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Sample records for raik valentin tihhomirov

  1. Valentine 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 February 2006 Happy Valentine's Day from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team!

    This somewhat heart-shaped, eroded and partially-filled crater is located near the southeast wall of Columbus Crater in the Mare Sirenum region of Mars. North is toward the bottom/lower left.

    Location near: 29.9oS, 165.2oW Image width: 400 meter scale bar = 1,312 feet Illumination from: lower right Season: Southern Autumn

  2. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Martian Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a heart-shaped hill surrounded by cracked terrain within a depression in far northwestern Arabia Terra, near the Cydonia region of Mars. Happy St. Valentine's Day from the MGS MOC team!

    Location near: 39.1oN, 358.1oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  4. Valentine's Day: a Brief History and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Valentine's Day presents an opportunity to show loved ones they are appreciated. Sweethearts, spouses, and families exchange gifts to express affection. Beyond traditional celebrations, new customs such as a romantic dinner, attending movies, and exchanging jewelry have been added. This article presents a brief history of Valentine's Day and a…

  5. Valentine's Day: a Brief History and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Valentine's Day presents an opportunity to show loved ones they are appreciated. Sweethearts, spouses, and families exchange gifts to express affection. Beyond traditional celebrations, new customs such as a romantic dinner, attending movies, and exchanging jewelry have been added. This article presents a brief history of Valentine's Day and a…

  6. Environmental Assessment, Valentine Military Operations Area, Texax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    rock squirrel), D, G, M Family Geomyidae Thomomys bottae (Botta’s pocket gopher ), D, G, M Geomys arenarius (desert pocket gopher ), D, R (rare...PaDDogeomys castanops (yellow-faced pocket gopher ), D, G, R Family Heteromyidae Perognathus flavus (silky pocket mouse), D, G (common) Perognathus hispidus...111-4 Soil Types of the Valentine MOA .............. ........ 19 111-5 Major Vegetative Regions of the Trans-Pecos .......... ... 26 111-6 Map of the

  7. Absinthe, epileptic seizures and Valentin Magnan.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    2009-03-01

    Absinthe is an alcoholic liquor containing extracts from the wormwood plant. It was widely consumed in France in the late nineteenth century. Its production was banned in 1915, partly because it was thought to cause neurological disturbances, including mental changes and epileptic seizures. Modern knowledge of an acceptable content of the convulsant alpha-thujone in absinthe has allowed the lifting of the production bans, and called into question the experimental work of Valentin Magnan in the 1870s, which formed the scientific background to the campaign against absinthe. An examination of Magnan's published investigations suggests that his science was very adequate by the standards of his time, and that he had shown that an alcohol-soluble component of wormwood did produce lapses of consciousness, myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic convulsions in animals. Whether that component, presumably thujone, was present at convulsant concentrations in some of the available absinthes of Magnan's time cannot now be known.

  8. 75 FR 15740 - Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination... of Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc., Norton, Massachusetts. The petitioner has requested that...

  9. Spitzer Telescope Sends Rose for Valentine Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-12

    A cluster of newborn stars herald their birth in this interstellar Valentine Day commemorative picture obtained with NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. These bright young stars are found in a rosebud-shaped and rose-colored nebulosity known as NGC 7129. The star cluster and its associated nebula are located at a distance of 3300 light-years in the constellation Cepheus. A recent census of the cluster reveals the presence of 130 young stars. The stars formed from a massive cloud of gas and dust that contains enough raw materials to create a thousand Sun-like stars. In a process that astronomers still poorly understand, fragments of this molecular cloud became so cold and dense that they collapsed into stars. Most stars in our Milky Way galaxy are thought to form in such clusters. The Spitzer Space Telescope image was obtained with an infrared array camera that is sensitive to invisible infrared light at wavelengths that are about ten times longer than visible light. In this four-color composite, emission at 3.6 microns is depicted in blue, 4.5 microns in green, 5.8 microns in orange, and 8.0 microns in red. The image covers a region that is about one quarter the size of the full moon. As in any nursery, mayhem reigns. Within the astronomically brief period of a million years, the stars have managed to blow a large, irregular bubble in the molecular cloud that once enveloped them like a cocoon. The rosy pink hue is produced by glowing dust grains on the surface of the bubble being heated by the intense light from the embedded young stars. Upon absorbing ultraviolet and visible-light photons produced by the stars, the surrounding dust grains are heated and re-emit the energy at the longer infrared wavelengths observed by Spitzer. The reddish colors trace the distribution of molecular material thought to be rich in hydrocarbons. The cold molecular cloud outside the bubble is mostly invisible in these images. However, three very young stars near the center of the image are

  10. Influence of Valentine's Day and Halloween on birth timing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2011-10-01

    It is known that cultural representations, in the form of stereotypes, can influence functional health. We predicted that the influence of cultural representations, in the form of salient holidays, would extend to birth timing. On Valentine's Day, which conveys positive symbolism, there was a 3.6% increase in spontaneous births and a 12.1% increase in cesarean births. Whereas, on Halloween, which conveys negative symbolism, there was a 5.3% decrease in spontaneous births and a 16.9% decrease in cesarean births. These effects reached significance at p < .0001, after adjusting for year and day of the week. The sample was based on birth-certificate information for all births in the United States within one week on either side of each holiday across 11 years. The Valentine's-Day window included 1,676,217 births and the Halloween window included 1,809,304 births. Our findings raise the possibility that pregnant women may be able to control the timing of spontaneous births, in contrast to the traditional assumption, and that scheduled births are also influenced by the cultural representations of the two holidays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Valentin's nerve, its role in the innervation of the chin region. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Guyot, L; Cheynet, F; Faissal, A; Gola, R

    1998-06-01

    The mylo-hyoid nerve, a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, gives rise to many motor and sensory branches. Motor branches innervate the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Sensitive branches innervate the submandibular gland and also the skin just under the bony chin. Valentin's nerve, the terminal cutaneous branch of the myo-hyoid nerve (described by Valentin in 1843), can be damaged by horizontal mentoplasty (sliding-mentoplasty). Sensory disorders (hypoesthesia, anesthesia) can occur in case of Valentin's nerve injury without lesions to the mental nerve.

  12. Associations between 'valentine' heart shape, atrial enlargement and cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D; Giglio, Robson F; Berry, Clifford R; Reese, David J; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2015-06-01

    'Valentine' heart shape is a common qualifier used in veterinary radiology to describe a cardiac silhouette with focal enlargement at the level of the base of the heart in feline patients. Anecdotally, this sign has been thought to be related to biatrial enlargement and also to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, to our knowledge, there has been no study performed to assess the association between cardiac chamber enlargement and cardiac disease with the 'valentine'-shaped heart. The aim of this study was to verify the association between the 'valentine' heart shape observed in ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs and the presence of singular or combined cardiac chamber enlargement, and also the presence and type of cardiomyopathy (CM) in cats. A search of the database of the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Florida for cats with a radiology report of thoracic radiographs that contained the words 'valentine' and 'biatrial', and echocardiography performed within 1 week, was undertaken; 41 cases met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two percent of the cats of the study sample had some form of CM. The 'valentine' heart shape was associated with biatrial enlargement in 41% of the patients in our study sample that had some form of CM and just 8% of cases diagnosed with HCM, suggesting that the 'valentine' heart shape has a low association with HCM or biatrial enlargement; however, it should be considered a sign of feline CM.

  13. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals.

  14. Mainstream legitimization of homosexual men through Valentine's Day gift-giving and consumption rituals.

    PubMed

    Newman, P J; Nelson, M R

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the gay community has received increased attention from marketers through specially-made television commercials, direct mail pieces, and other media messages. However, little research in consumer behavior has examined the potential attitudinal and behavioral differences and similarities between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Specifically, this paper provides an exploratory look at the meaning and practices surrounding the consumer ritual of Valentine's Day from the perspective of homosexual men. Using depth interviews within an interpretative framework, our research suggests similarities exist for the celebration of Valentine's Day between homosexual and heterosexual singles, while differences may exist for the functions of Valentine's Day gift-giving between these groups. Some homosexual couples feel they cannot "legitimately participate" in the dominant rituals associated with the holiday due to oppression by a "heterosexual society". Marketing implications are discussed.

  15. [Severe infection by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin: reports of two cases].

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Martín; Pérez, Guadalupe; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Sarkis, Claudia; Romero, Romina; Mastroianni, Alejandra; Casimir, Lidia; Venuta, María E; Gómez Bonduele, Verónica; Bologna, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications. It is essential the suspected diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic treatment and early surgical management to improve the approach of these infections. Epidemiological surveillance should be mantained to detect the frequency of infections caused by these bacteria.

  16. Designing a Fair Test with Valentine Candy To Teach Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Soo; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students attempt to design a fair test--a test in which one variable at a time is changed--that will result in the slow melting of a single piece of valentine heart candy in the mouth. Students identified and defined "normal placement" as a control variable and measured melting time to establish baseline data. (WRM)

  17. [Valentine's Day Activities Compiled from Eleven Years of February Issues of Instructor Magazine, 1973-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Valentine's Day activities which include a play, music, poetry, and numerous art and craft projects are presented in this compilation from February issues of "Instructor" magazine. The short and easy projects, suitable for primary and elementary students, use inexpensive and easily found materials such as paper, cloth, yarn, magazine…

  18. Designing a Fair Test with Valentine Candy To Teach Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Soo; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students attempt to design a fair test--a test in which one variable at a time is changed--that will result in the slow melting of a single piece of valentine heart candy in the mouth. Students identified and defined "normal placement" as a control variable and measured melting time to establish baseline data. (WRM)

  19. A case of epididymitis associated with Panton-Valentine leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Malini; Chew, Pei Ru

    2012-08-01

    A new pattern of disease caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus is emerging in the UK and worldwide. Community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) is more likely to produce PVL, a pore-forming cytotoxin inducing leucocyte lysis, which often infects young healthy individuals. The worldwide emergence and continually increasing prevalence of community-acquired PVL-MRSA have recently attracted high-profile media attention and prompted concern regarding the transmissibility and virulence. This paper reports a case of genitourinary tract infection associated with PVL-positive community-associated MRSA in an immunocompetent young man.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine toxin skin infection in a medical laboratory technician.

    PubMed

    Pougnet, Richard; Pougnet, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    This report exposes the case of a Staphylococcus aureus infection occurring in a microbiology laboratory technician. He was a 52 year-old man without medical history. He presented an abscess on the anterior aspect of the left forearm. Analysis showed that it was a Staphylococcus aureus secreting the Panton-Valentine toxin. The study of the workplace found the frequency of exposure. The study of workstation showed the link between the technician position and the infection. Indeed, this man touched an area where the biocleaning was hard to do. This is the first case of infection with PVL described for a laboratory technician.

  1. Disseminated Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Staphylococcus aureus infection in a child.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Yanik, Keramettin; Paksu, Muhammet S; Sensoy, Gulnar; Aykanat, Alper; Yener, Nazik; Belet, Nursen; Ceyhan, Meltem

    2016-04-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  2. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones▿

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, Shannon M.; Heller, Loree C.; Arbuckle, Jesse; Talavera, Monica; Widen, Ray H.

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene carriage were compared among suspected community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (CA-MRSA) and health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates. CA-MRSA isolates carried the SCCmec type IV complex, and most were PVL positive. The HA-MRSA isolates carried the SCCmec type II complex and did not harbor the PVL genes. PMID:17192420

  3. Global Distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Bes, Michele; Meugnier, Helene; Lina, Gerard; Bozdogan, Bülent; Courvalin, Patrice; Reverdy, Marie-Elisabeth; Enright, Mark C.; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    We determined the agr type, multilocus sequence type, protein A gene type (spa typing), toxin gene profile, and antimicrobial drug resistance profile of 469 isolates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (PVL-positive CA-MRSA). The isolates had been collected from around the world from 1999 through 2005 by the French National Reference Center for Staphylococci. We found that some continent-specific clones described in 2003, such as clone ST8, have now spread all over the world. Likewise, some PVL-positive CA-MRSA have spread to several countries on various continents. New clones have emerged (e.g., ST377) on new genetic backgrounds. PVL-positive CA-MRSA that were usually susceptible to most antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents have acquired new resistance determinants (e.g., to gentamicin) in certain countries. The major trait shared by all these clones is a short staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec element of type IV or V. PMID:17553275

  4. Investigations of fluvial sediments of the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Matejka, D.Q.; Hubbell, David Wellington

    1953-01-01

    This report contains results of observations that were made from the time when a natural constriction was formed in the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebr., to the time when it was widened by high flows. After the constriction was widened, insufficient turbulence was developed to suspend most of the sediment. The report gives information on the amount and characteristics of the sediment that moves as unmeasured load at normal sections of the stream near the constriction and at the measuring sections at the Sparks gaging station. Lateral distributions of depth, velocity, and concentration are shown for the sections where sediment discharge was measured. In addition, vertical distributions of concentration, velocity, and percentage of particles coarser than 0.25 mm are shown for the contracted section. The vertical distributions seem to indicate that the total sediment load of the stream was usually in suspension at the contracted section. Exclusive of the period during the winter when upstream reservoirs. were not flushed, the measured discharge of suspended sediment at the normal sections near the contraction averaged 47 percent and at the Sparks gaging station 41 percent of the measured sediment discharge at the contracted section. Particle sizes of suspended sediment and bed material are tabulated, and some size distributions are plotted. In conformity with bedload theory, the computed particle sizes of the unmeasured load were slightly smaller than the average particle sizes in the samples of bed material.

  5. Red Roses and Gift Chocolates Are Judged More Positively in the U.S. Near Valentine's Day: Evidence of Naturally Occurring Cultural Priming.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Vivian; Pandey, Gayathri; Tabak, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes are not static, but constructed at the moment of the evaluation, incorporating temporary contextual influences. How do meaningful events that naturally occur within a culture, such as a national holiday, shape evaluative judgments of objects related to the holiday? We focused on evaluations of red roses and gift chocolates, which are everyday objects, but also iconic of Valentine's Day in the U.S. We reasoned that if cultural events shape evaluations, then roses and chocolates would be evaluated differently near Valentine's Day. Using a large and diverse U.S. sample, we found that as Valentine's Day neared, evaluations of roses and chocolates (but not a comparison object) were evaluated more positively. Increases in positivity of roses and chocolates covaried with their increased cultural relevance, as quantified by the volume of web search queries involving these terms. These findings provide a demonstration of naturally occurring cultural priming by which the salience of cultural events shape evaluations.

  6. Staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leucocidin as a major virulence factor associated to furuncles.

    PubMed

    Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Sina, Haziz; Scheftel, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Brigitte; Sainte-Marie, Dominique; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Prévost, Gilles; Couppié, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), one of the β-barrel pore-forming staphylococcal leucotoxins, is known to be associated to furuncles and some severe community pneumonia. However, it is still uncertain how many other virulence factors are also associated to furuncles and what the risk factors of furuncles are in immuno-compromised status of patients, especially the HIV (+) patients. In this paper, we use antigen immunoprecipitation and multiplex PCR approach to determine the presence of 19 toxins, 8 adhesion factors and the PFGE profiles associated to furuncles in three independent patient study groups of S. aureus (SA) isolates collected from the Cayenne General Hospital (French Guiana). The patient groups were made of: 16 isolates from HIV (-) patients, 9 from HIV (+) patients suffering from furuncles, and 30 control isolates from patients with diverse secondary infected dermatitis. Our data reveals that the majority (96%) of SA strains isolated from HIV patient-derived furuncles significantly produced PVL (p<10(-7)), whereas only 10% of SA strains produced this toxin in secondary infected dermatosis. A high prevalence of LukE-LukD-producing isolates (56 to 78%) was recorded in patient groups. Genes encoding clumping factor B, collagen- and laminin-binding proteins (clfB, cna, lbp, respectively) were markedly frequent (30 to 55%), without being associated to a specific group. Pulse field gel electrophoresis evidenced 24 overall pulsotypes, whereas the 25 PVL-producing isolates were distributed into 15 non clonal fingerprints. These pulsotypes were not specific PVL-producing isolates. PVL appears to be the major virulence factor associated to furuncles in Europe and in South America regardless of the immune status of the HIV patients.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology Survey of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-positive Isolated from Sanandaj, Iran.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Abbas; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Rouhi, Samaneh; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Shahbazi, Babak; Narenji, Hanar

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains that are Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive cause severe skin and soft tissue infections as well as necrotizing pneumonia. The presence of PVL gene is a marker for methicillin-resistant S. aureus; therefore, survey on prevalence and phylogenetic distribution of PVL is of great importance for public health. The aim of this research was molecular epidemiology survey of S. aureus PVL positive, isolated from two tertiary hospitals of Sanandaj. A total of 264 staphylococci isolates were collected from clinical specimens, hospital personnel and hospital environment of two tertiary hospitals of Sanandaj, in 2012 (Toohid and Besat). Bacterial cultures and biochemical tests were performed for S. aureus detection. Then, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were used for the determination of prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus PVL, respectively. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05). From 264 staphylococci isolates, 88 (33.33%) were detected as S. aureus. Furthermore, 20 out of 88 (22.72%) strains of S. aureus were PVL positive according to PCR results. Rep-PCR showed six main clusters of S. aureus samples. PVL had similar clonality between different samples. No significant relationship was observed between PVL positive S. aureus and rep-PCR patterns (P = 0.98). These results showed that a clone of S. aureus PVL positive has spread between the community and hospital settings. Therefore, appropriate measures are required to prevent the spread of staphylococci and other bacteria in hospitals.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is a Very Potent Cytotoxic Factor for Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Bettina; Hussain, Muzaffar; Grundmeier, Matthias; Brück, Michaela; Holzinger, Dirk; Varga, Georg; Roth, Johannes; Kahl, Barbara C.; Proctor, Richard A.; Peters, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The role of the pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in severe necrotizing diseases is debated due to conflicting data from epidemiological studies of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections and various murine disease-models. In this study, we used neutrophils isolated from different species to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of PVL in comparison to other staphylococcal cytolytic components. Furthermore, to study the impact of PVL we expressed it heterologously in a non-virulent staphylococcal species and examined pvl-positive and pvl-negative clinical isolates as well as the strain USA300 and its pvl-negative mutant. We demonstrate that PVL induces rapid activation and cell death in human and rabbit neutrophils, but not in murine or simian cells. By contrast, the phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), a newly identified group of cytolytic staphylococcal components, lack species-specificity. In general, after phagocytosis of bacteria different pvl-positive and pvl-negative staphylococcal strains, expressing a variety of other virulence factors (such as surface proteins), induced cell death in neutrophils, which is most likely associated with the physiological clearing function of these cells. However, the release of PVL by staphylococcal strains caused rapid and premature cell death, which is different from the physiological (and programmed) cell death of neutrophils following phagocytosis and degradation of virulent bacteria. Taken together, our results question the value of infection-models in mice and non-human primates to elucidate the impact of PVL. Our data clearly demonstrate that PVL acts differentially on neutrophils of various species and suggests that PVL has an important cytotoxic role in human neutrophils, which has major implications for the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA infections. PMID:20072612

  9. Dissemination of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yoshiko; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus closely associated with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have been identified worldwide, including in the USA; however, few studies have reported the presence of these strains in Japan. In this study, we prospectively investigated the prevalence of PVL in S. aureus strains from outpatients presenting with SSTI in Okinawa and characterized the PVL-positive S. aureus strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). From 2008-2010, 499 clinical samples were obtained from 497 people. S. aureus was identified in 274 samples, and 36% (99 of 274) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Seventeen (6.2%) PVL-positive S. aureus strains were detected by PCR, and 12 of the 17 PVL-positive strains were MRSA. Most PVL-positive S. aureus caused furuncles or carbuncles. Nine of the 17 PVL-positive isolates had an ST8 MRSA genotype and most harbored SCCmec type IVa and the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element, which is identical to the USA300 clone prevalent in the USA. PVL-positive S. aureus strains were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin (65%) and levofloxacin (53%). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have emerged and are spreading as a causative pathogen for SSTI in Okinawa.

  10. [Identification and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Tokashiki, Yoshino T; Nakasone, Isamu; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Nago, Tamami T; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2010-09-01

    We experienced hospital-acquired infection in March 2008 that three nurses became infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Accordingly, we performed the retrospective study to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus in Okinawa. A total of 731 clinical isolates, consisting of 600 MRSA and 131 methicillin-susceptible isolates in Okinawa, were included. Of the isolates, 16 were positive for PVL gene (lukS-PV-lukF-PV). All the PVL-positive isolates were MRSA, and the first appeared in March 2008. The isolates from the University Hospital were characterized as staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type IVa. Through the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 16 PVL-positive MRSA isolates were divided in three groups. One isolate (the first group) from the other hospital was less similar (< 40% similarity) when compared with the remaining 15 isolates from the University Hospital. The second group consisted of two respective paired isolates from the same department wards, and those were very similar with each other, indicating possible patient-to-patient transmission. The 11 isolates were characterized as the third group with >80% similarity. The DiversiLab system (bioMérieux) based on repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing demonstrated that the isolates of the third group were similar and indistinguishable with the strains of USA300 clone. However, the first and second groups were not determinable which USA clone was the origin. With these, we could conclude that the PVL-positive MRSA close to USA300 clone first appeared in Okinawa in 2008 and is now becoming prevalent multi-focally. Also, person-to-person transmission is already likely in a hospital setting.

  11. MALDI-TOF-MS for rapid detection of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Fadi; Ouchenane, Zoulikha; Smati, Farida; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-01

    Toxin-producing gram-positive bacteria are responsible for emerging and life-threatening infections in humans worldwide. Both rapid toxin detection and adapted therapy are essential to limit the morbidity due to such toxins, especially staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Here we describe the use of a mass spectrometry profile generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) followed by ClinProTools 2.0 software analysis to find a reproducible model able to identify PVL in Staphylococcus aureus strains. Eighty-one S. aureus strains were used and tested for the presence of PVL, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and mecA genes. The peak at 4448 mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) was the most relevant peak to differentiate between PVL-producing and non-PVL-producing S. aureus. A model using only this peak had an overall recognition capability of 100% and an overall cross-validation of 77.07%. Prospective evaluation of the model allowed two cases of PVL-producing strains to be detected within a few minutes during the time of care and before polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. Our study represents a proof of concept for the use of such rapid technology as a point-of-care method to identify potential lethal toxin quickly. We believe that such a rapid method will be timely to help change the therapeutic strategy and could be used in the future for other pathogens and infectious diseases.

  12. The Origin of Convex Waterfalls Along the Niobrara River by Valentine, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, D. T.; Mason, L. J.; Goble, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Waterfalls on tributaries along a stretch of the Niobrara River east of Valentine, Nebraska have a convex-downstream geometry in the horizontal plane and an arc in the vertical plane. Siltstone forming the cliff face is only slightly indurated and should be easily eroded by stream water. This is not the case as the cliff face on either side of the waterfalls clearly undergoes more rapid erosion than the face of the falls forming a convex geometry. This differential erosion rate includes points where waterfalls occur immediately along the banks of the Niobrara River. At these points, riverbank erosion is clearly more effective upstream and downstream of a waterfall as evidenced by the protrusion of the waterfall face into the river. There appears to be repetitive-cycles of waterfall evolution along the tributaries. The convexity increases until collapse occurs on the face of the falls, headward erosion then occurs, followed by the development of a new convex waterfall. The waterfalls have a more typical geometry (convex upstream) on tributaries in the lower reaches of the Niobrara River, where cliff faces become coarser grained. The tributaries are fed by springs. Several processes interact to form the convex geometry. Freeze/thaw erosion is more effective on either side of the waterfalls. Water enters the face of the falls and wicks into the cliff causing negative pore pressures. Clay coatings on mineral grains appear to play a role in protection from erosion. Algae and lichen growth aids in protecting the face of the falls. Small groundwater flow systems, represented by seepage into the streambed above the falls and discharge to the side of the falls can cause seepage erosion and enhancement of freeze/thaw erosion.

  13. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching Wen; Kolar, Stacey L.; Müller, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Maria D.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Fan, Xuemo; Beenhouwer, David O.; Town, Terrence; Liu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)/IL2rγnull (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These “humanized” NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor. PMID:26618545

  14. Paclitaxel-coated balloon for the treatment of drug-eluting stent restenosis: subanalysis results from the Valentines I trial.

    PubMed

    Loh, Joshua P; Stella, Pieter R; Sangiorgi, Giuseppe; Silber, Sigmund; Stahnke, Stefanie; von Strandmann, Rembert Pogge; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) treatment on patients with drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis. In the Valentines I trial, treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis was effective and safe with the second-generation DIOR® PCB. Valentines I prospectively enrolled 250 patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR); 76 patients (30.4%) had restenosis of a previous paclitaxel or limus DES. Patients underwent balloon angioplasty followed by PCB treatment. Clinical outcomes of patients with paclitaxel-eluting DES restenosis (n=34; 41 lesions) and limus-eluting (sirolimus, everolimus and zotarolimus) DES restenosis (n=42; 43 lesions) treated with DIOR® PCB were compared. Baseline characteristics were similar. There were more diffuse lesions >20mm treated in paclitaxel- compared to limus-eluting DES restenosis (50% vs. 26.8%, p=0.032). Number of PCB used per patient (1.08±0.31 overall), mean PCB diameter (2.99±0.42mm overall), mean PCB length (24.4±11.9mm overall), and bailout stenting (2.4% vs. 4.7%) were similar (p=NS). At mean follow-up of 231±43days, major adverse cardiac events was 0% vs. 23.8% in paclitaxel- vs. limus-eluting DES restenosis (p=0.002), driven mainly by less target vessel revascularization (0% vs. 21.4%, p=0.004). Target lesion revascularization was 0% vs. 16.7% for paclitaxel- vs. limus-eluting DES restenosis (p=0.015). In Valentines I, PCB use was more effective in patients with paclitaxel DES restenosis compared to limus DES restenosis, achieving better mid-term clinical outcomes. This suggests the efficacy of localized paclitaxel delivery to overcome paclitaxel resistance but not limus resistance due to different mechanisms of DES failure. © 2014.

  15. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) - an uninvited stowaway aboard a Royal Navy submarine.

    PubMed

    Bourn, S J N; Evans, G; O'Shea, M K

    2013-01-01

    The toxin Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor produced by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, SA) that destroys leucocytes. PVL-SA predominantly results in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) but may also cause invasive disease, including necrotising pneumonia, which may affect healthy young individuals and has a high mortality. We describe a case of PVL-SA in a submariner who presented at sea and which resulted in a requirement to both alter the submarine's programme and undertake population screening. The case highlights many important issues pertinent to military populations including clinical and public health considerations.

  16. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin associated with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a case report and review of interim guidelines.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, L N; Lowe, A D

    2008-07-01

    We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. The causative organism was positive for the toxin Panton-Valentine Leukocidin. This resulted in a severe pneumonia requiring a prolonged stay on our intensive care unit. This infection is becoming more common in the United Kingdom. It can cause a far more aggressive illness than the hospital acquired infection with a high mortality if it becomes an invasive infection. The Department of Health has recently produced interim guidelines for its treatment which we have also reviewed.

  17. Characterization of a Novel Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Encoding Staphylococcal Phage and Its Naturally PVL-Lacking Variant

    PubMed Central

    El Haddad, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    A new siphophage (LH1) was isolated from raw milk using a Staphylococcus aureus ST352 host. Its genome (46,048 bp, 57 open reading frames) includes the two genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a virulence factor usually harbored by S. aureus prophages. Nine structural proteins were identified, including a tail protein generated through a +1 frameshift. A phage lytic mutant was isolated, and its analysis revealed the deletion of genes coding for the PVL and an integrase. The deletion likely occurred through recombination between direct repeats. PMID:23396328

  18. Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcal aureus infections of the head and neck: case series and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hanratty, John; Changez, Huma; Smith, Andrew; Wales, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by some clones of Staphylococcus aureus that is associated with infections ranging from uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia. PVL S aureus-associated maxillofacial infections are rarely reported; therefore, a high degree of clinical suspicion is warranted and close liaison with microbiologists and appropriate samples are required for optimal management. This report discusses the management and learning points from 3 such cases managed by the Greater Glasgow and Clyde National Health Service maxillofacial surgical teams.

  19. Molecular Characterization and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin Typing of Community-Acquired Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Tim; Kearns, Angela M.; James, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Limited comprehensive molecular typing data exist currently for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MSSA) clinical isolates. Characterization of PVL-MSSA isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing in this study showed a genetic similarity to PVL-positive, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (PVL-MRSA) strains, although three novel spa types and a novel MLST (ST1518) were detected. Furthermore, the detection of PVL phages and haplotypes in PVL-MSSA identical to those previously found in PVL-MRSA isolates highlights the role these strains may play as precursors of emerging lineages of clinical significance. PMID:22718937

  20. Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Dupieux, C; Blondé, R; Bouchiat, C; Meugnier, H; Bes, M; Laurent, S; Vandenesch, F; Laurent, F; Tristan, A

    2015-06-11

    We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus argenteus, harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). These two sporadic cases were community-acquired, and identified in France in 2014. Both had an epidemiological link with Mayotte, an overseas department of France located in the Indian Ocean off the south-eastern African coast. This report illustrates that, contrary to previous descriptions, S. argenteus can acquire important virulence factors and be responsible for severe infections.

  1. Environmental Impact Statement Supersonic Flight Operations in the Valentine Military Operations Area, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    AM COMMAND 7’A .- 1 9-19’ 3: -42 FPr- H0 iF rEH TO ;777’-, P. OF ~ Air Forc~e Environmental Planning Division (HQ USAF/CEVP) lXoma S’B69 1260 Air...the width reduces to about three feet. Applying this data to Valentine would show the probability of a focus boom impacting any one spot where the...future research may provide a better understanding I of the relationship between noise and non-auditory ill-health; however, in the interim decisions

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement Supersonic Flight Operations in the Valentine Military Operations Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-04

    FROH HO UI3W CEH TOi 9-l2,’ý LI 1.U of F Air Force 4~4~4a ~ Environmental Planning DiVision 4LW (HQ USAFICE VP) Roam 5969 120 Air pa Nwatqof 6...about three feet. Applying I this data to Valentine would show the probability of a focus boom impacting any one spot where the overpressure is equal...provide a better understanding I of the relationship between noise and non-auditory ill-health; however, in the interim decisions must be based on that data

  3. Characterization of a Novel Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-encoding staphylococcal phage and its naturally PVL-lacking variant.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Moineau, Sylvain

    2013-04-01

    A new siphophage (LH1) was isolated from raw milk using a Staphylococcus aureus ST352 host. Its genome (46,048 bp, 57 open reading frames) includes the two genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a virulence factor usually harbored by S. aureus prophages. Nine structural proteins were identified, including a tail protein generated through a +1 frameshift. A phage lytic mutant was isolated, and its analysis revealed the deletion of genes coding for the PVL and an integrase. The deletion likely occurred through recombination between direct repeats.

  4. Discovering the Structure of Nerve Tissue: Part 2: Gabriel Valentin, Robert Remak, and Jan Evangelista Purkyně.

    PubMed

    Chvátal, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    During the 1830s, the use of improved microscopic techniques together with new histological methods, including tissue fixation, allowed more precise data to be obtained concerning the structure of nerve tissue of animals as well as humans. The present article, based on the translations of original texts never before published, brings together for the first time the discoveries of famous scholars Gustav Valentin, Robert Remak, and Jan Evangelista Purkyně, who made their significant discoveries in the field of neuroscience almost simultaneously and shows how their findings affected each other. In addition, this article also contains digitally remastered and reconstructed figures published in the original works of Valentin, Remak, and Purkyně and they are displayed for the first time in high quality. Although the fundamental discoveries of these famous scholars did not imply the discovery of nerve cells as we know them today, they were certainly a very important basis for further research of many other eminent scholars during the second half of the nineteenth century.

  5. Analysis of the specificity of Panton-Valentine leucocidin and gamma-hemolysin F component binding.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Florent; Girardot, Raymonde; Piémont, Yves; Prévost, Gilles; Colin, Didier A

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the binding of F components of the staphylococcal bicomponent leukotoxins Panton-Valentine leucocidin (LukF-PV) and gamma-hemolysin (HlgB) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, and lymphocytes was determined using labeled mutants and flow cytometry. Leukotoxin activity was evaluated by measuring Ca(2+) entry or pore formation using spectrofluorometry or flow cytometry. Although HlgB had no affinity for cells in the absence of an S component, LukF-PV had high affinity for PMNs (dissociation constant [K(d)], 6.2 +/- 1.9 nM; n = 8), monocytes (K(d), 2.8 +/- 0.8 nM; n = 7), and lymphocytes (K(d), 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM; n = 7). Specific binding of HlgB was observed only after addition of LukS-PV on PMNs (K(d), 1.1 +/- 0.2 nM; n = 4) and monocytes (K(d), 0.84 +/- 0.31 nM; n = 4) or after addition of HlgC on PMNs, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Addition of LukS-PV or HlgC induced a second specific binding of LukF-PV on PMNs. HlgB and LukD competed only with LukF-PV molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. LukF-PV and LukD competed with HlgB in the presence of LukS-PV on PMNs and monocytes. Use of antibodies and comparisons between binding and activity time courses showed that the LukF-PV molecules that bound to target cells before addition of LukS-PV were the only LukF-PV molecules responsible for Ca(2+) entry and pore formation. In contrast, the active HlgB molecules were the HlgB molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. In conclusion, LukF-PV must be linked to LukS-PV and to a binding site of the membrane to have toxin activity.

  6. Analysis of the Specificity of Panton-Valentine Leucocidin and Gamma-Hemolysin F Component Binding▿

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Florent; Girardot, Raymonde; Piémont, Yves; Prévost, Gilles; Colin, Didier A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the binding of F components of the staphylococcal bicomponent leukotoxins Panton-Valentine leucocidin (LukF-PV) and gamma-hemolysin (HlgB) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, and lymphocytes was determined using labeled mutants and flow cytometry. Leukotoxin activity was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ entry or pore formation using spectrofluorometry or flow cytometry. Although HlgB had no affinity for cells in the absence of an S component, LukF-PV had high affinity for PMNs (dissociation constant [Kd], 6.2 ± 1.9 nM; n = 8), monocytes (Kd, 2.8 ± 0.8 nM; n = 7), and lymphocytes (Kd, 1.2 ± 0.2 nM; n = 7). Specific binding of HlgB was observed only after addition of LukS-PV on PMNs (Kd, 1.1 ± 0.2 nM; n = 4) and monocytes (Kd, 0.84 ± 0.31 nM; n = 4) or after addition of HlgC on PMNs, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Addition of LukS-PV or HlgC induced a second specific binding of LukF-PV on PMNs. HlgB and LukD competed only with LukF-PV molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. LukF-PV and LukD competed with HlgB in the presence of LukS-PV on PMNs and monocytes. Use of antibodies and comparisons between binding and activity time courses showed that the LukF-PV molecules that bound to target cells before addition of LukS-PV were the only LukF-PV molecules responsible for Ca2+ entry and pore formation. In contrast, the active HlgB molecules were the HlgB molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. In conclusion, LukF-PV must be linked to LukS-PV and to a binding site of the membrane to have toxin activity. PMID:18838523

  7. Successful management of Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive necrotising pneumonia and A/H1N12009 influenzavirus coinfection in adult

    PubMed Central

    Riedweg-Moreno, Karena; Wallet, Frederic; Blazejewski, Caroline; Goffard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case of community-acquired necrotising pneumonia due to Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and A/H1N12009 influenzavirus co-infection in a 26-year-old woman. Despite the presence of pejorative prognostic factors, the clinical course of the patient was favourable. PMID:24436283

  8. A Probe-Based Method for Confirmation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and TST Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Seifried, Steven E.; Jinno, Sadao; Perkins, Rosalie; Singh, Seema; Ying, Claire.; Tice, Alan D.; Kim, Wesley; Hayden, Randall T.

    2016-01-01

    Probe-based detection of mecA, lukS/F-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin) and tst virulence genes in 435 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus had comparable sensitivity and specificity to end point polymerase chain reaction as a reference standard. PMID:21658873

  9. Outbreak of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a regional burns unit.

    PubMed

    Teare, L; Shelley, O P; Millership, S; Kearns, A

    2010-11-01

    Over a 16 month period, 30 individuals (19 patients, one relative and 10 members of staff) on a regional burns and plastics unit became colonised or infected with a single strain of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MRSA). The strain was resistant to ciprofloxacin, neomycin and gentamicin and belonged to a community-associated MRSA lineage known to be circulating in the UK. The outbreak occurred in four stages, the first being in burns outpatients, the second and third being on the burns unit itself and the final stage on a plastics ward. In spite of closing the affected unit and deep cleaning, including steam cleaning and hydrogen peroxide treatment, the outbreak continued. It was not until staff carriage was fully addressed that the outbreak was controlled.

  10. Combined action of influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin provokes severe lung epithelium damage.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Silke; Ehrhardt, Christina; Medina, Eva; Warnking, Kathrin; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Heitmann, Vanessa; Ludwig, Stephan; Peters, Georg; Löffler, Bettina

    2012-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia is a life-threatening disease that is frequently preceded by influenza infection. The S. aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is most likely causative for necrotizing diseases, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms of PVL and a possible contribution of influenza virus remain to be elucidated. In this study, we present a model that explains how influenza virus and PVL act together to cause necrotizing pneumonia: an influenza infection activates the lung epithelium to produce chemoattractants for neutrophils. Upon superinfection with PVL-expressing S. aureus, the recruited neutrophils are rapidly killed by PVL, resulting in uncontrolled release of neutrophil proteases that damage the airway epithelium. The host counteracts this pathogen strategy by generating PVL-neutralizing antibodies and by neutralizing the released proteases via protease inhibitors present in the serum. These findings explain why necrotizing infections mainly develop in serum-free spaces (eg, pulmonary alveoli) and open options for new therapeutic approaches.

  11. The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation and Di-1-p-Menthene on the Phytotoxicity of 2,4-D Applications to Black Valentine Bean Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    dimer of beta - pinene ), the dimethylamine salt of (2,4- dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, and the combination of the latter two. Greenhouse- grown bean...plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine) were exposed for various time periods to a mid-ultraviolet light source having a major emission peak at...254 nm. The energy level recorded at plant height was 350 ergs/sq cm/ sec. Plants exposed to this light source for 1 hr had chlorotic, malformed

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Valentine Dam (NJ00297) Delaware River Basin, Branch of the Pequest River, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    B WOODEN STOPLOG (4’xlx2) HOUSE a15 Via T CHANNEL SECTION APPROX. 900’ DOWNSTREAM OF DAM SEEPAGELAKE VALENTINE 15 WOODEN FOOTBRIDGE r(4’xl’xe... FOOTBRIDGE (Wooden Deck) ]HOUSE HOUSE PLAN cufl DATA FROM FIELD INSPECTION 11/9/79 Anderson- Nichols 5 Ca, Inc [U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DIST PHIL ADELPH4IA CORPS

  13. Can Panton Valentine Leukocidin Gene And Clindamycin Susceptibility Serve As Predictors of Community Origin of MRSA From Skin and Soft Tissue Infections?

    PubMed

    Shashindran, Nandita; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    Community associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have begun to replace Hospital Associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains in hospital settings all over the world. With the epidemiological distinctions between these strains beginning to become ill-defined, the categorisation of a strain as CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA is dependent on molecular methods to detect the presence of SCCmec (Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec) elements. However other markers like the presence of Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin (pvl) genes or Clindamycin susceptibility may also be associated with community origin of MRSA. To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA among MRSA strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to evaluate the usefulness of Panton Valentine Leukocidin and Clindamycin susceptibility as markers of community origin of MRSA. One hundred isolates of MRSA from skin and soft tissue were studied for the presence of SCCmec IV and V genes and Panton valentine leukocidin gene by Polymerase chain reaction. Inducible clindamycin resistance was screened for using the D-test. Fischer's exact test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Eighteen out of 100 MRSA strains were found to be CA-MRSA based on presence of SCCmecV. The proportion of Panton Valentine Leukocidin gene carriage among CA- MRSA as compared to HA-MRSA was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). Among the CA-MRSA strains, 94.4% were found to be susceptible to Clindamycin as against only 13.4% of the HA-MRSA strains (p<0.0001). The odds of an MRSA strain being CA-MRSA if it was both Clindamycin susceptible and PVL gene positive was calculated to be 68.25 (p<0.0001). Both Clindamycin susceptibility and pvl gene carriage were found to be independent predictors of community origin of MRSA, but taken together the association was highly significant.

  14. Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Mesrati, I; Saïdani, M; Ennigrou, S; Zouari, B; Ben Redjeb, S

    2010-08-01

    Pantone-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and gAMMA-haemolysin (Hlg) are members of the synergohymenotropic toxin family produced by Staphylococcus aureus and encoded by pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Many reports describe an association between PVL toxin and necrotic lesions involving skin and mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus strains carrying pvl and hlg genes and to investigate a possible relationship between pvl- and hlg-positive S. aureus with specific clinical presentations. Between January 2005 and July 2007, a total of 143 S. aureus strains including 58 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 85 meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were screened for pvl and hlg genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. These strains were isolated from 141 patients for whom demographic and clinical data were recorded. Thirty-one (21.7%) and 77 (53.7%) isolates were positive for pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Twenty-one (67.7%) pvl-positive strains were MRSA (P = 0.001). Among pvl-positive strains, 16 (51.6%) were community-acquired. There was a strong association between pvl genes and skin and soft tissue infections, especially abscesses (60% of strains; P = 0.008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus.

  15. [Life-threatening Panton-Valentine leukocidin-associated staphylococcal infections in children. A broad spectrum of clinical presentations].

    PubMed

    Gillet-Vittori, L; Afanetti, M; Dupont, A; Gondon, E; Dupont, D

    2014-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a major toxic virulence factor secreted by community-acquired methicillin-sensitive or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA). SA-PVL can be responsible for life-threatening infections in healthy children with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations involving lung, skin, and soft tissues or bones and joints. PVL production should always be considered in severe SA infections. The pediatric medicine community remains poorly informed regarding the therapeutic management of this infection, which should be early and aggressive. Intravenous empiric antibiotics against SA and its toxins must be given with early and sometimes iterative surgical procedures to drain abscesses and to stop bacterial proliferation and necrosis in the tissues. Here, we report the cases of three patients admitted for SA-PVL infections to the pediatric intensive care unit. Initial clinical presentation in the three patients was multifocal osteomyelitis associated with necrotizing pneumonia; severe skin infection with septic shock; and non-necrotic pneumonia with pleural and pericardial effusion. Appropriate treatments resulted in a good outcome in all cases. Following these illustrations, we describe a number of practical key points in the optimal medical and surgical management of severe SA-PVL infections, with a review of the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: An international survey.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Viñas, Marina; Conly, John; Francois, Patrice; Aschbacher, Richard; Blanc, Dominique S; Coombs, Geoffrey; Daikos, George; Dhawan, Benu; Empel, Joanna; Etienne, Jerome; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; George Golding Cnisp; Han, Lizhong; Kim, Hong Bin; Köck, Robin; Larsen, Anders; Layer, Franziska; Lo, Janice; Maeda, Tadashi; Mulvey, Michael; Pantosti, Annalisa; Saga, Tomoo; Schrenzel, Jacques; Simor, Andrew; Skov, Robert; Van Rijen, Miranda; Wang, Hui; Zakaria, Zunita; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates reported from 17 countries in the Americas, Europe and, Australia-Asia were analysed. Among a total of 3236 non-duplicate isolates, the lowest susceptibility was observed to erythromycin in all regions. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin showed large variation (25%, 75% and 84% in the Americas, Europe and Australia-Asia, respectively). Two vancomycin-intermediate PVL-positive MRSA isolates were reported, one from Hong Kong and the other from The Netherlands. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and linezolid was <1%. Among 1798 MRSA isolates from 13 countries that were tested for the requested 10 non-β-lactam antibiotics, 49.4% were multisusceptible. However, multiresistant isolates (resistant to at least three classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics) were reported from all regions. Sequence type 30 (ST30) was reported worldwide, whereas ST80 and ST93 were exclusive to Europe and Australia, respectively. USA300 and related clones (ST8) are progressively replacing the ST80 clone in several European countries. Eight major clusters were discriminated by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat assay (MLVA), showing a certain geographic specificity. PVL-positive MRSA isolates frequently remain multisusceptible to non-β-lactam agents, but multiresistance is already prevalent in all regions. Surveillance of MRSA susceptibility patterns should be monitored to provide clinicians with the most current information regarding changes in resistance patterns.

  17. Remitting infections due to community-acquired Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in the Milan area.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Sara Giordana; Pagani, Cristina; Longhi, Erika; Di Cristo, Valentina; Di Gregorio, Annamaria; Mancon, Alessandro; Zerbi, Pietro; Gervasoni, Cristina; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Riva, Agostino

    2017-09-05

    One of the most important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors is Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We describe an outbreak of recurrent cutaneous PVL infections in different members of three family clusters. Molecular investigations were performed to confirm the presence of the mecA and PVL genes and to assign the SCCmec type, sequence type (ST) and clonal relatedness. A strain of PVL-producing methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was responsible for infection in two related families (A and B), and a third family (C) was infected with PVL-producing methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Molecular investigations revealed the same clone of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA, PVL positive ST8, and SCCmec IV in families A and B and CA-MSSA PVL positive ST15 in family C. S. aureus PVL may give rise to recurrent uncontrolled infections that are difficult to eradicate, and close family contacts are at high risk for transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Delta Hemolysin and Phenol-Soluble Modulins, but Not Alpha Hemolysin or Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Induce Mast Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hodille, Elisabeth; Cuerq, Charlotte; Badiou, Cédric; Bienvenu, Françoise; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Cartier, Régine; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Plesa, Adriana; Le, Vien T. M.; Diep, Binh A.; Lina, Gérard; Dumitrescu, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are located at host interfaces, such as the skin, and contribute to the first-line defense against pathogens by releasing soluble mediators, including those that induce itching and scratching behavior. Here, we show that delta-hemolysin (Hld) and phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) PSMα1 and PSMα3, but not alpha-hemolysin (Hla) or Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), induce dose-dependent tryptase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by the HMC-1 human mast cell line. Using supernatants from isogenic strains, we verified that tryptase and LDH release was Hld- and PSMα-dependent. PSMα1 and Hld production was detected in 65 and 17% of human Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin abscess specimens, respectively, but they were produced in vitro by all clinical isolates. The results suggest that Hld and PSM-α1 produced in vivo during S. aureus skin infections induce the release of mast cell mediators responsible for itching and scratching behavior, which may enhance skin to skin transmission of S. aureus via the hands. As Hld and PSMs are upregulated by accessory gene regulator (agr), their association may contribute to the elective transmission of S. aureus strains with a functional agr system. PMID:28018862

  19. The Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (pvl) in Central Australia, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Hewagama, S; Spelman, T; Woolley, M; McLeod, J; Gordon, D; Einsiedel, L

    2016-08-08

    The Central Australian Indigenous population has a high incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) but little is known about the local molecular epidemiology. Prospective observational study of bacteremic and nasal colonizing S.aureus isolates between June 2006 to June 2010. All isolates underwent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and testing for the presence of the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (pvl) gene. Invasive isolates (n = 97) were predominantly ST93 (26.6 %) and pvl positive (54.3 %), which was associated with skin and soft tissue infections (OR 4.35, 95 % CI 1.16, 16.31). Non-multiresistant MRSA accounted for 31.9 % of bacteremic samples and showed a trend to being healthcare associated (OR 2.16, 95 % CI 0.86, 5.40). Non-invasive isolates (n = 54) were rarely ST93 (1.9 %) or pvl positive (7.4 %). In Central Australia, ST93 was the dominant S.aureus clone, and was frequently pvl positive and associated with an aggressive clinical phenotype. Whether non-nasal carriage is more important with invasive clones or whether colonization occurs only transiently remains to be elucidated.

  20. [Investigation of the presence of panton-valentin leucocidin (PVL) in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples].

    PubMed

    Ozkul, Hilal; Oktem, I M Ali; Gülay, Zeynep

    2007-07-01

    Panton-Valentin leucocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin which causes tissue necrosis by degradating leucocytes and other cell types. PVL has recently become very up to date as it has been shown to be the major virulance factor of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. In this study, the presence of PVL was investigated in methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) strains which were isolated from clinical samples between January 2005-May 2006 at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir. Fifty five MRSA and 79 MSSA strains which were isolated from blood, wound and respiratory tract samples were randomly included to the study. The presence of PVL was evaluated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which detects pvl and S. aureus-specific nuc genes. As a result, PVL positivities were detected in two (5%) of 40 MSSA and four (10.3%) of 39 MSSA strains isolated in the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. None of the MRSA isolates had pvl gene. Although this cytotoxin was rarely detected among MSSA isolates, it was interesting to note that the prevalence of PVL was twice more in the year 2006 compared to 2005. It was also worth to notify that four of six (66.7%) PVL positive strains had been isolated from the patients of general surgery inpatient or outpatient clinics.

  1. St. Valentine--patron saint of epilepsy: illustrating the semiology of seizures over the course of six centuries.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Gerhard; Kudernatsch, Verena

    2009-01-01

    From the 15th century to the present day, Christian art has portrayed people who suffer from epilepsy as attributes in illustrations of Saint Valentine (SV). The objective of our study was to interpret the works of art from a modern epileptological perspective on the basis of a collection of portrayals of SV in Europe that was as comprehensive as possible. The people depicted as attributes were analyzed with respect to their age, gender, social status, and possible seizure semiology. Three hundred forty-one illustrations of SV from Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Scotland, Slovakia, and Switzerland were systematically analyzed. Irrespective of the age of the work of art, among the 143 pictures of people with possible epilepsy characteristics, there were more males than females from various levels of society. As far as could be interpreted, there were 17 infants, 35 children, 7 adolescents, and 84 adults. With respect to possible seizure semiology, infantile spasms (n=10), atonic seizures (n=13), tonic seizures (n=53), absences (n=2), psychogenic seizures (n=4), and postictal or undefinable states (n=61) were differentiated in a subjective assessment. Despite the fact that from a modern perspective, the 15th to 20th centuries in Europe seemed to be dominated by a rather superstitious attitude toward epilepsy, there is striking accuracy in the detail of the semiology in many of the historic portrayals, and a well-founded knowledge of epilepsy is apparent.

  2. Genetic characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Austria.

    PubMed

    Berktold, Michael; Grif, Katharina; Mäser, Martin; Witte, Wolfgang; Würzner, Reinhard; Orth-Höller, Dorothea

    2012-10-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (caMRSA) is an emerging pathogen which causes potentially severe infections in young and healthy individuals due to the ability of most strains to produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PVL-positive (PVL(+))-MRSA strains in Western Austria in the period from December 2005 to May 2010 and to characterize the identified PVL(+)-MRSA strains. Six hundred and fifty MRSA strains from Innsbruck Medical University hospital, district hospitals, and general practitioners were investigated for the presence of lukS-lukF gene (encoding for PVL). Antimicrobial resistance testing, SCCmec-, agr-, MLST- and spa-typing, as well as arcA determination were performed on PVL(+)-MRSA. Among 650 MRSA strains collected from various body sites from hospitalized patients and outpatients, 31 strains (4.8 %) were positive for lukS-lukF and thus identified as PVL(+)-MRSA. Agr-1 was the most common agr-type (n = 18, 58.1 %) and SCCmec-IV or variants IVa and IVc were the most common SCCmec types (n = 27, 87.1 %). All tested strains showed in-vitro susceptibility to vancomycin and rifampicin, but resistance against cotrimoxazol (6.4 %), clindamycin (9.7 %), gentamicin (9.7 %), fusidic acid (12.9 %), levofloxacin (12.9 %), and erythromycin (61.3 %) was found. Most lukS-lukF-positive MRSA detected in our survey shared ST8 and t008 and were positive for arcA. The major lukS-lukF-positive MRSA lineage found in our population was ST8, t008 and positive for arcA which is mainly found in the USA. In contrast, ST80 strains were not found as frequently in our region as in many other European countries.

