Science.gov

Sample records for railroad system physical

  1. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  2. Some Physics at the Railroad Hump Yard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.

    1982-01-01

    Regrouping cars from incoming trains into blocks of cars for outgoing trains is accomplished in railroad "hump" classification yards. Discusses: hardware and software elements of such installations; physical models on which software is based; success in predicting/regulating car speeds; and results of recent research into factors affecting car…

  3. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1077 - Individuals under railroad retirement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individuals under railroad retirement system... Self-Employment § 404.1077 Individuals under railroad retirement system. If you are an employee or... business. Your services are covered under the railroad retirement system. Self-Employment Income...

  8. Development of structural health monitoring systems for railroad bridge testbeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun-Jun; Min, Jiyoung; Yun, Chung-Bang; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Yong-Su; Park, Su-Yeol

    2011-04-01

    Recently a challenging project has been carried out for construction of a national network for safety management and monitoring of civil infrastructures in Korea. As a part of the project, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have been established on railroad bridges employing various types of sensors such as accelerometers, optical fiber sensors, and piezoelectric sensors. This paper presents the current status of railroad bridge health monitoring testbeds. Emerging sensors and monitoring technologies are under investigation. They are local damage detection using PZT-based electro-mechanical impedances; vibration-based global monitoring using accelerations, FBG-based dynamic strains; and wireless sensor data acquisition systems. The monitoring systems provide real-time measurements under train-transit and environmental loadings, and can be remotely accessible and controllable via the web. Long-term behaviors of the railroad bridge testbeds are investigated, and guidelines for safety management are to be established by combining numerical analysis and signal processing of the measured data.

  9. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  11. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or... under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business....

  13. Report on audit of the use of Hanford site railroad system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-20

    The DOE in partnership with its contractors, strives to operate, maintain, and use existing physical assets to meet mission needs. Field offices have first line responsibility to ensure stewardship of the assets. Part of stewardship responsibility involves ensuring assets are fully evaluated for use in meeting the DOE`s mission. One of Richland`s oldest, yet well-maintained multi-million dollar physical assets, is the Hanford railroad system. This system, constructed in the 1940s, includes tracks, railcars, and locomotives and provides sitewide transportation. Because of the availability of this asset, the objective of the audit was to determine if Richland ensured that Hanford contractors were fully utilizing the railroad system.

  14. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  15. System for batch loading coal into railroad cars

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Baldwin, C.L.; Foley, D.J.; McHann, M.R.

    1986-12-16

    A method is described for loading particles into railroad cars wherein a control weight of a railroad car loaded with particles is established and wherein particles are discharged through a discharge end of a weight bin and wherein a weigh gate assembly is connected to the discharge end of the weigh bin having an opened and a closed position. The particles are dischargeable through the discharge end of the weigh bin in an opened position of the weigh gate assembly and are prevented from being discharged from the weigh bin in a closed position of the weigh gate assembly, the railroad cars continuously moving under the weigh bin in a direction of travel. The method comprises the steps of: weighing each railroad car prior to loading particles in the railroad car to determine an unfilled weight of each railroad car; comparing the unfilled weight of each railroad car with the control weight to determine an unfilled differential weight for each railroad car. The unfilled differential weight of each railroad car is stored along with an associated car identification determined sequentially prior to loading. The particular railroad car associated with each unfilled differential weight is uniquely identified. Loading particles into the weigh bin prior to unloading the particles from the weigh bin into the railroad cars; weighing the weigh bin as the particles are being loaded into the weigh bin and terminating the loading of particles into the weigh bin when a weight of particles has been loaded into the weigh bin about equal to and less than the unfilled differential weight associated with the railroad car to be loaded with that unfilled differential weight of particles.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-4 - Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individuals under Railroad Retirement System. 1... Railroad Retirement System. The performance of service by an individual as an employee or employee... 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations)), that is, an individual covered under the...

  17. Integrated geographic information system over Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Aymard, W.H.; Lintz, J. Jr.; Perry, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential at Railroad Valley is a process involving the consolidation of different data sets acquired by multiple technologies. Previous studies have demonstrated correlation between fracture systems and geochemical anomalies with oil-producing fields. An integrated geographic information system (IGIS) is defined as the merging of spatially referenced data. Specifically, it is the consolidation of remotely sensed data in raster format with the vectorized representations of map features for spatial analysis. An IGIS is used to integrate the following data sets: Landsat thematic mapper, digital topography, digital gravity data, well log data, geochemical data, digital aeromagnetic data, seismic data, digitized geologic maps, and organic geochemical data. It is necessary to (1) analyze how these spatially referenced data sets interact as factors or variables, which may be extremely complex, and (2) establish the fundamental operations for data processing. First, interpreted information from the individual data sets is derived prior to the merging process. A one-way performed discriminant analysis on the multivariate classes follows.

  18. Mutual design of overhead transmission lines and railroad communications and signal systems. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taflove, A.; Umashankar, K.R.

    1983-10-01

    Objective was to develop mutual design methods and criteria for overhead ac transmission lines and adjacent railroad systems. This project has addressed basic engineering issues which govern the operation of railroad communications and signal (C and S) systems under conditions of interference from nearby transmission lines. Data and techniques have been compiled and developed to contribute to the achievement of electromagnetic compatibility in a manner that is acceptable to both the power and railroad industries.

  19. 78 FR 77786 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... (ABS) system on Track Number 2; the installation of a traffic control system (TCS) on Track Number 2... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate Administrator for Railroad... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations and 49...

  20. 75 FR 5638 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... discontinuance and removal of the Automatic Block Signal System (ABS) on the entire railroad line between, but... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html... Railroad Signal System or Relief From the Requirements of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part...

  1. 77 FR 2774 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, this document provides the public...

  2. Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  3. 76 FR 21943 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ...) seeks approval of the proposed discontinuance and removal of the automatic block signal system (ABS) on... Railroad Signal System Pursuant to Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 235 and 49 U.S.C. 20502... for the discontinuance or modification of the signal system, as detailed below. Docket Number...

  4. 77 FR 9296 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... 112. The reason given is that the ABS system is not needed for efficient and safe operation of trains... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and... approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket...

  5. 77 FR 31429 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... approval of the proposed discontinuance of an automatic block signal (ABS) system and a traffic control... Railroad Signal System In accordance with Part 235 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49 U.S...) seeking approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the...

  6. Field testing of prototype systems for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Nucera, Claudio; Fateh, Mahmood; Choros, John

    2014-03-01

    In both high speed and freight rail systems, the modern construction method is Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). The purpose of the CWR method is to eliminate joints in order to reduce the maintenance costs for both the rails and the rolling stock. However the elimination of the joints increases the risk of rail breakage in cold weather and buckling in hot weather. In order to predict the temperature at which the rail will break or buckle, it is critical to have knowledge of the temperature at which the rail is stress free, namely, the Rail Neutral Temperature (Rail-NT).The University of California at San Diego has developed an innovative technique based on non-linear ultrasonic guided waves, under FRA research and development grants for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks. Through the licensing of this technology from the UCSD and under the sponsorship of the FRA Office of Research and Development, a field deployable prototype system has been developed and recently field tested at cooperating railroad properties. Three prototype systems have been deployed to the Union Pacific (UP), Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF), and AMTRAK railroads for field testing and related data acquisition for a comprehensive evaluation of the system, with respect to both performance and economy of operation. The results from these tests have been very encouraging. Based on the lessons learned from these field tests and the feedback from the railroads, it is planned develop a compact 2nd generation Rail-NT system to foster deployment and furtherance of FRA R&D grant purpose of potential contribution to the agency mission of US railroad safety. In this paper, the results of the field tests with the railroads in summer of 2013 are reported.

  7. The Crisis in Railroad Collective Bargaining: A Study of the Institutional Impediments to Change in the Industrial Relations System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W., Jr.

    The rapid technological and employment changes have had a serious impact on the railroad industrial relations system and its manpower. The organization of the collective bargaining system and the Railway Labor Act have seriously impeded rather than aided the meeting of the challenges of these developments. This study recommends a recasting of the…

  8. 76 FR 27170 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Railroad Signal System In accordance with part 235 of title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and... approval for the discontinuance or modification of a signal system. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number... track 1. The Method of Operation on the running track, currently ABS-261 and CPS-261, will become...

  9. 75 FR 76069 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Engineering Operations, Massachusetts Bay Commuter Railroad Company, 32 Cobble Hill Road--Suite 3, Somerville... Maynard Junction. The mechanical bed-locking interlocking machine at Waltham Tower will be retired. Twenty... installed. The proposed modifications will retire a signal system comprised of dc neutral, mechanical,...

  10. 7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACING AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. PMID:27131198

  12. Sulphite Railroad Bridge1896, Title Sheet Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sulphite Railroad Bridge-1896, Title Sheet - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  13. Method for loading coal into railroad cars

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, J.L.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1984-07-17

    A system for loading coal or other particles into railroad cars wherein every other railroad car is designated an EVEN railroad car and the remaining every other railroad cars are designated ODD railroad cars. Each EVEN railroad car is weighed after being filled with coal and before the initiation of the loading of coal into the next EVEN railroad car to determine a filled weight. The filled weight of each EVEN railroad car is compared to a predetermined control weight and, in response to this determination, the termination of the loading of coal into the next EVEN railroad car controllably is varied to bring the filled weight closer to control weight. In a like manner, each ODD railroad car is weighed after being filled with coal and before the initiation of the loading of coal into the next ODD railroad car to determine a filled weight. The filled weight of each ODD railroad car is compared to the predetermined control weight and, in response to this determination, the termination of the loading of coal into the next ODD railroad car controllably is varied to bring the filled weight closer to the control weight.

  14. Railroad system of Texas: A component of the state and national transportation infrastructure. Research report, September 1996--November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, S.S.; Warner, J.E.; Rosa, D.; Dickinson, R.W.

    1998-11-01

    Railroads continue to play an important role in the Texas transportation system. This study addresses the potential for implementing a rail planning process in the Texas Department of Transportation. The study is documented in three reports, produced in coordinated and parallel efforts by the Center for Transportation Research and the Texas Transportation Institute. This report documents the work performed by TTI, whereby a rail planning framework is presented which formalizes the planning process and presents the key elements as a series of discrete and logical steps. These steps may be used to guide TxDOT in the formation of goals, identification of issues and affected parties, selection of appropriate analytical methodologies, location of data sources, and implementation of results. The report also presents an in-depth discussion of several key issues facing transportation agencies. These include rail line abandonment, intermodal service planning, and urban rail rationalization. A discussion of the Texas rail system covers the Class 1 railroads, shortline railroads, Amtrak, and the Mexican rail system.

  15. Research and design of an expert system of trouble diagnosis for the diesel engine in the railroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qizhong; Chen, Zhixin; Wei, Yingying; Yuan, Haiying; Jing, Yongnian

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents an expert system of trouble diagnosis for the diesel engine in the railroad. It was expounded that the essential content of knowledge base for trouble diagnosis in the system. And it was researched that how to build reasoning system by logic theory method, accordingly the logic theory mechanism was designed based on the logic. Consequently the efficiency of diagnosis was improved and worked speedily and properly. The man-machine interface was designed well by using Visual C++ so that trouble diagnosis the expert system is usable for the diesel engine in the worked location. The system is so opened and extended that maintenance man fulfills the conversion form the experiential knowledge in the practice to the identifiable symbol in the system without the helping of technology engineering. Further more the veracity and of diagnosis would be improved in the process of trouble diagnosis for the diesel engine.

  16. Temporary physical protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.; Gangel, D.J.; Madsen, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Terrorism and other aspects of world political instability have created a high demand for temporary physical protection systems within the nuclear materials management community. They can be used when vehicles carrying important assets are away from their permanent fixed site location, around areas where experiments are being temporarily conducted, around construction areas and one portions of a fixed site physical security system which is temporarily inoperable. Physical security systems can be grouped into four categories: tactical, portable, semi-permanent, and fixed. The resources and experience gained at Sandia National Laboratories in over forty years of developing and implementing security systems for protecting nuclear weapons and fixed nuclear facilities is now being applied to temporary physical security systems. This paper emphasizes temporary physical security systems and their component parts that are presently available and identify additional system-subsystem objectives, requirements, and concepts.

  17. Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Title Sheet Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Title Sheet - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  18. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  19. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  20. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Railroad means any form of non-highway ground transportation that runs on rails or electromagnetic... Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and (b) High speed ground transportation systems that connect... traditional railroads; but does not include rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not...

  1. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Railroad means any form of non-highway ground transportation that runs on rails or electromagnetic... Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and (b) High speed ground transportation systems that connect... traditional railroads; but does not include rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not...

  2. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad. 236.787a Section 236.787a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a...

  3. 75 FR 26838 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot... below. Docket Number FRA-2010-0023 Applicant: Union Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. William E. Van...

  4. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad... Class III railroads: North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company,...

