Computer aided screening and evaluation of herbal therapeutics against MRSA infections.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Krishnan, Rao Shruti; Siddapa, Snehapriya Bangalore; Salian, Chithra; Bora, Prerana; Sebastian, Denoj

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a pathogenic bacterium that causes life threatening outbreaks such as community-onset and nosocomial infections has emerged as 'superbug'. The organism developed resistance to all classes of antibiotics including the best known Vancomycin (VRSA). Hence, there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. This study mainly evaluates the potential use of botanicals against MRSA infections. Computer aided design is an initial platform to screen novel inhibitors and the data finds applications in drug development. The drug-likeness and efficiency of various herbal compounds were screened by ADMET and docking studies. The virulent factor of most of the MRSA associated infections are Penicillin Binding Protein 2A (PBP2A) and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Hence, native structures of these proteins (PDB: 1VQQ and 1T5R) were used as the drug targets. The docking studies revealed that the active component of Aloe vera, β-sitosterol (3S, 8S, 9S, 10R, 13R, 14S, 17R) -17- [(2R, 5R)-5-ethyl-6-methylheptan-2-yl] -10, 13-dimethyl 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17- dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta [a] phenanthren-3-ol) showed best binding energies of -7.40 kcal/mol and -6.34 kcal/mol for PBP2A and PVL toxin, respectively. Similarly, Meliantriol (1S-1-[ (2R, 3R, 5R)-5-hydroxy-3-[(3S, 5R, 9R, 10R, 13S, 14S, 17S)-3-hydroxy 4, 4, 10, 13, 14-pentamethyl-2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] phenanthren-17-yl] oxolan-2-yl] -2- methylpropane-1, 2 diol), active compound in Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed the binding energies of -6.02 kcal/mol for PBP2A and -8.94 for PVL toxin. Similar studies were conducted with selected herbal compound based on pharmacokinetic properties. All in silico data tested in vitro concluded that herbal extracts of Aloe-vera, Neem, Guava (Psidium guajava), Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and tea (Camellia sinensis) can be used as therapeutics against MRSA infections.

  14. Genetic diversity and virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw and processed food commodities in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Song, Minghui; Bai, Yalong; Xu, Jie; Carter, Michelle Qiu; Shi, Chunlei; Shi, Xianming

    2015-02-16

    The risk of zoonotic transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the molecular ecology of Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In this study, 142 S. aureus isolates obtained from various raw and processed foods from Shanghai, China were characterized to determine their genetic diversity and virulence gene content. A total of 16 clonal complexes (CCs), 34 staphylococcal protein A (spa) types, and 6 accessory gene regulator (agr) allelic groups were identified and analyzed among the 142 S. aureus isolates. Among these, the genotype CC188-t189-agr Ι was the most prevalent, constituting 28.2% of all isolates. The presence of virulence genes encoding 20 staphylococcal enterotoxins (se), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst1), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb, and etd), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), as well as methicillin resistance gene (mecA), was determined by PCR. Of these S. aureus isolates, 72.5% harbored toxin genes, in which the most frequent toxin gene was sep (43.7%), followed by sej (26.1%) and pvl (21.1%). In contrast, see, ses, set, tsst1, etb, and etd were not found in any of the isolates tested. Eight S. aureus isolates (5.6%, 8/142), seven from raw milk and one from frozen food, were mecA positive and resistant to oxacillin, thus were MRSA. The 142 S. aureus isolates displayed 52 different toxin gene profiles. Although no direct association was found between toxin gene profile and the S. aureus genotype, the isolates belonging to CC5, CC9, CC20, CC50, and CC72 clonal lineages in general carried more toxin genes (>5) compared with the isolates in other CCs. It was also revealed that raw milk and raw meat were the major sources of isolates containing multiple toxin genes. S. aureus isolates from food that were genetically highly related, displayed diverse toxin gene profiles, implying the significant role of horizontal gene transfer in the emergence of highly toxigenic S. aureus isolates.

  15. Self-diffusion in crystalline silicon: A single diffusion activation enthalpy down to 755°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Südkamp, Tobias; Bracht, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    Self-diffusion in silicon and the contribution of vacancies and self-interstitials have been controversially discussed for 50 yr. Most recent results show that the intrinsic silicon self-diffusion coefficient deviates from an Arrhenius-type, single exponential function for temperatures below 950° [Y. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, and K. M. Itoh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901; R. Kube, H. Bracht, E. Hüger, H. Schmidt, J. L. Hansen, A. N. Larsen, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, T. Geue, and J. Stahn, Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206]. This led us to propose temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties of vacancies in order to achieve full consistency to vacancy-mediated dopant diffusion in silicon. Concepts of temperature-dependent properties of native defects or distinct forms of defects with different formation entropies suggested by Cowern et al. [N. E. B. Cowern, S. Simdyankin, C. Ahn, N. S. Bennett, J. P. Goss, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Pakfar, S. Hamm, J. Valentin, E. Napolitani, D. De Salvador, E. Bruno, and S. Mirabella, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 155501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.155501] question the present understanding on atomic transport in semiconductors. To verify these concepts, additional self-diffusion experiments under particular gettering conditions were performed. As a result, silicon self-diffusion was found to be accurately described by one single diffusion activation enthalpy of (4.73 ±0.02 ) eV down to 755°C. This provides full consistency to dopant diffusion without claiming native-defect concepts that were originally proposed by Seeger and Chik in 1968 [A. Seeger and K. P. Chik, Phys. Stat. Sol. 29, 455 (1968), 10.1002/pssb.19680290202] and confirms most recent density functional theory calculations on the activation energy of self-diffusion via vacancies and self-interstitials. Overall, this unravels the old debate of self-diffusion in silicon with the supposed intrinsic temperature dependence.

  16. The ν_3 and ν_4 Bands of Nitric Acid (HNO_3) at 7.6 μm for Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J. M.; Ridolfi, M.; Carlotti, M.

    2012-06-01

    -Bordowski, and A.Valentin, Mol. Physics. 67, 249 (1989) [4] Financial support from the GDRI HiResMIR is gratefully acknowledged

  17. Focused Weathering Control of Convex Waterfalls Along the Niobrara River in Cherry and Brown Counties, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, L. J.; Pederson, D. T.; Goble, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    More than 200 waterfalls exist along the southern spring branch tributaries that feed an approximately twenty-five mile section of the Niobrara River, east of Valentine, Nebraska. Many of these waterfalls posses a convex shape in the horizontal plane and are buttressed. This morphology is controlled by focused, season-specific weathering along the escarpments adjacent to the waterfall face and a lack of stream erosion on the actual waterfall face. The waterfalls are composed of the Rosebud Formation, a poorly indurated siltstone that should be easily eroded by stream flow. The spring creeks are ineffective at significantly eroding the waterfall face mainly due to their relatively low discharge, three to five cubic feet per second, and low sediment load. The erosive power of the streams is further reduced at the site of the waterfall by the buttressed shape spreading the flow into a thin sheet. The buttressed shape of the waterfall develops in response to stress relief. The only areas of the waterfall face showing stream erosion and lack of diatom cover is where free falling water is impacting the waterfall face. Large, loose talus slopes at the base of the waterfall escarpments further support that the weathering processes operate at a faster rate than stream erosion. Observable groundwater seepage from the escarpments on either side of the waterfalls exposes the faces to season-specific weathering processes. The moisture content of the escarpments varies with exposure to sunlight and changes in air temperature. Cyclic differential expansion and contraction of clays and minerals as well as precipitation and hydration of salts operate on a daily and seasonal basis. These repeated stresses give the escarpments a flaky, shingle like appearance and can cause rapid deterioration of the escarpment. During the winter, the seeping groundwater and waterfall spray form large ice flows on either side of the waterfall face. Freeze-thaw processes operate on a seasonal and

  18. A Provenance Model for Real-Time Water Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Bai, Q.; Zednik, S.; Taylor, P.; Fox, P. A.; Taylor, K.; Kloppers, C.; Peters, C.; Terhorst, A.; West, P.; Compton, M.; Shu, Y.; Provenance Management Team