  3. Distinct Bacteriophages Encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) among International Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones Harboring PVL▿

    PubMed Central

    Boakes, E.; Kearns, A. M.; Ganner, M.; Perry, C.; Hill, R. L.; Ellington, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically diverse community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) can harbor a bacteriophage encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) lysogenized into its chromosome (prophage). Six PVL phages (ΦPVL, Φ108PVL, ΦSLT, ΦSa2MW, ΦSa2USA, and ΦSa2958) are known, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PVL genes have been reported. We sought to determine the distribution of lysogenized PVL phages among MRSA strains with PVL (PVL-MRSA strains), the PVL gene sequences, and the chromosomal phage insertion sites in 114 isolates comprising nine clones of PVL-MRSA that were selected for maximal underlying genetic diversity. The six PVL phages were identified by PCR; ΦSa2USA was present in the highest number of different lineages (multilocus sequence type clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC5, CC8, and sequence type 93 [ST93]) (n = 37 isolates). Analysis of 92 isolates confirmed that PVL phages inserted into the same chromosomal insertion locus in CC22, -30, and -80 but in a different locus in isolates of CC1, -5, -8, -59, and -88 and ST93 (and CC22 in two isolates). Within the two different loci, specific attachment motifs were found in all cases, although some limited inter- and intralineage sequence variation occurred. Overall, lineage-specific relationships between the PVL phage, the genes that encode the toxin, and the position at which the phage inserts into the host chromosome were identified. These analyses provide important insights into the microepidemiology of PVL-MRSA, will prove a valuable adjunct in outbreak investigation, and may help predict the emergence of new strains. PMID:21106787

  4. Can Panton Valentine Leukocidin Gene And Clindamycin Susceptibility Serve As Predictors of Community Origin of MRSA From Skin and Soft Tissue Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Shashindran, Nandita; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Community associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have begun to replace Hospital Associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains in hospital settings all over the world. With the epidemiological distinctions between these strains beginning to become ill-defined, the categorisation of a strain as CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA is dependent on molecular methods to detect the presence of SCCmec (Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec) elements. However other markers like the presence of Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin (pvl) genes or Clindamycin susceptibility may also be associated with community origin of MRSA. Aim To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA among MRSA strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to evaluate the usefulness of Panton Valentine Leukocidin and Clindamycin susceptibility as markers of community origin of MRSA. Materials and Methods One hundred isolates of MRSA from skin and soft tissue were studied for the presence of SCCmec IV and V genes and Panton valentine leukocidin gene by Polymerase chain reaction. Inducible clindamycin resistance was screened for using the D-test. Statistical analysis used Fischer’s exact test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant Results Eighteen out of 100 MRSA strains were found to be CA-MRSA based on presence of SCCmecV. The proportion of Panton Valentine Leukocidin gene carriage among CA- MRSA as compared to HA-MRSA was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). Among the CA-MRSA strains, 94.4% were found to be susceptible to Clindamycin as against only 13.4% of the HA-MRSA strains (p<0.0001). The odds of an MRSA strain being CA-MRSA if it was both Clindamycin susceptible and PVL gene positive was calculated to be 68.25 (p<0.0001). Conclusion Both Clindamycin susceptibility and pvl gene carriage were found to be independent predictors of community origin of MRSA, but taken together the association was highly significant. PMID:26894063

  5. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children in Tripoli-Libya.

    PubMed

    Al-haddad, Omaima H; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonized children are at an increased risk of developing infections than methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonized children. Nasal specimens from inpatient children, mothers of inpatient children, healthcare workers, and outpatient children at Tripoli Children Hospital (TCH) were examined for MRSA by chromogenic MRSA ID medium. Susceptibility of MRSA isolates to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA among inpatient children (8.3%, 24 of 289), their mothers (11%, 22 of 200), and healthcare workers (12.4%, 22 of 178) was significantly higher than among outpatient children (2.2%, 2 of 91) (P < 0.05, P < 0.02, and P < 0.006, respectively). Of the examined MRSA isolates (N = 35) 10 (28.6%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes by polymerase chain reaction. Multidrug resistance was found in 24.3% (17 of 70) of MRSA isolates. Nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive MRSA is not uncommon among inpatient children and their mothers in Tripoli.

  6. [Influence of reaction optimization on the results of PCR amplification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates].

    PubMed

    Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Dolapçi, Iştar; Tekeli, Alper

    2009-10-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an important virulence determinant of Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genes encoding PVL is the most widely used method for determining PVL-positivity. In this study, we used two different primer sets and different annealing temperatures for each set to investigate the effect of optimization of PCR parameters on the amplification results. A total of 321 S. aureus clinical isolates (84.4% methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 76.9% nosocomial) were included to the study. Two different primer sets and two different annealing temperatures were applied for the amplification of PVL gene. For this purpose while luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers and 55 degrees C and 58 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 433 bp region inhabiting the luk-S PV and luk-F PV genes, PVLup and PVLdn primers and 50 degrees C and 48 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 1918 bp region inhabiting the same genes. luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers yielded amplicons at 55 degrees C in 50.2% (161/321) and at 58 degrees C in 1.6% (5/321) of the isolates. To discriminate the positive amplicons from the crossly amplified PCR products, restriction endonuclease analysis was performed and it was observed that the five amplicons generated by luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C were cut by BspH1 enzyme as expected for the positive amplicons. None of the isolates yielded amplicons by PVLup and PVLdn primers at 50 degrees C, however, only 1.6% of the isolates yielded amplicons at 48 degrees C. These isolates were the same with the ones that were PVL positive with luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C. These data revealed that only 1.6% of the study isolates were PVL positive. These results showed that inappropriate cycling conditions may lead to false-negative or false-positive results in PVL-gene amplification. Restriction endonuclease or sequence analysis may be used to differentiate

  7. A Valentine from Vesta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-14

    This image from NASA Dawn spacecraft, is based on a framing camera image that is overlain by a color-coded height representation of topography. This heart-shaped hollow is roughly 10 kilometers 6 miles across at its widest point.

  8. Community acquired Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) positive Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcal aureus cerebral abscess in an 11-month old boy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Sahay, Keya M; Hartley, John; Thompson, Dominic; Ratnasinghe, Didi; Hudson, Lee; Hulse, Eleanor; Fellows, Greg

    2014-12-01

    Brain abscess are uncommon childhood infection. Brain abscess caused by Panton-Valentine Leukocidin positive Community acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcal aureus have never been reported in the United Kingdom. We report a case of a previously well 11-month old boy of Indian origin who developed a parietal lobe abscess from PVL positive CA-MRSA. This case is one of the few described cases of brain abscess caused by PVL CA-MRSA in children. The unusual (insidious) presentation, the absence of a clear staphylococcal focus and the unexpected finding of a CA-MRSA in this patient highlight the challenges of managing such cases in clinical settings and the potential future risk to public health.

  9. Identification of ORF636 in phage phiSLT carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, acting as an adhesion protein for a poly(glycerophosphate) chain of lipoteichoic acid on the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Jun; Narita-Yamada, Sachiko; Wakabayashi, Yukari; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    The temperate phage phiSLT of Staphylococcus aureus carries genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Here, we identify ORF636, a constituent of the phage tail tip structure, as a recognition/adhesion protein for a poly(glycerophosphate) chain of lipoteichoic acid on the cell surface of S. aureus. ORF636 bound specifically to S. aureus; it did not bind to any other staphylococcal species or to several gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin associated Staphylococcus aureus infections in London, England: clinical and socio-demographic characterisation, management, burden of disease and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Michael; Kearns, Angela; Cordery, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Routine notification of Staphylococcus aureus producing the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin toxin (PVL-SA) to the North East & Central London Health Protection Unit, a communicable disease control unit covering a population of 2.8 million, identified 115 cases in 2009-2010, including 99 skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 15 severe infections and one asymptomatic colonisation. Most cases occurred in children and young adults, unequally distributed geographically and socio-economically. The majority of infections were community acquired and 60% were caused by methicillin resistant strains. Overall, 27% of cases had previous SSTIs, and 32% had contacts with SSTIs suggestive of PVL-SA albeit these were not confirmed microbiologically. This suggests that characteristics of PVL-SA infection in cases and their families are not recognised as such leading to delay in diagnosis and low case ascertainment. A lack of governance around effective case management may also be contributing to the burden of disease. Further studies are recommended to evaluate key aspects of PVL-SA management including the effectiveness of decolonisation in the elimination of carriage and prevention of local spread.

  11. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Aung, Meiji Soe; San, Thida; Aye, Mya Mya; Mya, San; Maw, Win Win; Zan, Khin Nyein; Htut, Wut Hmone Win; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2017-08-04

    Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes (pvl) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa-VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl-positive clinical isolates in Myanmar. A pvl-positive, ST2250 nasal isolate was identified as S. argenteus, a novel coagulase-positive staphylococcus species. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in five pvl-negative isolates. All of the 144 isolates harbored at least one of the 21 enterotoxin(-like) gene(s). The most prevalent enterotoxin(-like) gene was selw (98%), followed by selx (97%), sei (28%), sely (28%), sem (26%), sel (24%), and sea and sec (22% each). Considerable genetic diversity with five groups was detected for selw. The present study revealed the relatively high rate of pvl, as well as the wide distribution of enterotoxin(-like) genes among colonizing S. aureus in Myanmar.

  12. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S.; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S.; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A.; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    2014-01-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals. PMID:24567320

  13. A real-time PCR assay to detect the Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin in staphylococci: screening Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans strains from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Scott; O'Shea, Kathleen; Morris, Daniel; Robb, Andrew; Morrison, Donald; Rankin, Shelley

    2005-04-25

    Recent reports suggest that methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans are now commonly isolated from dogs. Given the association of a potentially mobile SCCmec type IV element with lysogenic phage-encoded Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains we hypothesized that methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains may also encode PVL toxin genes. Forty S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals were studied. Susceptibility to oxacillin was determined by broth microdilution and all isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of the mecA gene. SCCmec typing was performed on 14 isolates. A real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of the PVL genes using a SmartCycler. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine whether S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains were homogeneous. Twenty-eight of the 40 isolates (70%) were resistant to oxacillin and 26/28 possessed the mecA gene by PCR. SCCmec IV was identified in seven strains; the other seven isolates were not typable by this technique. All 40 strains were negative for the PVL toxin gene. PFGE showed a heterogeneous population and 13 different profiles were determined. In conclusion, this study showed that PVL toxin genes were not detected in a heterogeneous population of methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals.

  14. Presence of Genes Encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is Not the Primary Determinant of Outcome in Patients with Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Ahn, Sun H.; Rude, Thomas H.; Zhang, Yurong; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Ruffin, Felicia; Genter, Fredric C.; Braughton, Kevin R.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Barriere, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the outcome in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is controversial. We genotyped S. aureus isolates from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) enrolled in two registrational multinational clinical trials for the genetic elements carrying pvl and 30 other virulence genes. A total of 287 isolates (173 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 114 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] isolates) from patients from 127 centers in 34 countries for whom clinical outcomes of cure or failure were available underwent genotyping. Of these, pvl was detected by PCR and its product confirmed in 23 isolates (8.0%) (MRSA, 18/173 isolates [10.4%]; MSSA, 5/114 isolates [4.4%]). The presence of pvl was not associated with a higher risk for clinical failure (4/23 [17.4%] versus 48/264 [18.2%]; P = 1.00) or mortality. These findings persisted after adjustment for multiple potential confounding variables. No significant associations between clinical outcome and (i) presence of any of the 30 other virulence genes tested, (ii) presence of specific bacterial clone, (iii) levels of alpha-hemolysin, or (iv) delta-hemolysin production were identified. This study suggests that neither pvl presence nor in vitro level of alpha-hemolysin production is the primary determinant of outcome among patients with HAP caused by S. aureus. PMID:22205797

  15. Unusually high prevalence of panton-valentine leukocidin genes among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains carried in the Indonesian population.

    PubMed

    Severin, Juliëtte A; Lestari, Endang Sri; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Melles, Damian C; Pastink, Martijn; Peeters, Justine K; Snijders, Susan V; Hadi, Usman; Duerink, D Offra; van Belkum, Alex; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2008-06-01

    Few data on the molecular characteristics and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from Indonesia are available. The purpose of the present study was to define S. aureus reservoirs in both the Indonesian community and hospital using a collection of 329 nasal carriage isolates obtained during a survey of 3,995 healthy individuals and patients from Java, Indonesia. Only one strain (0.3%) was identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus by mecA gene PCR. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 35 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains (10.6%). Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 329 isolates showed extensive genetic diversity among both PVL-positive and PVL-negative strains. In Surabaya, Indonesia, however, a cluster was identified that was strongly associated with the presence of the PVL locus (P < 0.0001). As determined by high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism, PVL-positive strains occurred throughout all major AFLP clusters (I to IV). Multilocus sequence typing of a subset of isolates showed that most PVL-positive strains belonged to sequence type (ST) 188, while most PVL-negative isolates belonged to ST45. The high prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus strains in certain regions of Indonesia is of concern since these strains may cause severe infections in the community and in hospitals.

  16. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-04-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals.

  17. Above and beyond C5a Receptor Targeting by Staphylococcal Leucotoxins: Retrograde Transport of Panton–Valentine Leucocidin and γ-Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Prévost, Gilles; Jover, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton–Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca2+ release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway. Immunolabeling and confocal microscopic techniques were used to analyze the presence of leucotoxins in endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. The two leucotoxins apparently followed retrograde transport similar to that of the C5a peptide-activated receptor. However, HlgC/HlgB reached the Golgi network very early, whereas LukS-PV/LukF-PV followed slower kinetics. The HlgC/HlgB leucotoxin remained in neutrophils 6 h after a 10-min incubation of the cells in the presence of the toxin with no signs of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was observed 3 h after neutrophils were incubated with LukS-PV/LukF-PV. Such retrograde transport of leucotoxins provides a novel understanding of the cellular effects initiated by sublytic concentrations of these toxins. PMID:28117704

  18. In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftaroline Fosamil in a Methicillin-Resistant Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Rabbit Pneumonia Model

    PubMed Central

    Hayez, Davy; Da Silva, Sonia; Labrousse, Delphine; Biek, Donald; Badiou, Cedric; Dumitrescu, Oana; Guerard, Pascal; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Piroth, Lionel; Lina, Gerard; Vandenesch, Francois; Chavanet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum in vitro activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP), and common Gram-negative pathogens. This study investigated the in vivo activity of ceftaroline fosamil compared with clindamycin, linezolid, and vancomycin in a severe pneumonia model due to MRSA-producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). A USA300 PVL-positive clone was used to induce pneumonia in rabbits. Infected rabbits were randomly assigned to no treatment or simulated human-equivalent dosing with ceftaroline fosamil, clindamycin, linezolid, or vancomycin. Residual bacterial concentrations in the lungs and spleen were assessed after 48 h of treatment. PVL expression was measured using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ceftaroline, clindamycin, and linezolid considerably reduced mortality rates compared with the control, whereas vancomycin did not. Pulmonary and splenic bacterial titers and PVL concentrations were greatly reduced by ceftaroline, clindamycin, and linezolid. Ceftaroline, clindamycin, and linezolid were associated with reduced pulmonary tissue damage based on significantly lower macroscopic scores. Ceftaroline fosamil, clindamycin, and, to a lesser extent, linezolid were efficient in reducing bacterial titers in both the lungs and spleen and decreasing macroscopic scores and PVL production compared with the control. PMID:24395236

  19. Co-detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin encoding genes and cotrimoxazole resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in Gabon: implications for HIV-patients’ care

    PubMed Central

    Kraef, Christian; Alabi, Abraham S.; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten; Kremsner, Peter G.; Rossatanga, Elie G.; Mellmann, Alexander; Grobusch, Martin P.; Zanger, Philipp; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are frequently exposed to antimicrobial agents. This might have an impact on the resistance profile, genetic background and virulence factors of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus. Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be endemic for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive S. aureus which can be associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). We compared S. aureus from nasal and pharyngeal swabs from HIV patients (n = 141) and healthy controls (n = 206) in Gabon in 2013, and analyzed determinants of colonization with PVL positive isolates in a cross-sectional study. S. aureus isolates were screened for the presence of selected virulence factors (incl. PVL) and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotyping. In HIV patients, S. aureus was more frequently detected (36.9 vs. 31.6%) and the isolates were more frequently PVL positive than in healthy controls (42.1 vs. 23.2%). The presence of PVL was associated with cotrimoxazole resistance (OR = 25.1, p < 0.001) and the use of cotrimoxazole was a risk factor for colonization with PVL positive isolates (OR = 2.5, p = 0.06). PVL positive isolates were associated with the multilocus sequence types ST15 (OR = 5.6, p < 0.001) and ST152 (OR = 62.1, p < 0.001). Participants colonized with PVL positive isolates reported more frequently SSTI in the past compared to carriers of PVL negative isolates (OR = 2.7, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the novelty of our study is that cotrimoxazole might increase the risk of SSTI in regions where cotrimoxazole resistance is high and associated with PVL. This finding needs to be confirmed in prospective studies. PMID:25699036

  20. Common skin infection due to Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains in asylum seekers from Eritrea: a genome-based investigation of a suspected outbreak.

    PubMed

    Jaton, L; Pillonel, T; Jaton, K; Dory, E; Prod'hom, G; Blanc, D S; Tissot, F; Bodenmann, P; Greub, G

    2016-08-01

    Since late 2014, multiple cases of abscesses and boils due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) expressing the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) were observed in Eritrean asylum seekers in Lausanne, Switzerland. Strains isolated from infected Eritrean and non-Eritrean patients were compared by whole genome sequencing to determine whether these numerous cases result from an outbreak. The genome of S. aureus PVL-producing strains were sequenced and compared. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients infected by PVL-producing strains were investigated. This work reports 15 cases of infections due to PVL-producing strains affecting mostly asylum seekers (n = 10), people working with refugees and/or exposed to Africans (n = 3). Most infections were due to closely related strains of CC152 (n = 8) and CC15 (n = 3), two distantly related (>34 000 core single nucleotide polymorphisms) clonal complexes. An epidemiological link between the 15 cases could be ruled out by whole genome sequencing (33 to 172 core single nucleotide polymorphisms between the different strains of a given complex). Altogether, these results reflect the probable high incidence of CC15 and CC152 PVL-producing strains in eastern Africa. Clinicians facing unusual skin infections in African refugees (or in any person returning from this region of high endemicity) should consider S. aureus PVL-producer before suspecting rare infections such as leishmaniasis or rickettsiosis. Clinicians should also remember that PVL are frequently expressed by MSSA in some regions of the world and that antibiotics that are efficient on toxin expression, such as clindamycin, represent the best therapeutic option.

  1. Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: evaluation from the CANVAS studies.

    PubMed

    Tong, Amy; Tong, Steven Y C; Zhang, Yurong; Lamlertthon, Supaporn; Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas; Ahn, Sun Hee; Ruffin, Felicia; Llorens, Lily; Tamarana, Ganesh; Biek, Donald; Critchley, Ian; Fowler, Vance G

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the severity of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL presence in both methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of cSSSI (the CANVAS 1 and 2 programs). Isolates from all microbiologically evaluable patients with monomicrobial MRSA or MSSA infections (n = 473) were genotyped by PCR for pvl and underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genes encoding pvl were present in 266/473 (56.2%) isolates. Infections caused by pvl-positive S. aureus were associated with younger patient age, North American acquisition, and presence of major abscesses (P<0.001 for each). Cure rates of patients infected with pvl-positive and pvl-negative S. aureus were similar overall (93.6% versus 92.8%; P = 0.72), and within MRSA-infected (94.5% vs. 93.1%; P = 0.67) and MSSA-infected patients (92.2% vs. 92.7%; P = 1.00). This finding persisted after adjustment for multiple patient characteristics. Outcomes were also similar when USA300 PVL+ and non-USA300 PVL+ infections were compared. The results of this contemporary, international study suggest that pvl presence was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with cSSSI due to either MRSA or MSSA.

  2. Rapid Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus Cultures by Use of a Lateral Flow Assay Based on Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Elke; Buechler, Joseph; Rejman, John; Stieber, Bettina; Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Bandt, Dirk; Burris, Rob; Coombs, Geoffrey; Hidalgo-Arroyo, G. Aida; Hughes, Peter; Kearns, Angela; Abós, Sonia Molinos; Pichon, Bruno; Skakni, Leila; Söderquist, Bo; Ehricht, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, which is associated with skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia. To develop a rapid phenotypic assay, recombinant PVL F component was used to generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display. These antibodies were spotted on protein microarrays and screened using different lukF-PV preparations and detection antibodies. This led to the identification of the optimal antibody combination that was then used to establish a lateral flow assay. This test was used to detect PVL in S. aureus cultures. The detection limit of the assay with purified native and recombinant antigens was determined to be around 1 ng/ml. Overnight cultures from various solid and liquid media proved suitable for PVL detection. Six hundred strains and clinical isolates from patients from America, Europe, Australia, Africa, and the Middle East were tested. Isolates were genotyped in parallel by DNA microarray hybridization for confirmation of PVL status and assignment to clonal complexes. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the assay in this trial were 99.7, 98.3, 98.4, and 99.7%, respectively. A total of 302 clinical isolates and reference strains were PVL positive and were assigned to 21 different clonal complexes. In summary, the lateral flow test allows rapid and economical detection of PVL in a routine bacteriology laboratory. As the test utilizes cultures from standard media and does not require sophisticated equipment, it can be easily integrated into a laboratory's workflow and might contribute to timely therapy of PVL-associated infections. PMID:23175260

  3. Application of monoclonal antibodies generated against Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL-S) toxin for specific identification of community acquired methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Niveditha Sundar; Ramlal, Shylaja; Urs, Radhika Madan; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-12-01

    Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) produced by community acquired methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) involved in skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia comprised of two fractions, namely PVL S and PVL F. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies designated as MAb1, MAb9 and MAb10 were generated against recombinant PVL-S (35kDa) protein of S. aureus. All the three MAbs specifically reacted to confirm PVL-S positive strains of S. aureus recovered from clinical samples in Western blot analysis. Similarly all the three MAbs did not show any binding to other tested 14 different pathogenic bacteria belonging to other genera and species in Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a simple dot-ELISA method was standardized for the identification of PVL-S toxin containing S. aureus strains. Initially in dot-ELISA, Protein A (Spa) of S. aureus posed background noise problems due to the non-specific binding of antibodies resulting in false positive reactions. With the addition of 10mM diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) along with 5% milk in PBS in the blocking step prevented this non-specific binding of Spa to mouse anti-PVL monoclonal antibodies in dot-ELISA. Once standardized, this simple dot-ELISA was evaluated with nine PVL positive strains recovered from food, environmental and clinical samples and the results were compared with PCR assay for the presence of PVL toxin genes and also with Western blot analysis. A 100% correlation was found between dot-ELISA, PCR assay and Western blot analysis. Collectively our results suggest the newly developed simple dot-ELISA system can be of immense help in providing, rapid detection of the PVL toxin containing S. aureus strains at a relatively low cost and will be a valuable tool for the reliable identification of CA-MRSA.

  4. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  5. Characterisation of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates harbouring mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes from four tertiary care hospitals in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Suata, Ketut; Lestari, Endang S; Wahjono, Hendro; Djamal, Aziz; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; van Belkum, Alex; Laurens, Mitchell; Snijders, Susan V; Willemse-Erix, Diana; Goessens, Wil H; Verbrugh, Henri A; Severin, Juliëtte A

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and clonal distribution of either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus obtained from clinical cultures in Indonesian hospitals. S. aureus isolates from clinical cultures of patients in four tertiary care hospitals in Denpasar, Malang, Padang and Semarang were included. We assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles using the Vitek2(®) system, determined the presence of the mecA gene and genes encoding PVL using PCR and analysed the clonal relatedness with Raman spectroscopy. SCCmec typing was performed for all MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for a subset of isolates. In total, 259 S. aureus strains were collected. Of these, 17/259 (6.6%) and 48/259 (18.5%) were MRSA and PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. The prevalence of MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA ranged between 2.5-8.9% and 9.5-29.1%, respectively and depended on geographic origin. PVL-positive MRSA were not detected. Raman spectroscopy of the strains revealed multiple Raman types with two predominant clusters. We also showed possible transmission of a ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III strain and a ST121 PVL-positive MSSA in one of the hospitals. We showed that MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are of clinical importance in Indonesian hospitals. A national surveillance system should be set-up to further monitor this. To reduce the prevalence of MRSA in Indonesian hospitals, a bundle of intervention measures is highly recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. β-Lactams Interfering with PBP1 Induce Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Expression by Triggering sarA and rot Global Regulators of Staphylococcus aureus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Oana; Choudhury, Priya; Boisset, Sandrine; Badiou, Cédric; Bes, Michele; Benito, Yvonne; Wolz, Christiane; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Bowden, Maria Gabriela; Lina, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Previous articles reported that beta-lactam antibiotics increase the expression of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) by activating its transcription. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression by determining targets and regulatory pathways possibly implicated in this process. We measured PVL production in the presence of oxacillin (nonselective), imipenem (penicillin-binding protein 1 [PBP1] selective), cefotaxime (PBP2 selective), cefaclore (PBP3 selective), and cefoxitin (PBP4 selective). In vitro, we observed increased PVL production consistent with luk-PV mRNA levels that were 20 to 25 times higher for community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) cultures treated with PBP1-binding oxacillin and imipenem than for cultures treated with other beta-lactams or no antibiotic at all. This effect was also observed in vivo, with increased PVL mRNA levels in lung tissues from CA-MRSA-infected mice treated with imipenem but not cefoxitin. To confirm the involvement of PBP1 inhibition in this pathway, PBP1 depletion by use of an inducible pbp1 antisense RNA showed a dose-dependent relationship between the level of pbp1 antisense RNA and the luk-PV mRNA level. Upon imipenem treatment of exponential-phase cultures, we observed an increased sarA mRNA level after 30 min of incubation followed by a decreased rot mRNA level after 1 to 4 h of incubation. Unlike the agr and saeRS positive regulators, which were nonessential for PVL induction by beta-lactams, the sarA (positive) and rot (negative) PVL regulators were necessary for PVL induction by imipenem. Our results suggest that antibiotics binding to PBP1 increase PVL expression by modulating sarA and rot, which are essential mediators of the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression. PMID:21502633

  7. Association of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Western Nepal: a matter of concern for community infections (a hospital based prospective study).

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Dharm R; Cavaco, Lina M; Nath, Gopal; Kumar, Kush; Gaur, Abhishek; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dwij R

    2016-05-15

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is considered one of the important virulence factors of S. aureus responsible for destruction of white blood cells, necrosis and apoptosis and as a marker of community acquired MRSA. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of PVL genes among MRSA isolates and to check the reliability of PVL as marker of community acquired MRSA isolates from Western Nepal. A total of 400 strains of S. aureus were collected from clinical specimens and various units (Operation Theater, Intensive Care Units) of the hospital and 139 of these had been confirmed as MRSA by previous study. Multiplex PCR was used to detect mecA and PVL genes. Clinical data as well as antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed and compared among PVL positive and negative MRSA isolates. Out of 139 MRSA isolates, 79 (56.8 %) were PVL positive. The majority of the community acquired MRSA (90.4 %) were PVL positive (Positive predictive value: 94.9 % and negative predictive value: 86.6 %), while PVL was detected only in 4 (7.1 %) hospital associated MRSA strains. None of the MRSA isolates from hospital environment was found positive for the PVL genes. The majority of the PVL positive strains (75.5 %) were isolated from pus samples. Antibiotic resistance among PVL negative MRSA isolates was found higher as compared to PVL positive MRSA. Our study showed high prevalence of PVL among community acquired MRSA isolates. Absence of PVL among MRSA isolates from hospital environment indicates its poor association with hospital acquired MRSA and therefore, PVL may be used a marker for community acquired MRSA. This is first study from Nepal, to test PVL among MRSA isolates from hospital environment.

  8. Molecular characterisation of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from the main hospitals in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Eed, E M; Ghonaim, M M; Hussein, Y M; Al-Shehri, S S; Khalifa, A S

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) is a bicomponent pore-forming cytolytic toxin encoded by the lukF-PV and lukS-PV genes. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) may carry the pvl genes which may be related to increased disease severity. This study aimed to characterise the PVL-producing MRSA recovered from different Taif Hospitals, Saudi Arabia. The study included 45 hospital-acquired-MRSA (HA-MRSA) and 26 CA-MRSA strains which were identified from 445 S. aureus strains isolated from different clinical samples. MRSA strains were identified by standard oxacillin salt agar screening procedure and by the detection of the mecA gene by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of the S. aureus-specific femA, mecA and pvl genes was performed by multiplex PCR. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was done for coagulase (coa) gene. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types of the 45 HA-MRSA strains were Type I (n = 24), Type II (n = 7) and Type III (n = 14) whereas the 26 CA-MRSA strains were Type IV (n = 14), Type V (n = 11) and one isolate was non-typeable. All the HA-MRSA and six CA-MRSA strains were PVL-negative PCR-RFLP analysis of coa gene showed that PVL-positive MRSA (n = 20) isolates showed six different patterns, and five patterns were shared by PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The eighth pattern was the most frequent in both MRSA and MSSA. PVL is more frequent among CA-MRSA than MSSA. All the HA-MRSA and 25% of CA-MRSA strains were negative for PVL. The pvl gene was related to the severity of infection but not related to coa gene RFLP pattern.

  9. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Various Types of Hospital Infections in Pediatrics: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec SCCmec Phenotypes and Antibiotic Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus has long been considered as a major pathogen of hospital infections. Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the distribution of Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec (SCCmec) types, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) gene and antibiotic resistance properties of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from various types of infections found in Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: Two-hundred and fifty-five clinical specimens were collected from four major provinces of Iran. Samples were cultured and the MRSA strains were subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The patterns of antibiotic resistance were determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Seventy-four out of 255 (29.01%) clinical samples were positive for MRSA. Of the 74 MRSA strains, 47 (63.51%) were PVL positive. The clinical samples of respiratory tract infections (36.36%), those from the Shiraz province (37.87%) and samples collected during the summer season (56.48%) were the most commonly infected samples. The most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were tetK (89.18%), mecA (71.62%), msrA (56.75%) and tetM (54.05%). Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus had the highest levels of resistance against penicillin (100%), tetracycline (98.64%), ampicillin (93.24%) and oxacillin (93.24%). The most commonly detected SCCmec types in the MRSA strains were type V (18.91%) and III (17.56%). Conclusions: Regular surveillance of hospital-associated infections and monitoring of the antibiotic sensitivity patterns are required to reduce the prevalence of MRSA. We recommend initial management of children affected by MRSA with imipenem, lincomycin and cephalothin prescriptions. PMID:26862375

  10. Emergence of methicillin resistance and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positivity in hospital- and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in Beira, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    van der Meeren, Birgitta T; Millard, Peter S; Scacchetti, Marco; Hermans, Mirjam H; Hilbink, Mirrian; Concelho, Timótio B; Ferro, Josefo J; Wever, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance patterns, including methicillin resistance, inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB ) resistance and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene carriage among hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (HA-SA) and community-acquired S. aureus (CA-SA), in Beira, Mozambique. In 2010-2011, two prospective surveillance studies were conducted on post-operative and burn wound infections at the Central Hospital of Beira and on skin and soft tissue abscesses at the São Lucas Health Centre. We cultured pus samples, identified suspected S. aureus isolates and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including detection of MLSB resistance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mecA, Martineau and PVL genes. The prevalence of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) infection among 53 inpatients was 15.1%; the prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infection among 100 outpatients was 1.0%. Inducible MLSB resistance was present in 41.7% and 10.7% of HA-SA and CA-SA isolates, respectively. PVL toxin gene was detected in 81.1% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) compared with 11.1% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Our study shows, for the first time in Mozambique, the emergence of HA-MRSA. The prevalence of CA-MRSA was low, whereas the rate of PVL toxin gene carriage in MSSA was high. The high rate of inducible MLSB resistance indicates the importance of performing routine D-tests. Overall, our results show the need of strengthening laboratory facilities to provide microbiological data for both directed therapy and surveillance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evolution and virulence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST30 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the past 30 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hirokazu; Takano, Tomomi; Nishiyama, Akihito; Hung, Wei-Chun; Kuniyuki, Shuichi; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Reva, Ivan; Yabe, Shizuka; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Khokhlova, Olga E; Okubo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) includes hospital-acquired MRSA (HAMRSA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive multilocus sequence type 30 (ST30) MRSA is one of worldwide CA-MRSA, which has also persisted in Japan since the 1980s. However, unexpectedly, it was not the same ST30 clone throughout. Before 2000, it was HA-MRSA with spa43 and ψSa3sea (phage Sa3 carrying the sea gene) and only one PVL-positive MRSA in Japan; in the 1980s, ST30 MRSA accounted for 23.5% of HA-MRSA, showed multidrug resistance, had high MICs for oxacillin and imipenem, and caused decubitus and pneumonia in hospitalized patients. A dynamic clonal change (spa43/ψSa3sea→ spa19) occurred around 2000-2002. A rare spa43/ψSa3sea/SCCmecI-IE25923 genotype also emerged. After 2002, the prevalent spa19 clone was CA-MRSA; it accounted for only 0.3% (or less) of MRSA in hospitals but 7.6% of CA-MRSA. Since 2007, PVL-positive CA-MRSA with other ST types (such as ST8, ST22, and ST59) also emerged in Japan, albeit at a low frequency. ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA occasionally caused severe invasive infections and a novel ST1335/spa19 genotype emerged. These ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA and variants were identified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Further analysis revealed that PVL-positive ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA is a highlyvirulent, successful clone, having a potential of clonal expansion.

  12. Engineering of the LukS-PV and LukF-PV subunits of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus produces several toxins, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The involvement of PVL in primary skin infections, necrotizing pneumonia, musculoskeletal disorders, brain abscess, and other diseases, some of which are life-threatening, has been reported. Following expert opinion, we aimed to provide the tools for establishment of sequence-based diagnostics and therapeutics for those conditions. We engineered the synergistic S and F (LukS-PV and LukF-PV respectively) pro-toxin subunits from Staphylococcus aureus USA400 into separate expression E. coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS hosts. Results Following Nickel affinity chromatography (NAC), the F subunit came out without bands of impurity. The S sub-unit did not come off very pure after NAC thus necessitating further purification by size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. The purification plots showed that the BioLogic-LP and AKTA systems are reliable for following the progress of the chromatographic purification in real-time. Computer predicted Mw for the 6His-LukF-PV and 6His-LukS-PV were 35645.41 Da and 33530.04 Da respectively, while the mass spectrometry results were 35643.57 Da and 33528.34 Da respectively. Conclusion The BioLogic-LP and AKTA systems are commendable for reliability and user-friendliness. As a recent work elsewhere also reported that a second round of chromatography was necessary to purify the S subunit after the first attempt, we speculate that the S subunit might contain yet unidentified motif(s) requiring further treatment. The purified S and F sub-units of PVL were supplied to the Nottingham Cancer Immunotherapy group who used them to establish sequence-based monoclonal antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic uses targeting PVL. PMID:24252611

  13. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  14. Transcription of the phage-encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus is dependent on the phage life-cycle and on the host background.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Christiane; Witte, Wolfgang; Wolz, Christiane; Goerke, Christiane

    2009-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming, bi-component toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus strains epidemiologically associated with diseases such as necrotizing pneumonia and skin and soft-tissue infections. Here we demonstrate that transcription of the phage-encoded PVL (encoded in the luk-PV operon) is dependent on two major determinants: the phage life-cycle and the host chromosomal background. Mitomycin C induction of PVL-encoding prophages from different community-acquired MRSA strains led to an increase in the amount of luk-PV mRNA as a result of read-through transcription from latent phage promoters and an increase in phage copy numbers. Failing prophage excision was reflected in a constant expression of luk-PV as in the case of strain USA300, suggesting that phi Sa2USA300 is a replication-defective prophage. Additionally, we could show that luk-PV transcription is influenced by the S. aureus global virulence regulators agr and sae. We found a strong impact of the host background on prophage induction and replication when analysing PVL phages in different S. aureus strains. For example phage phi Sa2mw was greatly induced by mitomycin C in its native host MW2 and in strain Newman but to a considerably lesser extent in strains 8325-4, RN6390 and ISP479c. This discrepancy was not linked to the SOS response of the bacteria since recA transcription did not vary between the strains. These results suggest a fine tuning between certain phages and their host, with major impact on the expression of phage-encoded virulence genes.

  15. Typing of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding phages carried by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, A; Del Grosso, M; Villa, L; Ammendolia, M G; Superti, F; Monaco, M; Pantosti, A

    2014-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is the hallmark of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) but can also be found in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) sharing pathogenic and epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA. PVL is encoded by two co-transcribed genes that are carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. We applied an extended PCR-based typing scheme for the identification of two morphological groups (elongated-head group and icosahedral-head group I phages) and specific PVL phage types in S. aureus isolates recovered in Italy. We examined 48 PVL-positive isolates (25 MSSA and 23 MRSA) collected from different hospital laboratories from April 2005 to May 2011. spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing were applied to categorize the isolates. Phage typeability was 48.0% in MSSA and 91.3% in MRSA, highlighting the limitation of the PCR typing scheme when applied to PVL-positive MSSA. Five different PVL phages and two variants of a known phage were detected, the most prevalent being ΦSa2usa, recovered in 15 out of 48 (31.2%) isolates, and carried by both MSSA and MRSA belonging to CC8 and CC5. The recently described ΦTCH60 was recovered in four isolates. A PVL phage (ΦSa119) from an ST772 MRSA, that was not detected using the previous typing scheme, was sequenced, and new primers were designed for the identification of the icosahedral-head group II PVL phages present in ST772 and ST59 MRSA. A comprehensive PVL-phage typing can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of PVL-positive MSSA and MRSA.

  16. Prevalence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin and phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm formation among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Shahsavan, Shadi; Dabiri, Hossein; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2015-12-01

    Adenoids as a first line of host defense against respiratory microbes play an important role in majority of upper airway infectious and noninfectious illnesses. Bacterial pathogen can colonize on the adenoid tissue and probably act as a reservoir for them. To determine phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm forming capacity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy and prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene we collected 17 consecutive, clinically significant S. aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy with one or more of the upper airway obstruction symptoms, nasal obstruction, mouth breathing, snoring, or sleep apnea. Biofilm formation was evaluated by colorimetric microtiter plate's assay. Gene encoding PVL and adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes were targeted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. According to the results, all strains produced biofilm. Seven (41.2%) isolates produced strong biofilm whereas 7 (41.2%) isolates produced week and 3 (17.6%) isolates produced medium biofilm. Regarding the adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes, 16 (94.1%) isolates were positive for the gene eno, 13(76.4%) for icaA, 13 (76.4%) for icaD, 10 (58.8%) for fib, 10 (58.8%) for fnbB, 4(23.5%) for can, and 1(5.8%) for fnbA. The high prevalence of genes encoding biofilms and adhesins and phenotypic ability to form a biofilm by S. aureus strains emphasizes the pathogenic character of strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combination of ECMO and cytokine adsorption therapy for severe sepsis with cardiogenic shock and ARDS due to Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and H1N1.

    PubMed

    Lees, N J; Rosenberg, Ajp; Hurtado-Doce, A I; Jones, J; Marczin, N; Zeriouh, M; Weymann, A; Sabashnikov, A; Simon, A R; Popov, A F

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis-induced cardiogenic shock in combination with severe acute respiratory failure represents a life-threatening combination that is often refractory to the conventional methods of treatment. We describe the case of a 33-year-old patient who developed acute cardiovascular collapse and ARDS secondary to superinfection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus and H1N1 pneumonia who underwent successful combination therapy for severe sepsis-related cardiomyopathy and respiratory failure using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and cytokine adsorption therapy.

  18. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  19. [Investigation of the presence of mecC and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens during seven years period].

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Abdullah; Doğan, Eyüp; Kaya, Sinem; Baysallar, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical microbiology laboratories are important for the selection of appropriate treatment and obtaining epidemiological data. mecC gene, is a mecA homologue, showing almost 69% DNA similarity with the mecA gene and the encoded protein by this gene shows almost 63% similarity with the PBP2a/2' protein. Several studies indicated that mecC positive MRSA strains can be transmitted from the livestock to humans by cross contamination. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a potent cytotoxin of S.aureus is also considered as an important virulence factor. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and prevalence of mecC and pvl genes among S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 1700 S.aureus isolates including 1177 methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and 523 MRSA, isolated in our hospital between January 2007 to December 2014, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by both conventional methods and BD Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with oxacillin (1 μg) and cefoxitin (30 μg) according to the CLSI standards. The presence of mecA gene was investigated by the use of real-time PCR, and the presence of pvl and mecC genes were detected by conventional PCR method. Among the patients, 44.6% (759/1700) were outpatients, 65.8% (1119/1700) were male and the mean age of of patients was 39.7 years. Of 1700 isolates evaluated in this study, 523 (30.7%) were positive for mecA gene, however all of them were negative for mecC gene. A total of 32 (1.8%) isolates were positive for pvl gene including 23 (1.9%) out of 1177 MSSA and nine (1.7%) out of 523 MRSA strains. Eighteen (56.2%) of the PVL-positive S.aureus strains were isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. The frequency of PVL detected in this study was similar to the

  20. Typing of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Phages and lukSF-PV Gene Sequence Variation in Staphylococcus aureus from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Jin, Shu; Xu, Xiaogang; Zou, Yuhan; Ding, Baixing; He, Chunyan; Gong, Fang; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, encoded by lukSF-PV genes), a bi-component and pore-forming toxin, is carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. The prevalence of PVL in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported around the globe. However, the data on PVL-encoding phage types, lukSF-PV gene variation and chromosomal phage insertion sites for PVL-positive S. aureus are limited, especially in China. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PVL-positive S. aureus, an integrated and modified PCR-based scheme was applied to detect the PVL-encoding phage types. Phage insertion locus and the lukSF-PV variant were determined by PCR and sequencing. Meanwhile, the genetic background was characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) locus typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy eight (78/1175, 6.6%) isolates possessed the lukSF-PV genes and 59.0% (46/78) of PVL-positive strains belonged to CC59 lineage. Eight known different PVL-encoding phage types were detected, and Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL (n = 13) and ΦPVL (n = 12) were the most prevalent among them. While 25 (25/78, 32.1%) isolates, belonging to ST30, and ST59 clones, were unable to be typed by the modified PCR-based scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at five locations in the lukSF-PV genes, two of which were non-synonymous. Maximum-likelihood tree analysis of attachment sites sequences detected six SNP profiles for attR and eight for attL, respectively. In conclusion, the PVL-positive S. aureus mainly harbored Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL and ΦPVL in the regions studied. lukSF-PV gene sequences, PVL-encoding phages, and phage insertion locus generally varied with lineages. Moreover, PVL-positive clones that have emerged worldwide likely carry distinct phages. PMID:27536288

  1. Panton-Valentine leukocidin and some exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of staphylococci isolated from milks of small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Nilgün; Askar, Şinasi; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Sakarya, Fatma; Altun, Belgin; Yıldırım, Murat

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the existence of pvl gene, some toxin genes, and mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from sheep milk and to examine antimicrobial resistance profiles in staphylococci from sheep and goats' milk. The milk samples were collected from 13 different small ruminant farms in Kirikkale province from February to August 2009. A total of 1,604 half-udder milk samples from 857 ewes and 66 half-udder milk samples from 33 goats were collected. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated and identified from the samples. Toxin genes and mecA gene among S. aureus strains were determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci was examined by the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar, and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The prevalence of subclinical intramammary infection in both ewes and goats was 5.2%. The most prevalent subclinical mastitis agents were coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus with prevalences 2.8% (n:46) and 1.3% (n = 21), respectively. The prevalence of resistances in isolated Staphylococcus spp. to penicilin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and enrofloxacin were found as 26.9% (18), 7.5% (5), 6.0% (4), 3.0% (2), and 1.5% (1), respectively. Only 3 of the 21 S. aureus ewe isolates (13.4%) were shown to harbor enterotoxin genes being either seh, sej or sec. However, fourteen (66.6%) of the 21 S. aureus isolates had pvl gene while none of the isolates harbored mecA gene. In conclusion, Staphylococci were shown to be the most prevalent bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis of ewes and goats and these isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics. In addition, S. aureus strains isolated from ewes were harboring few staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. However, Panton-Valentine leukocidin produced by S. aureus could be an important virulence factor and contribute to subclinical mastitis pathogenicity.

  2. Jim Dine-Inspired Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, April

    2011-01-01

    Jim Dine was born in 1935 in Cincinnati. He earned a BFA from Ohio University in 1957 and then moved to New York in 1959, where he fell in with a group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg. Dine is best known as a Pop innovator, whose paintings, sculptures, and prints were layered with everyday objects, including ties, tools, and even a…

  3. Valentines Day X2 Flare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Active region 1158 let loose with an X2.2 flare at 0153 UT or 8:50 pm ET on February 15, 2011, the largest flare since Dec. 2006 and the biggest flare so far in Solar Cycle 24. This video was taken...

  4. Jim Dine-Inspired Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, April

    2011-01-01

    Jim Dine was born in 1935 in Cincinnati. He earned a BFA from Ohio University in 1957 and then moved to New York in 1959, where he fell in with a group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg. Dine is best known as a Pop innovator, whose paintings, sculptures, and prints were layered with everyday objects, including ties, tools, and even a…

  5. [Investigation of SCCmec types and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-acquired and nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus strains: comparing skin and soft tissue infections to the other infections].

    PubMed

    Gülmez, Dolunay; Sancak, Banu; Ercis, Serpil; Karakaya, Jale; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2012-07-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important health care problems since they are usually multidrug resistant. Although MRSA is isolated especially from nosocomial infections, community-acquired MRSA infections are increasing. Methicillin resistance is due to the expression of mecA gene, which is located on SCCmec gene cassette. Different SCCmec types can be detected in hospital-acquired and community-acquired (CA-) MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains might harbour Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), an important virulence factor in skin and soft tissue infections. Strains carrying PVL has the ability to penetrate undamaged skin and cause more severe infections. The aim of this study was to detect SCCmec types and PVL gene in S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to compare with strains isolated from other infections in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections (n= 285) and a control group consisting of 161 strains isolated from other infections (53 blood, 48 lower respiratory tract samples, 30 sterile body fluids, 30 genitourinary tract samples) chosen by stratification and random selection method, were included in the study. Among skin and soft tissue infection strains 46.7% were from the hospitalized patients and 48.4% of skin and soft tissue infection strains were from female patients. The mean age of the skin and soft tissue infection patients was 45.5 years. Among the control strains 60.9% were from the hospitalized patients and 41.6% of the control patients were female. The mean age of the control patients was 50.2 years. Strains were identified by the Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA) and identification was confirmed by tube coagulase test. Methicillin resistance was determined by the Phoenix system which determines both oxacillin and cefoxitin minimum inhibitor concentrations and, confirmed by oxacillin agar screening and

  6. Elderly infection in the community due to ST5/SCCmecII methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (the New York/Japan clone) in Japan: Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative necrotizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga; Tomita, Yusuke; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    An 89-year-old man suffered from and died of necrotizing pneumonia with rapid progression and cavity formation due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). He was at no risk for hospital-acquired MRSA infection. His MRSA exhibited genotype ST5/spa2(t002)/agr2/SCCmecII/coagulaseII and was negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, indicating the New York/Japan clone (the predominant epidemic hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan). However, this strain expressed the cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin or δ-hemolysin) genes at high level, similar to USA300 (the most common community-acquired MRSA in the United States), indicating a variant of the New York/Japan clone with an important feature of community-acquired MRSA.

  7. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates are associated with skin and soft tissue infections and colonized mainly by infective PVL-encoding bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiwen; Cheng, Hang; Yuan, Wenchang; Zeng, Fangyin; Shang, Weilong; Tang, Dahai; Xue, Wencheng; Fu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Renjie; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Hu, Zhen; Yuan, Jizhen; Zhang, Xia; Rao, Qing; Li, Shu; Chen, Zhijin; Hu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xingan; Rao, Xiancai

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have also been detected in health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and the distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages in HA-MRSA have not been determined. In this study, a total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in the MRSA isolates were characterized by PCR. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs but not with pneumonia or bacteremia. The PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, Φ7247PVL, ΦSLT, and ΦSa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Positive Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Are Associated with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Colonized Mainly by Infective PVL-Encoding Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiwen; Cheng, Hang; Yuan, Wenchang; Zeng, Fangyin; Shang, Weilong; Tang, Dahai; Xue, Wencheng; Fu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Renjie; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Hu, Zhen; Yuan, Jizhen; Zhang, Xia; Rao, Qing; Li, Shu; Chen, Zhijin; Hu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xingan

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have also been detected in health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and the distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages in HA-MRSA have not been determined. In this study, a total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in the MRSA isolates were characterized by PCR. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs but not with pneumonia or bacteremia. The PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, Φ7247PVL, ΦSLT, and ΦSa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence. PMID:25339405

  9. Detection of ST772 Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Bengal Bay clone) and ST22 S. aureus isolates with a genetic variant of elastin binding protein in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, R.H.; Aung, M.S.; Thapa, B.; Chaudhary, R.; Mishra, S.K.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Urushibara, N.; Kobayashi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic characteristics were analysed for recent clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA respectively) in Kathmandu, Nepal. MRSA isolates harbouring Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were classified into ST1, ST22 and ST88 with SCCmec-IV and ST772 with SCCmec-V (Bengal Bay clone), while PVL-positive MSSA into ST22, ST30 and ST772. ST22 isolates (PVL-positive MRSA and MSSA, PVL-negative MRSA) possessed a variant of elastin binding protein gene (ebpS) with an internal deletion of 180 bp, which was similar to that reported for ST121 S. aureus previously outside Nepal. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ebpS variant in ST22 might have occurred independently of ST121 strains. This is the first report of ST772 PVL-positive MRSA in Nepal and detection of the deletion variant of ebpS in ST22 S. aureus. PMID:27014464

  10. Emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with high cytolytic peptide expression in association with community-acquired pediatric osteomyelitis complicated by pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sawanobori, Emi; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Hachuda, Koji; Horiuchi, Tadahiro; Higuchi, Wataru; Hung, Wei-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Reva, Galina; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    A 15-year-old boy, who had had a furuncle on his femur, developed femoral pyomyositis and osteomyelitis complicated by septic pulmonary embolism. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was isolated from pus and blood. Chemotherapy was started with cefazolin, followed by combination therapy with meropenem/vancomycin with surgery. The MSSA (strain KS1) was positive for increased levels of cytolytic peptide (psmα and hld) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and manifested IS1216V-mediated multidrug resistance (to erythromycin, clindamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol), similar to a genome-analyzed reference strain (PM1) of ST59/SCCmecV(5C2&5) community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (Taiwan CA-MRSA), but unlike another reference strain (M013) of Taiwan CA-MRSA in terms of resistance. The data suggest that CA-MSSA KS1, characterized by PVL, increased levels of cytolytic peptide, SEB, and multidrug resistance, is a possible ancestral strain of Taiwan CA-MRSA and causes the unique association of osteomyelitis and septic pulmonary embolism, requiring complicated management. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Identification and Characterization of the Multidrug Resistance Gene cfr in a Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Sequence Type 8 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus IVa (USA300) Isolate▿

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Brennan, Orla M.; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan; Slickers, Peter; Coleman, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The staphylococcal cfr gene mediates resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins, and streptogramin A, a phenotype that has been termed PhLOPSA. The cfr gene has mainly been associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from animals, and only a few cfr-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates have been described so far. This study reports the first description of a cfr-positive MRSA isolate (M05/0060) belonging to the pandemic Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type 8 MRSA IVa/USA300 (ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300) clone. The cfr gene was detected in M05/0060 using a DNA microarray which was used to screen PVL-positive MRSA isolates for the presence of virulence genes, typing markers, and antimicrobial resistance genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that M05/0060 exhibited the cfr-associated resistance phenotype. Molecular analysis identified the presence of cfr and a second phenicol resistance gene, fexA, on a novel 45-kb conjugative plasmid, which was designated pSCFS7. Within pSCFS7, a DNA segment consisting of cfr, a truncated copy of insertion sequence IS21-558, and a region with homology to the DNA invertase gene bin3 of transposon Tn552 from Bacillus mycoides was integrated into the transposase gene tnpB of the fexA-carrying transposon Tn558. The emergence of a multidrug-resistant cfr-positive variant of ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300 is alarming and requires ongoing surveillance. Moreover, the identification of a novel conjugative plasmid carrying the cfr gene indicates the ability of cfr to spread to other MRSA strains. PMID:20921317

  12. Prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive S. aureus in general practice patients with skin and soft tissue infections in the northern and southern regions of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, D; Rijnders, M I A; Roede, B M; Stobberingh, E; Möller, A V M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus in general practice (GP) patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in the northern (Groningen and Drenthe) and southern (Limburg) regions of The Netherlands. Secondary objectives were to assess the possible risk factors for patients with SSTI caused by S. aureus and PVL-positive S. aureus using a questionnaire-based survey. From 2007 to 2008, wound and nose cultures were obtained from patients with SSTI in general practice. These swabs were analysed for the presence of S. aureus and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined. The presence of the PVL toxin gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the genetic background with the use of spa typing. A survey was performed to detect risk factors for S. aureus infection and for the presence of PVL toxin.S. aureus was isolated from 219 out of 314 (70%) patients with SSTI, of which two (0.9%) patients were MRSA-positive. In 25 (11%) patients, the PVL toxin gene was found. A higher prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus of patients with SSTI was found in the northern region compared to the south (p < 0.05). Regional differences were found in the spa types of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates, and for PVL-negative S. aureus isolates, the genetic background was similar in both regions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA in GP patients with SSTI in The Netherlands is low. Regional differences were found in the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates from GP patients with SSTI. Household contacts having similar symptoms were found to be a risk factor for SSTI with S. aureus.

  13. Population structure analyses of Staphylococcus aureus at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, reveals a diverse population, a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and unique local methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, W F; Orth, H; Lombard, C J; Sinha, B; Wasserman, E

    2014-07-01

    Studies reporting on the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in South Africa have focused only on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study describes the population structure of S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from patients at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape province. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), agr typing and SCCmec typing were used to characterize strains. Of 367 non-repetitive S. aureus isolates collected over a period of 1 year, 56 (15.3%) were MRSA. Skin and soft tissue infections were the most frequent source (54.8%), followed by bone and joint (15.3%) and respiratory tract infections (7.7%). For strain typing, PFGE was the most discriminative method, and resulted in 31 pulsotypes (n = 345, 94.0%), as compared with 16 spa clonal complexes (CCs) (n = 344, 93.4%). Four MLST CCs were identified after eBURST of sequence types (STs) of selected isolates. One hundred and sixty isolates (MSSA, n = 155, 42.2%) were PVL-positive, and agr types I-IV and SCCmec types I-V were identified. Our S. aureus population consisted of genotypically diverse strains, with PVL being a common characteristic of MSSA. MSSA and MRSA isolates clustered in different clones. However, the dominant MRSA clone (ST612) also contained an MSSA isolate, and had a unique genotype. Common global epidemic MRSA clones, such as ST239-MRSA-III and ST36-MRSA-II, were identified. A local clone, ST612-MRSA-IV, was found to be the dominant MRSA clone.