  5. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    Railroads are important to the U.S. economy. They transport freight efficiently, requiring less energy and emitting fewer pollutants than other modes of surface transportation. While the railroad industry has steadily improved its fuel efficiency--by 16% over the last decade--more can, and needs to, be done. The ability of locomotive manufacturers to conduct research into fuel efficiency and emissions reduction is limited by the small number of locomotives manufactured annually. Each year for the last five years, the two North American locomotive manufacturers--General Electric Transportation Systems and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors--have together sold about 800 locomotives in the United States. With such a small number of units over which research costs can be spread, outside help is needed to investigate all possible ways to reduce fuel usage and emissions. Because fuel costs represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a railroad, fuel efficiency has always been an important factor in the design of locomotives and in the operations of a railroad. However, fuel efficiency has recently become even more critical with the introduction of strict emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to be implemented in stages (Tiers 0, 1, and 2) between 2000 and 2005. Some of the technologies that could be employed to meet the emission standards may negatively affect fuel economy--by as much as 10-15% when emissions are reduced to Tier 1 levels. Lowering fuel economy by that magnitude would have a serious impact on the cost to the consumer of goods shipped by rail, on the competitiveness of the railroad industry, and on this country's dependence on foreign oil. Clearly, a joint government/industry R&D program is needed to help catalyze the development of advanced technologies that will substantially reduce locomotive engine emissions while also improving train system energy efficiency. DOE convened an industry

  6. Design of a smart, survivable sensor system for enhancing the safe and secure transportation of hazardous or high-value cargo on railroads

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.R.; Rey, D.; Faas, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    An application of smart sensor technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use in the safe and secure transportation of high value of hazardous materials is proposed for a railroad application. The Green Box would be capable of surviving most typical railroad accidents. In an accident, the system would send a distress signal notifying authorities of the location and condition of the cargo; permitting them to respond in the most effective manner. The concept proposes a strap-on sensor package, the Green Box, that could be attached to any railroad car or cargo container. Its primary purpose is to minimize the number, severity and consequences of accidents and to reduce losses due to theft. The system would also be capable of recognizing component failure conditions, notifying the operators and logging sensor data for use in directing preventative maintenance. The modular implementation, which facilitates system integration in a number of applications including the Advanced Train Control System (ACTS), is discussed. The methodology for determining the environmental specification for accident survivability is presented. A test plan for evaluating hardware performance in both normal operating and accident conditions is described.

  7. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  8. Inference Concerning Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    The question of whether the universe "is" just an information- processing system has been extensively studied in physics. To address this issue, the canonical forms of information processing in physical systems - observation, prediction, control and memory - were analyzed in [24]. Those forms of information processing are all inherently epistemological; they transfer information concerning the universe as a whole into a scientist's mind. Accordingly, [24] formalized the logical relationship that must hold between the state of a scientist's mind and the state of the universe containing the scientist whenever one of those processes is successful. This formalization has close analogs in the analysis of Turing machines. In particular, it can be used to define an "informational analog" of algorithmic information complexity. In addition, this formalization allows us to establish existence and impossibility results concerning observation, prediction, control and memory. The impossibility results establish that Laplace was wrong to claim that even in a classical, non-chaotic universe the future can be unerringly predicted, given sufficient knowledge of the present. Alternatively, the impossibility results can be viewed as a non-quantum mechanical "uncertainty principle". Here I present a novel motivation of the formalization introduced in [24] and extend some of the associated impossibility results.

  9. 78 FR 71710 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety... the installation of cab signals without wayside signaling between Control Point (CP) Kiski, Milepost (MP) LC 47.8, and CP Penn, MP LC 77.9, on the Conemaugh Line, Pittsburgh Division. CP Kiski, CP...

  10. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  11. Railroad routing and costing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.; Sherman, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This research has the objective of providing reliable tools for forecasting the costs of transporting coal from the coal supply regions to the coal demand regions of the United States. The present work was devoted primarily to improving and updating the Railroad Routing Model (RRM) and related data base developed earlier. The railroad network data were modified to incorporate the extensive structural changes which occurred during the period 1980 to 1982. All of the rail time, energy, and cost functions were completely reestimated, taking advantage of improved railrod operations and cost simulators and recent research on railroad costs. After a review of the latest research on railroad routing in large networks, the RRM was refined and tailored to the problem of finding likely routes and estimating fully allocated carrier costs for coal shipments. A new RRM routing algorithm finds routes which satisfy the dual railroad objectives of maximizing the carrier's share of total shipment revenue and minimizing cost. Five utilities tested and demonstrated the new RRM and data base in a series of case studies. These utilities provided data on 38 coal moves with haul distances of 200 to 1700 miles, including a mixture of both existing and prospective movements. The RRM was found to produce credible results. Full and effective use of these improved tools for railroad routing and costing has been facilitated through additional work to develop an interactive system with improved data base management capabilities and expanded cost estimating features.

  12. Physics of mirror systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1982-05-01

    In recent years the emphasis in research on the magnetic mirror approach to fusion has been shifted to address what are essentially economically-motivated issues. The introduction of the Tandem Mirror idea solved in principal the problem of low Q (low fusion power gain) of mirror-based fusion systems. In order to optimize the tandem mirror idea from an economic standpoint, some important improvements have been suggested. These improvements include the thermal barrier idea of Baldwin and Logan and the axicell concept of Kesner. These new modifications introduce some special physics considerations. Among these are (1) The MHD stability properties of high energy electron components in the end cells; (2) The optimization of end-cell magnetic field configurations with the objective of minimizing equilibrium parallel currents; (3) The suppression of microstabilities by use of sloshing ion distributions. Following a brief outline of tandem mirror concepts, the above three topics are discussed, with illustrative examples taken from earlier work or from recent design studies.

  13. 1994 ASME/IEEE Joint Railroad Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This conference proceedings contains 21 papers. Topics discussed include railroad transportation, signal systems, computer systems, control systems, power supply system, vehicle suspensions, vehicle wheels, traction, failure (mechanical) and sensors. Some papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves to escape…

  15. Physics of the Circulatory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heuvelen, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some calculations and demonstrations illustrating the role of physics in cardiovascular system. Describes a model for the system, work done by the heart, pressure in blood vessel, and gravitational effects. (YP)

  16. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  17. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What railroads does this regulation apply to? 222... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  18. 76 FR 78335 - North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division-Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division--Lease Amendment Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company North Carolina & Virginia Railroad, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division (NCVR), a Class III carrier, has filed a...

  19. Planetary System Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include a summary of publications followed by their abstracts titeled: 1. On microlensing rates and optical depth toward the Galactic center. 2. Newly discovered brown dwarfs not seen in microlensing timescale frequency distribution? 3. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. 4. Probing the structure of the galaxy with microlensing. 5. Tides, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6. The Puzzle of the Titan-Hyperion 4:3 Orbital Resonance. 7. On the Validity of the Coagulation Equation and the Nature of Runaway Growth. 8. Making Hyperion. 9. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: Scientific objectives and implementation. 10. A Survey of Numerical Solutions to the Coagulation. 11. Probability of detecting a planetary companion during a microlensing event. 12. Dynamics and origin of the 2:l orbital resonances of the GJ876 planets. 13. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics. 14. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean Satellites. 15. A procedure for determining the nature of Mercury's core. 16. Secular evolution of hierarchical planetary systems. 17. Tidally induced volcanism. 18. Extrasolar planets and mean motion resonances. 19. Comparison of a ground-based microlensing search for planets with a search from space.

  20. Union Pacific Railroad`s LNG locomotive test program

    SciTech Connect

    Grimaila, B.

    1995-12-31

    Union Pacific Railroad is testing LNG in six locomotives through 1997 to determine if the liquefied natural gas technology is right for them. Two of the six LNG test locomotives are switch, or yard, locomotives. These 1,350 horsepower locomotives are the industry`s first locomotives totally fueled by natural gas. They`re being tested in the yard in the Los Angeles area. The other four locomotives are long-haul locomotives fueled by two tenders. These units are duel-fueled, operating on a mixture of LNG and diesel and are being tested primarily on the Los Angeles to North Platte, Nebraska corridor. All the information concerning locomotive emissions, locomotive performance, maintenance requirements, the overall LNG system design and the economic feasibility of the project will be analyzed to determine if UPR should expand, or abandon, the LNG technology.

  1. Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  2. 57. Credit LRC. West elevation during construction. Note narrowgauge railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Credit LRC. West elevation during construction. Note narrow-gauge railroad entering main door of powerhouse. Photo c. 1910. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. 76 FR 24561 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... advisory committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  4. 77 FR 73734 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  5. 77 FR 52393 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  6. 75 FR 44046 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... advisory committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  7. 78 FR 26423 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  8. All purpose railroad car

    SciTech Connect

    Terlecky, B.S.

    1987-01-13

    An all purpose railroad car is described for transporting wheeled trailers and containers, the car comprising an elongated frame supported by wheel trucks, combined hitch and bolster means adjacent one end of the frame for selectively receiving and releasably retaining a trailer king pin and one end of a container. A means is spaced from the combined hitch and bolster means for selectively receiving and supporting the wheels of a wheeled trailer and the other end of a container. The combined hitch and bolster means is an integral rigid structure with the hitch fixed in spaced relationship to the bolster with both the hitch and the bolster permanently disposed in operative position to respectively receive and retain a trailer king pin and a container.

  9. Railroad management planning. 1974-October, 1981 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1974-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Studies are presented of railroad planning concerning operating costs, yard operations, intermodal systems, railway abandonment and consolidation, efficiency in operations and services, freight car utilization systems, forecasting future railroad freight and passenger market and the potential of energy conservation in railroad transportation. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 79 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  11. Coming of the Railroad, Unit V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    Designed for elementary school students, this unit on the coming of the railroad in Wyoming provides concepts, activities, resource lists, and maps. Concepts stress the coming of the railroad in 1867-69, routes which were considered, towns owing their origin to the railroad, the railroad ownership of southern Wyoming, and the relationship between…

  12. Computational capabilities of physical systems.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, David H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper strong limits on the accuracy of real-world physical computation are established. To derive these results a non-Turing machine formulation of physical computation is used. First it is proven that there cannot be a physical computer C to which one can pose any and all computational tasks concerning the physical universe. Next it is proven that no physical computer C can correctly carry out every computational task in the subset of such tasks that could potentially be posed to C. This means in particular that there cannot be a physical computer that can be assured of correctly "processing information faster than the universe does." Because this result holds independent of how or if the computer is physically coupled to the rest of the universe, it also means that there cannot exist an infallible, general-purpose observation apparatus, nor an infallible, general-purpose control apparatus. These results do not rely on systems that are infinite, and/or nonclassical, and/or obey chaotic dynamics. They also hold even if one could use an infinitely fast, infinitely dense computer, with computational powers greater than that of a Turing machine (TM). After deriving these results analogs of the TM Halting theorem are derived for the novel kind of computer considered in this paper, as are results concerning the (im)possibility of certain kinds of error-correcting codes. In addition, an analog of algorithmic information complexity, "prediction complexity," is elaborated. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the prediction complexity of a computational task can differ for two different reference universal physical computers used to solve that task. This is analogous to the "encoding" bound governing how much the algorithm information complexity of a TM calculation can differ for two reference universal TMs. It is proven that either the Hamiltonian of our universe proscribes a certain type of computation, or prediction complexity is unique (unlike

  13. Computational capabilities of physical systems.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, David H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper strong limits on the accuracy of real-world physical computation are established. To derive these results a non-Turing machine formulation of physical computation is used. First it is proven that there cannot be a physical computer C to which one can pose any and all computational tasks concerning the physical universe. Next it is proven that no physical computer C can correctly carry out every computational task in the subset of such tasks that could potentially be posed to C. This means in particular that there cannot be a physical computer that can be assured of correctly "processing information faster than the universe does." Because this result holds independent of how or if the computer is physically coupled to the rest of the universe, it also means that there cannot exist an infallible, general-purpose observation apparatus, nor an infallible, general-purpose control apparatus. These results do not rely on systems that are infinite, and/or nonclassical, and/or obey chaotic dynamics. They also hold even if one could use an infinitely fast, infinitely dense computer, with computational powers greater than that of a Turing machine (TM). After deriving these results analogs of the TM Halting theorem are derived for the novel kind of computer considered in this paper, as are results concerning the (im)possibility of certain kinds of error-correcting codes. In addition, an analog of algorithmic information complexity, "prediction complexity," is elaborated. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the prediction complexity of a computational task can differ for two different reference universal physical computers used to solve that task. This is analogous to the "encoding" bound governing how much the algorithm information complexity of a TM calculation can differ for two reference universal TMs. It is proven that either the Hamiltonian of our universe proscribes a certain type of computation, or prediction complexity is unique (unlike

  14. 77 FR 75701 - Landisville Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Buckeye East Chicago Railroad LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Landisville Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Buckeye East Chicago Railroad LLC Landisville Railroad, LLC (Landisville), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of... railroad right-of-way, and bulk liquid transloading facilities owned by Buckeye East Chicago Railroad,...

