Science.gov

Sample records for rail-based intermodal freight

  1. Sustainable intermodal freight transportation: Applying the geospatial intermodal freight transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Bryan

    To study the energy and environmental impacts of emissions associated with freight transportation, the Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was created as a joint research collaborative between the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the University of Delaware (UD). The GIFT model is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based model that links the U.S. and Canadian water, rail, and road transportation networks through intermodal transfer facilities to create an intermodal network. The purpose of my thesis is to apply the GIFT model to examine potential public policies related to intermodal freight transportation in the Great Lakes region of the United States. My thesis will consist of two papers. The first paper will examine the environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with freight transportation in the Great Lakes region and examine opportunities for marine vessels to replace a portion of heavy-duty trucks for containerized freight transport. The second paper will explore the potential benefits of using the Great Lakes as a corridor for short-sea shipping as part of a longer intermodal route. The intent of my thesis is to shed light on the current issues associated with freight transport in the Great Lakes region and present public policy alternatives to address said issues. Ideally, this thesis will better inform policymakers on the impacts and tradeoffs associated with freight transportation.

  2. Freight Containers in Intermodal and Land Bridge Commerce.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    r AD-AB95 861 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA FI 15/5 FREIGHT CONTAINERS IN INTER DAL AND LAND BRIDGE COMMERCE .(U) UNCLASSIFIED SE G... COMMERCE by *James Stephen Walters September 1980 4 .4 Thesis Advisor: Dan C. Boger Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 81 29 SECURITY...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Freight Containers in Intermodal and Land Bridge Commerce by James Stephen Walters Lieutenant

  3. Assessing energy, environmental, and economic tradeoffs in intermodal freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Falzarano, Aaron; Hawker, J Scott; Korfmacher, Karl; Ketha, Sai; Zilora, Steve

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an energy and environmental network analysis model to explore tradeoffs associated with freight transport. The geospatial model uses an intermodal network built by the authors to connect various modes (rail, road, water) via intermodal terminals. Routes along the network are characterized not only by temporal and distance attributes, but also by cost, energy, and emissions attributes (including emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen). Decision-makers can use the model to explore tradeoffs among alternative route selection across different modal combinations, and to identify optimal routes for objectives that feature energy and environmental parameters (e.g., minimize carbon dioxide emissions). The model is demonstrated with three case studies of freight transport along the U.S. eastern seaboard.

  4. Development of analytic intermodal freight networks for use within a GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.; Xiong, D.; Middendorf, D.

    1997-05-01

    The paper discusses the practical issues involved in constructing intermodal freight networks that can be used within GIS platforms to support inter-regional freight routing and subsequent (for example, commodity flow) analysis. The procedures described can be used to create freight-routable and traffic flowable interstate and intermodal networks using some combination of highway, rail, water and air freight transportation. Keys to realistic freight routing are the identification of intermodal transfer locations and associated terminal functions, a proper handling of carrier-owned and operated sub-networks within each of the primary modes of transport, and the ability to model the types of carrier services being offered.

  5. 75 FR 25309 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Expanded Intermodal Freight Terminal in Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Freight Terminal in Michigan AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Yard, also known as the Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal (DIFT) and associated external-to-terminal... following expansion project in the State of Michigan: Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal. The...

  6. Intelligent transportation systems and intermodal freight transportation. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, A.D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the various advanced technologies already in use in the intermodal freight transportation industry and addresses the opportunity for improved communication between the public and private sector regarding technology applications to the freight transportation system that could enhance the capacity of the system as a whole. The current public interest in freight transportation policy creates an opportunity to develop a shared vision of the future needs of international intermodal freight transportation in the United States. The Federal government can impact this vision by taking action in the following areas: Provide Infrastructure Funding to Support Efficiency and Global Competitiveness; Support Regional and Corridor Efforts; Understand the Freight Sector and Develop a Shared Vision of Technology Benefits; Lead Transportation Technology Efforts of Federal Agencies; and Maintain Commitment to Open ITS Architecture.

  7. Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    BUILDING STRONG® US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System Dr. Mike...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the... Conceptual Framework c CURRENT MTS CURRENT INTERMODAL SYSTEM c MTS INVESTMENTS INTERMODAL INVESTMENTS FUTURE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION DEMAND c

  8. Intermodality in Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Margarette

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation articulates a writing pedagogy based on a theory of "intermodality" to help writing instructors navigate the affordances and challenges of multimodal composition. Drawing from recent discoveries in neuroscience about how the brain makes meaning, I situate this pedagogy of intermodality--literally, "between the…

  9. Intermodality in Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Margarette

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation articulates a writing pedagogy based on a theory of "intermodality" to help writing instructors navigate the affordances and challenges of multimodal composition. Drawing from recent discoveries in neuroscience about how the brain makes meaning, I situate this pedagogy of intermodality--literally, "between the…

  10. The overweight container problem and international intermodal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hayuth, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Containerization has become the dominant method of transporting general cargo commodities in international trade. In 1991 over 93 million 20-foot equivalent unit (TEU) containers were handled worldwide, and 15.7 million were transferred through US ports alone. The deregulation of the trucking industry and the railways in 1980 and the US Shipping Act of 1984 advanced the development of intermodal movements of containerized cargo in domestic and international trade. Despite the rapid progress of containerization and intermodality, the US freight transport system is still struggling with the basic issue of overweight containers. A study conducted by the Federal Highway Administration revealed that between October 1987 and September 1988 more than one million containers, or 33.5 percent of the containers in the sample, carried weights that could violate federal vehicle weight laws.

  11. Intermodal Transportation, USACE Style

    SciTech Connect

    Grumski, K. M.; Coutts, P. W.

    2002-02-27

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has developed project management techniques with a proven track record for safe and successful results for constructing large scale and massive projects such as improving our nations water transportation systems, flood control, bridges and dams. Applying many of these techniques to the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) managed by USACE to remediate the environment is achieving the same safe and successful results as their construction projects. This paper examines the additional economics and improved safety results of using intermodal containers and a combination of rail and truck transportation conveyances to transport the contaminated soil and debris from the Linde FUSRAP site, located in Tonawanda, New York.

  12. Air quality impacts of intercity freight. Volume 1: Guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report has been developed to provide assistance to planners and decision makers -- public and private -- to improve the understanding of freight transportation, economic and air quality relationships, and to provide some helpful tools for identifying and testing improvement strategies. The focus of the report is on truck and rail/intermodal transportation, and it offers guidance and procedures in assessing the impacts of shifts in the industry and overall traffic levels, capacity enhancements, changes in operational or management practices, policy or pricing initiatives, or changes in vehicle technologies or fuels.

  13. Air quality impacts of intercity freight. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report has been developed to provide assistance to planners and decision makers -- public and private -- to improve the understanding of freight transportation, economic and air quality relationships, and to provide some helpful tools for identifying and testing improvement strategies. The focus of the report is on truck and rail/intermodal transportation, and it offers guidance and procedures in assessing the impacts of shifts in the industry and overall traffic levels, capacity enhancements, changes in operational or management practices, policy or pricing initiatives, or changes in vehicle technologies or fuels.

  14. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate.

  15. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  16. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  17. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  18. Using geographic information science to evaluate legal restrictions on freight transportation routing in disruptive scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Fialkoff, Marc R.; Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Peterson, Steven K.; Tuttle, Mark A.

    2016-12-23

    Disasters have consequences and freight transportation is not immune from the effects of such disruptions. In the aftermath of disasters, planners and policymakers have to utilize scarce resources and work within legal frameworks to provide recovery for affected citizens and business. As seen with Hurricane Sandy, various observers noted the challenge with freight rerouting due to inoperable infrastructure and legal barriers involved with intermodal freight transportation. This paper focuses on how Geographic Information Systems (GIS); specifically WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis GIS), a transportation routing platform developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, can be used to evaluate different routing options for freight transportation. In the case of freight transportation, the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act) restricts Short Sea Shipping (SSS) between coastwise points within U.S. territorial waters. This restriction leads to reliance on land-side modes for handling increased freight resulting from cargo diversion. Using Hurricane Sandy and the closure of the Port of New York/New Jersey as a case study, different modal studies were conducted; ultimately highlighting the various routes and provides insight into potential review of modal restrictions such as the Jones Act.

  19. Using geographic information science to evaluate legal restrictions on freight transportation routing in disruptive scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Fialkoff, Marc R.; Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Peterson, Steven K.; ...

    2016-12-23

    Disasters have consequences and freight transportation is not immune from the effects of such disruptions. In the aftermath of disasters, planners and policymakers have to utilize scarce resources and work within legal frameworks to provide recovery for affected citizens and business. As seen with Hurricane Sandy, various observers noted the challenge with freight rerouting due to inoperable infrastructure and legal barriers involved with intermodal freight transportation. This paper focuses on how Geographic Information Systems (GIS); specifically WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis GIS), a transportation routing platform developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, can be used to evaluate different routing options formore » freight transportation. In the case of freight transportation, the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act) restricts Short Sea Shipping (SSS) between coastwise points within U.S. territorial waters. This restriction leads to reliance on land-side modes for handling increased freight resulting from cargo diversion. Using Hurricane Sandy and the closure of the Port of New York/New Jersey as a case study, different modal studies were conducted; ultimately highlighting the various routes and provides insight into potential review of modal restrictions such as the Jones Act.« less

  20. Affordable Freight Logistics Transport Information Management Optimisation and Asset Tracking Solution Using Smartphone GPS Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muna, Joseph T.; Prescott, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    Traditionally, freight transport and telematics solutions that exploit the GPS capabilities of in- vehicle devices to provide innovative Location Based Services (LBS) including track and trace transport systems have been the preserve of a select cluster of transport operators and organisations with the financial resources to develop the requisite custom software and hardware on which they are deployed. The average cost of outfitting a typical transport vehicle or truck with the latest Intelligent Transport System (ITS) increases the cost of the vehicle by anything from a couple to several thousand Euros, depending on the complexity and completeness of the solution. Though this does not generally deter large fleet transport owners since they typically get Return on Investment (ROI) based on economies of scale, it presents a barrier for the smaller independent entities that constitute the majority of freight transport operators [1].The North Sea Freight Intelligent Transport Solution (NS FRITS), a project co-funded by the European Commission Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme, aims to make acquisition of such transport solutions easier for those organisations that cannot afford the expensive, bespoke systems used by their larger competitors.The project addresses transport security threats by developing a system capable of informing major actors along the freight logistics supply chain, of changing circumstances within the region's major transport corridors and between transport modes. The project also addresses issues of freight volumes, inter-modality, congestion and eco-mobility [2].

  1. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  2. Advanced cargo aircraft may offer a potential renaissance in freight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J.; Sawyer, Wallace C.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand for air freight transportation has prompted studies of large, aerodynamically efficient cargo-optimized aircraft capable of carrying intermodal containers, which are typically 8 x 8 x 20 ft. Studies have accordingly been conducted within NASA to ascertain the specifications and projected operating costs of such a vehicle, as well as to identify critical, development-pacing technologies. Attention is here given not only to the rather conventional, 10-turbofan engined configuration thus arrived at, but numerous innovative configurations featuring such concepts as spanloading, removable cargo pods, and ground effect.

  3. Marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks in Great Lakes freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Comer, Bryan; Corbett, James J; Hawker, J Scott; Korfmacher, Karl; Lee, Earl E; Prokop, Chris; Winebrake, James J

    2010-07-01

    This paper applies a geospatial network optimization model to explore environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with the application of marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks operating in the Great Lakes region. The geospatial model integrates U.S. and Canadian highway, rail, and waterway networks to create an intermodal network and characterizes this network using temporal, economic, and environmental attributes (including emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides). A case study evaluates tradeoffs associated with containerized traffic flow in the Great Lakes region, demonstrating how choice of freight mode affects the environmental performance of movement of goods. These results suggest opportunities to improve the environmental performance of freight transport through infrastructure development, technology implementation, and economic incentives.

  4. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    PubMed

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-06

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods.

  5. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... critical to the economic vitality of the United States, renewed attention to safe and efficient freight... Freight Plans may be organized in any structure that works best for individual States, as long as they... that work together to plan for freight transportation along key multi-state freight corridors, in...

  6. Developing a Global Green Freight Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) presentation gives an overview of the Global Green Freight Action Plan to improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of freight operations worldwide along with developing an action plan.

  7. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  8. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  9. 76 FR 41861 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Administration reserves the right to revalidate all eligibility requirements without notice. For Additional... Maritime Administration Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT... Government and participants. Such arrangements are jointly planned with the Maritime Administration,...

  10. External impact localization in a distributed intermodal fiber interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, O. I.; Chapalo, I. E.

    2015-12-01

    An intermodal fiber interferometer in a bidirectional continuous excitation regime with an increasing number of modes propagating along the lightguide is analyzed. The potential to determine the point of fiber perturbation regardless of the conditions of impact is demonstrated experimentally.

  11. Information Processing in Freight and Freight Forward Markets: An Event Study on OPEC Announcements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Information Processing in Freight and Freight Forward Markets : An Event Study on OPEC Announcements 6. AUTHOR(S) Phi...and 20) ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) In this paper, information processing in spot and forward freight markets with respect to the Organization of...freight spot and forward markets around OPEC conferences from 2003 to 2014. Significant abnormal returns indicate that the output deci sions are

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... modifications of previously shipped items, and different freight classifications may apply: Freight... container material (fiberboard, wooden, etc.), unusual shipping dimensions, and other conditions affecting... be different from the classification description furnished below. FOR FREIGHT CLASSIFICATION PURPOSES...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... modifications of previously shipped items, and different freight classifications may apply: Freight... container material (fiberboard, wooden, etc.), unusual shipping dimensions, and other conditions affecting... be different from the classification description furnished below. FOR FREIGHT CLASSIFICATION PURPOSES...

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... modifications of previously shipped items, and different freight classifications may apply: Freight... container material (fiberboard, wooden, etc.), unusual shipping dimensions, and other conditions affecting... be different from the classification description furnished below. FOR FREIGHT CLASSIFICATION PURPOSES...

  15. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... modifications of previously shipped items, and different freight classifications may apply: Freight... container material (fiberboard, wooden, etc.), unusual shipping dimensions, and other conditions affecting... be different from the classification description furnished below. FOR FREIGHT CLASSIFICATION PURPOSES...

  16. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted with IHS Global, Inc. (IHS) to analyze the relationship between the value of industrial output, physical output, and freight movement in the United States for use in updating analytic assumptions and modeling structure within the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) freight transportation module, including forecasting methodologies and processes to identify possible alternative approaches that would improve multi-modal freight flow and fuel consumption estimation.

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  20. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight... licensed freight forwarder shall have the option of: (1) Identifying itself as such and/or, where...

  1. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  2. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  3. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  4. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  5. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  6. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of

  7. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  8. Air freight demand models: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bernstein, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of some of the approaches which have been considered in freight demand estimation. The few existing continuous time computer simulations of aviation systems are reviewed, with a view toward the assessment of this approach as a tool for structuring air freight studies and for relating the different components of the air freight system. The variety of available data types and sources, without which the calibration, validation and the testing of both modal split and simulation models would be impossible are also reviewed.

  9. Towards the future: The promise of intermodal and multimodal transportation systems. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.E.; Easley, R.B.; Fowler, T.M.; Gabler, W.L.; Govind, S.

    1995-02-01

    Issues relating to intermodal and multimodal transportation systems are introduced and defined. Intermodal and multimodal transportation solutions are assessed within the framework of legislative efforts such as Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Federal involvement in state intermodal transportation systems, and state responses to the growing intermodal and multimodal trends are also reviewed. The roles and responsibilities of the Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) in the post-ISTEA world is examined and the impacts of legislative mandates considered. As a case study, the workings of the Houston MPO are examined. Private sector intermodal and multimodal involvement is addressed, including issues in management, regulatory, financial, economical, environmental, and even physical constraints. Effects of regulation on private sector intermodalism are discussed, as are case studies in partnering and management.

  10. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13 Rail...

  11. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13 Rail...

  12. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13 Rail...

  13. Intermodal Matching of Emotional Expressions in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…

  14. Intermodal Matching of Emotional Expressions in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…

  15. 77 FR 53963 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... amended to note that each voluntary agreement expires five (5) years after the date it becomes effective... Concept The mission of VISA is to provide commercial sealift and intermodal shipping services and systems... commitments or volunteered capacity are insufficient to meet contingency requirements, and adequate shipping...

  16. Intermodal transport and distribution patterns in ports relationship to hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.; Ilie, A.; Oprea, C.

    2017-08-01

    It is of great importance to examine all interactions between ports, terminals, intermodal transport and logistic actors of distribution channels, as their optimization can lead to operational improvement. Proposed paper starts with a brief overview of different goods types and allocation of their logistic costs, with emphasis on storage component. Present trend is to optimize storage costs by means of port storage area buffer function, by making the best use of free storage time available, most of the ports offer. As a research methodology, starting point is to consider the cost structure of a generic intermodal transport (storage, handling and transport costs) and to link this to intermodal distribution patterns most frequently cast-off in port relationship to hinterland. The next step is to evaluate storage costs impact on distribution pattern selection. For a given value of port free storage time, a corresponding value of total storage time in the distribution channel can be identified, in order to substantiate a distribution pattern shift. Different scenarios for transport and handling costs variation, recorded when distribution pattern shift, are integrated in order to establish the reaction of the actors involved in port related logistic and intermodal transport costs evolution is analysed in order to optimize distribution pattern selection.

  17. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13 Rail...

  18. 49 CFR 1039.13 - Rail intermodal transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail intermodal transportation exemption. 1039.13 Section 1039.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.13 Rail...

  19. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at south end of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  20. Detail perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking east at south end of building - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  1. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at north end of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  2. Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at south end of building - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  3. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at center of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  4. A Study of the Economic Benefit Potential of Intermodal Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Kawai, R. T.; Gregg, R. D.; McKinley, Robert E., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual study was conducted to determine the benefit potential of an Intermodal Transport in which quick change payload modules are used to reduce the cost of air travel by increasing daily utilization. Three basic concepts varying the degree of modularity were investigated for a 122,000 pounds payload 3,000 NM range regional wide body transport. The profit potential for operating as a passenger transport during the day and as a freighter at night was assessed. Assuming current levels of profitability, Intermodal operations could offer an operating cost reduction potential up to 20%. Enabling technology needs are identified as very quiet aircraft for expanded night operations, distributed load carrying quick disconnect latching, and configuration dependent safety issues. Recommendations are made to explore if additional benefits are possible from alternative mission and usage modules.

  5. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF 1946 ADDITIONS. WHEN THE FREIGHT SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF 1946 ADDITIONS. WHEN THE FREIGHT SHED WAS CONVERTED TO PASSENGER USE THESE STRUCTURES WERE BUILT TO MOVE FREIGHT FROM THE SHED TO TRUCKS PARKED AT THESE LOADING DOCKS. - North Central Railroad, Baltimore Freight House, Guilford & Centre Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. Freight--the Role Played in a Textbook Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Freight is examined as a significant variable in the difference between selling price and cost price. Consideration is given to the store viewpoint, the publisher viewpoint, guidelines on freight information, postal service analysis, distribution procedures, extraneous costs, freight rate structure, and sharing cost-saving ideas. (LBH)

  7. 78 FR 75442 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... extending the deadline and comment period for the Designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN...) and the establishment of the complete National Freight Network (NFN), and to solicit comments on...

  8. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... of the national freight network as required by Section 1115 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the... freight network, the designation of additional miles critical to future efficient movement of goods on the...

  9. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PAYMENT OF... freight bill or a group of freight bills presented at one time shall state that “failure timely to pay... not then available to the carrier at its billing point, the carrier shall present its freight bill for...

  10. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  11. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  12. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight rates—(1... the United States. (2) Maximum charter rates. (i) USAID will not finance ocean freight under any charter which has not been submitted to and received prior approval by USAID/W. USAID will not approve a...

  13. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight rates—(1... the United States. (2) Maximum charter rates. (i) USAID will not finance ocean freight under any charter which has not been submitted to and received prior approval by USAID/W. USAID will not approve a...

  14. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight rates—(1... the United States. (2) Maximum charter rates. (i) USAID will not finance ocean freight under any charter which has not been submitted to and received prior approval by USAID/W. USAID will not approve a...