    2010-12-01

    Generating hydrological data products, such as flow forecasts, involves complex interactions among instruments, data simulation models, computational facilities and data providers. Correct interpretation of the data produced at various stages requires good understanding of how data was generated or processed. Provenance describes the lineage of a data product. Making provenance information accessible to hydrologists and decision makers not only helps to determine the data’s value, accuracy and authorship, but also enables users to determine the trustworthiness of the data product. In the water domain, WaterML2 [1] is an emerging standard which describes an information model and format for the publication of water observations data in XML. The W3C semantic sensor network incubator group (SSN-XG) [3] is producing ontologies for the description of sensor configurations. By integrating domain knowledge of this kind into the provenance information model, the integrated information model will enable water domain researchers and water resource managers to better analyse how observations and derived data products were generated. We first introduce the Proof Mark Language (PML2) [2], WaterML2 and the SSN-XG sensor ontology as the proposed provenance representation formalism. Then we describe some initial implementations how these standards could be integrated to represent the lineage of water information products. Finally we will highlight how the provenance model for a distributed real-time water information system assists the interpretation of the data product and establishing trust. Reference [1] Taylor, P., Walker, G., Valentine, D., Cox, Simon: WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observation data. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 12. [2] da Silva, P.P., McGuinness, D.L., Fikes, R.: A proof markup language for semantic web services. Inf. Syst. 31(4) (2006), 381-395. [3] W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator

  19. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using an integrated and modular microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Soper, Steven A

    2013-02-21

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-acquired (HA-MRSA) infection worldwide. As a result, the rapid and specific detection of MRSA is crucial not only for early prevention of disease spread, but also for the effective treatment of these infections. We report here an integrated modular-based microfluidic system for MRSA identification, which can carry out the multi-step assay used for MRSA identification in a single disposable fluidic cartridge. The multi-step assay included PCR amplification of the mecA gene harboring methicillin resistance loci that can provide information on drug susceptibility, ligase detection reaction (LDR) to generate fluorescent ligation products appended with a zip-code complement that directs the ligation product to a particular address on a universal array containing zip-code probes and a universal DNA array, which consisted of a planar waveguide for evanescent excitation. The fluidic cartridge design was based on a modular format, in which certain steps of the molecular processing pipeline were poised on a module made from a thermoplastic. The cartridge was comprised of a module interconnected to a fluidic motherboard configured in a 3-dimensional network; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and was used for PCR and LDR, while the module was made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA, and contained an air-embedded waveguide serving as the support for the universal array. Fluid handling, thermal management and optical readout hardware were situated off-chip and configured into a small footprint instrument. In this work, the cartridge was used to carry out a multiplexed PCR/LDR coupled with the universal array allowed for simultaneous detection of five genes that encode for 16S ribosomal RNA (SG16S), protein A (spa), the femA protein of S. epidermidis (femA), the virulence factor of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and the gene that confers methicillin resistance (mecA). Results

  20. Fluorocycline TP-271 Is Potent against Complicated Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Corey; O’Brien, William; Hackel, Meredith; Minyard, Mary Beth; Waites, Ken B.; Dubois, Jacques; Murphy, Timothy M.; Slee, Andrew M.; Weiss, William J.; Sutcliffe, Joyce A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90 ≤0.016 µg/ml). TP-271 showed activity (MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml) against community-acquired MRSA expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). MIC90 values against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Chlamydia pneumoniae were 0.004, 1, and 4 µg/ml, respectively. TP-271 was efficacious in neutropenic and immunocompetent animal pneumonia models, generally showing, compared to the burden at the start of dosing, ~2 to 5 log10 CFU reductions against MRSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae infections when given intravenously (i.v.) and ~1 to 4 log10 CFU reductions when given orally (p.o.). TP-271 was potent against key community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) pathogens and was minimally affected, or unaffected, by tetracycline-specific resistance mechanisms and fluoroquinolone or macrolide drug resistance phenotypes. IMPORTANCE Rising resistance rates for macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and β-lactams in the most common pathogens associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) are of concern, especially for cases of moderate to severe infections in vulnerable populations such as the very young and the elderly. New antibiotics that are active against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are needed for use in the empirical treatment of the most severe forms of this disease. TP-271 is a promising

  1. Molecular Typing and Virulence Characteristic of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Bucaramanga, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Mayra Alejandra; Sosa, Luis Miguel; González, Clara Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common global nosocomial pathogens. The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health problem worldwide that causes nosocomial and community infections. The goals of this study were to establish the clonal complexes (CC) of the isolates of MRSA obtained from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Colombia and to investigate its molecular characteristics based on the virulence genes and the genes of staphylococcal toxins and adhesins. Methods A total of 53 MRSA isolates from pediatric patients with local or systemic infections were collected. The MRSA isolates were typed based on the SCCmec, MLST, spa and agr genes. The molecular characterization included the detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, superantigenic and exfoliative toxins, and adhesin genes. The correlation between the molecular types identified and the profile of virulence factors was determined for all isolates. Results Four CC were identified, including CC8, CC5, CC80 and CC78. The ST8-MRSA-IVc-agrI was the predominant clone among the isolates, followed by the ST5-MRSA-I-agrII and ST5-MRSA-IVc-agrII clones. Twelve spa types were identified, of which t10796 and t10799 were new repeat sequences. The isolates were carriers of toxin genes, and hlg (100%), sek (92%) and pvl (88%) were the most frequent. Ten toxin gene profiles were observed, and the most frequent were seq-sek-hlg (22.6%), sek-hlg (22.6%), seb-seq-sek-hlg (18.9%) and seb-sek-hlg (15.1%). The adhesion genes were present in most of the MRSA isolates, including the following: clf-A (89%), clf-B (87%), fnb-A (83%) and ica (83%). The majority of the strains carried SCCmec-IVc and were identified as causing nosocomial infection. No significant association between a molecular type and the virulence factors was found. Conclusion Four major MRSA clone complexes were identified among the isolates. ST8-MRSA-IVc-agrI pvl+ (USA300-LV) was the

  2. Hospital Dissemination of tst-1-Positive Clonal Complex 5 (CC5) Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Zheng, Yi; Mediavilla, Jose. R.; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry. N.; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is one of the most prevalent clinical pathogens isolated from hospital settings, and has increasingly identified in community settings. In China, the SCCmecIII-ST239 strains are disseminated in different geographic regions, accounting for >75% of all MRSA isolates in some national studies. Here we characterized 150 non-duplicate MRSA isolates collected from February 2012 to May 2013 in a tertiary hospital in Suzhou, Eastern China, to explore the molecular epidemiology. All isolates were characterized by spa typing, SCCmec typing, and detection of genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). Representative genotypes were also subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using BD Phoenix™ Automated Microbiology System. Molecular typing identified 11 clonal complex (CC) and 28 spa types, with the CC5-spa t002 (29.3%) and CC239-spa t037 (14.7%) being the most prevalent. SCCmec types II, III, IV, and V were identified in 33.3, 21.3, 23.3, and 21.3% of all isolates, respectively. PVL genes (lukF/S-PV) were detected in 11.3% of all isolates and from 6 CCs (5, 8, 59, 88, 239, and 398). The TSST-1 gene (tst) was detected in 18.0% of the all isolates, predominantly in CC5 (96.3%). All the tst-1-positve CC5 isolates were spa t002. Eighteen patients died within 30 days of hospitalization, and the in-hospital 30-day mortality was 12.0%. Multivariable analysis showed that 60 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 7.2, P = 0.026), cancer diagnosis (OR = 9.6, P = 0.022), and MRSA isolate carriage of tst-1 (OR = 62.5, P < 0.001) were independent factors associated with 30-day mortality. Our study revealed unique MRSA dissemination patterns in our hospital in comparison to those of other regions in China. The finding that tst-1-positive CC5 strains were associated with higher mortality highlights the need for strict infection control measures in

  3. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Blomqvist, Susanne; Leonhardt, Åsa; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Carlen, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins) and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins). MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001) more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral infections and complaints

  4. Snow on the Seafloor? Methods to Detect Carbohydrates in Deep-sea Sediments Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, S. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    ). (1) Valentine et al., 2014. PNAS 111, 15906-15911. (2) Romero et al., 2015. PLOS One 10(5): e0128371 (3) Passow et al., ERL 7, 035301. (4) Passow, 2014. Deep-Sea Res. II, http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.10.001i (5) White et al., 2012. PNAS 109(50), 20303-20308.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus in former Portuguese colonies from Africa and the Far East: missing data to help fill the world map.