  15. Physical approach to complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but

  16. Summary of the railroad system of Texas: A component of the state and national transportation infrastructure. Project summary report, September 1997--August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Boske, L.B.; Roop, S.; Harrison, R.

    1998-12-01

    Railroads continue to play an important role in moving domestic and international freight through Texas, contributing to economic growth in the state. This study addresses the potential for implementing a rail planning process in the Texas Department of Transportation. In order to accomplish this, successful rail planning processes at other US departments of transportation were evaluated and exemplary programs identified. Three reports were published addressing a variety of findings. The first, published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides an overview and examination of 32 state rail policies, plans, and programs for both passenger and freight traffic. The second report, also published by the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, provides information on exemplary state rail programming and planning based on case studies of California, Florida, North Carolina, and the state of Washington. The third report, published by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A and M University, provides (1) a framework for rail planning in Texas, (2) identification of current rail issues in Texas, (3) a case study on urban rail rationalization, and (4) a characterization of the rail system in Texas. In each report, detailed appendices are provided to complement the findings and recommendations. In this project summary report, an implementation schedule is recommended to institute rail planning in the Texas Department of Transportation.

  17. Mutual design: Overhead transmission lines and railroad facilities: Susceptibility program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.J.; Little, D.R.

    1989-07-01

    The sharing of common corridors by electric power transmission lines and railroad facilities can result in the coupling of unwanted electromagnetic energy from the power lines into nearby railroad systems. The coupling can result in voltage being induced onto the railroad system conductors that may compromise the inherent safety and reliability of the railroad signalling system. This broad-scoped research program, which is co-sponsored by EPRI and the AAR, is addressing the problem from two directions. This two volume report describes a Phase 1 effort to develop the methods and techniques for quantifying the signal system response to interference. 54 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. 75 FR 54219 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Locking, 236.380 Indication Locking, and 236.381 Traffic Locking, on vital microprocessor-based systems. NJT proposes to verify and test signal locking systems controlled by microprocessor- based equipment... points and other locations are controlled by solid-state vital microprocessor-based systems....

  19. Plans for a National Physics Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Franz L.; Herschman, Arthur

    Against a background of widespread interest in national information systems, the American Institute of Physics is developing such a system for physics. This program pivots on the design of a new classification system for physics which is to be used, in conjunction with free-language index terms, for the intellectual organization of the physics…

  20. 78 FR 47822 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... that the ABS system is no longer needed for freight switching operations. There are no through freight operations. Passenger service has been discontinued on the line. A copy of the petition, as well as any... in person at the Department of Transportation's Docket Operations Facility, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  1. 78 FR 68146 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Associate... Control Point (CP) Oak and the discontinuance of the traffic control system (TCS) between CP Maumee..., Toledo, OH. TCS will also be discontinued on the Oakdale Connection Track between CP 286, MP XA...

  2. 78 FR 25344 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on... traffic control system from Control Point (CP) South Olean at Milepost (MP) BR73.0 up to and including CP...-397.86, which crosses the Buffalo Line at grade at CP Olean in Olean, NY. All power-operated...

  3. 78 FR 21185 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... signal system without wayside signals on the NS Pittsburgh Line, from Milepost (MP) PT 352.2 (CP Solomon) to MP PT 353.35/PC 0.0, and on its Fort Wayne Line from MP PT 353.35/PC 0.0 to MP PC 15.0 (CP...

  4. 8. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER BETWEEN EAST APPROACH AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - El Paso & Southwestern Railroad Rio Grande Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southwestern Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  5. 7. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, PIER BETWEEN HIGHWAY AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - El Paso & Southwestern Railroad Rio Grande Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southwestern Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  6. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF EL PASO AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE, RAILROAD SPAN, LOOKING NORTH. - El Paso & Southwestern Railroad Rio Grande Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southwestern Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  7. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS CROSSING RAILROAD LINE, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN U.S. AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  9. 78 FR 62940 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2012 Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2012 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2012 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  10. 78 FR 62002 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... 11, 1996 (61 FR 9740), for additional information about the RSAC. Issued in Washington, DC, on... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  11. 75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the forty-first meeting of the RSAC, a Federal advisory committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a...

  12. 77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal... of the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC). SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of the RSAC, a Federal Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a...

  13. 75 FR 27053 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal... of the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC). SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of the RSAC, a Federal Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a...

  14. Application of the trajectory coordinate system and the moving modes method approach to railroad dynamics using Krylov subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recuero, Antonio M.; Escalona, José L.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a procedure that makes use of a particular formulation based on the trajectory coordinate system (TCS) approach, which is specific of ground vehicles, to describe the track deformation by means of a suitable set of mode shapes. The inertia terms of the track elastic displacements are derived using the TCS arc length to couple the system dynamics. The selection of the track modes of deformation is carried out from a finite element model by using Krylov subspaces as the model-order reduction technique. The modes of deformation move along the track fixed to the TCS using the moving modes method (MMM), avoiding the issue concerning the spatial convergence of the load (wheels) on the track and preserving their vertical frequency contents whose accuracy can be chosen beforehand. An unsuspended wheelset with an induced hunting motion moving on flexible and rigid tangent tracks and a vehicle model are simulated using rail defects as excitations sources such that the performance of this procedure using a fully 3D contact algorithm is shown and analyzed.

  15. Railroad safety program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Since 1981, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has annually prepared a National Inspection Plan (NIP) whose purpose is to summarize regional efforts to improve railroad transportation safety. The research concluded on the following tasks including the problems, conclusions and recommendations associated with these tasks is summarized: (1) the preparation of the 1983 NIP, with recommended procedures for improving future NIPs; (2) the development of an outline for the 1984 NIP, including a methodology for the allocation of inspection resources and other specialized regional activities; (3) the management and development of the 1984 NIP; and (4) the development of an instruction manual to be used in the preparation of future NIPs.

  16. The role of active and ancient geothermal systems in evolution of Grant Canyon oil field, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Bereskin, S.R. ); Bortz, L.C.

    1991-06-01

    Since discovery in 1983, the Grant Canyon field has been among the most prolific oil producers (on a per-well basis) in the US. Production through June 1990 was 12,935,630 bbl of oil, principally from two wells which in tandem have consistently yielded more than 6,000 bbl of oil per day. The field is hosted by highly porous Devonian dolomite breccia loosely cemented with hydrothermal quartz. Results of fluid-inclusion and petrographic research in progress at Grant Canyon suggest that paleogeothermal and perhaps currently circulating geothermal systems may have played a major role in oil-reservoir evolution. For example, as previously reported, the breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary aqueous, aqueous/oil, and oil fluid inclusions which were trapped at about 120C (average homogenization temperature) and document initial oil migration and entrapment as droplets or globules dispersed in dilute (< 2.2 wt.% equivalent NaCl) aqueous solutions. Additional evidence of geothermal connection is that the horst-block trap at Grant Canyon is top and side sealed by valley-fill clastic and volcanic rocks which are locally hydrothermally altered and calcite flooded. These secondary seals are enhanced by disseminated, solid asphaltic residues locally accounting for 23% (volume) of the rock. Current reservoir temperatures at Grant Canyon (120C) and the adjacent Bacon Flat field (171C) attest to vigorous contemporary geothermal activity. Based on results of the authors' Grant Canyon work to date, they suggest that active and paleohydrothermal systems could be viable petroleum exploration targets in otherwise favorable terrain elsewhere in the Basin and Range.

  17. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVR) has agreed to grant local trackage rights to Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc. (AKMD)...

  18. 76 FR 50326 - Tyburn Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Tyburn Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Tyburn Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Tyburn Railroad Company Tyburn Railroad, LLC (Tyburn), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Tyburn Railroad Company and operate approximately 0.9 miles of rail lines...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  20. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  4. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  5. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  7. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  8. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  10. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  11. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted with warning signs or signals, or shall be guarded when trains are passing. These crossings shall also...

  12. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroads. 169.23 Section 169.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.23 Railroads. (a..., individually owned and Government-owned land, except in the State of Oklahoma, for railroads, station...

  13. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  14. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  15. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad policies. 219.23 Section 219.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a)...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall be... movement. (m) Recessed railroad switches shall be enclosed to provide a level surface. (n) Warning...

  17. Reusing Railroad Stations. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Railroad stations are a unique American resource that should continue to serve public and private interests even though their original purpose may have passed. Large stations should be considered as prominent civic structures whose redevelopment could offer significant opportunities to influence the future character, economy, and operation of…

  18. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  19. Railroad safety program, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Aspects of railroad safety and the preparation of a National Inspection Plan (NIP) for rail safety improvement are examined. Methodology for the allocation of inspection resources, preparation of a NIP instruction manual, and recommendations for future NIP, are described. A statistical analysis of regional rail accidents is presented with causes and suggested preventive measures included.

  20. Method for simulating discontinuous physical systems

    DOEpatents

    Baty, Roy S.; Vaughn, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical foundations of conventional numerical simulation of physical systems provide no consistent description of the behavior of such systems when subjected to discontinuous physical influences. As a result, the numerical simulation of such problems requires ad hoc encoding of specific experimental results in order to address the behavior of such discontinuous physical systems. In the present invention, these foundations are replaced by a new combination of generalized function theory and nonstandard analysis. The result is a class of new approaches to the numerical simulation of physical systems which allows the accurate and well-behaved simulation of discontinuous and other difficult physical systems, as well as simpler physical systems. Applications of this new class of numerical simulation techniques to process control, robotics, and apparatus design are outlined.

  1. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a..., including: (i) A complete description of methods used to evaluate a system's behavioral characteristics;...

  2. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a..., including: (i) A complete description of methods used to evaluate a system's behavioral characteristics;...

  3. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a..., including: (i) A complete description of methods used to evaluate a system's behavioral characteristics;...

  4. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a..., including: (i) A complete description of methods used to evaluate a system's behavioral characteristics;...

  5. Doses to railroad workers from shipments of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  6. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... per hour over public highway-rail grade crossings; and (c) Rapid transit operations within an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  7. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... per hour over public highway-rail grade crossings; and (c) Rapid transit operations within an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL...

  8. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... per hour over public highway-rail grade crossings; and (c) Rapid transit operations within an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... CROSSINGS General § 222.5 What railroads does this regulation apply to? This part applies to all...

  9. 49 CFR 222.5 - What railroads does this regulation apply to?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... per hour over public highway-rail grade crossings; and (c) Rapid transit operations within an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation. See 49 CFR part 209... CROSSINGS General § 222.5 What railroads does this regulation apply to? This part applies to all...

  10. 49 CFR 1.88 - The Federal Railroad Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... activity in support of safer and more efficient rail transportation; (c) Investigating and issuing reports..., derailments, and other railroad accidents, as well as to reduce overall risk in the Nation's rail systems; (e) Promoting and strengthening the national rail system, including freight rail and high speed and...

  11. 49 CFR 1.88 - The Federal Railroad Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... activity in support of safer and more efficient rail transportation; (c) Investigating and issuing reports..., derailments, and other railroad accidents, as well as to reduce overall risk in the Nation's rail systems; (e) Promoting and strengthening the national rail system, including freight rail and high speed and...

  12. 49 CFR 1.88 - The Federal Railroad Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... activity in support of safer and more efficient rail transportation; (c) Investigating and issuing reports..., derailments, and other railroad accidents, as well as to reduce overall risk in the Nation's rail systems; (e) Promoting and strengthening the national rail system, including freight rail and high speed and...

  13. When does a physical system compute?

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Clare; Stepney, Susan; Wagner, Rob C.; Kendon, Viv

    2014-01-01

    Computing is a high-level process of a physical system. Recent interest in non-standard computing systems, including quantum and biological computers, has brought this physical basis of computing to the forefront. There has been, however, no consensus on how to tell if a given physical system is acting as a computer or not; leading to confusion over novel computational devices, and even claims that every physical event is a computation. In this paper, we introduce a formal framework that can be used to determine whether a physical system is performing a computation. We demonstrate how the abstract computational level interacts with the physical device level, in comparison with the use of mathematical models in experimental science. This powerful formulation allows a precise description of experiments, technology, computation and simulation, giving our central conclusion: physical computing is the use of a physical system to predict the outcome of an abstract evolution. We give conditions for computing, illustrated using a range of non-standard computing scenarios. The framework also covers broader computing contexts, where there is no obvious human computer user. We introduce the notion of a ‘computational entity’, and its critical role in defining when computing is taking place in physical systems. PMID:25197245

  14. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  15. Railroad Routing Model

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  16. Ultrasonic measurement of stress in railroad wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Raymond E.