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Types of, as Well as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Occurrence among, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Children and Adults in Middle Tennessee▿

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Abdullah; Li, Haijing; Stratton, Charles W.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) occurrence, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from children and adults at Vanderbilt University Medical Center during a 12-month period were evaluated. A total of 1,315 MRSA isolates were collected, of which 748 (36.7%) were recovered from children. Among all isolates, 448 (34.1%) were SCCmec-II, and 847 (64.4%) were SCCmec-IV. More SCCmec-IV isolates were recovered from children than SCCmec-II isolates (424 [50.1%] versus 50 [11.2%]; odds ration [OR] = 7.98; P < 0.000001). The PVL gene was detected in 93.6% of SCCmec-IV isolates, in contrast to 0.2% in SCCmec-II isolates. Within SCCmec-IV isolates, a statistically higher PVL occurrence was noticed in children (98.1%) than in adults (89.1%) (OR = 6.34; P < 0.000001). Overall, SCCmec-II strains showed greater resistance than SCCmec-IV strains to clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampin, minocycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Both SCCmec-II and SCCmec-IV strains recovered from adults were more resistant to these antibiotics than those recovered from children. SCCmec-II strains were predominantly recovered from the respiratory tract, whereas SCCmec-IV strains were predominantly recovered from skin, soft tissue, abscesses, and surgical wounds. These data indicate that SCCmec-IV MRSA isolates frequently infect children in middle Tennessee and are likely to harbor the PVL gene. PMID:17065272

  15. Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multinational trial.

    PubMed

    Bae, In-Gyu; Tonthat, Giang T; Stryjewski, Martin E; Rude, Thomas H; Reilly, Lindsay F; Barriere, Steven L; Genter, Fredric C; Corey, G Ralph; Fowler, Vance G

    2009-12-01

    The role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in determining the severity and outcome of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL status by using MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing telavancin for the treatment of cSSSI (the ATLAS program). MRSA isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for pvl and 31 other putative virulence determinants. A single baseline pathogen of MRSA was isolated from 522 microbiologically evaluable patients (25.1%) among 2,079 randomized patients. Of these MRSA isolates, 83.2% (432/519) exhibited the USA300 PFGE genotype and 89.1% (465/522) were pvl positive. Patients with pvl-positive MRSA were more likely than those with pvl-negative MRSA to be young, to be North American, and to present with major abscesses (P < 0.001 for each). Patients were significantly more likely to be cured if they were infected with pvl-positive MRSA than if they were infected with pvl-negative MRSA (91.6% versus 80.7%; P = 0.015). This observation remained statistically significant after adjustment for presence of abscess, fever, or leukocytosis; infection size; diabetes; patient age; and study medication received. The fnbA, cna, sdrC, map-eap, sed, seg, sei, sej, SCCmec type IV, and agr group II genes were also associated with clinical response (P < 0.05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI.

  16. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Staphylococcus aureus in Ireland from 2002 to 2011: 21 Clones, Frequent Importation of Clones, Temporal Shifts of Predominant Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Clones, and Increasing Multiresistance

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Tecklenborg, Sarah C.; Brennan, Gráinne I.; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. CA-MRSA isolates commonly produce the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin encoded by the pvl genes lukF-PV and lukS-PV. This study investigated the clinical and molecular epidemiologies of pvl-positive MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates identified by the Irish National MRSA Reference Laboratory (NMRSARL) between 2002 and 2011. All pvl-positive MRSA (n = 190) and MSSA (n = 39) isolates underwent antibiogram-resistogram typing, spa typing, and DNA microarray profiling for multilocus sequence type, clonal complex (CC) and/or sequence type (ST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type assignment, and virulence and resistance gene detection. Where available, patient demographics and clinical data were analyzed. The prevalence of pvl-positive MRSA increased from 0.2% to 8.8%, and that of pvl-positive MSSA decreased from 20% to 2.5% during the study period. The pvl-positive MRSA and MSSA isolates belonged to 16 and 5 genotypes, respectively, with CC/ST8-MRSA-IV, CC/ST30-MRSA-IV, CC/ST80-MRSA-IV, CC1/ST772-MRSA-V, CC30-MSSA, CC22-MSSA, and CC121-MSSA predominating. Temporal shifts in the predominant pvl-positive MRSA genotypes and a 6-fold increase in multiresistant pvl-positive MRSA genotypes occurred during the study period. An analysis of patient data indicated that pvl-positive S. aureus strains, especially MRSA strains, had been imported into Ireland several times. Two hospital and six family clusters of pvl-positive MRSA were identified, and 70% of the patient isolates for which information was available were from patients in the community. This study highlights the increased burden and changing molecular epidemiology of pvl-positive S. aureus in Ireland over the last decade and the contribution of international travel to the influx of genetically diverse pvl-positive S. aureus isolates into Ireland. PMID:24371244

  17. 2011 Valentines Day X-Class Flare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The video clip of the large X2 flare seen by Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in extreme ultraviolet light on February 15, 2011, has been enlarged and superimposed on a video of SOHO's C2 coronagra...

  18. NASA Comet Hunter Spots its Valentine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-27

    This composite image is the first taken by NASA Stardust spacecraft navigation camera. The observations were made on Jan. 18 and 19, 2011. Stardust will fly within about 200 kilometers 124 miles of the comet nucleus.

  19. Opportunity Rover on Valentine Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-09

    This is the latest image of NASA Opportunity rover at Solander Point, where it spend a few week investigation Pinnacle rock the jelly donut that was flipper over by the rover wheel. This observation is from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  20. Emergence of Hospital- and Community-Associated Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and Detailed Investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V Cluster in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Corcoran, Suzanne; Tecklenborg, Sarah; Coleman, David C.; O'Connell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) has predominated in Irish hospitals since the late 1990s. Six distinct clones of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) have also been identified in Ireland. A new strain of CA-MRSA, ST772-MRSA-V, has recently emerged and become widespread in India and has spread into hospitals. In the present study, highly similar MRSA isolates were recovered from seven colonized neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a maternity hospital in Ireland during 2010 and 2011, two colonized NICU staff, one of their colonized children, and a NICU environmental site. The isolates exhibited multiantibiotic resistance, spa type t657, and were assigned to ST772-MRSA-V by DNA microarray profiling. All isolates encoded resistance to macrolides [msr(A) and mpb(BM)] and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD and aphA3) and harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin genes (lukF-PV and lukS-PV), enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sel, and egc), and one of the immune evasion complex genes (scn). One of the NICU staff colonized by ST772-MRSA-V was identified as the probable index case, based on recent travel to India. Seven additional hospital and CA-ST772-MRSA-V isolates recovered from skin and soft tissue infections in Ireland between 2009 and 2011 exhibiting highly similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to the NICU isolates were also identified. The clinical details of four of these patients revealed connections with India through ethnic background or travel. Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions. PMID:22189119

  1. Romance of a Mathematician: Celebrating St Valentine's Day in a Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekimoglu, Serkan

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics should not be studied simply because it is useful; mathematics should be also studied because it nurtures both the mind and soul with its beauty. By completing the four activities described in this paper, students will appreciate mathematical ideas both rationally and emotionally. Since students' appreciation of mathematical ideas…

  2. Proceedings of the 2016 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America Meeting (Editors: G. Burow, M. Jugulam & K.E. Valentin)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2016 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA), held on September 19-21, 2016 with the theme “The New Faces of Sorghum,” was a resounding success. The meeting was attended by nearly 200 participants that represented a diverse cross section of the sorghum industry from both public a...

  3. Share the Love: Why Not Celebrate Valentine's Day by Encouraging Kids to Give Back to the Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2011-01-01

    February is a natural time to teach students that love involves more than hearts and candy--it also means giving of oneself. According to Terri Kennamer, a third-grade teacher at West Elementary School in Vestavia Hills, Alabama, it is the responsibility of educators to help students recognize that they are citizens of the world. Children have…

  4. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including "cold temperature," "thermoneutral temperature," and "warm-sensitive" and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception?

  5. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious

    PubMed Central

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including “cold temperature,” “thermoneutral temperature,” and “warm-sensitive” and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception? PMID:27226997

  6. Panton-valentine leukocidin-positive and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French multicenter prospective study in 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet.

  7. Incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Pantone-Valentine leucocidin gene at a referral hospital in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dash, Nihar; Panigrahi, Debadatta; Al Zarouni, Mansour; Yassin, Faten; Al-Shamsi, Moza

    2014-04-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen in hospitalized patients worldwide. The present study was undertaken to identify CA-MRSA in hospitalized patients in a 350-bed tertiary care hospital in Sharjah, UAE over a 2-year period from January 2011 to December 2012. CA-MRSA was defined based on identification within first 48 h of admission in the hospital. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing of the CA-MRSA isolates was carried out by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of PVL and mecA genes was done by PCR using the GenoType(®) MRSA test system (Hain Lifescience). Patient's clinical data and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates were also evaluated. Fifty seven of the 187 MRSA isolates were identified as CA-MRSA. All the CA-MRSA strains in our study belonged to SCCmecIV type and were positive for both PVL and mecA genes. The patients with CA-MRSA infections were young (median age, 32 years) and the majority of infections involved the skin and soft tissue (36%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates showed a better susceptibility profile to the non-beta-lactam antimicrobials with the exception of ciprofloxacin having 28% resistance. This study evidently strengthens the recent observation of an increase in CA-MRSA emergence among hospitalized patients in the UAE. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trial to control an outbreak of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a boarding school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Masaaki; Ito, Teruyo; Han, Xiao; Nishiyama, Junichiro; Tanno, Akemi; Wada, Toshiko; Funaoka, Youichi; Yoshida, Yusuke; Mikita, Kei; Ogawa, Tomomichi; Okusa, Yasushi; Kaku, Koki; Hatada, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2011-12-01

    Our retrospective investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection at a hospital in Japan around 2007 suggested dissemination of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains among healthy students in a Japanese boarding school, which frequently caused skin disease and exhibited the same antibiogram patterns. Active surveillance of skin diseases for 6 months after May 2008, examination of MRSA carriage in selected high-risk groups, and investigation of their life circumstances, including environmental cultures, were conducted in the school. Furthermore, we strengthened hygiene practices and improved recognized risk factors from November 2008 and observed the occurrence of skin diseases and MRSA carriage rate for the evaluation of infection controls. We identified 21 patients with skin diseases in whom MRSA strains were isolated. MRSA colonization rates in 3 selected groups ranged from 7.6% to 36.6%. The rates of both skin disease and MRSA carriage decreased significantly after infection controls were introduced. Genetic analysis revealed a main dissemination of a PVL-positive SCCmec IVc clone (41/47 isolates in total), presenting as a different pulsed-field type than USA300. This first report of a PVL-positive CA-MRSA outbreak in Japan demonstrates systematic management of dissemination by conducting surveillance in a closed community. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French Multicenter Prospective Study in 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet. PMID:21220529

  10. Algorithms for Reconstruction of Partially Known, Band Limited Fourier Transform Pairs from Noisy Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    CIR (3.2) *. where B(v) is a finite or infinite product of Blaschke factors, i.e. V-v* B(v) = TI B (v) where B lV ) = ( 3.3) i=l k Zk v~vk Furthermore...language, it is: f-t Given the sets {Ti1 with associated projections Pi =P1 i=l 1 T.iM4 1 find G such that GE n T.i=l I_ Gubin, Polyak and Raik 137] have...36. J.R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison." Appl. Opt., 21, 2758-2769 (1982). 37. L. Gubin, B. Polyak , and E. Raik, "The method of

  11. Position Papers for the First Workshop on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming Held in Newport, Rhode Island on April 28-30, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-30

    Sciences, pendant l’ann~e 1824, Partie math~matique". Histoire de I’Acaditnie Royale des Sciences de I’institut de France 7 1827, xlvii- lv . (Partial...satisfaction problems. In KR-91, pages 186 - 195, 1991. [8] L.G. Gubin, B.T. Polyak , and E.V. Raik. The method of projections for finding the common point of

  12. Successive Projection under a Quasi-Cyclic Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-06

    convex sets. This problem has many application areas, including image reconstruction [SSW77], [Her80], linear prediction theory, multigrid methods...of the Relaxation Method for Systems of Linear Inequalities," Math. Prog., 22 (1982), 93-103. [GPR67] Gubin, L. G., Polyak , B. T. and Raik, E. V...Image Reconstructions from Projections, the Fundamentals of Computerized Tomography, Academic Press, New York, NY (1980). [Kac37] Kacmarz, S., Bull

  13. The Effects of Early Reading with Parents on Developing Literacy Skills. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Mother-Child Bookreading in Low-Income Families: Correlates and Outcomes during the First Three Years of Life" (H. Raikes, B. A. Pan, G. Luze, C. S. Tamis-LeMonda, J. Brooks-Gunn, J. Constantine, L. B.…

  14. Severity of Nonbullous Staphylococcus aureus Impetigo in Children Is Associated with Strains Harboring Genetic Markers for Exfoliative Toxin B, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, and the Multidrug Resistance Plasmid pSK41

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Sander; van Belkum, Alex; Snijders, Susan; van Leeuwen, Willem; Verbrugh, Henri; Nouwen, Jan; Op ′t Veld, Mariet; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W. A.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Verduin, Cees

    2003-01-01

    Nonbullous impetigo is a common skin infection in children and is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal toxins and especially exfoliative toxin A are known mediators of bullous impetigo in children. It is not known whether this is also true for nonbullous impetigo. We set out to analyze clonality among clinical isolates of S. aureus from children with nonbullous impetigo living in a restricted geographical area in The Netherlands. We investigated whether staphylococcal nasal carriage and the nature of the staphylococcal strains were associated with the severity and course of impetigo. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the noses and wounds of children suffering from impetigo. Strains were genetically characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-mediated typing and binary typing, which was also used to assess toxin gene content. In addition, a detailed clinical questionnaire was filled in by each of the participating patients. Staphylococcal nasal carriage seems to predispose the patients to the development of impetigo, and 34% of infections diagnosed in the Rotterdam area are caused by one clonal type of S. aureus. The S. aureus strains harbor the exfoliative toxin B (ETB) gene as a specific virulence factor. In particular, the numbers (P = 0.002) and sizes (P < 0.001) of the lesions were increased in patients infected with an ETB-positive strain. Additional predictors of disease severity and development could be identified. The presence of a staphylococcal plasmid encoding multiple antibiotic resistance traits, as detected by binary typing, was associated with a reduction in the cure rate. Our results recognize that a combination of staphylococcal virulence and resistance genes rather than a single gene determines the development and course of nonbullous impetigo. The identification of these microbial genetic markers, which are predictive of the severity and the course of the disease, will facilitate guided individualized antimicrobial therapy in the future. PMID:12843036

  15. Topical Meeting on Signal Recovery and Synthesis with Incomplete Information and Partial Constraints Held at Incline Village, Nevada on January 12-14, 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    G-P. 4. REFERENCES L Od bo A- i . .. ’. . WA8-3 1. L.G.Gubin, B.T. Polyak and E.V. Raik, "The Method of Projections for Funding the Common Point of...lie ph asc pro’- it’ js *r Ithe iorrueti1Ie-ss I I~ ! I’ I i (.ItL ion 11(rim iS’ ciseited lv 1 අs jial jriit 1 iii t :dpin I It I 1re 1> pii( ~th

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, USSR Council of Ministers & Officials: Biographies, Interviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Industry 34 PAVLOV , Valentin Sergeyevich 34 Minister of Finance 34 PERVYSHIN, Erlen Kirikovich 35 Minister of Communications 35 PUGIN...Administrator of Affairs, Council of Ministers 47 SILAYEV, Ivan Stepanovich 48 Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Chairman of the...labor-intensive orders. PAVLOV , Valentin Sergeyevich Minister of Finance [Text] Born in 1937, Russian. Graduated from the Moscow Institute of

  17. Idea Notebook. Quick Activities for Every Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajello, Tracey S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Teachers' ideas for quick classroom activities include creating a garden-in-winter bulletin board, writing a science story, playing a Valentine's game, graphing vowels, averaging students' sizes, creating lifesize figures of historical people, making picture books, creating an idiom bulletin board, and sending school valentines to local hospitals.…

  18. Into the Curriculum. Creative Dramatics: Valentine Lip Sync Book Charades; Language Arts/Social Studies: Found Poetry from Primary Sources; Reading/Language Arts: A Thematic Activity To Herald in the New Year; Science: Asian Elephant Life Cycles; Social Studies: Conservation of Animal Species-Asian Elephants; Social Studies: What Makes a Leader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugar, Candace; Robinson, Alice A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides six fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in creative dramatics, language arts, social studies, reading, and science. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for…

  19. 75 FR 27599 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... public information such as methods that are acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing specific parts.../ Andrea D. Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of...

  20. Tutorials for Africa - Diarrhea: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Judith Allsaints Apio Chaudhari Mugdha Ramachandra Richard Lunyata Peter Agaba Elizabeth Nakabuye Team of medical students in ... Valentine Kahababo Art and audio team - Kampala, Uganda Peter Mukiibi Kenneth Nek Daniel Hama Contact the Makerere ...

  1. An Infrared portrait of Comet NEOWISE C/2014 C3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-27

    Comet NEOWISE was first observed by NASA NEOWISE spacecraft on Valentine Day, 2014. This heat-sensitive infrared image was made by combining six exposures taken by the NEOWISE mission of the newly discovered comet.

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of Mrs. James A. Dunlap, Jr. REAR OF HOUSE, CARRIAGE HOUSE, AND STABLE LOOKING EAST - Valentine-Fuller House & Garden, 125 Prospect Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 75 FR 43208 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    .... Carpenter, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... locations for all types of hazardous material placards, including radioactive materials. The regulation is.... Andrea D. Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of...

  4. 75 FR 33853 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... date. Although a time limit is given, comments and suggestions in connection with items for inclusion... Commission. Andrea D. Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  5. Check-Up Checklist: Things to Do Before Your Next Check-Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autumn Tips Camping Tips Family Reunions Gardening Tips Halloween Tips Healthy Halloween Prom Tips Spring Break Valentine Tips Winter Holiday ... Breast Cancer Assess Your Relationships Be Safe on Halloween Be Smoke-Free Check Alarm Batteries Know Your ...

  6. American Holidays for Spanish Students in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster County School Board, PA.

    Three handouts give the history of three holidays celebrated in the United States: Christmas, Halloween, and St. Valentine's Day. Each holiday is described in Spanish and in English for use in bilingual classrooms. (CFM)

  7. Arts/Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Described are various arts and crafts ideas, mostly with a February theme. Included are: ceramic boxes, valentine ideas, and patriotic projects--symbols of our country, silhouettes of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, and stars and stripes. (KC)

  8. 78 FR 68464 - Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., Jemine A. Bryon, Stanley A. Gimont, John P. Benison, David R. Ziaya, Damon Y. Smith, Mary K. Kinney, Charles S. Coulter, Jean Lin Pao, Ricky T. Valentine, and Mary E. McBride as members of the Departmental...

  9. 78 FR 53737 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be... assistive technology services. Dated: August 22, 2013. Stephanie Valentine, Acting Director,...

  10. 76 FR 57739 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ..., Propose to Modify and Expand their Existing Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Systems in New Jersey, New... Vehicle Management Plan, Implementation, AK, Comment Period Ends: 10/31/2011, Contact: Miriam Valentine...

  11. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  12. The Soviet Coup: A Command, Control, and Communications Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    reactionary Soyuz faction of the Supreme Soviet and by Pavlov and the Cabiijet of Ministers. The attempts were suppressed by Gorbachev, but effective...someone alongside me I can trust". (Hitchings, 91, p. 622) b. Valentin Sergeevich Pavlov Valentin Pavlov was appointed as Prime Minister by Gorbachev in...January 1991. Formerly the Soviet Finance Minister, Pavlov had a reputation as an old-style bureaucrat with little faith in free market reforms. His

  13. Public Library YA Program Roundup. VOYA's Most Valuable Program 2002: Munching on Books; Really Getting Graphic: A Teen Read Week Art Show Preview; Masquerades and Millionaires: An After-hours Teen Extravaganza; Teen Time Travelers Make Listening a "Hobbit"; Teens Take a Humongous Bite Out of Newly Seasoned Reading Program; Putting a Stake through Valentine's Day; Celebrating the Day of the Dead; Legos in the Library Window; "So that You May Know": Teen Rading Group Meets Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck, Kara; Kan, Kat; Fletcher-Spear, Kristin; Solomon, Beth B.; Dunford, Karen; Rinella, Kay Walsh; Shenoy, Ravi; McIntosh, Jennifer R.; Socha, Debbie; Dudeck, Sharon; Duwel, Lucretia; Stackpole, Diane; Blosveren, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    These nine articles describe public library programs for young adults. Highlights include a read-a-thon with snacks; graphic novels and art; costume party and trivia contest; activities based on "The Hobbit"; a summer reading program that included teen volunteers; writing epitaphs for Day of the Dead celebration; Legos displays; and…

  14. February Folklore: You'll Love It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David

    1980-01-01

    Folk tales which are particularly suited to February cover legends about George Washington, the Chinese zodiac, and Groundhog Day. Also included is a calendar of activities for February. These activities are appropriate for Groundhog Day, Valentine's Day, Chinese New Year, President's (Washington and Lincoln) Day, and Leap Year. (KC)

  15. Holidays. Instructional Media Advisory List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Media Evaluation Service.

    This annotated bibliography is directed at teachers of students in grades preK-6 and covers books about holidays. The holidays for which materials are listed are: Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, Sukkot, Thanksgiving, and Valentine's Day. A directory of publishers from whom these items are available is…

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs, Reference Aid, Directory of the USSR Ministry of Railways.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1933) (appointed deputy minister) Abdullayev, Mukhamedzhan Besedin, Ivan Sergeyevich Isayeva, Galina Anatolyevna Razuvayev, Dmitriy Ivanovich...Nikolayevich Malkhazov, Georgiy Rubenovich Mostovich, Yuriy Iosifovich Belyakov, N.A. Grigoryuk, V.F. Kozlov, Ivan Fedorovich Malakhov, Viktor...Sergeyevich Glukhov, Ivan Andreyevich Pogorelyy, Boleslav Grigoryevich (transfer to other work) Fayershteyn, Valentin Oskarovich Kucherenko

  17. Relational Framing Theory and Coming-Out Narratives: A Data Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helens-Hart, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Coming-out scenarios have been described as potentially traumatic events that change the parent-child relationship (MacDonald, 1983). Little research in the field of communication studies has been conducted on how the process of coming out unfolds within families (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The exercise described in this article…

  18. Courtside: NCLB=New Cause for Litigious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the children of parents Latasha Gibbs, Carmella Glass, Laverne Jones, Charlene Mingo, Deborah Powell-Jasper, Eunice Staton, and Keikola Valentine were attending New York City public schools that the state education department identified as needing improvement -- in other words, failing -- under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)…

  19. Special Education Outcomes and Young Australian School Students: A Propensity Score Analysis Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Valentine, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Using a second cohort of Australian school students, this study repeated the propensity score analysis reported by Dempsey, Valentine, and Colyvas (2016) that found that 2 years after receiving special education support, a group of infant grade students performed significantly less well in academic and social skills in comparison to matched groups…

  20. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  1. Football or Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  2. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  3. “More than skin deep”: Recurrent primary hand abscesses in a warehouse operative

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, L.; O’Connor, C.; Fitzpatrick, F.; O’Sullivan, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old male right-hand dominant warehouse operator presented with two hand infections within 12 weeks both requiring surgical drainage and antimicrobial therapy. Subsequent testing confirmed Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA). This case highlights the need for prompt multidisciplinary management of hand infections to consider, diagnose and manage atypical infections. PMID:27252979

  4. What's Happening in February?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  5. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and influenza virus coinfections in patients with fatal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Denison, Amy M; Deleon-Carnes, Marlene; Blau, Dianna M; Shattuck, Eric C; McDougal, Linda K; Rasheed, James K; Limbago, Brandi M; Zaki, Sherif R; Paddock, Christopher D

    2013-12-01

    Molecular techniques were used to characterize genetic features of Staphylococcus aureus in 66 fatal cases of pneumonia caused by S. aureus and influenza A or B viruses. Nucleic acids were extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. The majority of cases revealed genetic markers for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, mecA, and spa type t008.

  6. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  7. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT In 2009 and 2010, three independent fertility trials were conducted on a putting green (PG) managed within the Pennsylvania State University Joseph Valentine Turfgrass Research Center (University Park, PA). The objective was to identify Penn A-1/A-4 creeping bentgrass putting green quality ...

  8. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on September 27, 2012, Avalon...

  9. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  10. Relational Framing Theory and Coming-Out Narratives: A Data Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helens-Hart, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Coming-out scenarios have been described as potentially traumatic events that change the parent-child relationship (MacDonald, 1983). Little research in the field of communication studies has been conducted on how the process of coming out unfolds within families (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The exercise described in this article…

  11. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  12. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Galiana, Antonio; Pedreira, Walter; Mowszowicz, Martin; Christophersen, Inés; Machiavello, Silvia; Lope, Liliana; Benaderet, Sara; Buela, Fernanda; Vicentino, Walter; Albini, María; Bertaux, Olivier; Constenla, Irene; Bagnulo, Homero; Llosa, Luis; Ito, Teruyo

    2005-01-01

    A novel, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (Uruguay clone) with a non–multidrug-resistant phenotype caused a large outbreak, including 7 deaths, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene. PMID:15963301

  13. "More than skin deep": Recurrent primary hand abscesses in a warehouse operative.

    PubMed

    Kearney, L; O'Connor, C; Fitzpatrick, F; O'Sullivan, J B

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old male right-hand dominant warehouse operator presented with two hand infections within 12 weeks both requiring surgical drainage and antimicrobial therapy. Subsequent testing confirmed Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA). This case highlights the need for prompt multidisciplinary management of hand infections to consider, diagnose and manage atypical infections.

  14. Using Video Cases to Scaffold Mentoring Competencies: A Program Design from the Young Women Leaders Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bryan Rossiter

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project conducted an intervention using video cases to scaffold traditional methods of concept presentation in a youth mentoring program. Video cases delivered online were chosen as a methodology to strengthen the support and practitioner aspects indicative of mentoring program success rates (D. L. DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, &…

  15. Music Curriculum for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picht, Harriet

    This kindergarten music curriculum provides a year-long program of a sequenced series of activities designed to develop music concepts. Topics of the units in this guide are: self-concept (beginning of the year), fall, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, winter, a circus, Valentine's Day, spring, and farms. A scope and sequence chart of concepts…

  16. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  17. From Road Map to Thought Map: Helping Students Theorise the Nature of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Warren

    2017-01-01

    Warren Valentine was dissatisfied with his Year 7 students' accounts of change across the Tudor period. Fixated with Henry VIII's wives, they failed to reflect on or analyse the bigger picture of the whole Tudor narrative. In order to overcome this problem, his department created a "thought-map" exercise in which students had to re-work…

  18. Using Video Cases to Scaffold Mentoring Competencies: A Program Design from the Young Women Leaders Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bryan Rossiter

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project conducted an intervention using video cases to scaffold traditional methods of concept presentation in a youth mentoring program. Video cases delivered online were chosen as a methodology to strengthen the support and practitioner aspects indicative of mentoring program success rates (D. L. DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, &…

  19. February Folklore: You'll Love It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David

    1980-01-01

    Folk tales which are particularly suited to February cover legends about George Washington, the Chinese zodiac, and Groundhog Day. Also included is a calendar of activities for February. These activities are appropriate for Groundhog Day, Valentine's Day, Chinese New Year, President's (Washington and Lincoln) Day, and Leap Year. (KC)

  20. Taper models for commercial tree species in the northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; Charles T. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A new taper model was developed based on the switching taper model of Valentine and Gregoire; the most substantial changes were reformulation to incorporate estimated join points and modification of a switching function. Random-effects parameters were included that account for within-tree correlations and allow for customized calibration to each individual tree. The...

  1. Users Manual for the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) Management System (SCDBMS) Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Kirshnamagaru, Senior Software Engineer Mr. Valentine Anantharaj, Research Assistant Mr. Vishnu Mohan Das, Programmer Contributors to the SCDBMS Software...prompt. -f filename is optional; the -f flag indicates that the next parameter is the name of an initialization file (you may have as many default files

  2. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  3. What's Happening in February?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  4. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of Mrs. James A. Dunlap, Jr. FRONT (EAST) WALL, STABLE AND CARRIAGE HOUSE (HON. and MRS. ROBERT O. FULLER IN FOREGROUND) - Valentine-Fuller House & Garden, 125 Prospect Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  6. 75 FR 63501 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    .... Specifically, exceptions were granted to the Cambridge Housing Authority for the purchase and installation of... exceptions to the Buy American requirement to the Cambridge Housing Authority: 1. Fairmont Street, Valentine Street, and Jackson Street Projects. Upon request of the Cambridge Housing Authority, HUD granted an...

  7. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  8. Celebrating Traditional Holidays in Public Schools: Books for Basic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, John F.; Moir, Hughes

    1986-01-01

    Provides a brief annotated bibliography of children's books which may be used to foster greater understanding of the five most popular holidays celebrated in U. S. public schools. The holidays are Columbus Day, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and St. Valentine's Day. (JDH)

  9. Swap Shop: Original Teaching Ideas Submitted by Readers of "Learning" Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This collection of classroom ideas for the elementary school teacher contains learning activities, teaching methods, and suggestions on a wide variety of topics. The 22 teacher-submitted articles include ideas on writing, art, getting acquainted, vocabulary, self-esteem, open house, Halloween, mathematics, drama, hobbies, Valentine's Day, oral…

  10. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  11. Dynamic Stability of Maglev Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    M2, C1, and K2, appearing on the right-hand side, are thus, by definition , the nonconservative parts of the forces represented by M, C, and K. The...Contract File D. M. Rote (5) TIS Files (3) R. A. Valentin External DOE- OSTI for distribution per UC-330 (91) ANL-TIS Libraries (2) Manager, Chicago

  12. Goal Attainment Scaling as an Effective Strategy to Assess the Outcomes of Mentoring Programs for Troubled Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Davies, Gethin L.; Viggers, Dave; Tranter, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring programs are increasingly popular as preventive and/or supportive interventions for youth with various needs. A meta-analysis of mentoring program effects conducted by DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, and Cooper (2002) suggests that youth from backgrounds of risk (defined broadly) have the capacity to benefit from mentoring, especially when…

  13. Music Curriculum for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picht, Harriet

    This kindergarten music curriculum provides a year-long program of a sequenced series of activities designed to develop music concepts. Topics of the units in this guide are: self-concept (beginning of the year), fall, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, winter, a circus, Valentine's Day, spring, and farms. A scope and sequence chart of concepts…

  14. Thinking Outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kippie

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Amanda Valentin, a 22-year-old woman with cerebral palsy who is a quadriplegic and nonverbal, who uses assistive technology to improve her life. The author was Amanda's assistive technology specialist who trained her to utilize software and hardware efficiently. She describes the steps she took to ensure that the assistive…

  15. A Historical Vignette: Language Learning Eighteenth-Century Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalwies, Howard H.

    1977-01-01

    French became the foremost medium of communication in Europe in the 18th century. In Germany the most widely used French textbook was Johan Valentin Meidinger's "Practische Franzoesische Grammatik." This textbook was apparently a huge success from the pedagogical and the commerical points of view. With a few minor revisions, it would…

  16. Football or Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  17. Evaluating Principals. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Five recent studies included in this annotated bibliography highlight the diverse facets of an effective principal evaluation system. A technical report by Jerry W. Valentine and Michael L. Bowman includes a clinical instrument for assessing teachers' perception of principals' effectiveness. In a second report, Daniel L. Duke and Richard J.…

  18. Integrating Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on integrating learning and performance in human resource development (HRD). "Action Imperatives that Impact Knowledge Performance and Financial Performance in the Learning Organization: An Exploratory Model" (Gary L. Selden, Karen E. Watkins, Thomas Valentine, Victoria J. Marsick)…

  19. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  20. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  1. Using Meta-Analysis to Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results: The Role of Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Hart, Cassandra M.D.; Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Head Start was designed as a holistic intervention to improve economically disadvantaged, preschool-aged children's cognitive and social development by providing a comprehensive set of educational, health, nutritional, and social services, as well as opportunities for parent involvement (Zigler & Valentine, 1979). Given the current interest in ECE…

  2. Courtside: NCLB=New Cause for Litigious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the children of parents Latasha Gibbs, Carmella Glass, Laverne Jones, Charlene Mingo, Deborah Powell-Jasper, Eunice Staton, and Keikola Valentine were attending New York City public schools that the state education department identified as needing improvement -- in other words, failing -- under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)…

  3. Integrating Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on integrating learning and performance in human resource development (HRD). "Action Imperatives that Impact Knowledge Performance and Financial Performance in the Learning Organization: An Exploratory Model" (Gary L. Selden, Karen E. Watkins, Thomas Valentine, Victoria J. Marsick)…

  4. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  5. Comparative Growth Retarding Activity in Relation to Endogenous Tissue Concentration of Daminozide and a Pyrrolidino Analog (Uni-629) in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

    Treesearch

    R.M. Sachs; J. DeBie; J.L. Michael; J.R. Frank; R.A. Creager

    1975-01-01

    N-pyrrolidino succinamic acid (Uni-F529) was considerably superior to succinic acid 2,2 dimethyl hydrazide (daiminozide. SADH) in inhihiting stem elongation in Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Black Valentine' and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, `Bright Golden Anne'. This was true in winter or summer greenhouses. Under...

  6. The Leonid Fireball Night from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Berinde, S.

    1999-02-01

    An overview of the 1998 Leonid activity as seen from Romania by SARM members, with a description of the event on November 16-17 as seen by Valentin Grigore (GRIVA) at Targoviste, lambda=25deg 29' 00'' E, phi=44deg 57' 18'' N, h=350m.

  7. Holidays. Advisory List: Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Media and Technology Services.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of instructional materials that deal with subjects relating to holidays. Topics include Christmas, Earth Day, Easter, Halloween, Hannukah, Independence Day, Martin Luther King Day, Thanksgiving, Valentine's Day, and "More than One Holiday." Works cited include illustrated stories, poems,…

  8. Insecure? Keeping New England Campuses Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2009-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, Seung-Hui Cho traded in his title as "student" for one of "gunman." That day, Cho, a student at Virginia Tech, was responsible for the deadliest shooting spree by a single person in U.S. history, killing 33 people, including himself. Ten months later on Valentine's Day, Steven Kazmierczak joined Cho in the…

  9. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin contents of various rhubarb (Rheum-spp.) varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...

  10. A multidimensional scaling analysis of own- and cross-race face spaces.

    PubMed

    Papesh, Megan H; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-08-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race categories. Participants made speeded "same-different" judgments to all possible combinations of faces, from which we generated psychological spaces, with "different" RTs as the measure of similarity. Consistent with the MDS framework, all faces were pseudo-normally distributed around the (unseen) prototype. The distribution of faces was consistent with Valentine's (1991) predictions: despite their physical identity to the White faces, Black faces had lower mean inter-object distances in psychological space. Other-race faces are more densely clustered in psychological space, which could underlie well-known recognition deficits. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Necrotizing pneumonia in children: report of 41 cases between 2006 and 2011 in a French tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Chloé; Angoulvant, François; Gabor, Flaviu; Makhoul, Juliette; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Naudin, Jérôme; Alison, Marianne; Faye, Albert; Bingen, Edouard; Lorrot, Mathie

    2013-10-01

    Forty-one children hospitalized for necrotizing pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. Necrotizing pneumonia represented 0.8% of community-acquired pneumonia and 6% of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia. The chest radiograph revealed necrosis on admission in onethird of cases. Twenty-one cases (51%) were documented, including 13 Staphylococcus aureus, all Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, 7 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 1 Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  12. JPRS Report: East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    entire Alternative Socialist Party and a large proportion of the members of the Nikola Petkov Bulgarian National Agrarian Union. Ivan Rostov was...Minister Val- entin Pavlov , who has joined Prime Minister Ante Markovic in trying to find a solution for the collapse of trade between the two countries...amounted to $439 million, and exports under the liquidation account have not even begun yet. Soviet prime minister Valentin Pavlov listened to all

  13. Meta-Analysis of Armed service Vocational Aptitude Battery Subtest Validity Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 591-599. 51 Hawk, J. (1986). Real world implications of g. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 411...New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Jensen, A. R. (1983). Effects of inbreeding on mental ability factors. Personality and Individual Differences , 4... and Individual Differences , 7, 201-207. Palmer, P., Hartke, D. D., Ree, M. J., Welsh, J. R. & Valentine, L. D. Jr. (1988). Armed Services

  14. Analysis of the 918th Contracting Battalion and 410th Contracting Support Brigade Utilizing the Contract Management Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Opportunity, Threat ( SWOT ) analysis is an example of an assessment that does just that. Regardless of which type of organizational assessment is used, the...Monterey, CA 93943. Analysis of the 918th Contracting Battalion and 410th Contracting Support Brigade Utilizing the Contract Management Maturity...Freedom for a total of 24 months. Upon redeployment, Captain Valentine attended the Aviation Captain’s Career Course at Fort Rucker, Alabama. In

  15. POW/MIA Issues. Volume 2. World War II and the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Valentine Bay (105 miles to the east of Vladivostok). 2 0The crew members lost in the B-29 incident of June 13, 1952, were: Major Samuel N. Busch A0733811...Heydekrug, POW Camp No. 6, Grave 3, East Prussia 17. Robinson, Roy A. SIc 611 0637 City Cemetery, Murmansk, in lots for foreigners, USSR 18. Roland ...Nathan Ernser, Roland R. Irving, Edward J. Lang, Frederick A. Lord, Orvil H. Each set of remains was recovered from the far eastern area of the

  16. The Role of United States Army Special Forces in Operation NOBEL OBELISK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    effective use of special operations forces (SOF) in NEOs. SOF have contributed in some manner to almost every U.S. NEO conducted in the past thirty years...their primary operational methods. This RUF insurgency had such a destabilizing effect on Sierra Leone that Valentine Strasser led a military coup...conduct effective battalion-sized operations in the interior, without looting, raping, or terrorizing local citizens, immediate gains would be made

  17. Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-02

    793–810. 39. Wagatsuma H, Yamaguchi Y (2007) Neural dynamics of the cognitive map in the hippocampus. Cognitive Neurodynamics 1: 119–141. 40. Kifer Y...Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making Mikhail I. Rabinovich1*, Ramón Huerta1,2, Pablo Varona2, Valentin S. Afraimovich3 1...Óptica, UASLP, San Luis de Potosı́, Mexico Abstract The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively

  18. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale…

  19. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale…

  20. Gorbachev’s Presidential Council

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    writer Valentin Rasputin told a Literaturnaya gazeta editor that his presence, and that of Chingis Aitmatov, on the Council was to ensure that the...president hear "another language a writer’s language." Also. Rasputin said, he would be able to convey to the president "specific Russian interests...and abroad. "It is very important." Council member Rasputin explains, "that the Presidential Council anticipates the probability of a critical

  1. Air Vehicle Path Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-13

    method of finite differences. Here an approximation to the cost funcional J = ∫ F (x, y, ẏ) dx is performed by using numerical methods of integration...edited by William H. Beyer, Boca Raton Florida: CRC Press, 1991. 15. Freund, E. and H. Hoyer. “Pathfinding in Multi-Robot Systems: Solution and Ap...March 2000. 35. Polyanin, Andrei D. and Valentin F. Zaitsev. Handbook of Exact Solutions for Ordinary Differential Equations. Boca Raton Florida: CRC

  2. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  3. Simulating the 'other-race' effect with autoassociative neural networks: further evidence in favor of the face-space model.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Roberto; Hervé, Abdi

    2006-01-01

    Other-race (OR) faces are less accurately recognized than same-race (SR) faces, but faster classified by race. This phenomenon has often been reported as the 'other-race' effect (ORE). Valentine (1991 Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology 43 161-204) proposed a theoretical multidimensional face-space model that explained both of these results, in terms of variations in exemplar density between races. According to this model, SR faces are more widely distributed across the dimensions of the space than OR faces. However, this model does not quantify nor state the dimensions coded within this face space. The aim of the present study was to test the face-space explanation of the ORE with neural network simulations by quantifying its dimensions. We found the predicted density properties of Valentine's framework in the face-projection spaces of the autoassociative memories. This was supported by an interaction for exemplar density between the race of the learned face set and the race of the faces. In addition, the elaborated face representations showed optimal responses for SR but not for OR faces within SR face spaces when explored at the individual level, as gender errors occurred significantly more often in OR than in SR face-space representations. Altogether, our results add further evidence in favor of a statistical exemplar density explanation of the ORE as suggested by Valentine, and question the plausibility of such coding for faces in the framework of recent neuroimaging studies.

  4. Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Larry J.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Butman, Bradford; Ackerman, Seth D.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, Dave S.; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2006-01-01

    The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder data collected off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data. The basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment and sedimentary environments. Presented verification data include new and historical sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam data, which cover a narrow band of the sea floor extending from Provincetown around the northern tip of Cape Cod and south southeastward to off Monomoy Island, were collected during transits between concurrent mapping projects in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (Valentine and others, 2001; Butman and others, 2004; and Valentine, 2005) and Great South Channel (Valentine and others, 2003a, b, c, d). Although originally collected to maximize the use of time aboard ship, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities in this part of the Gulf of Maine (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. These data and interpretations also support ongoing modeling studies of the lower Cape's aquifer system (Masterson, 2004) and of erosional hotspots along the Cape Cod National Seashore (List and others, 2006).

  5. ["A shot at the father: a student's assault". Sigmund Freud and the case of Ernst Haberl].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 1922, the Freud family was involved in a criminal case: The son of Mathilde Freud's nursing sister, Ernst Haberl, had shot at his father. With the help of August Aichhorn the Viennese Juvenile Court's social assistance department was engaged on behalf of the young man. Freud commissioned the lawyer Valentin Teirich to defend him in court. The Viennese dailies reported the deed and the trial extensively (Haberl was acquitted). That a comment published in the Neue Freie Presse was written by Freud himself, as Teirich believed, is, according to Anna Freud, highly improbable.

  6. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed.

  7. Investigation of Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys under Spectrum Loading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT. TASKAREA & WORK U NIT NUMBERS .’ , Northrop Corporation, Aircraft Division A WR T M One...under Naval Air Systems Command Contract N00019-81-C-0550. Mr. M . Valentine of Naval Air Systems Command (Code AIR-5304B4) was the project engineer...growth is not the same at intermediate and high growth rates ( 10_8 m /cycle (2.5xlO- 7in. /cycle)) as it is at near-threshold rates .2- (1-8lcle (

  8. Differences in habitat use by blanding's turtles, Emydoidea blandingii, and painted turtles, Chysemys picta, in the Nebraska sandhills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Germano, David J.

    2003-01-01

    We sampled a variety of wetlands in the Nebraska sandhills at Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Significantly more individuals of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) occurred in lakes and open waters than in marshes or small ponds, and the opposite was true for Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii). Besides this marked difference in habitat use, 46% of the captured E. blandingii in pond/marsh habitat were juveniles, but only 31.6% in lakes and open water. Current information suggests that marshes and small ponds are important habitat for juvenile turtles, especially Emydoidea blandingii.

  9. Study of comets at wavelengths between 0.5 and 18 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Net, E. P.; Gehrz, R. D.

    1986-09-01

    Since 1969 every bright comet was measured which has reached a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun. Observing techniques were developed which make it possible to observe as close as elongation 3 deg., and to find, track and measure comets at all wavelengths in full daylight. Comet Halley was measured on twenty four occasions between December 12, 1985 and March 25, 1986. Clear weather seems to come on holidays, and days on which are observed including Winter Solstice, Christmas, New Years, Valentines day, Super Bowl Sunday and the Vernal Equinox. Halley is observed within hours of perihelion passage.

  10. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: novel mutation in the aminomethyl transferase gene. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Çavuşoğlu, Dilek; Özbeyler, Ömer; Kaya, Özge Ö; Baydan, Figen; Olgac Dundar, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  11. At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

  12. Critical pneumonia complicating early-stage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mercieri, Marco; Di Rosa, Roberta; Pantosti, Annalisa; De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Pinto, Giovanni; Arcioni, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia, Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, in a woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting this critical lung infection occurring during an early phase of pregnancy. This case study alerts physicians to the increasing worldwide spread of these uncommon yet virulent and potentially lethal infections. In our patient, antibiotic therapy with linezolid plus rifampin started at 14 weeks of pregnancy had a successful outcome without inducing toxicity or teratogenesis in the fetus.

  13. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  14. ROLE OF FERREDOXIN IN THE METABOLISM OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN.

    PubMed

    VALENTINE, R C; WOLFE, R S

    1963-05-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana) and R. S. Wolfe. Role of ferredoxin in the metabolism of molecular hydrogen. J. Bacteriol. 85:1114-1120. 1963.-The metabolism of molecular hydrogen by Clostridium pasteurianum, Micrococcus lactilyticus (Veillonella alcalescens), and several other anaerobic bacteria was studied. Oxidation of hydrogen, using several electron-accepting substrates including triphosphopyridine nucleotide, uric acid, xanthine, nitrite, and hydroxylamine, required ferredoxin in conjunction with hydrogenase. Evolution of hydrogen from pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, hypoxanthine, and dithionite was mediated by ferredoxin. On the basis of these findings, a unitary hypothesis for biological hydrogen evolution is proposed in which ferredoxin plays a key role.

  15. Observations of the Leonids in 2006 from Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhurova, Eva; Koleva, Katya

    2010-12-01

    We report on results from an expediton to Bolyarci 2006 November 17/18 and 18/19. Boris Stoilov (STOBO), Ivaylo Ivanov (IVAIV) and Valentin Velkov (VELVA) recorded 51 Leonids out of 107 meteors in 7.83 hours of total effective observing time. High activity of the Leonids on 2006 November 18/19 around 4:45-4:48 UT as recorded by other contributors to the IMO data base, was confirmed. Processing the plotted meters using the RADIANT software provided radiant positions of the Leonids, alpha-Monocerotids, Taurids, and new iota-Aurigid meteor shower.

  16. The Perseids Aug 11-12, 1996 in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojurova, E.; Trukchev, I.

    As every year Astroclub "Canopus" organized an extended Perseid observing campaign. Members of the club took part in expedition to Avren village near Varna, at the National Astronomical Observatory (Rojen) and at the National Yought Astronomical Camp in Belite Brezi (South Bulgaria). Here we present some results derived on the basis of data obtained by Biliana Ognianova, Diana Tisheva, Diliana Antonova, Eva Bojurova, Elena Surbinska, Irena Stavreva, Katia Koleva, Lilia Porojanova, Anton Antonov, Denis Mechmedov, Doichin Docinski, Galin Genchev, Ivan Trukhchev, Valentin Velkov. More than 2000 Perseids were recorded. Some other showers were also observed.

  17. Study of comets at wavelengths between 0.5 and 18 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Net, E. P.; Gehrz, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1969 every bright comet was measured which has reached a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun. Observing techniques were developed which make it possible to observe as close as elongation 3 deg., and to find, track and measure comets at all wavelengths in full daylight. Comet Halley was measured on twenty four occasions between December 12, 1985 and March 25, 1986. Clear weather seems to come on holidays, and days on which are observed including Winter Solstice, Christmas, New Years, Valentines day, Super Bowl Sunday and the Vernal Equinox. Halley is observed within hours of perihelion passage.

  18. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteremia at a major hospital in southern Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Dhritiman; Batte, Justin L; Brown, Stephanie N; Crosby, Angela G; Marcos, Luis A; Elasri, Mohamed O

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant cause of bacteremia worldwide. We assessed the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant S aureus isolates causing bacteremia in southern Mississippi. Diverse genetic backgrounds in terms of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing types of methicillin-resistant S aureus were identified as causing bacteremia in Mississippi. A strong association of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes with elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration is one of the important findings of our study.

  19. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  20. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E.

    2017-05-01

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  1. Age of acquisition effects on an object-name verification task.

    PubMed

    Catling, J C; Johnston, R A

    2006-02-01

    Naming latencies for words, objects and faces have been shown to be affected by the age at which an item is acquired (AoA). Originally, this effect was explained in terms of differential access to name representations. However, a number of recent studies have found AoA effects in tasks which do not require access to names (e.g. Brysbaert, Van Wijnendaele, & De Deynes, 2000; Lewis, 1999; Moore, Smith Spark, & Valentine, 2004; Moore & Valentine, 1999). Ellis and Lambon Ralph (2000) propose an alternative account of AoA, predicting that the effect should arise in any task where previously stored information is retrieved. The current study explored the effect of AoA on an object-name verification task. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that early acquired objects were verified significantly faster than later acquired objects. A third experiment collected naming latencies for the same picture stimuli in order to allow a comparison of the magnitude of the AoA effect for object verification and naming. The implications of these findings for accounts of AoA and its locus of effect are discussed.

  2. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  3. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day.

  4. Recognition of own-race and other-race caricatures: implications for models of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Byatt, G; Rhodes, G

    1998-08-01

    Valentine's (Valentine T. Q J Exp Psychol 1991;43A:161-204) face recognition framework supports both a norm-based coding (NBC) and an exemplar-only, absolute coding, model (ABC). According to NBC; (1) faces are represented in terms of deviations from a prototype or norm; (2) caricatures are effective because they exaggerate this norm deviation information; and (3) other-race faces are coded relative to the (only available) own-race norm. Therefore NBC predicts that, for European subjects, caricatures of Chinese faces made by distorting differences from the European norm would be more effective than caricatures made relative to the Chinese norm. According to ABC; (1) faces are encoded as absolute values on a set of shared dimensions with the norm playing no role in recognition; (2) caricatures are effective because they minimise exemplar density and (3) the dimensions of face-space are inappropriate for other-race faces leaving them relatively densely clustered. ABC predicts that all faces would be recognised more accurately when caricatured against their own-race norm. We tested European subjects' identification of European and Chinese faces, caricatured against both race norms. The ABC model's prediction was supported. European faces were also rated as more distinctive and recognised more easily than Chinese faces. However, the own-race recognition bias held even when the races were equated for distinctiveness which suggests that the ABC model may not provide a complete account of race effects in recognition.

  5. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity.

    PubMed

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E

    2017-05-30

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  6. Spread of Tst-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Strains Belonging to ST30 Clone among Patients and Healthcare Workers in Two Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Drougka, Eleanna; Fligou, Fotini; Dodou, Vasiliki; Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Filos, Kriton S; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Marangos, Markos; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2017-09-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infections. Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) are associated with severe clinical syndromes. S. aureus colonizing isolates recovered from healthcare workers and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital comprising Group A were compared with those from adult non-ICU carriers (Group B). mecA, lukS/lukF-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL), and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) gene carriage was detected by PCR. Clones were identified in all methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and toxin-positive methicillin-susceptible strains (MSSA) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), agr groups, and multi locus sequencing typing (MLST). Group A included 90 S. aureus isolates, whereas Group B 53. PVL was more frequently found among MRSA vs. MSSA (p < 0.001) and in strains of Group B as compared to Group A (p < 0.001), consistent with the spread of ST80-IV. Higher incidence of tst gene carriage was identified among MSSA vs. MRSA (P 0.005) belonging mainly to ST30, and Group A vs. Group B (P 0.002). The wide dissemination of ST80-IV mainly in the community is responsible for a high percentage of PVL-positive MRSA, while silent spread of tst-positive S. aureus clones among ICU patients and personnel poses a threat of hospital transmission and possible severe infections.

  7. Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: effects of affective valence, response latency, and visual field.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anna; Valentine, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Participants who were unable to detect familiarity from masked 17 ms faces (Stone and Valentine, 2004 and Stone and Valentine, in press-b) did report a vague, partial visual percept. Two experiments investigated the relative strength of the visual percept generated by famous and unfamiliar faces, using masked 17 ms exposure. Each trial presented simultaneously a famous and an unfamiliar face, one face in LVF and the other in RVF. In one task, participants responded according to which of the faces generated the stronger visual percept, and in the other task, they attempted an explicit familiarity decision. The relative strength of the visual percept of the famous face compared to the unfamiliar face was moderated by response latency and participants' attitude towards the famous person. There was also an interaction of visual field with response latency, suggesting that the right hemisphere can generate a visual percept differentiating famous from unfamiliar faces more rapidly than the left hemisphere. Participants were at chance in the explicit familiarity decision, confirming the absence of awareness of facial familiarity.