    PubMed

    Conceição, T; Coelho, C; Silva, I Santos; de Lencastre, H; Aires-de-Sousa, M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage among patients and healthcare workers in Angola (ANG), São Tomé and Príncipe (STP), Cape Verde (CV) and East Timor (ET), and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence content and population structure of all S. aureus. Despite the importance of MRSA as a major human pathogen, data from these former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia are scarce. A total of 2065 nasal swabs recovered between 2010-14 were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular characterization of S. aureus showed: (i) a very high MRSA prevalence in ANG (61.6%), moderate in STP (25.5%), low in CV (5.6%) and null in ET; (ii) a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in STP (36.8%), ET (29.2%) and CV (28.3%) contrasting with ANG (7.9%); (iii) ST5-SCCmecIVa, ST8-IV/V and ST5-VI were the major MRSA clones in ANG (65.2%), STP (44.8%) and CV (50%), respectively; (iv) a high resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in ANG (66.5%) and STP (50.9%), to rifampin in ANG (77.3%), and to tetracycline in STP (26.3%) and ET (20.8%); (v) three major methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clones (ST15, ST508, ST152) were present in all four countries. Age <18 years (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.24-3.31), previous surgery (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.24-4.83), no smoking (OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.05-15.50), and longer hospitalization (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.49-4.28) were risk factors for MRSA carriage. This study provided the first comprehensive overview on MRSA in former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, missing data in the world map.

  6. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 80 Type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV) Isolated from the Middle East: A Heterogeneous Expanding Clonal Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Harastani, Houda H.; Tokajian, Sima T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has caused a change in MRSA epidemiology worldwide. In the Middle East, the persistent spread of CA-MRSA isolates that were associated with multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 80 and with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV), calls for novel approaches for infection control that would limit its spread. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the epidemiology of CC80-MRSA-IV was investigated in Jordan and Lebanon retrospectively covering the period from 2000 to 2011. Ninety-four S. aureus isolates, 63 (67%) collected from Lebanon and 31 (33%) collected from Jordan were included in this study. More than half of the isolates (56%) were associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and 73 (78%) were Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) positive. Majority of the isolates (84%) carried the gene for exofoliative toxin d (etd), 19% had the Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 gene (tst), and seven isolates from Jordan had a rare combination being positive for both tst and PVL genes. spa typing showed the prevalence of type t044 (85%) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) recognized 21 different patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed the prevalence (36%) of a unique resistant profile, which included resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, and fusidic acid (SKF profile). Conclusions The genetic diversity among the CC80 isolates observed in this study poses an additional challenge to infection control of CA-MRSA epidemics. CA-MRSA related to ST80 in the Middle East was distinguished in this study from the ones described in other countries. Genetic diversity observed, which may be due to mutations and differences in the antibiotic regimens between countries may have led to the development of heterogeneous strains. Hence, it is difficult to maintain “the European CA-MRSA clone” as a uniform clone and it

  7. Duttonite, a new quadrivalent vanadium oxide from the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Mary Eleanor; Roach, Carl Houston; Meyrowitz, Robert

    1956-01-01

    Duttonite, a new quadrivalent vanadium oxide from the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colo., has the formula VO(OH)2. The mineral occurs as crusts and coatings of pale-brown transparent platy crystals, as one of the first oxidation products of montroseite ore. It is associated with melanovanadite and abundant crystals of hexagonal native selenium. Duttonite is biaxial positive, 2V is about 60°, dispersion is r v, moderate; X = a, pale pinkish brown; Y = c, pale yellow-brown; Z = b, pale brown; α = 1.810 ± 0.003, β = 1.900 ± 0.003, γ > 2.01. The hardness is about 2.5; the calculated specific gravity is 3.24. The chemical analysis shows, in percent: V2o3 2.6, V2O4 75.3, FeO 0.4, H2O 18.1, insoluble 4.2, total 100.6. Duttonite is monoclinic, ao = 8.80 ± 0.02A, bo - 3.95 ± 0.01A, co - 5.96 ± 0.02A, β = 90°401 ± 51. The space group is I2/c, (C62h); the cell contents are 4[VO(OH)2]. The crystals are strongly pseudo-orthorhombic, and the structure departs only slightly from the space group Imcm. Duttonite is named for Captain Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912). A detailed study of the geology, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the vanadium-uranium ore at the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colo., was begun early in 1954 by Carl H. Roach of the U. S. Geological Survey. A number of rare and new minerals were found in the ore and the study of these samples was undertaken by Mary E. Thompson. Duttonite is the first new vanadium mineral to be described from the Peanut mine. It is named for Captain Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912), who was one of the first geologists to work in the Colorado Plateau region and who was a member of the U. s. Geological Survey from 1879-91. We are indebted to the following members of the Geological Surbey: K. E. Valentine for spectrographic analyses of duttonite, and M. E. Mrose and H. T. Evans, Jr., for measurement of the unit cell constants. This work is part of a program being conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey on behalf of the

  8. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains.

  9. PREFACE: XVII International Youth Scientific School on Actual Problems of Magnetic Resonance and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    Editors: M.S.Tagirov, V.V.Semashko, A.S.Nizamutdinov Kazan is the motherland of Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) which was discovered in Kazan State University in 1944 by prof. E.K.Zavojskii. Since the Young Scientist School of Magnetic Resonance run by professor G.V.Skrotskii from MIPT stopped its work, Kazan took up the activity under the initiative of academician A.S.Borovik-Romanov. Nowadays this school is rejuvenated and the International Youth Scientific School studying "Actual problems of the magnetic resonance and its application" is developing. Traditionally the main subjects of the School meetings are: Magnetic Resonance in Solids, Chemistry, Geology, Biology and Medicine. The unchallenged organizers of that school are Kazan Federal University and Kazan E. K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute. The rector of the School is professor Murat Tagirov, vice-rector - professor Valentine Zhikharev. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from Germany, France, Switzerland, USA, Japan, Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia, Georgia provided plenary lecture presentations. Almost 700 young scientists have had an opportunity to participate in discussions of the latest scientific developments, to make their oral reports and to improve their knowledge and skills. To enhance competition among the young scientists, reports take place every year and the Program Committee members name the best reports, the authors of which are invited to prepare full-scale scientific papers. Since 2013 the International Youth Scientific School "Actual problems of the magnetic resonance and its application", following the tendency for comprehensive studies of matter properties and its interaction with electromagnetic fields, expanded "the field of interest" and opened the new section: Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non

  10. Comparative genomics of community-acquired ST59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan: novel mobile resistance structures with IS1216V.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Khokhlova, Olga; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with ST59/SCCmecV and Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene is a major community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) lineage in Taiwan and has been multidrug-resistant since its initial isolation. In this study, we studied the acquisition mechanism of multidrug resistance in an ST59 CA-MRSA strain (PM1) by comparative genomics. PM1's non-β-lactam resistance was encoded by two unique genetic traits. One was a 21,832-bp composite mobile element structure (MES(PM1)), which was flanked by direct repeats of enterococcal IS1216V and was inserted into the chromosomal sasK gene; the target sequence (att) was 8 bp long and was duplicated at both ends of MES(PM1). MES(PM1) consisted of two regions: the 5'-end side 12.4-kb region carrying Tn551 (with ermB) and Tn5405-like (with aph[3']-IIIa and aadE), similar to an Enterococcus faecalis plasmid, and the 3'-end side 6,587-bp region (MES(cat)) that carries cat and is flanked by inverted repeats of IS1216V. MES(cat) possessed att duplication at both ends and additional two copies of IS1216V inside. MES(PM1) represents the first enterococcal IS1216V-mediated composite transposon emerged in MRSA. IS1216V-mediated deletion likely occurred in IS1216V-rich MES(PM1), resulting in distinct resistance patterns in PM1-derivative strains. Another structure was a 6,025-bp tet-carrying element (MES(tet)) on a 25,961-bp novel mosaic penicillinase plasmid (pPM1); MES(tet) was flanked by direct repeats of IS431, but with no target sequence repeats. Moreover, the PM1 genome was deficient in a copy of the restriction and modification genes (hsdM and hsdS), which might have contributed to the acquisition of enterococcal multidrug resistance.