    1999-02-01

    The equipment described here generates ultrasonic shear waves using an electromagnetic-acoustic transducer. Precise measurement of the velocity of two orthogonally polarized signals determines the birefringence and allows the calculation of stress. It is necessary to account for the effect of metallurgical texture which can contribute to the birefringence and appear as moderate stress. This system sends a signal through the thickness of a railroad wheel rim, digitizes the first echo, locks onto a cycle, and calculates the time when it crosses zero amplitude. Signal averaging yields the arrival time of a signal at about 90 μs with a standard deviation of 2-4 ns. In screening the residual stress in the rims of cast-steel railroad wheels, this system has a total error of ≈±60 MPa; most of this is due to variability of the texture measured in several stress-relieved blocks cut from wheels. The initial measurements were on wheels in which the manufacture had induced known levels of thermal damage. Results from destructive radial saw cuts through the rims allowed qualitative evaluation of the nondestructive measurements. Most components in this equipment are commercially available.

  17. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-03-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, {open_quotes}what to protect against whom.{close_quotes} The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given.

  18. 76 FR 39978 - Virginia Port Authority-Acquisition Exemption-Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Line Railroad Company Virginia Port Authority (VPA), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from the Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company (NPBL) certain physical assets of a rail line and the associated right-of-way, between a point on NPBL's...

  19. Modeling Physical Systems Using Vensim PLE Systems Dynamics Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmark, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many physical systems are described by time-dependent differential equations or systems of such equations. This makes it difficult for students in an introductory physics class to solve many real-world problems since these students typically have little or no experience with this kind of mathematics. In my high school physics classes, I address…

  20. 3. NORTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT BAY, SHOWING RAILROAD TRACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT BAY, SHOWING RAILROAD TRACKS LEADING TO THE MASSIVE STEEL-LINED CONCRETE ENTRANCE DOOR. PART OF THE INTRICATE HVAC SYSTEM IS WEST (RIGHT) OF THE DOOR. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  2. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  3. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  4. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  5. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  6. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  7. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  8. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  9. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  10. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107... RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection with highway projects for the elimination of hazards of railroad-highway crossings and other...

  11. 20 CFR 225.14 - Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225.14 Section 225.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... Annuities § 225.14 Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Railroad Earnings Dual Benefit...

  12. East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East (rear) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia (railroad north) would be toward the left, and Robertsdale (railroad south) would be toward the right. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  13. West (trackside) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West (trackside) elevation of the tower. In railroad parlance, Orbisonia (railroad north) would be toward the right, and Robertsdale (railroad south) would be toward the left. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  14. Power Transfer in Physical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeck, Jack A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the power transfer using (1) a simple electric circuit consisting of a power source with internal resistance; (2) two different mechanical systems (gravity driven and constant force driven); (3) ecological examples; and (4) a linear motor. (YP)

  15. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  16. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  17. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  18. 77 FR 23321 - Kiamichi Railroad L.L.C.-Trackage Rights Exemption-WFEC Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Kiamichi Railroad L.L.C.--Trackage Rights Exemption--WFEC Railroad Company... agreed to grant limited nonexclusive overhead trackage rights to Kiamichi Railroad L.L.C. (KRR), over...

  19. Supercoherent states and physical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatyga, B. W.; Kostelecky, V. Alan; Nieto, Michael Martin; Truax, D. Rodney

    1992-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining coherent states of a system admitting a supersymmetry. These states are called supercoherent states. The presented approach is based on an extension to supergroups of the usual group-theoretic approach. The example of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is discussed, thereby illustrating some of the attractive features of the method. Supercoherent states of an electron moving in a constant magnetic field are also described.

  20. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this section, the knowledge imputed to the railroad must be limited to that of a railroad management... duty to prevent violations. (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to go...

  1. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this section, the knowledge imputed to the railroad must be limited to that of a railroad management... duty to prevent violations. (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to go...

  2. Axionometric Cutaway of Bridge Structure Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Axionometric Cutaway of Bridge Structure - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  3. South Elevation; Deck Plan Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Elevation; Deck Plan - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  4. Section BB; East Elevation Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B; East Elevation - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  5. 6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  6. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  7. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING APPROACH SPAN AND HIGHWAY SPAN, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 75 FR 20038 - Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Program-Correction of Grant Application Guidance Number. SUMMARY: The reference number is incorrect for..., ``Requirements and Conditions for Grant Applications.'' The grant application guidance can be found at...

  9. 76 FR 68830 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2010 Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2010 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2010 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. One carrier, Union Pacific Railroad Company, was found to be revenue adequate. DATES: Effective Date: This decision...

  10. Atmospheric cloud physics thermal systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Engineering analyses performed on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science Simulator expansion chamber and associated thermal control/conditioning system are reported. Analyses were made to develop a verified thermal model and to perform parametric thermal investigations to evaluate systems performance characteristics. Thermal network representations of solid components and the complete fluid conditioning system were solved simultaneously using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) computer program.

  11. The Railroad and the Frontier West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewig, Rick

    1988-01-01

    Points out railroad building in the West as a cause rather than an effect of the rapid development of the area. Railroads hastened the demise of American Indian autonomy and their land base, brought permanent Anglo-American settlers to the West and provided a market relationship between East and West. (KO)

  12. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  18. Roadhouse and shops from the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roadhouse and shops from the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad mainline, facing northeast - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  19. Roadhouse and shops, from Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad mainline, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roadhouse and shops, from Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad mainline, facing southeast. - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  20. Railroad Lines as Study Sites in Plant Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents reasons for utilizing abandoned railroad tracks in ecology field trip studies. Explanations are given for the factors influencing railroad vegetation. Activities for students are suggested. (SA)

  1. Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years. PMID:22485192

  2. Collective systems:physical and information exergies.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D. III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2007-04-01

    Collective systems are typically defined as a group of agents (physical and/or cyber) that work together to produce a collective behavior with a value greater than the sum of the individual parts. This amplification or synergy can be harnessed by solving an inverse problem via an information-flow/communications grid: given a desired macroscopic/collective behavior find the required microscopic/individual behavior of each agent and the required communications grid. The goal of this report is to describe the fundamental nature of the Hamiltonian function in the design of collective systems (solve the inverse problem) and the connections between and values of physical and information exergies intrinsic to collective systems. In particular, physical and information exergies are shown to be equivalent based on thermodynamics and Hamiltonian mechanics.

  3. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  4. Design of a physical format coding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Beibei; Pei, Jing; Zhang, Qicheng; Liu, Hailong; Tang, Yi

    2008-12-01

    A novel design of physical format coding system (PFCS) is presented based on Multi-level read-only memory disc (ML ROM) in order to solve the problem of low efficiency and long period of disc testing during system development. The PFCS is composed of four units, which are 'Encode', 'Add Noise', 'Decode', 'Error Rate', and 'Information'. It is developed with MFC under the environment of VC++ 6.0, and capable to visually simulate the procedure of data processing for ML ROM. This system can also be used for developing other optical disc storage system or similar channel coding system.

  5. Cyber physical system based on resilient ICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-02-01

    While development of science and technology has built up the sophisticated civilized society, it has also resulted in quite a few disadvantages in global environment and human society. The common recognition has been increasingly shared worldwide on sustainable development society attaching greater importance to the symbiotic relationship with nature and social ethics. After the East Japan Great Earthquake, it is indispensable for sustainable social development to enhance capacity of resistance and restoration of society against natural disaster, so called "resilient society". Our society consists of various Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) that make up the physical systems by fusing with an Information Communication Technology (ICT). We describe the proposed structure of CPS in order to realize resilient society. The configuration of resilient CPS consisting of ICT and physical system is discussed to introduce "autonomous, distributed, and cooperative" structure, where subsystems of ICT and physical system are simultaneously coordinated and cooperated with Business Continuity Planning (BCP) engine, respectively. We show the disaster response information system and energy network as examples of BCP engine and resilient CPS, respectively. We also propose the structure and key technology of resilient ICT.

  6. 49 CFR 234.307 - Use of third-party telephone service by dispatching and maintaining railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY... Systems for Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234... crossings pursuant to § 234.303. If a dispatching railroad chooses to use a third-party telephone...

  7. 49 CFR 234.307 - Use of third-party telephone service by dispatching and maintaining railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY... Systems for Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234... crossings pursuant to § 234.303. If a dispatching railroad chooses to use a third-party telephone...

  8. 49 CFR 234.307 - Use of third-party telephone service by dispatching and maintaining railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY... Systems for Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234... crossings pursuant to § 234.303. If a dispatching railroad chooses to use a third-party telephone...

  9. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  10. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  11. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  12. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  13. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  14. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  15. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  16. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  17. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  18. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  19. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  20. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  1. 13. VIEW OF RAILROAD EXHIBIT AT EL PORTAL. SHAY LOCOMOTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF RAILROAD EXHIBIT AT EL PORTAL. SHAY LOCOMOTIVE IS FROM THE HETCH HETCHY RAILROAD. CABOOSE IS FROM THE YOSEMITE VALLEY RAILROAD. FOREST ROAD IN FOREGROUND IS THE ALIGNMENT OF THE YOSEMITE VALLEY RAILROAD. LOOKING W. GIS: N-37 40 27.0 / W-119 47 10.5 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  2. 78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... found in the grant application guidance, FR-RSTG-13-001, or this solicitation on Grants.gov... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... applications. SUMMARY: The Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program was first authorized under the Rail...

  3. 76 FR 41555 - Tupelo, Mississippi Railroad Relocation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Environmental Quality NEPA implementing regulations, 40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, and the FRA NEPA procedures, 64 FR... Federal Railroad Administration Tupelo, Mississippi Railroad Relocation Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Environmental Impact Statement and public hearing for the Tupelo, Mississippi Railroad Relocation...

  4. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  5. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random drug testing programs. 219.601 Section 219.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs. (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for...

  6. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  7. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  8. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  9. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  10. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  11. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of railroad accidents. 840.3 Section... SAFETY BOARD RULES PERTAINING TO NOTIFICATION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS § 840.3 Notification of railroad accidents. The operator of a railroad shall notify the Board by telephoning the National Response Center...

  12. Learning physics of living systems from Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-10-08

    Unlike a new generation of scientists that are being trained directly to work on the physics of living systems, most of us more senior members of the community had to find our way from other research areas. We all have our own stories as to how we made this transition. Here, I describe how a chance encounter with the eukaryotic microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum led to a decades-long research project and taught me valuable lessons about how physics and biology can be mutually supportive disciplines.

  13. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,253), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, filed a...

  14. 77 FR 50762 - Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Line of Union Pacific Railroad Company Arkansas-Oklahoma Railroad, Inc. (AOK), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease from Union Pacific Railroad...

  15. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. PMID:27378393

  16. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations.

  17. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part, the railroad must provide... paragraph (a). (b) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part,...

  18. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part, the railroad must provide... paragraph (a). (b) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part,...

  19. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  20. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  1. Electronic notebook for physical system simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    A scientist who sets up and runs experiments typically keeps notes of this process in a lab notebook. A scientist who runs computer simulations should be no different. Experiments and simulations both require a set-up process which should be documented along with the results of the experiment or simulation. The documentation is important for knowing and understanding what was attempted, what took place, and how to reproduce it in the future. Modern simulations of physical systems have become more complex due in part to larger computational resources and increased understanding of physical systems. These simulations may be performed by combining the results from multiple computer codes. The machines that these simulations are executed on are often massively parallelldistributed systems. The output result of one of these simulations can be a terabyte of data and can require months of computing. All of these things contribute to the difficulty of keeping a useful record of the process of setting up and executing a simulation for a physical system. An electronic notebook for physical system simulations has been designed to help document the set up and execution process. Much of the documenting is done automatically by the simulation rather than the scientist running the simulation. Tho simulation knows what codes, data, software libraries, and versions thereof it is drawing together. All of these pieces of information become documented in the electronic notebook. The electronic notebook is designed with and uses the extensible Markup Language (XML). XML facilitates the representation, storage, interchange, and further use of the documented information.

  2. An electronic notebook for physical system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Robert L.

    2003-09-01

    A scientist who sets up and runs experiments typically keeps notes of this process in a lab notebook. A scientist who runs computer simulations should be no different. Experiments and simulations both require a set-up process which should be documented along with the results of the experiment or simulation. The documentation is important for knowing and understanding what was attempted, what took place, and how to reproduce it in the future. Modern simulations of physical systems have become more complex due in part to larger computational resources and increased understanding of physical systems. These simulations may be performed by combining the results from multiple computer codes. The machines that these simulations are executed on are often massively parallel/distributed systems. The output result of one of these simulations can be a terabyte of data and can require months of computing. All of these things contribute to the difficulty of keeping a useful record of the process of setting up and executing a simulation for a physical system. An electronic notebook for physical system simulations has been designed to help document the set up and execution process. Much of the documenting is done automatically by the simulation rather than the scientist running the simulation. The simulation knows what codes, data, software libraries, and versions thereof it is drawing together. All of these pieces of information become documented in the electronic notebook. The electronic notebook is designed with and uses the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). XML facilitates the representation, storage, interchange, and further use of the documented information.