  15. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight rates—(1... the United States. (2) Maximum charter rates. (i) USAID will not finance ocean freight under any charter which has not been submitted to and received prior approval by USAID/W. USAID will not approve a...

  16. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid”...

  17. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C...

  18. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C...

  19. Sensitivity to intermodal asynchrony between acoustic and structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kent; Martens, William L.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the attributes of musical stimuli which facilitate sensory integration in bi-modal music reproduction systems incorporating sound and whole-body vibration. It was hypothesized that subjective judgments regarding bimodal synchrony would vary depending on the spectral, temporal, and spatial properties of the stimuli. To test this hypothesis, musical instruments with significant low frequency energy and a variety of spectra-temporal envelopes were recorded. These stimuli were then reproduced with varying intermodal delay and overlap in frequency content between displayed vibratory and acoustic components. The air-born component of the bimodal stimuli was presented via a multichannel loudspeaker array, with a direct sound component, as well as a reproduced indirect sound arriving from all around the observer. Psychometric functions were constructed for time order judgment (TOJ) over a range of intermodal delay values. Changes in the slope and intercept of the transformed psychometric functions gave a clear picture of the influence of spectra-temporal and spatial parameters of the multimodal stimuli, the most striking results being the decreased tolerance for intermodal asynchrony associated with instruments recorded in reverberant environments. [Work supported by a Grant from VRQ of the Government of Quebec.

  20. Assessing the future of air freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of air cargo in the current transportation system in the United States is explored. Methods for assessing the future role of this mode of transportation include the use of continuous-time recursive systems modeling for the simulation of different components of the air freight system, as well as for the development of alternative future scenarios which may result from different policy actions. A basic conceptual framework for conducting such a dynamic simulation is presented within the context of the air freight industry. Some research needs are identified and recommended for further research. The benefits, limitations, pitfalls, and problems usually associated with large scale systems models are examined.

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  2. 75 FR 51419 - Requirements for Intermodal Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating Intermodal Equipment AGENCY: Federal Motor..., 2009, final rule concerning the inspection, repair, and maintenance of intermodal equipment (IME... submitted on March 31, 2010, by the Ocean Carrier Equipment Management Association (OCEMA) and the Institute...

  3. 76 FR 29169 - Requirements for Intermodal Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating Intermodal Equipment AGENCY: Federal Motor... motor carriers to prepare a driver- vehicle inspection report (DVIR) on an item of intermodal equipment... equipment providers (IEPs) remain in effect, as well as the requirements for IEPs to take appropriate...

  4. 49 CFR 396.9 - Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal equipment in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal... SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.9 Inspection of motor vehicles and... inspections of a motor carrier's vehicles in operation and intermodal equipment in operation. (b)...

  5. 49 CFR 396.9 - Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal equipment in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal... SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.9 Inspection of motor vehicles and... inspections of a motor carrier's vehicles in operation and intermodal equipment in operation. (b)...

  6. 49 CFR 396.9 - Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal equipment in operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of motor vehicles and intermodal... SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.9 Inspection of motor vehicles and... inspections of a motor carrier's vehicles in operation and intermodal equipment in operation. (b)...

  7. 49 CFR 390.21 - Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal... Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment. (a) General. Every self-propelled CMV subject to...) The legal name or a single trade name of the motor carrier operating the self-propelled CMV, as...

  8. 49 CFR 390.21 - Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal... Marking of self-propelled CMVs and intermodal equipment. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 52653, Aug. 23, 2013. (a) General. Every self-propelled CMV subject to subchapter B of this chapter must...

  9. Intermodal Learning in Infancy: Learning on the Basis of Two Kinds of Invariant Relations in Audible and Visible Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the development of intermodal perception in infancy by means of a new method, the intermodal learning method. Results support the claim that only subjects who had been familiarized with appropriate and synchronous film and soundtrack pairs showed evidence of intermodal learning. (Author/RWB)

  10. A system dynamics approach to intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston

    SciTech Connect

    Sebo, D.

    1996-08-01

    Intermodalism refers to interconnections among modes of transportation, e.g., road, rail, water, and air. Effective intermodal planning must cross boundaries between the public and private sectors as well as transportation modes. The development of an effective and efficient intermodal transportation system requires the identification of barriers to intermodal transportation and the investigation of the impact of proposed changes in infrastructure development, policies, regulations, and planning. A systems approach is necessary to adequately represent the interaction between the sometimes incompatible concerns of all modes and stakeholders. A systems dynamics model of intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston has been developed to highlight leverage points, hidden assumptions, second order effects resulting from feedback loops and system drivers. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the system dynamics model work.

  11. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of lading... therefor on its form with a notation showing the freight forwarder's name, then the freight forwarder, upon...

  12. Freight from Space: Evaluating Freight Activity and Emissions Trends from Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, E.; Holloway, T.; Oberman, J.; Janssen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy duty diesel freight trucks are the fastest growing source of highway emissions in the U.S., with domestic freight tonnage projected to double by 2050. Highway diesel vehicles currently account for 42% of on-road emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 58% of on-road fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. Because most surface air quality monitors are located in densely populated areas and not rural highways, it is difficult to use ground-based observations to validate spatial trends in transportation emissions. Therefore, we have employed satellite retrievals from the OMI instrument to inform surface freight transportation inventory estimates by validating modeled tropospheric vertical column total nitrogen dioxide (NO2) against satellite observations. For this research we built a roadway-by-roadway bottom-up diesel truck emissions inventory using GIS, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) activity dataset, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES emissions model. We use freight rail emissions from the Eastern Regional Technical Advisory Committee (ERTAC), inventory emissions from the Lake Michigan's Air Directors Consortium (LADCO) and the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Qualiy (CMAQ) model to simulate ground-level and tropospheric column concentrations of NO2. We also use the combination of models and satellite data to evaluate weekday-weekend patterns of NO2 concentrations and the relative contributions of highway diesel vehicles, highway gasoline vehicles, and freight rail to transportation-related pollution. This research presents the first evaluation of surface freight transport from space-based observations. We find satellite retrievals of surface pollutants provide a useful data tool for evaluating air quality models and constraining emissions sources.

  13. Intermodal attention modulates visual processing in dorsal and ventral streams.

    PubMed

    Cate, A D; Herron, T J; Kang, X; Yund, E W; Woods, D L

    2012-11-15

    Attending to visual objects while ignoring information from other modalities is necessary for performing difficult visual discriminations, but it is unclear how selecting between sensory modalities alters processing within the visual system. We used an audio-visual intermodal selective attention paradigm with fMRI to study the effects of visual attention on cortical activity in the absence of competitive interactions between multiple visual stimuli. Complex stimuli (faces and words) activated higher visual areas even in the absence of visual attention. These stimulus-dependent activations (SDAs) covered foveal retinotopic cortex, extended ventrally to the anterior fusiform gyrus and dorsally to include multiple distinct foci in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Attention amplified the baseline response in posterior retinotopic regions and altered activity in different ways in the extrastriate dorsal and ventral pathways. The majority of the IPS was strongly and exclusively activated by visual attention: attention-related modulations (ARMs) encompassed and spread well beyond the focal SDAs. In contrast, in the fusiform gyrus only a small subset of the regions activated by unattended stimuli showed ARMs. Ventral cortex was also heterogeneous: we found a distinct ventrolateral region in the occipitotemporal sulcus (OTS) that was activated exclusively by attention, showing neither SDAs nor any significant stimulus preferences. Attention-dependent activations in the IPS and the OTS suggest that these regions play critical roles in intermodal visual attention.

  14. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  15. 77 FR 22768 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning freight classification description. Public comments... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0055, Freight Classification Description, by any of the...

  16. Intermode energy transfer in vibrationally excited O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, K.-K.; Rosen, D. I.; Cool, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The laser-excited fluorescence method has been employed to determine the rate constants for vibrational relaxation of the O3 (010), O3 (100) and O3 (001) levels at 298 K. The fluorescence observations from the O3 (010) level provide direct measurements of the rate for intermode vibrational energy transfer from the coupled nu sub 1 and nu sub 3 modes to the nu sub 2 mode. The slowness of this process indicates the likelihood that the nu sub 1 and/or nu sub 3 modes (rather than the nu sub 2 mode) play a predominant role in the laser-enhanced reaction between vibrationally excited O3 and NO at 298 K.

  17. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... initial designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN), which is established by the Secretary of... Network (NFN), which combines the two, along with the portions of the Interstate System not designated as...

  18. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  19. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  20. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  1. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  2. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  3. 6. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING TOWARD SOUTH END OF FREIGHT SHED. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING TOWARD SOUTH END OF FREIGHT SHED. STRUCTURES VISIBLE AT END OF PLATFORM ARE PART OF 1946 ALTERATION TO ACCOMADATE PASSENGER TRAFFIC. ARCHWAYS ON RIGHT LEAD TO LOADING DOCKS ALSO BUILT IN 1946. - North Central Railroad, Baltimore Freight House, Guilford & Centre Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-7 - Freight Excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Excluded. 52.247-7 Section 52.247-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES..., commodities in bulk, commodities injurious or contaminating to other freight; and shipments that the...

  5. A distance meter using a terahertz intermode beat in an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shuko; Yokoyama, Toshiyuki; Hagihara, Yuki; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2009-09-28

    We propose a distance meter that utilizes an intermode beat of terahertz frequency in an optical frequency comb to perform high resolution and high dynamic range absolute distance measurements. The proposed system is based on a novel method, called multiheterodyne cross-correlation detection, in which intermode beat frequencies are scaled down to radio frequencies by optical mixing of two detuned optical frequency combs with a nonlinear optical crystal. Using this method, we obtained a 1.056 THz intermode beat and achieved a distance resolution of 0.820 microm from its phase measurement. Absolute distance measurement using 1.056 THz and 8.187 GHz intermode beats was also demonstrated in the range of 10 mm, resulting in a precision of 0.688 microm.

  6. In-line interferometer based on intermodal coupling of a multicore fiber.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Min-Seok; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Young-Geun

    2015-07-13

    An in-line interferometer based on the intermodal coupling of a multicore fiber (MCF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The in-line interferometer is fabricated by adiabatically tapering the MCF. The intermodal coupling of the in-line interferometer is strongly affected by the waist diameter of the MCF, which changes the evanescent field and the pitch size. The effect of the waist diameters of the MCF on the intermodal coupling in the in-line interferometer is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The transmission oscillations of the multiple core modes resulting from the intermodal coupling and interference substantially become stronger as the waist diameter decreases. The extinction ratio and the oscillation periodicity of the transmissions oscillations are changed by the waist diameter.

  7. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act as...

  8. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  9. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  10. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  11. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  12. Evaluation Transportability Testing of the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4, TP-94-01, Transportability Testing Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    FINAL REPORT JULY 2007 REPORT NO. 06-04G EVALUATION TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING OF THE JOINT MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01...MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01, REV. 2, JUNE 2004, "TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING PROCEDURES" ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition...Picatinny Arsenal, NJ to conduct evaluation transportability testing on the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4 manufactured by SEA BOX, Inc

  13. Three-dimensional derailment analysis of crashed freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hechao; Zhang, Jimin; Hecht, Markus

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the collision-induced derailment of freight trains was investigated. The collision between two identical freight trains occurring on a curved path rather than along a straight line was investigated. This is because from the point of view of safety against derailment this collision scenario is thought to be more critical than the scenarios defined in the European standard EN 15227. In this work, one of the trains is stationary and the other moving train collides at 36 km/h. Two kinds of container wagons were simulated. One is the two-axle freight wagon Kls 442. Another is the freight wagon Rmms 662 with two Y25 bogies. Simulation results demonstrate that in terms of safety against derailment the bogie wagon Rmms 662 was found to have better behaviour than the two-axle wagon Kls 442. In addition, this study points out that there are many contributory factors to the responses of freight wagons during a collision, such as curve radius, distance between bogie pivots and loading mass. The derailment phenomenon is less likely to occur, when freight trains collide on the curve with a larger radius. Besides that the characteristics of freight wagons with large axle loads, low centre of gravity of car body and appropriate static strength are favourable for the collided wagons in reducing the risk of derailment.

  14. The Future of the U. S. Domestic Air Freight Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A research project on the future of U.S. domestic air freight operations was conducted. The two main subjects of the project were: (1) during the 1965 to 1969 time period, when the airlines introduced jet freighters into domestic service and air freight traffic growth continued at a high rate, what strategies were employed by management and with what results and (2) what are the opportunities and problems confronting the domestic air freight industry during the 1970 and 1980 time period. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of graphs and tables.

  15. The Future of the U. S. Domestic Air Freight Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A research project on the future of U.S. domestic air freight operations was conducted. The two main subjects of the project were: (1) during the 1965 to 1969 time period, when the airlines introduced jet freighters into domestic service and air freight traffic growth continued at a high rate, what strategies were employed by management and with what results and (2) what are the opportunities and problems confronting the domestic air freight industry during the 1970 and 1980 time period. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of graphs and tables.

  16. On-chip inter-modal Brillouin scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kittlaus, Eric A.; Otterstrom, Nils T.; Rakich, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Brillouin nonlinearities—which result from coupling between photons and acoustic phonons—are exceedingly weak in conventional nanophotonic silicon waveguides. Only recently have Brillouin interactions been transformed into the strongest and most tailorable nonlinear interactions in silicon using a new class of optomechanical waveguides that control both light and sound. In this paper, we use a multi-mode optomechanical waveguide to create stimulated Brillouin scattering between light-fields guided in distinct spatial modes of an integrated waveguide for the first time. This interaction, termed stimulated inter-modal Brillouin scattering, decouples Stokes and anti-Stokes processes to enable single-sideband amplification and dynamics that permit near-unity power conversion. Using integrated mode multiplexers to address separate optical modes, we show that circulators and narrowband filters are not necessary to separate pump and signal waves. We also demonstrate net optical amplification and Brillouin energy transfer as the basis for flexible on-chip light sources, amplifiers, nonreciprocal devices and signal-processing technologies. PMID:28685776

  17. On-chip inter-modal Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittlaus, Eric A.; Otterstrom, Nils T.; Rakich, Peter T.

    2017-07-01

    Brillouin nonlinearities--which result from coupling between photons and acoustic phonons--are exceedingly weak in conventional nanophotonic silicon waveguides. Only recently have Brillouin interactions been transformed into the strongest and most tailorable nonlinear interactions in silicon using a new class of optomechanical waveguides that control both light and sound. In this paper, we use a multi-mode optomechanical waveguide to create stimulated Brillouin scattering between light-fields guided in distinct spatial modes of an integrated waveguide for the first time. This interaction, termed stimulated inter-modal Brillouin scattering, decouples Stokes and anti-Stokes processes to enable single-sideband amplification and dynamics that permit near-unity power conversion. Using integrated mode multiplexers to address separate optical modes, we show that circulators and narrowband filters are not necessary to separate pump and signal waves. We also demonstrate net optical amplification and Brillouin energy transfer as the basis for flexible on-chip light sources, amplifiers, nonreciprocal devices and signal-processing technologies.

  18. Intermodal auditory, visual, and tactile attention modulates early stages of neural processing

    PubMed Central

    Karns, Christina M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and gamma band oscillatory responses (GBRs) to examine whether intermodal attention operates early in the auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. To control for the effects of spatial attention, we spatially coregistered all stimuli and varied the attended modality across counterbalanced blocks in an intermodal selection task. In each block participants selectively responded to either auditory, visual, or vibrotactile stimuli from the stream of intermodal events. Auditory and visual ERPs were modulated at the latencies of early cortical processing, but attention manifested later for tactile ERPs. For ERPs, auditory processing was modulated at the latency of the Na (29 ms) which indexes early cortical or thalamocortical processing and the subsequent P1 (90 ms) ERP components. Visual processing was modulated at the latency of the early phase of the C1 (62-72 ms) thought to be generated in primary visual cortex and the subsequent P1 and N1 (176 ms). Tactile processing was modulated at the latency of the N160 (165 ms) likely generated in secondary association cortex. Intermodal attention enhanced early sensory GBRs for all three modalities: auditory (onset 57 ms), visual (onset 47 ms) and tactile (onset 27 ms). Together, these results suggest that intermodal attention enhances neural processing relatively early in the sensory stream independent from differential effects of spatial and intramodal selective attention. PMID:18564047

  19. 3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. FTFc52 - freight train fuel consumption computer program. Software

    SciTech Connect

    Koper, J.; Muhlenberg, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    This tape contains a copy of a computer program for the prediction of fuel consumption of a freight train operated over track with known characteristics. The program is written in FORTRAN for the IBM VM/370 computer.

  1. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  2. North view; Canopy detail and platformlevel freight elevator North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view; Canopy detail and platform-level freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 47. CRANE AND FREIGHT ELEVATOR DOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CRANE AND FREIGHT ELEVATOR DOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of AID... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or...

  5. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of AID... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or...

  6. How Sustainable Freight Creates a More Efficient Supply Chain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA presentation focuses on the challenges in achieving sustainable freight transport in the supply chain, spotlighting Mondelez International and C.H. Robinson, their sustainability efforts, and how SmartWay helps.

  7. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  8. Fuel consumption of freight trains hauled by diesel electric locomotives

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, R.W.

    1983-05-01

    The cost of railway diesel fuel has become an increasingly high proportion of railway operating expenses. The paper analyzes the generation and utilization of rail horsepower in freight train operations. The effects on fuel consumption of variations in several parameters including train consist, car weight, gradient, average speed, meet strategy, throttle control, locomotive axle arrangement, and train marshalling are examined. Estimates are made of the value, in terms of fuel cost, of weight reduction of freight cars and of selective train marshalling.

  9. To left of center is freight elevator used to move ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    To left of center is freight elevator used to move materials to the upper floors of the building. This elevator is also powered via the belts and drive shafts which operate the machine tools. Sign on elevator reads 'For Mr. Edison's Personal Use Only;' according to rumor, Edison was encouraged to use the elevator as he grew older, but refused. The elevator is designed for freight only. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  10. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  11. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  12. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  13. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  14. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  15. 49 CFR 390.42 - What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor... What are the responsibilities of drivers and motor carriers operating intermodal equipment? (a) Before operating intermodal equipment over the road, the driver accepting the equipment must inspect the...

  16. Intermodal learning in infancy: learning on the basis of two kinds of invariant relations in audible and visible events.

    PubMed

    Bahrick, L E

    1988-02-01

    In this research, the development of intermodal perception in infancy was examined by using a new method, the intermodal learning method. 3-month-old infants were given the opportunity to learn a relation between 2 single film and soundtrack pairs through a 2-min familiarization period under 1 of 4 conditions. Films of naturalistic events were accompanied by a soundtrack that was (1) appropriate to the composition of the object and synchronous with its motions, (2) appropriate and nonsynchronous, (3) inappropriate and synchronous, or (4) inappropriate and nonsynchronous. A group of control subjects was familiarized with irrelevant films and soundtracks. Then all subjects were tested in a 2-choice intermodal preference test to determine under which familiarization conditions intermodal learning had occurred. Results indicated that only subjects who had been familiarized with appropriate and synchronous film and soundtrack pairs showed evidence of intermodal learning as compared with the performance of control subjects. Intermodal learning occurred on the basis of 2 kinds of invariant audio-visual relations, temporal synchrony, and temporal microstructure specifying the composition of the object. Intermodal learning did not occur through association on the basis of co-occurrence, nor did it occur when any incongruent audio-visual structure was present. These findings support an invariant-detection view of the development of intermodal perception.

  17. Intermodal beat length measurement with Fabry-Perot optical fiber cavities.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, M; Chen, C L

    1997-05-20

    We present a new technique for measuring the intermodal beat length of a two-mode optical fiber. We formed a Fabry-Perot fiber cavity by depositing reflective mirrors on the fiber tips. As the fiber is stretched, two series of resonance peaks are observed. One series is due to the resonance of LP(01 q) modes and the other is due to the LP(11 q) modes. From the separation of resonance peaks as a function of cavity length, we deduce the intermodal beat length of the fiber. The measurement principle and the experimental confirmation are discussed.