  11. Computer aided screening and evaluation of herbal therapeutics against MRSA infections

    PubMed Central

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Krishnan, Rao Shruti; Siddapa, Snehapriya Bangalore; Salian, Chithra; Bora, Prerana; Sebastian, Denoj

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a pathogenic bacterium that causes life threatening outbreaks such as community-onset and nosocomial infections has emerged as ‘superbug’. The organism developed resistance to all classes of antibiotics including the best known Vancomycin (VRSA). Hence, there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. This study mainly evaluates the potential use of botanicals against MRSA infections. Computer aided design is an initial platform to screen novel inhibitors and the data finds applications in drug development. The drug-likeness and efficiency of various herbal compounds were screened by ADMET and docking studies. The virulent factor of most of the MRSA associated infections are Penicillin Binding Protein 2A (PBP2A) and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Hence, native structures of these proteins (PDB: 1VQQ and 1T5R) were used as the drug targets. The docking studies revealed that the active component of Aloe vera, β-sitosterol (3S, 8S, 9S, 10R, 13R, 14S, 17R) ­17­ [(2R, 5R)-5-ethyl-6-methylheptan-2-yl] -10, 13-dimethyl 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17- dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta [a] phenanthren-3-ol) showed best binding energies of -7.40 kcal/mol and ­6.34 kcal/mol for PBP2A and PVL toxin, respectively. Similarly, Meliantriol (1S-1-[ (2R, 3R, 5R)-5-hydroxy-3-[(3S, 5R, 9R, 10R, 13S, 14S, 17S)-3-hydroxy 4, 4, 10, 13, 14-pentamethyl-2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] phenanthren-17-yl] oxolan-2-yl] -2- methylpropane-1, 2 diol), active compound in Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed the binding energies of ­6.02 kcal/mol for PBP2A and ­8.94 for PVL toxin. Similar studies were conducted with selected herbal compound based on pharmacokinetic properties. All in silico data tested in vitro concluded that herbal extracts of Aloe-vera, Neem, Guava (Psidium guajava), Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and tea (Camellia sinensis) can be used as therapeutics against MRSA infections. PMID

  12. Thyroid Antagonists (Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Nitrate) and Childhood Growth in a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mervish, Nancy A.; Pajak, Ashley; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate are sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors that block iodide uptake into the thyroid, thus affecting thyroid function. Thyroid dysfunction can adversely affect somatic growth and development in children. To our knowledge, no studies have examined effects of NIS inhibitors on body size measures. Objective: We investigated associations between NIS inhibitors and childhood growth in 940 girls from the Puberty Study of the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program. Methods: Urine samples collected from girls 6–8 years of age at enrollment (2004–2007) from New York City, greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Bay Area in California were analyzed for NIS inhibitors and creatinine (C). The longitudinal association between NIS inhibitors and anthropometric measures [height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI)] during at least three visits was examined using mixed effects linear models, adjusted for race and site. Results: Compared with girls in the low-exposure group (3.6, 626, and 500 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) girls with the highest NIS inhibitor exposure (9.6, 2,343, and 955 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) had slower growth in waist circumference and BMI but not height. Significant differences in the predicted mean waist circumference and BMI between the low- and high-exposure groups were observed beginning at 11 years of age. Conclusions: Higher NIS inhibitor exposure biomarkers were associated with reductions in waist circumference and BMI. These findings underscore the need to assess exposure to NIS inhibitors with respect to their influence on childhood growth. Citation: Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, for the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP). 2016. Thyroid antagonists (perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate) and

  13. Foods confiscated from non-EU flights as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals has provoked a great concern in the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. In this study, we have assessed for the first time the presence of MRSA in food confiscated from non-EU flights. We performed a search for MRSA among 195 food samples confiscated from passengers on flights from twenty-one non-EU countries in 2012 and 2013. One hundred and seventeen meat samples of diverse animal origin (including antelope, beef, chicken, duck, guinea pig, pork, rodents, and turkey), 75 dairy products (74 cheeses and 1 butter) and 3 eggs were analyzed. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 66 food samples were positive for S. aureus (33.9%). Six S. aureus strains were MRSA (9.1%), all of them in flights from Bolivia (and 5 from the same passenger). Among methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (60 out of 66S. aureus strains), 44.1% were resistant to penicillin, 10.2% to tetracycline, 8.5% were resistant to aminoglycosides (amikacin and tobramycin) and 3.4% exhibited the M phenotype. MRSA isolates were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. SmaI-PFGE analysis provided 40 genotypes among the S. aureus isolates (three genotypes among the six MRSA). Five MRSA isolates belonged to ST8 and harboured SCCmec type IVc as well as PVL genes. One isolate belonged to ST1649, harboured SCCmec type IVc and tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes. In conclusion, in this study, we report for the first time the presence of CA-MRSA in food confiscated from non-EU flights: ST8/ST1649-MRSA-IV. These results confirm the illegal entrance of food as a neglected route of transmission as well as the dissemination of successful CA

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA.

  15. 50th anniversary of the laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, M.

    2010-09-01

    On July, 7, 1960 a press conference at Huyghes announced that Maiman had assembled and put into operation the first laser. It was the very pulsed ruby laser that everybody knows today. The announcement came as a bomb. Nobody expected that in an unknown laboratory, new to the race to build a laser, this result could be obtained. It was such an unexpected result that many still today mantain that the true laser was discovered at Bell by Shawlow. This result was achieved through a long story which passed by the Townes maser and many tentative experiments and discussions both in the USA and Soviet Union. In this special issue we present a collection of papers which provide further information as to what happened after Einstein introduced the concept of stimulated emission. The first paper is a short paper by Townes on the development of the physics of microwaves following the creation of the maser. When the laser came on the stage one of its properties was the inherent coherence of the emitted light. Emil Wolf's contribution enlights the early days of coherence to which he so much contributed and the very timely first Rochester Conference which was held on June 27-29, 1960 a few days before the Times announcement of the Maiman achievement. Important contributions were given by Soviet Scientists and, Svetlana Lukishova's contributions helps us understand the work of Valentin Fabrikant which was mostly unknown to western scientists. At the end of his life, Maiman went to Vancouver in Canada and Andrew H. Rawicz gives his testimoniancy of his friendship there. Coherence and the statistical properties of laser light were much studied and we have two exceptional papers by Roy Pike and Jan Perina discussing these arguments. The issue also contains three more papers presenting some earlier achievements in the construction of multiquantumwell laser (M. L. Dotor, P. Huertas, P. A. Postigo, D. Golmayo and F. Briones), the first measurements on very short pulses (H. P. Weber and

  16. A persistent antimicrobial resistance pattern and limited methicillin-resistance-associated genotype in a short-term Staphylococcus aureus carriage isolated from a student population.

    PubMed

    Mat Azis, Norhidayah; Pung, Hui P; Abdul Rachman, Abdul R; Amin Nordin, Syafinaz; Sarchio, Seri N E; Suhaili, Zarizal; Mohd Desa, Mohd N

    The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern against a panel of antibiotics and molecular and methicillin resistance-associated genotypes of 120 carriage S. aureus isolates previously isolated from a student population at two isolation events within a one-month interval. The antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method (cefoxitin by Etest). The MRSA was screened using polymerase chain reaction for the presence of the mecA gene. The mecA-positive isolates were subjected to staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and eBURST analysis. All isolates were characterized for the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, an enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) pattern and the spa type. For the two occasions where S. aureus was isolated, the highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin (70% and 65%, respectively), with a lower rate against erythromycin and tetracycline (<12%). All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. As for methicillin resistance, eight isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of resistant categories, but 10 isolates (8.33%) were positive for the mecA gene. The mecA-positive isolates belonged to SCCmec types I (n=9) and V (n=1). MLST was resolved for only three MRSAs, ST508 (n=1), ST88 (n=1) and ST96 (n=1). The results of the eBURST analysis showed that the MRSA isolates analyzed in the present study were potentially related to MRSA identified in other countries. Approximately half of the persistent S. aureus carriers harbored S. aureus of a similar spa type in the respective individuals during both isolation events. A persistent antimicrobial pattern and limited distinct MRSAs were observed over the short study period. The latter frequently exhibited SCCmec type I, commonly associated with hospital