  8. Generating geomorphological catalogues using neural networks: Seamounts in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Andrew; Kalnins, Lara; van Dinther, Chantal; Trampert, Jeannot

    2013-04-01

    We recently introduced the idea that neural networks may be used to construct catalogues of geomorphological features, by extrapolating from the characteristics of a set of hand-selected examples (Valentine et al., 2012). These learning algorithms are inspired by the complex pattern identification and recognition capabilities of the human brain and remove the need to develop an a priori model of the feature of interest. In order to demonstrate this approach, and to develop a clearer understanding of its possibilities and pitfalls, we concentrate on the problem of identifying seamounts - isolated topographic highs of volcanic origin - in the world's oceans. The distribution of seamounts in time and space can provide important constraints on the tectonic history and evolution of the Earth and has been studied using several conventional approaches (e.g. Kim & Wessel, 2011). However, these typically perform poorly in the Atlantic, where the slow spreading rate results in a rough 'background' seafloor that produces many false positives. The learning algorithm approach should improve this, as it attempts to encapsulate more complex information about the seamount and its surroundings. We present an overview of our work to date, with a focus on results from a systematic search for seamounts in the Atlantic. We compare the performance of our approach in detecting seamounts in bathymetric, free-air gravity anomaly and vertical gravity gradient (VGG) datasets to examine the particular strengths and weaknesses of each data type and to assess the potential benefits of assimilating information from two or three data types simultaneously. We compare the resulting seamount database with existing catalogues, examining the variations in measures such as total count, height distribution, and spatial and temporal distribution across the Atlantic, and comment on the potential implications for our understanding of the tectonic history of the region. Kim, S.-S. & Wessel, P., 2011. New

  9. Heterogeneous Family of Cyclomodulins: Smart Weapons That Allow Bacteria to Hijack the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Promote Infections.

    PubMed

    El-Aouar Filho, Rachid A; Nicolas, Aurélie; De Paula Castro, Thiago L; Deplanche, Martine; De Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco A; Goossens, Pierre L; Taieb, Frédéric; Lina, Gerard; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations. We discuss the mechanisms of actions of cyclomodulins according to their biochemical properties, providing examples of various cyclomodulins such as cycle inhibiting factor, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, cytolethal distending toxins, shiga toxin, subtilase toxin, anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, adenylate cyclase toxins, vacuolating cytotoxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol soluble modulins, and mycolactone. Special attention is paid to the benefit provided by cyclomodulins to bacteria during colonization of the host.

  10. Effect of Butanedioic Acid Mono (2,2-Dimethylhydrazide) on the Activity of Membrane-Bound Succinate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    See, Raymond M.; Foy, Chester L.

    1982-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from hypocotyls of five-day-old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Black Valentine') seedlings rapidly oxidized succinate, malate, and NADH. Oxidation rates, respiratory control, and ADP:O ratios obtained with saturating concentrations of all three substrates indicated that the mitochondria were tightly coupled. The mitochondrial preparation was then employed to investigate the respiration-inhibiting effects of butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethyl-hydrazide) (daminozide) a plant growth retardant having structural similarity to an endogenous respiratory substrate (succinate). Daminozide markedly inhibited the activity of membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase. Inhibition was of the competitive type (apparent Ki, 20.2 millimolar) with respect to succinate. Although not excluding other hypotheses, the results support an active role for daminozide in the suppression of respiration as an important metabolic site of its action as a plant growth regulator. PMID:16662493

  11. A method for the concentration of fine-grained rutile (TiO2) from sediment and sedimentary rocks by chemical leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Valentine, Page C.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the sample analyzed by the method described were marine muds collected from the Gulf of Maine (Valentine and Commeau, 1990). The silt and clay fraction (up to 99 wt% of the sediment) is composed of clay minerals (chiefly illite-mica and chlorite), silt-size quartz and feldspar, and small crystals (2-12 um) of rutile and hematite. The bulk sediment samples contained an average of 2 to 3 wt percent CaCO3. Tiher samples analyzed include red and gray Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones and siltstones exposed around the Bay of Fundy region and Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, and shales from northern Maine and New Brunswick. These rocks are probable sources for the fine-grained rutile found in the Gulf of Maine.

  12. Precise leveling, space geodesy and geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, R.

    1981-01-01

    The implications of currently available leveling data on understanding the crustal dynamics of the continental United States are investigated. Neotectonic deformation, near surface movements, systematic errors in releveling measurements, and the implications of this information for earthquake prediction are described. Vertical crustal movements in the vicinity of the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake which may represent coseismic deformation are investigated. The detection of vertical fault displacements by precise leveling in western Kentucky is reported. An empirical basis for defining releveling anomalies and its implications for crustal deformation in southern California is presented. Releveling measurements in the eastern United States and their meaning in the context of possible crustal deformation, including uplift of the Appalachian Mountains, eastward tilting of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and apparent movements associated with a number of structural features along the east coast, are reported.

  13. Peanut allergy as a trigger for the deterioration of atopic dermatitis and precursor of staphylococcal and herpetic associated infections - case report.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dennis; Abad, Eliane Dios; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Dos Santos, Fabiana Monteiro; Saintive, Simone; Goudoris, Ekaterini; do Prado, Evandro Alves; Ribeiro, Marcia; Soares Rosado, Alexandre; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial and chronic disease, with genetic, environmental, immunological and nutritional origins. AD may be aggravated by allergies associated with infections. This study aims to describe a paediatric case of AD in which the peanut allergy was the triggering factor to aggravate the disease, and was also the concomitant precursor of staphylococcal (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, carrier of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL) genes) and herpetic (Herpes Simplex - HSV) infections. The clinical management approach and nursing strategies promoted a favourable evolution during the hospitalization period, besides the family approach, which was essential to control any flare-up of the disease. Adherence to a recommended diet and the use of strategies to prevent any recurrent infections were important to ensure the patient's quality of life.

  14. Treatment and recurrence management of staphylococcal infections: community-acquired MRSA.

    PubMed

    Kale-Pradhan, Pramodini; Johnson, Leonard B

    2008-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has resulted in a change in the paradigm for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. The CA-MRSA strains are more likely to carry the genes for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin and have increased susceptibility to non-beta-lactam antibiotics. As a result, a wide range of therapies is available for treatment of CA-MRSA infections. Relapses occur frequently and the optimal approach to eliminate colonization is not clear. This article reviews the therapeutic options for patients with presumed and definite MRSA infections, as well as for the prevention of relapses.

  15. Automatic Biological Cell Counting Using a Modified Gradient Hough Transform.

    PubMed

    Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul

    2017-02-01

    We present a computational method for pseudo-circular object detection and quantitative characterization in digital images, using the gradient accumulation matrix as a basic tool. This Gradient Accumulation Transform (GAT) was first introduced in 1992 by Kierkegaard and recently used by Kaytanli & Valentine. In the present article, we modify the approach by using the phase coding studied by Cicconet, and by adding a "local contributor list" (LCL) as well as a "used contributor matrix" (UCM), which allow for accurate peak detection and exploitation. These changes help make the GAT algorithm a robust and precise method to automatically detect pseudo-circular objects in a microscopic image. We then present an application of the method to cell counting in microbiological images.

  16. A Novel Method for Producing Transgenic Enzymes and Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    M. Liebergesell, M. H . Madkour , F. Mayer, U. Pieper-Furst, A. Pries, H . E. Valentin, et al. 1995. Considerations on the structure and biochemistry...co nc en tr at io n (g D C W /L ) 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 S pe ci fic A ct iv ity o f O P H fo r P ar ao xo n (U /m g) OUR...DNA region analyzed. The open reading frame of the oph gene is indicated in the figure while H refers to the HindIII restriction sites. A

  17. Life-threatening MRSA sepsis with bilateral pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis of the knee in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Petersen, Klaus K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia, arthritis of the knee, and osteomyelitis of the tibia. Radiological investigation and interpretation directed the treatment, especially the surgical debridement, and combined with clinical and biochemical findings lead to close interdisciplinary treatment with frequent surgical interventions and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis, using different imaging modalities to guide the surgical and antibiotic treatment. PMID:27867536

  18. The silane isotopomers (Si-29)H4 and (Si-30)H4 constants of the nu2/nu4 dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, H.; Kreiner, W. A.; Pierre, G.

    1990-08-01

    Silane isotopomers may be of some importance in IR astronomy, since the main isotopomer (with Si-28) has already been discovered in a planetary nebula surrounding the IR star IRC + 10216. With a view toward future isotope investigations of stellar objects, the IR spectrum of two silane isotopomers containing Si-29 and Si-30 is investigated with tunable CO2 laser sidebands in the 877-954-kayser range at a resolution of 0.00002 kayser. An analysis is performed of the nu2 and nu4 dyad, including data by Henry and Valentin (1986) from a Fourier transform spectrum and sub-Doppler lines observed by Borde (1983) and Skrzypczak et al. (1989). Forty-one vibration-rotation constants of the nu2/nu4 Hamiltonian are determined from the spectrum fitting.

  19. The naming game: A discrepancy among the medical community.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Aly, Islam; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    As anatomists we rely on the nomenclature of structures in order to describe them appropriately, particularly their orientation in respect to their surrounding. The terminology used by the anatomist to describe an organ, muscle, or nerve within the body is taught to medical students as law. Students learn to describe structures in the "anatomical position", which has been accepted in the literature since the original Latin Nomina Anatomica. They therefore familiarize themselves with the use of terms such as superior, inferior, posterior and anterior to describe all anatomical structures, except in respect of the heart. The heart is still described in the original Valentine position. As anatomists we owe it to the medical and research community to correct the nomenclature to minimize confusion, and to describe the heart properly in respect to its surrounding structures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heterogeneous Family of Cyclomodulins: Smart Weapons That Allow Bacteria to Hijack the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Promote Infections

    PubMed Central

    El-Aouar Filho, Rachid A.; Nicolas, Aurélie; De Paula Castro, Thiago L.; Deplanche, Martine; De Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco A.; Goossens, Pierre L.; Taieb, Frédéric; Lina, Gerard; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations. We discuss the mechanisms of actions of cyclomodulins according to their biochemical properties, providing examples of various cyclomodulins such as cycle inhibiting factor, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, cytolethal distending toxins, shiga toxin, subtilase toxin, anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, adenylate cyclase toxins, vacuolating cytotoxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol soluble modulins, and mycolactone. Special attention is paid to the benefit provided by cyclomodulins to bacteria during colonization of the host. PMID:28589102

  1. GLYOXYLATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS ALLANTOICUS

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R. C.; Drucker, H.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Drucker, and R. S. Wolfe. Glyoxylate fermentation by Streptococcus allantoicus. J. Bacteriol. 87:241–246. 1964.—Extracts of Streptococcus allantoicus were found to degrade glyoxylate, yielding tartronic semialdehyde and CO2. Tartronic semialdehyde was prepared chemically, and its properties were compared with the enzymatic product: reduction by sodium borohydride yielded glycerate; heating at 100 C yielded glycolaldehyde and CO2; autoxidation yielded mesoxalic semialdehyde; periodate oxidation yielded glyoxylate and a compound presumed to be formate. Tartronic semialdehyde reductase was present in extracts of S. allantoicus and in a species of Pseudomonas grown on allantoin. A scheme for the synthesis of acetate from glyoxylate by S. allantoicus is discussed. PMID:14151040

  2. Site Description for the University of Nebraska's Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory is operated by the University of Nebraska. The laboratory is located in the south-central part of the Nebraska Sandhills near Tryon, Nebraska (41 deg. 37' N; 100 deg. 50' W). The laboratory is surrounded on the west and south by native rangeland vegetation, on the south by a large field of corn irrigated by a center pivot, and on the east by wheat stubble. This site is appropriate for moisture stress studies since rainfall is almost always inadequate to meet evaporative demands of agricultural crops during most of the growing season and the sandy soils (Valentine fine sand) at the site do not store large quantities of water. Various levels of water stress are achieved through irrigation from solid set sprinklers.

  3. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on the U.S./Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Rivera, José O; Ho, Hoi; Domínguez, Delfina C; Tyroch, Alan H; Antony, Suresh; Norte, Arturo; Pérez-Ruvalcaba, José Ascensión

    2009-01-01

    El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico comprise the largest U.S./Mexico border population. Bacterial samples were collected from two hospitals in El Paso and two in Ciudad Juarez and transported to a reference microbiology laboratory in El Paso for microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to NCCLS standards. The presence of the MecA gene, and the prevalence of both the SSCmec IV element and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin were investigated by PCR in all MRSA isolates. A total of 201 isolates in El Paso and 128 in Ciudad Juarez of Staphylococcus aureus were identified, of those, MRSA were significantly more prevalent in El Paso than in Ciudad Juarez [89 (44.3%) versus 10 (7.8%) respectively (p<0.0001)]. Thirty one (35%) of MRSA strains isolated in El Paso were community associated. Significantly higher prevalence of MRSA infections was documented in El Paso compared to Ciudad Juarez.

  5. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly.

    PubMed

    Wan, T-W; Tomita, Y; Saita, N; Konno, K; Iwao, Y; Hung, W-C; Teng, L-J; Yamamoto, T

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)(-)/spat5110/SCCmecV(+) versus PVL(+)/spat159((etc.))/SCCmec (-), but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type) and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  6. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, F; Alabi, A S; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2014-07-01

    Research on African Staphylococcus aureus has been largely neglected in the past, despite the cultural and geographical diversity in Africa, which has a significant impact on the epidemiology of this pathogen. The polarity between developed urban societies and remote rural populations (e.g. Pygmies), combined with close contact with animals (e.g. livestock and domestic animals, and wildlife), makes the epidemiology of S. aureus on the African continent unique and fascinating. Here, we try to draw an epidemiological picture of S. aureus colonization and infection in Africa, and focus on the wide spread of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive isolates, the emergence of the hypervirulent methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone USA300, and the dissemination of the typical African clone MRSA sequence type 88.

  7. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery.

  8. Daptomycin efficacy in the central nervous system of a patient with disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen in the last decades and also represents the second most common pathogen isolated from patients in outpatient settings. Although methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections were traditionally limited to hospitals, community-associated cases of methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections have been reported. In our case, we observed an unexpected event during treatment. Case presentation A 60-year-old Caucasian man developed fever and multiple muscle and brain abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Conclusion Although our patient was given antimicrobials active against the isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, it was only after the introduction of daptomycin that his skin, soft tissue and muscle lesions and also brain manifestations improved. PMID:22938025

  9. Early NACA human computers at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The women of the Computer Department at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station are shown busy with test flight calculations. The computers under the direction of Roxanah Yancey were responsible for accurate calculations on the research test flights made at the Station. There were no mechanical computers at the station in 1949, but data was reduced by human computers. Shown in this photograph starting at the left are: Geraldine Mayer and Mary (Tut) Hedgepeth with Friden calculators on the their desks; Emily Stephens conferring with engineer John Mayer; Gertrude (Trudy) Valentine is working on an oscillograph recording reducing the data from a flight. Across the desk is Dorothy Clift Hughes using a slide rule to complete data calculations. Roxanah Yancey completes the picture as she fills out engineering requests for further data.

  10. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: spread of specific lineages among patients in different wards at a Brazilian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, F S; Schuenck, R P; Ferreira, D C; da Costa, C R; Nouér, S A; dos Santos, K R N

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineages circulating in a Brazilian teaching hospital. MRSA isolates from nasal swabs were evaluated to assess antimicrobial susceptibility, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), Panton-Valentine leucocidin status, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) analysis. Eighty-three MRSA isolates were analysed. SCCmec III (43.4%) and IV (49.4%) were predominant. ST1-IV (USA400) was more common in internal medicine (P = 0.002) whereas 'clone M' (SCCmec III) was more common in the medical and surgical intensive care unit (P = 0.004), and all isolates were ST5-IV (USA800) in dermatology (P < 0.001). These data improved the understanding of the MRSA epidemiology inside the hospital and helped to establish effective control measures.

  11. Blood and the Revenant in Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In Sir Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth; or St Valentine's Day (1828), the resuscitated subject is referred to as a revenant, a term that Scott borrowed from Henry Thomson's Blackwoodian tale 'Le Revenant' (1827), meaning 'dead-alive'. Taking its cue from the sanguinary subtext of The Fair Maid of Perth, which is fascinated with the shedding of blood and transfusion of fluids, this chapter reads the Scottish revenant as a literary reflection on the extraordinary promise of blood transfusion in the 1820s: that death could be understood as a process, rather than an absolute state, and that medical intervention could restore life to those on the brink of death and even to the recently deceased.

  12. Molecular nature of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus derived from explosive nosocomial outbreaks of the 1980s in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taneike, Ikue; Otsuka, Taketo; Dohmae, Soshi; Saito, Kohei; Ozaki, Kyoko; Takano, Misao; Higuchi, Wataru; Takano, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2006-04-17

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes is increasing worldwide. Nosocomial outbreak-derived (hospital-acquired) MRSA (HA-MRSA) in Japan in the 1980s was also largely PVL(+). PVL(+) HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA shared the same multi-locus sequence type (ST30) and methicillin resistance cassette (SCCmecIV), but were divergent in oxacillin resistance, spa typing, PFGE analysis or clfA gene analysis. PVL(+) HA-MRSA, which probably originated in PVL(+)S. aureus ST30, was highly adhesive (carrying cna and bbp genes), highly-toxic (carrying luk(PV) and sea genes) and highly drug-resistant. PVL(+) HA-MRSA was once replaced by other PVL(-) HA-MRSA (e.g., ST5), and is re-emerging as CA-MRSA.

  13. The Role of Various Regions of the Bean Hypocotyl on Red Light-induced Hook Opening.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, B

    1971-08-01

    Measurement of various zones on the concave half of etiolated Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Black Valentine) hypocotyls has shown that growth at the basal portion of the elbow and the contiguous upper portion of the shank was stimulated earliest by red light. Growth of these two zones was unaffected by the tissue of the convex half but was inhibited by tissue distal to them. The inhibition was alleviated by the continuous presence of shank tissue below the growing zones. Based on cuts made halfway through the hypocotyl at positions above, below, or between the two zones of growth, it is suggested that cells at the inner portion of the upper shank control in some way the light-induced growth of the elbow cells directly above.

  14. Real-Time PCR to Identify Staphylococci and Assay for Virulence from Blood.

    PubMed

    Okolie, Charles E

    2017-01-01

    The genus Staphylococcus includes pathogenic and non-pathogenic facultative anaerobes. Due to the plethora of virulence factors encoded in its genome, the species Staphylococcus aureus is known to be the most pathogenic. S. aureus strains harboring genes encoding virulence and antibiotic resistance are of public health importance. In clinical samples, however, pathogenic S. aureus is often mixed with putatively less pathogenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), both of which can harbor mecA, the genetic driver for staphylococcal methicillin-resistance. In this chapter, the detailed practical procedure for operating a real-time pentaplex PCR assay in blood cultures is described. The pentaplex real-time PCR assay simultaneously detects markers for the presence of bacteria (16S rRNA), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cns), S. aureus (spa), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl), and methicillin resistance (mecA).

  15. Photographs of the Sea Floor of Western Massachusetts Bay, Offshore of Boston, Massachusett, July 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Butman, Bradford; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains photographs and sediment sample analyses of the sea floor obtained at 142 sites in western Massachusetts Bay (Figure 1) during a research cruise (USGS cruise ISBL99024) aboard the Fishing Vessel (FV) Isabel S. (Figure 2) conducted July 18-21, 1999. These photographs and samples provide critical ground truth information for the interpretation of shaded relief and backscatter intensity maps created using data collected with a multibeam echo sounder system (Butman and others, in press, a, b, c; Valentine and others, in press, a, b, c). Collection of these photographs and samples was undertaken in support of a large project whose overall objective is to map and describe the sea floor of Massachusetts Bay.

  16. Clinical photography and patient rights: the need for orthopraxy.

    PubMed

    Berle, I

    2008-02-01

    The increasing use of digital image recording devices, whether they are digital cameras or mobile phone cameras, has democratised clinical photography in the UK. However, when non-professional clinical photographers take photographs of patients the issues of consent and confidentiality are either ignored or given scant attention. Whatever the status of the clinician, the taking of clinical photographs must be practised within the context of a professional etiquette. Best practice recognises the need for informed consent and the constraints associated with confidentiality. Against the background of the poverty of the current discourse of these issues, as presented during the Valentine GMC Fitness to Practice hearing, the paper considers the need for orthopraxy in the use of clinical photography.

  17. On sliding of a puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    Aleksandr Yul'evich Ishlinsky liked to consider a problem with some "special thrill" at the end of the Seminar meeting of the Chair of Applied Mathematics at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. For example, in 1978 he asked the author of this paper to describe the process of sliding of a rotating hockey puck on ice. Somewhat later, on such a seminar, the author made his report and demonstrated the experimental results, which was approved by Aleksandr Yul'evich. But the small paper on this topic, delivered to the journal "Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta," was published only in 1981 [1] thanks to the support of Valentin Vitalievich Rumyantsev. The author thanks the Editorial Board of this journal for the possibility of discussing one of "Ishlinsky's problems" once again.

  18. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Suk-Kyung; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Park, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Choi, Min-Jung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-Cho; Song, Si-Wook; Wee, Sung-Hwan

    2010-04-01

    A total of 2,858 meat samples collected during 2003-2008 in Korea were investigated, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated from 1.0% (9/890) of beef, 0.3% (4/1,055) of pork, and 0.3% (3/913) of chicken meat samples, respectively. MRSA isolates showed the two sequence types (STs), ST72 from beef and pork and ST692 from chicken meat. MRSA isolates from beef and pork were Panton-Valentine leukocidin -negative, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa strain with ST 72, which is the most prevalent type of community acquired-MRSA in Korea. An identical pulse-field gel electrophoresis pattern was detected among 10 of 16 MRSA isolates: 9 strains from beef (n=5) and pork (n=4) in 2008, respectively, and one strain from beef in 2005.

  19. Manganese Dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, E.; House, C.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the anaerobic oxidation is not only important for understanding hydrocarbon degradation but it also important for understanding the global carbon cycle. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a large sink for methane consuming 5-20% of today's methane flux (Valentine and Reeburgh, 2000), yet the requirements for this process are not well understood. It has been suggested that no other electron acceptors other than sulfate can be used in the AOM (Nauhaus, 2005). However, our new data suggests that manganese, in the form of birnessite, can be used as an electron acceptor instead of sulfate (Beal et al., in prep). Methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, CA was incubated with methane, 13C-labeled methane, and carbon dioxide. Because the net result of the AOM is the production of carbon dioxide from methane, the rate of the AOM in each of the incubations can be determined by measuring the incorporation of 13C in the carbon dioxide. Using this method, it was found that cultures incubated with nitrate showed inhibition of the AOM, while cultures incubated with iron gave inconclusive results. The only positive results that were found for alternate electron acceptors are the incubations that were given manganese and no sulfate, which showed methane oxidation. Further, when more manganese was injected into these incubations, the rate of AOM increased. Preliminary analysis of the microbial population using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) targeting the mcr gene showed an unidentified organism in these cultures. Future work with TRFLP, as well as clone libraries, will help to identify the organisms responsible for this process. Nauhaus, K., 2005, Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities: Environmental microbiology, v. 7, p. 98. Valentine, D.L., and Reeburgh, W.S., 2000, New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation: Environmental Microbiology, v. 2, p

  20. Hunting for exploding red supergiant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Zhu, Qingfeng; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Rich, Michael; Chen, Rosie; Trombley, Christine; MacKenty, John W.; Habing, Harm; Churchwell, Edward

    2015-08-01

    Red supergiants (RSGs) are among the brightest Galactic stars at infrared wavelengths. They lose mass at high-rates and, eventually, explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium. I would like to present results on our ongoing searches for candidate obscured-far-luminous late-type stars, which are based on 2MASS, UKIDSS, and GLIMPSE data, on extinction-free colors(Messineo et al. 2012, A&A, 537) and on the analysis of the extinction curve along a given line-of-sight with clump stars. Messineo et al. (2014, A&A, 571, 43) spectroscopically confirmed two clusters of red supergiants, one on the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm at a distance of ~7 kpc, and another on the Scutum-Crux arm at a distance of ~4 kpc; while Messineo et al. (2014, A&A, 569, 20) have, found several RSGs in the core of SNRs W41 and within the area covered by the SNR G22.7-0.2 in the GMC G23.3-0.3. SNR G22.7-0.2 appears to be most likely a type II SNR.Messineo , M.; Menten, K. M.; Churchwell, E.; Habing, H. 2012A&A...537A..10MMessineo, Maria; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie 2014A&A...571A..43MMessineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John W.; Trombley, Christine; 2014A&A...569A..20M

  1. Staphylococcus aureus eye infections in two Indian hospitals: emergence of ST772 as a major clone.

    PubMed

    Nadig, Savitha; Velusamy, Nithya; Lalitha, Prajna; Kar, Sarita; Sharma, Savitri; Arakere, Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing a variety of eye infections from two major eye care hospitals in India. Twenty-four isolates from Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, and nine isolates from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India, representing severe to nonsevere eye infections like microbial keratitis to lacrimal sac abscess, were characterized. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, accessory gene regulator typing, staphylococcal protein A typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were used, along with determination of the presence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin and endotoxin gene cluster among each sequence type. The majority of eye infections, both severe and nonsevere, were caused by sequence type (ST)772, positive for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin gene, and carrying methicillin-resistant staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V cassette (22/33, 67%). Some of the other sequence types that caused severe eye infections were ST1 (9%), 5 (3%), 72 (6%), 88 (3%), 121 (3%), and 672 (3%). This is the first report of the presence of ST1 and 88 in India. Although the number of isolates included in this study was small, most of the eye infections were caused by community-associated S. aureus where patients had no history of hospitalization or treatment in the past year. In the case of six severe infections, patients were admitted for surgeries and there is probability of hospital infection. In addition, only methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V were detected. Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 (ST22) is a major ST found in health care as well as community settings in non-eye infections in India, but only one methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate belonging to ST22 was detected. Predominantly ST772, along with a few other STs, caused the 33 eye infections

  2. Staphylococcus aureus eye infections in two Indian hospitals: emergence of ST772 as a major clone

    PubMed Central

    Nadig, Savitha; Velusamy, Nithya; Lalitha, Prajna; Kar, Sarita; Sharma, Savitri; Arakere, Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing a variety of eye infections from two major eye care hospitals in India. Methods Twenty-four isolates from Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, and nine isolates from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India, representing severe to nonsevere eye infections like microbial keratitis to lacrimal sac abscess, were characterized. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, accessory gene regulator typing, staphylococcal protein A typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were used, along with determination of the presence of Panton–Valentine leucocidin toxin and endotoxin gene cluster among each sequence type. Results The majority of eye infections, both severe and nonsevere, were caused by sequence type (ST)772, positive for the Panton–Valentine leucocidin gene, and carrying methicillin-resistant staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V cassette (22/33, 67%). Some of the other sequence types that caused severe eye infections were ST1 (9%), 5 (3%), 72 (6%), 88 (3%), 121 (3%), and 672 (3%). This is the first report of the presence of ST1 and 88 in India. Conclusion Although the number of isolates included in this study was small, most of the eye infections were caused by community-associated S. aureus where patients had no history of hospitalization or treatment in the past year. In the case of six severe infections, patients were admitted for surgeries and there is probability of hospital infection. In addition, only methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V were detected. Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 (ST22) is a major ST found in health care as well as community settings in non-eye infections in India, but only one methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate belonging to ST22 was detected. Predominantly ST772, along with a few other

  3. Functional independence within the self-memory system: new insights from two cases of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Picard, Laurence; Mayor-Dubois, Claire; Maeder, Philippe; Kalenzaga, Sandrine; Abram, Maria; Duval, Céline; Eustache, Francis; Roulet-Perez, Eliane; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data suggest that the self-memory system can be fractionated into three functionally independent systems processing personal information at several levels of abstraction, including episodic memories of one's life (episodic autobiographical memory, EAM), semantic knowledge of facts about one's life (semantic autobiographical memory, SAM), and semantic knowledge of one's personality [conceptual self, (CS)]. Through the study of two developmental amnesic patients suffering of neonatal brain injuries, we explored how the different facets of the self-memory system develop when growing up with bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Neuropsychological evaluations showed that both of them suffered from dramatic episodic learning disability with no sense of recollection (Remember/Know procedure), whereas their semantic abilities differed, being completely preserved (Valentine) or not (Jocelyn). Magnetic resonance imaging, including quantitative volumetric measurements of the hippocampus and adjacent (entorhinal, perirhinal, and temporopolar) cortex, showed severe bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus in both patients, with additional atrophy of adjacent cortex in Jocelyn. Exploration of EAM and SAM according to lifetime periods covering the entire lifespan (TEMPAu task, Piolino et al., 2009) showed that both patients had marked impairments in EAM, as they lacked specificity, details and sense of recollection, whereas SAM was completely normal in Valentine, but impaired in Jocelyn. Finally, measures of patients' CS (Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, Fitts and Warren, 1996), checked by their mothers, were generally within normal range, but both patients showed a more positive self-concept than healthy controls. These two new cases support a modular account of the medial-temporal lobe with episodic memory and recollection depending on the hippocampus, and semantic memory and familiarity on adjacent cortices. Furthermore, they highlight developmental

  4. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected in 2005 and 2006 from patients with invasive disease: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Limbago, Brandi; Fosheim, Gregory E; Schoonover, Valerie; Crane, Christina E; Nadle, Joelle; Petit, Susan; Heltzel, David; Ray, Susan M; Harrison, Lee H; Lynfield, Ruth; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Townes, John M; Schaffner, William; Mu, Yi; Fridkin, Scott K

    2009-05-01

    This study characterizes 1,984 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected in 2005 and 2006 from normally sterile sites in patients with invasive MRSA infection. These isolates represent a convenience sample of all invasive MRSA cases reported as part of the Active Bacterial Core surveillance system in eight states in the United States. The majority of isolates were from blood (83.8%), joints (4.1%), and bone (4.2%). Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); SCCmec typing; susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents; and PCR analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) to SEH, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Thirteen established PFGE types were recognized among these isolates, although USA100 and USA300 predominated, accounting for 53.2% and 31.4% of the isolates, respectively. As expected, isolates from hospital onset cases were predominantly USA100, whereas those from community-associated cases were predominantly USA300. USA100 isolates were diverse (Simpson's discriminatory index [DI] = 0.924); generally positive only for enterotoxin D (74.5%); and resistant to clindamycin (98.6%), erythromycin (99.0%), and levofloxacin (99.6%), in addition to beta-lactam agents. USA300 isolates were less diverse (DI = 0.566), positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (96.3%), and resistant to erythromycin (94.1%) and, less commonly, levofloxacin (54.6%), in addition to beta-lactam agents. This collection provides a reference collection of MRSA isolates associated with invasive disease, collected in 2005 and 2006 in the United States, for future comparison and ongoing studies.

  5. Virulence Factors in Staphylococci Isolated From Nasal Cavities of Footballers.

    PubMed

    Duran, Nizami; Yildirim, Yunus; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Pasa, Ozgur; Kilinc, Cetin; Yildirim, Irfan; Eryilmaz, Naciye; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the rate of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin producing Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin (mecA) and slime (icaA/icaD) genes in staphylococcal strains isolated from nasal cavities of footballers. Nasal swab samples were taken from each footballers and a healthy control group for the isolation of staphylococcal strains. The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to determine Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, mecA and icaA/icaD genes in staphylococcal isolates. Among 91 S. aureus strains, the presence of mecA gene was detected as 9.9%. This ratio was 17.9% (27 of 151) among the coagulase-negative staphylococci. A significant difference was found between coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus isolates regarding the presence of mecA gene (P < 0.001). As for the genes of the slime, icaA/icaD genes were detected in 198 of 242 (81.8%) strains. The occurrence of slime genes was 91.2% and 89.4% among the S. aureus coagulase and negative staphylococci, respectively (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of the mecA and slime genes when compared with the healthy control group and the football players (P < 0.01). Of 91 isolates, 22 were found to be methicillin resistant by the oxacillin disc diffusion method, whereas the remaining (220) were methicillin susceptible. Methicillin resistance was detected as 14.9% by the polymerase chain reaction method, whereas it was found as 9.1% by phenotypic methods. Early and accurate diagnosis of virulent staphylococcal strains is crucial because the virulent coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococcal strains in the nasal floras of footballers may be major potential sources of superficial and deep tissue infections. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of volcano profile on dilute pyroclastic density currents: Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronzo, D. M.; Valentine, G. A.; Dellino, P.; de Tullio, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    volcano, and although they accelerate as they reach the lower, steeper slopes, the acceleration is reduced because of the upstream loss of pyroclasts (lower density contrast with the atmosphere). The dynamic pressure, a measure of the damage that can be caused by PDCs, reflects these complex relations. Details are found in Valentine et al. (2011). Reference Valentine G.A., Doronzo D.M., Dellino P., de Tullio M.D. (2011), Effects of volcano profile on dilute pyroclastic density currents: Numerical simulations, Geology, 39, 947-950.

  7. Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from animals and retail meat in North Dakota, United States.

    PubMed

    Buyukcangaz, Esra; Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S; Stepan, Ryan M; Koslofsky, Ryan J; Logue, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular typing of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals and retail meat in Fargo, North Dakota. A two-step enrichment followed by culture methods were used to isolate S. aureus from 167 nasal swabs from animals, 145 samples of retail raw meat, and 46 samples of deli meat. Positive isolates were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction in order to identify the genes 16S rRNA, mecA, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used for molecular typing of S. aureus strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the broth microdilution method. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 37.2% (n=133), with 34.7% (n=58) of the animals positive for the organism, and the highest prevalence observed in pigs (50.0%) and sheep (40.6%) (p<0.05); 47.6% (n=69) of raw meat samples were positive, with the highest prevalence in chicken (67.6%) and pork (49.3%) (p<0.05); and 13.0% (n=6) of deli meat was positive. Five pork samples (7.0%) were positive for MRSA, of which three were ST398 and two were ST5. All exhibited penicillin resistance and four were multidrug resistant (MDR). The Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene was not detected in any sample by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The most common clones in sheep were ST398 and ST133, in pigs and pork both ST398 and ST9, and in chicken ST5. Most susceptible S. aureus strains were ST5 isolated from chicken. The MDR isolates were found in pigs, pork, and sheep. The presence of MRSA, MDR, and the subtype ST398 in the meat production chain and the genetic similarity between strains of porcine origin (meat and animals) suggest the possible contamination of meat during slaughtering and its potential transmission to humans.

  8. Evolved massive stars in W33 and in GMC 23.3-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Najarro, Francisco; Rich, Michael; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, Rosie; Davies, Ben; MacKenty, John W.

    2015-08-01

    We have conducted an infrared spectroscopic survey for massive evolved stars and/or clusters in the Galactic giant molecular clouds G23.3-0.3 and W33. A large number of extraordinary sub-clumps/clusters of massive stars were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of these massive stars yields information on the star formation history of the clouds.In G23.3-0.3, we discovered a dozen massive O-type stars, one candidate luminous blue variable, and several red supergiants. The O-type stars have masses from 25 to 50 Msun and ages of 5-8 Myr, while the RSGs belong to a burst that occurred 20-30 Myr ago. Therefore, GMC G23.3-0.3 has had one of the longest known histories of star formation (20-30 Myr). GMC G23.3-0.3 is rich in HII regions and supernova remnants; we detected massive stars in the cores of SNR W41 and of SNR G22.7-0.2.In W33, we detected a few evolved O-type stars and one Wolf-Rayet star, but none of the late-type objects has the luminosity of a red supergiant. W33 is characterized by discrete sources and has had at least 3-5 Myr of star formation history, which is now propagating from west to east. While our detections of massive evolved stars in W33 are made on the west side of the cloud, several dense molecular cores that may harbor proto clusters have recently been detected on the east side of the cloud by Immer et al. (2014).Messineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Ivanov, Valentin D.Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John W.; Trombley, Christine 2014A&A...569A..20MMessineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Francisco, Najarro; Rich, R. Michael; Menten, Karl M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, C.H. Rosie; Davies, Ben; submitted to ApJ.

  9. Paper birch decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, microclimate, and birch stand conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980’s. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  10. Paper Birch Decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, Microclimate, and Birch Stand Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980's. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  11. Sulfur dioxide inhibition of translocation in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Teh, K.H.; Swanson, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of the source leaf of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine) for 2 hours to 2.9 microliters per liter SO/sub 2/ inhibited the net photosynthetic rate an average of 75% and, simultaneously, the translocation rate an average of 45%. Calculations indicated that the experimentally determined translocation rates from SO/sub 2/-stressed leaves were lower than were the rates expected on the basis of the observed reductions in photosynthesis. It is inferred that, under SO/sub 2/ stress, the phloem-loading system becomes a major limiting step in controlling the translocation rate. Following removal of SO/sub 2/, photosynthesis recovered quite rapidly (to about 60% of its preexposure rate within 2 hours), but the translocation rate failed to increase during this time interval. This delayed response of translocation to removal of SO/sub 2/ does not appear to be due to an injury effect of SO/sub 2/ inasmuch as a similar effect was obtained by exposing the source leaf to a short (2-hour) interval of dark.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  13. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Drougka, E.; Foka, A.; Posantzis, D.; Giormezis, N.; Anastassiou, E.D.; Petinaki, E.; Spiliopoulou, I.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred. PMID:26623381

  14. Foucault on methadone: beyond biopower.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2009-09-01

    This essay reviews four texts which critically analyse methadone maintenance therapy using Foucault as a key theoretical framework: [Friedman, J., & Alicea, M. (2001). Surviving heroin: Interviews with women in methadone clinics. Florida: University Press of Florida], [Bourgois, P. (2000). Disciplining addictions: The bio-politics of methadone and heroin in the United States. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry, 24, 165-195], [Bull, M. (2008). Governing the heroin trade: From treaties to treatment. Ashgate: Aldershot], and [Fraser, S., & valentine, k. (2008). Substance & substitution: Methadone subjects in liberal societies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan]. Taken together these works demonstrate one trajectory in the development of critical drug studies over the past decade. While all four view MMT as a regulatory technology which aims to create productive and obedient subjects, their understandings of the power relations of the clinic are quite distinct. The first two texts emphasise the social control of drug users, the third, issues of governmentality and liberal political practice, while the fourth engages with ontological questions about substances themselves. Thus while Foucauldian analysis has become familiar in social studies of drugs and alcohol, new uses for its conceptual tools continue to emerge.

  15. A Big Year for Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; Erickson, K.

    2013-10-01

    2013 is a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system’s unsung heroes, small bodies. The Cosmic Valentine of Asteroid 2012 DA14 which passed within ~ 3.5 Earth radii of the Earth's surface (February 15, 2013), Comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS and the Thanksgiving 2013 pass of Comet ISON, which will pass less than 0.012 AU (1.8 million km) from the solar surface and could be visible during the day. All this in addition to Comet Lemmon and a host of meteor showers makes 2013 a landmark year to deliver the excitement of planetary science to the audiences worldwide. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system’s small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA’s JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like “Eyes on the Solar System” and more culminating in the Thanksgiving Day Comet ISON perihelion passage. This talk will highlight NASA’s focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  16. Immunotherapeutic strategies to combat staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Ohlsen, Knut; Lorenz, Udo

    2010-08-01

    Antibiotic-resistant staphylococci are the leading cause of nosocomial infections in many hospitals around the world. Meanwhile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spread also in the community where highly virulent strains infect healthy adults that have no predisposing risk factors. Although a few novel antibiotics have been recently introduced into clinical practice, the search for alternative strategies to efficiently combat staphylococcal infections is urgently demanded to decrease the enormous burden caused by pathogenic staphylococci. In particular, immunological strategies based on vaccine development or therapeutic antibodies may significantly enhance the efficiency of anti-staphylococcal therapy. Most approaches are directed against surface components of staphylococci such as cell wall-linked adhesins, teichoic acids, capsule, the biofilm component PIA/PNAG, or soluble virulence determinants such as alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, or superantigenic enterotoxins. Although 2 recent clinical trials have failed, several novel promising vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are currently in preclinical and clinical development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of invasive infections in Central Africa: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huson, M A M; Kalkman, R; Remppis, J; Beyeme, J O; Kraef, C; Schaumburg, F; Alabi, A S; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) colonization and infection are increasingly being reported worldwide and are associated with severe illness. The vast majority of MRSA infections are skin and soft tissue infections, while invasive disease remains rare. In Western countries, the epidemiology of MRSA is well documented, but from Central Africa, reports on MRSA are very limited. Case presentation and review of the literature. The clinical features, epidemiology, and characteristics of MRSA in Central Africa, as well as the treatment options, are discussed. We present a case of severe invasive CA-MRSA infection with pneumonia, pericarditis, and bacteremia in a previously healthy young woman in Gabon. Several virulence factors, like Panton-Valentine leukocidin and type I arginine catabolic mobile element, may play a role in the ability of CA-MRSA to cause severe invasive infections. Based on studies from Gabon and Cameroon (no reports were available from other countries), we find that the prevalence of MRSA is relatively low in this region. Treatment depends primarily on local prevalence and resistance profile of MRSA combined with clinical characteristics. Severe invasive infection with CA-MRSA is a rare disease presentation in Central Africa, where this pathogen is still relatively uncommon. However, cases of MRSA may be complicated by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis epidemics, and also the limited availability of effective antibiotics.

  18. Human Monocyte-Derived Osteoclasts Are Targeted by Staphylococcal Pore-Forming Toxins and Superantigens

    PubMed Central

    Flammier, Sacha; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Badiou, Cédric; Henry, Thomas; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frédéric; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bone and joint infections (BJIs). Staphylococcal pathogenesis involves numerous virulence factors including secreted toxins such as pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and superantigens. The role of these toxins on BJI outcome is largely unknown. In particular, few studies have examined how osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, respond to exposure to staphylococcal PFTs and superantigens. We investigated the direct impact of recombinant staphylococcal toxins on human primary mature monocyte-derived osteoclasts, in terms of cytotoxicity and cell activation with cell death and bone resorption assays, using macrophages of the corresponding donors as a reference. Monocyte-derived osteoclasts displayed similar toxin susceptibility profiles compared to macrophages. Specifically, we demonstrated that the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, known as one of the most powerful PFT which lyses myeloid cells after binding to the C5a receptor, was able to induce the death of osteoclasts. The archetypal superantigen TSST-1 was not cytotoxic but enhanced the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which superantigen-producing S. aureus can accelerate the destruction of bone tissue during BJI. Altogether, our data indicate that the diverse clinical presentations of BJIs could be related, at least partly, to the toxin profiles of S. aureus isolates involved in these severe infections. PMID:26934588

  19. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from residents and the environment in a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Ludden, C; Brennan, G; Morris, D; Austin, B; O'Connell, B; Cormican, M

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major public health concern associated with residence in a long-term care facility (LTCF). The aim of this prospective study was to characterize MRSA isolated from residents over a 1-year period and their physical environment over a 2-year period. MRSA was recovered from 17/64 residents (R) of a LTCF and from 42 environmental (E) sites. All isolates carried the mecA gene and lacked the mecC and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Thirteen spa types were identified with t032 being the most frequent (41% of total; n = 8R, 16E), followed by t727 (22% of total; n = 13E), and t8783 (10% of total; n = 6E). Five spa types were each represented by single isolates. Thirty-nine isolates were of spa types associated with the multilocus sequence type ST22 (t032, 41%; spa-CC22, 68%) and reflect the predominance of ST22 in Irish hospitals. The uncommon spa types t727, t8783, t1372, t3130, t10038 were present in the environment but not detected in residents and are infrequently observed in Ireland.

  20. [Emergence of a single clone of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Madrid children].

    PubMed

    Broseta, Amparo; Chaves, Fernando; Rojo, Pablo; Otero, Joaquín R

    2006-01-01

    The observation of an increasing number of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from children prompted us to study the microbiological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these isolates. The possibility of some of them being community-acquired focused particularly our attention. A retrospective analysis of all children with MRSA isolated at the Doce de Octubre hospital between January 2002 and June 2005 was conducted. Infections were classified as community-acquired, hospital-acquired, or health-care associated. Isolates of MRSA were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and SSCmec typing. The presence of the gene encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin was also detected by PCR. MRSA were isolated from 17 patients. Seven isolates (42.2%) were community-acquired, corresponding to four cases of skin or soft-tissue infections, two otitis cases and one bacteremic pyomyositis. Six of seven community-acquired isolates had the same ECP pattern (genotype D), presented a type IV SSCmec, and were LPV toxin-producing and methicillin-resistant with no other associated resistances. To our knowledge, this study shows the presence of these community-acquired MRSA strains for the first time in Spain. The evidence of an apparently clonal spreading of community-acquired MRSA infections in children has important implications for public health and treatment strategies.

  1. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  2. Infective skin conditions in an adult sea-going population.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, J; Macdonald, A; Schofield, S

    2014-01-01

    Infective skin conditions represent a significant element of the caseload for sea-going and shore-side clinicians. They are common within the wider military setting due to the frequent requirement to live in close proximity to others in conditions which favour the spread of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Within the UK civilian population, 24% of individuals see their family doctor for skin conditions each year, accounting for 13 million primary care consultations annually. Of these, almost 900,000 were referred to dermatologists in England in 2009-2010 and resulted in 2.74 million secondary care consultations. Several recent articles have highlighted the problem of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) infection and carriage in sailors on submarines, and soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. However, the majority of published articles relate to land-based military personnel. This article aims to provide an overview of the most common infective skin conditions presenting among Naval personnel (based on the authors' experience), illustrated by several case studies, together with an approach to their diagnosis and management.

  3. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Goose Feces from State Parks in Northeast Ohio.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Dalman, Mark; Kadariya, Jhalka; Little, Katie; Mansell, Victoria; Taha, Mohammed Y; Grenier, Dylan; Smith, Tara C

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can colonize a range of species. Although numerous studies have isolated pathogenic bacteria from wild birds, very little is known regarding S. aureus and their potential to spread methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in geese fecal samples collected from ten state parks across Northeast Ohio (NEO). A total of 182 fecal samples from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were collected in April 2015. Isolates were characterized using multi-locus sequence (MLST) and spa typing, as well as PCR to detect the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mecA, and scn genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done via Vitek-2 system. The overall contamination by S. aureus in fecal samples was 7.1% (13/182); 7/182 (3.8%) were MRSA and 6/182 (3.3%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). One isolate was positive for PVL. A total of eight different spa types were observed. MLST included ST5, ST8, ST291, ST298, and ST2111. One (7.7%) MSSA isolate was multi-drug resistant. The S. aureus contamination in NEO state parks ranged from 0% (park 1, 4, 8, 9) to 35% (7/20) (park 5). Parks 2, 3, 6, and 7 had 5% (1/20) positive. The results of this study indicate that the feces of geese collected at various state parks in NEO may harbor S. aureus.

  4. International report Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Valentin Shashin, the world's first dynamically positioned ice-class drillship for Arctic conditions, has been completed by Rauma-Repola Oy's Mantyluoto Works in Pori, Finland and delivered to V/O Sudoimport, the Soviet Union. This drillship is the first of three such vessels ordered by the Soviet Union in 1979 for oil exploration in Russia's Arctic waters. All three drillships will be capable of operating in water depths to 300 m and of drilling to 20,000 ft in winds of 23 m/sec, in significant wave heights to 4.7 m and currents to 1 m/sec. Since the vessels are to be used in hostile Arctic conditions, the design incorporates a great deal of sophisticated equipment for operating in heavy seas and avoiding hazards, such as icebergs, that may exist in the drilling area. Included is a quick disconnect system that will allow the ship to detach from the drilling mode in approximately three minutes.

  5. [Antibiotics resistance of meticilline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: detection of the first glycopeptides low sensibility strains in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Mastouri, M; Nour, M; Ben Nejma, M; Bouallegue, O; Hammami, M; Khedher, M

    2006-02-01

    The adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to the hospital environment led to the acquisition of resistance to all antibiotics available in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated in the F. Bourguiba hospital of Monastir (Tunisia). We determined the antibiotype of all Staphylococcus aureus strains identified. Susceptibility rates to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin were 7%, 3%, 2% and 0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA was 15.5% (96 strains); their susceptible to gentamicin progressively increased. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of oxacillin, vancomycin and teicoplanin were evaluated for the 96 MRSA strains. We identified two MRSA strains (M4 and M41) showing reduced glycopeptides susceptibility. Further analysis revealed that M4 and M41 harbor the gene encoding the class S and class F proteins specific for the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). The mecA gene was detected only in strain M41 which harbors the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome (SCCmec) type III. This is the first reported MRSA showing reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides in Tunisia. Regulatory surveillance of susceptibility to antibiotics is needed to reduce the morbidity and the mortality rates as well as societal costs of S. aureus infections.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Hemolysins, bi-component Leukocidins, and Cytolytic Peptides: A Redundant Arsenal of Membrane-Damaging Virulence Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Vandenesch, François; Lina, G.; Henry, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One key aspect of the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus lies in its ability to target the host cell membrane with a large number of membrane-damaging toxins and peptides. In this review, we describe the hemolysins, the bi-component leukocidins (which include the Panton Valentine leukocidin, LukAB/GH, and LukED), and the cytolytic peptides (phenol soluble modulins). While at first glance, all of these factors might appear redundant, it is now clear that some of these factors play specific roles in certain S. aureus life stages and diseases or target specific cell types or species. In this review, we present an update of the literature on toxin receptors and their cell type and species specificities. Furthermore, we review epidemiological studies and animal models illustrating the role of these membrane-damaging factors in various diseases. Finally, we emphasize the interplay of these factors with the host immune system and highlight all their non-lytic functions. PMID:22919604

  7. The Physics of Cardiac Fibrillation: Strings that kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2009-03-01

    Fibrillation is a state of spatio-temporal chaos in a 3d-biological excitable medium, namely the heart muscle. The building blocks are wave-emitting three-dimensional topological singularities in the electric excitation field of the tissue. These string like singularities send out a rotating wave fields with very fast frequencies (up to 10 times normal heart rate) and thus dominate over the pacemaker. The incoherent electrical excitation of the spatio-temporal chaotic dynamics leads to an unsynchronized contraction of the cardiac muscle and to the loss of the pumping action, and if untreated to death. Due to the topological nature of the spatio-temporal chaotic state it is very difficult to control. Current defibrillation technologies use strong electric field pulses (1 kV, 30 A, 12 ms) to reset the whole muscle. Here we report that natural muscle heterogeneities act as wave emitting sites when a weak electric field pulse is applied across the tissue. We report theoretical predictions on the physics and support the findings by results from experiment. This work was conducted in collaboration with Stefan Luther (MPIDS), Falvio Fenton ( Cornell), Amgad Squires (Cornell), Robert Gilmour (Cornell), Valentin Krinsky (MPIDS), Alain Pumir (NIce).

  8. High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the Largest Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Irene; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; van Balen, Joany C; Rojas, Norman; Muñoz-Vargas, Lohendy; Hoet, Armando E

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen associated with severe infections in companion animals present in the community, and it is diagnosed in animals admitted to veterinary hospitals. However, reports that describe the circulation of MRSA in animal populations and veterinary settings in Latin America are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the environment of the largest veterinary teaching hospital in Costa Rica. Preselected contact surfaces were sampled twice within a 6-week period. Antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, Panton-Valentine leukocidin screening, USA type, and clonality were assessed in all recovered isolates. Overall, MRSA was isolated from 26.5% (27/102) of the surfaces sampled, with doors, desks, and examination tables most frequently contaminated. Molecular analysis demonstrated a variety of surfaces from different sections of the hospital contaminated by three highly related clones/pulsotypes. All, but one of the isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant SCCmec type IV-USA700, a strain sporadically described in other countries and often classified as community acquired. The detection and frequency of this unique strain in this veterinary setting suggest Costa Rica has a distinctive MRSA ecology when compared with other countries/regions. The high level of environmental contamination highlights the necessity to establish and enforce standard cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize further spread of this pathogen and reduce the risk of nosocomial and/or occupational transmission of MRSA.

  9. Mass Spectrometry and Multiplex Antigen Assays to Assess Microbial Quality and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Clinical and Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Attien, Paul; Sina, Haziz; Moussaoui, Wardi; Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Dadié, Thomas; Keller, Daniel; Riegel, Philippe; Edoh, Vincent; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Djè, Marcellin; Prévost, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the microbial quality of meat products and on some clinical samples in Abidjan focused on Staphylococcus genus and the toxin production profile of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated. Bacteria were collected from 240 samples of three meat products sold in Abidjan and 180 samples issued from clinical infections. The strains were identified by both microbiological and MALDI-TOF-MS methods. The susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The production of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, LukE/D, and epidermolysins was screened using radial gel immunodiffusion. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1 was screened by a Bio-Plex Assay. We observed that 96/240 of meat samples and 32/180 of clinical samples were contaminated by Staphylococcus. Eleven species were isolated from meats and 4 from clinical samples. Forty-two S. aureus strains were isolated from ours samples. Variability of resistance was observed for most of the tested antibiotics but none of the strains displays a resistance to imipenem and quinolones. We observed that 89% of clinical S. aureus were resistant to methicillin against 58% for those issued from meat products. All S. aureus isolates issued from meat products produce epidermolysins whereas none of the clinical strains produced these toxins. The enterotoxins were variably produced by both clinical and meat product samples. PMID:24987686

  10. Molecular Characterization of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin and Pus Samples of Outpatients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Okamura, Sakiko; Miura, Yuri; Koyama, Shinobu; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now endemic in the United States. In Japan, CA-MRSA infections and CA-MRSA surveillance have been scarcely reported. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of CA-MRSA in Japan. We collected MRSA strains isolated from outpatients with skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) at 107 medical facilities from 24 prefectures in 2010 and 2012. Among 10,385 clinical samples from SSTI patients, 3,581 S. aureus isolates (35%) were obtained and 673 of the S. aureus strains (19%) were identified as MRSA. Among 625 MRSA strains tested in this study, 266 strains (43%) and 114 strains (18%) were classified as SCCmec types IV and V, respectively. Detection of virulence genes was as follows: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (57 strains, 9%), exfoliative toxin (ET) gene (179 strains, 29%), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene (195 strains, 31%), or none. PVL-positive strains were classified into eight sequence types (STs) (i.e., ST1, ST5, ST8, ST22, ST30, ST452, ST59, and ST154) and six clonal complexes (i.e., CC1, CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30, and CC59). Only 10 PVL-positive strains (2%) were pulsed-field type USA300 clone. There were a wide variety of CA-MRSA clones in Japan, which were different from the situation in the United States.