  18. Intermodal Čerenkov radiation in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an intermodal Čerenkov radiation effect in a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber with a mode crossing (i.e., two guided modes having the same propagation constant at the same wavelength). A frequency-shifted soliton in the vicinity of the mode-crossing wavelength emits a phase-matched dispersive wave in a different propagation mode. We develop a theoretical explanation for this nonlinear optical effect and demonstrate that the mode crossing in HOM fibers can be utilized to achieve simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion; the strength of this intermodal nonlinear interaction can be tuned by controlled fiber bending.

  19. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  20. Stability of athlete blood passport parameters during air freight.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M; Sharpe, K; Plowman, J; Allbon, G; Lobigs, L; Baron, A; Gore, C J

    2014-10-01

    Fluctuations in ambient temperature and pressure, as well as physical jostling, may affect the stability of whole blood samples transported by air freight. The aim of this study was to characterize the stability of key blood variables during air freight and to investigate whether vibration or reduced pressure alone affected results. Over a 72-h interval, we evaluated the stability of full blood count indices (plus reticulocytes) in tubes that were air-freighted a total of 2, 10 and 28 h. We also examined the impact of 24 h of reduced atmospheric pressure (750 hpa or approximately 2500 m.a.s.l) and vibration (5 Hz). Samples were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i instrument. The two key variables in the context of antidoping (haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes) remained stable over a 72-h period regardless of the duration of air freight. Atmospheric pressure and vibration had no discernible effect. Whole blood samples stored in NanoCool devices can be relied upon to remain stable for at least 72 h despite interim air freight. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 14 CFR 222.2 - Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services. 222.2 Section 222.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... services if it has or publicly represents that it has any responsibility for or control over the movement...

  2. 14 CFR 222.2 - Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of permissible intermodal cargo services. 222.2 Section 222.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... services if it has or publicly represents that it has any responsibility for or control over the movement...

  3. 76 FR 32906 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report for Intermodal Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... International Container Lessors. DATES: Send your comments on or before August 8, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may... North America IEP intermodal equipment provider IICL Institute of International Container Lessors IME... Secretary of Transportation III. Legal Basis for the Rulemaking Although cargo containers move by ship,...

  4. Infants' Intermodal Perception of Canine ("Canis Familairis") Facial Expressions and Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flom, Ross; Whipple, Heather; Hyde, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    From birth, human infants are able to perceive a wide range of intersensory relationships. The current experiment examined whether infants between 6 months and 24 months old perceive the intermodal relationship between aggressive and nonaggressive canine vocalizations (i.e., barks) and appropriate canine facial expressions. Infants simultaneously…

  5. 49 CFR 390.19 - Motor carrier, hazardous material shipper, and intermodal equipment provider identification reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... commerce must file a Motor Carrier Identification Report, Form MCS-150. (2) A motor carrier conducting operations in intrastate commerce and requiring a Safety Permit under 49 CFR part 385, subpart E of this... interstate commerce must file an Intermodal Equipment Provider Identification Report, Form MCS-150C....

  6. Infants' Intermodal Perception of Canine ("Canis Familairis") Facial Expressions and Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flom, Ross; Whipple, Heather; Hyde, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    From birth, human infants are able to perceive a wide range of intersensory relationships. The current experiment examined whether infants between 6 months and 24 months old perceive the intermodal relationship between aggressive and nonaggressive canine vocalizations (i.e., barks) and appropriate canine facial expressions. Infants simultaneously…

  7. Auditory-Visual Intermodal Matching of Small Numerosities in 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Tessei; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that preverbal infants are able to discriminate between numerosities of sets presented within a particular modality. There is still debate, however, over whether they are able to perform intermodal numerosity matching, i.e. to relate numerosities of sets presented with different sensory modalities. The present study…

  8. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause: F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid (FEB 2006) (a) The term f.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, as used in this...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause: F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed (FEB 2006) (a) The term f.o.b. origin, freight allowed, as used in this...

  10. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are...: (1) U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook; (2) Limited Authority to Use Commercial Forms... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and...

  11. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are...: (1) U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook; (2) Limited Authority to Use Commercial Forms... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  13. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or... computer tapes or disks, when the mails are used to transmit them. (b) Payment by mail. Wnen shippers...

  14. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense...

  15. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin, freight allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense...

  16. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense...

  17. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin, freight allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense...

  18. 49 CFR 375.803 - How must I present my freight or expense bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must I present my freight or expense bill? 375.803 Section 375.803 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Collection of Charges § 375.803 How must I present my freight or expense bill? You must present your freight...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components...

  2. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What shipping process... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1) Identify...

  4. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What shipping process... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1) Identify...

  5. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What shipping process... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1) Identify...

  6. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What shipping process... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1) Identify...

  7. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  8. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  12. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  13. Inbound freight: an untapped resource for saving money.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Kurt

    2007-12-01

    With all the responsibilities placed on materials managers, it is not surprising that some processes such as shipping are overlooked when it comes to cutting costs. But by taking a closer look at inbound freight costs, materials managers might discover an untapped resource for saving thousands, and in some cases millions, of dollars. Finding out how costs vary among vendors for shipping the same type of item can eliminate unnecessary freight charges. Initially, the process takes time, but the bottom line will be better for it.

  14. A concept of technology for freight wagons modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pɫaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important part of the modern economy, one of the components determining its dynamic development. It is therefore important to conduct research and taking action aimed at the development and refinement of this branch of industry. Such actions directly translate into an increase in its effectiveness, safety, reduction of burden on the environment and society. Nowadays numerous studies are conducted, aimed at introducing new technologies and solutions, both in terms of railway infrastructure and logistics management systems, as well as in traction vehicles themselves. Introduction of modern technology helps eliminate or reduce nuisance problems associated with the implementation of any kind of transport or the operation of the used technical means. Presented paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. It presents a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization during their periodic repair. The main problem during exploitation of concerned types of freight wagons designed for coal transport is corrosion of the wagon's body shell. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). One of elements of the project is also to develop a system for diagnosing the technical condition of the modernized shell of wagon body during operation. For this purpose the use of non-destructive testing methods of technical state of constructions will be used, including methods that use the analysis of dynamic response of the object. Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems during exploitation of freight wagons. The composite panels composed of

  15. 49 CFR 390.40 - What responsibilities do intermodal equipment providers have under the Federal Motor Carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., or deficiencies. (j) Refrain from placing intermodal equipment in service on the public highways if... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 390.40 What responsibilities...

  16. Intermodal and cross-polarization four-wave mixing in large-core hybrid photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2015-03-09

    Degenerate four-wave mixing is considered in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, combining photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance. Co- and orthogonally polarized pump, signal and idler fields are considered numerically by calculating the parametric gain and experimentally by spontaneous degenerate four-wave mixing. Intermodal and birefringence assisted intramodal phase matching is observed. Good agreement between calculations and experimental observations is obtained. Intermodal four-wave mixing is achieved experimentally with a conversion efficiency of 17%.

  17. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  18. 13. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 25.00. (See HAER No. DE-12 & 12A for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  19. 12. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 25.00. (See HAER No. DE-12 & 12A for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. 78 FR 10249 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network Correction In notice document 2013-02580 appearing on pages 8686-8689, in the issue of Wednesday, February 6, 2013, make the...

  1. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  2. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  3. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  4. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  5. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  6. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... identity of the shipper or the circumstance that the shipment is or is not financed by the Government...

  7. 21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4119, mp 185.66 (See HAER no. RI-3 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  8. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  9. Detail of freight elevator, located between loading dock section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of freight elevator, located between loading dock section and American Railway Express Room on main floor, and traveling between the basement of the loading dock and first floor. View is to east - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & O STORAGE FACILITY ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT. TURNTABLE LIES OUT OF VIEW BEHIND TRAIN SHED. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  11. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  12. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-12-31

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  13. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p < 0.001), and sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p < 0.05), reduced continual slow wave sleep (p < 0.05), earlier awakenings (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Subjects reported sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001) and noise (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001), with the number of trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution. PMID:27090401

  14. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-04-19

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p < 0.001), and sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p < 0.05), reduced continual slow wave sleep (p < 0.05), earlier awakenings (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Subjects reported sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001) and noise (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001), with the number of trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution.

  15. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is. PMID:25350005

  16. Infants' intermodal perception of canine (Canis familairis) facial expressions and vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Whipple, Heather; Hyde, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    From birth, human infants are able to perceive a wide range of intersensory relationships. The current experiment examined whether infants between 6 months and 24 months old perceive the intermodal relationship between aggressive and nonaggressive canine vocalizations (i.e., barks) and appropriate canine facial expressions. Infants simultaneously viewed static aggressive and nonaggressive expressions of the same canine and heard an aggressive or nonaggressive bark. Results indicate that 6-month-olds perceived the intermodal relationship for aggressive and nonaggressive barks and the appropriate expression. Results also revealed that in older but not younger infants, the initial or first looks were directed toward the appropriate expression and that older infants also looked proportionately longer to the incongruent expression during the latter half of the test trials. Findings are discussed in terms of perceptual narrowing and the effects of familiarity and experience.

  17. A two-stage approach for medical supplies intermodal transportation in large-scale disaster responses.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Junhu; Wang, Xuping; Shi, Yan

    2014-10-27

    We present a two-stage approach for the "helicopters and vehicles" intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs) and assign medial aid points (MAPs) to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i) More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii) It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii) The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is.

  18. Bending sensor based on intermodal interference properties of two-dimensional waveguide array fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Y; Han, T; Wu, Z; Wei, C; Wei, H; Li, J; Tong, W

    2012-05-15

    We propose a highly sensitive bending sensor based on the intermodal interference properties of a strongly coupled two-dimentional waveguide array fiber (WAF). The interference resonance peaks formed by the SMF-WAF-SMF Mach-Zehnder interferometer are intrinsically the result of interference between the LP(01)-like supermode and other higher order supermodes, displaying supernormal sensitivity to bending in a wide curvature range. The bending sensitivity of the intermodal MZI is a quadratic function of curvature, and the resonance wavelength shift is up to 100 nm within a curvature range 0-10 m(-1). The fabrication reveals briefness, and temperature response shows little impact on the bend sensing precision. The high bending sensitivity and wide sensing range can make this device a candidate for bending discrimination and measurement in widespread areas.

  19. Auditory-visual intermodal matching based on individual recognition in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Martinez, Laura; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    The ability to recognize familiar individuals with different sensory modalities plays an important role in animals living in complex physical and social environments. Individual recognition of familiar individuals was studied in a female chimpanzee named Pan. In previous studies, Pan learned an auditory-visual intermodal matching task (AVIM) consisting of matching vocal samples with the facial pictures of corresponding vocalizers (humans and chimpanzees). The goal of this study was to test whether Pan was able to generalize her AVIM ability to new sets of voice and face stimuli, including those of three infant chimpanzees. Experiment 1 showed that Pan performed intermodal individual recognition of familiar adult chimpanzees and humans very well. However, individual recognition of infant chimpanzees was poorer relative to recognition of adults. A transfer test with new auditory samples (Experiment 2) confirmed the difficulty in recognizing infants. A remaining question was what kind of cues were crucial for the intermodal matching. We tested the effect of visual cues (Experiment 3) by introducing new photographs representing the same chimpanzees in different visual perspectives. Results showed that only the back view was difficult to recognize, suggesting that facial cues can be critical. We also tested the effect of auditory cues (Experiment 4) by shortening the length of auditory stimuli, and results showed that 200 ms vocal segments were the limit for correct recognition. Together, these data demonstrate that auditory-visual intermodal recognition in chimpanzees might be constrained by the degree of exposure to different modalities and limited to specific visual cues and thresholds of auditory cues.

  20. Evaluation Transportability Testing of the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4 TP-94-01, Revision 2, June 2004, "Transportability Testing Procedures"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    FINAL REPORT JULY 2007 REPORT NO. 06-04F EVALUATION TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING OF THE JOINT MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01...MODULAR INTERMODAL PLATFORM (JMIP) UNIT #4 TP-94-01, REV. 2, JUNE 2004, "TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING PROCEDURES" ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition...Picatinny Arsenal, NJ to conduct evaluation transportability testing on the Joint Modular Intermodal Platform (JMIP) Unit #4 manufactured by SEA BOX Inc

  1. Intra- and intermodal integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Stefan; Sutter, Christine; Müsseler, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Integration of discrepant visual and proprioceptive action effects puts high demands on the human information processing system. The present study aimed to examine the integration mechanisms for the motor (Exp. 1) and visual modality (Exp. 2). According to theories of common coding, we assumed that visual as well as proprioceptive information is represented within the same cognitive domain and is therefore likely to affect each other (multisensory cross talk). Thus, apart from the often-confirmed visual dominance in multisensory integration, we asked about intra- and intermodal recall of either proprioceptive or visual information and whether there were any differences between the motor and visual modality. In a replication paradigm, we perturbed the relation between hand movements and cursor movements. The task required the (intra- vs. intermodal) replication of an initially performed (seen) hand (cursor) movement in a subsequent motor (visual) replication phase. First, mechanisms of integration were found to be dependent on the output modality. Visual action effects interfered the motor modality, but proprioceptive action effects did not have any effects on the visual modality. Second, however, intermodal integration was more susceptible to interference, and this was found to be independent from the output modality. Third, for the motor modality, the locus of perturbation (perturbation of cursor amplitude or perturbation of hand amplitude) was irrelevant, but for the visual modality, perturbation of hand amplitudes reduced the cross talk. Tool use is one field of application of these kinds of results, since the optimized integration of conflicting action effects is a precondition for using tools successfully.

  2. Intramodality and intermodality agreement in radiography and computed tomography of equine distal limb fractures.

    PubMed

    Crijns, C P; Martens, A; Bergman, H-J; van der Veen, H; Duchateau, L; van Bree, H J J; Gielen, I M V L

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly accessible in equine referral hospitals. To document the level of agreement within and between radiography and CT in characterising equine distal limb fractures. Retrospective descriptive study. Images from horses that underwent radiographic and CT evaluation for suspected distal limb fractures were reviewed, including 27 horses and 3 negative controls. Using Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa analysis, the level of agreement among 4 observers for a predefined set of diagnostic characteristics for radiography and CT separately and for the level of agreement between the 2 imaging modalities were documented. Both CT and radiography had very good intramodality agreement in identifying fractures, but intermodality agreement was lower. There was good intermodality and intramodality agreement for anatomical localisation and the identification of fracture displacement. Agreement for articular involvement, fracture comminution and fracture fragment number was towards the lower limit of good agreement. There was poor to fair intermodality agreement regarding fracture orientation, fracture width and coalescing cracks; intramodality agreement was higher for CT than for radiography for these features. Further studies, including comparisons with surgical and/or post mortem findings, are required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography in the diagnosis and characterisation of equine distal limb fractures. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems. High speed passenger trains in freight railroad corridors: Operations and safety considerations. Final report, September 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, K.B.; Bing, A.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study into some operations and technical issues likely to be encountered when planning for high-speed rail passenger service on corridors that presently carry freight or commuter traffic. The study starts with a review of corridors designated under Section 1010 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, a potential future high-speed corridors. After a review of signal, train control and braking systems presently used in the United States and elsewhere, the study provides analyses of the safety and operations impacts of introducing high-speed rail service on the hypothetical corridor. The safety analysis established a safety performance target based on present intercity rail safety performance, and reviewed the need for and benefits from safety improvements for high speed operation. The operations analysis concentrated on the impacts on track capacity and train delays of introducing a high-speed rail service on three hypothetical existing corridors with different track layouts and signal systems.

  4. Accelerator based X-ray facilities applied to freight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, G.

    1996-06-01

    The first accelerator based X-ray facility dedicated to freight control, in this case air-freight pallets, became operational at Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle airport in 1991. Since then, five other facilities have been built, three in Europe and the other two in China, for the control of trucks and sea-containers. In order to be able to see through these very large and dense objects, X-ray energies of several MeV are necessary. Two types of electron accelerators are used for the production of the X-ray beams: linear accelerators and electrostatic accelerators (Van de Graff or Pelletrons), depending on the beam quality requirements which depend on the technology used for the detection of X-rays. A brief description of the functioning of the X-ray inspection facilities is presented in this article as well as an estimation of their global cost and of their profitability.

  5. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  6. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Brown, D. F.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. NorthEast view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator North Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Muratori, Matteo; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, Page; ...

    2017-02-27

    The freight sector's role is examined using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) for a range of climate change mitigation scenarios and future freight demand assumptions. Energy usage and CO2 emissions from freight have historically grown with a correlation to GDP, and there is limited evidence of near-term global decoupling of freight demand from GDP. Over the 21st century, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight are projected to grow faster than passenger transportation or other major end-use sectors, with the magnitude of growth dependent on the assumed extent of long-term decoupling. In climate change mitigation scenarios that apply a pricemore » to GHG emissions, mitigation of freight emissions (including the effects of demand elasticity, mode and technology shifting, and fuel substitution) is more limited than for other demand sectors. In such scenarios, shifting to less-emitting transportation modes and technologies is projected to play a relatively small role in reducing freight emissions in GCAM. Finally, by contrast, changes in the supply chain of liquid fuels that reduce the fuel carbon intensity, especially deriving from large-scale use of biofuels coupled to carbon capture and storage technologies, are responsible for the majority of freight emissions mitigation, followed by price-induced reduction in freight demand services.« less

  10. Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Matteo; Smith, Steven J; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Mignone, Bryan K; Kheshgi, Haroon S

    2017-03-21

    The freight sector's role is examined using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) for a range of climate change mitigation scenarios and future freight demand assumptions. Energy usage and CO2 emissions from freight have historically grown with a correlation to GDP, and there is limited evidence of near-term global decoupling of freight demand from GDP. Over the 21(st) century, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight are projected to grow faster than passenger transportation or other major end-use sectors, with the magnitude of growth dependent on the assumed extent of long-term decoupling. In climate change mitigation scenarios that apply a price to GHG emissions, mitigation of freight emissions (including the effects of demand elasticity, mode and technology shifting, and fuel substitution) is more limited than for other demand sectors. In such scenarios, shifting to less-emitting transportation modes and technologies is projected to play a relatively small role in reducing freight emissions in GCAM. By contrast, changes in the supply chain of liquid fuels that reduce the fuel carbon intensity, especially deriving from large-scale use of biofuels coupled to carbon capture and storage technologies, are responsible for the majority of freight emissions mitigation, followed by price-induced reduction in freight demand services.

  11. Intermodal Transportation: Current Fast Ship Designs Specify Propulsion Systems that Are about 20 Knots Faster than Ships in the Current Fleet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2005-01-01

    Intermodal transportation is the moving of people or cargo using more than one mode of transportation. When a person drives to the airport, stands on a conveyor to move through the terminal, and flies to another city, then he or she is using intermodal transportation. Moving cargo in the first half of the twentieth century was a time-consuming and…

  12. Intermodal Transportation: Current Fast Ship Designs Specify Propulsion Systems that Are about 20 Knots Faster than Ships in the Current Fleet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2005-01-01

    Intermodal transportation is the moving of people or cargo using more than one mode of transportation. When a person drives to the airport, stands on a conveyor to move through the terminal, and flies to another city, then he or she is using intermodal transportation. Moving cargo in the first half of the twentieth century was a time-consuming and…

  13. Enhanced intermodal four-wave mixing for visible and near-infrared wavelength generation in a photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Guiyao; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xian; Yu, Chongxiu; Wang, Kuiru; Yan, Binbin; Han, Ying; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate experimentally an enhanced intermodal four-wave mixing (FWM) process through coupling positively chirped femtosecond pulses into the deeply normal dispersion region of the fundamental mode of an in-house fabricated photonic crystal fiber (PCF). In the intermodal phase-matching scheme, the energy of the pump waves at 800 nm in the fundamental mode is efficiently converted into the anti-Stokes waves around 553 nm and the Stokes waves within the wavelength range of 1445-1586 nm in the second-order mode. The maximum conversion efficiency of η(as) and η(s) of anti-Stokes and Stokes waves can be up to 21% and 16%, respectively. The Stokes frequency shift Ω is 5580  cm(-1). The fiber bending and intermodal walk-off effect of pulses do not have significant influence on the nonlinear optical process.