  17. Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility in a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic clone, in a case of Infective Endocarditis in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has traditionally been related to skin and soft tissue infections in healthy young patients. However, it has now emerged as responsible for severe infections worldwide, for which vancomycin is one of the mainstays of treatment. Infective endocarditis (IE) due to CA-MRSA with heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility-(h-VISA) has been recently reported, associated to an epidemic USA 300 CA-MRSA clone. Case Presentation We describe the occurrence of h-VISA phenotype in a case of IE caused by a strain belonging to an epidemic CA-MRSA clone, distinct from USA300, for the first time in Argentina. The isolate h-VISA (SaB2) was recovered from a patient with persistent bacteraemia after a 7-day therapy with vancomycin, which evolved to fatal case of IE complicated with brain abscesses. The initial isolate-(SaB1) was fully vancomycin susceptible (VSSA). Although MRSA SaB2 was vancomycin susceptible (≤2 μg/ml) by MIC (agar and broth dilution, E-test and VITEK 2), a slight increase of MIC values between SaB1 and SaB2 isolates was detected by the four MIC methods, particularly for teicoplanin. Moreover, Sab2 was classified as h-VISA by three different screening methods [MHA5T-screening agar, Macromethod-E-test-(MET) and by GRD E-test] and confirmed by population analysis profile-(PAP). In addition, a significant increase in cell-wall thickness was revealed for SaB2 by electron microscopy. Molecular typing showed that both strains, SaB1 and SaB2, belonged to ST5 lineage, carried SCCmecIV, lacked Panton-Valentine leukocidin-(PVL) genes and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns (subtype I2), thereby confirming their isogenic nature. In addition, they were clonally related to the epidemic CA-MRSA clone (pulsotype I) detected in our country. Conclusions This report demonstrates the ability of this epidemic CA-MRSA clone, disseminated in some regions of Argentina, to produce severe and

  18. PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaryan, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Deputy Chairman of the Program CommitteeProf Alexander Aseev, AcademicianVice-president of Russian Academy of Sciences Director, A V Rzhanov-Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Sergey Bagaev, AcademicianDirector, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Alexander Gintsburg, Ademician, Russian Academy of Medical SciencesDirector Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, RussiaProf Anatoly Grigoryev, Academician, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Academy of Medical SciencesVice-president, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, RussiaProf Michael Kovalchuk, RAS Corresponding MemberDirector, Kurchatov Institute Russian Scientific Center, RussiaProf Valery Lunin, AcademicianDean, Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, RussiaProf Valentin Parmon, Academician, DirectorBoreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Rem Petrov, AcademicianAdvisor, Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Konstantin Skryabin, AcademicianDirector, Bioinzheneriya Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Vsevolod Tkachuk, Academician, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Academy of Medical SciencesDean, Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, RussiaProf Vladimir Fortov, AcademicianDirector, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Alexey Khokhlov, AcademicianVice Principal, Head of Innovation, Information and International Scientific Affairs Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, RussiaProf Valery Bukhtiyarov, RAS Corresponding MemberDirector, Physicochemical Research Methods Dept., Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Anatoly Dvurechensky, RAS Corresponding Member

  19. Hybrid Pyroclastic Deposits Accumulated From The Eruptive Transitional Regime of Plinian Eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Muro, Andrea; Rosi, Mauro

    In the past 15 years sedimentological studies (Valentine and Giannetti, 1995; Wilson and Hildreth, 1997; Rosi et al., 2001), physical models (Neri et al., 1988; Veitch and Woods, 2000; Kaminski and Jaupart, 2001) and laboratory experiments (Carey et al., 1988) converge at defining a new eruptive regime transitional between the fully convective and the fully collapsing end -members. Buoyant columns and density currents are contemporaneously fed in the transitional dynamic regime and fall beds are intercalated with the density current deposits in the area invested by them. The sedimentological analysis of the well exposed 800yr B.P. plinian eruption of the volcano Quilotoa (Ecuador) enabled us to i) recognize a gradual evolution of the eruptive regime, ii) characterize the fall and density current deposits emplaced during the transitional regime. The eruptive activity began with at least two phreatic explosions and the effusion of a small volume lava dome. Eruptive behaviour then switched to explosive and fed a purely convective column that accumulated a reverse graded pumice fall while rising up to an height of 30 km. A small volume, diluted and slow density current (S1 current) was emplaced in the proximal SW sector just before the column reached its maximum height. Two group s of more voluminous and faster intra-plinian density currents (S2 and S3 currents) were subsequently emplaced contemporaneously with the accumulation of the lower and upper part respectively of a normal graded pumice fall bed. S2 and S3 currents were radially distributed around the crater and deposited bedded layers with facies of decreasing energy when moving away from the crater. Massive beds of small volume were emplaced only i) inside the proximal valley channel near the topography break in slope, ii) outside the valley channel in medial area where the currents impinged against relieves. A thick sequence of pyroclastic flow deposits (S4 currents) accumulated in the valley channels around

  20. PREFACE Spectral and transport properties of quantum systems: in memory of Pierre Duclos (1948-2010) Spectral and transport properties of quantum systems: in memory of Pierre Duclos (1948-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    collaborators. Moreover, we are aware of several other works which their authors dedicated to Pierre's memory but which for some reason or another did not make it to this issue. A list of these papers can be found at the end of the preface. This multitude of memorial papers shows that Pierre was popular not only as a colleague, coauthor, and teacher, but also as a person. Those who had the good fortune to work with him will always recall his blend of hard-working habits, strong views, and human warmth, which made him so unique. He will be remembered with gratitude and admiration by all who knew him well. We will miss him a lot. Jean-Michel Combes, Université du Sud Toulon-Var and Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS Marseille, France Pavel Exner, Doppler Institute and Department of Theoretical Physics, Nuclear Physics Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences Valentin A Zagrebnov, Université de la Mediterranée and Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS Marseille, France Guest Editors Other works dedicated to Pierre's memory: Aschbacher W, Barbaroux J-M, Faupin J and Guillot J-C 2010 Spectral theory for a mathematical model of weak interactions: the decay of the intermediate bosons W+/-. II Annales Henri Poincaré at press Bellissard J and Palmer I 2009 The Jewett-Krieger construction for tilings arXiv:0906.2997 Gesztesy F and Zinchenko M 2010 Symmetrized perturbation determinants and applications to boundary data maps and Krein-type resolvent formulas arXiv:1007.4605 Kostrykin V, Potthoff J and Schrader R 2010 Brownian motions on metric graphs: Feller Brownian motions on intervals revisited arXiv:1008.3761 Stollmann P 2010 From uncertainty principles to Wegner estimates Math. Phys. Anal. Geom. 13 145-57

  1. Glass and mineral analyses from first deposits of Peach Spring Supereruption (SW USA) illuminate initial tapping of a zoned magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccracken, R. G.; Miller, C. F.; Buesch, D.; Gualda, G. A.; Covey, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Peach Spring supereruption (18.78±0.02 Ma) was sourced from Silver Creek caldera in the southern Black Mountains, Arizona (Ferguson et al. in press). The resulting ignimbrite, the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), blanketed >32,000 km2 of Arizona, California, and Nevada (Buesch, 1993). Underlying the ignimbrite is a thin (≤ 1m thick) basal layered deposit that consists of texturally distinct layers 1a-e (Valentine et al. 1989) and is present up to ~100 km from the source caldera. Basal layered deposits contain the first material erupted during the PST supereruption, preceding the main eruption event. Petrography and geochemistry of minerals and pumice clasts from basal layered deposits collected ~15-100 km from the caldera, combined with a survey of glass and crystal compositions from both outflow and basal deposits, permit (1) comparisons with the overlying ignimbrite, and (2) insights into the initial stages of the supereruption and extraction of magma from the chamber. Pumice clasts from a pumice-rich layer (1a2) of the basal deposit were characterized by LA-ICPMS and SEM. Unaltered glass has a uniform high-Si rhyolite composition (76.7% SiO2, 13.0% Al2O3, 3.6% Na2O, 5.3% K2O, 0.6% FeO, <0.1% MgO, 0.6% CaO, 0.1% TiO2). Mildly altered glass is similar but has lower Na2O and higher K2O. Pumice clasts are relatively crystal poor (<10% phenocrysts) with an assemblage dominated by sanidine (~Or55Ab43An2), with lesser plagioclase (~Ab73An19Or8), minor hornblende and biotite, and accessory magnetite, sphene, zircon, chevkinite, and apatite; no quartz was identified. Initial LA-ICPMS results for glass reveal REE patterns with large negative Gd (0.21: i.e. U-shaped REE pattern) and Eu (0.31) anomalies, very low Ba and Sr (≤10 ppm), and high Rb (~250 ppm). These compositions are essentially identical to those of the most common pumice from distal outflow ignimbrite, but very different from crystal-rich (>30%) trachyte pumice that dominates the intracaldera fill and is