  3. Government and the midwest railroads: notes on the demise of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Co. declared bankruptcy in 1975. Reorganization efforts after entering bankruptcy are reported. The company sought federal and private funds and revamped its operating procedures to reduce the capital intensiveness of railroad activities. Railroad labor unions balked at the company's new policy to reduce personnel in order to operate a light-density railroad. Strikes created more cash flow problems, and the federal government directed another railroad company to take over operations of the line. Such federal favoring of unions over railroads poses a bleak future for the future maintenance of individual railroad companies.

  4. Secure control systems with application to cyber-physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jin; Djouadi, Seddik M; Nutaro, James J; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2014-01-01

    Control systems are computer-based systems with networked units consisting of sensors, actuators, control processing units, and communication devices. The role of control system is to interact, monitor, and control physical processes. Reactive power control is a fundamental issue in ensuring the security of the power network. It is claimed that Synchronous Condensers (SC) have been used at both distribution and transmission voltage levels to improve stability and to maintain voltages within desired limits under changing load conditions and contingency situations. Performance of PI controller corresponding to various tripping faults are analyzed for SC systems. Most of the eort in protecting these systems has been in protection against random failures or reliability. However, besides failures these systems are subject to various signal attacks for which new analysis are discussed here. When a breach does occur, it is necessary to react in a time commensurate with the physical dynamics of the system as it responds to the attack. Failure to act swiftly enough may result in undesirable, and possibly irreversible, physical eects. Therefore, it is meaningful to evaluate the security of a cyber-physical system, especially to protect it from cyber-attack. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to the SC systems.

  5. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  6. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  7. Railroad electrification in America's future: an assessment of prospects and impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K.; Yabroff, I.W.; Dickson, E.M.; Zink, R.A.; Gray, M.E.; Moon, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Such considerations as the level of traffic, the relative financial health of individual railroads, the capacity of the associated supply and engineering/construction industries, and the logical connecting points at classifying yards, as well as the national interest value of creating a continuous system, continental in scope, were used to construct a scenario for railroad electrification that closely approximates how an electrification program might be implemented. For the economic reasons cited, much of the US railroad system would remain conventionally powered. This scenario provides for an electrified network involving 14 mainlines operated by 10 companies that could transport much of the nation's rail-borne freight. Five years of planning and engineering work would be required for each link before construction could begin. With 1000 miles or less of electrified route per year, 14 years would be needed to construct the 9000-mile network of our scenario. (The scenario constructed runs from 1980 to 1998.) The analysis was aided with the construction of the SRI Railroad Industry Model. Basically a model of industry operations and finances, the model produces income statements and balance sheets at yearly intervals. Railroad energy costs, railroad freight levels, maintenance costs, purchases and leases of rooling stock, electrification facility investments, future inflation, rate setting practices, annual depreciation, taxes, and profits were calculated.

  8. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  9. Separate and unsanitary: African American women railroad car cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918-1920.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Robin Dearmon

    2011-01-01

    The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.

  10. 75 FR 66421 - HC Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Honey Creek Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board HC Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Honey Creek... 1150.31 to acquire from the Honey Creek Railroad (HCR), and to operate 6.4 miles of HCR's rail...

  11. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  12. The physics of power systems operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohler, C.

    2015-08-01

    The article explains the operation of power systems from the point of view of physics. Physicists imagine things, rather than in terms of impedances and circuits, in terms of fields and energy conversions. The account is concrete and simple. The use of alternating current entails the issue of reactive power. Reactive power consists of energy that oscillates between electrical and magnetic fields, it flows on top of the active power which carries the useful energy. The control of active and reactive power is essential for the power system's reliable operation. The frequency of a power system is the same everywhere. The stability of the frequency indicates that generation and demand of active power are equal, a decline in frequency indicates a lack of generation relative to the demand. Adapting the electrical power injected into the system is the way of frequency control. Because of the parasitic inductances and capacitances of overhead lines, cables, and transformers, the voltage at different locations of the power system depends on the load. The voltage is regulated by the combined action of generator excitation, transformer tap changers and series compensation in order to provide consumers with a stable voltage supply. The integration of solar cells and wind turbines into the power system poses some challenges. But the power system is able to accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable power generation if the right complementary measures are taken.

  13. Reactions of immune system to physical exercises.

    PubMed

    Pershin, Boris B; Geliev, Anatoly B; Tolstov, Dmitry V; Kovalchuk, Leonid V; Medvedev, Vladimir Ya

    2002-04-01

    The great attention to reactions of immune system to the physical exercises in sportsmen is linked to the growth of training volumes, to the increase of competition numbers and to the elevation of morbidity. Immune deficiency may be considered as the detonator of pathological processes among which acute respiratory diseases (ARD) are investigated most completely in sports medicine. Other pathologies require long-term observations, but it is not so simple to do due to the frequent renewal of sports groups. Besides ARD, there are reports about the growth of cases of poliomyelitis, endotoxemia, allergic and autoimmune disorders. Immune reactions in sportsmen are developed at the background of fever, impaired balance of ergotrophic hormone activity and in a number of cases under conditions of systemic endotoxemia. We have described the extreme type of immune deficiency in sportsmen, in which we could not determine different isotypes of Ig. The phenomenon of Ig disappearance is reproduced under the experimental conditions that opened the way to study its mechanisms. Physical exercises decrease function of immunocompetent cells, their antiviral resistance, antigen presentation and expression of class II MHC molecules. With the involvement of macrophages hyperproduction of IL-6 is developed in muscle tissues. After physical exercises other cytokines also change the state of immunity. Also, neuropeptides getting in touch the links between endocrine and immune systems may make a contribution to immunosuppression. The immunosuppression may be prevented by use of special carbohydrate diets and by administration of complexed preparations. The prophylaxis is capable to control the morbidity, profoundly to increase the training volumes and to enhance the labor efficiency.

  14. Physical adsorption strength in open systems.

    PubMed

    Knippenberg, M Todd; Stuart, Steven J; Cooper, Alan C; Pez, G P; Cheng, Hansong

    2006-11-23

    For a physical adsorption system, the distances of adsorbates from the surface of a substrate can vary significantly, depending on particle loading and interatomic interactions. Although the total adsorption energy is quantified easily, the normalized, per-particle adsorption energies are more ambiguous if some of these particles are far away from the surface and are interacting only weakly with the substrate. A simple analytical procedure is proposed to characterize the distance dependence of the physisorption strength and effective adsorption capacity. As an example, the method is utilized to describe H2 physisorption in a finite bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes. PMID:17107125

  15. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Conceptual Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschetti, Donald R.

    2007-11-01

    AutoTutor is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in which students can learn a variety of subjects through conversation in natural language with a software agent. The agent appears as a face on the screen, with a synthesized voice, and responds to typed input from the student. Student understanding is modeled from student responses, which are matched to high quality essay responses and known misconceptions and bad answers using one of several computational linguistic techniques. With ONR and NSF support a version of AutoTutor covering Newtonian dynamics at the level of Hewitt's Conceptual Physics has been developed and extensively tested. As a byproduct of this work, several thousand student responses to a small number of conceptual physics questions have been collated and mined for misconceptions. Recent work has allowed a comparison of latent semantic analysis and inverse word frequency measures of text match with expert answers. Some results from this process will be presented along with a demonstration of AutoTutor-Physics at work.

  16. Essential Support Systems for Emerging Physics Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttrell-Montes, Sally

    2006-12-01

    The University of Washington is one of eleven sites across the country participating in a Carnegie-funded project called Teachers for a New Era, which has a focus on renewing teacher preparation--from the undergraduate phase through the first five years of a teacher’s career. What happens at the preservice phase, especially during student teaching, is critical in laying the foundation for successful classroom teaching during the early career years. For the emerging physics teacher, having a cooperating teacher and university supervisor who have deep content/pedagogical knowledge within the discipline is ideal but providing specific supports and appropriate feedback are also necessary. During this talk, we will explore the value of a teacher continuum for emerging physics teachers and the kinds of experiences, structures, and feedback mechanisms the UW Teacher Education Program provides through the cooperating teachers and university supervisors to encourage alignment to reformed physics curriculum--using face-to-face interactions, dilemma-based protocols, documentation, and new possibilities for online support systems.

  17. Modeling Physical Systems Using Vensim PLE Systems Dynamics Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmark, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Many physical systems are described by time-dependent differential equations or systems of such equations. This makes it difficult for students in an introductory physics class to solve many real-world problems since these students typically have little or no experience with this kind of mathematics. In my high school physics classes, I address this problem by having my students use a variety of software solutions to model physical systems described by differential equations. These include spreadsheets, applets, software my students themselves create, and systems dynamics software. For the latter, cost is often the main issue in choosing a solution for use in a public school and so I researched no-cost software. I found Sphinx SD,2OptiSim,3 Systems Dynamics,4 Simile (Trial Edition),5 and Vensim PLE.6 In evaluating each of these solutions, I looked for the fewest restrictions in the license for educational use, ease of use by students, power, and versatility. In my opinion, Vensim PLE best fulfills these criteria.7

  18. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  19. Discontinuous percolation transitions in real physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. S.; Kahng, B.

    2011-11-01

    We study discontinuous percolation transitions (PTs) in the diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model of the sol-gel transition as an example of real physical systems, in which the number of aggregation events is regarded as the number of bonds occupied in the system. When particles are Brownian, in which cluster velocity depends on cluster size as vs˜sη with η=-0.5, a larger cluster has less probability to collide with other clusters because of its smaller mobility. Thus, the cluster is effectively more suppressed in growth of its size. Then the giant cluster size increases drastically by merging those suppressed clusters near the percolation threshold, exhibiting a discontinuous PT. We also study the tricritical behavior by controlling the parameter η, and the tricritical point is determined by introducing an asymmetric Smoluchowski equation.

  20. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  1. The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances.

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P. J.

    2002-08-21

    This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's (1. generic results; 2. multirecycle of plutonium; 3. an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems (1. generic results; 2. homogeneous recycle of transuranics; 3. practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies.

  2. 3. Overview of railroad grade, looking southwest. 1500' from beginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Overview of railroad grade, looking southwest. 1500' from beginning of road 15N67. - Slaughterhouse Canyon Railroad Grade, South of State Highway 28 on East shore of Lake Tahoe, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  3. 1. View of parallel railroad grades along upper switchback, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of parallel railroad grades along upper switchback, looking east. 2400' from beginning of road 15N67. - Slaughterhouse Canyon Railroad Grade, South of State Highway 28 on East shore of Lake Tahoe, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  4. 30. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 8.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  5. 31. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 8.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  6. 3. Photocopied 1974 from The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied 1974 from The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Its Branches, from the Lakes to the Sea, Baltimore, 1872. EARLY VIEW AT TRACK LEVEL. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Tray Run Viaduct, Spanning Tray Run, Rowlesburg, Preston County, WV

  7. 7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW UPSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  10. 1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW DOWNSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  11. 5. Railroad tracks, (lr) arches EF, DE, CD, BC. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Railroad tracks, (l-r) arches E-F, D-E, C-D, B-C. View southwest - Ashton Viaduct, State Route 116 (Washington Highway) spanning Blackstone River, Blackstone Canal, & Providence & Worcester Railroad, Ashton, Providence County, RI

  12. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie Magazine May 11, 1878 OAKLAND LONG WHARF - CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD TERMINUS - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. Inside the covered hopper car loading dock at railroad level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Inside the covered hopper car loading dock at railroad level, looking east from the 1945 elevator into the 1913 elevator, control for the railroad car puller in background - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; Altamont Creek at left between railroad and bridge; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  17. 26. Photocopy of drawing, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, District Engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of drawing, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, District Engineer's Office, 1942 PILE RECORD PLAN, RECONSTRUCTION OF FELLS STREET WHARF, TOBACCO WAREHOUSE - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Tobacco Warehouse, 1000-1001 Fell Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment....

  19. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In...

  20. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment....

  1. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment....