  14. EEG investigations of duration discrimination: the intermodal effect is induced by an attentional bias.

    PubMed

    Gontier, Emilie; Hasuo, Emi; Mitsudo, Takako; Grondin, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that empty time intervals are better discriminated in the auditory than in the visual modality, and when delimited by signals delivered from the same (intramodal intervals) rather than from different sensory modalities (intermodal intervals). The present electrophysiological study was conducted to determine the mechanisms which modulated the performances in inter- and intramodal conditions. Participants were asked to categorise as short or long empty intervals marked by auditory (A) and/or visual (V) signals (intramodal intervals: AA, VV; intermodal intervals: AV, VA). Behavioural data revealed that the performances were higher for the AA intervals than for the three other intervals and lower for inter- compared to intramodal intervals. Electrophysiological results indicated that the CNV amplitude recorded at fronto-central electrodes increased significantly until the end of the presentation of the long intervals in the AA conditions, while no significant change in the time course of this component was observed for the other three modalities of presentation. They also indicated that the N1 and P2 amplitudes recorded after the presentation of the signals which delimited the beginning of the intervals were higher for the inter- (AV/VA) compared to the intramodal intervals (AA/VV). The time course of the CNV revealed that the high performances observed with AA intervals would be related to the effectiveness of the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of the ongoing interval. The greater amplitude of the N1 and P2 components during the intermodal intervals suggests that the weak performances observed in these conditions would be caused by an attentional bias induced by the cognitive load and the necessity to switch between modalities.

  15. Intermodal four-wave mixing from femtosecond pulse-pumped photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Tu, H; Jiang, Z; Marks, D L; Boppart, S A

    2009-03-09

    Large Stokes-shift ( approximately 4700 cm(-1)) four-wave mixing is generated in a deeply normal dispersion regime from a 20 cm commercial large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber pumped by amplified approximately 800 nm femtosecond pulses. The phase-matching condition is realized through an intermodal scheme involving two pump photons in the fundamental fiber mode and a pair of Stokesanti-Stokes photons in a higher-order fiber mode. Over 7% conversion efficiency from the pump input to 586 nm anti-Stokes signal has been attained.

  16. 78 FR 78470 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Freight Forwarders; International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... exemption for all domestic freight forwarders which operate solely in the Department of Defense's (DOD... on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review the DOT Privacy Act system... of all domestic freight forwarders operating solely in the DOD's HHG program, from the...

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and...

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use...

  20. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C...

  1. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C...

  2. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C...

  3. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C...

  4. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C...

  5. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling equipment for freight containers...) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Except in an emergency, only cargo handling equipment...

  6. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  7. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  8. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  9. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part 156 may be used as an alternative to the FUMIGANT marking. (c) No person may affix or display on...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... port area having water transportation service) or the carrier's freight station; (iii) To a U.S. Postal...) An allowance for freight, based on applicable published tariff rates (or Government rate tenders...) Lengths and capacities of cars or trucks ordered and furnished; (iv) Other pertinent information...

  11. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal...

  12. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal...

  13. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal...

  14. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal...

  15. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal...

  16. 78 FR 54720 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) concerning persons acting as a broker or a freight forwarder. Section 32915 of MAP-21 requires anyone acting as a broker or a freight... President signed MAP-21 (Pub. L. 112-141, 126 Stat. 405 (2012)) into law, which included a number...

  17. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  18. 19 CFR 141.112 - Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....112 Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average. (a) Definitions. The following are general definitions for the purposes of this section: (1) Freight. “Freight” means the charges for the... exists as to the validity of a lien filed with the port director, he may require a bond on Customs Form...

  19. 19 CFR 141.112 - Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....112 Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average. (a) Definitions. The following are general definitions for the purposes of this section: (1) Freight. “Freight” means the charges for the... exists as to the validity of a lien filed with the port director, he may require a bond on Customs Form...

  20. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shipments. 351.515 Section 351.515 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the charges...

  1. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.2 Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight...

  2. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: References: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1...

  3. 77 FR 73455 - Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP) AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ] SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is..., and household goods TSPs. This update will be included in the next release of the Military Freight...

  4. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...) 878-8161, or Mr. George Alie, (618) 220-5870. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: References: Military Freight...

  5. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution...: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1. Background: The MFTURP No. 1...

  6. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution... INFORMATION: References: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1. Background...

  7. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1...

  8. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution...) 220-5870. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  10. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  11. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  12. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  13. On potentiality of brake rigging unification for freight cars with separate braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, V. V.; Kobishchanov, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of unified rigging use with a brake cylinder (BC) in bogie areas or on a bogie in a freight car is defined. Two ranges of transmission ratios were obtained for freight cars with pressure control in cylinders with the aid of the automated mode. To change transmission ratios, two openings are supposed to be used in rigging.

  14. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  15. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  17. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  18. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  20. 62 FR 11198 - Ever Freight International Ltd., Sigma Express Inc., and Mario F. Chavarria dba Transcargo Intl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-03-11

    ... Ever Freight International Ltd., Sigma Express Inc., and Mario F. Chavarria dba Transcargo Intl... from Hong Kong to the U.S., in concert with U.S. consignees Sigma Express Inc. and Mario F. Chavarria d... Freight. Respondent Mario F. Chavarria is a licensed ocean freight forwarder (FMC license No. 4175) and...

  1. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  2. Discrimination of two neighboring intra- and intermodal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Hasuo, Emi; Labonté, Katherine; Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the discrimination of two neighboring intra- or inter-modal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli. Each of the three markers was a flash (visual-V) or a sound (auditory-A). The first and last markers were of the same modality, while the second one was either A or V, resulting in four conditions: VVV, VAV, AVA and AAA. Participants judged whether the second interval, whose duration was systematically varied, was shorter or longer than the 500-ms first interval. Compared with VVV and AAA, discrimination was impaired with VAV, but not so much with AVA (in Experiment 1). Whereas VAV and AVA consisted of the same set of single intermodal intervals (VA and AV), discrimination was impaired in the VAV compared to the AVA condition. This difference between VAV and AVA could not be attributed to the participants' strategy to perform the discrimination task, e.g., ignoring the standard interval or replacing the visual stimuli with sounds in their mind (in Experiment 2). These results are discussed in terms of sequential grouping according to sensory similarity.

  3. Modal sound transmission loss of a single leaf panel: Effects of inter-modal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong

    2015-06-01

    Sound transmission through a single leaf panel has mostly been discussed and explained by using the approaching wave concept, from which the well-known mass law can be derived. In this paper, the modal behavior in sound transmission coefficients is explored, and it is shown that the mutual modal radiation impedances in modal sound transmission coefficients may not be ignored even for a panel immersed in a light fluid. By introducing the equivalent modal impedance which incorporates the inter-modal coupling effect, an analytical expression for the modal sound transmission coefficient is derived, and the overall sound transmission coefficient is simply a modal superposition of modal sound transmission coefficients. A good correlation is obtained between analytical calculation and boundary element method. In addition, it is found that inter-modal coupling has noticeable effects in modal sound transmission coefficients in the subsonic region but may be ignored as modes become supersonic. It is also shown that the well-known mass law performance is attributed to all the supersonic modes.

  4. Individual somatotopy of primary sensorimotor cortex revealed by intermodal matching of MEG, PET, and MRI.

    PubMed

    Walter, H; Kristeva, R; Knorr, U; Schlaug, G; Huang, Y; Steinmetz, H; Nebeling, B; Herzog, H; Seitz, R J

    1992-01-01

    A method for comparing estimated magnetoencephalographic (MEG) dipole localizations with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation areas is presented. This approach utilizes individual intermodal matching of MEG data, of rCBF measurements with [15O]-butanol and positron emission tomography (PET), and of anatomical information obtained from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The MEG data and the rCBF measurements were recorded in a healthy subject during right-sided simple voluntary movements of the foot, thumb, index finger, and mouth. High resolution 3D-FLASH MR images of the brain consisting of 128 contiguous sagittal slices of 1.17-mm thickness were used. MEG/MR integration was performed by superimposing the 3D head coordinate system constructed during the MEG measurement onto the MR image data using identical anatomical landmarks as references. PET/MR integration was achieved by a phantom-validated iterative front-to-back-projection algorithm resulting in one integrated MEG/PET/MR image. The estimated dipole locations followed the somatotopic organisation of the task-specific rCBF increases as evident from PET, although they did not match point-to-point. Our results demonstrate that intermodal matching of MEG, PET and MR data provides a tool for relating estimated neuromagnetic field locations to task-specific rCBF changes in individual subjects. Our method offers the perspective of refined dipole modelling.

  5. Finite-element method for intermodality nonrigid breast registration using external skin markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Ioana L.; Krol, Andrzej; Mandel, James A.; Baum, Karl G.; Luo, Min; Lipson, Edward D.; Feiglin, David H.

    2004-05-01

    We are developing a method using nonrigid co-registration of PET and MR breast images as a way to improve diagnostic specificity in difficult-to-interpret mammograms, and ultimately to avoid biopsy. A deformable breast model based on a finite-element method (FEM) has been employed. The FEM "loads" are taken as the observed intermodality displacements of several fiducial skin markers placed on the breast and visible in PET and MRI. The analogy between orthogonal components of the displacement field and the temperature differences in a steady-state heat transfer (SSHT) in solids has been adopted. The model allows estimation, throughout the breast, of the intermodality displacement field. To test our model, an elastic breast phantom with simulated internal "lesions" and external markers was imaged with PET and MRI. We have estimated fiducial- and target-registration errors vs. number and location of fiducials, and have shown that the SSHT approach using external fiducial markers is accurate to within ~5 mm.

  6. Intermode beating mode-locking technique for O-band mixed-cascaded Raman fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhengqian; Zhong, Min; Xiong, Fengfu; Wu, Duanduan; Huang, Yizhong; Li, Yingyue; Le, Lili; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-02-15

    A novel intermode beating mode-locking (IBML) technique combined with a cascaded Raman process is proposed to mode-lock an O-band two-cascaded Raman fiber laser. Using a 980-m-long phosphosilicate fiber pumped by a 1064 nm laser, the second-order Raman oscillation at 1319 nm is generated by the mixed-cascaded Raman shifts of P2O5 and SiO2. By precisely matching the intermode beating frequencies of the 1064 nm pump laser and the second-order Raman cavity frequency, harmonic mode-locking at 1319 nm is initiated. The dynamic process of the IBML operation in the cascaded Raman laser is experimentally investigated. The 131st-order harmonic mode-locking with a repetition rate of 27.247 MHz is very stable with the radio-frequency (RF) signal-to-noise ratio of >56  dB and the RF supermode-suppression ratio of >43  dB. The mode-locked pulses with the square profile are confirmed as the noise-like pulses by an autocorrelator. The IBML technique, in combination with the cascaded Raman process, could offer an exciting new prospect for obtaining simple, compact, and arbitrary-wavelength mode-locked laser sources.

  7. Analyzing Impact of Intermodal Facilities on Design and Management of Biofuel Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Eksioglu, Sandra D; Li, Song; Zhang, Shu; Petrolia, Daniel; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-09-01

    The impact of an intermodal facility on location and transportation decisions for biofuel production plants is analyzed. Location decisions affect the management of the inbound and outbound logistics of a plant. This supply chain design and management problem is modeled as a mixed integer program. Input data for this model are location of intermodal facilities and available transportation modes, cost and cargo capacity for each transportation mode, geographical distribution of biomass feedstock and production yields, and biomass processing and inventory costs. Outputs from this model are the number, location, and capacity of biofuel production plants. For each plant, the transportation mode used, timing of shipments, shipment size, inventory size, and production schedule that minimize the delivery cost of biofuel are determined. The model proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for investors in the biofuels industry since it estimates the real cost of the business. The state of Mississippi is considered as the testing grounds for the model.

  8. Freight train scheduling on a single line corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Amirah; Froyland, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Most of the world's freight rail network consists of single track lines with sidings where interactions between trains occur (meet, pass). The goal is to generate a schedule where the trains spend as little time as possible traversing between loading and unloading stations while ensuring that the interactions happen safely. Currently, scheduling is a manual operation performed by train controllers or dispatchers. The complexity of the problem makes it a demanding and highly time consuming task. We present an integer program formulation and results obtained from numerical experiments.

  9. 49 CFR 390.40 - What responsibilities do intermodal equipment providers have under the Federal Motor Carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system of driver vehicle inspection reports submitted to the intermodal equipment provider as required by § 396.11 of this chapter. (f) Maintain a system of inspection, repair, and maintenance records as..., have procedures in place, and provide sufficient space, for drivers to perform a pre-trip inspection...

  10. 49 CFR 390.40 - What responsibilities do intermodal equipment providers have under the Federal Motor Carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system of driver vehicle inspection reports submitted to the intermodal equipment provider as required by § 396.11 of this chapter. (f) Maintain a system of inspection, repair, and maintenance records as..., have procedures in place, and provide sufficient space, for drivers to perform a pre-trip inspection...

  11. 49 CFR 390.40 - What responsibilities do intermodal equipment providers have under the Federal Motor Carrier...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... system of driver vehicle inspection reports submitted to the intermodal equipment provider as required by § 396.11 of this chapter. (f) Maintain a system of inspection, repair, and maintenance records as..., have procedures in place, and provide sufficient space, for drivers to perform a pre-trip inspection...

  12. 49 CFR 386.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND HAZARDOUS...), property broker, freight forwarder, or its agents, employees, or any other person subject to the...

  13. Sloshing effects and running safety in railway freight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Premoli, Antonio; Gallazzi, Stefano; Bruni, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    This paper deals with the study of running dynamic effects for a partially filled railway tank vehicle. A computational fluid dynamics model in 2D is established and used to define the motion of the sloshing fluid and the forces generated on the tank, for curving conditions typical of railway freight transport. From these results, an equivalent mechanical model is identified which is able to correctly reproduce the forces generated on the tank. Finally, a mathematical model is defined for the entire freight car, including the bogies with primary suspensions, the tank and a discrete number of equivalent models positioned at different places along the longitudinal axis of the tank. This model is used to simulate the dynamics of the tank for a variety of curve geometries, train speeds and fill levels. By these simulations, derailment and rollover risks are evaluated and the most critical conditions for running safety are defined. Results show that sloshing can increase significantly the risk of tank rollover whereas its influence on the risk of derailment is minor.

  14. Wireless sensor node for detection of freight train derailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Andrea; Milani, Damiano; Resta, Ferruccio; Tomasini, Gisella

    2016-04-01

    The target of the research activity presented in this paper is to design, to realize and to test an autonomous sensor node able to measure the accelerations in correspondence of the axle box of a freight train. The final goal of the sensor is to identify the derailment conditions by observing the variations in the spectra of the box accelerations, around the frequencies associated to the wheel revolution and its multiples. The sensor node embeds an accelerometer, a microprocessor, a transmission system, a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester and an integrated circuit for managing the power distribution to each component of the node. In particular, a mechanical filter to be applied to the node was specifically designed to increment the energy recovered by the harvester and to filter out the high frequency components of the axle-box acceleration, allowing the use of a more sensitive accelerometer. The harvesting system was setup by means of laboratory tests carried out with an electromechanical shaker and the sensor node was finally tested through field tests on freight trains.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Reforming the road freight transportation system using systems thinking: An investigation of Coronial inquests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Road freight transport is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries in Australia, accounting for over 30% of all work fatalities. Whilst system reform (i.e., change to policy and practice) is needed, it is not clear what this reform should be, or what approaches should be used to drive it. This article argues that road freight transportation reform should be underpinned by a systems thinking approach. Efforts to understand crash causation should be focused beyond the driver and identify contributing factors at other levels with the road freight system. Accordingly, we present the findings from a study that examined whether Australian Coronial investigations into road freight crashes reflect support appropriate system reform. Content analysis was used to identify the contributing factors and interrelations implicated in the road freight crashes described in publicly available Australian Coroner's inquest reports from the last 10 years (2004-2014; n=21). The results found evidence to suggest that the Coronial inquests provide some understanding of the complex system of factors influencing road freight transportation crashes in Australia. However, there was a lack of evidence to suggest an understanding of system-based reform based on the identification of reductionist-focused recommendations. It is concluded that researchers and practitioners (ie., government and industry) need to work together to develop prevention efforts focused on system reforms. Systems thinking based data collection and analysis frameworks are urgently required to help develop this understanding in road freight transportation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Efficient Cloud Computing-Based Architecture for Freight System Application in China Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baopeng; Zhang, Ning; Li, Honghui; Liu, Feng; Miao, Kai

    Cloud computing is a new network computing paradigm of distributed application environment. It utilizes the computing resource and storage resource to dynamically provide on-demand service for users. The distribution and parallel characters of cloud computing can leverage the railway freight system. We implement a cloud computing-based architecture for freight system application, which explores the Tashi and Hadoop for virtual resource management and MapReduce-based search technology. We propose the semantic model and setup configuration parameter by experiment, and develop the prototype system for freight search and tracking.

  19. Intermode Coupling Drives the Irreversible Tautomerization in Porphycene on Copper(111) Induced by Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Novko, Dino; Blanco-Rey, María; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2017-03-02

    In this contribution, we develop a nonadiabatic theory that explains, from first-principles, the recently reported irreversible trans → cis tautomerization of porphycene on Cu(111) induced by a scanning tunnelling microscope at finite bias. The inelastic contribution to the STM current is found to excite a large number of skeletal vibrational modes of the molecule, thereby inducing a deformation of the potential energy landscape along the hydrogen transfer coordinate. Above a threshold bias, the stability of the tautomers is reversed, which indirectly drives the reaction via intermode coupling. The proposed potential deformation term accounts effectively for the excitation of all internal vibrational modes without increasing the dimensionality of the problem. The model yields information about reaction rates, explains the reaction irreversibility at low temperatures, and accounts for the presence of resonant processes.

  20. Maglev-rail intermodal equipment and suspension study. Final report, July 1991-February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrease, E.E.; Gillam, C.M.

    1993-02-01

    The physical and operational characteristics of four existing and planned maglev systems were surveyed pertinent to the intermodal interface for each system. The maglev systems investigated were: Grumman New York State' (Configuration 002) Maglev; Transrapid Intercity (Transrapid 07) Maglev; HSST Passive Intermediate Speed (HSST-300) Maglev; and Japan Railways Vertical Magnet (Configuration MLU 002) Maglev. The focus of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using existing railroad right-of-way to access center-city terminals in one of three possible methods: Maglev vehicles traveling over existing railroad tracks with the use of steel guide wheels and some means of exterior propulsion; maglev vehicles transferred onto modified railroad flatcars and transported over existing railroad tracks with locomotive power; or new grade-separated maglev guideways on existing railroad rights-of-way.

  1. Intermodal transfer in temporal discrimination. [of visual and acoustic stimuli duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warm, J. S.; Stutz, R. M.; Vassolo, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    This study determined if training for accuracy in temporal discrimination would transfer across sensory modalities. A fractionation method was used in which subjects bisected the durations of acoustic and visual signals at three standard intervals (6, 12, and 18 sec). Absolute error was the performance index. Half of the subjects were trained with acoustic stimuli and then tested in vision; the remainder were trained in vision and tested in audition. Similar negatively accelerated acquisition functions were noted for both modalities. Positive intermodal transfer, characterized by symmetry across modalities, was obtained at all standard durations. The results were considered to provide support for the notion that a common mechanism underlies temporal discriminations in different sensory systems.

  2. Intermodal four-wave mixing in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-10-15

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency intermodal four-wave-mixing process in an all-fiber system, comprising a picosecond fiber laser and a high-order-mode (HOM) fiber. Two pump photons in the LP(01) mode of the fiber can generate an anti-Stokes photon in the LP(01) mode and a Stokes photon in the LP(02) mode. The wavelength dependent mode profiles of the HOM fiber produce significant spatial overlap between the modes involved. The anti-Stokes wave at 941 nm is generated with 20% conversion efficiency with input pulse energy of 20 nJ. The guidance of the anti-Stokes and Stokes waves in the HOM fiber enhances system stability.

  3. V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometer for high-temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tan, Xiaoling; Gao, Rong

    2015-01-10

    Novel V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometers fabricated by CO2 laser irradiation on a standard single-mode fiber are described. The high-order cladding modes are excited due to the special V-groove structure. The interferometers are classified as Mach-Zehnder and Michelson type based on the way they are structured. Benefiting from the large difference of thermal coefficients of the core and high-order cladding modes, both types receive high temperature sensitivity by monitoring the wavelength shift of the interference spectrum, and their responses to temperature are similar. Compared with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Michelson interferometer is more compact and more flexible in application.