  2. Surface carbon transformations at a site of active continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietze, A.; Szponar, N.; Lang, S. Q.; Kohl, L.; Morrill, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    region. However, this plot cannot be used as the sole diagnostic tool because the microbial methane in at least two studies of thermophilic methanogens (2, 3) would plot outside of the microbial field on this plot. The carbon isotope fractionation between inorganic carbon and methane (αCDIC-CH4) was within range of acetate fermentation (3) and the αCDIC-CH4 from putative abiogenic methane from the Precambrian (4). Further elucidation of methane source will require δ2H measurements of H2O and CH4. References: 1. Brazelton WJ, Nelson B, & Schrenk MO (2012) Frontiers in Microbiology 2:1-16. 2.House CH, Schopf JW, & Stetter KO (2003) Organic Geochemistry 34:345-356. 3.Valentine DL, Chidthaisong A, Rice R, Reeburgh WS, & Tyler SC (2004) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(7):1571-1590. 4.Sherwood Lollar B, et al. (2008) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(19):4778-4795.

  3. GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument): A New Airborne GNSS-R receiver for land surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    collocated measurement of biomass and soil moisture ground truth in order to better characterize the instrument sensitivity to geophysical parameters. The instrument will be improved in the meanwhile including the optimization of data processing and the better integration of external data (GPS commercial receiver, Attitude) into the receiver. M.Martin-Neira. A Passive reflectometry and interferometry system (PARIS): Application to ocean altimetry. ESA J., 17:331-355, 1993 Hauser, D.; Caudal, G.; Le Gac, C.; Valentin, R.; Delaye, L.; Tison, C., "KuROS: A new airborne Ku-band Doppler radar for observation of the ocean surface," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2014 IEEE International , vol., no., pp.282,285, 13-18 July 2014 Egido, A.; Paloscia, S.; Motte, E.; Guerriero, L.; Pierdicca, N.; Caparrini, M.; Santi, E.; Fontanelli, G.; Floury, N., "Airborne GNSS-R Polarimetric Measurements for Soil Moisture and Above-Ground Biomass Estimation," Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of , vol.7, no.5, pp.1522,1532, May 2014

  4. [Epilepsy, eponyms and patron saints (history of Western civilization)].

    PubMed

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Stojsavljević, N; Drulović, J

    1996-01-01

    From a historic point of view, epilepsy and its eponyms were in an ontogenetic symbiosis throughout their history. Epilepsy is a disease with a history of eponyms presenting the frame of mind of both streetwise as well as skilled "authors" about its origin and nature. From ancient times the names for epilepsy, archetypal Hippocratic disease, just as rich in number as varied in their implication, reflected the local folkways of thinking. In this article we briefly presented more than 50 eponyms and patrons of epilepsy. As the source of information we used both the apocryphal, canonical and hagiographic as well as heretic literature, legends and iconography from the Middle Ages of domestic and foreign origin. Pre- and post-Hippocratic era, apart from stemming from the oldest written medical sources, point to the position that the disease had organic origin located in the brain. The period of Rome adopted the attitudes set by Galen which remained en vogue throughout the emerging Middle Ages and Renaissance. These eras generated new eponyms which reflected a downfall in the manor, stating that the disease is the consequence of supernatural forces. In the "Age of darkness" eponyms for epilepsy reflected more the relation of men to the Nature than to the disease or a sick man; this is evidenced through the generation of number of patrons for the disease. The most famous patron of patients with epilepsy was St. Valentine (after conversion from pagandom he died in Rome as a martyr, c. 270). He was allotted a patronage either due to the phonic resemblance of his name with the (past participle of the) verb "fallen"-as Martin Luther claimed, or due to a cure of epilepsy of the son of a Roman rhetor who built for him a chapel in which he continued to cure the sick. The emergence of a flamboyant personality of Paracelsus on the historic scene of the XVI century represents a less successful attempt to revoke the way of thinking set by the old Greek doctors; however, it brought

  5. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    neutrino Frederick Reines; 25. Recollections on the establishment of the weak-interaction notion Bruno M. Pontecorvo; 26. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties Louis Michel; 27. A connection between the strong and weak interactions Sam B. Treiman; Part VII. Weak interactions and parity nonconservation; 29. The nondiscovery of parity nonconservation Allan Franklin; 30. K-meson decays and parity violation Richard H. Dalitz; 31. An Experimentalist's Perspective Val L. Fitch; 32. The early experiments leading to the V - A interaction Valentine L. Telegdi; 33. Midcentury adventures in particles physics E. C. G. Sudarshan; Part VIII. The particle physics community; 34. The postwar political economy of high-energy physics Robert Seidel; 35. The history of CERN during the early 1950s Edoardo Amaldi; 36. Arguments pro and contra the European laboratory in the participating countries Armin Hermann; 37. Physics and excellences of the life it brings Abdus Salam; 38. Social aspects of Japanese particle physics in the 1950s Michiji Konuma; Part IX. Theories of hadrons; 39. The early S-matrix theory and its propagation (1942-1952) Helmut Rechenberg; 40. From field theory to phenomenology: the history of dispersion relations Andy Pickering; 41. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy Geoffrey F. Chew; 42. The general theory of quantised fields in the 1950s Arthur S. Wrightman; 43. The classification and structure of hadrons Yuval Ne'eman; 44. Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance and spontaneous symmetry breaking Yoichiro Nambu; Part X. Personal overviews; 45. Scientific impact of the first decade of the Rochester conferences (1950-1960) Robert E. Marshak; 46. Some reflections on the history of particle physics in the 1950s Silvan S. Schweber; 47. Progress in elementary particle theory 1950-1964 Murray Gell-Mann.

  6. PLASMA-2013: International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (Warsaw, Poland, 2-6 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    , Otwock, Poland—Chairman Dimitri Batani, Universite Bordeaux, France Sergio Ciattaglia, ITER, Cadarache, France Michael Dudeck, UPMC, Paris, France Igor E Garkusha, NSC KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine Zbigniew Kłos, CBK PAN, Warsaw Giorgio Maddaluno, ENEA Frascati, Italy Andrea Murari, EFDA JET, Culham, UK Józef Musielok, University of Opole, Poland Svetlana Ratynskaia, RIT, Stockholm, Sweden Karel Rohlena, IP CAS, Prague, Czech Republic Valentin Smirnov, Rosatom, Moscow, Russia Francisco Tabares, CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain Lorenzo Torrisi, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Jerzy Wołowski, IFPiLM, Warsaw, Poland Urszula Woźnicka, IFJ PAN, Cracow, Poland Local Organizing Committee Jerzy Wołowski—Chairman Paweł Gąsior—Secretary Zofia Kalinowska Ewa Kowalska-Strzęciwilk Monika Kubkowska Anita Pokorska Ryszard Panfil Joanna Dziak-Beme Conference website: http://plasma2013.ipplm.pl/

  7. Constraints from Magmas on the Upper Mantle beneath the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, T.; Tibbetts, A.; Smith, E. I.; Hauri, E.; Lee, C.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Lathrop Wells likely leave hydrated olivine in the mantle source, even after melt removal. Mantle melts with 2 - 4 wt% H2O would be in equilibrium with olivine with 30 - 60 ppm H2O or 500 - 100 molar H/Si (assuming a D of 0.0015 after [5]). Thus the source region of these basalts is not cold and dry lithospheric mantle, but warm and damp mantle more typical of asthenosphere. The mean pressures of melting may reflect conditions near the LAB, where upwelling would be impeded by the rheology contrast there. The major conundrum with this scenario, however, is the ancient chemical enrichment recorded in the basalts' Nd isotopic compositions (all negative epsilon [6-8]), more typically associated with lithosphere. Such conditions and sources may require thermal rejuvenation of old lithosphere during its extension and foundering. 1. Nicholis, M. and Rutherford, M., 2004, Geology. 2. Lee, C-T., et al. 2008 AGU and submitted. 3. Li, X., et al., 2007, GJI. 4. Yang, Y. and Forsyth , D., 2006, JGR. 5. Hauri, E., et al., 2006, EPSL. 6. Blondes, M., et al, 2008, EPSL. 7. Valentine, G. and Perry, F., 2007, EPSL. 8. Faust, 2005, UNLV thesis.