  2. 4. Approach view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Approach view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view looking south - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  3. 1. General view of Tualatin River Railroad Bridge and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Tualatin River Railroad Bridge and north approach trestle, view looking south. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  4. 3. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view looking southwest - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  5. 2. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view looking southwest - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  6. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  9. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. 1. Photocopied 1974 from Album of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied 1974 from Album of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Witteman Brothers, Smithsonian Institution, 1882. WOODCUT ILLUSTRATION OF TRESTLE WORK, CHEAT RIVER GORGE. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Tray Run Viaduct, Spanning Tray Run, Rowlesburg, Preston County, WV

  11. Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 92.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHPORT, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHPORT, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE LINKS TUSCALOOSA AND NORTHPORT. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. 37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING PIN WHICH TRANSFERS LOAD FROM RAILROAD DECK TO TRUSS WHEN IN DOWN POSITION - Armour, Swift, Burlington Bridge, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  15. 2. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF THREE RAILROADS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF THREE RAILROADS AT THREE LEVELS. AT GROUND LEVEL IS THE FORMER RICHMOND & YORK RIVER RAILROAD (NOW THE WEST POINT BRANCH OF THE SOUTHERN); THE VIADUCT STRUCTURE APPEARING AT THE UPPER LEFT CORNER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH WAS CONSTRUCTED BY THE CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RAILROAD IN 1900. IT PASSES OVER THE SEABOARD AIRLINE BRIDGE WHICH ALSO WAS BUILT IN 1900. - Triple Railroad Crossing, East Byrd Street at Sixteenth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  16. Power harvesting for railroad track safety enhancement using vertical track displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl A.; Platt, Stephen R.; Hansen, Sean E.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    A significant portion of railroad infrastructure exists in areas that are relatively remote. Railroad crossings in these areas are typically only marked with reflective signage and do not have warning light systems or crossbars due to the cost of electrical infrastructure. Distributed sensor networks used for railroad track health monitoring applications would be useful in these areas, but the same limitation regarding electrical infrastructure exists. This motivates the search for a long-term, low-maintenance power supply solution for remote railroad deployment. This paper describes the development of a mechanical device for harvesting mechanical power from passing railcar traffic that can be used to supply electrical power to warning light systems at crossings and to remote networks of sensors via rechargeable batteries. The device is mounted to and spans two rail ties such that it directly harnesses the vertical displacement of the rail and attached ties and translates the linear motion into rotational motion. The rotational motion is amplified and mechanically rectified to rotate a PMDC generator that charges a system of batteries. A prototype was built and tested in a laboratory setting for verifying functionality of the design. Results indicate power production capabilities on the order of 10 W per device in its current form. This is sufficient for illuminating high-efficiency LED lights at a railroad crossing or for powering track-health sensor networks.

  17. 42 CFR 421.212 - Railroad Retirement Board contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad Retirement Board contracts. 421.212... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.212 Railroad Retirement Board contracts. In accordance with this subpart C, the Railroad Retirement Board contracts...

  18. 49 CFR 219.203 - Responsibilities of railroads and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads and employees. 219... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.203 Responsibilities of railroads and employees. (a) Employees tested....

  19. 49 CFR 218.59 - Responsibilities of railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads. 218.59 Section 218.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Prohibition Against Tampering...

  20. 42 CFR 421.212 - Railroad Retirement Board contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad Retirement Board contracts. 421.212... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.212 Railroad Retirement Board contracts. In accordance with this subpart C, the Railroad Retirement Board contracts...

  1. 49 CFR 219.203 - Responsibilities of railroads and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads and employees. 219... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.203 Responsibilities of railroads and employees. (a) Employees tested....

  2. 49 CFR 218.59 - Responsibilities of railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads. 218.59 Section 218.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Prohibition Against Tampering...

  3. 42 CFR 421.212 - Railroad Retirement Board contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad Retirement Board contracts. 421.212... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.212 Railroad Retirement Board contracts. In accordance with this subpart C, the Railroad Retirement Board contracts...

  4. 49 CFR 219.203 - Responsibilities of railroads and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads and employees. 219... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.203 Responsibilities of railroads and employees. (a) Employees tested....

  5. 49 CFR 1248.6 - Public inspection-railroad reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public inspection-railroad reports. 1248.6 Section... STATISTICS § 1248.6 Public inspection—railroad reports. The individual commodity statistics reports of class I railroads, required to be filed, for the year beginning January 1, 1964, or for quarters...

  6. 42 CFR 421.212 - Railroad Retirement Board contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad Retirement Board contracts. 421.212... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.212 Railroad Retirement Board contracts. In accordance with this subpart C, the Railroad Retirement Board contracts with DMEPOS...

  7. 49 CFR 1248.6 - Public inspection-railroad reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public inspection-railroad reports. 1248.6 Section... STATISTICS § 1248.6 Public inspection—railroad reports. The individual commodity statistics reports of class I railroads, required to be filed, for the year beginning January 1, 1964, or for quarters...

  8. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee is entitled to railroad retirement benefits, his or her SMI premiums are deducted from those...

  9. 49 CFR 219.203 - Responsibilities of railroads and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads and employees. 219... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.203 Responsibilities of railroads and employees. (a) Employees tested....

  10. 49 CFR 218.59 - Responsibilities of railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads. 218.59 Section 218.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Prohibition Against Tampering...

  11. 49 CFR 218.59 - Responsibilities of railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads. 218.59 Section 218.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Prohibition Against Tampering...

  12. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee is entitled to railroad retirement benefits, his or her SMI premiums are deducted from those...

  13. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee is entitled to railroad retirement benefits, his or her SMI premiums are deducted from those...

  14. 49 CFR 1248.6 - Public inspection-railroad reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public inspection-railroad reports. 1248.6 Section... STATISTICS § 1248.6 Public inspection—railroad reports. The individual commodity statistics reports of class I railroads, required to be filed, for the year beginning January 1, 1964, or for quarters...

  15. A Union of Railroad Workers Sets the Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, A. Philip Randolph

    2004-01-01

    During the century spanning the years 1868-1968, the African-American railroad attendant's presence on the train became an American tradition. By the 1920s, a peak decade for the railroads, more than twenty thousand African-Americans were working as porters, providing a variety services for passengers on the sleeping cars. The railroad was the…

  16. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section 237.53..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined...

  17. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section 237.55..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless...

  18. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section 237.55..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless...

  19. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section 237.53..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined...

  20. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section 237.53..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined...

  1. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section 237.53..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined...

  2. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section 237.55..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless...

  3. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section 237.53..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined...

  4. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section 237.55..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless...

  5. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section 237.55..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless...

  6. 75 FR 15484 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Applications. SUMMARY: The Rail Safety Technology Program is a newly authorized program under the Rail Safety... ), or Mr. David Blackmore, FRA, Program Manager- Advanced Technologies (Phone: (312) 835-3903,...

  7. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  8. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  9. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  10. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  11. 49 CFR 1241.15 - Railroad classification survey form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad classification survey form. 1241.15... PERIODIC REPORTS-CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 1241.15 Railroad... order, all railroad companies not required to file an Annual Report (Form R-1) shall compute...

  12. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  13. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  14. 49 CFR 218.59 - Responsibilities of railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads. 218.59 Section 218.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Prohibition Against Tampering...

  15. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  16. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  17. 49 CFR 219.203 - Responsibilities of railroads and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of railroads and employees. 219... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.203 Responsibilities of railroads and employees. (a) Employees tested....

  18. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee is entitled to railroad retirement benefits, his or her SMI premiums are deducted from those...

  19. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  20. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  1. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  2. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  3. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  4. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  5. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2010 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  6. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2012 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost...

  7. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  8. Railroad track repairs are complete at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Railroad track repairs have been completed at Kennedy Space Center. This section of track is located on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area. The repairs were required following the minor derailment of two solid rocket booster segment cars on July 18.

  9. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  10. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  11. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up activities. (CMK)

  12. Control of railroad operations: Algorithms and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a seven-year research effort to apply optimization models and techniques to improve productivity and reliability of freight railroad operations. After describing the basic modelling framework, a series of optimization models will be described in detail along with the results of their application. The paper ends with a discussion of the future research opportunities in this area.

  13. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... material pits, reservoirs, or tree planting to aid in the construction or maintenance of the road. The... pits needed to the construction, repair, and maintenance of railroads; and for the planting and growing... the road, except where there are heavy cuts and fills, when they shall not exceed 100 feet in width...

  14. Upgrading railroad test track, Pueblo, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, K. III; Chamberlain, K.

    1997-01-01

    The railroad test track (RTT) at the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) in Pueblo, Colo., was constructed in the early 1970s to support high-speed testing of new railroad rolling stock. Through the years it has been used to test a wide range of railroad passenger and freight cars and locomotives. Now, 20 years later, a new high-speed train set is being procured by Amtrak for service in the improved Northeast Corridor. The test facilities at Pueblo will play an important role in acceptance and safety testing of new high-speed train sets in the US. The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) commissioned a study to review the existing condition of the test track and to make recommendations as to possible improvement options so that the facility would be able to test current and future generations of high-speed rail equipment. This paper describes the condition of the test track and explores ways in which it may be modified to accommodate the testing of high-speed train technologies in the near future and into the next century.

  15. 76 FR 28850 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Intra-Corporate Family Operation Exemption-Mohall Central Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.--Intra-Corporate Family Operation Exemption--Mohall Central Railroad, Inc. Northern Plains Railroad, Inc. (NPR), a Class III rail common carrier, has filed a verified notice of...

  16. 77 FR 11192 - Cedar River Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Chicago, Central & Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Cedar River Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Chicago, Central & Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ Chicago, Central & Pacific Railroad Company (CCP) has agreed to grant nonexclusive overhead trackage rights to Cedar River...

  17. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  18. Structure of Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    In 1976, the second oil field in Nevada - Trap Springs - was discovered in Railroad Valley. Since then, more than 100 oil wells have been drilled in Nye County, and most of these have been in Railroad Valley. This well-control helped to unravel the complex structure of Railroad Valley and enabled the construction of more accurate maps of this valley than any other. This information can be used to construct models for exploring other valleys in the Basin and Range Province of eastern Nevada. The basic stratigraphy of the valley consists of Paleozoic carbonates and shales overlain by Tertiary volcanics, overlain, in turn, by valley fill. The areal extent of Tertiary volcanics, which can be a good reservoir rock, is controlled by tensional normal faulting and paleotopography. In some areas, these volcanics can be in excess of 5000 ft thick, but absent within a few miles, owing to paleotopography and/or faulting. The Paleozoic rocks are deformed by a pre-basin and range compressional history that folded and faulted them. As a result, the structure within the Paleozoics is more complex. Thrust faulting played an important role in the deformation of these rocks. Crystalline basement rocks can be found juxtaposed between Paleozoic outcrops in the flanks of the valley, and Paleozoic rocks found in well control farther out in the valley. The geothermal history of Railroad Valley plays an important role in constructing a structural map of the valley, taking into account the Mesozoic thrust faulting and Tertiary normal faulting. Air photos, combined with good well control and published reports, assist in mapping the geologic structure in Railroad Valley.

  19. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Physical Modelling Systems Design. A Personal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Physical Modeling Systems Design project was undertaken in a time of rapid change in the industrial, business, technological, training, and educational areas in Australia. A specification of a manufacturing physical modeling system was drawn up. Physical modeling provides a flexibility and configurability…

  20. Physics and Size in Biological Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, George

    1989-01-01

    Described is the subject of biological scaling for physics teachers including examples and in-depth reading. Topics are elements of scaling, terminal velocities, Lilliputian and Brobdingnagian, brain evolution, dolphin echolocation, surface tension, gravity change, food and oxygen, and seeing. Ten references on physics and size, and ten questions…

  1. 78 FR 69141 - 2014 Railroad Experience Rating Proclamations, Monthly Compensation Base and Other Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...), respectively), the Board gives notice of the following: 1. The balance to the credit of the Railroad..., balance of any new loans to the RUI Account, including accrued interest, is zero; 3. The system compensation base is $4,002,416,128.99 as of June 30, 2013; 4. The cumulative system unallocated charge...

  2. 76 FR 70515 - 2012 Railroad Experience Rating Proclamations, Monthly Compensation Base and Other Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...), respectively), the Board gives notice of the following: 1. The balance to the credit of the Railroad..., balance of any new loans to the RUI Account, including accrued interest, is zero; 3. The system compensation base is $3,597,631,820.16 as of June 30, 2011; 4. The cumulative system unallocated charge...

  3. 77 FR 66876 - 2013 Railroad Experience Rating Proclamations, Monthly Compensation Base and Other Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...), respectively), the Board gives notice of the following: 1. The balance to the credit of the Railroad..., balance of any new loans to the RUI Account, including accrued interest, is zero; 3. The system compensation base is $3,792,951,628.64 as of June 30, 2012; 4. The cumulative system unallocated charge...

  4. Development of acoustic health monitoring for railroad tank cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostautas, Richard; Finlayson, Richard; Godinez, Valery; Pollock, Adrian; Penya, Jose

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the research and development of an Acoustic Health Monitoring (AHM) system that uses Guided Lamb Wave (GLW) technology to determine the thickness of railroad tank car shells for identification of wall loss due to corrosion. In recent regulatory changes, the emphasis has shifted from the traditional hydrotest to more modern methods for assuring tank car integrity. The new generation of maintenance programs will rely heavily on nondestructive testing, and will use damage tolerance concepts and risk analysis to establish inspection frequencies and items to inspect. It is the responsibility of the owners to set up experience-based maintenance programs that are suitable for the working conditions of their own particular fleets. Development of an ideal AHM system for railroad cars would be an instrument that incorporates Acoustic Emission (AE) and GLW technology. The combination of active and passive acoustic technologies integrated into a single system would be a highly efficient means of determining the structural integrity of tank cars. The integration of the GLW technology will allow identification of corrosion wall loss in a zone between two sensors, rather than at a single point (traditional ultrasonic thickness measurements). Thus, a much larger area of the structure can be inspected for approximately the same inspection cost. With a suitable integration of this new technology into the overall inspection and corrosion management program, the fleet can be more efficiently maintained and the risk of accidental release through progressive corrosion damage can be significantly reduced.