  4. 75 FR 7152 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... intermodal United Parcel Service (UPS) trains that originate or terminate at CSX Intermodal's Bedford Park Intermodal Terminal. The UPS trains handle freight to and from the southeastern region of the United States...

  5. 78 FR 33888 - National Freight Advisory Committee: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... transportation, including implementation of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21... will provide an overview of MAP-21 freight provisions and an update of the Department's progress...

  6. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purposes of this subpart, may be regarded as a magazine but not as a separate compartment. (b) Freight...) materials for which magazine stowage type A is required must have a floor consisting of tightly...

  7. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purposes of this subpart, may be regarded as a magazine but not as a separate compartment. (b) Freight...) materials for which magazine stowage type A is required must have a floor consisting of tightly...

  8. Raman fiber laser harmonically mode-locked by exploiting the intermodal beating of CW multimode pump source.

    PubMed

    Luo, Z Q; Ye, C C; Fu, H Y; Cheng, H H; Wang, J Z; Cai, Z P

    2012-08-27

    We report here the first demonstration of a harmonic mode-locked Raman fiber laser using the intermodal beating of a continuous-wave (CW) multiple-longitudinal-mode pump laser. By matching the Raman-cavity round-trip frequency with the intermodal-beating one of a 1064 nm CW pump source, harmonic mode-locking in phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser is stably initiated at the first-order Stokes of 1239.5 nm, and generates rectangular-shape nanosecond pulses with the pulse energy up to 4.25 nJ. Using the new type of mode-locking, the harmonic order can be discretely tuned from 78 th- to 693 rd-order, and the cavity supermode is suppressed up to 51.1 dB with the signal-to-noise ratio of more than 65 dB.

  9. Intermodal interferometer based on a fluid-filled two-mode photonic crystal fiber for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangxia; Liu, Yan-ge; Wang, Zhi; Han, Tingting; Xu, Weicai; Wang, Yunkun; Wang, Shangcheng

    2013-05-10

    A fluid-filled two-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based intermodal interferometer and its sensing characteristics are demonstrated and investigated. The interferometer works from the interference between LP(01) and LP(11) core modes of the fluid-filled PCF. Solutions to enhance the temperature sensitivity of the interferometer are also discussed. Via choosing a higher fluid-filled length ratio of PCF, a sensitivity of more than -340 pm/°C at 1480 nm is achieved, which is the highest value for a PCF intermodal interferometer-based sensor, to our best knowledge. Furthermore, there exist significant differences in temperature and strain sensitivity for two different interference dips, thus the interferometer can be used as a dual-parameter sensor with a compact structure through matrix demodulation.

  10. Effect of species-specificity in auditory-visual intermodal matching in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and humans.

    PubMed

    Martinez, L; Matsuzawa, T

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the performance of a chimpanzee and humans on auditory-visual intermodal matching of conspecifics and non-conspecifics. The task consisted of matching vocal samples to facial images of the corresponding vocalizers. We tested the chimpanzee and human subjects with both chimpanzee and human stimuli to assess the involvement of species-specificity in the recognition process. All subjects were highly familiar with the stimuli. The chimpanzee subject, named Pan, had had extensive previous experience in auditory-visual intermodal matching tasks. We found clear evidence of a species-specific effect: the chimpanzee and human subjects both performed better at recognizing conspecifics than non-conspecifics. Our results suggest that Pan's early exposure to human caretakers did not seem to favor a perceptual advantage in better discriminating familiar humans compared to familiar conspecifics. The results also showed that Pan's recognition of non-conspecifics did not significantly improve over the course of the experiment. In contrast, human subjects learned to better discriminate non-conspecific stimuli, suggesting that the processing of recognition might differ across species. Nevertheless, this comparative study demonstrates that species-specificity significantly affects intermodal individual recognition of highly familiar individuals in both chimpanzee and human subjects.

  11. Novel technique for measuring intermodal dispersion in optical fibers using the spectral interference in the Michelson interferometer configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlubina, Petr

    1999-07-01

    The spectral interference between two modes of an optical fiber, which shows up as a periodic modulation of the source spectrum at its output, cannot be used to measure intermodal dispersion in the optical fiber when the period of modulation is too small to be resolved by a spectrometer. We proposed a novel measuring technique utilizing a tandem configuration of a dispersive Michelson interferometer and a two-mode optical fiber in which the intermodal interference can be restored, and consequently spectral interference fringes can be resolved, even if a low-resolution spectrometer is used. In the tandem configuration of the Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber, the optical path difference (OPD) in the Michelson interferometer is adjusted close to the group OPD between modes of the optical fiber so that the low-frequency spectral modulation that can be processed is produced. The feasibility of this technique has successfully been demonstrated in obtaining the wavelength dependence of the group OPD between two modes of the optical fiber. Using the Fourier transform method in processing the measured spectral modulations and subtracting the effect of the dispersive Michelson interferometer, the intermodal dispersion of the two-mode optical fiber has been obtained.

  12. Assessing Temporal Effect of Economic Activity on Freight Volumes with Two-Period Cross-Sectional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The most comprehensive publicly available freight databases are the Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and the FHWA s Freight Analysis Framework (FAF). These two sources contain dollar value and weight of freight movements at high geographic levels, such as state or metropolitan areas. Due to the difficulty in obtaining freight data at lower geographies various practitioners and researchers have been suggesting to estimate freight models based on aggregate data. Following these recent practices, a methodology to estimate a nationwide production and attraction models for U.S. domestic trade of goods is presented. To this end, a CFS s data set provided by U.S. Census Bureau and composed of two-nonconsecutive year period (2002 and 2007) of movements of goods between U.S. states for 27 industry sectors was used. The state payroll by industry sector, obtained from the County Business Patterns of the U.S. Census, was the variable used to estimate freight generation models. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the temporal stability and predictability of the proposed aggregate models. The results indicate that the payroll alone explains a significant portion of the freight production and attraction at the state level. However, such simplification in the model process did not result in reasonable predictions of freight for a future year horizon. It is recommended that time-dependent factors (e.g. variables related to changes industry productivity) affecting freight demand should be considered in the modeling process.

  13. On the use of Li isotopes as a proxy for water-rock interaction in fractured crystalline rocks: A case study from the Gotthard rail base tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, Christoph; Bucher, Kurt; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Waber, H. Niklaus; Pettke, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We present Li isotope measurements of groundwater samples collected during drilling of the 57 km long Gotthard rail base tunnel in Switzerland, to explore the use of Li isotope measurements for tracking water-rock interactions in fractured crystalline rocks at temperatures of up to 43 °C. The 17 groundwater samples originate from water-conducting fractures within two specific crystalline rock units, which are characterized by a similar rock mineralogy, but significantly different fluid composition. In particular, the aqueous Li concentrations observed in samples from the two units vary from 1-4 mg/L to 0.01-0.02 mg/L. Whereas δ7Li values from the unit with high Li concentrations are basically constant (δ7Li = 8.5-9.1‰), prominent variations are recorded for the samples from the unit with low Li concentrations (δ7Li = 10-41‰). This observation demonstrates that Li isotope fractionation can be highly sensitive to aqueous Li concentrations. Moreover, δ7Li values from the unit with low Li concentrations correlate well with reaction progress parameters such as pH and [Li]/[Na] ratios, suggesting that δ7Li values are mainly controlled by the residence time of the fracture groundwater. Consequently, 1D reactive transport modeling was performed to simulate mineral reactions and associated Li isotope fractionation along a water-conducting fracture system using the code TOUGHREACT. Modeling results confirm the residence time hypothesis and demonstrate that the absence of δ7Li variation at high Li concentrations can be well explained by limitation of the amount of Li that is incorporated into secondary minerals. Modeling results also suggest that Li uptake by kaolinite forms the key process to cause Li isotope fractionation in the investigated alkaline system (pH >9), and that under slow flow conditions (<10 m/year), this process is associated with a very large Li isotope fractionation factor (ε ≈ -50‰). Moreover, our simulations demonstrate that for simple

  14. Preliminary analysis of hub and spoke air freight distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A brief analysis is made of the hub and spoke air freight distribution system which would employ less than 15 hub centers world wide with very large advanced distributed-load freighters providing the line-haul delivery between hubs. This system is compared to a more conventional network using conventionally-designed long-haul freighters which travel between numerous major airports. The analysis calculates all of the transportation costs, including handling charges and pickup and delivery costs. The results show that the economics of the hub/spoke system are severely compromised by the extensive use of feeder aircraft to deliver cargo into and from the large freighter terminals. Not only are the higher costs for the smaller feeder airplanes disadvantageous, but their use implies an additional exchange of cargo between modes compared to truck delivery. The conventional system uses far fewer feeder airplanes, and in many cases, none at all. When feeder aircraft are eliminated from the hub/spoke system, however, that system is universally more economical than any conventional system employing smaller line-haul aircraft.

  15. A non-local approach for image super-resolution using intermodality priors.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, François

    2010-08-01

    Image enhancement is of great importance in medical imaging where image resolution remains a crucial point in many image analysis algorithms. In this paper, we investigate brain hallucination (Rousseau, 2008), or generating a high-resolution brain image from an input low-resolution image, with the help of another high-resolution brain image. We propose an approach for image super-resolution by using anatomical intermodality priors from a reference image. Contrary to interpolation techniques, in order to be able to recover fine details in images, the reconstruction process is based on a physical model of image acquisition. Another contribution to this inverse problem is a new regularization approach that uses an example-based framework integrating non-local similarity constraints to handle in a better way repetitive structures and texture. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on realistic Brainweb Magnetic Resonance images and on clinical images from ADNI, generating automatically high-quality brain images from low-resolution input. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intermodal nonlinear effects mediated optical event horizon in short-length multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V.; Singh, S. P.; Haldar, R.; Mondal, P.; Varshney, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    The group-velocity-led optical event horizon (OEH) in optical fibers provides a convenient way to efficiently control a weak dispersive pulse by a comparatively strong solitonic pulse. State-of-the-art experiments demonstrating OEH make use of two different light sources, which increases the system complexity and cost. Here, we propose an elegant and cost-effective approach to observe the OEH through intermodal nonlinear interaction between azimuthally symmetric LP01 and LP02 modes of a specially designed triple-clad multimode fiber through only a single pump. The simultaneous control over dispersion and the walk off of LP01 and LP02 modes of the designed fiber pave the way for the OEH interaction. The LP02 mode possesses anomalous dispersion, while the LP01 mode exhibits normal dispersion over the wavelength range of interest. Depending upon the location of the input pump wavelength, the LP02 soliton can reflect a weak copropagating LP01 dispersive pulse, which possesses the same carrier wavelength as the soliton. The findings of this work might be useful for all-optical switching and also for the optical transistor action, where the increased feasibility is obtained by the fact that the proposed approach does not require separate input wavelengths for the soliton and the dispersive pulse. Moreover, a tunable pump source can be used to observe either a redshift or a blueshift in the dispersive pulse.

  17. Research on the optical fiber gas flowmeters based on intermodal interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Hu, Hai-feng; Bi, Dan-juan; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a self-heating type optical fiber flowmeter with high sensitivity was proposed. The core-offset fiber structures were employed to couple a part of signal light into the fiber cladding layer, and the other part of light still propagated in the core layer. The intermodal interference between the two parts of light happened when the cladding modes were coupled back into core layer. Meanwhile, the high power laser was also introduced into fiber to heat the silver film coated on the surface of the cladding layer. When the cool gas flow passed, the temperature of the sensor probe decreased due to the heat transfer process. Because of the thermo-optic effect in the fiber, interference spectrum could be shifted when the temperature was changed. The experimental results showed the resolution of the proposed sensor was 2×10-2 m/s in the region of 0-8 m/s. The highest sensitivity could achieve 1537 pm/(m/s).

  18. Precise control of the optical microfiber tapering process based on monitoring of intermodal interference.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xueliang; Song, Zhangqi; Wang, Jianfei; Meng, Zhou

    2014-12-10

    This paper describes the effective rectification of the estimated diameter of an optical microfiber (OM) during the tapering process. A high-coherence laser is used to monitor the OM-tapering process. The evolution of the intermodal interference between the fundamental mode and the coupled modes can be clearly observed. We analyze the point in time at which the excited mode vanishes and use that to justify the correlative diameter of the fabricated OM for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By comparing the measured cutoff time of the coupled LP(02) mode and the theoretically predicted value, we can judge whether the theoretical estimation of the OM diameter has been correctly obtained, and we can introduce a modification method with feedback by changing the initial parameters or the manufacturing conditions to ensure OM diameter accuracy. This identification and rectification method is helpful for precise fabrication of OMs with different waist lengths and waist diameters, and it can also be used to check the repeatability of OMs.

  19. Dual Neutral Particle Beam Interrogation of Intermodal Shipping Containers for Special Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Rodney Lyman

    Intermodal shipping containers entering the United States provide an avenue to smuggle unsecured or stolen special nuclear material (SNM). The only direct method fielded to indicate the presence of SNM is by passive photon/neutron radiation detection. Active interrogation using neutral particle beams to induce fission in SNM is a method under consideration. One by-product of fission is the creation of fragments that undergo radioactive decay over a time period on the order of tens of seconds after the initial event. The "delayed" gamma-rays emitted from these fragments over this period are considered a hallmark for the presence of SNM. A fundamental model is developed using homogenized cargos with a SNM target embedded at the center and computationally interrogated using simultaneous neutron and photon beams. Findings from analysis of the delayed gamma emissions from these experiments are intended to mitigate the effects of poor quality information about the composition and disposition of suspect cargo before examination in an active interrogation portal.

  20. A non-local approach for image super-resolution using intermodality priors ☆

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, François

    2010-01-01

    Image enhancement is of great importance in medical imaging where image resolution remains a crucial point in many image analysis algorithms. In this paper, we investigate brain hallucination (Rousseau, 2008), or generating a high-resolution brain image from an input low-resolution image, with the help of another high-resolution brain image. We propose an approach for image super-resolution by using anatomical intermodality priors from a reference image. Contrary to interpolation techniques, in order to be able to recover fine details in images, the reconstruction process is based on a physical model of image acquisition. Another contribution to this inverse problem is a new regularization approach that uses an example-based framework integrating non-local similarity constraints to handle in a better way repetitive structures and texture. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on realistic Brainweb Magnetic Resonance images and on clinical images from ADNI, generating automatically high-quality brain images from low-resolution input. PMID:20580893

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION...

  2. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  3. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davidson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  4. Concurrent visual and tactile steady-state evoked potentials index allocation of inter-modal attention: a frequency-tagging study.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Emanuele; Keitel, Christian; Müller, Matthias M

    2013-11-27

    We investigated effects of inter-modal attention on concurrent visual and tactile stimulus processing by means of stimulus-driven oscillatory brain responses, so-called steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs). To this end, we frequency-tagged a visual (7.5Hz) and a tactile stimulus (20Hz) and participants were cued, on a trial-by-trial basis, to attend to either vision or touch to perform a detection task in the cued modality. SSEPs driven by the stimulation comprised stimulus frequency-following (i.e. fundamental frequency) as well as frequency-doubling (i.e. second harmonic) responses. We observed that inter-modal attention to vision increased amplitude and phase synchrony of the fundamental frequency component of the visual SSEP while the second harmonic component showed an increase in phase synchrony, only. In contrast, inter-modal attention to touch increased SSEP amplitude of the second harmonic but not of the fundamental frequency, while leaving phase synchrony unaffected in both responses. Our results show that inter-modal attention generally influences concurrent stimulus processing in vision and touch, thus, extending earlier audio-visual findings to a visuo-tactile stimulus situation. The pattern of results, however, suggests differences in the neural implementation of inter-modal attentional influences on visual vs. tactile stimulus processing.

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  6. 77 FR 50090 - Update to the 26 September 2011 Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... surface freight transportation in the Continental United States (CONUS) by DoD using Federal Acquisition... Department of the Army Update to the 26 September 2011 Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Chad Privett, (618) 220-6901. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the referenced...

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the referenced...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the referenced...

  11. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  12. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  13. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Employment and Training Administration CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North... intent of the Department's certification is to include all workers employed at CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell...

  14. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States

    Treesearch

    Manuel Colunga-Garcia; Robert A. Haack; Adesoji O. Adelaja

    2009-01-01

    Freight transportation is an important pathway for the introduction and dissemination of exotic forest insects (EFI). Identifying the final destination of imports is critical in determining the likelihood of EFI establishment. We analyzed the use of regional freight transport information to characterize risk of urban and periurban areas to EFI introductions. Specifc...

  15. 49 CFR 372.303 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.303 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities...

  16. 49 CFR 372.303 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities served.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Terminal Areas § 372.303 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities...

  17. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... materials, Class 9 materials, or ORM-D materials. (b) A placarded rail car, transport vehicle, freight... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  18. 49 CFR 365.413 - Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. 365.413 Section 365.413 Transportation... name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. (a) Scope. These...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  20. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  1. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  2. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  3. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  4. Robust optimization model and algorithm for railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Cai; He, Shi-Wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  5. Wear simulation for the centre plate arrangement of a freight car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshevskiy, Alexander; Kim, Chang-Wan; Yang, Hyun-Ik; Olshevskiy, Alexey

    2015-06-01

    The bodies of many railway freight cars in many countries of the world are coupled to the running gear by means of a body centre plate that makes a friction pair with a centre bowl. During motion, the bogie is rotated and moved with respect to the car body. This leads to wear on the contact surfaces. Lubrication is inexpedient in this case because the friction forces damp the vibrations (so-called bogie hunting) during motion. Usually, centre plates exhibit noticeable wear after two years of operation. Reducing wear requires knowing details of the wear process which, in turn, requires computer simulation of freight car motion for an operation period of 10-15 years. The purpose of this paper is to develop a universal method for wear simulation of friction pairs that could be used, in particular, for the centre plate of a freight car.

  6. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    PubMed Central

    He, Shi-wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable. PMID:25435867

  7. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  8. Comparison of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of Barber S-2 and ASF ride control freight trucks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, P.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental and analytical program to define the load deflection characteristics of a Barber S-2 freight truck and to compare these characteristics to those of an ASF freight truck of the same load capacity are presented. The comparison of the two trucks is made on a parameter basis and on the basis of the wheel/rail loads induced by track misalignment. The results indicate there is very little difference in the parameters and the response of the two trucks. This is of course qualified by the assumptions required in the development of the mathematical models.

  9. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  10. Task Analysis for the Jobs of Freight Train Conductor and Brakeman. RDTR No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark S.; And Others

    The principal tasks performed by conductors, rear brakemen, and head brakemen during over-the-road freight operations are identified and described in the report. Forty-four tasks and subtasks are analyzed and grouped into six categories: basic handling tasks, prerun preparation and starting off tasks, over-the-road tasks, terminating tasks,…

  11. MTR, TRA603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH SECOND AND THIRD FLOORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-8, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100567, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.83 Section 174.83 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE...

  13. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car. 216.11 Section 216.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SPECIAL NOTICE AND EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Specia...

  14. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.83 Section 174.83 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE...

  15. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.83 Section 174.83 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE...

  16. Preliminary studies concerning the application of different braking arrangements on Italian freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea; Ercole, Andrea Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Alessandro; Auciello, Jury; Fioravanti, Duccio; Ignesti, Mirko

    2011-08-01

    Freight wagons are usually equipped with the standard Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer pneumatic brake. On long trains, the propagation of the pneumatic signals along the pipe and different braking/loading conditions may produce delays and/or differences in the application of the braking effort along the train. This phenomenon may cause heavy longitudinal forces exchanged between wagons through buffers and draw gear. In particular, the workgroup n.6 (freight trains composition) of the Italcertifer committee has performed some preliminary studies concerning the application of LL braking operative conditions on freight wagons trains travelling on Italian lines. Partners have cooperated in this workgroup; however, in this paper, the attention is focused on methodologies and results concerning the contribution of University of Florence. The results of this activity, coordinated by RFI-CESIFER have been used to emanate the 20/07 rule of the RFI ('Modifiche alla Prefazione Generale all'Orario di Servizio') which modify the composition criterion rules of freight trains on the Italian Railways in order to introduce and discipline the application of the LL braking operative condition.

  17. Demonstrating the Use of Spatial Optimising Techniques by Means of a Freight Distribution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Alan C.