  8. The dynamics of pyroclastic density currents on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, B. D.; Clarke, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    identical initial conditions, our models show that PDCs on Mars will out distance those on Earth by approximately 33%, primarily due to slower sedimentation rates. Although this general conclusion is consistent with previous studies, the difference between the Earth and Mars cases is much less than previously published. In addition, we find that when sedimentation of particles and entrainment of atmosphere are included, the runout distance becomes six times shorter than previous model results suggest (e.g., Crown, D. A., R. Greeley (1993), Volcanic geology of Hadriaca Patera and the eastern Hellas region of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 3431-3451). Additionally, we calculate the Rouse number and Brunt-Väisäla frequency to estimate the wavelength of internal gravity waves in the density stratified currents, which are thought be the primary control on deposit bedform wavelength and amplitude (Valentine, 1987). The model predicts realistic wavelengths on Earth (dunes from 20-200 m), whereas longer wavelengths are predicted on Mars. This difference likely reflects the fact that lower particle settling velocities on Mars result in density stratification over a greater vertical extent, and thus longer-wavelength standing waves.

  9. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    structure of such shocks for some time, previous observations have not been able to prove the theory.

    This new Hubble image used filters that only let through light from ionized hydrogen and nitrogen atoms. Astronomers were able to distinguish the warmest parts of the gas heated by the violent shocks and found that they form a complex double-bubble shape. The bright yellow-orange colors in the picture show how dense, high-speed gas is flowing from the star, like supersonic speeding bullets ripping through a medium in opposite directions. The central star itself is hidden in the dusty band at the center.

    Much of the gas flow observed today seems to stem from a sudden acceleration that took place only about 800 years ago. The astronomers believe that 1,000 years from now, the Calabash Nebula will become a fully developed planetary nebula, like a butterfly emerging from its cocoon.

    The Calabash Nebula is 1.4 light years (more than 8 trillion miles) long and located some 5,000 light years (2,900 trillion miles) from Earth in the constellation Puppis.

    The image was taken in December 2000 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The image was originally released by the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, with a website at http://sci.esa.int/hubble. Additional information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at http://www.stsci.edu . More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov .

    Other scientists on the team include Valentin Bujarrabal and Javier Alcolea of Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Spain, and Carmen Sanchez Contreras of JPL.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for Hubble for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of

  10. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    -facing slopes. The presence of water ice in these layers is a likely possibility to account for their preservation only on the colder surfaces. Alternatively, these unique features could be the result of the slow downslope motion of the surface layer, possibly enhanced by the presence of ground ice. One argument against downslope motion is the observation that the uppermost rounded boundary of these layers typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. This would suggest the (seemingly) unlikely possibility that all of these layers had moved downslope the same amount regardless of where they are located. In either case, ground ice likely plays an important role in the formation and preservation of these deposits because they only occur on the cold slopes facing away from the Sun where ground ice is more stable and may still be present today. The Story Nature is an imaginative artist, creating all kinds of wonderful landforms, cloud shapes, and other patterned features that remind people of familiar things in our lives. We see a 'man in the moon' when it is full in the night sky, and dream of a dromedary-dotted desert when coming upon Arizona's Camelback Mountain or Colorado's 'Kissing Camels' in the 'Garden of the Gods.' Near Ludlow, California, a lonely prospector once noticed that the appealing outline of the mountains resembled a reclining woman, and named the place Sleeping Beauty. And this naming delight isn't limited to Earth. The Mars Pathfinder mission team couldn't help but name the rocks at the landing site, including a bear-headed-looking one named Yogi. Part of the fun of exploration is not just visiting a strange world, but relating to it in human terms. On Mars, we've already seen a valentine heart-shaped crater, a happy-faced crater, and even a murky and mysterious 'face' on Mars. This face (seen here about halfway down the image and to the right) is really just a hill with slopes and ridges that are shadowed in a way that can

  11. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    structure of such shocks for some time, previous observations have not been able to prove the theory.

    This new Hubble image used filters that only let through light from ionized hydrogen and nitrogen atoms. Astronomers were able to distinguish the warmest parts of the gas heated by the violent shocks and found that they form a complex double-bubble shape. The bright yellow-orange colors in the picture show how dense, high-speed gas is flowing from the star, like supersonic speeding bullets ripping through a medium in opposite directions. The central star itself is hidden in the dusty band at the center.

    Much of the gas flow observed today seems to stem from a sudden acceleration that took place only about 800 years ago. The astronomers believe that 1,000 years from now, the Calabash Nebula will become a fully developed planetary nebula, like a butterfly emerging from its cocoon.

    The Calabash Nebula is 1.4 light years (more than 8 trillion miles) long and located some 5,000 light years (2,900 trillion miles) from Earth in the constellation Puppis.

    The image was taken in December 2000 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The image was originally released by the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, with a website at http://sci.esa.int/hubble. Additional information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at http://www.stsci.edu . More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov .

    Other scientists on the team include Valentin Bujarrabal and Javier Alcolea of Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Spain, and Carmen Sanchez Contreras of JPL.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for Hubble for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of

  12. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    , University College London, UK Vladimir Lyashuk, ITEP, Russia Radovan Milincic, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA Rolf Nahnhauer, DESY, Zeuthen, Germany Christopher Naumann, University of Erlangen, Germany Valentin Niess, CPPM Jonathan Perkin, University of Sheffield, UK Steve Ralph, University of Sheffield, UK Christopher Rhodes, Imperial College London, UK Carsten Richardt, University of Erlangen, Germany Karsten Salomon, University of Erlangen, Germany Olaf Scholten, KVI/University of Groningen, Netherlands Terry Sloan, University of Lancaster, UK Pierre Sokolsky, University of Utah, USA Lee Thompson, University of Sheffield, UK Omar Veledar, Northumbria University, UK David Waters, UCL, USA Dawn Williams, Pennsylvania State University, USA Igor Zheleznykh, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Conference photograph

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.

    2008-11-01

    coordinate transformations. If the coordinates they conjure up run backwards one gets negative refraction, if they exclude some region of space one makes anything inside invisible [4]. In physics, general relativity has honed the theoretical tools for understanding curved space and curved-coordinate transformations. In transformation optics, general relativity has become a theoretical tool for solving practical engineering problems [4]. What an unorthodox connection! This focus issue represents a snapshot of this rapidly developing research area. It is not restricted to optics or electromagnetism, though. Metamaterials for acoustics also exist and can be applied in ways similar to optical metamaterials. So transformation optics not only attracts an unusual mix of scientists, but also spans a range of applications in optics and beyond. Transformation optics has the potential to transform optics, for example by visualizing invisibility and making materials beyond materials—metamaterials. But before we transgress the boundaries to the hermeneutics of transformation optics [5], let the papers speak for themselves. References [1] Yao J, Liu Z, Liu Y, Wang Y, Sun C, Bartal G, Stacy A M and Zhang X 2008 Science 321 930 [2] Valentine J, Zhang S, Zentgraf T, Ulin-Avila E, Genov D A, Bartal G and Zhang X 2008 Nature 455 376 [3] Schurig D, Mock J J, Justice B J, Cummer S A, Pendry J B, Starr A F and Smith D R 2006 Science 314 977 [4] Leonhardt U and Philbin T G 2006 New J. Phys. 8 247 [5] Sokal A D 1996 Social Text 14(46/47) 217 Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics Contents Transformation optics for the full dielectric electromagnetic cloak and metal-dielectric planar hyperlens D P Gaillot, C Croënne, F Zhang and D Lippens Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments Tomáš Tyc and Ulf Leonhardt Electromagnetic cloaking with canonical spiral inclusions K Guven, E Saenz, R Gonzalo, E Ozbay and S Tretyakov Theory and potentials of multi-layered plasmonic covers for