  5. The Nature of the Physical Microenvironment: An Expanded Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    Develops a classification system for the physical environment based on 3 dimensions of stimulation. Intercorrelations of physical and social environmental measures obtained for 88 infants of 12 months supported the validity of the decision rule that nonresponsive animate stimulation is primarily physical rather than social. (RJC)

  6. Model Railroading and Computer Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Less than one half of one percent of all processors manufactured today end up in computers. The rest are embedded in other devices such as automobiles, airplanes, trains, satellites, and nearly every modern electronic device. Developing software for embedded systems requires a greater knowledge of hardware than developing for a typical desktop…

  7. Mutual design: Overhead Transmission Lines and Railroad Facilities Susceptibility Program, Phase 2: Volume 1, Railroad track interference-susceptibility tester design and testing; Volume 2, Set-up and LFETC test plan; Volume 3, Fabrication information. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.J.; Little, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    The sharing of corridors by electric power-transmission lines and railroad facilities results in coupling of electromagnetic energy from the power lines into nearby railroad systems. This electromagnetic coupling can induce voltage levels onto the railroad signaling system that can adversely affect the operation of these systems. The development and rapid deployment of sophisticated solid-state electronic track-signaling systems and the continued increase in demand for power will make this problem more serious, as additional joint railroad/electricutility common corridors will be needed and as power-system upgrades for existing corridors will be initiated. This three-volume report describes the development of a laboratory railroad-track simulator/interference-susceptibility tester. This simulator permits track-circuit signaling and grade-crossing systems to be tested in the laboratory to determine their susceptibility to power-line interference that is coupled to the rails for a wide range of realistic normal and abnormal signal-system operating conditions, block-length arrangements, and interference conditions. The simulator provides an accurate electrical analogue of the track system, including frequency-dependent rail skin-effect impedance, signal attenuation, and controlled-ballast variation. The simulator can be used to investigate the effects of both longitudinal and differential interference excitation of the rails.

  8. Transport Information System using Query Centric Cyber Physical Systems (QCPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundra, Ankit; Rathee, Geetanjali; Chawla, Meenu; Soni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To incorporate the computation and communication with the physical world, next generation architecture i.e. CPS is viewed as a new technology. To improve the better interaction with the physical world or to perk up the electricity delivery usage, various CPS based approaches have been introduced. Recently several GPS equipped smart phones and sensor based frameworks have been proposed which provide various services i.e. environment estimation, road safety improvement but encounter certain limitations like elevated energy consumption and high computation cost. To meet the high reliability and safety requirements, this paper introduces a novel approach based on QCPS model which provides several users services (discussed in this paper). Further, this paper proposed a Transport Information System (TIS), which provide the communication with lower cost overhead by arranging the similar sensors in the form of grids. Each grid has a coordinator which interacts with cloud to process the user query. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed approach we have implemented a test bed of 16 wireless sensor nodes and have shown the performance in terms of computation and communication cost.

  9. 75 FR 69146 - 2011 Railroad Experience Rating Proclamations, Monthly Compensation Base and Other Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...), respectively), the Board gives notice of the following: 1. The balance to the credit of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance (RUI) Account, as of June 30, 2010, is $109,226.81; 2. The September 30, 2010, balance... compensation base is $3,509,356,938.87 as of June 30, 2010; 4. The cumulative system unallocated charge...

  10. Penal Reform and Construction of the Western North Carolina Railroad 1875-1892

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Homer S., III

    2005-01-01

    On March 13, 1879, the "Salisbury Carolina Watchman" noted that the longest and most difficult tunnel in the struggle to lay a railroad line across the Blue Ridge Mountains has been opened. Convicts from North Carolina's new penitentiary built this transportation system and solved the state's need for a cheap labor force as well as the prison's…

  11. ISOL Systems: Design and Physics Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy

    2005-04-01

    The RIA facility is being proposed to elucidate a number of key questions in the fields of nuclear structure physics, astrophysics and fundamental interaction physics. Many of these key questions are best addressed with beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes at very low energy or reaccelerated to energy in the range from that typical of explosive astrophysical events up to the Coulomb barrier regime. To fulfill its goal, RIA must have far greater capabilities in this energy regime than existing facilities. This is achieved by using a combination of high power ISOL targets and a new approach combining the advantages of the ISOL and fragmentation techniques to yield beams of a broad array of short-lived isotopes at intensity approaching that available so far only with beams of stable isotopes. The physics questions that will be addressed with these beams will be presented together with a detailed description of the concepts and underlying R&D that enable this breakthrough in performance. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Nos. W-31-109-ENG-38 and DE- FG-06-90ER-41132.

  12. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  13. 20 CFR 220.10 - Disability for work in an employee's regular railroad occupation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... railroad occupation. 220.10 Section 220.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.10 Disability for work in an employee's...

  14. 20 CFR 220.10 - Disability for work in an employee's regular railroad occupation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... railroad occupation. 220.10 Section 220.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.10 Disability for work in an employee's...

  15. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  16. 20 CFR 220.10 - Disability for work in an employee's regular railroad occupation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... railroad occupation. 220.10 Section 220.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.10 Disability for work in an employee's...

  17. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  18. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  19. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  20. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  1. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  2. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  3. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  4. 20 CFR 220.10 - Disability for work in an employee's regular railroad occupation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... railroad occupation. 220.10 Section 220.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.10 Disability for work in an employee's...

  5. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  6. 76 FR 21797 - Arkansas Shortline Railroads, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Dardanelle & Russellville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Arkansas Shortline Railroads, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Dardanelle & Russellville Railroad, Inc., Ouachita Railroad, and Camden & Southern Railroad, Inc. Arkansas Shortline Railroads, Inc. (ASR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption pursuant to 49...

  7. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models for Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations.

  8. Autonomous perception and decision making in cyber-physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soumik

    2011-07-01

    The cyber-physical system (CPS) is a relatively new interdisciplinary technology area that includes the general class of embedded and hybrid systems. CPSs require integration of computation and physical processes that involves the aspects of physical quantities such as time, energy and space during information processing and control. The physical space is the source of information and the cyber space makes use of the generated information to make decisions. This dissertation proposes an overall architecture of autonomous perception-based decision & control of complex cyber-physical systems. Perception involves the recently developed framework of Symbolic Dynamic Filtering for abstraction of physical world in the cyber space. For example, under this framework, sensor observations from a physical entity are discretized temporally and spatially to generate blocks of symbols, also called words that form a language. A grammar of a language is the set of rules that determine the relationships among words to build sentences. Subsequently, a physical system is conjectured to be a linguistic source that is capable of generating a specific language. The proposed technology is validated on various (experimental and simulated) case studies that include health monitoring of aircraft gas turbine engines, detection and estimation of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys, and parameter identification. Control of complex cyber-physical systems involve distributed sensing, computation, control as well as complexity analysis. A novel statistical mechanics-inspired complexity analysis approach is proposed in this dissertation. In such a scenario of networked physical systems, the distribution of physical entities determines the underlying network topology and the interaction among the entities forms the abstract cyber space. It is envisioned that the general contributions, made in this dissertation, will be useful for potential application areas such as smart power grids and

  9. Physical examination of the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the approach to a patient with respiratory distress, with a focus on clues obtained from the physical examination. Respiratory distress is a common reason for presentation of a companion animal to a veterinarian on an emergency basis, and thus the clinician should have a comfort level with the approach to these patients. Our discussion includes a basic review of respiratory pathophysiology and the differential diagnoses for hypoxemia. In the majority of cases, physical examination should allow localization of the cause of the respiratory problem to the upper airways, lower airways, pleural space, or pulmonary parenchyma. Such localization, coupled with signalment and historical clues, guides additional diagnostics and therapeutics based on the most likely differential diagnoses. Although managing a patient with respiratory distress can be challenging, a systematic approach such as the one presented here should ensure appropriate intervention in a timely fashion and maximize the chance of a good outcome.

  10. 18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. The Role of "Talking Physics" in an Undergraduate Physics Class Using an Electronic Audience Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Ellen K.; Angell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The use of electronic audience response systems (ARS) in undergraduate science instruction is increasing. In this article, we argue for combining such a teaching approach with a more active use of student small-group discussions, demonstrating with examples from a Norwegian physics course how "talking physics" is central to the development of…

  13. Understanding Probabilistic Interpretations of Physical Systems: A Prerequisite to Learning Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the critical role of probability in making sense of quantum physics and addresses the difficulties science and engineering undergraduates experience in helping students build a model of how to think about probability in physical systems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Physics of Self-Organization Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Matsunaga, Yasushi

    2008-04-01

    pt. A. Biophysics. Bio-physics Manifesto for the future of physics and biology / Y. Oono. Single molecule force measurement for protein dynthesis on the ribosome / S. Uemura. A rod probe reveals gait of Myosin V / K. Shiroguchi. Mechanism of spontaneous oscillation emerging from collective molecular motors / Y. Shimamoto and S. Ishiwata. Simulated rotational diffusion of F[symbol] molecular motor / H. Yamasaki and M. Takano -- pt. B. Nonequilibrium statistical physics and related topics. Thermodynamic time ssymmetry and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics / P. Gaspard. A measurement-based purification scheme and decoherence / H. Nakazato. Quantum fluctuation theorem in the existence of the tunneling and the thermal activation / T. Monnai. Statistical properties of the inter-occurrence times in the two-dimensional stick-slip model of earthquakes / T. Hasumi and Y. Aizawa. Second harmonic generation and polarization microscope observations of quantum relaxor lithium doped potasium tantalate / H. Yokota and Y. Uesu. Thermoelectric properties of Ni-doped LaRhO[symbol] / S. Shibasaki, Y. Takahashi and I. Terasaki. Collective precession of chiral liquid crystals under transmembrane mass flow / G. Watanabe, S. Ishizuka and Y. Tabe. Interplay of excitons with free carriers in carrier tunneling dynamics / S. Lu, A. Tackeuchi and S. Muto -- pt. C. Astrophysics as interdisciplimary science. New view on quantum gravity: micro-structure of spacetime and origin of the universe / B. L. Hu. Colliding branes and its application to string cosmology / Y. Takamizu. One-loop corrections to scalar and tensor perturbations during inflation / Y. Urakawa and K. Maeda. Variational calculation for the equation of state of nuclear matter toward supernova simulations / H. Kanzawa ... [et al.]. Two strong radio bursts at high and medium galactic latitude / S. Kida and T. Daishido. Effects of QCD phase transition on the ejected elements from the envelopes of compact stars / Y. Yasutake ... [et

  15. Inherent limits on optimization and discovery in physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2014-12-15

    Topological mapping of a large physical system on a graph, and its decomposition using universal measures are proposed. We find inherent limits to the potential for optimization of a given system and its approximate representations by motifs, and the ability to reconstruct the full system given approximate representations. The approximate representation of the system most suited for optimization may be different from that which most accurately describes the full system. - Highlights: • Graph-based approach to analyze full and partial representations of physical systems. • Direct link between a change in the physical system and complexity of the graph. • Inherent limits to the potential for optimization of a general system. • Inherent limits to the reconstruction of full system from partial representations.

  16. 78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... CONTACT: Karl Alexy, Staff Director, Hazardous Materials Division, Office of Railroad Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone: (202) 493-6245; or Karl.Alexy@dot.gov ; or... Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) issued an advisory bulletin in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  17. 78 FR 23633 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central... 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35727, must be filed with the Surface.... Board decisions and notices are available on our Web site at `` www.stb.dot.gov .'' Decided: April...

  18. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC... intra-corporate family transaction and a reincorporation in a different State. ] Specifically, HRRC will... HRRC are under common ownership and common control and are members of the Housatonic corporate...

  19. On-track testing of a power harvesting device for railroad track health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Sean E.; Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2010-03-01

    A considerable proportion of railroad infrastructure exists in regions which are comparatively remote. With regard to the cost of extending electrical infrastructure into these areas, road crossings in these areas do not have warning light systems or crossing gates and are commonly marked with reflective signage. For railroad track health monitoring purposes, distributed sensor networks can be applicable in remote areas, but the same limitation regarding electrical infrastructure is the hindrance. This motivated the development of an energy harvesting solution for remote railroad deployment. This paper describes on-track experimental testing of a mechanical device for harvesting mechanical power from passing railcar traffic, in view of supplying electrical power to warning light systems at crossings and to remote networks of sensors. The device is mounted to and spans two rail ties and transforms the vertical rail displacement into electrical energy through mechanical amplification and rectification into a PMDC generator. A prototype was tested under loaded and unloaded railcar traffic at low speeds. Stress analysis and speed scaling analysis are presented, results of the on-track tests are compared and contrasted to previous laboratory testing, discrepancies between the two are explained, and conclusions are drawn regarding suitability of the device for illuminating high-efficiency LED lights at railroad crossings and powering track-health sensor networks.