    1984-01-01

    College seniors in a geography of marketing and distribution course learn about spatial optimizing techniques by participating in a freight distribution game. Students plan the distribution of confectionery from two factories in England to 20 wholesale and retail customers in Scotland. The team that designs the lowest cost system wins. (RM)

  18. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution..., 2010. The interim change updates Section B, Item 21, Detention: Vehicles With Power Units (DEP...

  19. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. 176.170 Section 176.170 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  20. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. 176.170 Section 176.170 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  1. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Service (SNS). ADDRESSES: Submit comments to Publication and Rules Manager, Strategic Business Directorate... information may be sent by e-mail to: chad.t.privett@us.army.mil . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Chad Privett, (757) 878-8161. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules...

  2. 49 CFR 172.512 - Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... container or aircraft unit load device: (1) Is labeled in accordance with subpart E of this part, including... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices... unit load devices. (a) Capacity of 640 cubic feet or more. Each person who offers for...

  3. 49 CFR 172.512 - Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... container or aircraft unit load device: (i) Is labeled in accordance with subpart E of this part, including... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices... unit load devices. (a) Capacity of 640 cubic feet or more. Each person who offers for...

  4. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What reference materials... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are... materials, contact: (1) General Services Administration, Federal Supply Service, Audit Division (FBA), 1800...

  5. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SPECIAL NOTICE AND EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.11 Special notice for...

  6. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for...

  7. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of...

  8. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for...

  9. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of...

  10. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176.192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight...

  11. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176.192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight...

  12. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176.192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight...

  13. The impact of Pulpwood Rail Freight Costs on the Minnesota-Wisconsin Pulpwood Market

    Treesearch

    David C. Lothner

    1976-01-01

    Transportation costs affect the marketing and utilization of pulpwood. Their impact on the procurement and utilization of pulpwood often prove difficult to measure because deriving an average annual measure of the transportation cost is difficult. This note, by means of a simple index method for measuring regional interstate pulpwood rail freight costs, illustrates...

  14. Flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting bulk freight from road to railway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Lin, Boliang; Wang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Siqi; Wu, Jianping; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Since railway transport possesses the advantage of high volume and low carbon emissions, diverting some freight from road to railway will help reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with transport. This paper develops a flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting truck freight to railway. First, a general network which considers road transportation, railway transportation, handling and transferring is established according to all the steps in the whole transportation process. Then general functions which embody the factors which the shippers will pay attention to when choosing mode and path are formulated. The general functions contain the congestion cost on road, the capacity constraints of railways and freight stations. Based on the general network and general cost function, a user equilibrium flow assignment model is developed to simulate the flow distribution on the general network under the condition that all shippers choose transportation mode and path independently. Since the model is nonlinear and challenging, we adopt a method that uses tangent lines to constitute envelope curve to linearize it. Finally, a numerical example is presented to test the model and show the method of making quantitative analysis of bulk freight modal shift between road and railway.

  15. Flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting bulk freight from road to railway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Siqi; Wu, Jianping; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Since railway transport possesses the advantage of high volume and low carbon emissions, diverting some freight from road to railway will help reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with transport. This paper develops a flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting truck freight to railway. First, a general network which considers road transportation, railway transportation, handling and transferring is established according to all the steps in the whole transportation process. Then general functions which embody the factors which the shippers will pay attention to when choosing mode and path are formulated. The general functions contain the congestion cost on road, the capacity constraints of railways and freight stations. Based on the general network and general cost function, a user equilibrium flow assignment model is developed to simulate the flow distribution on the general network under the condition that all shippers choose transportation mode and path independently. Since the model is nonlinear and challenging, we adopt a method that uses tangent lines to constitute envelope curve to linearize it. Finally, a numerical example is presented to test the model and show the method of making quantitative analysis of bulk freight modal shift between road and railway. PMID:28771536

  16. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  17. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... the same city or commercial zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract the Federal... agency for commercial bills of lading; e.g., “This shipment is the property of, and the freight...

  19. Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood shantes foreground (roundhouse visible in near distance is the second roadhouse built at aurora, 1868-1872) Photograph taken between 1874 and 1878 - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  20. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  1. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  2. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  3. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  4. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements...

  5. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements...

  7. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements...

  8. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security Requirements...

  9. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Lowest landed cost and delivery considerations. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3) and (4) of... cost of delivering the commodity to the intended destination. This lowest landed cost determination... with other offers for commodities or related freight, results in a lower landed cost to the Department...

  10. 49 CFR 390.44 - What are the procedures to correct the safety record of a motor carrier or an intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... time of the pre-trip inspection. (b) A motor carrier or its agent may electronically file questions or... contributed to the violations) because the driver could not readily detect these violations during a pre-trip... intermodal equipment by contacting the appropriate FMCSA Field Office. (d) A motor carrier or its agent may...

  11. 49 CFR 390.44 - What are the procedures to correct the safety record of a motor carrier or an intermodal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... time of the pre-trip inspection. (b) A motor carrier or its agent may electronically file questions or... contributed to the violations) because the driver could not readily detect these violations during a pre-trip... intermodal equipment by contacting the appropriate FMCSA Field Office. (d) A motor carrier or its agent may...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.55 - What administrative procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods, or other transportation services... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.55...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.55 - What administrative procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods, or other transportation services... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.55...

  14. 49 CFR 365.413 - Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. 365.413 Section 365.413 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR...

  15. 49 CFR 365.413 - Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. 365.413 Section 365.413 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR...

  16. The Jones Act and its Effect on Freight Transportation in the Aftermath of Disruptive Events: A GIS Perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Fialkoff, Marc R.; Omitaomu, Olufemi A.

    2016-01-01

    In freight transportation, like other critical infrastructures, there are cascading impacts with significant consequences when disruptions occur. In the aftermath of such disruptions, planners and policymakers are faced with tough choices in designing efficient response and recovery plans within their legal limits. Here, with freight transportation, one of the challenges during disasters is to understand the operational and functional readiness of the infrastructure. This is not just a physical resiliency question, but also an institutional, managerial, and connectivity question.

  17. Methodology for Estimating ton-Miles of Goods Movements for U.S. Freight Mulitimodal Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Ton-miles is a commonly used measure of freight transportation output. Estimation of ton-miles in the U.S. transportation system requires freight flow data at disaggregated level (either by link flow, path flows or origin-destination flows between small geographic areas). However, the sheer magnitude of the freight data system as well as industrial confidentiality concerns in Census survey, limit the freight data which is made available to the public. Through the years, the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working in the development of comprehensive national and regional freight databases and network flow models. One of the main products of this effort is the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), a public database released by the ORNL. FAF provides to the general public a multidimensional matrix of freight flows (weight and dollar value) on the U.S. transportation system between states, major metropolitan areas, and remainder of states. Recently, the CTA research team has developed a methodology to estimate ton-miles by mode of transportation between the 2007 FAF regions. This paper describes the data disaggregation methodology. The method relies on the estimation of disaggregation factors that are related to measures of production, attractiveness and average shipments distances by mode service. Production and attractiveness of counties are captured by the total employment payroll. Likely mileages for shipments between counties are calculated by using a geographic database, i.e. the CTA multimodal network system. Results of validation experiments demonstrate the validity of the method. Moreover, 2007 FAF ton-miles estimates are consistent with the major freight data programs for rail and water movements.

  18. Twenty-Five Years Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm to Study Language Acquisition: What Have We Learned?

    PubMed

    Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2013-05-01

    The intermodal preferential looking paradigm (IPLP) has proven to be a revolutionary method for the examination of infants' emerging language knowledge. In the IPLP, infants' language comprehension is measured by their differential visual fixation to two images presented side-by-side when only one of the images matches an accompanying linguistic stimulus. Researchers can examine burgeoning knowledge in the areas of phonology, semantics, syntax, and morphology in infants not yet speaking. The IPLP enables the exploration of the underlying mechanisms involved in language learning and illuminates how infants identify the correspondences between language and referents in the world. It has also fostered the study of infants' conceptions of the dynamic events that language will express. Exemplifying translational science, the IPLP is now being investigated for its clinical and diagnostic value. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Intermode-coupling modulation in the fermion-boson model: heating effects in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    2015-07-01

    Heating induced by an oscillating modulation of the interaction strength in an atomic Fermion pair condensate is analyzed. The coupled fermion-boson model, generalized by incorporating a time-dependent intermode coupling through a magnetic Feshbach resonance, is applied. The dynamics are analytically characterized in a perturbative scheme. The results account for experimental findings which have uncovered a damped and delayed response of the condensate to the modulation. The delay is due to the variation of the quasiparticle energies and the subsequent relaxation of the condensate. The detected damping results from the excitations induced by a nonadiabatic modulation: for driving frequencies larger than twice the pairing gap, quasiparticles are generated and, consequently, heating sets in.

  20. Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a compact photonic crystal fiber inter-modal interferometer and a fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Hao, Jianzhong; Liaw, Chin-yi; Lin, Bo; Tjin, Swee Chuan

    2010-11-10

    An all-fiber sensor scheme for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement is presented. The sensing head is formed by serially connecting a polarization maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber-based inter-modal interferometer (IMI) with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The IMI, exhibiting an opposite strain response as compared to that of the FBG, is highly sensitive to strain, while it is insensitive to temperature. This has potential for improving the strain and temperature measurement resolutions. A sensor resolution of ±8.3 με in strain and ±2 °C in temperature are experimentally achieved within a strain range of 0-957.6 με and a temperature range of 24 °C-64 °C, respectively.

  1. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Calum; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Peris, Eulalia; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N = 752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15 dB (re 10(-6) m s(-2)) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway.

  2. Design study to simulate the development of a commercial freight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Costello, Kevin; Pinkelman, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The Notre Dame Aerospace Engineering senior class was divided into six design teams. A request for proposals (RFP) asking for the design of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) was given to the class, and each design team was responsible for designing, developing, producing, and presenting an RPV concept. The RFP called for the design of commercial freight transport RPV. The RFP provided a description of a fictitious world called 'Aeroworld'. Aeroworld's characteristics were scaled to provide the same types of challenges for RPV design that the real world market provides for the design of commercial aircraft. Fuel efficiency, range and payload capabilities, production and maintenance costs, and profitability are a few of the challenges that were addressed in this course. Each design team completed their project over the course of a semester by designing and flight testing a prototype, freight-carrying remotely piloted vehicle.

  3. IntelligentFreight: A Tracking 2.0 Prototype for Global Supply Chain Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a world where boxes talk to containers, containers talk to trucks and trucks talk to forklifts that talk to people. Each box would be smart, carrying all the information about its contents, its shipping history, its handling instructions, and where it is supposed to be. This world is within our reach as a result of Web 2.0 innovations on the Internet. While technologies such as RFID, GPS, cellular phones and barcodes have become ever more prevalent in the freight supply chain, there is still an invisible curtain blocking information flow between proprietary and legacy enterprise systems. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are working with academia, the U.S. Government, and commercial companies to apply Web 2.0 technologies to the challenge of tracking and monitoring hazardous materials and nuclear sources in the international supply chain. Under the rubric of Tracking 2.0, a term for the use of Web 2.0 technologies for tracking applications, ORNL is developing a prototype called IntelligentFreight. IntelligentFreight interfaces sensors, legacy databases, and proprietary commercial tracking systems. The prototype combines Web 2.0 s social networking and tagging concepts with a classical faceted classification (a way of describing the same object in multiple ways) model to track a shipment across incompatible enterprise systems.

  4. Correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among construction laborers and motor freight workers

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Eve M.; Viswanath, K.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare and contrast correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in two blue-collar populations: construction laborers and motor freight workers. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from two groups of male workers: (1) construction laborers (N=1013; response rate = 44%) randomly selected from a national sample, as part of a diet and smoking cessation study; and (2) motor freight workers (N=542; response rate = 78%) employed in eight trucking terminals, as part of a tobacco cessation and weight management study. Data were analyzed using linear regression modeling methods. Results For both groups, higher income and believing it was important to eat right because of work were positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption; conversely, being White was associated with lower intake. Construction laborers who reported eating junk food due to workplace stress and fatigue had lower fruit and vegetable intake. For motor freight workers, perceiving fast food to be the only choice at work and lack of time to eat right were associated with lower consumption. Conclusion Comparing occupational groups illustrates how work experiences may be related to fruit and vegetable consumption in different ways as well as facilitates the development of interventions that can be used across groups. PMID:22729935

  5. Correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among construction laborers and motor freight workers.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Eve M; Viswanath, K; Ebbeling, Cara B; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and contrast correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in two blue-collar populations: construction laborers and motor freight workers. Cross-sectional data were collected from two groups of male workers: (1) construction laborers (n = 1,013; response rate = 44 %) randomly selected from a national sample, as part of a diet and smoking cessation study; and (2) motor freight workers (n = 542; response rate = 78 %) employed in eight trucking terminals, as part of a tobacco cessation and weight management study. Data were analyzed using linear regression modeling methods. For both groups, higher income and believing it was important to eat right because of work were positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption; conversely, being white was associated with lower intake. Construction laborers who reported eating junk food due to workplace stress and fatigue had lower fruit and vegetable intake. For motor freight workers, perceiving fast food to be the only choice at work and lack of time to eat right were associated with lower consumption. Comparing occupational groups illustrates how work experiences may be related to fruit and vegetable consumption in different ways as well as facilitates the development of interventions that can be used across groups.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Do not blame the driver: a systems analysis of the causes of road freight crashes.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia

    2015-03-01

    Although many have advocated a systems approach in road transportation, this view has not meaningfully penetrated road safety research, practice or policy. In this study, a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussens's (1997) risk management framework and associated Accimap technique, is applied to the analysis of road freight transportation crashes. Twenty-seven highway crash investigation reports were downloaded from the National Transport Safety Bureau website. Thematic analysis was used to identify the complex system of contributory factors, and relationships, identified within the reports. The Accimap technique was then used to represent the linkages and dependencies within and across system levels in the road freight transportation industry and to identify common factors and interactions across multiple crashes. The results demonstrate how a systems approach can increase knowledge in this safety critical domain, while the findings can be used to guide prevention efforts and the development of system-based investigation processes for the heavy vehicle industry. A research agenda for developing an investigation technique to better support the application of the Accimap technique by practitioners in road freight transportation industry is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-06

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels.

  9. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Wang; Qingfeng, Meng; Bin, Zheng; Tong, Li; Qinghai, Ma

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  10. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  11. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  12. Transportability Testing of the Coupled BOH FPU 8 and FPU 12 Intermodal Shipping Containers With PLS Interface, TP-94-01, "Transportability Testing Procedures"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    The locomotive unit will push the specimen car toward the anvil at a predetermined speed, then disconnect from the specimen car approximately 50 yards...that was subjected to the test criteria. 6-1 TEST SKETCH LOADING AND BRACING OF FIELD PACK UP (FPU) 8 UNIT AND FPU 12 UNIT INTERMODAL SHIPPING CON...TAINERS THIS TWELVE PAGE DOCUMENT DEPICTS PALLET UNITS OF 40MM LINKED IN METAL BOXES AND 155MM PROJECTILES FOR TRANSPORTABILITY TESTING OF THE BOH 20 FT

  13. Young Children's Comprehension of English SVO Word Order Revisited: Testing the Same Children in Act-Out and Intermodal Preferential Looking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Angel; Meints, Kerstin; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Act-out and intermodal preferential looking (IPL) tasks were administered to 67 English children aged 2-0, 2-9 and 3-5 to assess their comprehension of canonical SVO transitive word order with both familiar and novel verbs. Children at 3-5 and at 2-9 showed evidence of comprehending word order in both verb conditions and both tasks, although…

  14. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Study of the spectral width of intermode beats and optical spectrum of an actively mode-locked three-mirror semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharyash, Valerii F.; Kashirsky, Aleksandr V.; Klementyev, Vasilii M.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Pivtsov, V. S.

    2005-09-01

    Various oscillation regimes of an actively mode-locked semiconductor laser are studied experimentally. Two types of regimes are found in which the minimal spectral width (~3.5 kHz) of intermode beats is achieved. The width of the optical spectrum of modes is studied as a function of their locking and the feedback coefficients. The maximum width of the spectrum is ~3.7 THz.

  15. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – Port o...

  16. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  17. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  18. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... owner shall take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Cars to be... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224...—Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A)...

  19. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... owner shall take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Cars to be... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224...—Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A)...

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.460 - What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges, reparations, and loss or damage to..., reparations, and loss or damage to the property? Statutory time limits vary depending on the mode and the... Limits on Actions Taken by the Federal Government Against TSPs Mode Freight charges Reparations Loss and...

  1. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – Port o...

  2. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No...

  3. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No...

  4. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No...

  5. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No...

  6. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No...

  7. High frequency of fumigants and other toxic gases in imported freight containers--an underestimated occupational and community health risk.

    PubMed

    Baur, Xaver; Poschadel, Bernd; Budnik, Lygia Therese

    2010-03-01

    Residues of pesticide fumigants and toxic industrial chemicals in freight containers represent a health hazard to employees and consumers, especially since freight containers are sealed for transport and distributed widely throughout the importing countries before being opened for unloading. We investigated 2113 freight containers arriving at the second largest container terminal in Europe, Hamburg, Germany, over a 10-week period in 2006. The countries of origin, type of contents and the pesticide fumigation history declared on labels attached to the container were recorded. We determined that 1478 (70%) containers were contaminated with toxic chemicals above chronic reference exposure levels; 761 (36%) even exceeded the higher acute reference exposure level thresholds. Benzene and/or formaldehyde contamination was 4-times greater than for fumigants. Our findings indicate a health risk for dockworkers, container unloaders and even end-consumers, especially as many of the cancerogenic or toxic gases elude subjective detection.

  8. Deep-sea faunal communities associated with a lost intermodal shipping container in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, CA.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Josi R; DeVogelaere, Andrew P; Burton, Erica J; Frey, Oren; Lundsten, Lonny; Kuhnz, Linda A; Whaling, P J; Lovera, Christopher; Buck, Kurt R; Barry, James P

    2014-06-15

    Carrying assorted cargo and covered with paints of varying toxicity, lost intermodal containers may take centuries to degrade on the deep seafloor. In June 2004, scientists from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) discovered a recently lost container during a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dive on a sediment-covered seabed at 1281 m depth in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The site was revisited by ROV in March 2011. Analyses of sediment samples and high-definition video indicate that faunal assemblages on the container's exterior and the seabed within 10 m of the container differed significantly from those up to 500 m. The container surface provides hard substratum for colonization by taxa typically found in rocky habitats. However, some key taxa that dominate rocky areas were absent or rare on the container, perhaps related to its potential toxicity or limited time for colonization and growth. Ecological effects appear to be restricted to the container surface and the benthos within ∼10 m. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

  10. A Proposal for High-resolution X-ray Imaging of Intermodal Cargo Containers for Fissionable Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Quiter, B J; Prussin, S G; Pohl, B; Hall, J; Trebes, J; Stone, G; Descalle, M

    2007-07-05

    The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargo of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E {le} 2-3 MeV that contain the majority of multiply-scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9-MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E {le} 3 MeV removes the majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargo with Z {le} 30 and areal densities of at least 145 g cm{sup -2}. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08 kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.

  11. Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the XXI century transportation of goods plays a key role in the economy. Due to a good logistics the economy is able to grow fluently. Although land transportation is carried out mainly through trucks for the last several years there has been noted an increase in the percentage share of rail transport in the freight transport. The main goods transported by railways are mineral fuels, mining and quarrying products. They constitute the greater part of 70% of total transported goods. Transportation of material of such high weight, high hardness and with different shapes involves increased and accelerated wear and tear of the cargo space of the wagon. This process is also magnified by substances used to prevent overheating or goods theft. Usually they are in the form of chemical compounds powder, eg. Calcium. A very large impact on the wear of the freight wagons hull is made because of mechanical damage. Their source comes mostly from loading cargo with impetus and using heavy machines during unloading. A large number of cycles of loading and unloading during the working period causes abrasion of body and as a result after several years a wagon car qualifies for a major maintenance. Possibility of application composite panels in the process of renovating the wagons body could reduce the weight of whole train and prolong the service life between mandatory technical inspection. The Paper "Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon" presents the research process and the results of the endurance test of the composite panel samples fixed to a metal plate. As a fixing method a stainless steel rivet nut and a stainless steel button head socket screws were chosen. Cyclic and multiple load were applied to test samples using a pneumatic cylinder. Such a methodology simulated the forces resulting from loading and unloading of the wagon and movement of the cargo during transport. In the study a dedicated stand equipped with a

  12. Phase 1: Definition of intercity transportation comparison framework. Volume 1: Summary. [operations research of passenger and freight transporatation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A unified framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is presented. Composite measures for cost, service/demand, energy, and environmental impact were determined. A set of 14 basic measures were articulated to form the foundation for computing the composite measures. A parameter dependency diagram, constructed to explicitly interrelate the composite and basic measures is discussed. Ground rules and methodology for developing the values of the basic measures are provided and the use of the framework with existing cost and service data is illustrated for various freight systems.