  14. Rainfall simulation experiments and Water Drop Penetration Time measurements shed light on the impact of water repellency on soils under organic farming management in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González, Óscar; León, Javier; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    ., Geißler, C., Gómez, J.A., Gómez-Macpherson, H., Kuhn, N.J., Lázaro, R., León, F.J., Martínez-Mena, M., Martínez-Murillo, J.F., Marzen, M., Mingorance, M.D., Ortigosa, L., Peters, P., Regüés, D., Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D., Scholten, T., Seeger, M., Solé-Benet, A., Wengel, R., Wirtz, S. 2013. European small portable rainfall simulators: a comparison of rainfall characteristics. Catena, 110, 100-112. Doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2013.05.013 Iserloh, T., Ries, J.B., Cerdà, A., Echeverría, M.T., Fister, W., Geißler, C., Kuhn, N.J., León, F.J., Peters, P., Schindewolf, M., Schmidt, J., Scholten, T., Seeger, M. (2012): Comparative measurements with seven rainfall simulators on uniform bare fallow land. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 57, 193-201. DOI: 10.1127/0372-8854/2012/S-00118. Jiménez-Morillo, N. T., González-Pérez, J. A., Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., Rosa, J. M., Jiménez-González, M. A., & González-Vila, F. J. (2014). Organic matter fractions controlling soil water repellency in Sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (Southwestern Spain). Land Degradation & Development.| DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2314 Jordán, A., García-Moreno, J., Gordillo-Rivero, Á. J., Zavala, L. M., Cerdà, A. 2014. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking under different crops and managements: a case study at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales. SOIL Discussions, 1(1), 295-325. Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H. 2013. Soil water repellency: origin, assessment and geomorphological consequences. Catena, 108, 1-5. Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A. L., & Alanís, N. 2011. Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena, 84(3), 136-147. Jouquet, P., Janeau, J. L., Pisano, A., Sy, H. T., Orange, D., Minh, L. T. N., Valentin, C. 2012. Influence of earthworms and termites on runoff and erosion in a tropical steep slope fallow in Vietnam: A rainfall simulation experiment. Applied

  15. PREFACE: XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifang

    2011-03-01

    H KAVATSYUK, MyroslavKVI, University of Groningen KHRAMOV, EvgenyJoint Institute for Nuclear Research KISTENEV, EdouardBrookhaven National Laboratory KUO, Chia MingNCU KWON, YoungilYonsei University LAKTINEH, ImadIPNL LECOQ, PaulCERN LI, ChengUniversity of Science and Technology of China LI, NingboNanJing Normal University & IHEP LI, WeidongIHEP LI, WeiguoIHEP LIU, ChunxiuIHEP LIU, LijiaoUniversity of Bergen, Norway LIVAN, MicheleDipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, University di Pavia , Italy LU, JunguangIHEP LUBRANO, PasqualeINFN Sezione di Perugia MACHIKHILIYAN, IrinaLAPP, Annecy, France MAVROMANOLAKIS, GeorgiosCERN MILLER, David WSLAC and Stanford University NECESAL, PetrInstitute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i. NEMECEK, StanislavFZU AVCR Praha NIESS, ValentinLPC, Clermont (CNRS/IN2P3) NOVOTNY, Rainer W2nd Physics Institute, University Giessen, Germany OBERLACK, HorstMPI für Physik, Munich PARA, AdamFermilab PARAMATTI, RiccardoINFN Rome & CERN PEPE, MonicaINFN Perugia POSPELOV, GennadyMax-Planck-Institut für Physik REPOND, JoseArgonne National Laboratory ROSSETTI, ValerioIFAE - Barcelona SCHACHT, PeterMPI/Munich SEFKOW, FelixDESY SFYRLA, AnnaCERN SGUAZZONI, GiacomoINFN Section of Florence SIMON, FrankMax-Planck-Institute for Physics SIMONYAN, MargarNiels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University SPADARO, TommasoLNF INFN SUN, XileiIHEP TAKESHITA, TohruShinshu University TANG, ZeboUniversity of Science and Technology of China TAPAN, IlhanUludag University THEOFILATOS, KonstantinosETH Zurich THOMSON, MarkUniversity of Cambridge TOKUNO, HisaoDepartment of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering TRONCON, ClaraINFN UOZUMI SatoruKyungpook National University USAI, GiulioUniversity of Texas at Arlington VAZQUEZ GOMEZ, RicardoUniversitat de Barcelona VIDEAU, HenriLLR - Ecole polytechnique VOLOBOUEV, IgorTexas Tech University WAN, RenzhuoIOPP-CCNU, Wuhan, China & IPHC-CNRS, Strasbourg, France WANG, ZhengIHEP WANG, ZhigangIHEP WENZEL, HansFermilab WIGMANS, RichardTexas Tech

  16. Ejecta emplacement: from distal to proximal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N.

    2008-09-01

    ballistically and included rheologic models for Newtonian or Bingham materials based on observations (runout distance, height of the distal ridge). Our model establishes better initial conditions for ejecta flow formation and provide estimates for the properties of fluidized ejecta directly on the basis of the particles/gas ratio, particle size, and temperaturedensity conditions in the ejecta. Venus. Ejecta deposition on Venus is substantially non-ballistic due to thick Venusian atmosphere. Some of impact craters are surrounded by "dark halos" [26- 28], others have unique dark parabolas, representing surficial deposits of loose material lifted during crater formation [29-30]. Methods of two-phase hydrodynamics may be useful to describe mechanism of their formation. References [1] Dobrovolskis A. (1981) Icarus 47, 203-219. [2] Cintala M.J., et al. (1999) M&PS. 34, 605-623. [3] Oberbeck V.R. (1975) Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 337-362. [4] Dressler et al. (2004) M&PS 39, 857- 878. [5] Hörz F. et al. (1983) Rev Geophys.Space Phys. 21, 1667-1725. [6] Valentine G.A. and Wohletz K.H. (1989) JGR 94, 1867-1887. [7] Dobran F. and Neri A. (1993) JGR 98, 4231-4259. [8] Neri A. et al. (2003) JGR 108, doi:10.1029/ 2001JB000508. [9] Boothroyd R.G. (1971) Flowing gas-solids suspension, Chapman and Hall Ltd, London. [10] Shuvalov V.V. (1999) Shock waves 9, 381-390. [11] Nakamura A. and Fujiwara A. (1991) Icarus 92, 132- 146. [12] Grady D.E. and Kipp M.E. (1980) Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 17, 147-157. [13] Melosh H.J. et al. (1992) JGR 97, 14735-14759. [14] Gault, D.E. et al. (1963) NASA TND-1767. [15] Vickery A.M. (1986) Icarus 67, 224-236. [16] Melosh H.J. (1984) Icarus 59, 234-260. [17] Shuvalov V.V. (2002) LPSC-33, abstr.#1259. [18] Stöffler et al. (2002) M&PS 37, 1893-1908. [19] Melosh H.J. and Artemieva N.A. (2004) LPSC-35, abstr. #1723. [20] Osinski et al. (2004) Meteoritics Planet. Sci. 39, 1655-1683. [21] Ivanov B.A. et al. (1997) LPSC 28, 637-638. [22] Garvin J

  17. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    . Plans for this are being elaborated in Australia with the Australia Telescope (a combination of many single radio telescopes like at Mopra), as well as within ESO. When more SiO masers in the LMC will have been discovered, we will be able to study how the mass loss differs from star to star. This will help us to learn how the mass loss depends on the overall characteristics of the star, for instance its brightness or its mass. Strangely enough, it is easier to do this type of study with stars in another galaxy, despite the fact that they are much more distant than the maser stars in the Milky Way. The main reason is that it is very difficult to measure distances to individual stars in our own galaxy. And if the distance to a star is not known, many other characteristics of the star will not be known either, e.g. its total energy production (intrinsic brightness) or its mass. However, as we know the distance to the LMC, about 170,000 light-years, we also know the distance to all the maser stars, which will be detected in this small galaxy. SiO masers are extremely powerful velocity indicators for celestial objects. We can therefore use them, not only to measure the motion of the molecules in the atmospheres of stars, but also to measure the velocities of the stars themselves. A study of the velocities of many SiO masers in the Milky Way indicates how the stars move through our galaxy. From this we gain a better understanding of how the Milky Way was formed; this is one of the great mysteries present-day astronomers are very eager to solve. And in the future, we may extend this type of study to other nearby galaxies. There is indeed a great potential for important new knowledge in this exciting area of modern astronomical research ! Notes: [1] The team consists of Jacco Th. van Loon and Albert A. Zijlstra (ESO/Garching), Lars-Ake Nyman (ESO/La Silla), and Valentin Bujarrabal (Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Madrid, Spain). [2] Depending on the wavelength (and therefore