  11. Interactions of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Polymicrobial Wound Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Gil, Joel; Patel, Shailee B.; Chen, Juan; Valdes, Jose; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Lisa R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Davis, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathology resulting from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial wound infections is of great importance due to their ubiquitous nature, increasing prevalence, growing resistance to antimicrobial agents, and ability to delay healing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 is the leading cause of community-associated bacterial infections resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We utilized a well-established porcine partial thickness wound healing model to study the synergistic effects of USA300 and P. aeruginosa on wound healing. Wound re-epithelialization was significantly delayed by mixed-species biofilms through suppression of keratinocyte growth factor 1. Pseudomonas showed an inhibitory effect on USA300 growth in vitro while both species co-existed in cutaneous wounds in vivo. Polymicrobial wound infection in the presence of P. aeruginosa resulted in induced expression of USA300 virulence factors Panton-Valentine leukocidin and α-hemolysin. These results provide evidence for the interaction of bacterial species within mixed-species biofilms in vivo and for the first time, the contribution of virulence factors to the severity of polymicrobial wound infections. PMID:23451098

  12. Keratinocytes produce IL-6 in response to desmoglein 1 cleavage by Staphylococcus aureus exfoliative toxin A.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Cleo E; Chen, Juan; Pastar, Irena; Cardenas, Tatiana C P; Perez, Roberto; Hower, Suzanne; Ferracci, Franco; Snyder, Richard; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Plano, Lisa R W

    2013-12-01

    Many skin infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial pathogen that produces virulence factors associated with these conditions such as exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA, ETB) and the leukotoxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Herein, we examine the potential of skin-infecting S. aureus to produce virulence factors and their impact on the local immune response. Toxin gene profiles were generated from 188 S. aureus isolated as single infecting organisms from skin lesions and demonstrated a higher potential to express ETA, ETB, and PVL than community isolates (p < 0.001). Within the study isolate group, the prevalence of genes encoding PVL was higher among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; n = 49), while genes encoding ETs were more prevalent in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; n = 139). When lesion-associated white blood cell (WBC) counts were dichotomized into high- or low-WBC-count-associated bacteria, the gene for ETA was found to be associated with a low WBC count among MSSA (p = 0.001). The ETA-induced mouse model of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was used to investigate the link between ETA and cytokine production. Elevated IL-6 levels in the serum and increased expression of IL-6 mRNA in the skin were detected in response to ETA exposure. These findings were recapitulated in vitro using primary human keratinocytes. Thus, S. aureus may influence the local immune response via ETA cleavage of desmoglein 1 and the induction of cutaneous IL-6 expression.

  13. Metro system in Guangzhou as a hazardous reservoir of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci: findings from a point-prevalence molecular epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yang; Ou, Qianting; Lin, Dongxin; Xu, Ping; Li, Ying; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Junli; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococci are common causes of healthcare-associated and community-associated infections. However, limited data are available on the prevalence, phenotypes and molecular characteristics of Staphylococci in metro system around the world. 320 surface samples were collected from the Guangzhou metro system to isolate and characterize Staphylococci strains. Of the samples, 75.6% (242/320) were contaminated with Staphylococci. The Staphylococci isolates, especially the methicillin resistant isolates, were resistance to most of the antibiotics, with 79.8% (193/242) classified as multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. 8 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carried a range of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types [I (1), II (3), III (2) and NT (2)]. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were classified into several ST types and showed possible cross transmissions of strains from various sources. All MRSA strains were positive for the qac gene, and only one methicillin-susceptible Staphylococci aureus (MSSA) strain was positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study demonstrated that environmental surfaces in the Guangzhou metro system may be a hazardous reservoir for transmission of Staphylococci to passengers. The resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants observed among isolates was also noteworthy. PMID:26513750

  14. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    PubMed

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sastalla, Inka; Williams, Kelli W.; Anderson, Erik D.; Myles, Ian A.; Reckhow, Jensen D.; Espinoza-Moraga, Marlene; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Datta, Sandip K.

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci. However, these alterations have not been characterized at the species- and strain-level. Since S. aureus infections are influenced by strain-specific expression of virulence factors, information on colonizing strain characteristics may provide insights into host-pathogen interactions and help guide management strategies for treatment and prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the immunodeficiency of AD-HIES selects for unique strains of colonizing S. aureus. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), protein A (spa) typing, and PCR-based detection of toxin genes, we performed a detailed analysis of the S. aureus isolates (n = 13) found on the skin of twenty-one patients with AD-HIES. We found a low diversity of sequence types, and an abundance of strains that expressed methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal enterotoxins K and Q (SEK, SEQ). Our results indicate that patients with AD-HIES may often carry antibiotic-resistant strains that harbor key virulence factors. PMID:28587312

  16. [DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rabenkogo, A; Vigue, M G; Jeziorski, E

    2015-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (drug reaction eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a rare and serious drug toxidermia with potentially multiple organ dysfunctions. This report relates the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented a right cervical and mediastinal adenopathy with a mediastinal lump, fever, and deterioration of the general condition. The hospital assessment concluded in an abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus secreting a Panton-Valentine toxin with nonsevere pleuritis and pericarditis. The outcome was favorable with antibiotic treatment consisting of amoxicillin-acid clavulanic, amikacin, and clindamycin followed by oxacillin, rifampicin, and colchicine. On the 25th day of treatment, she presented recurrence of fever with a generalized rash, moderate hepatic cytolysis, hypereosinophilia, with the presence of activated lymphocytes that were further suggestive of visceral DRESS syndrome. A skin biopsy was performed that confirmed the diagnosis. The outcome was favorable after stopping all ongoing treatments even though none of the administered treatments were classically responsible for the syndrome. Symptomatic treatments (antihistaminic and topical steroids) were also administered. Patch tests, performed secondarily, were positive to penicillins; amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or oxacillin were then suspected of being responsible for the DRESS syndrome. Potentially serious, the DRESS syndrome should be considered together with atoxic epidermal necrolysis or Stevens-Johnson syndromes in the case of any rash appearing after drug administration, especially in the presence of face and eyelid edema. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. PVL-positive MRSA in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Metz-Gercek, S; Mittermayer, H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present, for the first time, an overview of the existing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in Austria and to compare the situation with that found in other countries. Between 2001 and 2006 we analysed 1150 MRSA isolates - from infections as well as from colonisation - for the presence of PVL genes. The most common multilocus sequence types of the 94 PVL-positive MRSA strains were ST8, ST152, ST30, ST80, and ST5; the ST22, and ST777 sequences were also detected. During 2005 and 2006, 3.7-7.7% of the isolates were PVL-positive. The age distribution of the patients revealed that nosocomial MRSA mainly occurs in elderly people, whereas PVL-positive MRSA mainly appears in younger people. We observed a relatively high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. Several MRSA clones containing the PVL genes are spreading throughout Austria, including two strains not yet widespread in Western Europe.

  18. MRSA in Austria--an overview.

    PubMed

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Sagel, U; Witte, W; Mittermayer, H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of predominant and sporadic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in large regions of Austria, and to compare the results with those from other European countries. In total, 1439 MRSA isolates, collected routinely between January 1996 and June 2006 from five Austrian federal provinces, were investigated. The isolates were confirmed as MRSA using mecA/femA multiplex PCR assays. Genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which are characteristic of community-acquired MRSA, were also detected by PCR. Subtyping was performed using SmaI macrorestriction digestion of genomic DNA, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and cluster analysis. Isolates that could not be assigned to clusters were further analysed by spa typing and/or multilocus sequence typing. The predominant clones detected in Austria were ST228 (southern German epidemic clone), ST5 (Rhine-Hessen MRSA), the ST8 Austrian clone and CC8/ST8. Whereas the frequencies of lineages corresponding to ST247, ST45 and ST22 remained comparably low, an increase in the frequency of lineages corresponding to ST5 and to ST228 was recorded. Overall, 20 different MRSA types and 321 subtypes were recognised according to PFGE analysis. The prevalence of different strains varied considerably in the different Austrian regions. When compared to other European countries, the situation in Austria was most similar to that found in Germany.

  19. Different types of cell death induced by enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Huang, Wei-Ching; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Hong, Ming-Yuan

    2010-08-01

    The infection of bacterial organisms generally causes cell death to facilitate microbial invasion and immune escape, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In addition to the intercellular infectious processes, pathogen-produced/secreted enterotoxins (mostly exotoxins) are the major weapons that kill host cells and cause diseases by inducing different types of cell death, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. Blocking these enterotoxins with synthetic drugs and vaccines is important for treating patients with infectious diseases. Studies of enterotoxin-induced apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms have helped us to create efficient strategies to use against these well-characterized cytopathic toxins. In this article, we review the induction of the different types of cell death from various bacterial enterotoxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli, Shiga toxins, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, heat-labile enterotoxins, and the cholera toxin, Vibrio cholerae. In addition, necrosis caused by pore-forming toxins, apoptotic signaling through cross-talk pathways involving mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and lysosomal injury is discussed.

  20. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G.; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H.; Coller, Barry S.; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most—46 of the 63–wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL+) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26063853

  1. Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany: A Cross-Sectional Geographic Correlation Study.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Ulla; Alabi, Abraham; Kazimoto, Theckla; Vubil, Delfino C; Akulenko, Ruslan; Abdulla, Salim; Alonso, Pedro; Bischoff, Markus; Germann, Anja; Grobusch, Martin P; Helms, Volkhard; Hoffmann, Jonas; Kern, Winfried V; Kremsner, Peter G; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Schubert, Sabine; Strauß, Lena; Tanner, Marcel; Briesen, Hagen von; Wende, Laura; Müller, Lutz von; Herrmann, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Clonal clusters and gene repertoires of Staphylococcus aureus are essential to understand disease and are well characterized in industrialized countries but poorly analysed in developing regions. The objective of this study was to compare the molecular-epidemiologic profiles of S. aureus isolates from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany. S. aureus isolates from 600 staphylococcal carriers and 600 patients with community-associated staphylococcal disease were characterized by DNA hybridization, clonal complex (CC) attribution, and principal component (PCA)-based gene repertoire analysis. 73% of all CCs identified representing 77% of the isolates contained in these CCs were predominant in either African or German region. Significant differences between African versus German isolates were found for alleles encoding the accessory gene regulator type, enterotoxins, the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, immune evasion gene cluster, and adhesins. PCA in conjunction with silhouette analysis distinguished nine separable PCA clusters, with five clusters primarily comprising of African and two clusters of German isolates. Significant differences between S. aureus lineages in Africa and Germany may be a clue to explain the apparent difference in disease between tropical/(so-called) developing and temperate/industrialized regions. In low-resource countries further clinical-epidemiologic research is warranted not only for neglected tropical diseases but also for major bacterial infections.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Haack, Sheridan K; Johnson, Heather E; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA+femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci 'excellent' recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  3. Variability of antibiotic susceptibility and toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic commensal bacterium that mostly colonizes the skin and soft tissues. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. Here, we characterize a group of genes responsible for toxin production and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections. Results A total of 136 S. aureus strains were collected from five different types of infection: furuncles, pyomyositis, abscesses, Buruli ulcers, and osteomyelitis, from hospital admissions and out-patients in Benin. All strains were resistant to benzyl penicillin, while 25% were resistant to methicillin, and all showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was the most commonly produced virulence factor (70%), followed by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (44%). Exfoliative toxin B was produced by 1.3% of the strains, and was only found in isolates from Buruli ulcers. The tsst-1, sec, and seh genes were rarely detected (≤1%). Conclusions This study provides new insight into the prevalence of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in S. aureus strains responsible for skin, soft tissue, and bone infections. Our results showed that PVL was strongly associated with pyomyositis and osteomyelitis, and that there is a high prevalence of PVL-MRSA skin infections in Benin. PMID:23924370

  4. Size-to-charge dispersion of collision-induced dissociation product ions for enhancement of structural information and product ion identification.

    PubMed

    Zinnel, Nathanael F; Russell, David H

    2014-05-20

    Ion mobility is used to disperse product ions formed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) on the basis of charge state and size-to-charge ratio. We previously described an approach for combining CID with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) for dispersing fragment ions along charge state specific trend lines (Zinnel, N. F.; Pai, P. J.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 3390; Sowell, R. A.; Koeniger, S. L.; Valentine, S. J.; Moon, M. H.; Clemmer, D. E. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 15, 1341; McLean, J. A.; Ruotolo, B. T.; Gillig, K. J.; Russell, D. H. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2005, 240, 301), and this approach was used to assign metal ion binding sites for human metallothionein protein MT-2a (Chen, S. H.; Russell, W. K.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 3229). Here, we use this approach to distinguish b-type N-terminal fragment ions from both internal fragment ions and y-type C-terminal fragment ions. We also show that in some cases specific secondary structural elements, viz., extended coils or helices, can be obtained for the y-type fragment ions series. The advantage of this approach is that product ion identity can be correlated to gas-phase ion structure, which provides rapid identification of the onset and termination of extended coil structure in peptides.

  5. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ouchenane, Z; Smati, F; Rolain, J-M; Raoult, D

    2011-12-01

    The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus has changed radically since 1999, in particular, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), originally restricted to hospital, has emerged as a significant pathogen in the community, and true community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections have been reported in patients with no clear risk factors. CA-MRSA strains frequently produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The objectives of this study were: (i) to monitor the prevalence of PVL and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) isolates MRSA; (ii) to identify the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) types of MRSA isolates. Sixty-four isolates, collected between 2005 and 2007 in Didouche Mourad hospital of Algeria. The isolates were identified by conventional methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was performed using the disk diffusion method and automat Vitek2. The presence of gene mecA, the genes encoding SCCmec type, PVL and TSST-1 toxins were investigated by real-time PCR. All strains were gene mecA positives, 32 (50%) harboured SCCmec IV type, 28 (43.75%) harboured SCCmec V type. 19 (29.68%) have been identified positive for the leukocidin toxin (PVL), they harboured SCCmec type IV. The virulence factor TSST-1 was not present among these isolates. These results show a high prevalence of PVL-positive H-MRSA in our wards. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Fatal S. aureus hemorrhagic pneumonia: genetic analysis of a unique clinical isolate producing both PVL and TSST-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Stevens, Dennis L; Hamilton, Stephanie M; Parimon, Tanyalak; Ma, Yongsheng; Kearns, Angela M; Ellis, Richard W; Bryant, Amy E

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, an unusual strain of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA68111), producing both Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), was isolated from a fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. Because PVL/TSST-1 co-production in S. aureus is rare, we characterized the molecular organization of these toxin genes in strain 68111. MSSA68111 carries the PVL genes within a novel temperate prophage we call ФPVLv68111 that is most similar, though not identical, to phage ФPVL--a phage type that is relatively rare worldwide. The TSST-1 gene (tst) in MSSA68111 is carried on a unique staphylococcal pathogenicity island (SaPI) we call SaPI68111. Features of SaPI68111 suggest it likely arose through multiple major recombination events with other known SaPIs. Both ФPVLv68111 and SaPI68111 are fully mobilizable and therefore transmissible to other strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that hypervirulent S. aureus have the potential to emerge worldwide.

  7. Reminders Through Association.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Milkman, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine's Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Population Structure of Staphylococcus aureus from Trinidad & Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Monecke, Stefan; Stieber, Bettina; Roberts, Rashida; Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that high rates of methicillin- and mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exist in the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago, as well as a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive S. aureus. Beyond these studies, limited typing data have been published. In order to obtain insight into the population structure not only of MRSA but also of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 294 clinical isolates collected in 2012/2013 were typed by microarray hybridisation. A total of 15.31% of the tested isolates were MRSA and 50.00% were PVL-positive. The most common MSSA strains were PVL-positive CC8-MSSA (20.41% of all isolates tested), PVL-positive CC152-MSSA (9.52%) and PVL-positive CC30-MSSA (8.84%) while the most common MRSA were ST239-MRSA-III&SCCmer (9.18%) and ST8-MRSA-IV, “USA300” (5.78%). 2.38% of characterised isolates belonged to distinct strains likely to be related to “Staphylococcus argenteus” lineages. The population structure of S. aureus isolates suggests an importation of strains from Africa, endemicity of PVL-positive MSSA (mainly CC8) and of ST239-MRSA-III, and a recent emergence of the PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV strain “USA300”. PMID:24586536

  9. Characterization of human antibody-reactive epitopes encoded by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18.

    PubMed Central

    Jenison, S A; Yu, X P; Valentine, J M; Galloway, D A

    1991-01-01

    We have previously reported that the most common human serum immunoglobulin G antibody reactivities to human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 (HPV16 and HPV18)-encoded proteins are directed against the minor capsid proteins (HPV16 L2 and HPV18 L2) and to the E7 protein of HPV16 (S. A. Jenison, X.-P. Yu, J. M. Valentine, L. A. Koutsky, A. E. Christiansen, A. M. Beckmann, and D. A. Galloway, J. Infect. Dis. 162:60-69, 1990). In this study, the antibody-reactive segments of the HPV16 E7, HPV16 L2, and HPV18 L2 polypeptides were mapped by using nested sets of deleted recombinant proteins. A single major immunoreactive region was identified in the HPV16 E7 polypeptide between amino acids (aa) 21 and 34 (DLYCYE-QLNDSSEE). In contrast, three distinct immunoreactive regions of the HPV16 L2 polypeptide were present in the segment between aa149 and aa204, and three distinct immunoreactive regions of the HPV18 L2 polypeptide were present in the segment between aa110 and aa211. With the exception of one serum sample, serum immunoglobulin G antibodies which reacted with HPV16 L2 polypeptides or with HPV18 L2 polypeptides were not cross-reactive. Images PMID:1704924

  10. Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Skin and Soft Tissue Infections, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tinelli, Marco; Monaco, Monica; Vimercati, Maurizio; Ceraminiello, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    During February 2004–September 2006, familial clusters and sporadic cases of Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections were observed in a suburban area near Milan in northern Italy. Molecular typing of the isolates showed an epidemic methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, spa type 005 and sequence type 22 that harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. The first case-patients were neonates or mothers who had recently delivered in the local hospital. Examination of the medical records showed a cluster of postpartum mastitis and neonatal skin infections antedating the emergence of infections in the community. Nasal swabs of neonates, mothers, and hospital staff were positive for the epidemic MSSA. Hospital circulation of the strain was interrupted by implementation of infection control measures, although infections continued to occur in the community. The PVL-positive MSSA strain resembles typical community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus in its ability to cause prolonged community and hospital outbreaks of skin infections. PMID:19193269

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in humans in contact with farm animals, in livestock, and in food of animal origin, Switzerland, 2009.

    PubMed

    Huber, H; Koller, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

    2010-04-22

    A total of 2,662 samples, collected from March to September 2009 in Switzerland, were tested for the presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The collection comprised nasal swabs from 148 pig farmers, 133 veterinarians, 179 slaughterhouse employees, 800 pigs, 300 calves, 400 cattle, 100 pooled neck skin swabs from chicken carcasses, and 460 food samples of animal origin. Moreover, 142 S. aureus strains, isolated from bovine mastitis milk, were included in the study. Twenty samples (< 1%; four veterinarians, 10 pigs, three calves, one young bull, and two mastitis milk samples) tested positive for MRSA. Genotyping of the MRSA strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing, spa- and SCCmec-typing, and revealed ST398 (n=18), ST8 (n=1), ST 1 (n=1), spa types t011 (n=7), t034 (n=11), t064 (n=1), t127 (n=1), and SCCmec types IV (n=4) and V (n=16). The 20 MRSA strains were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme EagI. Supplementary PCR reactions were performed to investigate the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin and staphylococcal enterotoxins A to D.

  12. A Study of Sympathetic Flaring Using a Full-Sun Event Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.; Schrijver, C. J.; Title, A. M.; Bloomfield, D.; Gallagher, P.

    2013-12-01

    There has been a trove of papers published on the statistics of flare occurrence. These studies are trying to answer the question of whether or not subsequent solar flares are related. The majority of these works have not included both flare location information and the physical properties of the regions responsible for the eruptions, and none have taken advantage of full-Sun event coverage. Now that SDO/AIA is available and the STEREO spacecraft have progressed past 90 degrees from Earth's heliographic longitude, this new information is available to us. This work aims to quantify how common sympathetic events are, and how important they are in the forecasting of solar flares. A 3D plot of detected and clustered flare events for a full solar rotation, including the Valentine's Day Event of 2011. A full-Sun image in the EUV (304A) including both STEREO view points and AIA. The GOES X-ray light curves during the February period of 2011 are shown in the bottom panel. Detected flare events are indicated by the green dashed lines and the time stamp of this image is denoted by the red line.

  13. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among imprisoned males from Brazil without exposure to healthcare: risk factors and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies report high prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among imprisoned populations. However, there are no data on that prevalence in Brazilian correctional institutions. Findings We tested 302 male prisoners for nasopharyngeal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus from February 2009 through April 2010. The overall isolation rate of S. aureus was 16.5% (50/302). Men who had sex with men, users of inhalatory drugs and those with previous lung or skin diseases were more likely to be colonized with S. aureus. MRSA was isolated from 0.7% of subjects (2/302). The two Community-associated (CA)-MRSA belonged to ST5 but were unrelated based on the PFGE results. Both harbored SCCmec IV, and did not possess the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene. Conclusion We found low prevalence of S. aureus and CA-MRSA among prisoners. MRSA isolates ST5 from two subjects harboured SCCmec IV and presented different PFGE patterns. PMID:24990470

  14. Typing of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Using DNA Fingerprints by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Rebic, Velma; Budimir, Ana; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Vranic, Sabina Mahmutovic; Rebic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a wide spectrum of nosocomial and community associated infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze MRSA strains from the general population in Canton Sarajevo, B&H. Methods: Our investigation including either phenotypic and genotypic markers such as antimicrobial resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCC typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection. Results: Antimicrobial susceptibility: all MRSA isolates were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics tested, and all isolates were susceptible trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole, rifampicin, fusidic acid, linezolid and vancomycin. Sixty-eight per cent of the MRSA isolates were resistant to erythromycin, 5% to clindamycin, 5% to gentamicin and 4% to ciprofloxacin. After the PFGE analysis, the isolates were grouped into five similarity groups: A-E. The largest number of isolates belonged to one of two groups: C: 60 (60%) and D: 27 (27%). In both groups C and D, SCCmec type IV was predominant (60% and 88, 8%, respectively). A total of 24% of the isolates had positive expression of PVL genes, while 76% showed a statistically significantly greater negative expression of PVL genes. Conclusion: SCCmec type IV, together with the susceptibility profile and PFGE grouping, is considered to be typical of CA-MRSA PMID:27708486

  15. Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W; Chapman, Benjamin P; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has examined individual differences in affective forecasting; however, we are aware of no published study to date linking psychopathology symptoms to affective forecasting problems. Pitting cognitive theory against depressive realism theory, we examined whether dysphoria was associated with negatively biased affective forecasts or greater accuracy. Participants (n=325) supplied predicted and actual emotional reactions for three days surrounding an emotionally evocative relational event, Valentine's Day. Predictions were made a month prior to the holiday. Consistent with cognitive theory, we found evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias-the tendency of individuals in dysphoric states to overpredict negative emotional reactions to future events. The dysphoric forecasting bias was robust across ratings of positive and negative affect, forecasts for pleasant and unpleasant scenarios, continuous and categorical operationalisations of dysphoria, and three time points of observation. Similar biases were not observed in analyses examining the independent effects of anxiety and hypomania. Findings provide empirical evidence for the long-assumed influence of depressive symptoms on future expectations. The present investigation has implications for affective forecasting studies examining information-processing constructs, decision making, and broader domains of psychopathology.

  16. Fatal S. aureus Hemorrhagic Pneumonia: Genetic Analysis of a Unique Clinical Isolate Producing both PVL and TSST-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Stevens, Dennis L.; Hamilton, Stephanie M.; Parimon, Tanyalak; Ma, Yongsheng; Kearns, Angela M.; Ellis, Richard W.; Bryant, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, an unusual strain of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA68111), producing both Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), was isolated from a fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. Because PVL/TSST-1 co-production in S. aureus is rare, we characterized the molecular organization of these toxin genes in strain 68111. MSSA68111 carries the PVL genes within a novel temperate prophage we call ФPVLv68111 that is most similar, though not identical, to phage ФPVL – a phage type that is relatively rare worldwide. The TSST-1 gene (tst) in MSSA68111 is carried on a unique staphylococcal pathogenicity island (SaPI) we call SaPI68111. Features of SaPI68111 suggest it likely arose through multiple major recombination events with other known SaPIs. Both ФPVLv68111 and SaPI68111 are fully mobilizable and therefore transmissible to other strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that hypervirulent S. aureus have the potential to emerge worldwide. PMID:22110621

  17. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA.

  18. Discovering the structure of nerve tissue: Part 3: From Jan Evangelista Purkyně to Ludwig Mauthner.

    PubMed

    Chvátal, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    The previous works of Purkyně, Valentin, and Remak showed that the central and peripheral nervous systems contained not only nerve fibers but also cellular elements. The use of microscopes and new fixation techniques enabled them to accurately obtain data on the structure of nerve tissue and consequently in many European universities microscopes started to become widely used in histological and morphological studies. The present review summarizes important discoveries concerning the structure of neural tissue, mostly from vertebrates, during the period from 1838 to 1865. This review describes the discoveries of famous as well as less well-known scholars of the time, who contributed significantly to current understandings about the structure of neural tissue. The period is characterized by the first descriptions of different types of nerve cells and the first attempts of a cytoarchitectonic description of the spinal cord and brain. During the same time, the concept of a neuroglial tissue was introduced, first as a tissue for "gluing" nerve fibers, cells, and blood capillaries into one unit, but later some glial cells were described for the first time. Questions arose as to whether or not cells in ganglia and the central nervous system had the same morphological and functional properties, and whether nerve fibers and cell bodies were interconnected. Microscopic techniques started to be used for the examination of physiological as well as pathological nerve tissues. The overall state of knowledge was just a step away from the emergence of the concept of neurons and glial cells.

  19. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H; Coller, Barry S; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most-46 of the 63-wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing.

  20. [Staphylococcus aureus broncho-pulmonary infections].

    PubMed

    Valour, F; Chebib, N; Gillet, Y; Reix, P; Laurent, F; Chidiac, C; Ferry, T

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus accounts for 2-5% of the etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia. These infections occur mainly in elderly patients with comorbidity, after a respiratory viral infection. S. aureus could also be responsible for necrotizing pneumonia, which occurs in young subjects, also after flu. Necrotizing pneumonia are associated with the production of a particular staphylococcal toxin called Panton-Valentine leukocidin, responsible for pulmonary focal necrosis, occurrence haemoptysis, leucopenia, and death. In Europe, these strains are still predominantly sensitive to anti-staphylococcal penicillin, which must be used at high dosage intravenously in combination with an antibiotic that reduces toxin production such as clindamycin, and intravenous immunoglobulin in severe cases. The mortality rate is estimated at 50%. In addition, S. aureus is one of the pathogens involved in early respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients, in whom methicillin resistance plays an important prognostic role. However, the involvement of S. aureus in COPD exacerbations is rare. Finally, S. aureus represents 20 to 30% of cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. In these cases, methicillin-resistance is common and requires the use of glycopeptides or linezolid. The place of new anti-staphylococcal antibiotics such as new generation cephalosporins or tigecyclin remains to be defined.

  1. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections samples and healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region.

    PubMed

    Svent-Kucina, Natasa; Pirs, Mateja; Kofol, Romina; Blagus, Rok; Smrke, Dragica Maja; Bilban, Marjan; Seme, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important human pathogens. It is associated with different infections and is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of our study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with SSTIs with isolates obtained from healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity by clonal complex (CC)/sequence type, spa type, and by toxin gene profiling. In total, 274 S. aureus isolates were collected prospectively by culturing wound samples from 461 SSTI patients and nasal samples from 451 healthy carriers. We have demonstrated high heterogeneity in terms of CCs and spa type in both groups of isolates. The main clone among SSTI strains was Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) positive CC121, whereas the main clone among carrier strains was CC45 carrying a large range of toxin genes. The main spa type in both groups was t091. Pvl was more frequently present in SSTI strains (31.2% SSTI vs 3.6% carrier strains) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C was more frequently present in carrier strains (1.6% SSTI vs 17.0% carrier strains). We have also demonstrated that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was a rare cause (2.8%) of SSTIs in our region.

  2. An outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China)

    PubMed Central

    Kwok-ming, Poon; Yuen-kong, Wan; Shuk-kwan, Chuang; Lai-key, Kwok; Sik-on, Pak

    2014-01-01

    Background In November 2012, an outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections affecting students at a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China) was detected. Methods A case was defined as any student or staff notified with MRSA infection from 25 October 2012 to 5 July 2013 with the clinical isolate being of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV or V and positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. We conducted field investigations, advised on control measures and enhanced surveillance for skin and soft tissue infections at the school. Decolonization therapies were offered to all cases and contacts, and carrier screening was conducted. Results There were five cases; two (40%) were hospitalized and three (60%) required surgical treatments. Initial screening comprised 240 students and 81 staff members. Overall, four cases (80%) plus eight other students (3.3%) were carriers, with eight of 12 (66.7%) from the same dormitory. All staff members screened negative. After intensified control measures, the number of students screened positive for CA-MRSA decreased from nine to one with no more cases identified in the school. Conclusion Identification of carriers, decolonization therapy, monitoring of cases and contacts and strengthening of environmental and personal hygiene were control measures that helped contain this CA-MRSA outbreak in a boarding school in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China). PMID:24734211

  3. Waves and Patterns in Chemical and Biological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinney, Harry L.; Krinsky, Valentin I.

    1991-12-01

    These 28 contributions by leading researchers - from such diverse disciplines as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, and physiology - describe recent experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical analyses of the formation of spatial patterns in chemical and biological systems. Chemical patterns have been systematically studied since the field was established by Alan Turing's landmark 1952 paper, "The chemical basis for morphogenesis," yet only recently have new experimental techniques and numerical analyses of reaction-diffusion equations opened the way to understanding stationary and traveling wave patterns. This collection summarizes the exciting developments in this rapidly growing field. It shows that some biological patterns have been found to be strikingly similar to patterns found in simple, well-controlled laboratory chemical systems, that new chemical reactor designs make it possible to sustain chemical patterns and to study transitions between different kinds of patterns, and that nearly 40 years after Turing's paper, the patterns predicted by Turing have finally been observed in laboratory experiments. Harry L. Swinney is Sid Richardson Foundation Regents Chair, Department of Physics, and Director of the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin. Valentin I. Krinsky is Head of the Autowave Laboratory, Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, USSR. Chapters cover: Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Experiments. Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Theory and Simulations. Fronts and Turing Patterns. Waves and Patterns in Biological Systems.

  4. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Kim, Hyun-Soo; McGrath, Patrick B

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.'s and Peters et al.'s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.'s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.'s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed.

  5. Where the oil from surface and subsurface plumes deposited during/after Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill released an estimated 4.9 million barrels (about 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010. Though Valentine et al. has linked the elevated oil components in some sediments with the subsurface plume, the sites with fallout from the ocean surface plume has not been identified. This piece of information is critical not only for a comprehensive scientific understanding of the ecosystem response and fate of spill-related pollutants, but also for litigation purposes and future spill response and restoration planning. In this study we focus on testing the hypothesis that marine snow from the surface plume were deposited on the sea floor over a broad area. To do so, we use publicly available data generated as part of the ongoing Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process to assess the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and deep-ocean sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitive hydrocarbon markers are used to differentiate hydrocarbons from surface plume, deep subsurface plume, and in-situ burning. Preliminary results suggest the overlapping but different falling sites of these plumes and the sedimentation process was controlled by various biological, chemical, and physical factors.

  6. Molecular typing of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, S M; Emele, F E; Nwaokorie, F O; Idika, N; Umeizudike, A K; Emeka-Nwabunnia, I; Hanson, B M; Nair, R; Wardyn, S E; Smith, T C

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) are a major concern in densely populated urban areas. Initial studies of S. aureus in Nigeria indicated existence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains in clinical and community settings. 73 biological samples (40 throat, 23 nasal, 10 wound) were collected from patients and healthcare workers in three populations in Nigeria: Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, and Owerri General Hospital. S. aureus was isolated from 38 of 73 samples (52%). Of the 38 S. aureus samples, 9 (24%) carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (PVL) while 16 (42%) possessed methicillin resistance genes (mecA). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles indicated resistance to several broad-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant S. aureus isolates were recovered from clinical and community settings in Nigeria. Insight about S. aureus in Nigeria may be used to improve antibiotic prescription methods and minimize the spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms in highly populated urban communities similar to Lagos, Nigeria. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. East and West African milk products are reservoirs for human and livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Merz, Axel; Johler, Sophia; Younan, Mario; Tanner, Sabine A; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Wangoh, John; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Meile, Leo; Tasara, Taurai

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus frequently isolated from milk products in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a major pathogen responsible for food intoxication, human and animal diseases. SSA hospital-derived strains are well studied but data on the population structure of foodborne S. aureus required to identify possible staphylococcal food poisoning sources is lacking. Therefore, the aim was to assess the population genetic structure, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes associated with milk-derived S. aureus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya and Somalia through spa-typing, MLST, and DNA microarray analysis. Seventy milk S. aureus isolates from the three countries were assigned to 27 spa (7 new) and 23 (12 new) MLST sequence types. Milk-associated S. aureus of the three countries is genetically diverse comprising human and livestock-associated clonal complexes (CCs) predominated by the CC5 (n = 10) and CC30 (n = 9) isolates. Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin and enterotoxin encoding genes were predominantly observed among human-associated CCs. Penicillin, fosfomycin and tetracycline, but not methicillin resistance genes were frequently detected. Our findings indicate that milk-associated S. aureus in SSA originates from human and animal sources alike highlighting the need for an overarching One Health approach to reduce S. aureus disease burdens through improving production processes, animal care and hygienic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Hamed, Maha I.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin’s ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  9. Targeting Multidrug-resistant Staphylococci with an anti-rpoA Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugated to the HIV-1 TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Abushahba, Mostafa FN; Mohammad, Haroon; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK) in order to target the RNA polymerase α subunit gene (rpoA) required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations) in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin). This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27434684

  10. Fatal endocarditis with methicilin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus and major complications: rhabdomyolysis, pericarditis, and intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Anca Meda; Azamfirei, Leonard; Szalman, Krisztina; Szekely, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type. Case: We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review. The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome. The strains recovered from sequential blood culture sets and pericardial fluid were MSSA negative for genes encoding for staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1 and Panton–Valentine leukocidin. C, G, and I enterotoxin genes were detected. Conclusions: This case with unusually severe evolution underlines the limited ability of vancomycin to control some MSSA infections, possibly due to potential involvement of SA virulence factors, hence the importance of clinical vigilance for community SAB cases. PMID:27741135

  11. Tlazolteotl, the Aztec goddess of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy has afflicted humanity during most of the extent of documented history. The Aztecs believed that illnesses were punishments that were sent from a furious goddess. In particular, epilepsy was considered in Aztec culture as a "sacred disease", and convulsions were traditionally associated with a deified woman who had died at childbirth. As the goddess Shiva and Apasmâra in ancient India and Saint Valentine in Germany, Tlazolteotl was considered able to bring about and send away epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive review to identify Tlazolteotl depictions and its historical context related with epilepsy. Tlazolteotl is one of the most endearing and complex goddesses of the Mesoamericans. She was the deity of the black fertile and fecund earth that gains its energy from death and in turn feeds life. Associated with purification, expiation, and regeneration, she embodied fertility and turned all garbage, physical and metaphysical, into rich life. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with Tlazolteotl. We also present a modern depiction of the Aztec goddess of epilepsy from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino, displaying the supernatural view of epilepsy in America.

  12. A molecular epidemiological study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations in Guangzhou of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, J L; Peng, Y; Ou, Q T; Lin, D X; Li, Y; Ye, X H; Zhou, J L; Yao, Z J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused a series of public health problems since it was first found in 1961. However, there are few research studies on the MRSA environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine MRSA environmental contamination in public transport stations. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 380 surface samples from three railway stations (180) and four coach stations (200) in Guangzhou were collected to isolate and determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococci strains. 39·21% of all samples were Staphylococci isolates, 1·58% of Staphylococci isolates were MRSA isolates, and 6·05% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The proportion of multidrug resistant among 149 Staphylococci isolates was 75·84%. None of MRSA isolates was identified with the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes, and one of them was identified with the qac gene. Four MRSA isolates were Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec IVa, and the other two were nontypeable. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were classified into several sequence types (STs), and STs showed possible cross-transmissions of isolates from various sources. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci contamination prevalence was high, and the environment of stations may be the vectors transmitting the Staphylococci to passengers.

  13. Microbial Oxidation of Natural Gas in a Plume Emanating from the Coal Oil Point Seep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, S. D.; Valentine, D. L.; Perez, C.; Scarlett, R.

    2012-12-01

    The hydrocarbon seep field at Coal Oil Point, off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, releases > 1010 g of thermogenic natural gas each year. Gases emitted from Coal Oil Point include methane, ethane, propane, and butane, which are atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Even though the seeps are at water depths of only 5-80 m, much of the gas dissolves and contributes to a plume that is transported by ocean currents. While hydrocarbons can support bacterial respiration, resulting in the removal of hydrocarbon gas from the plume, the time-scale for the bacterial respiratory response is unconstrained. To track hydrocarbon respiration 3H-ethane, propane, and butane were synthesized using Grignard reagents and tritiated water with yields of >70% and applied as tracers to samples up- and down-current from the seeps at Coal Oil Point. Validation experiments conducted in September 2011 aboard the R/V Atlantis show that 3H-labeled tracers are an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods using stable carbon isotopes (Valentine et. al 2010), making this technique preferable in natural systems. Application of the tracers concurrent with plume tracking in July-August 2012 show ethane, propane, and butane consumption are readily inducible on a timescale of days.

  14. The Covariance and Biocovariance of the Stochartic Neutron Field

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The use of stochastic neutron field theory (neutron noise) for the measurement of reactor physics parameters goes back to the early work of Serber, Feynmann, and Orndoff. Since then, a large variety of methods and applications has been developed. In the majority of these methods, some form of modified one-point reactor kinetics was used for the interpretation of the measurements. In fact, the high level of sophistication of the instrumentation used was not matched by the theory. In 1965, Bell developed a general theory of the stochastic neutron field, and in 1987, Munoz-Cobo et al enlarged this treatment to include the effect of the detectors in the neutron field. In both instances, the complexity of the theoretical results were beyond the computing capabilities then available thus, the mismatch between experimental and theoretical methods remained in existence because the powerful Monte-Carlo methods then at work, were only applicable to static neutron fields. This problem was eliminated by the development of a time-dependent Monte-Carlo code specially written by T. E. Valentine for the analysis of stochastic measurements that gave them relevance to the results of the general theory. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the derivation of observables of the stochastic neutron filed from its general treatment.

  15. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic discrimination of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hamid, Marwa I; Bendary, M M

    2015-09-26

    The present study was designed to elucidate the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of S. aureus isolates in Egypt. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of 133 identified S. aureus isolates revealed that over 70% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Fifty MDR isolates were characterized using antibiotyping and different molecular typing methods. Amplification of mecA gene confirmed 30 strains as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 20 as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Generally, 22 MRSA (73.33%) and ten MSSA (50%) harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene with no statistically significant difference (p=0.093). Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing revealed that 48% of the typeable MRSA isolates possessed SCCmec type IV. SCCmec and antimicrobial susceptibility typing signified the presence of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA in Egypt. Surprisingly, all isolates of SCCmec types I, II and III and 50% of both MRSA isolates of SCCmec types IV and V possessed pvl gene. It was clear that staphylococcal protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) typing discriminated the isolates into eight different groups, whilst polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of coagulase gene yielded ten distinct RFLP banding patterns. This study presented the first baseline information on the characterization of MRSA and MSSA in Egypt.

  16. Molecular typing of MRSA and of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iaşi, Romania.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Vremeră, Teodora; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV ("USA300") and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings.

  17. Purification of Staphylococcal β-Hemolysin and Its Action on Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Chesbro, William R.; Heydrick, Fred P.; Martineau, Roland; Perkins, Gail N.

    1965-01-01

    Chesbro, William R. (University of New Hampshire, Durham), Fred P. Heydrick, Roland Martineau, and Gail N. Perkins. Purification of staphylococcal β-hemolysin and its action on staphylococcal and streptococcal cell walls. J. Bacteriol. 89:378–389. 1965.—After growth of bovine-derived strains of Staphylococcus aureus in a completely dialyzable medium, the β-hemolysin in the culture supernatant fluids was purified by gradient-elution chromatography on cellulose phosphate. The purified hemolysin contained two components, demonstrable by immunodiffusion or electrophoresis, but was free from α-hemolysin, coagulase, Δ-hemolysin, enterotoxins A and B, glucuronidase, hyaluronidase, lipase, muramidase, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phosphatase, and protease. The hemolysin was heat-labile and sulfhydryl-dependent, and the preparation was leukocidal for guinea pig macrophages. When rabbit red blood cell (RBC) stroma and staphylococcal or enterococcal cell walls were treated with the purified hemolysin, it liberated mucopolysaccharides from the rabbit RBC stroma, polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides (or mucopeptides) from the staphyloccoal cell walls, and rhamnose, glucose, an unidentified monosaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine, and at least two polysaccharides from the enterococcal cell walls. The hemolytic and cell-wall degradative activities had similar thermal inactivation kinetics, pH optima, sedimentation coefficients, and chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities; both required Mg and were inhibited by thiol-inactivating agents. Consequently, it seems likely that both activities are expressions of the same enzyme. PMID:14255704

  18. Cross-border comparison of the admission prevalence and clonal structure of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Köck, R; Brakensiek, L; Mellmann, A; Kipp, F; Henderikx, M; Harmsen, D; Daniels-Haardt, I; von Eiff, C; Becker, K; Hendrix, M G R; Friedrich, A W

    2009-04-01

    Since patient exchange between hospitals sharing a common catchment area might favour regional spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the reliable detection of patients colonised at admission is crucial. Thus, hospitals in the Dutch-German border area EUREGIO MRSA-net aim at synchronising their local MRSA standards in order to prevent unidentified inter-hospital as well as cross-border spread. This assumes enhanced knowledge of MRSA prevalence and risk factors associated with MRSA carriage at admission. We conducted nasal MRSA screening of all inpatients admitted to 39 German hospitals (in the period 1 November to 30 November 2006) and to one Dutch hospital (in the period 1 July to 30 September 2007) in the EUREGIO MRSA-net. A total of 390 MRSA cases were detected among 25,540 patients screened. The admission prevalence was 1.6 MRSA/100 patients (6.5% of all S. aureus) in the German and 0.5 MRSA/100 patients (1.4% of all S. aureus) in the Dutch part of the border region. Overall, the predominating S. aureus protein A gene (spa) sequence types were t003, t032 and t011. One isolate (t044) carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) encoding genes. Altogether, 79% and 67% of all MRSA patients in the German and Dutch regions respectively, were identifiable by the classical nosocomial risk factors assessed. In patients lacking all risk factors assessed, spa types t011 and t034 were predominant (P<0.001).

  19. A Field Guide to Pandemic, Epidemic and Sporadic Clones of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Monecke, Stefan; Coombs, Geoffrey; Shore, Anna C.; Coleman, David C.; Akpaka, Patrick; Borg, Michael; Chow, Henry; Ip, Margaret; Jatzwauk, Lutz; Jonas, Daniel; Kadlec, Kristina; Kearns, Angela; Laurent, Frederic; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearson, Julie; Ruppelt, Antje; Schwarz, Stefan; Scicluna, Elizabeth; Slickers, Peter; Tan, Hui-Leen; Weber, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a truly global challenge. In addition to the long-known healthcare-associated clones, novel strains have also emerged outside of the hospital settings, in the community as well as in livestock. The emergence and spread of virulent clones expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an additional cause for concern. In order to provide an overview of pandemic, epidemic and sporadic strains, more than 3,000 clinical and veterinary isolates of MRSA mainly from Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Australia, Trinidad & Tobago as well as some reference strains from the United States have been genotyped by DNA microarray analysis. This technique allowed the assignment of the MRSA isolates to 34 distinct lineages which can be clearly defined based on non-mobile genes. The results were in accordance with data from multilocus sequence typing. More than 100 different strains were distinguished based on affiliation to these lineages, SCCmec type and the presence or absence of PVL. These strains are described here mainly with regard to clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance- and virulence-associated markers, but also in relation to epidemiology and geographic distribution. The findings of the study show a high level of biodiversity among MRSA, especially among strains harbouring SCCmec IV and V elements. The data also indicate a high rate of genetic recombination in MRSA involving SCC elements, bacteriophages or other mobile genetic elements and large-scale chromosomal replacements. PMID:21494333

  20. Staphylococcus Aureus Carriage in French Athletes at Risk of CA-MRSA Infection: a Prospective, Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Couvé-Deacon, E; Postil, D; Barraud, O; Duchiron, C; Chainier, D; Labrunie, A; Pestourie, N; Preux, P M; François, B; Ploy, M C

    2017-08-16

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a leading cause of infectious diseases in sports teams. In recent decades, community-associated SA (CA-SA) strains have emerged worldwide and have been responsible for outbreaks in sports teams. There are very few data on the prevalence of these strains in France, and none on the carriage among athletes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the SA carriage proportion among athletes practicing sports at risk for CA-SA infection in a French county, and determined the methicillin-resistant and/or CA-SA proportion. We also analyzed SA carriage according to risks factors and studied the SA clonality in a sample of our population. We included 300 athletes; SA carriage proportion was 61% (n = 183) and one was MRSA carrier (0.33%). The MRSA strain belonged to the clonal complex ST5. None of the strain produced Panton Valentine Leucocidin, and we did not find clonal distribution within the teams. Interestingly, we found a high throat-only carriage (n = 57), 31.1% of the SA carriers. We found a high SA carriage with a local epidemiology quite different than that reported in a similar population in the USA. Further studies on SA carriage should include throat sampling. The approved protocol was registered on ClinicalTrial.gov , NCT01148485.

  1. The Impact of the Staphylococcus aureus Virulome on Infection in a Developing Country: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lebughe, Marthe; Phaku, Patrick; Niemann, Silke; Mumba, Dieudonné; Peters, Georg; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Mellmann, Alexander; Strauß, Lena; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2017-01-01

    We performed a cohort study to analyze the virulome of Staphylococcus aureus from the Democratic Republic of the Congo using whole genome sequencing and to assess its impact on the course of S. aureus infections. Community-associated S. aureus from nasal colonization (n = 100) and infection (n = 86) were prospectively collected. Phenotypic susceptibility testing and WGS was done for each isolate. WGS data were used to screen for 79 different virulence factors and for genotyping purposes (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing). The majority of the 79 virulence factors were equally distributed among isolates from colonization and infection. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and the non-truncated hemolysin β were associated with skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and recurrence of disease but did not influence the course of infection (i.e., mortality, surgical intervention). For the first time, we show that not only PVL but also hemolysin β could contribute to the development of SSTI in PVL-endemic areas such as Africa.

  2. The Impact of the Staphylococcus aureus Virulome on Infection in a Developing Country: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebughe, Marthe; Phaku, Patrick; Niemann, Silke; Mumba, Dieudonné; Peters, Georg; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Mellmann, Alexander; Strauß, Lena; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2017-01-01

    We performed a cohort study to analyze the virulome of Staphylococcus aureus from the Democratic Republic of the Congo using whole genome sequencing and to assess its impact on the course of S. aureus infections. Community-associated S. aureus from nasal colonization (n = 100) and infection (n = 86) were prospectively collected. Phenotypic susceptibility testing and WGS was done for each isolate. WGS data were used to screen for 79 different virulence factors and for genotyping purposes (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing). The majority of the 79 virulence factors were equally distributed among isolates from colonization and infection. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and the non-truncated hemolysin β were associated with skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and recurrence of disease but did not influence the course of infection (i.e., mortality, surgical intervention). For the first time, we show that not only PVL but also hemolysin β could contribute to the development of SSTI in PVL-endemic areas such as Africa. PMID:28900424

  3. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus from nares and hands on health care professionals in a Portuguese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Komora, N; Ferreira, V; Lira, A; Mota, M; Silva, J; Teixeira, P

    2016-09-01

    The main goal was to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on hands and in nose of health care professionals. Detection of Staph. aureus on hands or in the nose of 169 individuals was performed. Nasal and hand carriage was found in 39·6 and in 8·9% respectively. About 17·2% of the individuals were carriers of methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) in the nose and 4·7% on hands. The majority of nasal MRSA were resistant to β-lactams, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. All nasal MRSA were SCCmec type IV and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative. One MRSA isolated from hand was SCCmec type V. About 75·6% of MRSA isolates presented the same or closely related restriction patterns. Sixty per cent of Staph. aureus from hands and from noses from the same individual were the same strain. MRSA nasal carriage was high considering healthy health care professionals but in accordance with high level of MRSA infection in Portugal. Isolates recovered in this study seemed to be different from major clones previously isolated in other Portuguese hospitals. These findings may have implications on the knowledge of healthy health care workers as vehicles of MRSA infections among the community. Presence of several virulence factors may contribute to increased pathogenesis in case of infection. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. European National Society Cardiovascular Journals: Background, rationale and mission statement of the 'Editors' Club' (Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology).

    PubMed

    Alfonso, F; Ambrosio, G; Pinto, F J; van der Wall, E E

    2008-06-01

    Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane k MD, Jørgen Videbaek MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (European National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations).

  5. Characteristics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Strains Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Lorena; Machado, Virginia; Mollerach, Marta; Mota, María Inés; Tuchscherr, Lorena P. N.; Gadea, Pilar; Gardella, Noella; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Vola, Magdalena; Schelotto, Felipe; Varela, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed 90 nonduplicates community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections. All strains were mecA positive. Twenty-four of the 90 strains showed inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. All strains produced α-toxin; 96% and 100% of them displayed positive results for lukS-F and cna genes, respectively. Eigthy-five strains expressed capsular polysaccharide serotype 8. Six different pulsotypes were discriminated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three predominant groups of CA-MRSA strains (1, 2, and 4) were identified, in agreement with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strains of group 1 (pulsotype A, CP8+, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+) were the most frequently recovered and exhibited a PFGE band pattern identical to other CA-MRSA strains previously isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Three years after the first local CA-MRSA report, these strains are still producing skin and soft-tissue infections demonstrating the stability over time of this community-associated emerging pathogen. PMID:20016669

  6. Gischig receives 2011 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Valentin Gischig has been awarded the AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Gischig's thesis is entitled “Kinematics and failure mechanisms of the Randa rock slope instability (Switzerland).” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Gischig received his M.Sc. in geophysics and glaciology at Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, in Switzerland, in 2007. In 2011 he attained a Ph.D. in engineering geology/rock mechanics/landslide analysis under the supervision of Simon Loew, Jeffrey R. Moore, Florian Amann, and Keith F. Evans at ETH Zürich. Gischig is currently conducting postdoctoral research at ETH Zürich. His research interests include landslides, induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems, and coupled processes in rock mechanics.

  7. Key genetic elements and regulation systems in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), popularly known as a type of superbug, has been a serious challenge for animal and human health. S. aureus has developed methicillin resistance mainly by expression of β-lactamase and PBP2a, which is regulated by the blaZ-blaI-blaR1 and mecA-mecI-mecRI systems. Other genetic elements, including murE and femA, also participate in expression of methicillin resistance, but the mechanism remains unclear. The evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec determines the epidemiological risk of MRSA. The plasmid-located gene cfr might contribute to multiresistance and transmission of MRSA. Some virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol-soluble modulin, arginine catabolic mobile element and other toxin elements enhance the pathogenesis and fitness of MRSA. Two-component regulation systems (agr, saeRS and vraRS) are closely associated with pathogenesis and drug resistance of MRSA. The systematic exploration of key genetic elements and regulation systems involved in multidrug resistance/pathogenesis/transmission of MRSA is conclusively integrated into this review, providing fundamental information for the development of new antimicrobial agents and the establishment of reasonable antibiotic stewardship to reduce the risk of this superbug.