  13. A real-time visual inspection method of fastening bolts in freight car operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Guo; Yao, JunEn

    2015-10-01

    A real-time inspection of the key components is necessary for ensuring safe operation of freight car. While traditional inspection depends on the trained human inspectors, which is time-consuming and lower efficient. With the development of machine vision, vision-based inspection methods get more railway on-spot applications. The cross rod end fastening bolts are important components on both sides of the train body that fixing locking plates together with the freight car main structure. In our experiment, we get the images containing fastening bolt components, and accurately locate the locking plate position using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) locating model trained with Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Then we extract the straight line segment using the Line Segment Detector (LSD) and encoding them in a range, which constitute a straight line segment dataset. Lastly we determine the locking plate's working state by the linear pattern. The experiment result shows that the localization accurate rate is over 99%, the fault detection rate is over 95%, and the module implementation time is 2f/s. The overall performance can completely meet the practical railway safety assurance application.

  14. Analysis on logistic company action toward the access restriction policy on freight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, Muhammad; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Nahry, Nahdalina

    2017-06-01

    The high volume of freight vehicles that enters, leaves or passes through the urban areas, especially Jakarta, has caused traffic congestion. Local authority plans to perform the access restriction on freight vehicles on the Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR) to reduce the congestion on that toll road. The study aims to analyze the alternative solutions of the logistics companies to overcome the impact of such policy. The data collection is done by interviewing 102 truck drivers and 7 staffs of logistic companies that use JORR. The results show that the most preferred action is shifting the operating time. Based on the open test, access restriction policy on JORR may cause a significant impact on the operational costs of delivery. Shifting the operational time will increase the operating cost by 1.71%, while turning the route will increase the operating costs by 4.35%. Moreover, changing the mode will reduce the operating expenses by 50%, and the combination action of shifting the route and the time will increase the operating costs by 5.39%.

  15. Automatic online vision-based inspection system of coupler yoke for freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Wei, Zhenzhong

    2016-11-01

    Fault inspection plays an important role in ensuring the safe operation of freight trains. With the development of computer vision technology, the vision-based fault inspection has become one of the principal means of fault inspection. A coupler yoke is an important component of the train's connection system, and faults in this system would cause the separation of the train, leading to a serious accident. We propose an automatic image inspection system to inspect for faults in coupler yokes during the running of a freight train. The inspection process is divided into two parts: the localization part and the recognition part. In the localization part, we propose multiple dimension features, design a fast algorithm to compute multiresolution image features, and use a linear support vector machine classifier to locate the position of the coupler yoke. In the recognition part, we propose a fast decision tree training method by prepruning noneffective features, and use Adaboost decision trees as the final fault classifier. Experimental results show that this proposed method can achieve a fault inspection rate of 98.6% while the average processing time of an image is about 98 ms, which shows our system has a high inspection accuracy and a good real-time performance.

  16. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of long freight trains in positioning operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhihao; Kong, Xianchao

    2012-09-01

    Positioning operations are performed in a railway goods yard, in which the freight train is pulled precisely at a specific point by a positioner. The positioner moves strictly according to the predesigned speed and provides all the traction and braking forces which are highly dependent on the longitudinal dynamic response. In order to improve the efficiency and protect the wagons from damage during positioning operations, the design speed of the positioner has to be optimised based on the simulation of longitudinal train dynamics. However, traditional models of longitudinal train dynamics are not accurate enough in some aspects. In this study, we make some changes in the traditional theory to make it suitable for the study of long freight trains in positioning operations. In the proposed method, instead of the traction force on the train, the motion of the positioner is assumed to be known; more importantly, the traditional draft gear model with nonlinear spring and linear damping is replaced by a more detailed model based on the achievement of contact and impact mechanics; the switching effects of the resistance and the coupler slack are also taken into consideration. Numerical examples that deal with positioning operations on the straight lines, slope lines and curving lines are given.

  17. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  18. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

  19. Fast inter-mode decision algorithm for high-efficiency video coding based on similarity of coding unit segmentation and partition mode between two temporally adjacent frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Guo-Yun; He, Xiao-Hai; Qing, Lin-Bo; Li, Yuan

    2013-04-01

    High-efficiency video coding (HEVC) introduces a flexible hierarchy of three block structures: coding unit (CU), prediction unit (PU), and transform unit (TU), which have brought about higher coding efficiency than the current national video coding standard H.264/advanced video coding (AVC). HEVC, however, simultaneously requires higher computational complexity than H.264/AVC, although several fast inter-mode decisions were proposed in its development. To further reduce this complexity, a fast inter-mode decision algorithm is proposed based on temporal correlation. Because of the distinct difference of inter-prediction block between HEVC and H.264/AVC, in order to use the temporal correlation to speed up the inter prediction, the correlation of inter-prediction between two adjacent frames needs to be analyzed according to the structure of CU and PU in HEVC. The probabilities of all the partition modes in all sizes of CU and the similarity of CU segmentation and partition modes between two adjacent frames are tested. The correlation of partition modes between two CUs with different sizes in two adjacent frames is tested and analyzed. Based on the characteristics tested and analyzed, at most, two prior partition modes are evaluated for each level of CU, which reduces the number of rate distortion cost calculations. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm further reduces coding time by 33.0% to 43.3%, with negligible loss in bitrate and peak signal-to-noise ratio, on the basis of the fast inter-mode decision algorithms in current HEVC reference software HM7.0.

  20. Quantitative blood flow measurements in gliomas using arterial spin-labeling at 3T: intermodality agreement and inter- and intraobserver reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Hirai, T; Kitajima, M; Nakamura, H; Okuda, T; Sasao, A; Shigematsu, Y; Utsunomiya, D; Oda, S; Uetani, H; Morioka, M; Yamashita, Y

    2011-12-01

    QUASAR is a particular application of the ASL method and facilitates the user-independent quantification of brain perfusion. The purpose of this study was to assess the intermodality agreement of TBF measurements obtained with ASL and DSC MR imaging and the inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of glioma TBF measurements acquired by ASL at 3T. Two observers independently measured TBF in 24 patients with histologically proved glioma. ASL MR imaging with QUASAR and DSC MR imaging were performed on 3T scanners. The observers placed 5 regions of interest in the solid tumor on rCBF maps derived from ASL and DSC MR images and 1 region of interest in the contralateral brain and recorded the measured values. Maximum and average sTBF values were calculated. Intermodality and intra- and interobsever agreement were determined by using 95% Bland-Altman limits of agreement and ICCs. The intermodality agreement for maximum sTBF was good to excellent on DSC and ASL images; ICCs ranged from 0.718 to 0.884. The 95% limits of agreement ranged from 59.2% to 65.4% of the mean. ICCs for intra- and interobserver agreement for maximum sTBF ranged from 0.843 to 0.850 and from 0.626 to 0.665, respectively. The reproducibility of maximum sTBF measurements obtained by methods was similar. In the evaluation of sTBF in gliomas, ASL with QUASAR at 3T yielded measurements and reproducibility similar to those of DSC perfusion MR imaging.

  1. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 49 CFR 385.14 - Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition on transportation. 385.14 Section 385.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  3. 49 CFR 385.14 - Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition on transportation. 385.14 Section 385.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  4. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.85 Section 174.85 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  6. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  7. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings when accompanied by guards or technical escorts. 174.84 Section 174.84 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION,...

  8. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  9. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings when accompanied by guards or technical escorts. 174.84 Section 174.84 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION,...

  10. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  11. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings when accompanied by guards or technical escorts. 174.84 Section 174.84 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION,...

  12. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  13. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. 1319.1 Section 1319.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS...

  14. Report on the Audit of Routing of DoD Freight Shipments by the Military Traffic Management Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    total freight transportation cost), was required to be routed by the Military Traffic Management Command ( MTMC ). The remaining 1.13 million shipments...single manager operating agency for military traffic, land transportation, and common-user ocean terminals, MTMC is responsible for directing

  15. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles,...

  16. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North..., Dell Logistics Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the...

  17. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States.

    PubMed

    Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Haack, Robert A; Adelaja, Adesoji O

    2009-02-01

    Freight transportation is an important pathway for the introduction and dissemination of exotic forest insects (EFI). Identifying the final destination of imports is critical in determining the likelihood of EFI establishment. We analyzed the use of regional freight transport information to characterize risk of urban and periurban areas to EFI introductions. Specific objectives were to 1) approximate the final distribution of selected imports among urban areas of the United States, 2) characterize the final distribution of imports in terms of their spatial aggregation and dominant world region of origin, and 3) assess the effect of the final distribution of imports on the level of risk to urban and periurban forests from EFI. Freight pattern analyses were conducted for three categories of imports whose products or packaging materials are associated with EFI: wood products, nonmetallic mineral products, and machinery. The final distribution of wood products was the most evenly distributed of the three selected imports, whereas machinery was most spatially concentrated. We found that the type of import and the world region of origin greatly influence the final distribution of imported products. Risk assessment models were built based on the amount of forestland and imports for each urban area The model indicated that 84-88% of the imported tonnage went to only 4-6% of the urban areas in the contiguous United States. We concluded that freight movement information is critical for proper risk assessment of EFI. Implications of our findings and future research needs are discussed.

  18. EPA SmartWay Honors Old Dominion Freight Line in Thomasville, N.C., for Superior Supply Chain Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized Old Dominion Freight Line, Inc in Thomasville, N.C., with a SmartWay® Excellence Award. Awardees are environmentally responsible carriers that move more goods more miles with lo

  19. SU-E-T-509: Inter-Observer and Inter-Modality Contouring Analysis for Organs at Risk for HDR Gynecological Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, P; Smith, W; Banerjee, R; Alghamdi, M; Phan, T; Taggar, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose This study quantifies errors associated with MR-guided High Dose Rate (HDR) gynecological brachytherapy. Uncertainties in this treatment results from contouring, organ motion between imaging and treatment delivery, dose calculation, and dose delivery. We focus on interobserver and inter-modality variability in contouring and the motion of organs at risk (OARs) in the time span between the MR and CT scans (∼1 hour). We report the change in organ volume and position of center of mass (CM) between the two imaging modalities. Methods A total of 8 patients treated with MR-guided HDR brachytherapy were included in this study. Two observers contoured the bladder and rectum on both MR and CT scans. The change in OAR volume and CM position between the MR and CT imaging sessions on both image sets were calculated. Results The absolute mean bladder volume change between the two imaging modalities is 67.1cc. The absolute mean inter-observer difference in bladder volume is much lower at 15.5cc (MR) and 11.0cc (CT). This higher inter-modality volume difference suggests a real change in the bladder filling between the two imaging sessions. Change in Rectum volume inter-observer standard error of means (SEM) is 3.18cc (MR) and 3.09cc (CT), while the inter-modality SEM is 3.65cc (observer 1), and 2.75cc (observer 2). The SEM for rectum CM position in the superior-inferior direction was approximately three times higher than in other directions for both the inter—observer (0.77 cm, 0.92 cm for observers 1 and 2, respectively) and inter-modality (0.91 cm, 0.95 cm for MR and CT, respectively) variability. Conclusion Bladder contours display good consistency between different observers on both CT and MR images. For rectum contouring the highest inconsistency stems from the observers’ choice of the superior-inferior borders. A complete analysis of a larger patient cohort will enable us to separate the true organ motion from the inter-observer variability.

  20. ARTICLES: Intermode scattering effects in laser emission spectra of platelet and acicular CdS-type single crystals subjected to one-photon excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodin, M. S.; Vitrikhovskiĭ, N. I.; Kipen', A. A.; Shevel', S. G.; Yanushevskiĭ, N. I.

    1982-12-01

    An investigation was made of the laser emission spectra of platelet CdS, Znx, Cd1-xS, and CdS1-xSex, single crystals and acicular CdS single crystals at T=4.2, 77, and 300 °K. Lasing developed in partial resonators (rectangular insulating microboxes or microprisms) and the emission consisted of total-internal-reflection modes characterized by the highest Q factor. Radiation emerged in vacuum as a result of intermode scattering of photons (without a change in the frequency) out of the total-internal-reflection modes into modes with lower Q factors, which could be emitted.

  1. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  2. Research on squeal noise of tread brake system in rail freight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Yong-hua; Fang, Ji; Zhao, Wen-zhong

    2017-07-01

    Brake squeal is a result of a unstable flutter from brake system, it results to the noise pollution in railway side and excessive wear of wheel tread. A finite element model of brake system for rail freight vehicle is set up, the contact and friction between the brake shoe and wheel tread is considered, the complex modals of brake system are calculated, the possibility of happening chatter and squeal noise are analyzed. The results show that the pressure angle or the brake force direction have a important influence on the unstable chatter and squeal noise, the more greater the pressure angle deviates from the wheel center, the more greater the possibility of happening chatter and squeal noise is, and the possibility of happening chatter and squeal noise is also increased along with the addition of friction factor.

  3. EEOC sues freight company for inducing worker with HIV to quit. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1998-04-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) sued a Japanese freight company, Nippon Express USA, for putting [name removed] into a do-nothing job and forcing him to quit. [Name removed] revealed his HIV status to a supervisor in 1990 while working as a trainer and customer troubleshooter. When his management changed shortly afterwards, he was transferred from Chicago to Indianapolis, presumably for a promotion. However, his responsibilities were reduced, his telephone and computer were taken away from him, and co-workers were ordered not to speak to him. Following surgery, a supervisor told [name removed] that his appearance was causing problems. The lawsuit was filed under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and seeks unspecified damages, training programs for managers and staff in dealing with HIV-positive employees, and guaranteed health care coverage for the rest of [name removed]'s life.

  4. Work Inside Ocean Freight Containers—Personal Exposure to Off-Gassing Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Svedberg, Urban

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers’ exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r 2 ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1–7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition

  5. Work inside ocean freight containers--personal exposure to off-gassing chemicals.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Urban; Johanson, Gunnar

    2013-11-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r(2) ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1-7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition to

  6. Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): investigating language comprehension in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Naigles, Letitia R; Tovar, Andrea T

    2012-12-14

    One of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is difficulty with language and communication.(1) Children with ASD's onset of speaking is usually delayed, and many children with ASD consistently produce language less frequently and of lower lexical and grammatical complexity than their typically developing (TD) peers.(6,8,12,23) However, children with ASD also exhibit a significant social deficit, and researchers and clinicians continue to debate the extent to which the deficits in social interaction account for or contribute to the deficits in language production.(5,14,19,25) Standardized assessments of language in children with ASD usually do include a comprehension component; however, many such comprehension tasks assess just one aspect of language (e.g., vocabulary),(5) or include a significant motor component (e.g., pointing, act-out), and/or require children to deliberately choose between a number of alternatives. These last two behaviors are known to also be challenging to children with ASD.(7,12,13,16) We present a method which can assess the language comprehension of young typically developing children (9-36 months) and children with autism.(2,4,9,11,22) This method, Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (P-IPL), projects side-by-side video images from a laptop onto a portable screen. The video images are paired first with a 'baseline' (nondirecting) audio, and then presented again paired with a 'test' linguistic audio that matches only one of the video images. Children's eye movements while watching the video are filmed and later coded. Children who understand the linguistic audio will look more quickly to, and longer at, the video that matches the linguistic audio.(2,4,11,18,22,26) This paradigm includes a number of components that have recently been miniaturized (projector, camcorder, digitizer) to enable portability and easy setup in children's homes. This is a crucial point for assessing young children with ASD, who are

  7. The Freight Analysis Framework Verson 4 (FAF4) - Building the FAF4 Regional Database: Data Sources and Estimation Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Hargrove, Stephanie; Chin, Shih-Miao; Wilson, Daniel W.; Lim, Hyeonsup; Chen, Jiaoli; Taylor, Rob; Peterson, Bruce; Davidson, Diane

    2016-09-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive national picture of freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas by all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns the flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The FAF4 is the fourth database of its kind, FAF1 provided estimates for truck, rail, and water tonnage for calendar year 1998, FAF2 provided a more complete picture based on the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and FAF3 made further improvements building on the 2007 CFS. Since the first FAF effort, a number of changes in both data sources and products have taken place. The FAF4 flow matrix described in this report is used as the base-year data to forecast future freight activities, projecting shipment weights and values from year 2020 to 2045 in five-year intervals. It also provides the basis for annual estimates to the FAF4 flow matrix, aiming to provide users with the timeliest data. Furthermore, FAF4 truck freight is routed on the national highway network to produce the FAF4 network database and flow assignments for truck. This report details the data sources and methodologies applied to develop the base year 2012 FAF4 database. An overview of the FAF4 components is briefly discussed in Section 2. Effects on FAF4 from the changes in the 2012 CFS are highlighted in Section 3. Section 4 provides a general discussion on the process used in filling data gaps within the domestic CFS matrix, specifically on the estimation of CFS suppressed/unpublished cells. Over a dozen CFS OOS components of FAF4 are then addressed in Section 5 through Section 11 of this report. This includes discussions of farm-based agricultural shipments in Section 5, shipments from fishery and logging sectors in Section 6. Shipments of municipal solid wastes and debris from construction

  8. All-optical ultrafast wavelength and mode converter based on inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2015-08-01

    An ultrafast all-optical simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion scheme is purposed based on intermodal four-wave mixing (IM-FWM), with the capability of switching state of polarization (SOP) and mode degeneracy orientation (MDO) in few-mode fibers (FMF). The relation among the conversion efficiency, pump power and phase matching conditions is investigated in theory analysis and simulation. Using this scheme, cross-polarization modulation (XPolM) and cross-mode modulation (XMM) can be achieved, by in the best case up to 50% conversion efficiency. Furthermore, numerical results further indicate that the proposed configuration has the potential application for generating doughnut modes by the mixing of three characteristic spatial frequencies.

  9. Simultaneous Intracranial EEG-fMRI Shows Inter-Modality Correlation in Time-Resolved Connectivity Within Normal Areas but Not Within Epileptic Regions.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Ben; Wirsich, Jonathan; Bettus, Gaelle; Rodionov, Roman; Murta, Teresa; Chaudhary, Umair; Carmichael, David; Thornton, Rachel; Vulliemoz, Serge; McEvoy, Andrew; Wendling, Fabrice; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Lemieux, Louis; Guye, Maxime

    2017-02-13

    For the first time in research in humans, we used simultaneous icEEG-fMRI to examine the link between connectivity in haemodynamic signals during the resting-state (rs) and connectivity derived from electrophysiological activity in terms of the inter-modal connectivity correlation (IMCC). We quantified IMCC in nine patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (i) within brain networks in 'healthy' non-involved cortical zones (NIZ) and (ii) within brain networks involved in generating seizures and interictal spikes (IZ1) or solely spikes (IZ2). Functional connectivity (h (2) ) estimates for 10 min of resting-state data were obtained between each pair of electrodes within each clinical zone for both icEEG and fMRI. A sliding window approach allowed us to quantify the variability over time of h (2) (vh (2)) as an indicator of connectivity dynamics. We observe significant positive IMCC for h (2) and vh (2), for multiple bands in the NIZ only, with the strongest effect in the lower icEEG frequencies. Similarly, intra-modal h (2) and vh (2) were found to be differently modified as a function of different epileptic processes: compared to NIZ, [Formula: see text] was higher in IZ1, but lower in IZ2, while [Formula: see text] showed the inverse pattern. This corroborates previous observations of inter-modal connectivity discrepancies in pathological cortices, while providing the first direct invasive and simultaneous comparison in humans. We also studied time-resolved FC variability multimodally for the first time, finding that IZ1 shows both elevated internal [Formula: see text] and less rich dynamical variability, suggesting that its chronic role in epileptogenesis may be linked to greater homogeneity in self-sustaining pathological oscillatory states.

  10. An efficient scheme of intermodal distributed Raman amplification using tailored doping profiles in spatial-division multiplexed coherent fiber-optic transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    For next-generation long-haul communication systems, space-division multiplexing (SDM) is suggested as a promising technique for providing orders of magnitude increase in transmission capacity. Optical amplifiers for multimode fibers are the crucial components to realize SDM systems, while few-mode fiber (FMF) has the advantage of strong intensity overlap between different modes that allows sharing of single pump across multiple signal modes. FMF-based erbiumdoped fiber amplifiers (FM-EDFA) have been intensively studied. Since SDM is exceedingly reliant on DSP technique and thus has more stringent requirement on noise performance, FMF-based distributed Raman amplifier (FM-DRA) benefits from relatively lower noise figure (NF) compared with FM-EDFA. Yet much less work has been done in this area. To implement FM-DRAs in SDM systems, their performance should be carefully optimized. In this paper, modal gain and saturation characteristics of intermodal Raman amplification in FMFs have been fully investigated by tailoring the refractive-index profiles and doping levels of different FMF designs. For 50-km-long FMF with -3 dBm signal at 1550 nm and a 20-25 dBm pump at 1455 nm, the optimized modal-equalization of Raman gain and NF are provided depending on various fiber cross-section and pumping configuration with respect to modes/wavelengths. The pumpsignal modal-overlap integrals for each of the four mode-groups with normalized frequency V=5 have been exploited, resulting in a mean gain of 10 dB within 1 dB of equalization for 16 gain coefficients. Our results show it should be possible to design FMF with larger intermodal nonlinearity and better dispersion characteristics to achieve desirable Raman gain.

  11. Freight-train derailment rates for railroad safety and risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Rapik Saat, M; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2017-01-01

    Derailments are the most common type of train accident in the United States. They cause damage to infrastructure, rolling stock and lading, disrupt service, and have the potential to cause casualties, and harm the environment. Train safety and risk analysis relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood. Derailment rate - the number of derailments normalized by traffic exposure - is a useful statistic to estimate the likelihood of a derailment. Despite its importance, derailment rate analysis using multiple factors has not been previously developed. In this paper, we present an analysis of derailment rates on Class I railroad mainlines based on data from the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration and the major freight railroads. The point estimator and confidence interval of train and car derailment rates are developed by FRA track class, method of operation and annual traffic density. The analysis shows that signaled track with higher FRA track class and higher traffic density is associated with a lower derailment rate. The new accident rates have important implications for safety and risk management decisions, such as the routing of hazardous materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of wind on background particle concentrations at truck freight terminals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ronald; Hart, Jaime E; Davis, Mary E; Reaser, Paul; Natkin, Jonathan; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Truck freight terminals are predominantly located near highways and industrial facilities. This proximity to pollution sources, coupled with meteorological conditions and wind patterns, may affect occupational exposures to particles at these work locations. To understand this process, data from an environmental sampling study of particles at U.S. trucking terminals, along with weather and geographic maps, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the transportation of particles from local pollutant sources elevated observed occupational exposures at these locations. To help identify potential upwind sources, wind direction weighted averages and speed measurements were used to construct wind roses that were superimposed on overhead photos of the terminal and examined for upwind source activity. Statistical tests were performed on these "source" and "nonsource" directions to determine whether there were significant differences in observed particle levels between the two groups. Our results provide evidence that nearby upwind pollution sources significantly elevated background concentrations at only a few of the locations sampled, whereas the majority provided little to no evidence of a significant upwind source effect.

  13. Impact analysis of freight vehicle access restriction (A case study of Jakarta Intra Urban Toll way)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbany, Ferdian; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Nahry, Nahdalina

    2017-06-01

    Since the access restriction policy on freight vehicles was implemented in some parts of Jakarta Intra-Urban Tollway (JIUT) in 2011, i.e. section Cawang - Tomang - Pluit, several sections had an improved performance. However, there were sections that showed the opposite effect. The purpose of this research was to analyze the impact of the policy on JIUT as a whole by using the parameters based on sustainable transportation indicators. The study area was divided into the statutory segment (Cawang - Tomang - Pluit) and the affected segment (Cawang - Tanjung Priok - Pluit). The assessment results of five parameters including travel time, fuel consumption, fatality rate, CO2 emissions, and noise level indicated that the implementation of the policy provided an advantage to the traffic smoothness priority at the statutory segment, but it did not support the sustainable urban transportation priority of the entire JIUT system. The proposed solution to maintain the sustainable condition of urban transportation is to complement the statutory system with the advisory system within Jakarta's territory.

  14. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic.

  15. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    PubMed

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS IN USING FREIGHT CONTAINERS AS INDUSTRIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Mark Hawk, M; Ron Natali, R

    2007-10-16

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programs. EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer-term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up program. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low-level waste (LLW) materials in a safe and cost-effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation Final Rule issued January 26, 2004, included a new provision authorizing the use of Freight Containers (e.g., 20 and 40-foot ISO Containers) as Industrial Packages Type 1, 2, or 3 (IP-1, IP-2, and IP-3). This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorized and large packages for the packaging and transportation of LLW materials.

  17. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent.

  18. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. The development and testing of collapsible intermodal containers for the handling and transport of coal combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.L.; Thomasson, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    SEEC, Incorporated, is developing a collapsible intermodal container (CIC{trademark}) designed for containment and transport of fly ash and other dry-flowable bulk commodities. The CIC is specially configured to ride in open top rail cars, but as an intermodal container, it also rides in barges and on flat bed trailers. This allows SEEC to use unit coal train back haul capacity to transport fly ash to markets at and near coal mines. SEEC`s goals for this project were to design a CIC for handling and transporting dry fly ash, and then demonstrate the CIC technology. During this project, SEEC has performed extensive initial design work, leading to the manufacture of three prototype CICs for demonstration. Preliminary tests to examine safety issues included finite element analyses and an overload test in which the CIC was lifted while carrying weight in excess of its rated capacity. In both cases, the CIC met all safety requirements. With the above information satisfying possible safety concerns in hand, SEEC worked with SIU and other cooperators to plan and carry out field demonstration and testing of three CICs. This demonstration/testing including filling the CICs with fly ash, transporting them in a coal hopper car, handling with standard intermodal equipment, and emptying by inverting (two CICs) and by vacuuming (one CIC). Results were very positive. Filling with fly ash, transporting, and intermodal handling went very well, as did emptying by vacuum. Emptying by inverting was less successful, but most of the problems were predicted ahead of time, and were mostly due to lack of fly ash fluidizing equipment as much as anything. Throughout the testing, valuable information was gathered that will greatly accelerate refinement of both the CIC and the system of CIC handling.

  20. DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Convention: ASC X12 Transaction Set 110 Air Freight Invoice (Version 003020)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    930315 DEPARYMEWT OF DEijj AIR FREIGHT INVOICE EDo COIWTImON 110.003020 TABLE 10.2-1 Contrut Segment Hierarchy 930315 10.2.3 AIR FREIHT INVOICE...Control Envelope Control Segments Pos Seg Req Industry No. ID Name Des Use Loop USE 10 ISA Interchange Control Header M 1 USE 20 GS Functional Group...and industry identifier of the EDI standard being used. (See X12 Dictionary) Version/Release [027 1 Code value agreed to by trading partners. See X1 2

  1. DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Convention: ASC X12 Transaction Set 859 Generic Freight Invoice (Version 003020)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    10.2.4 930415 DEPARTMENT OF DBEFESE GENERIC FREIGHT INVOICE EDI coNvENlION 859.003020 Interchange Control Envelope Control Segments Pos Seg Req Industry ...Standards Committee X1 2 GS08 480 Version/Releasefindusty id Code M ID 1112 Code indicating the version, release, subrelease and industry identifier of the...530 PER Administrative Communications 0 3 Contact Table 2 - Detail Area PoeSe Req Industry No. I, Name Des Ue Lxp USE 10 LX Assigned Number M 1 LX/999

  2. Multi-component-intermodal-interference mechanism and characteristics of a long period grating assistant fluid-filled photonic crystal fiber interferometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Yan-ge; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jing; Luo, Mingming; Guo, Junqi; Lin, Lie

    2014-03-10

    A compact in-line modal interferometer based on a long period grating (LPG) inscribed in water-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed and demonstrated. The interferometer works from the interference between fundamental core mode and different vector components of LP(11) core mode. The LPG is especially inscribed to realize the energy exchange between the fundamental core mode and different vector components of LP(11) core mode in the PCF. We build a complete theoretical model and systematically analyze the multi-component-intermodal-interference mechanism of the interferometer based on coupled-mode theory. Due to the asymmetric index distribution over the cross section of the PCF caused by CO(2)-laser side illumination, the dispersion curves and temperature sensitivities referring to different vector components of LP(11) core mode are quite different. Thus the interferometer is polarization-dependent and the adjacent interference fringes according to different components of LP(11) mode show greatly discrimination in sensitivities of temperature and strain, making it a good candidate for multiple physics parameters measurements.

  3. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  4. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends using stationary and mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  5. 49 CFR 386.84 - Sanction for failure to pay civil penalties or abide by payment plan; suspension or revocation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS Penalties § 386... registration. (a)(1) General rule. The registration of a broker, freight forwarder, or for-hire motor carrier.... The FMCSA Service Center may allow a respondent broker, freight forwarder, or for-hire motor carrier...

  6. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  7. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends using stationary and mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  8. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117.90 Section 102-117.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS...

  13. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin,...

  14. A DESIGN METHOD FOR TRACKS AND ROADBEDS OF RAILROAD-CROSSING UNDER FREIGHT TRAIN LOADS AND FORKLIFT LOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Kazuki; Momoya, Yoshitsugu; Sekine, Etsuo

    In the current design method of asphalt pavement in freight container yard, a theoretical design method based on multilayered elastic analysis is applied. However, in a design of railroad-crossing existing in the yard, heavy wheel loads of forklift and viscosity of asphalt pavement is not considered. In this study, the method of identifying the stiffness coefficient of asphalt pavement with consideration on its viscoelasticity under the heavy loading, and the design of the railroad crossing corresponding to the heavy loading of the forklift are shown. The method of the new design of railroad-crossing by FEM using the stiffness coefficient set in consideration of viscoelasticity of the asphalt pavement and track structure corres ponding to traffic volume are shown.

  15. Stochastic analysis of railroad freight car rocking problem, Part I: Spectral characterisation of track input and system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, T. S.; Samaha, M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of excessive rocking response of a large capacity railroad freight vehicle is treated by utilising a non-linear, nine degrees-of-freedom, stochastic model. The excitation on the system, due to the track irregularities consisting of periodic and random processes, is specified as a filtered, white noise, power spectral density function. The different techniques available for solving non-linear systems subjected to stochastic excitation are reviewed and the statistical linearisation technique is chosen to be the one most suitable for the present problem. The vehicle non-linear equations of motion are solved by applying a modified form of the statistical linearisation technique, to yield an equivalent linear system which minimises the difference between the original and equivalent equations. The steady state solution for the instantaneous covariance matrix of the overall vehicle state equations is found to be in the form of Lyapunov's equation and is solved utilising a numerical technique on the digital computer.

  16. 49 CFR 174.112 - Loading Division 1.3 materials and Division 1.2 (explosive) materials (Also see § 174.101).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prevent their shifting and possible damage due to shifting of other freight during transportation (ends... heavy loads). For recommended methods of blocking and bracing see the Intermodal Loading Guide for...

  17. 49 CFR 386.66 - Motions for rehearing or for modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 386.66 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR MOTOR CARRIER, INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND...

  18. A dynamic image recognition method for sleeper springs trouble of moving freight cars based on Haar features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fuqiang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Guangjun

    2006-11-01

    A novel conception of automatic recognition for free-trouble sleeper springs is proposed and Adaboost algorithm based on Haar features is applied for the sleeper springs recognition in Trouble of moving Freight car Detection System (TFDS). In the recognition system, feature set of sleeper springs is determined by Haar features and selected by Adaboost algorithm. In order to recognize and select the free-trouble sleeper springs from all the captured dynamic images, a cascade of classifier is established by searching dynamic images. The amount of detected images is drastically reduced and the recognition efficiency is improved due to the conception of free-trouble recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method is characterized by simple feature, high efficiency and robustness. It performs high robustness against noise as well as translation, rotation and scale transformations of objects and indicates high stability to images with poor quality such as low resolution, partial occlusion, poor illumination and overexposure etc. The recognition time of a 640×480 image is about 16ms, and Correct Detection Rate is high up to about 97%, while Miss Detection Rate and Error Detection Rate are very low. The proposed method can recognize sleeper springs in all-weather conditions, which advances the engineering application for TFDS.

  19. ORNL IntelligentFreight Initiative:Enhanced End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility of Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the post September 11, 2001 (9/11) world the federal government has increased its focus on the manufacturing, distributing, warehousing, and transporting of hazardous materials. In 2002, Congress mandated that the Transportation Security Agency (TSA) designate a subset of hazardous materials that could pose a threat to the American public when transported in sufficiently large quantities. This subset of hazardous materials, which could be weaponized or subjected to a nefarious terrorist act, was designated as Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials (SSHM). Radioactive materials (RAM) were of special concern because actionable intelligence had revealed that Al Qaeda desired to develop a homemade nuclear device or a dirty bomb to use against the United States (US) or its allies.1 Because of this clear and present danger, it is today a national priority to develop and deploy technologies that will provide for visibility and real-time exception notification of SSHM and Radioactive Materials in Quantities of Concern (RAMQC) in international commerce. Over the past eight years Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing, implementing, and deploying sensor-based technologies to enhance supply chain visibility. ORNL s research into creating a model for shipments, known as IntelligentFreight, has investigated sensors and sensor integration methods at numerous testbeds throughout the national supply chain. As a result of our research, ORNL believes that most of the information needed by supply chain partners to provide shipment visibility and exceptions-based reporting already exists but is trapped in numerous proprietary or agency-centric databases.

  20. Analysis of U.S. freight-train derailment severity using zero-truncated negative binomial regression and quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Qin, Xiao; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-10-01

    Derailments are the most common type of freight-train accidents in the United States. Derailments cause damage to infrastructure and rolling stock, disrupt services, and may cause casualties and harm the environment. Accordingly, derailment analysis and prevention has long been a high priority in the rail industry and government. Despite the low probability of a train derailment, the potential for severe consequences justify the need to better understand the factors influencing train derailment severity. In this paper, a zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) regression model is developed to estimate the conditional mean of train derailment severity. Recognizing that the mean is not the only statistic describing data distribution, a quantile regression (QR) model is also developed to estimate derailment severity at different quantiles. The two regression models together provide a better understanding of train derailment severity distribution. Results of this work can be used to estimate train derailment severity under various operational conditions and by different accident causes. This research is intended to provide insights regarding development of cost-efficient train safety policies.

  1. Intermodal Relationships in Children's Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Richard R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    First, third, and fifth graders made judgments of the geographical slant of surfaces depicted in photographs while optical slant and postural orientation were manipulated. The results indicated the existence of a linear mechanism which compensates for the effect of postural inclination. (JMB)

  2. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  3. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  4. On the Influence of Freight Trains on Humans: A Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Nocturnal Low Frequency Vibration and Noise on Sleep and Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Ögren, Mikael; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Background A substantial increase in transportation of goods on railway may be hindered by public fear of increased vibration and noise leading to annoyance and sleep disturbance. As the majority of freight trains run during night time, the impact upon sleep is expected to be the most serious adverse effect. The impact of nocturnal vibration on sleep is an area currently lacking in knowledge. We experimentally investigated sleep disturbance with the aim to ascertain the impact of increasing vibration amplitude. Methodology/Principal Findings The impacts of various amplitudes of horizontal vibrations on sleep disturbance and heart rate were investigated in a laboratory study. Cardiac accelerations were assessed using a combination of polysomnography and ECG recordings. Sleep was assessed subjectively using questionnaires. Twelve young, healthy subjects slept for six nights in the sleep laboratory, with one habituation night, one control night and four nights with a variation of vibration exposures whilst maintaining the same noise exposure. With increasing vibration amplitude, we found a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude of heart rate as well as a reduction in sleep quality and increase in sleep disturbance. Conclusions/Significance We concluded that nocturnal vibration has a negative impact on sleep and that the impact increases with greater vibration amplitude. Sleep disturbance has short- and long-term health consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to define levels that protect residents against sleep disruptive vibrations that may arise from night time railway freight traffic. PMID:23409055

  5. Microbiological condition of horse meat prepared at a North American packing plant, and control of the temperatures of product air freighted to Europe.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Landers, C

    2005-03-01

    To obtain information about the microbiological quality of horse meat exported from North America, the microbiological conditions of hot or cold boned primal cuts and carcass quarters from horse carcasses processed at a North American packing plant were examined. In addition, temperature histories were obtained from boxes of hot boned meat during cooling, and from horse carcass quarters air freighted to Europe. The log mean numbers of aerobes recovered from horse carcasses after dressing were >2 logcfu/cm(2). Log total numbers of coliforms and Escherichia coli recovered from 25 samples from such carcasses were >2 log and <2 logcfu/2500 cm(2), respectively. Numbers of bacteria generally similar to those were recovered from cooled carcasses or hot or cold boned cuts. The cooling process for hot boned meat met with standards for hot boned beef cooling processes based on calculated growth of E. coli at box centres. The deep tissues of carcass quarters cooled and the temperatures of their surfaces rose during air freighting, but surface temperatures mostly remained below 7 °C. The microbiological condition of horse carcass quarters delivered to plants in Europe would likely be comparable with the microbiological conditions of hanging beef delivered from packing plants to distant customers within North America.

  6. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Green, Phyllis A.; Bassett, Noel L.; Adams, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  7. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  8. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  9. Safe Freight Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Michaud, Michael H. [D-ME-2

    2013-08-02

    House - 08/05/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Railroads, Pipelines, and Hazardous Materials. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Freight Priorities Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Booker, Cory A. [D-NJ

    2014-05-21

    Senate - 05/21/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Freight Efficiency Outreach Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The North Central Texas Council of Governments is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s CSC Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  12. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-10

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered.

  13. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    PubMed Central

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  14. Multimodal Information Sharing Team (MIST) - Port of Baltimore Industry and Public Sector Cooperation for Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    collaboration within their individual agencies. It was reported that they currently have some problems with information overload and the inappropriate use...environment. CSX Railroad http://www.csx.com/ CSX is a leading supplier of rail-based freight transportation in North America. More information

  15. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    .... USTRANSCOM III. General A. Concept B. Responsibilities C. Termination of Charter, Leases and Other... ``CCA''--Carrier Coordination Agreements ``CFR''--Code of Federal Regulations ``CONOPS''--Concept of... user air, land, and sea transportation for DoD. III. General A. Concept 1. VISA provides for the staged...

  16. Intermodal War: Assessing Containerized Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    of war. Motorized vehicles, with their 4 requisite consumables, added to the load of the Quarter Masters. Larger quantities of supplies, such as food ...Institute of Technology, June 2000), 59-66, AFIT/ GMO /END/00E-11. 60 Ibid., 24-30. 61 Cudahy, 243. 62 Smith-Peterson, 40. 63 “Civil Reserve Air Fleet

  17. National Freight Mobility Infrastructure Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Adam [D-WA-9

    2011-12-08

    House - 12/09/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Railroads, Pipelines, and Hazardous Materials. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Freight FOCUS Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2011-03-16

    House - 03/17/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Railroads, Pipelines, and Hazardous Materials. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. 49 CFR 1090.1 - Definition of TOFC/COFC service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of TOFC/COFC service. 1090.1 Section... INTERMODAL MOVEMENT OF CONTAINERIZED FREIGHT § 1090.1 Definition of TOFC/COFC service. (a) Rail trailer-on-flatcar/container-on-flatcar (TOFC/COFC) service means the transportation by rail, in interstate...

  20. 49 CFR 266.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... including terminals, team tracks and appurtenances, bridges and tunnels, and other structures used or usable... preservation for future rail freight service. Rail facility construction assistance means funds granted to a... rail related facilities (including new connections between two or more existing lines, intermodal...