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from milk of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bardiau, M; Yamazaki, K; Duprez, J-N; Taminiau, B; Mainil, J G; Ote, I

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among a (S. aureus) collection (n = 430) isolated from milk of cows suffering from mastitis in Belgium and to compare their genotypic as well as phenotypic characteristics. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based typing techniques (MLST, spa, SCCmec, and agr typing) have been applied and supplemented by capsule serotyping, biofilm production quantification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nineteen MRSA were isolated. Seven distinct ApaI PFGE patterns were observed. All isolates, except one, were identified as ST398 strains. Three spa types (t011, t567 and t108) and two SCCmec types (IV and V) were identified. All isolates belonged to agr type I and capsule type 5 and were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative. All isolates produced biofilm in TSBglc , whereas the majority did not in milk serum. Twelve resistance patterns were observed, with almost two-thirds of the isolates being resistant to at least six antibiotics, including penicillin and tetracycline. Our study confirms that the emerging ST398 LA-MRSA clone has attained Belgian cattle. With regard to genotypic and phenotypic typing, the 19 MRSA isolated in this study form a homogenous group and do not differ much from one another, neither from what has been previously described.

  9. Changes in enzymatic activities in etiolated bean seedling leaves after a brief illumination.

    PubMed

    Filner, B; Klein, A O

    1968-10-01

    The phytochrome controlled increase in total protein in the primary leaf pair of etiolated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. Black Valentine) seedlings, which occurs during growth in the dark subsequent to a brief illumination, was investigated. Enzymes from the chloroplasts, the mitochondria, and the soluble cytoplasm all increase in total activity after the illumination.The total protein and the ribulose carboxylase increases are not inhibited by FUdR, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, applied at a time when the ribulose carboxylase activity increase has already commenced, blocks further increase. It was concluded that the total protein and the enzyme increases in the leaf are the result of increases in the per cell levels.The initial brief illumination is saturating, but 40 minutes later the seedlings have acquired the ability to respond to a second brief illumination. The rate of increase in ribulose carboxylase activity in seedlings that have been illuminated twice is greater than the rate in seedlings that have been illuminated only once.Far-red light prevents further increase in enzyme activity 48 hours after the initial illumination. There is a lag period interposed between the time of illumination with far-red light and the time at which the seedlings show the greatest effect of far-red light. It was concluded that the phytochrome influence on protein synthesis is not at the terminal steps.

  10. Major West Indies MRSA clones in human beings: do they travel with their hosts?

    PubMed

    Chroboczek, Tomasz; Boisset, Sandrine; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Meugnier, Helene; Akpaka, Patrick E; Nicholson, Alison; Nicolas, Muriel; Olive, Claude; Bes, Michele; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frederic; Etienne, Jerome; Tristan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions of the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have seldom been produced in the Caribbean, which is a major tourism destination. Using DNA microarrays and spa typing, we characterized 85 MRSA isolates from human skin and soft-tissue infections from five different islands. In the French West Indies (n = 72), the most frequently isolated clones were the same clones that are specifically isolated from mainland France [Lyon (n = 35) and Geraldine (n = 11) clones], whereas the clones that were most frequently isolated from the other islands (n = 13) corresponded with clones that have a worldwide endemic spread [Vienna/Hungarian/Brazilian (n = 5), Panton Valentine leukocidin-positive USA300 (n = 4), New York/Japan (n = 2), and pediatric (n = 1) clones]. The distribution of the major MRSA clones in the French (Guadeloupe and Martinique) and non-French West Indies (Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago) is different, and the clones most closely resemble those found in the home countries of the travelers who visit the islands most frequently. The distribution might be affected by tourist migration, which is specific to each island. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  11. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal isolates from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Abdullah; Mert, Gurkan; Senses, Zeynep; Bedir, Orhan; Aydogan, Hakan; Basustaoglu, A Celal; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2008-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonize most frequently in the anterior nares of the nose and cause serious infections all over the world. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA strains in Turkish elementary school children. We also analyzed molecular characterizations of MRSA strains by using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi locus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and detection of the Panton-valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. The nasal swabs were obtained from 4,050 children during a 4 month period in Ankara. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 1 mug oxacillin and 30 mug cefoxitin was determined by a disk diffusion method. We found that the 1,001 of 4,050 (24.7%) children were colonized with S. aureus. Three S. aureus strains were resistant to oxacillin and cefoxitin. The rate of MRSA among all children was 0.07%. The MRSA strains revealed three different PFGE pattern. All MRSA isolates by harbored the SCCmec type IV element, but not the PVL gene. The two MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type (ST) 30, whereas the other one was a unique type. The results of this study demonstrated that S. aureus nasal carriage rate was consistent with previous studies. However, MRSA carriage rate was low. This study also indicated that the ST30-type IV without PVL gene MRSA clone may be expected to spread in Turkish community.

  12. Robert Bentley Todd's contribution to cell theory and the neuron doctrine.

    PubMed

    Binder, Devin K; Rajneesh, Kiran F; Lee, Darrin J; Reynolds, Edward H

    2011-04-01

    Robert Bentley Todd, who is best remembered for "Todd's paralysis," made many more important contributions to neurology and neuroscience, including the concept of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy. He was also a pioneering microscopist and we here review his neurohistological studies and his contributions to the application of Schwann's (1839) cell theory to the nervous system and the later neuron doctrine, as described in his textbook The Descriptive and Physiological Anatomy of the Brain, Spinal Cord and Ganglions (Todd, 1845), his Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology (1847) and his joint textbook with William Bowman The Physiological Anatomy and Physiology of Man (1845). Writing in the mid-1840s, Todd acknowledged that the "vesicles" he observed corresponded to the earlier descriptions of "globules" or "kugeln" by Valentin and which Schwann first interpreted as cell bodies. Todd was among the first to recognize that nerve cell bodies were in continuity with axons ("axis cylinders"), sometimes associated with "the white substance of Schwann" ("tubular" fibers), or sometimes without ("gelatinous" fibers). He also described continuous nerve cell branching processes, later called dendrites. He was the first to recognize the insulating properties of Schwann's "white substance" (myelin) to facilitate conduction. Influenced by his contemporary, Faraday, Todd was also the first to develop the functional concept of dynamic polarization ("nervous polarity") to explain nerve cell conduction.

  13. Epidemiology of necrotizing infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes at an Iowa hospital.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; O'Brien, Ashley M; Wardyn, Shylo E; Smith, Tara C

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to characterize the epidemiology of necrotizing soft tissue infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (n=14) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=14) isolates collected at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. An additional 9 S. pyogenes isolates were collected from patients being treated for mild respiratory infections and served as a comparison sample in the analysis. Patient data corresponding to the isolates (n=37) were also collected in order to identify risk factors or comorbid conditions possibly correlated with necrotizing fasciitis (NF). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus among the study isolates was 35.7% (5/14), and the prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was 57% (8/14). The S. pyogenes NF (wound) isolates (n=14) belonged to 10 different emm types, none of which appeared to be associated with more severe disease when compared to the milder infection (throat) samples (n=9). Comorbid conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly associated with NF. The results indicate that there may be a high prevalence of the PVL virulence factor in NF infections and that spa type t008 may be responsible for the increasing incidence of S. aureus NF infections in Iowa.

  14. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Hamed, Maha I; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-11-10

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin's ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections.

  15. [Community associated-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SAMR-AC): comunication of the first four pediatric cases in the Roberto del Rio Children's Hospital].

    PubMed

    Acuña, Mirta; Benadof, Dona; Jadue, Carla; Hormazábal, Juan C; Alarcón, Pedro; Contreras, Julio; Torres, Ramón; Mülchi, Cristóbal; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Araya, Pamela

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen in pediatric patients that produces skin infections, cutaneous abscess, cellulitis and osteoarticular infections. Most of these infections are produced by a meticilin susceptible strain. The community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was published for the first time in 1993, ever since then is has been recognized as a cosmopolite pathogen. The first report in Latin America was published in 2003, and in Chile in 2008 from adult patients that have reported traveling to other countries. The following series describes four pediatric cases, all school-aged children, diagnosed since 2012 with clinical followups and molecular studies. Two cases presented as osteomyelitis of the lower extremity; and one presented as arm cellulitis. These three cases had Panton Valentine leukocidine (PV-L) negative strains from the clone complex 8. The last case presented a renal abscess, the strain was PV-L positive from the clone complex 30. This case series constitutes the first pediatric case report in Chile.

  16. Design of acoustic wave biochemical sensors using micro-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Jane E.; Przybycien, Todd M.; Hauan, Steinar

    2007-03-01

    Acoustic wave biochemical sensors work by detecting the frequency shifts resulting from the binding of target molecules to a functionalized resonator. Resonator types currently in use or under development include macroscopic quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as well as a number of different integrated Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) structures. Due to an increased resonator surface area to mass ratio, we believe that membrane-based MEMS systems are particularly promising with regard to sensitivity. Prototypes have been developed [S. Hauan et al., U.S. Patent Application (filed 6 Nov. 2003)] and preliminary calculations [M. J. Bartkovsky et al., paper 385e presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003; J. E. Valentine et al., paper 197h presented at the AICHE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003] indicate significant improvements over other methods, both macroscopic and MEMS based. In this article we describe our work on a MEMS-based acoustic wave biochemical sensor using a membrane resonator. We demonstrate the effects of spatial distributions of mass on the membrane on sensitivity and show how to use this spatial sensitivity to detect multiple targets simultaneously. To do so we derive a function approximating the membrane response surface to spatial mass loadings under the applicable range of conditions. We verify the agreement using finite element methods, and present our initial sensitivity calculations demonstrating the advantages of variable mass loadings.

  17. Further insights on tomato plant: Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts in human gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, María; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, David M; Andrade, Paula B

    2017-09-09

    This study focused the toxicity against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS) and the antioxidant activity of hydromethanol (HME), acetone (AcE) and alkaloid (AE) extracts prepared from the leaves of tomato plant cultivars (Caramba, Valentine, Negro, Abuela, and Anairis). AE, HME and AcE extracts of all cultivars reduced cell viability (IC50 = 9 ± 2-55 ± 11, 103 ± 25-171 ± 29 and 291 ± 26-459 ± 14 μg mL(-1), respectively). Moreover, both HME and AcE extracts scavenged NO (IC50 = 0.87 ± 0.12-1.54 ± 0.23 and 0.90 ± 0.01-2.23 ± 0.14 mg mL(-1), respectively), but only HMEs was able to scavenge O2(-) (IC50 = 0.12 ± ≤0.01-0.43 ± 0.08 mg mL(-1)). Our results demonstrate that tomato leaves, a by-product of tomato processing industry, are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, providing beneficial properties for human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Hyphal tip extension in Aspergillus nidulans requires the manA gene, which encodes phosphomannose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Payton, M A

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus nidulans carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the manA gene produces cell walls depleted of D-mannose and forms hyphal tip balloons at the restrictive temperature (B.P. Valentine and B.W. Bainbridge, J. Gen. Microbiol. 109:155-168, 1978). We have isolated and characterized the manA gene and physically located it between 3.5 and 5.5 kb centromere distal of the riboB locus on chromosome VIII. The manA gene contains four introns and encodes a 50.6-kDa protein which has significant sequence identity to type I phosphomannose isomerase proteins from other eukaryotes. We have constructed by integrative transformation a null mutation in the manA gene which can only be maintained in a heterokaryotic strain with wild-type manA+ nuclei. Thus, a manA null mutation is lethal in A. nidulans. The phenotype of the mutation was analyzed in germinating conidia. Such conidia are able to commence germination but swell abnormally, sometimes producing a misshapen germ tube, before growth ceases. The reason for the lethality is probably the lack of synthesis of mannose-containing cell wall polymers that must be required for normal cell wall development in growing hyphae. Images PMID:8065336

  19. Sequelae of pediatric osteoarticular infection.

    PubMed

    Ilharreborde, B

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and diagnosis of osteoarticular infections (OAI) have changed considerably in recent years, partly due to the development of molecular biology. Kingella kingae is now recognized as the most frequent pathogen in children under 4 years of age, while methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has been increasingly reported. Although the clinical course of OAI is mostly benign, with shorter antibiotic regimens and simplified treatments, serious functional impairments and life-threatening complications can still occur, especially in case of delayed diagnosis or infection caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing strains of SA. Newborns and patients with sickle cell disease have greater risk of orthopaedic sequelae, which need to be detected and managed early. The main sequelae of osteomyelitis are angular limb deformity, due to partial growth arrest, and lower limb discrepancy. Therapeutic options are guided by the patient's age and predictions at maturity. The main complications of septic arthritis are joint stiffness and osteonecrosis. The procedures to consider are arthrodesis, joint reconstruction in immature children, and arthroplasty at the end of growth.

  20. Cross-modality priming for people's adjectivized names: failure to support the adjectivization hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Akira

    2005-04-01

    This experiment tested a prediction derived from Hollis and Valentine's 2001 adjectivization hypothesis, that having an adjectival form is the key factor that makes certain classes of proper names, i.e., country names, exhibit a common name-like pattern of long-term priming. The hypothesis predicted that, when adjectivized historical celebrity names, e.g., William Shakespeare/Shakespearean, were compared with nonadjectivized historical celebrity names, e.g., Emile Zola, cross-modality long-term priming in a familiarity decision task would occur only for nonadjectivized name stimuli. 32 students of literature, history, or philosophy (21 women and 11 men; age range 18-41 years, M age = 22.4 yr.) were tested. Priming was measured by latency of response. Analysis showed that the mean RT to primed items was faster than the mean RT to unprimed items when the prime task was presented in both visual and auditory modalities both for the adjectivized and nonadjectivized names. Contrary to the hypothesis, cross-modality priming was observed regardless of the adjectivization of name stimuli. The findings of the present experiment did not support the adjectivization hypothesis.

  1. Spa typing and identification of pvl genes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a Libyan hospital in Tripoli.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Baptiste, Keith E; Daw, Mohamed A; Elramalli, Asma K; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Petersen, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from clinical sources in Tripoli, Libya. A total of 95 MRSA strains collected at the Tripoli medical Centre were investigated by spa typing and identification of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) genes. A total of 26 spa types were characterized and distributed among nine clonal complexes; CC5 (n=32), CC80 (n=18), CC8 (n=17) and CC22 (n=12) were the most prevalent clonal complexes. In total, 34% of the isolates were positive for PVL. This study demonstrated the presence of CA-MRSA and pvl positive strains in hospital settings and underlines the importance of using molecular typing to investigate the epidemiology of MRSA. Preventative measures and surveillance systems are needed to control and minimize the spread of MRSA in the Libyan health care system. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness and Efficacy of spa, SCCmec, and PVL Genotyping of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as Compared to Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Vincent; Chui, Linda; Louie, Lisa; Simor, Andrew; Golding, George R.; Louie, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a valuable molecular typing assay used for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance and genotyping. However, there are several limitations associated with PFGE. In Alberta, Canada, the significant increase in the number of MRSA isolates submitted to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) for PFGE typing led to the need for an alternative genotyping method. In this study, we describe the transition from PFGE to Staphylococcus protein A (spa), Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec), and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) typing. A total of 1915 clinical MRSA isolates collected from 2005 to 2009 were used to develop and validate an algorithm for assigning PFGE epidemic types using spa, SCCmec, and PVL typing and the resulting data was used to populate a new Alberta MRSA typing database. An additional 12620 clinical MRSA isolates collected from 2010 to 2012 as part of ongoing routine molecular testing at ProvLab were characterized using the new typing algorithm and the Alberta MRSA typing database. Switching to spa, SCCmec, and PVL from PFGE typing substantially reduced hands-on and turn-around times while maintaining historical PFGE epidemic type designations. This led to an approximate $77,000 reduction in costs from 2010 to 2012. PFGE typing is still required for a small subset of MRSA isolates that have spa types that are rare, novel, or associated with more than one PFGE epidemic type. PMID:24244440

  3. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health.

  4. Molecular characterization of nasal methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from workers of an automaker company in southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Sobhanipoor, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmadrajabi, Roya; Karmostaji, Afsaneh; Saffari, Fereshteh

    2017-10-01

    Colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococccus aureus (MRSA) can occur more commonly in healthy people who live in close together or are in close physical contact with each other. Having knowledge about the molecular characteristics of these strains provides considerable discernment into the epidemiology of this important microorganism. A total of 806 nasal swabs were collected from healthy workers of an automaker company in the southeast of Iran and were analyzed to detect MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) were performed. The presence of genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) were also investigated. Carriage rate of S. aureus was 20%. Among 10 identified MRSA, no acme was found while high prevalence of pvl (60%) was of great concern. Seven different spa types including five new ones were identified. The most frequent sequence type was the novel one; ST 3373 (n = 3), followed by each of ST22, ST88, ST859 (n = 2) and ST1955 (n = 1). MRSA isolates were clustered into two main clonal complexes; CC22 (n = 6) and CC88 (n = 4). Low genetic diversity with the dominance of CC22, SCCmecIV was found. Distribution of previously found hospital-associated MRSA was demonstrated among our isolates. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Paleo- and Neoproterozoic magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of the Isla Cristalina de Rivera (Nico Pérez Terrane, Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wagner-Eimer, Martin; Wemmer, Klaus; Schulz, Bernhard; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2012-10-01

    The Isla Cristalina de Rivera crystalline complex in northeastern Uruguay underwent a multistage magmatic and metamorphic evolution. Based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon, Th-U-Pb monazite (CHIME-EPMA method) and K-Ar age data from key units several events can be recognized: (1) multistage magmatism at 2,171-2,114 Ma, recorded on zircon of the granulitic orthogneisses and their 2,093-2,077 Ma overgrowths; (2) a distinct amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~1,980 Ma, recorded by monazite; (3) greenschist facies reworking and shearing at ca. 606 Ma (monazite and K-Ar on muscovite) along the Rivera Shear Zone, and finally (4) intrusion of the post-tectonic Sobresaliente and Las Flores granites at around 585 Ma. Lithological similarities, geographic proximity and coeval magmatic and metamorphic events indicate a similar tectonometamorphic evolution for the Isla Cristalina de Rivera, the Valentines Block in Uruguay and the Santa María Chico Granulitic Complex in southern Brazil, since at least 2.1 Ga.

  6. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  7. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from pet animals and veterinary staff in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanjiang; Hao, Zhihui; Wang, Yang; Cao, Xingyuan; Logue, Catherine M; Wang, Bing; Yang, Jing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wu, Congming

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from pet animals and veterinary staff and the characteristics of these isolates. A total of 22 MRSA isolates were isolated from nasal swabs from dogs, cats and veterinary staff in six pet hospitals in six cities, and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of resistance genes, Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene lukF-lukS, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC) mec typing, spa tying, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Of 22 MRSA isolates, 21 were recovered from pet animals, and one was isolated from a member of sstaff. All 22 MRSA strains were resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, azithromycin, clindamycin and ceftriaxone, and harboured mecA, ermB and linA genes. The lukF-lukS gene was not detected in any of the MRSA isolates. Eighteen MRSA strains from Qingdao belonged to ST59-MRSA-IV-spa t437. Of four MRSA isolates from Beijing, one belonged to ST398-MRSA-V-spa t034, and three belonged to ST239-MRSA-III-spa t030 profiles. Two PFGE types (A and B) were identified. Two isolates originating from dogs and one isolate originating from a staff member in Beijing shared similar PFGE patterns. Our cumulative data suggested that cross-transmission of MRSA may have occurred between pet animals and veterinary staff.

  8. European National Society Cardiovascular Journals

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Pinto, F.J.; van der Wall, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane˘k MD, Jørgen Videbæk MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (European National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations) PMID:18665206

  9. Current concepts on the virulence mechanisms of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael Z.; Salata, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause both health care and community-associated infections. Increasing resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics has made MRSA a serious threat to public health throughout the world. The USA300 strain of MRSA has been responsible for an epidemic of community-associated infections in the US, mostly involving skin and soft tissue but also more serious invasive syndromes such as pneumonia, severe sepsis and endocarditis. MRSA strains are particularly serious and potentially lethal pathogens that possess virulence mechanisms including toxins, adhesins, enzymes and immunomodulators. One of these is Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin associated with abscess formation and severe necrotizing pneumonia. Earlier studies suggested that PVL was a major virulence factor in community-associated MRSA infections. However, some recent data have not supported this association while others have, leading to controversy. Therefore, investigators continue to search for additional mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the biological basis of MRSA virulence and explore future directions for research, including potential vaccines and antivirulence therapies under development that might allow clinicians to more successfully treat and prevent MRSA infections. PMID:22745137

  10. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in furuncles and impetigo.

    PubMed

    Durupt, F; Mayor, L; Bes, M; Reverdy, M-E; Vandenesch, F; Thomas, L; Etienne, J

    2007-12-01

    The precise role of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in common skin infections remains unclear. To seek correlations between toxin expression, S. aureus nasal carriage and clinical manifestations in patients with community-acquired furuncles and impetigo. From November 2004 to August 2005, we studied clinical data and bacteriological samples prospectively collected from 121 patients presenting with furuncles or impetigo. Sixty-four patients (31 with furuncles and 33 with impetigo) had S. aureus-positive skin culture. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were present in 13 of 31 (42%) isolates from furuncles and were associated with epidemic furunculosis. Exfoliative toxin genes were present in 10 of 10 (100%) and 12 of 21 (57%) bullous and nonbullous impetigo isolates, respectively. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was found in 58% of patients overall. It was strongly associated with chronic furunculosis but not with simple furuncles (88% vs. 29%, P < 0.007). Skin and nose isolates from a given patient always had identical characteristics. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus accounted for four of 64 (6%) positive skin cultures. PVL is not involved in all types of furuncles but is associated with epidemic furunculosis. Both bullous and nonbullous forms of impetigo are associated with exfoliative toxins. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is associated with the chronicity of furuncles.

  11. [About the origin, evolution and irradiation of Mexican cardiology].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican cardioangiology started in the nineteen century thanks to first endeavors of surgeons and physicians related to local academies and to School of Medicine, established in 1833 by Dr. Valentin Gómez Farías. Dr. Manuel Carpio, the future first head of department of physiology in this school, translated to Spanish language and published, in 1823, the article On pectoriloquo of the French physician Marat and later performed some experiments on the heart' motion. During the Secont Empire (1864-1867), the physician Samuel von Basch performed studies to define the arterial hypertension, called by him "latent atherosclerosis", i.e. the "essential hypertension". Once he had returned to his country, he invented in 1880, a sphygmomanometer of mercury column, that was the model for the instrument constructed by the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci and presented in 1896. In our time, Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares systematized a metabolic therapy called "polarizing therapy", i.e. capable of repolarizing the heart's cells partly depolarized due to hypoxia or direct aggressions. These were the first steps in Mexico on the way to a promising medicine starting and the great adventure of Mexican cardiology.

  12. Realistic affective forecasting: The role of personality.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Ben; Duberstein, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Affective forecasting often drives decision-making. Although affective forecasting research has often focused on identifying sources of error at the event level, the present investigation draws upon the "realistic paradigm" in seeking to identify factors that similarly influence predicted and actual emotions, explaining their concordance across individuals. We hypothesised that the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion would account for variation in both predicted and actual emotional reactions to a wide array of stimuli and events (football games, an election, Valentine's Day, birthdays, happy/sad film clips, and an intrusive interview). As hypothesised, individuals who were more introverted and neurotic anticipated, correctly, that they would experience relatively more unpleasant emotional reactions, and those who were more extraverted and less neurotic anticipated, correctly, that they would experience relatively more pleasant emotional reactions. Personality explained 30% of the concordance between predicted and actual emotional reactions. Findings suggest three purported personality processes implicated in affective forecasting, highlight the importance of individual-differences research in this domain, and call for more research on realistic affective forecasts.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  14. Putative link between Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage serotype and community association.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, D H; Saberesheikh, S; Kearns, A M; Saunders, N A

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from humans can be broadly separated into 3 groups: healthcare-associated (HA), community-associated (CA), and livestock-associated (LA) MRSA. Initially based on epidemiological features, division into these classes is becoming increasingly problematic. The sequencing of S. aureus genomes has highlighted variations in their accessory components, which likely account for differences in pathogenicity and epidemicity. In particular, temperate bacteriophages have been regarded as key players in bacterial pathogenesis. Bacteriophage-associated Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes (luk-PV) are regarded as epidemiological markers of the CA-MRSA due to their high prevalence in CA strains. This paper describes the development and application of a partial composite S. aureus virulence-associated gene microarray. Epidemic, pandemic, and sporadic lineages of UK HA and CA S. aureus were compared. Phage structural genes linked with CA isolates were identified and in silico analysis revealed these to be correlated with phage serogroup. CA strains predominantly carried a PVL-associated phage either of the A or Fb serogroup, whilst HA strains predominantly carried serogroup Fa or B phages. We speculate that carriage of a serogroup A/Fb PVL-associated phage rather than the luk-PV genes specifically is correlated with CA status.

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage and Risk Factors for Skin Infections, Southwestern Alaska, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A. Michal; Baggett, Henry C.; Bruden, Dana; Parks, Debbie; Klejka, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are common in southwestern Alaska. Outbreak strains have been shown to carry the genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). To determine if carriage of PVL-positive CA-MRSA increased the risk for subsequent soft tissue infection, we conducted a retrospective cohort study by reviewing the medical records of 316 persons for 3.6 years after their participation in a MRSA nasal colonization survey. Demographic, nasal carriage, and antimicrobial drug use data were analyzed for association with skin infection risk. Skin infections were more likely to develop in MRSA carriers than in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus carriers or noncarriers of S. aureus during the first follow-up year, but not in subsequent years. Repeated skin infections were more common among MRSA carriers. In an area where PVL-containing MRSA is prevalent, skin infection risk was increased among MRSA nasal carriers compared with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus carriers and noncarriers, but risk differential diminished over time. PMID:20409369

  16. Characteristics of the community-genotype sequence type 72 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates that underlie their persistence in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Ji-Young; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2016-06-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST72, known as a major community-associated MRSA in Korea, has emerged as an important pathogen in hospitals. To understand bacterial properties that underlie transformation of this clone into a nosocomial pathogen, we compared characteristics of the community-genotype ST72 MRSA isolates with those of ST5 and ST239 MRSA, which have been predominant nosocomial MRSA clones in Korea. Several genes associated with adhesion and virulence were absent or rarely found in ST72 isolates. Many ST72 isolates (70.1%) belonged to agr group I, but the agr group of other ST72 isolates could not be determined. As indicated by d-hemolysin production, ST72 isolates expressed fully functional agr, whereas agr dysfunction was observed in ST5 and ST239 isolates. In the biofilm formation assay, no upregulation of biofilm-forming activity of ST72 MRSA was detected. However, ST72 isolates demonstrated persistence under hypotonic and desiccating conditions (survival rates 72.3% and 33.9%, respectively), which was similar to characteristics of ST5 or ST239 isolates. ST72- MRSA isolates showed low virulence, but properties of their functional agr system could facilitate their spread in hospitals. In conclusion, tolerance to stressful environments, e.g., hypotonic and dry conditions, may also contribute to survival of the community-associated MRSA clones in healthcare facilities.

  17. Purification, cloning, and expression of a murine phosphoprotein that binds the kappa B motif in vitro identifies it as the homolog of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein. Description of a novel DNA-dependent phosphorylation process.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, J; Van Seuningen, I; Seger, R; Rauch, C T; Sleath, P R; McMullen, B A; Bomsztyk, K

    1994-07-01

    The kappa B enhancer element regulates expression of many genes involved in immune responses and other processes. kappa B motif binds a number of proteins, some but not all, are related to the NF-kappa B family of transcription factors. We have previously identified a 65-kDa phosphoprotein that is specifically recognized by the kappa B motif (Ostrowski, J., Sims, J. E., Sibley, C. H., Valentine, M. A., Dower, S. K., Meier, K. E., and Bomsztyk, K. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 12722-12733). This protein is closely associated with a serine/threonine kinase that is responsive to treatment of cells with interleukin-1 and other agents. We report here purification, cloning, and expression of this kappa B motif-binding phosphoprotein. The primary structure deduced from the isolated murine cDNA, identifies the protein as the homolog of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein. Antipeptide antibodies and expression of the cloned cDNA in Escherichia coli, demonstrated that the K protein is the authentic phosphoprotein that binds the kappa B motif in vitro. We also demonstrate that the in vitro phosphorylation of the natural and the recombinant K proteins by the associated kinase is stimulated by the kappa B motif.

  18. Palaeoceanographic significance of sedimentary features at the Argentine continental margin revealed by multichannel seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The thermohaline circulation in the Argentine Basin today is characterized by the interaction of northward flowing Antarctic water masses (Antarctic Intermediate Water, AAIW; Circumpolar Deep Water, CDW; Antarctic Bottom Water, AABW) and southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The transfer of heat and energy via both AABW and NADW constitutes an important component in maintaining the global conveyor belt. We aim at a better understanding of both paths and intensity of this current system in the past by investigating an extensive (> 11000 km) set of high quality seismic reflection profiles from the Argentine continental margin. The profiles show a significant contourite system containing both erosive and depositional features that formed through the evolution of water masses and their modifications (path, physical and chemical properties) due to plate tectonic events such as the opening of the Drake Passage or the extensive emplacement of volcanic flows at the Rio Grande Rise. Overall the depositional features indicate that along slope (contour current) transport dominates over down slope (turbiditic) processes at the southern Argentine margin south of 45° S. Further to the North down slope transport was more extensive as indicated by the presence of submarine canyons crossing the slope down to a depth of ~3500 m. Here we present preliminary results from the southern part of the continental margin (42°-50° S) where we focus on a set of ~50 km wide terraces on the slope and rise separated by contouritic channels. The terraces developed over time in alternating constructional (depositional) and erosive phases. An initial age frame was developed by mapping regional reflectors and seismic units known from previous studies. The sedimentary layer between regional reflectors AR 4 and AR 5 spanning roughly the time interval from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary to the early middle Miocene is thin (0.1 - 0.4 s TWT) below the Valentine Feilberg Terrace but

  19. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Malaysian tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Zetti Zainol; Bahari, Norazlah; Othman, Amizah; Jaafar, Roslinda; Mohamed, Nurul Azmawati; Jabbari, Idimaz; Sulong, Anita; Hashim, Rohaidah; Ahmad, Norazah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a pathogen recognized to be distinct in both phenotype and genotype from hospital-acquired MRSA. We have identified CA-MRSA cases in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, including their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genotypic characteristics. Cases were identified during January to December 2009 from routine clinical specimens, where culture and antibiotic susceptibility results yielded pauci-resistant MRSA isolates suspected as being CA-MRSA. The patients' clinical data were collected and their specimens were sent for molecular confirmation and analysis. Five cases of CA-MRSA were identified, which had a multi-sensitive pattern on antibiotic susceptibility tests and were resistant to only penicillin and oxacillin. All cases were skin and soft-tissue infections, including diabetic foot with gangrene, infected scalp hematoma, philtrum abscess in a healthcare worker, thrombophlebitis complicated with abscess and infected bedsore. All five cases were confirmed MRSA by detection of mecA. SCCmec typing (ccr and mec complex) revealed SCCmec type IV for all cases except the infected bedsore case. Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was positive in all isolates. As clinical features among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, CA-MRSA and "nosocomial CA-MRSA" are indistinct, early recognition is necessary in order to initiate appropriate antibiotics and infection control measures. Continual surveillance of pauci-resistant MRSA and molecular analysis are necessary in order to identify emerging strains as well as their epidemiology and transmission, both in the community and in healthcare setting.

  20. Comparative Whole-Genome Mapping To Determine Staphylococcus aureus Genome Size, Virulence Motifs, and Clonality

    PubMed Central

    Pantrang, Madhulatha; Stahl, Buffy; Briska, Adam M.; Stemper, Mary E.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Zentz, Emily B.; Callister, Steven M.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Henkhaus, John K.; Dykes, Colin W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being a clonal pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus continues to acquire virulence and antibiotic-resistant genes located on mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands, prophages, pathogenicity islands, and the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) by horizontal gene transfer from other staphylococci. The potential virulence of a S. aureus strain is often determined by comparing its pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or multilocus sequence typing profiles to that of known epidemic or virulent clones and by PCR of the toxin genes. Whole-genome mapping (formerly optical mapping), which is a high-resolution ordered restriction mapping of a bacterial genome, is a relatively new genomic tool that allows comparative analysis across entire bacterial genomes to identify regions of genomic similarities and dissimilarities, including small and large insertions and deletions. We explored whether whole-genome maps (WGMs) of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) could be used to predict the presence of methicillin resistance, SCCmec type, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing genes on an S. aureus genome. We determined the WGMs of 47 diverse clinical isolates of S. aureus, including well-characterized reference MRSA strains, and annotated the signature restriction pattern in SCCmec types, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), and PVL-carrying prophage, PhiSa2 or PhiSa2-like regions on the genome. WGMs of these isolates accurately characterized them as MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus based on the presence or absence of the SCCmec motif, ACME and the unique signature pattern for the prophage insertion that harbored the PVL genes. Susceptibility to methicillin resistance and the presence of mecA, SCCmec types, and PVL genes were confirmed by PCR. A WGM clustering approach was further able to discriminate isolates within the same PFGE clonal group. These results showed that WGMs could be used not only to genotype S. aureus but also to

  1. National surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in China highlights a still-evolving epidemiology with 15 novel emerging multilocus sequence types.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Wang, He; Zhao, Ying; Mao, Lei-Li; Brown, Mitchell; Yu, Yun-Song; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2013-11-01

    The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem, particularly in mainland China. In order to better understand the national molecular epidemiology and resistance profiles of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) in China, a laboratory-based multicenter surveillance study was conducted. Sixty-nine hospitals in 45 large cities in 27 provinces were involved, and a total of 1,141 HA-MRSA isolates were collected during the 6-month study period in 2011. All MRSA isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing, detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), and antibiogram analysis. ST239-III-t030, ST239-III-t037, and ST5-II-t002 were the predominant HA-MRSA clones (overall prevalence rates, 57.1%, 12.9%, and 8.1%, respectively), although the prevalence rates of these major clones varied markedly in different administrative regions. Of note, 6.6% of the HA-MRSA isolates were found to belong to ST59, which had typical community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) features, including carriage of SCCmec type IV or V and PVL and less antimicrobial resistance than other major HA-MRSA clones. Moreover, among 36 MLST sequence types (STs) identified, 15 STs, accounting for 3.5% of total isolates, were novel. A novel ST designated ST2590, which is a single-locus variant of ST5-II-t002, was identified in three hospitals in two large cities, with a total of 17 isolates. To further monitor trends in HA-MRSA prevalence, epidemic clonal shifts, clone emergence, and transmission between community and health care settings, longitudinal national MRSA surveillance is required.

  2. A new approach for the discovery of antibiotics by targeting non-multiplying bacteria: a novel topical antibiotic for staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanmin; Shamaei-Tousi, Alireza; Liu, Yingjun; Coates, Anthony

    2010-07-27

    In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates.

  3. A New Approach for the Discovery of Antibiotics by Targeting Non-Multiplying Bacteria: A Novel Topical Antibiotic for Staphylococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanmin; Shamaei-Tousi, Alireza; Liu, Yingjun; Coates, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates. PMID:20676403

  4. Infections Caused By Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus European Clone (ST80) In Slovenia Between 2006 And 2013: PRIKAZ PRIMEROV OKUŽB, POVZROČENIH S PROTI METICILINU ODPORNO BAKTERIJO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, DOMAČEGA OKOLJA, KI PRIPADA EVROPSKEMU KLONU (ST80) V SLOVENIJI V OBDOBJU MED 2006 IN 2013.

    PubMed

    Dermota, Urška; Jurca, Tomaž; Harlander, Tatjana; Košir, Marta; Zajc, Urška; Golob, Majda; Zdovc, Irena; Košnik, Irena Grmek

    2016-06-01

    According to the existing literature, a heterogeneous sequence type (ST) or clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) circulate in Europe. In Europe, the European clone that belongs to sequence type ST80 is predominant. The aim of the study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and epidemiological data of CA-MRSA ST80 and its occurrence in Slovenia. We retrospectively analyzed those CA-MRSA isolates that were isolated during microbiological procedures in microbiological laboratories between 2006 and 2013. Only CA-MRSA isolates from the national collection of CA-MRSA strains that belonged to ST80 (European clone) were analyzed. We determined the Pantone-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mec A genes, exfoliative toxin genes and type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We determined also spa type and sequence type. ST80 was confirmed in only 2 (0.5%) out of 385 CA-MRSA isolates, collected in a national collection of CAMRSA. Both isolates were positive for the PVL genes, mec A gene, exfoliative toxin type D gene and SCCmec IV. One CA-MRSA isolate was confirmed in a wound swab taken from a 47-year-old male, and the second was isolated from blood cultures of a 69-year-old female. No epidemiological connections between them were found. In Slovenia CA-MRSA infections caused by ST80 are rare. In the future, it is necessary that a surveillance study of CA-MRSA at the national level continues and CA-MRSA be considered as a public health threat.

  5. Infections Caused By Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus European Clone (ST80) In Slovenia Between 2006 And 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jurca, Tomaž; Harlander, Tatjana; Košir, Marta; Zajc, Urška; Golob, Majda; Zdovc, Irena; Grmek Košnik, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction According to the existing literature, a heterogeneous sequence type (ST) or clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) circulate in Europe. In Europe, the European clone that belongs to sequence type ST80 is predominant. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and epidemiological data of CA-MRSA ST80 and its occurrence in Slovenia. We retrospectively analyzed those CA-MRSA isolates that were isolated during microbiological procedures in microbiological laboratories between 2006 and 2013. Only CA-MRSA isolates from the national collection of CA-MRSA strains that belonged to ST80 (European clone) were analyzed. We determined the Pantone-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mec A genes, exfoliative toxin genes and type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We determined also spa type and sequence type. Results ST80 was confirmed in only 2 (0.5%) out of 385 CA-MRSA isolates, collected in a national collection of CAMRSA. Both isolates were positive for the PVL genes, mec A gene, exfoliative toxin type D gene and SCCmec IV. One CA-MRSA isolate was confirmed in a wound swab taken from a 47-year-old male, and the second was isolated from blood cultures of a 69-year-old female. No epidemiological connections between them were found. Conclusions In Slovenia CA-MRSA infections caused by ST80 are rare. In the future, it is necessary that a surveillance study of CA-MRSA at the national level continues and CA-MRSA be considered as a public health threat. PMID:27284382

  6. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: community transmission, pathogenesis, and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Nishiyama, Akihito; Takano, Tomomi; Yabe, Shizuka; Higuchi, Wataru; Razvina, Olga; Shi, Da

    2010-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is able to persist not only in hospitals (with a high level of antimicrobial agent use) but also in the community (with a low level of antimicrobial agent use). The former is called hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and the latter community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). It is believed MRSA clones are generated from S. aureus through insertion of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and outbreaks occur as they spread. Several worldwide and regional clones have been identified, and their epidemiological, clinical, and genetic characteristics have been described. CA-MRSA is likely able to survive in the community because of suitable SCCmec types (type IV or V), a clone-specific colonization/infection nature, toxin profiles (including Pantone-Valentine leucocidin, PVL), and narrow drug resistance patterns. CA-MRSA infections are generally seen in healthy children or young athletes, with unexpected cases of diseases, and also in elderly inpatients, occasionally surprising clinicians used to HA-MRSA infections. CA-MRSA spreads within families and close-contact groups or even through public transport, demonstrating transmission cores. Re-infection (including multifocal infection) frequently occurs, if the cores are not sought out and properly eradicated. Recently, attention has been given to CA-MRSA (USA300), which originated in the US, and is growing as HA-MRSA and also as a worldwide clone. CA-MRSA infection in influenza season has increasingly been noted as well. MRSA is also found in farm and companion animals, and has occasionally transferred to humans. As such, the epidemiological, clinical, and genetic behavior of CA-MRSA, a growing threat, is focused on in this study.

  7. Prevalence of community-acquired bacteraemia in Guinea-Bissau: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Isendahl, Joakim; Manjuba, Cristovão; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Xu, Weiping; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Giske, Christian G; Nauclér, Pontus

    2014-12-20

    The burden of bloodstream infections is insufficiently studied in children in Africa and many healthcare facilities lack the capacity to identify invasive disease. Often studies have been limited to febrile patients or patients admitted to hospital. Blood cultures and malaria diagnostics was performed on 372 consecutive children presenting with tachycardia and/or fever to a referral paediatric emergency department in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Bacterial species detection, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular typing were performed. The capacity of clinical parameters to identify bacteraemia was evaluated. The prevalence of bloodstream infection was 12% (46/372) and in 46% (21/46) of the infections the child was non-febrile at presentation to the hospital. The predictive value for bacteraemia was poor for all assessed clinical parameters. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 54% (26/48) of the isolates followed by non-typhoidal Salmonella, 10% (5/48), Streptococcus pneumoniae, 8% (4/48), and Salmonella Typhi, 6% (3/48). Among S. aureus there was a large diversity of spa types and 38% produced Pantone-Valentine leukocidin. Antibiotic resistance was low, however two out of three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Malaria was laboratory confirmed in only 5% of the children but 64% (237/372) received a clinical malaria diagnosis. Bacteraemia was common irrespective of the presence of fever among children presenting to the hospital. The high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus may be due to contamination. There is an imminent need to improve microbiological diagnostic facilities and to identify algorithms that can identify children at risk of bloodstream infections in Africa.

  8. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Yamazaki, Kazuko; Ote, Isabelle; Misawa, Naoaki; Mainil, Jacques G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in a collection of S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from dogs and cats with dermatitis in Japan and to compare their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Clonal relationships were determined by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Biofilm formation assay was performed using safranin staining in microplates. Three virulence genes coding for S. intermedius exfoliative toxin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (siet, lukS-PV and lukF-PV) were searched for in a collection of strains. Antimicrobial resistance against 15 antibiotics was studied by a disc diffusion method. Twenty-seven MRSP were isolated. According to PFGE results the isolates were not closely related except for a few strains. MLST showed that the strains belonged to five groups, ST71 and ST26 being the two most prevalent. Three types of SCCmec (II, II-III and V) were identified. All isolates were siet-positive but PVL-negative. Most strains (except for two) produced strong biofilm in tryptic soy broth with glucose. Seventy-eight percent of the isolates were resistant or intermediate to twelve or more antibiotics. Our study demonstrates that the ST71 lineage is widespread in Japan and that ST26 could represent an emerging lineage. Moreover, most of our strains are capable of forming strong biofilm and possess siet gene, two virulence characteristics that probably help the bacteria to persist and spread. Finally, our MRSP strains show a strong resistance profile to antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine.

  9. Structure of the Marfa Basin, Trans-Pecos Texas: An Integrated Geophysical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueity, J.; Keller, G.; Doser, D. I.

    2002-12-01

    The Marfa Basin is the southwesternmost segment of the Permian Basin region that initially formed in the late Paleozoic as a result of the Ouachita orogeny. This area has experienced several major tectonic events, extending from the Precambrian (Grenville orogeny) into the late Cenozoic (Laramide orogeny, and Basin and Range/Rio Grande rift extension). The basins in Trans-Pecos Texas are one important key to understanding these tectonic events and are also important from the standpoint of groundwater resources and petroleum potential. Abundant fault scarps and the Valentine earthquake in 1931 attest to the continuing tectonic activity. We are studying the subsurface structure in this area by integrating gravity, magnetics, remote sensing, GIS technology, and drill hole information. Thus, we are compiling a large database of geological, geophysical, and other geospatial data. The gravity field in this region is a product of both Phanerozoic features and the heterogeneity of the Precambrian basin. We have constructed four integrated cross-sections by modeling gravity profiles. In each case, thickness variations of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks explain a major portion of the observed gravity anomalies. However, as we proceed southward from the Van Horn, Texas area, the importance of the pre-Cenozoic strata increases. The best example of this phenomenon is the Chalk Draw fault to the south. This fault bounds the Paleozoic Marfa basin and is associated with a steep gravity gradient. In order to model the gravity high south of this fault a mafic body in the upper crust was used. Another mafic body is necessary to produce the gravity high that correlates spatially with the Davis Mountains. We are using the experience our group has gained by studying areas to the north to further investigate basement structures in the area.

  10. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Baño, J; Angeles Domínguez, M; Blas Millán, A; Borraz, C; Pau González, M; Almirante, B; Cercenado, E; Padilla, B; Pujol, M

    2009-12-01

    A prospective cohort study including all new cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization or infection in 64 Spanish hospitals during June 2003 was performed to investigate the epidemiology of MRSA in Spain. Only patients who yielded clinical MRSA-positive samples were included. Epidemiological and clinical data for a total of 370 cases were collected. Genotyping was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes and the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) were identified in representative isolates. MRSA was considered to be nosocomially acquired in 202 cases (55%), healthcare-associated (HCA) in 139 cases (38%), community-acquired (CA) in three cases, and of uncertain mode of acquisition in 26 (7%) cases. The pooled population-based rate was 2.31 cases/100,000 population/month, and the pooled nosocomial rate was 0.21 cases/1000 hospital stays (20.2% of S. aureus). Peripheral vascular disease, respiratory tract infections, catheter infections, bloodstream infections and crude mortality were more frequent among HCA cases, whereas neoplasia and urinary tract infections were more frequent among nosocomially acquired cases. Two clones related to the paediatric clone ST5-IV accounted for 71% of the isolates; EMRSA-16 has emerged in two different geographical areas. Only one isolate belonged to the formerly predominant Iberian clone. The three CA isolates were related to the USA300 clone. SCCmec type IV was the most frequent type in nosocomial and HCA isolates. The epidemiology of MRSA has changed in Spain; outpatients with previous healthcare contact represent a very important reservoir of MRSA, and community isolates are emerging.

  11. Cortical GABA Levels in Primary Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Peter T.; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Mason, Graeme F.; Forselius, Erica; Fasula, Madonna; Valentine, Gerald W.; Sanacora, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: GABA is increasingly recognized as an important neurotransmitter for the initiation and maintenance of sleep. We sought to measure cortical GABA content through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in persons with and without primary insomnia, and relate brain GABA levels to polysomnographic sleep measures. Design: Two-group comparison study. Setting: Outpatient study at a university research clinic. Participants: Non-medicated persons with primary insomnia (N = 16) and no sleep complaints (N = 17). Interventions: Participants kept sleep diaries and a regular time-in-bed schedule for 9 days, culminating in 2 consecutive nights of ambulatory polysomnography and a single proton MRS session. The main outcome measure was occipital GABA/creatine ratios; secondary measures included sleep measurements and relationship between polysomnographically measured time awake after sleep onset and occipital GABA content. Measurements and Results: The primary insomnia group was distinguished from persons with no sleep complaints on self-reported and polysomnographically measured sleep. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, body mass index, habitual bed- and wake-times, napping, use of caffeine, or use of cigarettes. Mean occipital GABA level was 12% higher in persons with insomnia than in persons without sleep complaints (P < 0.05). In both groups, GABA levels correlated negatively with polysomnographically measured time awake after sleep onset (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Increased GABA levels in persons with insomnia may reflect an allostatic response to chronic hyperarousal. The preserved, negative relationship between GABA and time awake after sleep onset supports this notion, indicating that the possible allostatic response is adaptive. Citation: Morgan PT; Pace-Schott EF; Mason GF; Forselius E; Fasula M; Valentine GW; Sanacora G. Cortical GABA levels in primary insomnia. SLEEP 2012;35(6):807-814. PMID:22654200

  12. Application of a Propionyl Coenzyme A Synthetase for Poly(3-Hydroxypropionate-co-3-Hydroxybutyrate) Accumulation in Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Henry E.; Mitsky, Timothy A.; Mahadeo, Debbie A.; Tran, Minhtien; Gruys, Kenneth J.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic operon for propionic acid degradation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contains an open reading frame designated prpE which encodes a propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) synthetase (A. R. Horswill and J. C. Escalante-Semerena, Microbiology 145:1381–1388, 1999). In this paper we report the cloning of prpE by PCR, its overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the substrate specificity of the enzyme. When propionate was utilized as the substrate for PrpE, a Km of 50 μM and a specific activity of 120 μmol · min−1 · mg−1 were found at the saturating substrate concentration. PrpE also activated acetate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), and butyrate to their corresponding coenzyme A esters but did so much less efficiently than propionate. When prpE was coexpressed with the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthetic genes from Ralstonia eutropha in recombinant E. coli, a PHA copolymer containing 3HP units accumulated when 3HP was supplied with the growth medium. To compare the utility of acyl-CoA synthetases to that of an acyl-CoA transferase for PHA production, PHA-producing recombinant strains were constructed to coexpress the PHA biosynthetic genes with prpE, with acoE (an acetyl-CoA synthetase gene from R. eutropha [H. Priefert and A. Steinbüchel, J. Bacteriol. 174:6590–6599, 1992]), or with orfZ (an acetyl-CoA:4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA transferase gene from Clostridium propionicum [H. E. Valentin, S. Reiser, and K. J. Gruys, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 67:291–299, 2000]). Of the three enzymes, PrpE and OrfZ enabled similar levels of 3HP incorporation into PHA, whereas AcoE was significantly less effective in this capacity. PMID:11097899

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses’ hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention. PMID:28030828

  14. Pooled analysis of single-dose oritavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including a large patient subset with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Corey, G Ralph; Arhin, Francis F; Wikler, Matthew A; Sahm, Daniel F; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Mediavilla, José R; Good, Samantha; Fiset, Claude; Jiang, Hai; Moeck, Greg; Kabler, Heidi; Green, Sinikka; O'Riordan, William

    2016-11-01

    Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The phase 3 studies SOLO I and SOLO II demonstrated comparable efficacy and safety of a single dose of oritavancin compared with 7-10 days of twice-daily vancomycin in adults with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs). The present analysis assessed clinical responses by pathogen at 48-72 h and at study days 14-24 in SOLO patients within the pooled data set. Of the 1959 patients in the pooled SOLO studies, 1067 had at least one baseline Gram-positive pathogen and 405 had MRSA. Clinical response rates were similar for oritavancin- and vancomycin-treated patients by pathogen, including Staphylococcus aureus with or without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene and from different clonal complexes, and were similar for pathogens within each treatment group. Oritavancin exhibited potent in vitro activity against all baseline pathogens, with MIC90 values (minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of the isolates) of 0.12 µg/mL for Staphylococcus  aureus, 0.25 µg/mL for Streptococcus pyogenes and 0.06 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. Whereas both oritavancin and vancomycin achieved similarly high rates of clinical response by pathogen, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oritavancin provides a single-dose alternative to 7-10 days of twice-daily vancomycin to treat ABSSSIs.

  15. Epidemiology and outcome of pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Manal; Williams, Victoria; Coleman, Brenda L; McGeer, Allison J; Haider, Shariq; Lee, Christine; Iacovides, Harris; Rubinstein, Ethan; John, Michael; Johnston, Lynn; McNeil, Shelly; Katz, Kevin; Laffin, Nancy; Suh, Kathryn N; Powis, Jeff; Smith, Stephanie; Taylor, Geoff; Watt, Christine; Simor, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    MRSA remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired (HAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We describe the epidemiology and outcome of MRSA pneumonia in Canadian hospitals, and identify factors contributing to mortality. Prospective surveillance for MRSA pneumonia in adults was done for one year (2011) in 11 Canadian hospitals. Standard criteria for MRSA HAP, HCAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were used to identify cases. MRSA isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene detection. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 30 days. A multivariable analysis was done to examine the association between various host and microbial factors and mortality. A total of 161 patients with MRSA pneumonia were identified: 90 (56%) with HAP, 26 (16%) HCAP, and 45 (28%) CAP; 23 (14%) patients had VAP. The mean (± SD) incidence of MRSA HAP was 0.32 (± 0.26) per 10,000 patient-days, and of MRSA VAP was 0.30 (± 0.5) per 1,000 ventilator-days. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 28.0%. In multivariable analysis, variables associated with mortality were the presence of multiorgan failure (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.5-26.0), and infection with an isolate with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.3). MRSA pneumonia is associated with significant mortality. Severity of disease at presentation, and infection caused by an isolate with elevated MIC to vancomcyin are associated with increased mortality. Additional studies are required to better understand the impact of host and microbial variables on outcome.

  16. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Igor; Künzel, Frank; Licka, Theresia; Simhofer, Hubert; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate

    2014-01-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, resistance gene patterns and genetic relatedness of a collection of Austrian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 89 non-repetitive MRSA isolates collected during routine veterinary microbiological examinations from April 2004 to the end of 2012, and one isolate from 2013 were used for this study. The presence of mecA and other resistance genes was confirmed by PCR. Isolates were genotyped by spa typing, two multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) analyses, SCCmec typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR targeting Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) was performed using PCR assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Five sequence types (STs-ST398, ST254, ST22, ST5 and ST1), SCCmec types II, IVa, V, and non-type-abele, 8 spa-types (t003, t011, t036, t127, t386, t1348, and t4450), and two isolates could not be assigned, 21 MLVA-14Orsay types Multiplex-PCR MLVA (mMLVA) displayed 17 different MLVA types. The present study is the most comprehensive dealing with MRSA from Austrian companion animals and horses. The results confirm that MRSA ST398 is present in a wide range of animal species and is predominant especially in horses. In other companion animals it is unclear whether the infections with the different MRSA isolates investigated in the present study truly represents a rare phenomenon or may be an emerging problem in companion animals.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Beefpacking Workers in a Midwestern United States Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Leibler, Jessica H; Jordan, Jeanne A; Brownstein, Kirsten; Lander, Lina; Price, Lance B; Perry, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.

  18. Natural history of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael W; Hospenthal, Duane R; Dooley, David P; Gray, Paula J; Murray, Clinton K

    2004-10-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen for which the prevalence, risk factors, and natural history are incompletely understood. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 812 US Army soldiers to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for CA-MRSA colonization and the changes in colonization rate over time, as well as to determine the clinical significance of CA-MRSA colonization. Demographic data and swab samples from the nares for S. aureus cultures were obtained from participants at the start of their training and 8-10 weeks later. Over this time period, participants were observed prospectively to monitor for soft-tissue infections. S. aureus isolates were characterized by in vitro examination of antibiotic susceptibilities, mecA confirmation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene testing. At the initial sampling, 24 of the participants (3%) were colonized with CA-MRSA, 9 of whom (38%) developed soft-tissue infections during the study period. In contrast, 229 participants (28%) were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 8 (3%) of whom developed clinical infections during the same period (relative risk, 10.7; 95% confidence interval, 4.6-25.2; P<.001). At follow-up culture, the CA-MRSA colonization rate dropped to 1.6% without eradication efforts. Previous antibiotic use was a risk factor for CA-MRSA colonization at the initial sampling (P=.03). PVL genes were detected in 66% of 45 recovered CA-MRSA isolates, including all 9 clinical isolates available for analysis. Of subjects hospitalized, 5 of 6 had PVL-positive CA-MRSA infections. CA-MRSA colonization with PVL-positive strains was associated with a significant risk of soft-tissue infection, suggesting that CA-MRSA may be more virulent than MSSA. Previous antibiotic use may play a role in CA-MRSA colonization.

  19. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space

    PubMed Central

    Faerber, Stella J.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  20. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Food and Food Products of Poultry Origin in Germany ▿

    PubMed Central

    Feßler, Andrea T.; Kadlec, Kristina; Hassel, Melanie; Hauschild, Tomasz; Eidam, Christopher; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    During a survey of fresh chicken and turkey meat as well as chicken and turkey meat products for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Germany, 32 (37.2%) of 86 samples were MRSA positive. Twenty-eight of these MRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex 398 (CC398), which is widespread among food-producing animals. These CC398 isolates carried SCCmec elements of type IV or V and exhibited spa type t011, t034, t899, t2346 or t6574 and either the known dru types dt2b, dt6j, dt10a, dt10q, dt11a, dt11v, and dt11ab or the novel dru types dt6m, dt10as, and dt10at. In addition, two MRSA sequence type 9 (ST9) isolates with a type IV SCCmec cassette, spa type t1430, and dru type dt10a as well as single MRSA ST5 and ST1791 isolates with a type III SCCmec cassette, spa type t002, and dru type dt9v were identified. All but two isolates were classified as multiresistant. A wide variety of resistance phenotypes and genotypes were detected. All isolates were negative for the major virulence factors, such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, or exfoliative toxins. In contrast to the MRSA CC398 isolates, the four ST9, ST5, or ST1791 isolates harbored the egc gene cluster for enterotoxin G, I, M, N, O, and U genes. Although the relevance of contamination of fresh poultry meat or poultry products with MRSA is currently unclear, the presence of multiresistant and, in part, enterotoxigenic MRSA emphasizes the need for further studies to elucidate possible health hazards for consumers. PMID:21724898

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abdulgader, Shima M.; Shittu, Adebayo O.; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a serious global problem, with considerable impact on patients and substantial health care costs. This systematic review provides an overview on the clonal diversity of MRSA, as well as the prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA in Africa. A search on the molecular characterization of MRSA in Africa was conducted by two authors using predefined terms. We screened for articles published in English and French through to October 2014 from five electronic databases. A total of 57 eligible studies were identified. Thirty-four reports from 15 countries provided adequate genotyping data. CC5 is the predominant clonal complex in the healthcare setting in Africa. The hospital-associated MRSA ST239/ST241-III [3A] was identified in nine African countries. This clone was also described with SCCmec type IV [2B] in Algeria and Nigeria, and type V [5C] in Niger. In Africa, the European ST80-IV [2B] clone was limited to Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia. The clonal types ST22-IV [2B], ST36-II [2A], and ST612-IV [2B] were only reported in South Africa. No clear distinctions were observed between MRSA responsible for hospital and community infections. The community clones ST8-IV [2B] and ST88-IV [2B] were reported both in the hospital and community settings in Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, and São Tomé and Príncipe. The proportion of PVL-positive MRSA carriage and/or infections ranged from 0.3 to 100% in humans. A number of pandemic clones were identified in Africa. Moreover, some MRSA clones are limited to specific countries or regions. We strongly advocate for more surveillance studies on MRSA in Africa. PMID:25983721

  2. Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization Revealed High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Chongqing, Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yancheng; Hu, Zhen; Shang, Weilong; Hu, Qiwen; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Peng, Huagang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hui; Cong, Yanguang; Li, Shu; Hu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Renjie; Rao, Xiancai

    2017-03-01

    Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for ∼40% of staphylococcal infections in China. However, the molecular characterization of MSSA is not well described. In this study, 124 MSSA strains collected in 2013 from a comprehensive teaching hospital in Chongqing, Southwestern China, were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing and molecular typing, including multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene detection, and antibiotic-resistant gene detection. MSSA strains exhibited high genetic heterogeneity. A total of 10 PFGE groups, 26 sequence types, and 47 spa types were identified. Type I (62.9%) was the most frequent agr type, followed by type II (15.3%), type IV (11.3%), and type III (10.5%). The prevalence of pvl genes was 27.4% (34/124). Notably, 44.4% (55/124) of MSSA strains were multidrug resistance (MDR), and MDR isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. The resistance gene blaZ was present in 84.7% of strains, ermC was present in 85.5% of strains, ermA was present in 28.2% of strains, tetK was present in 16.1% of strains, tetM was present in 6.5% of strains, and aacA-aphD was present in 2.6% of strains. These data demonstrated the high prevalence of MDR MSSA in Chongqing, thereby indicating the need to control MSSA infection.

  4. Molecular analysis and frequency of Staphylococcus aureus virulence genes isolated from bloodstream infections in a teaching hospital in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, L X; Hu, Z D; Hu, Y M; Tian, B; Li, Jing; Wang, F X; Yang, H; Xu, H R; Li, Y C; Li, J

    2013-03-11

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. We examined the prevalence of genes that encode erythromycin ribosome methylase and bacterial toxins in S. aureus collected from bloodstream infections. Sixty different S. aureus isolates were obtained from blood cultures of patients who were admitted to a Teaching Hospital in Tianjin from January 2006 to August 2011. The susceptibility of the isolates to 16 antibiotics was tested. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was identified using the disk diffusion method with cefoxitin. PCR was used to detect genes that encode the staphylococcal enterotoxins, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and erythromycin ribosome methylase. Molecular analysis of the MRSA strains was done using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. The positivity rates of mecA, ermA, ermB, and ermC in the isolates were 13/60, 10/60, 18/60, and 18/60, respectively. Among the 60 isolates, 30 harbored enterotoxin genes, with sea as the most frequent toxin gene (33%), followed by sec (15%), sed (12%), and seb (5%). The see and tst genes were not found in any of the isolates. The pvl gene was detected in four strains. Eleven MRSA isolates were of the SCCmec type III; two MRSA isolates could not be determined through SCCmec typing. PFGE analysis of the 13 MRSA isolates produced 8 distinct pulsotypes. Virulence genes and erythromycin ribosome methylase genes were highly prevalent in these isolates. The PFGE results demonstrated that the MRSA spread through cloning, mainly involving SCCmec type III.

  5. Structurally Designed Attenuated Subunit Vaccines for S. aureus LukS-PV and LukF-PV Confer Protection in a Mouse Bacteremia Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Jawad; Devi, V. Sathya; Abaandou, Laura; Haudenschild, Christian; Mahmoudieh, Mahta; Boroun, Atefeh R.; Vu, Hong; Nguyen, Tam; Warfield, Kelly L.; Shulenin, Sergey; Aman, M. Javad

    2013-01-01

    Previous efforts towards S. aureus vaccine development have largely focused on cell surface antigens to induce opsonophagocytic killing aimed at providing sterile immunity, a concept successfully applied to other Gram-positive pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, these approaches have largely failed, possibly in part due to the remarkable diversity of the staphylococcal virulence factors such as secreted immunosuppressive and tissue destructive toxins. S. aureus produces several pore-forming toxins including the single subunit alpha hemolysin as well as bicomponent leukotoxins such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), gamma hemolysins (Hlg), and LukED. Here we report the generation of highly attenuated mutants of PVL subunits LukS-PV and LukF-PV that were rationally designed, based on an octameric structural model of the toxin, to be deficient in oligomerization. The attenuated subunit vaccines were highly immunogenic and showed significant protection in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 sepsis. Protection against sepsis was also demonstrated by passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin raised against LukS-PV. Antibodies to LukS-PV inhibited the homologous oligomerization of LukS-PV with LukF-PV as well heterologous oligomerization with HlgB. Importantly, immune sera from mice vaccinated with the LukS mutant not only inhibited the PMN lytic activity produced by the PVL-positive USA300 but also blocked PMN lysis induced by supernatants of PVL-negative strains suggesting a broad protective activity towards other bicomponent toxins. These findings strongly support the novel concept of an anti-virulence, toxin-based vaccine intended for prevention of clinical S. aureus invasive disease, rather than achieving sterile immunity. Such a multivalent vaccine may include attenuated leukotoxins, alpha hemolysin, and superantigens. PMID:23762356

  6. FV-MHMM: A Discussion on Weighting Schemes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franc, J.; Gerald, D.; Jeannin, L.; Egermann, P.; Masson, R.

    2016-12-01

    Upscaling or homogenization techniques consist in finding block-equivalentor equivalent upscaled properties on a coarse grid from heterogeneousproperties defined on an underlying fine grid. However, this couldbecome costly and resource consuming. Harder et al., 2013, have developeda Multiscale Hybrid-Mixed Method (MHMM) of upscaling to treat Darcytype equations on heterogeneous fields formulated using a finite elementmethod. Recently, Franc et al. 2016, has extended this method of upscalingto finite volume formulation (FV-MHMM). Although convergence refiningLagrange multipliers space has been observed, numerical artefactscan occur while trapping numerically the flow in regions of low permeability. This work will present the development of the method along with theresults obtained from its classical formulation. Then, two weightingschemes and their benefits on the FV-MHMM method will be presented insome simple random permeability cases. Next example will involve alarger heterogeneous 2D permeability field extracted from the 10thSPE test case. Eventually, multiphase flow will be addressed asan extension of this single phase flow method. An elliptic pressureequation solved on the coarse grid via FV-MHMM will be sequentiallycoupled with a hyperbolic saturation equation on the fine grid. Theimproved accuracy thanks to the weighting scheme will be measuredcompared to a finite volume fine grid solution. References: Harder, C., Paredes, D. and Valentin, F., A family of multiscalehybrid-mixed finite element methods for the Darcy equation with roughcoefficients, Journal of Computational Physics, 2013. Franc J., Debenest G., Jeannin L., Egermann P. and Masson R., FV-MHMMfor reservoir modelling ECMOR XV-15th European Conference on the Mathematicsof Oil Recovery, 2015.

  7. Quaternary faults near the proposed Eagle Flat low-level radioactive waste repository, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Eagle Flat basin, an intermontane basin in Trans-Pecos Texas, is being considered as a possible site for the Texas repository of low-level radioactive wastes. Intermontane basins and associated normal faults formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. The most active late Tertiary and Quaternary faults occur within the Hueco Bolson (HB) and the Salt Basin/Salt Flat/Lobo Valley, west and east, respectively, of the proposed repository. Several faults of the southeast HB which are within 50 km of the site, displace middle Pleistocene deposits 10 to 24 m. The most recent surface rupture in the southeast HB probably occurred on the Amargosa fault during the Holocene. Upper Pleistocene deposits are offset 2.5 to 4.5 m, and middle Pleistocene deposits are displaced 24 m. Fault scarps within 50 km east of the proposed repository are associated with faults bounding the Salt Basin/Salt Flat/Lobo Valley. In the southern Salt Basin and northern Salt Flat, faults offset probable upper Pleistocene to Holocene deposits as much as 1.5 m. A scarp in Red Light Bolson, 13.5 km south of the site, is the closest Quaternary fault scarp to the proposed site. Only 7 km long, this scarp is part of a mostly covered, probably multisegmented, 40-km-long fault that bounds the northeastern margin of Red Light Bolson. Offsets associated with single-rupture events range from 0.6 to 3 m, and average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since middle Pleistocene are about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. The largest historical earthquake of the region, the 1931 Valentine earthquake, which had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture, occurred about 95 km southeast of the proposed repository.

  8. Characterization of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections: a multicenter study in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhe; Yang, Zhou; Sun, Juan; Ma, Lin

    2016-12-21

    We evaluated the epidemiological and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children and adult patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in China. Prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTI surveillance was conducted in 23 hospitals over a 24-month period. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials was evaluated using the agar dilution method. StatApriori was used to determine statistically significant association trends. The genotypic characteristics of CA-MRSA isolates were tested by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. The presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) genes was determined. Overall, 71.6% (1946/2716) of cases were community-associated S. aureus. CA-MRSA accounted for 2.6% (51). Out of 1895 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains, 97.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 96.6% to penicillin and 89.1% to clindamycin. No S. aureus strains were resistant to vancomycin. Thirteen sequence types (STs) and 17 spa types were detected among the CA-MRSA strains. The most prevalent sequence type was ST121 (19/51, 37.3%), followed by ST59 (13/51, 25.5%). In addition, t437 was predominant, accounting for 43.1% (22/51). Only five (9.8%) of the CA-MRSA strains harbored pvl genes. There were no significant differences in antibiotic sensitivity profiles between ST121 and non-ST121 MRSA isolates. However, ST121 strains tended to be more resistant to cefazolin, whereas non-ST121 strains were more resistant to chloramphenicol. In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections are rare among Chinese SSTI patients. MRSA strains in China have diverse genetic backgrounds, with ST121 being the predominant clone. Fusidic acid and mupirocin remain effective for topical treatment.

  9. A multicentre study of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in China: susceptibility to ceftaroline and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Zhao, Ying; Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to ceftaroline of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates causing acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) in China and to examine their relationship by genotyping. A total of 251 HA-MRSA isolates causing ABSSSIs were collected from a multicentre study involving 56 hospitals in 38 large cities across 26 provinces in mainland China. All isolates were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing and detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined by broth microdilution and were interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. The ceftaroline MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs that inhibit 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively) were 1 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively; 33.5% (n=84) of the isolates studied were ceftaroline-non-susceptible, with MICs of 2 μg/mL, but no isolate exhibited ceftaroline resistance (MIC>2 μg/mL). All of the ceftaroline-non-susceptible isolates belonged to the predominant HA-MRSA clones: 95.2% (n=80) from MLST clonal complex 8 (CC8), with the remaining 4.8% (n=4) from CC5. The high rate of non-susceptibility to ceftaroline amongst HA-MRSA causing ABSSSIs in China is concerning.

  10. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, F S; Abad, E D; Lyra, Y C; Saintive, S B; Ribeiro, M; Ferreira, D C; Santos, K R N dos

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec typing, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureus isolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD.

  11. High Resolution Magnetic and Gravity Surveys to Constrain Maar Geometry and Eruption Mechanisms, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Harburger, A.; Richardson, J. A.; Courtland, L. M.; Farrell, A. K.; Kiflu, H. G.; Malservisi, R.; McNiff, C. M.; Njoroge, M.; Nushart, N.; Rookey, K.

    2013-12-01

    Located 25 kilometers east of Flagstaff, Arizona, Rattlesnake Crater is an oblong phreatomagmatic feature in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The shallow crater is approximately 1.4 kilometers at its widest point, and surrounded by an uneven tuff ring which is overlapped by a scoria cone volcano on the southeastern side. Improved understanding of its formation and evolution requires geophysical study because there are very few outcrops, and no digging is permitted on site. Geologic features related to the crater are further obscured by deposits from the overlapping scoria cone, as well as tephra from eruptions at nearby Sunset Crater. We present the results of a detailed magnetic and gravity survey in and around Rattlesnake Crater. A substantial NW-SE trending elongate magnetic anomaly (1400 nT) and a smaller similarly trending anomaly are observed inside the crater, as well as a longer wavelength positive gravitational anomaly (+1.0-1.5 mGal) across the crater. The magnetic survey was completed on foot with a 50 meter line spacing inside the crater, and 100 meter line spacing across a portion of the surrounding area outside the crater. The gravity survey was done on two intersecting survey lines - one running west to east, and another roughly north to south, with recordings every 100 meters extending at least 1000 meters outside the crater in all four directions. 2D models of the magnetic and gravity data are presented illustrating the possible geometry of the diatreme, and the approximate size and shape of the major intrusive features. Eruption estimates based on the models are calculated, and the models are favorably compared to the size and depth estimates given in a recent publication (Valentine 2012) that used xenolith content to estimate the size and depth of the diatreme.

  12. Cartographic Production for the FLaSH Map Study: Generation of Rugosity Grids, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Hansen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Project Summary This series of raster data is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Series release from the Florida Shelf Habitat Project (FLaSH). This disc contains two raster images in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) raster grid format, jpeg image format, and Geo-referenced Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF). Data is also provided in non-image ASCII format. Rugosity grids at two resolutions (250 m and 1000 m) were generated for West Florida shelf waters to 250 m using a custom algorithm that follows the methods of Valentine and others (2004). The Methods portion of this document describes the specific steps used to generate the raster images. Rugosity, also referred to as roughness, ruggedness, or the surface-area ratio (Riley and others, 1999; Wilson and others, 2007), is a visual and quantitative measurement of terrain complexity, a common variable in ecological habitat studies. The rugosity of an area can affect biota by influencing habitat, providing shelter from elements, determining the quantity and type of living space, influencing the type and quantity of flora, affecting predator-prey relationships by providing cover and concealment, and, as an expression of vertical relief, can influence local environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture. In the marine environment rugosity can furthermore influence current flow rate and direction, increase the residence time of water in an area through eddying and current deflection, influence local water conditions such as chemistry, turbidity, and temperature, and influence the rate and nature of sedimentary deposition. State-of-the-art computer-mapping techniques and data-processing tools were used to develop shelf-wide raster and vector data layers. Florida Shelf Habitat (FLaSH) Mapping Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/flash) endeavors to locate available data, identify data gaps, synthesize existing information, and expand our understanding of geologic processes in our dynamic

  13. UK Health Secretary launches family planning initiatives.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    British Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley and Family Planning Association (FPA) President Anna Ford recently announced some new initiatives to promote wider use of family planning (FP) and contraception which will be carried out by the FPA with a special grant from the Department of Health. The grant will finance 3 FPA projects: 1) the Growing Up project, 3 booklets providing information for parents, young people, and children; 2) an information project at the work place on FP and sexual health for women and men; and 3) a primary health care project to aid general practitioners (G)s) and nurses engaged in the improvement of FP services. 1 in 3 pregnancies is unplanned, and teenage pregnancy rates are rising, thus sex education and public information are vital. The FPA chose St. Valentines Day to introduce How Your Body Changes, its new pamphlet for teenagers. In the UK over 85% of FP services are provided by family doctors and 15% or less by special community FP clinics. those who oppose further closures that health authorities contemplate stress that the special clinics provide: an anonymous service for younger women, especially those aged 16 or under, a wider choice of methods (some GPs do not offer the IUD, the diaphragm, or free condoms), a better service (most GPs are too busy and have had no training in FP, and postgraduate training for nurses and doctors (more clinic closures will impair FP education). Better FP education is crucial, especially for the age group 12-16 in view of over 180,000 legal abortions occurring each year in the UK.

  14. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal samples of healthy farm animals and pets in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharsa, Haythem; Ben Slama, Karim; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Messadi, Lilia; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    A total of 261 healthy farm and pet animals (75 cattle, 52 goats, 100 dogs, and 34 cats) from different regions of Tunisia were screened for Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Molecular typing of isolates (by spa- and multilocus sequence-typing) was performed, and their antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes were determined by PCR and sequencing. S. aureus isolates were detected in 17 of 261 tested samples (6.5%). All S. aureus isolates recovered were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), and one isolate/sample was further studied. Eight different spa types were detected (t189, t279, t582, t701, t1166, t1268, t1534, and t1773), and eight different sequence types were identified (ST6, ST15, ST45, ST133, ST188, ST700 [clonal complex CC130], ST2057, and a new ST2121). MSSA from pets (six isolates) showed resistance to (number of isolates, resistance gene): penicillin (six, blaZ), tetracycline (one, tet[M]), erythromycin one, erm[A]), streptomycin (one, ant[6]-Ia), and ciprofloxacin (one). All isolates from farm animals showed susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials, except for two penicillin-resistant isolates. Five S. aureus isolates from goats and cats harbored the lukF/lukS-PV genes, encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and six isolates from goats harbored the tst virulence gene. In addition, diverse combinations of enterotoxin genes were detected, including two variants of the egc cluster. Goats and cats could represent a reservoir of important toxin genes, with potential implications in animal and human health.

  15. Spa Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Clinical Specimens of Patients With Nosocomial Infections in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infection is increasing annually and becoming a true global challenge. The pattern of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (spa) types in different geographic regions is diverse. Objectives This study determined the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and different spa types in S. aureus clinical isolates. Materials and Methods During a six-month period, 90 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 320 clinical specimens. The in vitro susceptibility of various S. aureus isolates to 16 antibiotic discs was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Molecular typing was carried out with S. aureus protein A typing via polymerase chain reaction. Results The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in our study was 88.9%. Twenty-three (25.5%) isolates were positive for panton-valentine leukocidin encoding genes. S. aureus presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (100%) and penicillin (100%). No resistance was observed to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The rates of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested varied between 23.3% and 82.2%. The rate of multidrug resistance among these clinical isolates was 93.3%. The 90 S. aureus isolates were classified into five S. aureus protein A types: t037 (33.3%), t030 (22.2%), t790 (16.7%), t969 (11.1%), and t044 (7.7%). Eight (8.9%) isolates were not typable using the S. aureus protein A typing method. Conclusions We report a high methicillin-resistant S. aureus rate in our hospital. Additionally, t030 and t037 were the predominant spa-types among hospital-associated S. aureus. Our findings emphasize the need for continuous surveillance to prevent the dissemination of multidrug resistance among different S. aureus protein A types in Iran. PMID:27679706

  16. Bengal Bay clone ST772-MRSA-V outbreak: conserved clone causes investigation challenges.

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, A; Larssen, K W; Moghen, A; Haugum, K; Steen, T W; Jørgensen, S B; Aamot, H V

    2017-03-01

    The Bengal Bay clone, ST772-MRSA-V, associated with multi-drug resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and skin and soft tissue infections, is emerging worldwide. In Norway, a country with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), increased occurrence of ST772-MRSA-V has also caused hospital outbreaks. The conserved nature of this clone challenged the outbreak investigations. To evaluate the usefulness of S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) when investigating outbreaks with a conserved MRSA clone. A panel of 25 MRSA isolates collected in 2004-2014, consisting of six hospital outbreak isolates and 19 sporadic isolates, were analysed using spa typing, polymerase chain reaction detection of genes encoding PVL, MLVF/MLVA and PFGE. All isolates were ST772-MRSA-V-t657 and resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin and norfloxacin, and 88% were PVL positive. PFGE could not discriminate between the isolates (≥85% similarity). MLVF resolved five types [Simpson's index of diversity (SID)=0.56], MLVA resolved six types (SID=0.66), and both methods separated the hospital isolates into two defined outbreaks. MLVF/MLVA could not discriminate all epidemiologically unlinked cases and identical genotypes originated from a timespan of 10 years. MLVA was regarded as most suitable due to its higher discriminatory power and ability to provide unambiguous profiles. However, the Bengal Bay clone may require higher resolution methods for exact demarcation of outbreaks due to low diversity among isolates. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular typing, virulence traits and antimicrobial resistance of diabetic foot staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Carla; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Mendes, João J; Melo-Cristino, José; Tavares, Luís; Cavaco-Silva, Patrícia; Oliveira, Manuela

    2016-03-08

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease that continues to increase significantly. One of the most important and costly complications of diabetes are foot infections that may be colonized by pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria, harboring several virulence factors, that could impair its successful treatment. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent isolate in diabetic foot infections, together with aerobes and anaerobes. In this study, conducted in the Lisbon area, staphylococci isolated (n = 53) from diabetic foot ulcers were identified, genotyped and screened for virulence and antimicrobial resistance traits. Genetic relationship amongst isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis with further multilocus sequence typing of the identified pulsotypes. PCR was applied for detection of 12 virulence genes and e-test technique was performed to determine minimal inhibitory concentration of ten antibiotics. Among the 53 isolates included in this study, 41 Staphylococcus aureus were identified. Staphylococcal isolates were positive for intercellular adhesins icaA and icaD, negative for biofilm associated protein bap and pantone-valentine leucocidin pvl. S. aureus quorum sensing genes agrI and agrII were identified and only one isolate was positive for toxic shock syndrome toxin tst. 36 % of staphylococci tested were multiresistant and higher rates of resistance were obtained for ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. Clonality analysis revealed high genomic diversity and numerous S. aureus sequence types, both community- and hospital-acquired, belonging mostly to clonal complexes CC5 and C22, widely diffused in Portugal nowadays. This study shows that diabetic foot ulcer staphylococci are genomically diverse, present resistance to medically important antibiotics and harbour virulence determinants. These properties suggest staphylococci can contribute to persistence and severity of these infections, leading to treatment failure and to

  18. Physical properties of NxTiO2 prepared by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahimi, Razika; Bessekhouad, Yassine; Trari, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    The compounds NxTiO2(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) with the anatase structure have been synthesized by Sol-Gel method using Tri-ethyl Amine as nitrogen source and their optical, electrical and electrochemical properties are investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power are measured in the temperature rang 300-600 K. The samples exhibit p-type behavior in contrast to TiO2. The doped-samples exhibit two optical transitions (2.35≤Eh-Vis(eV)≤2.55; 1.97≤El-Vis (eV)≤2.06) directly allowed in the visible region, while only one transition is observed in UV region (EUV∼3.00 eV). Pure TiO2 shows direct band gap transition of 3.17 eV. The results confirm experimentally the calculations of Di. Valentin et al. [42]. The transitions Eh-Vis and El-Vis are attributed respectively to the promotion of electrons from the localized N 2p and π* N-O bond to the conduction band. In all cases, EUV is associated to the forbidden band energy. Though that the conductivity is generally improved by doping process, only N0.05TiO2 and N0.1TiO2 shows an enhanced mobility. The mechanism of conduction takes place by small polaron hopping. The band edge positions of NxTiO2 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) at room temperature is predicted from the obtained physical properties. This study proves experimentally the principal role of nitrogen in doping process and permits the electronic states localization associated with N-impurities in TiO2 anatase.

  19. Characterization of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections: a multicenter study in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhe; Yang, Zhou; Sun, Juan; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the epidemiological and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children and adult patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in China. Prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTI surveillance was conducted in 23 hospitals over a 24-month period. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials was evaluated using the agar dilution method. StatApriori was used to determine statistically significant association trends. The genotypic characteristics of CA-MRSA isolates were tested by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. The presence of Panton–Valentine leukocidin (pvl) genes was determined. Overall, 71.6% (1946/2716) of cases were community-associated S. aureus. CA-MRSA accounted for 2.6% (51). Out of 1895 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains, 97.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 96.6% to penicillin and 89.1% to clindamycin. No S. aureus strains were resistant to vancomycin. Thirteen sequence types (STs) and 17 spa types were detected among the CA-MRSA strains. The most prevalent sequence type was ST121 (19/51, 37.3%), followed by ST59 (13/51, 25.5%). In addition, t437 was predominant, accounting for 43.1% (22/51). Only five (9.8%) of the CA-MRSA strains harbored pvl genes. There were no significant differences in antibiotic sensitivity profiles between ST121 and non-ST121 MRSA isolates. However, ST121 strains tended to be more resistant to cefazolin, whereas non-ST121 strains were more resistant to chloramphenicol. In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections are rare among Chinese SSTI patients. MRSA strains in China have diverse genetic backgrounds, with ST121 being the predominant clone. Fusidic acid and mupirocin remain effective for topical treatment. PMID:27999423

  20. Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus Isolate Genotypes and Infections from the Dawn of the Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Epidemic Era in Chicago, 1994 to 1997

    PubMed Central

    Acree, Mary Ellen; Sieth, Julia J.; Boxrud, Dave J.; Dobbins, Ginette; Lynfield, Ruth; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread infections with community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have occurred in the United States with the dissemination of the USA300 strain beginning in 2000. We examined 105 isolates obtained from children treated at the University of Chicago from 1994 to 1997 (75 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and 30 MRSA isolates) in order to investigate for possible evidence of USA300 during this period. Infections were defined epidemiologically based on medical record review. The isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), as well as assays for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, the protein A gene (spa), and arcA and opp3, proxy markers for the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), characteristic of USA300 MRSA. MRSA isolates also underwent staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping. MSSA isolates belonged to 17 sequence type (ST) groups. The 12 epidemiologically defined CA-MRSA infection isolates were either ST1 (n = 4) or ST8 (n = 8). They belonged to 3 different PFGE types: USA100 (n = 1), USA400 (n = 5), and USA500 (n = 6). Among the CA-MRSA infection isolates, 8 (67%) were PVL+. None of the MRSA or MSSA isolates contained arcA or opp3. Only one MRSA isolate was USA300 by PFGE. This was a health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolate, negative for PVL, that carried SCCmec type II. USA300 with its characteristic features was not identified in the collection from the years 1994 to 1997. PMID:26019202

  1. Survey of community-associated-methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Slovenia: identification of community-associated and livestock-associated clones.

    PubMed

    Dermota, U; Mueller-Premru, M; Švent-Kučina, N; Petrovič, Ž; Ribič, H; Rupnik, M; Janežič, S; Zdovc, I; Grmek-Košnik, I

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Slovenia is poorly documented. The aim of this study was to investigate susceptibility patterns, virulence gene profile and clonality among MRSA isolates with positive screened resistance phenotype for CA-MRSA collected from patients in Slovenia, from January 2010 to December 2010. We included only MRSA isolates that were resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin, and susceptible to at least two of the following four antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin or gentamicin (presumptive CA-MRSA). Altogether 151 isolates fulfilled our screening phenotypic definition, 126 MRSA isolates were classified as CA-MRSA and 25 as HA-MRSA. Thirty-six per cent of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 24% to clindamycin, 33% to erythromycin and 13% to gentamicin. The mecA gene was detected in 150 isolates, while the mecC gene only in 1 isolate. The MRSA isolates were classified to 19 different clones. The most prevalent sequence types were ST5 (26.4%), ST45 (25.2%), ST22 (10.6%), ST398 (9.9%), ST8 (5.9%), ST7 (4.6%), ST1 (3.9%), ST152/377 (3.3%), ST228 (2.6%) and ST2883 (1.3%). The ST6, ST9, ST30, ST72, ST88, ST111, ST130, ST225 and ST772 were identified sporadically. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected in 13 (8.6%) isolates that belonged to ST5, ST7, ST8, ST22, ST72, ST88, ST 152/377 and ST772. Our results show high variability of CA-MRSA circulating in Slovenia and also the presence of LA-MRSA clones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy humans with different levels of contact with animals in Tunisia: genetic lineages, methicillin resistance, and virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Ben Slama, K; Gharsa, H; Klibi, N; Jouini, A; Lozano, C; Gómez-Sanz, E; Zarazaga, M; Boudabous, A; Torres, C

    2011-04-01

    Nasal swabs of 423 healthy humans who showed different levels of contact with animals (frequent, 168; sporadic, 94; no contact, 161) were obtained in Tunisia (2008-2009), and 99 of them presented other associated risk factors. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected in one of these 423 samples (0.24%), retrieved from a veterinarian. The MRSA isolate was mecA-positive, typed as ST80-t203-SCCmecIVc-agrIII, and contained tet(K), ant(6)-Ia, and aph(3')-IIIa genes encoding tetracycline, streptomycin, and kanamycin resistance, respectively. This MRSA isolate also contained the lukF/lukS virulence gene encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Fifty-four (12.8%) additional nasal samples contained methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and one isolate/sample was characterized. A high diversity of spa types (n = 43; 4 new) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (n = 37) was detected among the 55 recovered S. aureus strains. The percentages of antimicrobial resistance/detected resistance genes were as follows: tetracycline [22%/tet(K)-tet(L)-tet(M)], erythromycin [5%/msrA], ciprofloxacin [14.5%], trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [2%/dfrA], streptomycin [11%/ant(6)-Ia], kanamycin [7%/aph(3')-IIIa], amikacin [5%], and chloramphenicol [2%]. Four and two isolates carried the lukF/lukS and eta and/or etb genes, respectively, and always in individuals with contact with animals. Eleven isolates carried the tst gene and were recovered from individuals with different levels of contact with animals.

  3. Optimisation explains global leaf trait patterns and plant adaptations to global change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, R. C.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Measured values of four key leaf traits (leaf area per unit mass, nitrogen concentration, photosynthetic rate and leaf lifespan) co-vary globally according to relationships that hold across all the world’s terrestrial plants. The same leaf traits respond consistently to altered environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen supply). Explaining observed global leaf trait patterns and leaf responses to environmental change is a prerequisite to understanding and predicting vegetation responses to global change more generally across a range of time scales. Recently [1] we have shown, using a simple model of plant carbon-nitrogen economy, that all of these leaf trait patterns and responses are consistent with an optimisation hypothesis that cumulative carbon export from leaves over their lifespan is maximised. Various closely-related optimisation hypotheses also explain other plant adaptations to environmental change, such as stomatal responses and altered patterns of growth allocation [2]. Incorporating plant optimisation into large scale vegetation-atmosphere models would ensure they are consistent with global leaf trait relationships, and would improve predictions of vegetation responses to global change. The challenge, both scientific and operational, is to do this consistently over a wide range of time scales. This talk will review our recent work using plant optimisation models [1,2] and highlight the potential of Maximum Entropy Production as a unifying optimisation principle for plant and ecosystem function across different time scales [3]. [1] McMurtrie RE, Dewar RC. 2009. Global variation of leaf traits explained from an hypothesis of optimal plant function. Manuscript in preparation. [2] Dewar RC, Franklin O, Makela A, McMurtrie RE, Valentine HT. 2009. Optimal function explains forest responses to global change. BioScience 59:127-139. [3] Dewar RC. 2009. Maximum entropy production and plants. Submitted to Phil

  4. CALL FOR PAPERS: Photorefractive Materials and Effects for Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Guest editors: Professor Valentin Vlad National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest, Romania Professor Eugenio Fazio Università di Roma `La Sapienza', Italy Professor Mike Damzen Imperial College, London, UK A topical issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics will be devoted to papers reporting new results in the field of photorefractive effects and their applications in photonics. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletnew photorefractive materials (fast, sensitive in IR) bulletwave mixing in photorefractives bulletphotorefractive phase conjugators bulletholographic storage in photorefractive materials bulletphotorefractive spatial solitons bulletadaptive interconnection with photorefractive devices bulletphase conjugate interferometry bulletoptical analogue and digital computing (including optical correlators) bulletother applications and devices using photorefractive effects. The topical issue is scheduled for publication in November 2003. All papers will be peer reviewed and the normal refereeing standards of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics will be maintained. Manuscripts should be prepared according to the general guidelines for authors published in the journal. Full details on how to structure an article, including specific information on figures, tables and references, are available from our Web site at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopa. There are no page charges. In addition to the usual 25 free offprints, the contributing author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Manuscripts should be submitted to the Publisher by 1 May 2003, although authors are strongly encouraged to submit their work as soon as possible. Please include a covering letter stating that the submission is intended for the Photorefractive Materials and Effects for Photonics special issue, to avoid treatment as a regular submission. Submission address: Dr Claire Blay

  5. Characterization of a PVL-negative community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain of sequence type 88 in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Wu, Dandan; Chen, Yan; Wang, Qian; Wang, Haiping; Yu, Yunsong

    2017-09-01

    Sequence type 88 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain SR434, isolated from an outpatient with skin and soft tissue infection, was subjected to whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, mouse skin infection model and hemolysis analysis to identify its virulence and resistance determinants. MRSA strain SR434 is resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and fosfomycin. Four plasmids with resistance genes were identified in this strain, including a 20,658bp blaZ-carrying plasmid, a 2473bp ermC-carrying plasmid, a 2622bp fosB7-carrying plasmid (86% identity with plasmid in a ST2590 MRSA strain) and a 4817bp lnuA-carrying plasmid (99% identity with pLNU4 from bovine coagulase-nagetive Staphylococci). This strain contains staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV and does not contain arginine catabolic mobile element or Panton-Valentine-Leukocidin. SR434 harbors genomic islands νSaα, νSaβ, νSaγ and ΦSa3 and pathogenicity islands νSa2 that carries genes encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, superantigen enterotoxin C and superantigen enterotoxin L. Mouse skin infection model results show that SR434 had similar virulence potential causing invasive skin infection as a PVL-negative epidemic Korea clone HL1 (ST72). CA-MRSA strain of ST88 lineage might be a great concern for its high virulence. PVL has limited contribution to virulence phenotype among this lineage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus Isolate Genotypes and Infections from the Dawn of the Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Epidemic Era in Chicago, 1994 to 1997.

    PubMed

    David, Michael Z; Acree, Mary Ellen; Sieth, Julia J; Boxrud, Dave J; Dobbins, Ginette; Lynfield, Ruth; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Widespread infections with community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have occurred in the United States with the dissemination of the USA300 strain beginning in 2000. We examined 105 isolates obtained from children treated at the University of Chicago from 1994 to 1997 (75 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and 30 MRSA isolates) in order to investigate for possible evidence of USA300 during this period. Infections were defined epidemiologically based on medical record review. The isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), as well as assays for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, the protein A gene (spa), and arcA and opp3, proxy markers for the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), characteristic of USA300 MRSA. MRSA isolates also underwent staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping. MSSA isolates belonged to 17 sequence type (ST) groups. The 12 epidemiologically defined CA-MRSA infection isolates were either ST1 (n = 4) or ST8 (n = 8). They belonged to 3 different PFGE types: USA100 (n = 1), USA400 (n = 5), and USA500 (n = 6). Among the CA-MRSA infection isolates, 8 (67%) were PVL(+). None of the MRSA or MSSA isolates contained arcA or opp3. Only one MRSA isolate was USA300 by PFGE. This was a health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolate, negative for PVL, that carried SCCmec type II. USA300 with its characteristic features was not identified in the collection from the years 1994 to 1997. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Antibiotic resistance and clonal diversity of invasive Staphylococcus aureus in the rural Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Denise; Wolters, Manuel; Mertens, Eva; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Krumkamp, Ralf; Eibach, Daniel; Schwarz, Norbert G; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Rohde, Holger; Christner, Martin; Marks, Florian; Sarpong, Nimako; May, Jürgen

    2016-11-29

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common pathogens isolated from blood cultures in Ghana; yet the epidemiology of blood infections in rural settings is poorly described. This study aims to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal diversity of S. aureus causing bloodstream infections in two hospitals in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Blood cultures were performed for all febrile patients (≥37.5 °C) on hospital admission. Antibiotic susceptibility testing for S. aureus isolates was carried out by the VITEK 2 system. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect S. aureus-specific nuc gene, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)-specific mecA and mecC genes. The population structure of S. aureus was assessed by spa typing. In total, 9,834 blood samples were cultured, out of which 0.6% (n = 56) were positive for S. aureus. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was detected in 35.7% (n = 20) of the S. aureus strains, of which one was a MRSA. The highest rate of antibiotic resistance was seen for commonly available antibiotics, including penicillin (n = 55; 98.2%), tetracycline (n = 32; 57.1%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (n = 26; 46.4%). Of all S. aureus strains, 75.0% (n = 42) carried the PVL-encoding genes. We found 25 different spa types with t355 (n = 11; 19.6%), t314 (n = 8; 14.3%), t084 (n = 8; 14.3%) and t311 (n = 5; 8.9%) being predominant. The study exhibited an alarmingly large level of antibiotic resistance to locally available antibiotics. The frequency of genetically diverse and PVL-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was high and could represent a reservoir for the emergence of virulent PVL-positive MRSA clones.

  8. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Beefpacking Workers in a Midwestern United States Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    Leibler, Jessica H.; Jordan, Jeanne A.; Brownstein, Kirsten; Lander, Lina; Price, Lance B.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation. PMID:26866374

  10. Virus-associated apoptosis of blood neutrophils as a risk factor for invasive meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Harry; Rogers, Sharon L; Smith, Helen V; Gillis, David; Siskind, Victor; Smith, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    Aims To quantify a range of haematological indicators of viral infection (leucocyte apoptosis, cytopenia of normal lymphocytes, reactive lymphocyte increase, neutropenia) in patients with recent onset invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), with a view to test the association of viral infection with IMD and identify possible haematological risk factors for its development. Subjects and methods 88 patients with recent onset IMD, classified on clinical severity as fatal (n=14), septic shock survived (n=26) and no shock (n=48), and 50 healthy controls were studied. Blood film microscopy and leucocyte counts were used to quantify the virus-associated indicators. Cocci-containing neutrophils were also quantified. Results All viral parameters were significantly more frequent or higher in patients than controls, with leucocyte apoptosis found only in the patients. A significant gradient in accord with clinical severity was found for neutrophil and lymphocyte apoptosis, neutropenia and cocci-containing neutrophils. Crucially, apoptotic neutrophils did not contain cocci, and cocci-containing neutrophils were not apoptotic. Conclusions The correlation between magnitude of neutrophil apoptosis and severity of IMD suggests a cause–effect relationship. We propose that neutrophil apoptosis is more likely a facilitator rather than an effect of IMD for these reasons: (1) apoptotic neutrophils did not contain cocci and cocci-containing neutrophils were not apoptotic, (2) leucocyte apoptosis is a recognised viral effect and (3) Neisseria meningitidis is incapable of producing a Panton–Valentine type leucocidin. The lymphocyte apoptosis which accompanies neutrophil death may contribute to risk by impairing the generation of microbicidal antibody. Leucocyte apoptosis is a morphological expression of viral immunosuppression and, we suggest, is a likely contributor to a range of viral effects. PMID:23801496

  11. Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), USA300 Sequence Type 8 Lineage in Latin-America

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jinnethe; Rincón, Sandra; Díaz, Lorena; Panesso, Diana; Contreras, Germán A.; Zurita, Jeannete; Carrillo, Carlos; Rizzi, Adele; Guzmán, Manuel; Adachi, Javier; Chowdhury, Shahreen; Murray, Barbara E.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-associated (CA) pathogen. Recently, a variant of the MRSA USA300 clone emerged and disseminated in South-America causing important clinical problems. Methods S. aureus isolates were prospectively collected (2006 to 2008) from 32 tertiary hospitals in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. MRSA isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and categorized as healthcare-associated (HA)-like or CA-like clones based on genotypic characteristics and detection of genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) IV. Additionally, MLST of representative isolates of each major CA-MRSA pulsotype, and detection of USA300-associated toxins and the arcA gene were performed in all isolates categorized as CA-MRSA. Results A total of 1570 S. aureus were included; 651 were MRSA (41%), with the highest rates of MRSA isolation in Peru (62%), and lowest in Venezuela (26%) and 71%, 27%, and 2% were classified as HA-like, CA-like, and non-CA/HA-like clones, respectively. Only 9 MRSA isolates were confirmed to have reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides (GISA phenotype). The most common pulsotype (designated ComA) amongst the CA-like MRSA strains was found in 96% of isolates with the majority (81%) having ≤6 bands difference with the USA300-0114 strain. Representative isolates of this clone were ST8 but, unlike the USA300-0114 strain, they harbored a different SCCmec IV subtype and lacked arcA (an indicator of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME)). Conclusion A variant CA-MRSA USA300 clone has now become established in South America and, in some countries, is endemic in hospital settings. PMID:19911971

  12. Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the case for a genotypic definition.

    PubMed

    Otter, J A; French, G L

    2012-07-01

    New distinct strains of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have emerged as a cause of infection in previously healthy individuals in community settings. It is important to identify CA-MRSA for clinical management, epidemiological analysis, infection prevention and control, and regulatory reporting, but definitions and nomenclature of these strains are confused. To review attempts to define CA-MRSA and propose a new definition. Non-systematic review. Epidemiological definitions were useful for differentiating CA-MRSA and healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA strain types in the past. However, although HA-MRSA strain types are rarely transmitted in the community, CA-MRSA strains have started to be transmitted in healthcare facilities, so epidemiological definitions are breaking down. CA-MRSA are community strains of S. aureus that have acquired the meticillin resistance gene, mecA. They are distinct from HA-MRSA and should be defined genetically. This may be done by combining genotypic typing by multi-locus sequence or spa with analysis of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec. Carriage of Panton-Valentine leukocidin or antimicrobial susceptibility profiles can be useful indicators of CA-MRSA but should not be used for their definition. For full assessment of their epidemiology, MRSA infections should be characterized as: (1) caused by HA- or CA-MRSA strain types; (2) acquired in community or healthcare settings; and (3) onset in the community or healthcare facility. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Luanda, Angola: first description of the spread of the MRSA ST5-IVa clone in the African continent.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Teresa; Coelho, Céline; Santos-Silva, Isabel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen worldwide, and although surveillance studies are available in the most developed countries, data from Angola are inexistent. In June 2012, 295 inpatients and 199 healthcare workers from three hospitals in Luanda, Angola were nasal swabbed for S. aureus and MRSA carriage. A total of 117 individuals (23.7%) were S. aureus nasal carriers, out of which 68 (58.1%) were colonized with MRSA. The majority of the MRSA isolates (74%) belonged to a single clonal lineage, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) A-ST5-IVa associated with three spa types (spa types t105/t311/t11657), followed by PFGE C-ST88-IVa (spa types t186/t325/t786/t1951/t3869) (n=9; 12%); the other 11 MRSA isolates were representatives of 4 additional lineages. Almost half (49%) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates belonged to three major clones: PFGE B-ST508 (spa types t050/t861/t1346/t1574/t2626/t12218), PFGE D-ST45 (spa types t939/t11656), and PFGE E-ST30 (spa types t1202/t9118). MSSA isolates presented a high variability of virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidine (7.9%). MRSA carriage in Luanda is considerably high, and the major clone corresponds to a worldwide epidemic lineage, so far scarcely reported in Africa. Additional infection control measures in this metropolis are mandatory for a global MRSA control.

  14. Molecular characterisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated at a large referral hospital in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Samutela, Mulemba Tillika; Kalonda, Annie; Mwansa, James; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe; Mwaba, John; Mumbula, Enoch Mulowa; Mwenya, Darlington; Simulundu, Edgar; Kwenda, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is globally recognized as an important public health problem. Whereas comprehensive molecular typing data of MRSA strains is available, particularly in Europe, North America and Australia, similar information is very limited in sub-Saharan Africa including Zambia. In this study, thirty two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, collected at a large referral hospital in Lusaka, Zambia between June 2009 and December 2012 were analysed by Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa) and detection of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes (pvl). Three SCCmec types were identified namely SCCmec type IV (65.6%), SCCmec type III (21.9%), SCCmec type I (3.1%). Nine point four percent (9.4%) of the isolates were untypable. Five spa types, which included a novel type, were detected and the most prevalent spa type was t064 (40.6%). Other spa types included spa types t2104 (31.3%), t355 (3.1%) and t1257 (21.9%). The pvl genes were detected in 3 out of 32 isolates. These molecular typing data indicated that the MRSA strains collected in Lusaka were diverse. Although the source of these MRSA was not established, these results stress the need for assessing infection prevention and control procedures at this health-care facility in order to curtail possible nosocomial infections. Furthermore, country-wide surveillance of MRSA in both the community and health-care facilities is recommended for infection prevention and control. To our knowledge, this represents the first study to characterise MRSA using molecular tools in Zambia.

  15. Jumping over the hurdles to effectively communicate the Operational Earthquake Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, S.; Wein, A. M.; Becker, J.; Potter, S.; Tilley, E. N.; Gerstenberger, M.; Orchiston, C.; Johnston, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Probabilities, uncertainties, statistics, science, and threats are notoriously difficult topics to communicate with members of the public. The Operational Earthquake Forecast (OEF) is designed to provide an understanding of potential numbers and sizes of earthquakes and the communication of it must address all of those challenges. Furthermore, there are other barriers to effective communication of the OEF. These barriers include the erosion of trust in scientists and experts, oversaturation of messages, fear and threat messages magnified by the sensalisation of the media, fractured media environments and online echo chambers. Given the complexities and challenges of the OEF, how can we overcome barriers to effective communication? Crisis and risk communication research can inform the development of communication strategies to increase the public understanding and use of the OEF, when applied to the opportunities and challenges of practice. We explore ongoing research regarding how the OEF can be more effectively communicated - including the channels, tools and message composition to engage with a variety of publics. We also draw on past experience and a study of OEF communication during the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). We demonstrate how research and experience has guided OEF communications during subsequent events in New Zealand, including the M5.7 Valentine's Day earthquake in 2016 (CES), M6.0 Wilberforce earthquake in 2015, and the Cook Strait/Lake Grassmere earthquakes in 2013. We identify the successes and lessons learned of the practical communication of the OEF. Finally, we present future projects and directions in the communication of OEF, informed by both practice and research.

  16. Genotyping of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains among outpatients in a teaching hospital in Japan: application of a phage-open reading frame typing (POT) kit.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tadashi; Saga, Tomoo; Miyazaki, Taito; Kouyama, Yuichi; Harada, Sohei; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Kimura, Soichiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Urita, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to elucidate the current epidemiological features of outpatient skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Japan. Altogether, we evaluated the performance of a phage-open reading frame typing (POT) kit for genotyping these MRSA strains. We collected 57 MRSA strains from all outpatients with SSTIs attending a teaching hospital in Japan. Drug susceptibility measurement and genotyping including SCCmec typing, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and commercial POT-kit were performed. The majority of strains (39 strains, 68 %) had the SCCmec-II element. Seventeen strains (30 %) with SCCmec-IV accounted for the second largest population. Strains with SCCmec-IV and SCCmec-V appeared multiclonal, and a predominance of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene-negative CC8/spa-CC008 strains, as well as the first isolate of an ST93 strain in Japan, was observed among them. Only one USA300 strain was identified. Strains with SCCmec-IV and SCCmec-V were significantly susceptible to antimicrobials. The PVL gene was found in 5 SCCmec-IV strains and 1 SCCmec-V strain. The POT-kit successfully predicted the SCCmec type in 54 strains (95 %), and typing by POT1 scores was highly concordant with SCCmec typing and spa typing. Moreover, three PVL-positive strains fell into a particular POT type (POT scores, 106-77-113). Simpson's index of the POT-kit was 0.977. In conclusion, the present study clarified the multiclonal nature of outpatient SSTI-associated MRSA in a teaching hospital in Japan. These data also underscore the utility of the POT-kit for non-outbreak surveillance through its simple platform consisting of two multiplex PCRs without sequencing.

  17. Characterization of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from international human and veterinary surgeons.

    PubMed

    Post, Virginia; Harris, Llinos G; Morgenstern, Mario; Geoff Richards, R; Sheppard, Samuel K; Fintan Moriarty, T

    2017-03-01

    Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is poorly described for surgeons, despite the increased exposure to nosocomial pathogens and at-risk patients. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of 26 MRSA isolates cultured from the nares of an international cross-sectional study of 1166 human and 60 veterinary surgeons. All isolates were subjected to agr, spa and multilocus sequence typing, and the presence of 22 virulence factors was screened for by PCR. Additionally, biofilm-forming ability, haemolytic activity, staphyloxanthin production and antibiotic resistance were determined. The genome of a rifampicin-resistant MRSA was sequenced. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to well-described clonal lineages, ST1, ST5, ST8, ST45 and ST59, that have previously been associated with severe infections and increased patient mortality. Two of the three veterinarian MRSA belonged to epidemic livestock-associated MRSA clonal lineages (ST398 and ST8) previously associated with high transmission potential between animals and humans. The isolates did not display any consistent virulence gene pattern, and 35 % of the isolates carried at least one of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukFS-PV), exfoliative toxin (eta) or toxic shock syndrome (tst) genes. Resistance to rifampicin was detected in one veterinarian isolate and was found to be due to three mutations in the rpoB gene. Surgeons occupy a critical position in the healthcare profession due to their close contact with patients. In this study, surgeons were found to be colonized with MRSA at low rates, similar to those of the general population, and the colonizing strains were often common clonal lineages.

  18. Quantifying the Convexity of Waterfalls Along the Niobrara River, Cherry, Keya Paha, and Brown Counties, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, L. J.; Pederson, D. T.; Goble, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Numerous waterfalls are present along the spring branch canyons of the Niobrara River, downstream of Cornell Dam, Valentine, Nebraska. Although the sizes of the waterfalls are variable, a majority of the waterfall faces have a convex outward geometry. In order to gain a better understanding of the processes responsible for the development of this profile, it is useful to quantify the convexity of the waterfall face. Due to the rugged topography of the spring branch canyon environment, traditional techniques, such as pin-flag and tape measurements are not practical and even dangerous. The waterfall faces are often greater than 3 meters high, steep, and algae covered. The spring branch canyon walls are also steep with actively creeping scree slopes along the bases. Therefore, due to this topography there is no easy way to access the waterfall faces for accurate measurements. The measurement problem was overcome by using a hand-held laser meter mounted on a tripod. A baseline was established below the waterfall face. The length of the baseline was measured using the hand-held laser meter. Measurements were taken on distinct features across the waterfall face and sidewalls from both endpoints of the baseline. The angle of the laser off the baseline and off the horizontal were measured using a compass with mirror. With these measurements, the waterfall faces profile relative to the baseline was reconstructed. A hand-held laser meter is an important tool for measuring waterfalls and other geomorphic features in hazardous environments because measurements can be taken from a safe location. It is possible for one person to take accurate measurements. New baselines can readily be established to measure relative erosion along the waterfall face over time.

  19. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of shanghai.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-24

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses' hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention.

  20. Synergy between gemifloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Steven N; Kaatz, Glenn W; Rucker, Latoyia R; Rybak, Michael J

    2008-12-01

    The rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the community (CA-MRSA) presents difficulties in making treatment choices. We evaluated whether combining another orally available agent commonly used to treat CA-MRSA with gemifloxacin would enhance gemifloxacin activity against CA-MRSA. Fifty strains of SCCmec IV, agr group 1, Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive CA-MRSA were evaluated for susceptibilities to gemifloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline, levofloxacin, rifampicin, clindamycin and erythromycin. Twenty of these strains were evaluated for the potential for synergy between gemifloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin and rifampicin by time-kill analysis. Two strains were further evaluated in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. In time-kill analyses, gemifloxacin combined with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole produced additivity (6/20) or synergy (11/20) in 85% of the isolates tested. The addition of clindamycin to gemifloxacin showed additivity (3/20) or synergy (2/20) in 25% of the isolates. All isolates displayed indifference to the combination of gemifloxacin and rifampicin. In the PK/PD model, combining gemifloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole provided potent and sustained bactericidal activity to detection limits of 2 log(10) cfu/mL by 48 h; gemifloxacin combined with clindamycin or with rifampicin killed to detection limits by 56 h or later. One isolate developed efflux-mediated resistance to gemifloxacin at 96 h with gemifloxacin monotherapy. All combinations prevented the emergence of this resistance. Synergy or additivity was demonstrated by time-kill analysis between gemifloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in most isolates tested. In the PK/PD model, the addition of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin and rifampicin enhanced the activity of gemifloxacin against CA-MRSA and suppressed the emergence of resistance to gemifloxacin.

  1. New insights into meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pathogenesis, treatment and resistance.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ian M; David, Michael Z; Esposito, Silvano; Garau, Javier; Lina, Gerard; Mazzei, Teresita; Peters, Georg

    2012-02-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the principal multiply resistant bacterial pathogens causing serious healthcare-associated and community-onset infections. This paper reviews recent studies that have elucidated the virulence strategies employed by MRSA, key clinical trials of agents used to treat serious MRSA infections, and accumulating data regarding the implications of antibacterial resistance in MRSA for clinical success during therapy. Recent pre-clinical data support a species-specific role for Panton-Valentine leukocidin in the development of acute severe S. aureus infections and have elucidated other virulence mechanisms, including novel modes of internalisation, varying post-invasion strategies (featuring both upregulation and downregulation of virulence factors) and phenotypic switching. Recent double-blind, randomised, phase III/IV clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of linezolid and telavancin in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by MRSA. Tigecycline was non-inferior to imipenem/cilastatin in non-ventilator-associated HAP but was inferior in ventilator-associated pneumonia and has shown a higher rate of death than comparators on meta-analysis. Ceftaroline was clinically and microbiologically non-inferior to vancomycin/aztreonam in the treatment of MRSA cSSSI. Key resistance issues include a rise in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations in MRSA, reports of clonal isolates with linezolid resistance mediated by acquisition of the chloramphenicol/florfenicol resistance gene, and case reports of daptomycin resistance resulting in clinical failure. Novel antimicrobial targets must be identified with some regularity or we will face the risk of untreatable S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Botucatu, Brazil: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Fabiana Venegas; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Abraão, Lígia Maria; Martins, Patrícia Y. F.; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the incidence and severity of staphylococcal infections renewed interest in studies that assess the burden of asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the community setting. We conducted a population-based survey in the city of Botucatu, Brazil (122,000 inhabitants), in order to identify the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains). Nasal swabs were obtained from 686 persons over one year of age. Resistance to methicillin was assessed through phenotypic methods, identification of the mecA gene and typing of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were characterized using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and spa typing. Polymerase chain reaction was applied to identify genes coding for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) in isolates. The prevalence of overall S. aureus carriage was 32.7% (95%CI, 29.2%–36.2%). Carriers were significantly younger (mean age, 28.1 versus 36.3 for non-carriers; OR for age, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.97–0.99) and likely to report recent skin infection (OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 1.03–3.34). Carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found in 0.9% of study subjects (95%CI, 0.4%–1.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IV, and belonged to spa types t002 or t021, but none among them harbored genes coding for PLV. In MLST, most isolates belonged to clones ST5 or ST1776. However, we found one subject who carried a novel clone, ST2594. Two out of six MRSA carriers had household contacts colonized with isolates similar to theirs. Our study pointed to dissemination of community-associated MRSA among the Brazilian population. PMID:24663818

  3. Transmission of MRSA between humans and animals on duck and turkey farms.

    PubMed

    van Duijkeren, E; Hengeveld, P; Zomer, T P; Landman, F; Bosch, T; Haenen, A; van de Giessen, A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of MRSA on duck and turkey farms, identify risk factors for human carriage and study transmission between animals and humans. On 10 duck and 10 turkey farms, samples were taken from animals, poultry houses, home residences and humans and cultured using pre-enrichment and selective enrichment. MRSA isolates were typed by spa typing and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing. A subset of isolates from animals and humans was investigated using whole-genome mapping. MRSA was found on one duck farm and three turkey farms. On duck farms, all humans were MRSA negative. On turkey farms, 5 of 11 farmers, 2 of 32 family members and 15 of 49 samples from the home residences were MRSA positive. Individuals with daily contact with turkeys were significantly more often MRSA positive than individuals without daily contact. All MRSA isolates belonged to livestock-associated MLVA complex 398, belonged to spa type t011, were negative for Panton-Valentine leucocidin, were mecC negative and were mecA positive. Whole-genome mapping proved a valuable tool to study the transmission of livestock-associated MRSA and showed that on two turkey farms the isolates from the animals and humans were indistinguishable or closely related, indicating transmission. MRSA carriage in individuals in daily contact with turkeys was significantly higher than that in individuals only living on the farms or than in the general Dutch population. Therefore, persons with a high degree of contact with turkeys have an increased risk of MRSA carriage, and we propose that they should be screened prior to hospitalization in order to decrease the risk of nosocomial transmission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    OsO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A1 and A2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF6, for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ν3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues (192OsO4, 190OsO4, 189OsO4, 188OsO4), by considering the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues (187OsO4, 186OsO4, 184OsO4). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

  5. Asphalt Volcanism as a Model to Understand the Geochemical Nature of Pitch Lake, a Planetary Analog for Titan and the Implications towards Methane Flux into Earth's Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Pitch Lake is located in the southwest peninsula of the island near La Brea in Trinidad and Tobago, covering an area of approximately 46 hectares. It was discovered in the year 1595 and is the largest of three natural asphalt lakes that exist on Earth. Pitch Lake is a large oval shaped reservoir composed of dominantly hydrocarbon compounds, but also includes minor amounts of clay and muddy water. It is a natural liquid asphalt desert, which is nourished by a form of petroleum consisting of mostly asphaltines from the surrounding oil-rich region. The hydrocarbons mix with mud and gases under high pressure during upward seepage, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a high-viscosity liquid asphalt residue. The residue on and near the surface is a hydrocarbon matrix, which poses extremely challenging environmental conditions to microorganisms characterized by an average low water activity in the range of 0.49 to 0.75, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and toxic chemical compounds. Nevertheless, an active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical analyses of minerals, done by our team, which revealed sulfates, sulfides, silicates, and metals, normally associated with deep-water hydrothermal vents leads to our new hypothetical model to describe the origins of Pitch Lake and its importance to atmospheric and earth sciences. Pitch Lake is likely the terrestrial equivalent of an offshore submarine asphalt volcano just as La Brea Tar Pits are in some ways an on-land version of the asphalt volcanoes discovered off shore of Santa Barbara by Valentine et al. in 2010. Asphalt volcanism possibly also creates the habitat for chemosynthetic life that is widespread in this lake, as reported by Schulze-Makuch et al. in 2011 and Meckenstock et al. in 2014.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, virulence traits, antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and genetic lineages in healthy humans in Spain, with detection of CC398 and CC97 strains.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Benito, Daniel; Aspiroz, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    S. aureus nasal carriage was investigated in 278 healthy humans, determining the antibiotic resistance mechanisms, virulence traits, and genetic lineages of recovered isolates. Nasal samples were cultured in specific media for S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) recovery. S. aureus was detected in 53 of 278 nasal samples (19.1%): MRSA was found in one sample (0.4%) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) in the remaining 52 samples. The MRSA isolate was typed as ST1649-t701-agrI-SCCmec-IVc and only exhibited resistance to beta-lactams. A high diversity of spa types (n=37) was identified among the 52 MSSA, identifying 5 new spa-types. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) typing was performed in 30 selected MSSA, detecting 16 different sequence types, 2 of them being new. MSSA strains presented agr types I (30.2%), II (30.2%), III (34%), and IV (5.6%). Eleven strains showed erythromycin resistance and harbored different combinations of erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), and msr(A) genes. Two strains exhibited ciprofloxacin resistance, and one of them presented amino acid changes in GyrA and GrlA proteins. The presence of 28 genes encoding staphylococcal toxins was investigated by PCR in all 53 S. aureus isolates. The toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in 15 MSSA isolates (11 of them typed within the clonal complex CC30) and the gene of exfoliative toxin A in 2 strains. Different combinations of enterotoxin genes were identified among S. aureus strains. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Two MSSA presented the sequence-type ST398 [harboring erm(T) gene], and 2 additional isolates were typed as ST97. Interestingly, MSSA CC398 and CC97 isolates were detected. These clonal complexes are associated with food-producing animals.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization in Children Attending Child Care Centers▿

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa B.; Weber, David J.; Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Popowitch, Elena B.; Poe, Michele D.; Nyugen, Viet; Shope, Timothy R.; Foster, David T.; Miller, James R.; Kotch, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Children attending child care centers (CCCs) are at increased risk for infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nasal colonization often precedes infection, and MRSA colonization has been associated with increased infection risk. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has caused increased MRSA infections in the general population, including children. Little is known about the frequency of MRSA nasal colonization in young children, particularly in those attending CCCs where disease transmission is common. We sampled the nares of 1,163 children in 200 classrooms from 24 CCCs in North Carolina and Virginia to assess S. aureus colonization. MRSA strains were molecularly analyzed for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, Panton-Valentine leukocidin status, and multilocus sequence type. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization. We found that 18.1% children were colonized with S. aureus and 1.3% with MRSA. Molecular analysis of the MRSA strains identified 47% as CA-MRSA and 53% as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Although two centers had multiple children colonized with MRSA, genotyping indicated that no transmission had occurred within classrooms. The case-control study did not detect statistically significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. However, MRSA-colonized children were more likely to be nonwhite and to have increased exposure to antibiotics and skin infections in the home. Both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains were found colonizing the nares of children attending CCCs. The low frequency of colonization observed highlights the need for a large multicenter study to determine risk factors for MRSA colonization and subsequent infection in this highly susceptible population. PMID:21191058

  8. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (p<0.05). Twenty-six pets and five VP carried PVL-positive S. aureus. In total, 60 S. aureus strains were recovered (53 from pets, seven from VP) of which 16 were MRSA (26.7%), 12 mecA- and four mecC-positive. MRSA showed higher resistance rates against other antimicrobials as compared to methicillin-susceptible ones. Strains were classified by MLST in 13 STs, with the predominance of ST80 and ST15. In MRSA, SCCmec types II, IV and XI were identified. The most frequent spa types were t5559 and t7558. Fifty-six strains were classified into 15 PFGE types. Comparison of genetic markers shows that identical or very similar strains disseminate among animals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Age-Dependent Risk of Death Associated With lukF-PV-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Trine A.; Skov, Robert; Petersen, Andreas; Larsen, Anders R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Panton-Valentine leucocidin is a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV that is infrequent in S aureus bacteremia (SAB), and, therefore, little is known about risk factors and outcome of lukF-PV/lukS-PV-positive SAB. Methods. This report is a register-based nationwide observational cohort study. lukF-PV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with the presence of lukF-PV were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Adjusted 30-day hazard ratios of mortality associated with lukF-PV status were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results. Of 9490 SAB cases, 129 were lukF-PV-positive (1.4%), representing 14 different clonal complexes. lukF-PV was associated with younger age, absence of comorbidity, and methicillin-resistant S aureus. In unadjusted analysis, mortality associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB was comparable to SAB. However, lukF-PV-positive SAB nonsurvivors were significantly older and had more comorbidity. Consequently, by adjusted analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was increased by 70% for lukF-PV-positive SAB compared with SAB (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.42; P = .003). Conclusions. lukF-PV-positive SAB is rare in Denmark but associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Although the risk of lukF-PV-positive SAB was highest in the younger age groups, >80% of deaths associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB occurred in individuals older than 55 years. PMID:27957504

  10. Development of a new pentaplex real-time PCR assay for the identification of poly-microbial specimens containing Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci, with simultaneous detection of staphylococcal virulence and methicillin resistance markers.

    PubMed

    Okolie, Charles E; Wooldridge, Karl G; Turner, David P; Cockayne, Alan; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains harbouring genes encoding virulence and antibiotic resistance are of public health importance. In clinical samples, pathogenic S. aureus is often mixed with putatively less pathogenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), both of which can harbour mecA, the gene encoding staphylococcal methicillin-resistance. There have been previous attempts at distinguishing MRSA from MRCoNS, most of which were based on the detection of one of the pathognomonic markers of S. aureus, such as coa, nuc or spa. That approach might suffice for discrete colonies and mono-microbial samples; it is inadequate for identification of clinical specimens containing mixtures of S. aureus and CoNS. In the present study, a real-time pentaplex PCR assay has been developed which simultaneously detects markers for bacteria (16S rRNA), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cns), S. aureus (spa), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) and methicillin resistance (mecA). Staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal bacterial strains (n = 283) were used to validate the new assay. The applicability of this test to clinical samples was evaluated using spiked blood cultures (n = 43) containing S. aureus and CoNS in mono-microbial and poly-microbial models, which showed that the 5 markers were all detected as expected. Cycling completes within 1 h, delivering 100% specificity, NPV and PPV with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(1) to 3.0 × 10(1) colony forming units (CFU)/ml, suggesting direct applicability in routine diagnostic microbiology. This is the most multiplexed real-time PCR-based PVL-MRSA assay and the first detection of a unique marker for CoNS without recourse to the conventional elimination approach. There was no evidence that this new assay produced invalid/indeterminate test results.

  11. Virulence determinants in clinical Staphylococcus aureus from monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shettigar, Kavitha; Jain, Spoorthi; Bhat, Deepika V; Acharya, Raviraj; Ramachandra, Lingadakai; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Murali, Thokur Sreepathy

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing was performed, and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin and leukotoxins DE and M were screened. Biofilm production was also quantified by the tissue culture plate method. Strains were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and repetitive sequence PCR methods. Polymicrobial infections were present in 115 samples, 61 samples showed monomicrobial infection and 24 samples were culture negative. Polymicrobial infections were significantly higher in patients with previous amputation history. Of the 86 samples infected with S. aureus, virulence genes were found in 81 isolates, and 41 isolates possessed more than one virulence gene. Strains which contained pvl gene alone or luk-DE alone were significantly higher in polymicrobial wounds. Based on biofilm production, 18.6 % of isolates were classified as high, 24.4 % as moderate and 57 % as low biofilm producers. Genotyping of 30 strains revealed 10 different sequence types with a strong association among sequence types, specific virulence markers and antibiotic resistance profiles. Moreover, isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wounds differed significantly in their virulence potential and the sequence types to which they belonged, and these are helpful in mapping the evolution of the identified strains of S. aureus.

  12. Rapid Probabilistic Source Inversion Using Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaeufl, P.; Valentine, A. P.; Trampert, J.

    2013-12-01

    Determination of earthquake source parameters is an important task in seismology. For many applications, it is also valuable to understand the uncertainties associated with these determinations, and this is particularly true in the context of earthquake early warning and hazard mitigation. We present a framework for probabilistic centroid moment tensor point source inversions in near real-time, applicable to a wide variety of data-types. Our methodology allows us to find an approximation to p(m|d), the conditional probability of source parameters (m) given observations, (d). This approximation is obtained by smoothly interpolating a set of random prior samples, using a machine learning algorithm able to learn the mapping from d to m. The approximation obtained can be evaluated within milliseconds on a standard desktop computer for a new observation (d). This makes the method well suited for use in situations such as earthquake early warning, where inversions must be performed routinely, for a fixed station geometry, and where it is important that results are obtained rapidly. This is a major advantage over traditional sampling based techniques, such as Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods, where a re-sampling of the posterior is necessary every time a new observation is made. We demonstrated the method by applying it to a regional static GPS displacement data set for the 2010 MW 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake in Baja California and obtained estimates of logarithmic magnitude, centroid location and depth, and focal mechanism (Käufl et al., submitted). We will present an extension of this approach to the inversion of full waveforms and explore possibilities for jointly inverting seismic and geodetic data. (1) P. Käufl, A. P. Valentine, T.B. O'Toole, J. Trampert, submitted, Geophysical Journal International

  13. Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors associated with infected skin lesions: influence on the local immune response.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Patricia M; Cardenas, Tatiana C P; Snyder, Richard V; Kinney, Megan A; Davis, Stephen C; Plano, Lisa R W

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate Staphylococcus aureus isolates from infected skin lesions for their potential to produce immune system-modulating toxins and to correlate these with white blood cell (WBC) counts associated with these lesions. Specimens were obtained for bacterial culture and gram staining from 105 infected skin lesions, and the number of WBCs per low-power field (LPF) was determined. Chromosomal DNA was prepared from 84 bacterial isolates and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the presence of genes encoding potential immunomodulating toxins. Bacterial populations were divided into 2 groups: those associated with low WBC counts (0-5 WBCs/LPF) and those with high WBC counts (> 5 WBCs/LPF). We applied chi(2) statistical analyses to compare the toxin gene profiles associated with WBC counts on initial swab for culture. Samples were obtained from patients at a single geographic location. A higher than expected percentage of bacteria capable of producing the exfoliative toxins A and/or B (ETA and/or ETB) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was seen in all skin lesions infected with S aureus without regard to WBC count with initial cultures. Comparison of the toxins associated with the low WBC group vs the high WBC group showed that low WBC counts were associated with ETA and ETB, while high WBC counts were associated with PVL and toxic shock syndrome toxin. There were no differences in the clinical appearance of the lesions between groups. Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors ETA, ETB, and PVL are associated with WBC counts from infected skin lesions. The exact role they play in affecting the WBC counts remains to be determined.

  14. List of Organizing Committees and Conference Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Romanian Neutron Scattering Society Sponsors Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, Czech Republic Programme Committee Valentin Gordely (chairman)Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Heinrich StuhrmannGermany Jose TeixeiraLaboratoire Leon Brillouin, France Pavel ApelJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Pavol BalgavyComenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Alexander BelushkinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Georg BueldtInstitute of Structural Biology and Biophysics (ISB), Germany Leonid BulavinTaras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine Emil BurzoBabes-Bolyai University, Romania Vadim CherezovThe Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, USA Ion IonitaRomanian Society of Neutron Scattering, Romania Alexei KhokhlovMoscow State University, Russia Aziz MuzafarovInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Alexander OzerinInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Gerard PepyResearch Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungary Josef PlestilInstitute of Macromolecular Chemistry CAS, Czech Republic Aurel RadulescuJuelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Germany Maria BalasoiuJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Alexander KuklinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Local Organizing Committee Alexander Kuklin - Chairman Maria Balasoiu - Co-chairman Tatiana Murugova - Secretary Natalia Malysheva Natalia Dokalenko Julia Gorshkova Andrey Rogachev Oleksandr Ivankov Dmitry Soloviev Lilia Anghel Erhan Raul The PDF also contains the Conference Programme.

  15. Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel A; Weeks, Justin W; Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; McEvoy, Peter M; Horswill, Samantha C; Heimberg, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) are companion scales developed to measure anxiety in social interaction and performance situations, respectively. The measures have strong discriminant and convergent validity; however, their factor structures remain debated, and furthermore, the combined administration length (i.e., 39 items) can be prohibitive for some settings. There have been 4 attempts to assess the factor structures of the scales and reduce the item content: the 14-item Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009), the 12-item SIAS-6/SPS-6 (Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012), the 21-item abbreviated SIAS/SPS (ASIAS/ASPS; Kupper & Denollet, 2012), and the 12-item Readability SIAS and SPS (RSIAS/RSPS; Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012). The current study compared the short forms on (a) factor structure, (b) ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations, (c) sensitivity to change following therapy, and (d) convergent validity with related measures. Participants included 3,607 undergraduate students (55% women) and 283 patients with social anxiety disorder (43% women). Results of confirmatory factor analyses, sensitivity analyses, and correlation analyses support the robust utility of items in the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 relative to the other short forms; furthermore, the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 were also supported by convergent validity analyses within the undergraduate sample. The RSIAS/RSPS and the ASIAS/ASPS were least supported, based on the current results and the principle of parsimony. Accordingly, researchers and clinicians should consider carefully which of the short forms will best suit their needs.

  16. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Children in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Benedikt; Azuure, Clinton; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Gajdiss, Mike; Brunke, Melanie; Sarpong, Nimako; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; May, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015. S. aureus isolates were characterized by their antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and further differentiated by spa-typing and multi-locus-sequence-typing. Results Out of 544 children 120 (22.1%) were colonized with S. aureus, with highest carriage rates during the rainy seasons (27.2%; p = 0.007), in females aged 6–8 years (43.7%) and males aged 8–10 years (35.2%). The 123 isolates belonged to 35 different spa-types and 19 sequence types (ST) with the three most prevalent spa-types being t355 (n = 25), t84 (n = 18), t939 (n = 13), corresponding to ST152, ST15 and ST45. Two (2%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), classified as t1096 (ST152) and t4454 (ST45), and 16 (13%) were resistant to three or more different antimicrobial classes. PVL and TSST-1 were detected in 71 (58%) and 17 (14%) isolates respectively. Conclusion S. aureus carriage among Ghanaian children seems to depend on age, sex and seasonality. While MRSA rates are low, the high prevalence of PVL is of serious concern as these strains might serve not only as a source for severe invasive infections but may also transfer genes, leading to highly virulent MRSA clones. PMID:28107412

  18. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available meat over a one-year period in Iowa, USA.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Forshey, Brett M; Kadariya, Jhalka; Quick, Megan K; Farina, Sarah; O' Brien, Ashley; Nair, Rajeshwari; Nworie, Amos; Hanson, Blake; Kates, Ashley; Wardyn, Shylo; Smith, Tara C

    2017-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of S. aureus, including MRSA, on raw meat products. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA in commercially-distributed antibiotic-free and conventional raw meat products (n = 3290) purchased in 8 Iowa retail stores weekly for a period of one year. Isolates were characterized using spa typing, and PCR was used to detect the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and mecA genes. Quantitation of S. aureus on meat products was carried out one week per month. The prevalence of S. aureus on meat samples was 27.8% (913/3290). Compared to antibiotic-free meat samples, higher prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were found in conventional meat samples. Among the S. aureus isolates, 18 were PVL-positive (1.9%) and 41 (4.5%) carried mecA. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was observed for 17.1% (41/239) of the isolates tested, while 23% (55/239) were multi-drug resistant. A total of 132 spa types were detected from 913 contaminated meat samples. Overall, t002 was the most common spa type identified (137; 15.0%). The number of colony-forming units (CFU) per 10 g meat ranged from 2 to 517 (median: 8 CFU per 10 g of meat; mean: 28) with the highest bacterial load observed on turkey samples. These data reinforce the need to consider meat products as potential vehicles of S. aureus transmission from farm into human households, and the potential need for public health intervention programs pre and post-slaughter in meat processing facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MRSA and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. retail meats, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beilei; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Davis, Johnnie A; Tran, Thu Thuy T; Yang, Qianru; Abbott, Jason W; Ayers, Sherry L; Young, Shenia R; Crarey, Emily T; Womack, Niketta A; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3.5%), followed by pork (1.9%), beef (1.7%), and chicken (0.3%). Whole-genome sequencing was performed for all 66 non-redundant MRSA. Among five multilocus sequence types identified, ST8 (72.7%) and ST5 (22.7%) were most common and livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was assigned to one pork isolate. Eleven spa types were represented, predominately t008 (43.9%) and t2031 (22.7%). All four types of meats harbored t008, whereas t2031 was recovered from turkey only. The majority of MRSA (84.8%) possessed SCCmec IV and 62.1% harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that all ST8 MRSA belonged to the predominant human epidemic clone USA300, and others included USA100 and USA200. We conclude that a diverse MRSA population was present in U.S. retail meats, albeit at low prevalence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Development and evaluation of hexaplex PCR for rapid detection of methicillin, cadmium/zinc and antiseptic-resistant staphylococci, with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sasmita; Kar, Sarita; Choudhury, Ranginee; Sharma, Savitri; Singh, Durg V

    2014-03-01

    We developed a multiplex PCR to detect the presence of methicillin- (mecA), cadmium/zinc-(czrC) and antiseptic-resistant (qacA/B) staphylococci and to identify Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from infected and healthy eyes. The assay was validated on 177 staphylococci comprising of 55 each of S. aureus and CoNS isolated from infected eyes and five S. aureus and 62 CoNS isolated from healthy eyes and nine direct ocular samples. Nine direct ocular samples for in situ testing consisted of corneal scrapings (4), conjunctiva swabs (2) and others (3). Multiplex PCR result was correlated with genotype data obtained with single PCR and dot-blot assay. The control strains that were positive in multiplex PCR for 16S rRNA, nuc, mecA, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes were also positive in the dot-blot assay. The specificity of amplified genes obtained with reference strains was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. The single step-hexaplex PCR method can be used for rapid detection of mecA, nuc, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes in staphylococci with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative S. aureus and CoNS from a variety of ocular samples. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Typing and Virulence Gene Profiles of Enterotoxin Gene Cluster (egc)-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Obtained from Various Food and Clinical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Song, Minghui; Shi, Chunlei; Xu, Xuebing; Shi, Xianming

    2016-11-01

    The enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) has been proposed to contribute to the Staphylococcus aureus colonization, which highlights the need to evaluate genetic diversity and virulence gene profiles of the egc-positive population. Here, a total of 43 egc-positive isolates (16.2%) were identified from 266 S. aureus isolates that were obtained from various food and clinical specimens in Shanghai. Seven different egc profiles were found based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result for egc genes. Then, these 43 egc-positive isolates were further typed by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and accessory gene regulatory (agr) typing. It showed that the 43 egc-positive isolates displayed 17 sequence types, 28 PFGE patterns, 29 MLVA types, and 4 agr types, respectively. Among them, the dominant clonal lineage was CC5-agr II (48.84%). Thirty toxin and 20 adhesion-associated genes were detected by PCR in egc-positive isolates. Notably, invasive toxin genes showed a high prevalence, such as 76.7% for Panton-Valentine leukocidin encoding genes, 27.9% for sec, and 23.3% for tsst-1. Most of the examined adhesion-associated genes were found to be conserved (76.7-100%), whereas the fnbB gene was only found in 8 (18.6%) isolates. In addition, 33 toxin gene profiles and 13 adhesion gene profiles were identified, respectively. Our results imply that isolates belonging to the same clonal lineage harbored similar adhesion gene profiles but diverse toxin gene profiles. Overall, the high prevalence of invasive virulence genes increases the potential risk of egc-positive isolates in S. aureus infection.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus from the German general population is highly diverse.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder; Fegeler, Christian; Friedrich, Alexander W; Köck, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors. 40.9% of all participants carried S. aureus at least once while 0.7% of the participants carried MRSA (mainly spa t011). MSSA isolates (n=1359) were associated with 331 different spa types; t084 (7.7%), t091 (6.1%) and t012 (71, 5.2%) were predominant. Of 206 participants carrying S. aureus at all three sampling time points, 14.1% carried the same spa type continuously; 5.3% carried different spa types with similar repeat patterns, but 80.6% carried S. aureus with unrelated spa types. MSSA isolates frequently harboured genes encoding enterotoxins (sec: 16.6%, seg: 63.1%, sei: 64.5%) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst: 17.5%), but rarely Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV/lukF-PV: 0.2%). MSSA colonizing human nares in the community are clonally highly diverse. Among those constantly carrying S. aureus, clonal lineages changed over time. The proportion of persistent S. aureus carriers was lower than reported elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct, Specific and Rapid Detection of Staphylococcal Proteins and Exotoxins Using a Multiplex Antibody Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, Bettina; Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background S. aureus is a pathogen in humans and animals that harbors a wide variety of virulence factors and resistance genes. This bacterium can cause a wide range of mild to life-threatening diseases. In the latter case, fast diagnostic procedures are important. In routine diagnostic laboratories, several genotypic and phenotypic methods are available to identify S. aureus strains and determine their resistances. However, there is a demand for multiplex routine diagnostic tests to directly detect staphylococcal toxins and proteins. Methods In this study, an antibody microarray based assay was established and validated for the rapid detection of staphylococcal markers and exotoxins. The following targets were included: staphylococcal protein A, penicillin binding protein 2a, alpha- and beta-hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, enterotoxins A and B as well as staphylokinase. All were detected simultaneously within a single experiment, starting from a clonal culture on standard media. The detection of bound proteins was performed using a new fluorescence reading device for microarrays. Results 110 reference strains and clinical isolates were analyzed using this assay, with a DNA microarray for genotypic characterization performed in parallel. The results showed a general high concordance of genotypic and phenotypic data. However, genotypic analysis found the hla gene present in all S. aureus isolates but its expression under given conditions depended on the clonal complex affiliation of the actual isolate. Conclusions The multiplex antibody assay described herein allowed a rapid and reliable detection of clinically relevant staphylococcal toxins as well as resistance- and species-specific markers. PMID:26624622

  4. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. Methods In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S.argenteus) were found in Fiji. From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. Conclusions S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji. PMID:24655406

  5. A fatal intoxication of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rachel Y; Baker, Daniel D; Kelly, Nancy E; McGuire, Calvin E; Fassette, Timothy C; Gorniak, Jan M

    2014-10-01

    Designer drugs appear to be increasing in popularity because of the ease of obtaining these constituents, the lack of ability to identify the substance(s) in routine drug screening, the appeal of the drug(s) being 'safe' due to them being marketed as a 'legal high' and possibly due to stronger restrictions that are being placed on prescription drugs. As components of designer drugs are identified and regulated by the DEA, new constituents, or analogs, of these designer drugs are being manufactured to circumvent legislation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine (DOC) is a substituted alpha-methylated phenethylamine and acts as a selective serotonin receptor partial agonist. There is limited literature on this particular compound and no literature that attributes death to use of this drug alone. We present a case of a 37-year-old male found at home lying face down next to a book titled 'Psychedelic Chemistry' by Michael Valentine Smith and in the early stages of decomposition. The decedent was a known methamphetamine abuser. A peripheral blood sample collected at autopsy was sent to toxicology for routine analysis. Results yielded negative for the drugs of abuse classes on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screen but was positive for DOC during routine GC-MS analysis. A urine sample collected at autopsy was subjected to a routine urine liquid/liquid analysis via GC-MS, and the specimen was positive for DOC. Quantification analyses showed DOC concentration levels to be 377 ng/mL in iliac blood; 3,193 ng/mL in urine; 3,143 ng/g in liver and 683 ng/g in brain. DOC was not detected in the gastric contents. Caffeine was the only other compound detected in blood and urine. Due to the lack of literature, we believe that this is the first case where death can be attributed to DOC alone.

  6. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bloodstream infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Vandendriessche, S; De Boeck, H; Deplano, A; Phoba, M-F; Lunguya, O; Falay, D; Dauly, N; Verhaegen, J; Denis, O; Jacobs, J

    2017-01-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is known worldwide as an invasive pathogen, but information on S. aureus from bloodstream infections in Central Africa remains scarce. A collection of S. aureus blood culture isolates recovered from hospitals in four provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2009-2013) was assessed. A total of 27/108 isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), of which >70% were co-resistant to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides and lincosamides. For MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, resistance to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was <10%. However, 66.7% (72/108) of all isolates harboured the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrG. More than three-quarters (84/108, 77.8%) of isolates belonged to CC5, CC8, CC121 or CC152. Genetic diversity was higher among MSSA (31 spa types) compared to MRSA (four spa types). Most MRSA (23/27, 85.2%) belonged to CC8-spa t1476-SCCmec V and 17/23 (73.9%) MRSA ST8 were oxacillin susceptible but cefoxitin resistant. Among MRSA and MSSA combined, 49.1% (53/108) and 19.4% (21/108) contained the genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (lukS-lukF PV, PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst, TSST-1), respectively. PVL was mainly detected among MSSA (51/53 isolates harbouring PVL were MSSA, 96.2%) and associated with CC121, CC152, CC1 and CC5. TSST-1 was associated with CC8-spa t1476-SCCmec V. The immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes scn, sak and chp were detected in 81.5% of isolates (88/108, equally represented among MSSA and MRSA). The present study confirms the occurrence of MRSA with high levels of multidrug co-resistance and PVL-positive MSSA among invasive S. aureus isolates in Central Africa.

  7. Risk of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections among Children Found to be Staphylococcus aureus MRSA USA300 Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Jain, Shabnam; Ray, Susan M.; Mayberry, Robert; Satola, Sarah; Parker, Trisha Chan; Yuan, Keming; Mohammed, Anaam; Jerris, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. Methods We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). We further categorized S. aureus carriers into MRSA USA300 carriers or non-MRSA USA300 carriers. Results We found the MRSA USA300 carriage rate was higher in children less than two years of age, those with an SSTI, children with recent antibiotic use, and those with a family history of SSTI. MRSA USA300 carriers were also more likely to have lower income compared to non-MRSA USA300 carriers and no S. aureus carriers. Rates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were higher in MRSA carriage isolates with an SSTI, compared to MRSA carriage isolates of patients without an SSTI. There was an association between MRSA USA300 carriage and presence of PVL in those diagnosed with an abscess. Conclusion Children younger than two years were at highest risk for MRSA USA300 carriage. Lower income, recent antibiotic use, and previous or family history of SSTI were risk factors for MRSA USA300 carriage. There is a high association between MRSA USA300 nasal/axillary carriage and presence of PVL in those with abscesses. PMID:28210352

  8. Realizing human rights-based approaches for action on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Norenhag, Johanna; Valentine, Nicole

    2010-12-15

    Health inequities are clear evidence of violations of the right to health. Yet despite this common ground, action on the social determinants of health aiming to reduce health inequities is sometimes disconnected from implementation of human rights-based approaches. This is explained in part by differing histories, disciplines, and epistemologies. The capacity of human rights instruments to alter policies on social determinants can seem limited. An absolutist focus on individuals and processes can seem at odds with the attention to differences in population health outcomes central to the concern for health equity. However, developments in rights-based approaches have seen the terrain of human rights increasingly address social determinants. Human rights provide a firm legal basis for tackling the inequities in power and resources that the Commission on Social Determinants of Health identifies as fundamental to achieving health equity. Indicators and benchmarks developed for rights-based approaches to health systems can be developed further within health sectors and translated to other sectors and disciplines. The discourse and evidence base of social determinants can also contribute to implementing rights-based approaches, as its resultant policy momentum can provide essential levers to realize the right to health. Therefore, there is no clear-cut delineation between the human rights and health equity movements, and both may constructively work together to realize their goals. Such constructive collaboration will not prove straightforward; it will, instead, require profound engagement and innovations in both theory and practice. Yet this effort represents an important opportunity for those who seek social justice in health. Copyright © 2010 Rasanathan, Norenhag, and Valentine. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits

  9. [Helicobacter pylori infection (13C-UBT), and its relationship with nutritional and socioeconomic factors in low income school children from Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Páez Valery, M C; Barón, M A; Solano, L; Nadaff, G; Boccio, J; Barrado, A

    2006-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp) is widely spread around the world, and it is considered one of the main causes of chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Recent research has shown that it can be associated with nutritional disorders, mainly with iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Hp infection, and infection pattern according to age, sex, nutritional status, and socioeconomic conditions in children who attended the Unidad Educativa "Valentin Espinal" in the city of Valencia. 170 children, between 3 and 14 years of age were studied to assess Hpylori infection (13C-urea breath test), age, nutritional status according to BMI and Height for age, hemoglobin (cianometahemoglobin), serum ferritin (ELISA), socioeconomic status (Graffar-Méndez-Castellano), housing conditions, number of families and of people cohabitating in the same household, and quality of services. 78.8% of the children were infected with Hp, witch was significantly correlated with age but not gender. 25.9% of the sample had undernutrition, and 46.5% were stunted. 98.1% of the families lived in poverty, and 98% of the households showed sanitary deficiencies. A mean of 6.0 +/- 2.4 persons lived in each household (range: 2-15), and an average of 3.2 person shared bedrooms. The odds of being infected were higher in those children who were stunted. Also, socioeconomic status, mother's education level, and poor hosing conditions were significantly associated to being infected. Hpylori is highly prevalent among socially and economically deprived children, and age, overcrowding, and a low education level of the mother increases the risk of being infected.

  10. High prevalence of MRSA and ESBL among asylum seekers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ravensbergen, Sofanne J; Berends, Matthijs; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ott, Alewijn

    2017-01-01

    Migration is one of the risk factors for the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The increasing influx of migrants challenges local health care systems. To provide evidence for both hospital hygiene measure and empirical antibiotic therapy, we analysed all cultures performed in asylum seekers between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015 for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and for multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE). We compared these with cultures from the Dutch patient population with risk factors for carriage of MDRO. A total of 7181 patients were screened for MRSA. 7357 S. aureus were isolated in clinical cultures. Of 898 screened asylum seekers, almost 10% were MRSA positive. Of 118 asylum seekers with S. aureus in clinical cultures almost 19% were MRSA positive. The general patient population had a 1.3% rate of MRSA in S. aureus isolates. A higher rate of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive strains (RR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6-3.4) was found in asylum seekers compared to the general patient population. In 33475 patients one or more Enterobacteriaceae were obtained. More than 21% of the asylum seekers were carrier of MDRE, most of them producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (20.3%). 5.1% of the general patient population was MDRE carrier. It can be concluded that asylum seekers present with higher rate of MDRO compared to the general patient population. These results justify continued screening of asylum seekers to anticipate multidrug-resistant organisms during hospital care of patients.

  11. High prevalence of MRSA and ESBL among asylum seekers in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Ravensbergen, Sofanne J.; Berends, Matthijs; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ott, Alewijn

    2017-01-01

    Migration is one of the risk factors for the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The increasing influx of migrants challenges local health care systems. To provide evidence for both hospital hygiene measure and empirical antibiotic therapy, we analysed all cultures performed in asylum seekers between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015 for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and for multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE). We compared these with cultures from the Dutch patient population with risk factors for carriage of MDRO. A total of 7181 patients were screened for MRSA. 7357 S. aureus were isolated in clinical cultures. Of 898 screened asylum seekers, almost 10% were MRSA positive. Of 118 asylum seekers with S. aureus in clinical cultures almost 19% were MRSA positive. The general patient population had a 1.3% rate of MRSA in S. aureus isolates. A higher rate of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive strains (RR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.4) was found in asylum seekers compared to the general patient population. In 33475 patients one or more Enterobacteriaceae were obtained. More than 21% of the asylum seekers were carrier of MDRE, most of them producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (20.3%). 5.1% of the general patient population was MDRE carrier. It can be concluded that asylum seekers present with higher rate of MDRO compared to the general patient population. These results justify continued screening of asylum seekers to anticipate multidrug-resistant organisms during hospital care of patients. PMID:28441421

  12. Prevalence of MRSA strains among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from outpatients, 2006.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Nimmo, Graeme R; Pearson, Julie C; Christiansen, Keryn J; Bell, Jan M; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2009-03-01

    Biennial community-based Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial surveillance programs have been performed by the Australian Group for Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) since 2000. Over this time the percentage of S. aureus identified as methicillin resistant has increased significantly from 10.3% in 2000 to 16% in 2006. This increase has occurred throughout Australia and has been due to the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) clones. However, healthcare associated MRSA were still predominant in New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory and Victoria/Tasmania. In the 2006 survey CA-MRSA accounted for 8.8% of community-onset S. aureus infections. Although multiple CA-MRSA clones were characterised, the predominate clone identified was Queensland (Qld) MRSA (ST93-MRSA-IV) a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive MRSA that was first reported in Queensland and northern New South Wales in 2003 but has now spread throughout Australia. Several international PVL-positive CA-MRSA clones were also identified including USA300 MRSA (ST8-MRSA-IV). In addition, PVL was detected in an EMRSA-15 (ST22-MRSA-IV) isolate; a hospital associated MRSA clone that is known to be highly transmissible in the healthcare setting. With the introduction of the international clones and the transmission of Qld MRSA throughout the country, over 50% of CA-MRSA in Australia are now PVL positive. This change in the epidemiology of CA-MRSA in the Australian community will potentially result in an increase in skin and soft tissue infections in young Australians. As infections caused by these strains frequently results in hospitalisation their emergence is a major health concern.

  13. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 80 type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV) isolated from the Middle East: a heterogeneous expanding clonal lineage.

    PubMed

    Harastani, Houda H; Tokajian, Sima T

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has caused a change in MRSA epidemiology worldwide. In the Middle East, the persistent spread of CA-MRSA isolates that were associated with multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 80 and with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV), calls for novel approaches for infection control that would limit its spread. In this study, the epidemiology of CC80-MRSA-IV was investigated in Jordan and Lebanon retrospectively covering the period from 2000 to 2011. Ninety-four S. aureus isolates, 63 (67%) collected from Lebanon and 31 (33%) collected from Jordan were included in this study. More than half of the isolates (56%) were associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and 73 (78%) were Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) positive. Majority of the isolates (84%) carried the gene for exofoliative toxin d (etd), 19% had the Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 gene (tst), and seven isolates from Jordan had a rare combination being positive for both tst and PVL genes. spa typing showed the prevalence of type t044 (85%) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) recognized 21 different patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed the prevalence (36%) of a unique resistant profile, which included resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, and fusidic acid (SKF profile). The genetic diversity among the CC80 isolates observed in this study poses an additional challenge to infection control of CA-MRSA epidemics. CA-MRSA related to ST80 in the Middle East was distinguished in this study from the ones described in other countries. Genetic diversity observed, which may be due to mutations and differences in the antibiotic regimens between countries may have led to the development of heterogeneous strains. Hence, it is difficult to maintain "the European CA-MRSA clone" as a uniform clone and it is better to designate as CC80-MRSA-IV isolates.

  14. Detection of Epidemic USA300 Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains by Use of a Single Allele-Specific PCR Assay Targeting a Novel Polymorphism of Staphylococcus aureus pbp3

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sean G.; Prasad, Aditya; Smith, W. Lamar; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the dramatic increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections has become a significant health care challenge. Early detection of CA-MRSA is important because of its increased virulence associated with the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and other toxins that may contribute to disease severity. In particular, the USA300 epidemic clone has emerged and now represents the cause of as much as 98% of CA-MRSA skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. Current diagnostic assays used to identify CA-MRSA strains are based on complex multiplex PCRs targeting the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) DNA junction, a multitude of genes, and noncoding DNA fragments or on a number of lengthy sequence-typing methods. Here, two nucleotide polymorphisms, G88A and G2047A, that were found to be in strict linkage disequilibrium in the S. aureus penicillin-binding protein 3 (pbp3) gene were also found to be highly associated with the USA300 clone of CA-MRSA. Clinical isolates that contained this pbp3 allele were also positive for the presence of SCCmec type IV, the ACME, and the PVL toxin gene and matched the t008 or t121 molecular spa types, which are associated specifically with the USA300 CA-MRSA clone. A single allele-specific PCR targeting the G88A polymorphism was developed and was found to be 100% sensitive and specific for the detection of USA300 CA-MRSA and 91.5% sensitive and 100% specific for the detection of all CA-MRSA isolates in this study. PMID:23698534

  15. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Emergence of Epidemic Clones of Sequence Type (ST) 22 and ST 772 in Mumbai, India▿

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Namita; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mehta, Ajita

    2010-01-01

    A total of 412 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated between October 2006 and June 2009, representing a mixed hospital- and community-associated patient population from Mumbai, India, were evaluated. MRSA was characterized by multiplex PCR amplification of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene and the mecA gene, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR results were compared with patient risk factors (CDC guidelines) and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A total of 395 MRSA strains were mecA positive, and 224 were PVL gene positive. A total of 97 mecA-positive strains were SCCmec III (25%), 136 were SCCmec IV (34%), and 162 were SCCmec V (41%). All SCCmec III strains were multidrug resistant, and all patients had risk factors. Of the SCCmec IV and V strains, 73% were multidrug susceptible and 72% of the associated patients had no risk factors. The multidrug susceptibility and absence of patient risk factors in 72% of cases with SCCmec IV and SCCmec V MRSA demonstrate the presence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in Mumbai. Twenty-one percent of these patients had risk factors, signifying CA-MRSA infiltration into hospitals. MLST showed clonal expansion of multidrug-susceptible sequence type (ST) 22 (SCCmec IV) and ST 772 (SCCmec V), both of which feature in Asian studies and may be slowly replacing the multidrug-resistant ST 239 (SCCmec III) in hospitals. The PVL gene-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were ST 30 and were postulated to be related to the penicillin-resistant S. aureus phage type 80/81, notorious for its virulence in the 1950s. PMID:20351212

  16. Identification of a PVL-negative SCCmec-IVa sublineage of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC80 lineage: understanding the clonal origin of CA-MRSA.

    PubMed

    Edslev, S M; Westh, H; Andersen, P S; Skov, R; Kobayashi, N; Bartels, M D; Vandenesch, F; Petersen, A; Worning, P; Larsen, A R; Stegger, M

    2017-06-29

    Community-acquired (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates belonging to clonal complex 80 (CC80) are recognized as the European CA-MRSA. The prevailing European CA-MRSA clone carries a type IVc staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and expresses Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Recently, a significant increase of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA has been observed in Denmark. The aim of this study was to examine their genetics and epidemiology, and to compare them to the European CA-MRSA clone in order to understand the emergence of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA. Phylogenetic analysis of the CC80 S. aureus lineage was conducted from whole-genome sequences of 217 isolates (23 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and 194 MRSA) from 22 countries. All isolates were further genetically characterized in regard to resistance determinants and PVL carriage, and epidemiologic data were obtained for selected isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of three distinct clades of the CC80 lineage: (a) an methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clade encompassing Sub-Saharan African isolates (n = 13); (b) a derived clade encompassing the European CA-MRSA SCCmec-IVc clone (n = 185); and (c) a novel and genetically distinct clade encompassing MRSA SCCmec-IVa isolates (n = 19). All isolates in the novel clade were PVL negative, but carried remnant parts (8-12 kb) of the PVL-encoding prophage ΦSa2 and were susceptible to fusidic acid and kanamycin/amikacin. Geospatial mapping could link these isolates to regions in the Middle East, Asia and South Pacific. This study reports the emergence of a novel CC80 CA-MRSA sublineage, showing that the CC80 lineage is more diverse than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among newly arrested men in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Farley, Jason E; Ross, Tracy; Stamper, Paul; Baucom, Sharon; Larson, Elaine; Carroll, Karen C

    2008-11-01

    Outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within prison populations seemingly attest to its spread within the corrections industry; however, the extent of MRSA colonization on arrest is unknown. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of S aureus on arrest. Nasal swabs from 602 newly arrested men were evaluated. Risk factors were assessed through self-report. Molecular characterization of each isolate was completed. The prevalence of S aureus nasal colonization was 40.4% (243/602). MRSA colonization was found in 15.8% (95/602) of the total population and in 39.1% (95/243) of the total S aureus isolates. Twenty-three skin infections were identified; of these, 11 (47.8%) were S aureus infections, with methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) in accounting for 3 cases (13.1%) and MRSA accounting for 8 cases (34.8%). In 2 cases (25%) of MRSA wound infection, the nasal colonizing strain was MSSA. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 76 of 95 (80%) nasal isolates were found to be USA300 or related subtypes, with the other 19 (20%) being non-USA300 strains. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was identified in 38 (97.4%) USA300 isolates and in 6 (31.6%) non-USA 300 isolates. MRSA colonization is far greater in this sample than in the general public. USA300 subtypes are highly prevalent. History of previous arrest was not associated with increased MRSA prevalence. MRSA risk factors differed significantly between those with and without a history of previous arrest.

  18. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Botucatu, Brazil: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Pires, Fabiana Venegas; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Abraão, Lígia Maria; Martins, Patrícia Y F; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the incidence and severity of staphylococcal infections renewed interest in studies that assess the burden of asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the community setting. We conducted a population-based survey in the city of Botucatu, Brazil (122,000 inhabitants), in order to identify the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains). Nasal swabs were obtained from 686 persons over one year of age. Resistance to methicillin was assessed through phenotypic methods, identification of the mecA gene and typing of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were characterized using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and spa typing. Polymerase chain reaction was applied to identify genes coding for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) in isolates. The prevalence of overall S. aureus carriage was 32.7% (95%CI, 29.2%-36.2%). Carriers were significantly younger (mean age, 28.1 versus 36.3 for non-carriers; OR for age, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.97-0.99) and likely to report recent skin infection (OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 1.03-3.34). Carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found in 0.9% of study subjects (95%CI, 0.4%-1.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IV, and belonged to spa types t002 or t021, but none among them harbored genes coding for PLV. In MLST, most isolates belonged to clones ST5 or ST1776. However, we found one subject who carried a novel clone, ST2594. Two out of six MRSA carriers had household contacts colonized with isolates similar to theirs. Our study pointed to dissemination of community-associated MRSA among the Brazilian population.

  19. Adaptive Change Inferred from Genomic Population Analysis of the ST93 Epidemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Stinear, Timothy P.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Chua, Kyra; Stepnell, Justin; Tuck, Kellie L.; Coombs, Geoffrey; Harrison, Paul Francis; Seemann, Torsten; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as a major public health problem around the world. In Australia, ST93-IV[2B] is the dominant CA-MRSA clone and displays significantly greater virulence than other S. aureus. Here, we have examined the evolution of ST93 via genomic analysis of 12 MSSA and 44 MRSA ST93 isolates, collected from around Australia over a 17-year period. Comparative analysis revealed a core genome of 2.6 Mb, sharing greater than 99.7% nucleotide identity. The accessory genome was 0.45 Mb and comprised additional mobile DNA elements, harboring resistance to erythromycin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Phylogenetic inference revealed a molecular clock and suggested that a single clone of methicillin susceptible, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive, ST93 S. aureus likely spread from North Western Australia in the early 1970s, acquiring methicillin resistance at least twice in the mid 1990s. We also explored associations between genotype and important MRSA phenotypes including oxacillin MIC and production of exotoxins (α-hemolysin [Hla], δ-hemolysin [Hld], PSMα3, and PVL). High-level expression of Hla is a signature feature of ST93 and reduced expression in eight isolates was readily explained by mutations in the agr locus. However, subtle but significant decreases in Hld were also noted over time that coincided with decreasing oxacillin resistance and were independent of agr mutations. The evolution of ST93 S. aureus is thus associated with a reduction in both exotoxin expression and oxacillin MIC, suggesting MRSA ST93 isolates are under pressure for adaptive change. PMID:24482534

  20. Carriage of Staphylococcus species in the veterinary visiting dog population in mainland UK: molecular characterisation of resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Jamrozy, Dorota; Fielder, Mark D; Donovan, David; Nuttall, Tim; Williams, Nicola J

    2014-05-14

    This study investigated the prevalence of nasal carriage of staphylococci in dogs and determined the characteristics of the isolates. A total of 724 dogs from 87 veterinary practices across the mainland UK were screened for carriage of Staphylococcus spp. All isolates were examined for meticillin resistance (MR) and the presence of the mecA gene investigated in those isolates showing resistance. All coagulase-positive staphylococci and MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Spa typing and DNA microarray analysis of resistance and virulence genes was carried out on all MR S. aureus (MRSA) and a subset of meticillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Staphylococci were isolated from 399 (55.1%) of the dogs; only seven (1%) carried MRSA, all of which were identified as the dominant UK healthcare-associated strain (EMRSA-15, ST22). MSSA was identified in 47 (6.5%) dogs, the sequence types of which have been suggested as precursors to successful MRSA clones. Forty (5.5%) dogs carried MRCoNS, while no dogs carried MR S. pseudintermedius, although this is increasingly reported in mainland Europe. Resistance to antimicrobials among the isolates varied between species, with multidrug resistance (MDR) in 87.5% of MRCoNS and 21.8% of coagulase positive staphylococci. Microarray analysis of MRSA and a subset of MSSA isolates identified numerous virulence genes associated with pathogenesis, which are commonly identified in isolates of human origin. However, no isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study suggests that MRSA carriage is low in the vet visiting dog population, but there is a diverse range of virulence and resistance determinants in canine S. aureus and MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.