  20. Control method for physical systems and devices

    DOEpatents

    Guckenheimer, John

    1997-01-01

    A control method for stabilizing systems or devices that are outside the control domain of a linear controller is provided. When applied to nonlinear systems, the effectiveness of this method depends upon the size of the domain of stability that is produced for the stabilized equilibrium. If this domain is small compared to the accuracy of measurements or the size of disturbances within the system, then the linear controller is likely to fail within a short period. Failure of the system or device can be catastrophic: the system or device can wander far from the desired equilibrium. The method of the invention presents a general procedure to recapture the stability of a linear controller, when the trajectory of a system or device leaves its region of stability. By using a hybrid strategy based upon discrete switching events within the state space of the system or device, the system or device will return from a much larger domain to the region of stability utilized by the linear controller. The control procedure is robust and remains effective under large classes of perturbations of a given underlying system or device.

  1. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meaning given these terms in 49 CFR Part 1201. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and...

  2. 77 FR 27857 - Columbus & Chattahoochee Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Columbus & Chattahoochee Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Columbus & Chattahoochee Railroad, Inc. (CCR), a noncarrier, has filed a... in Control Exemption-- Columbus & Chattahoochee Railroad, Inc., Docket No. FD 35621, in which...

  3. 75 FR 6790 - Nebraska Northwestern Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Dakota, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...--Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation Nebraska Northwestern Railroad, Inc. (NNW), a noncarrier... Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation (DM&E) and to operate approximately 28.1 miles of...

  4. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meaning given these terms in 49 CFR Part 1201. ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and...

  5. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meaning given these terms in 49 CFR Part 1201. ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and...

  6. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meaning given these terms in 49 CFR Part 1201. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and...

  7. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meaning given these terms in 49 CFR Part 1201. ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and...

  8. Physical gelation in polymer-nanofiller systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Di; Gersappe, Dilip

    2015-03-01

    Polymer gelation by physically crosslinking to sheet-like nanofillers was studied by Molecular Dynamics simulation. Nanofillers were modeled as rigid bodies of disk-like shapes and crosslinks were simulated by introducing a short-range attraction between the nanofillers and polymer chain ends. The structure, dynamics and mechanics of this polymer gel was studied as function of nanofiller volume fraction. Micelle like clusters were formed by polymers wrapping around nanofillers as its cores. These structures grow, with increased filler fraction, into fibrous structures. We observe the formation of a percolated nework of these fibrous structures, with ordered local structure but disordered globally, as we increase the filler fraction. The dynamics of polymers showed significant caging at intermediate time, in gel state, while the polymers move heterogeneously. Stress autocorrelation and elongation results were analyzed as a function of the nano-filler concentration.

  9. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Justin M; Atkins, Ella M

    2015-01-01

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined. PMID:26378541

  10. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Justin M; Atkins, Ella M

    2015-09-11

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.

  11. Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Justin M.; Atkins, Ella M.

    2015-01-01

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined. PMID:26378541

  12. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    There is an ongoing demand on behalf of the consumer, medical and military industries to make lighter weight, higher resolution, wider field-of-view and extended depth-of-focus cameras. This leads to design trade-offs between performance and cost, be it size, weight, power, or expense. This has brought attention to finding new ways to extend the design space while adhering to cost constraints. Extending the functionality of an imager in order to achieve extraordinary performance is a common theme of computational imaging, a field of study which uses additional hardware along with tailored algorithms to formulate and solve inverse problems in imaging. This dissertation details four specific systems within this emerging field: a Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System, an Extended Depth-of-Focus Imaging System, a Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System, and a Compressive Imaging System. The Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System is part of a larger project, where the work presented in this thesis was to use image processing techniques to mitigate problems inherent to fiber bundle image relay and then, form high-resolution wide field-of-view panoramas captured from multiple sensors within a custom state-of-the-art imager. The Extended Depth-of-Focus System goals were to characterize the angular and depth dependence of the PSF of a focal swept imager in order to increase the acceptably focused imaged scene depth. The goal of the Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System was to build a system that can capture a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long-exposure image which is inherently blurred while at the same time capturing motion data using additional optical sensors in order to deblur the degraded images. Lastly, the objective of the Compressive Imager was to design and build a system functionally similar to the Single Pixel Camera and use it to test new sampling methods for image generation and to characterize it against a traditional camera. These computational

  13. An Instructional System in Physical Science, Teacher's Guide and Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman.

    This manual is a teacher's guide to a self-instructional program in basic physical science, designed for high school students who have not had a course in chemistry or physics. There are six units in the manual relating to these areas: problem solving and experimental procedures; universal standards, metric system and conversion; mechanics; the…

  14. Lone Tree prospect area, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-02-01

    Continued exploration in the Basin and Range of Nevada has resulted in a number of small field discoveries that confirm widespread oil generation and suggest potential in local prospect settings. One such setting, the Lone Tree prospect area, lies approximately 6.5 mi (10.4 km) southwest of Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley. Discovered in 1983, this field had produced nearly 20 million bbl of oil by June 1996, mostly from two wells. Oil is entrapped in a slide block of fractured Paleozoic strata juxtaposed against Mississippian source rocks along a detachment fault of probable early Tertiary age. Subsequent exploration has focused on attempts to identify such blocks elsewhere in east-central Nevada, particularly in Railroad and Pine Valleys. Well, gravity, and two-dimensional seismic data suggested the existence of such a block in the Lone Tree area. These data were used as a basis for a three-dimensional seismic survey. Information from this survey identified a prospect at the structural culmination of the interpreted block. The resulting well, the 13-14 Timber Mountain, was commercially unsuccessful but yielded important new data, suggesting a need to revise existing stratigraphy and structural history. In addition, a second prospect, located farther updip, was indicated.

  15. Oral History, Popular Music, and American Railroads, 1920-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1983-01-01

    Sound recordings can be used by social studies teachers to demonstrate shifting public images about railroads in the United States since the end of World War I. Included is a selected list of recordings containing train-related images and railroad-information themes and illustrations from 1920 to 1980. (RM)

  16. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.105...

  17. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.105...

  18. Johnson County Community College and Burlington Northern Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radakovich, Dan; Lindsay, Susan; Osborn, Bill

    In order to serve the educational needs of the business community and generate revenues, Johnson County Community College (Kansas) formed a partnership with Burlington Northern Railroad in which the railroad's training facility would be relocated on the college's campus. This report documents the development of that relationship, its purpose, and…

  19. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under that act...

  20. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under that act...

  1. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way grants across tribal and individually owned land in Oklahoma. Rights-of-way granted under that act...

  2. 10. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., AMORY Onehalf mile S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., AMORY One-half mile S of MS. 6, 1.5. mi. NW of Amory. Aerial view from SE, of St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad bridge. David Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  3. 9. RAILROAD BRIDGE Tombigbee R. MISSISSIPPI, MONROW CO., AMORY Onehalf ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. RAILROAD BRIDGE Tombigbee R. MISSISSIPPI, MONROW CO., AMORY One-half mile S of MS. 6, 1.5 mi. NW of Amory. Copy of 8x10 aerial photo, about 1960, from S. Credit to St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. September 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  4. Looking west along Railroad Avenue toward the Fire House, visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west along Railroad Avenue toward the Fire House, visible in the center distance, behind the left Sentry House. The historic Marine Barracks (Building 930) is also visible at the far left, and Building 1296 in the right distance - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, South Fire Station, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 7. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB POWER PLANT. COS COB, FAIRFIELD CO., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 29.70. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 3. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB POWER PLANT. COS COB, FAIRFIELD CO., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 29.70. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 6. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB POWER PLANT. COS COB, FAIRFIELD CO., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 29.70. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 1. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB POWER PLANT. COS COB, FAIRFIELD CO., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 29.70. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 2. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB POWER PLANT. COS COB, FAIRFIELD CO., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 29.70. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. 4. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB POWER PLANT. COS COB, FAIRFIELD CO., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 29.70. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 5. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NEW YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD RAILROAD: COS COB POWER PLANT. COS COB, FAIRFIELD CO., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 29.70. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.105...

  13. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42 Section 408.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an...

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE FROM STONE QUARRY. TRACKS ARE GONE BUT RIGHT-OF-WAY IS STILL VISIBLE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  15. 22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  16. 114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. 21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. New York Connecting Railroad: Bronx Kill Bridge. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  18. 17. New York Connecting Railroad: Little Hell Gate Bridge. Wards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. New York Connecting Railroad: Little Hell Gate Bridge. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  19. 112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  1. 113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  3. 6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southwest (135mm lens). The tall freestanding smokestack from the Boiler Room originally stood adjacent to this end of the building. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. 49 CFR 1248.6 - Public inspection-railroad reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATISTICS § 1248.6 Public inspection—railroad reports. The individual commodity statistics reports of class... public inspection, and such required commodity statistics reports, to be filed for the years beginning..., may be excluded from a railroad's regular freight commodity statistics report and filed in...

  5. 49 CFR 1248.6 - Public inspection-railroad reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATISTICS § 1248.6 Public inspection—railroad reports. The individual commodity statistics reports of class... public inspection, and such required commodity statistics reports, to be filed for the years beginning..., may be excluded from a railroad's regular freight commodity statistics report and filed in...

  6. 7. VIEW OF A DOUBLE CULVERT IN RAILROAD GRADE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF A DOUBLE CULVERT IN RAILROAD GRADE, LOOKING WEST. THIS CULVERT HAS BEEN IN PLACE SINCE 1933, WHEN IT WAS MARKED ON MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS AS-BUILT PLANS. IT LOOKS LIKE THE PIPE ON THE RIGHT (NORTH) IS NOT ORIGINAL. - Great Northern Railroad Bed, From Big Sandy to Verona, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  7. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    This grant deals with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of our research in 1994 dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but we also addressed systems containing a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's) Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMX's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). We also dealt with one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of our research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions. These winds turned out to be of some importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's.

  8. 20 CFR 202.7 - Service or operation in connection with railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the transportation of passengers or property by railroad, or the receipt, delivery, elevation... carrier by railroad, or to the receipt, delivery, elevation, transfer in transit, refrigeration or...

  9. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  10. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1996-01-01

    This grant dealt with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of the research dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems were also addressed. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's), Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXB's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). Also dealt with was one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of the research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions which turned out to be of importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's. Work was concentrated on the following four problems: The Windy Pulsar B197+20 and its Evolution; Wind 'Echoes' in Tight Binaries; Post Nova X-ray Emission in CV's; and Dynamics of Pinned Superfluids in Neutron Stars.

  11. Physical Theory of the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2012-10-01

    I will discuss to theories of the immune system and describe a theory of the immune response to vaccines. I will illustrate this theory by application to design of the annual influenza vaccine. I will use this theory to explain limitations in the vaccine for dengue fever and to suggest a transport-inspired amelioration of these limitations.

  12. Biological and Physical Thresholds in Biogeomorphologically Self-organizing Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, P.; Bouma, T. J.; Van de Koppel, J.; Borsje, B.; van Belzen, J.; Balke, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many coastal and estuarine landscapes are formed as a consequence of biological-physical interactions. We review examples that we recently studied: coastal vegetations, microphytobenthos-stabilized mudflats, macrofauna-dominated sediments, sand wave formation influenced by animals. In these diverse ecosystems, self-organisation of the coupled landscape results from the existence of positive feedback loops between the physical and biological components. We focus on the question where, in space and/or in time, such feedback systems develop and what determines their persistence and their ability to shape the landscape. We hypothesize that an equilibrium of forces between physical and biological factors is necessary for a feedback loop to develop. This implies a scale match and a commensurate strength of the different factors. There are many examples of systems that are physically too dynamic for the development of biological populations that affect the landscape. We also show an example where biological influence, in the form of strong grazing pressure on microphytobenthos, disrupts a self-organized system on a mudflat. Thus, we define thresholds in parameter space which constrain the development of strongly interacting biogeomorphological systems. The hypothesis of commensurate physical and biological forces as a condition for the development of biogeomorphological systems has important consequences for the establishment and recruitment of such systems. Biological interactions and biological effects on the physical system develop in time with the recruitment and maturation of the biological system. Fully developed systems can therefore be in balance with stronger physical forces than immature, early recruiting phases. This represents a successional threshold that is difficult to overcome. We stress the importance of stochastic variability in physical conditions at a diversity of scales as a prerequisite for phase transitions from physically dominated to

  13. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  14. 76 FR 68523 - Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC-Change in Operators Exemption-Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC--Change in Operators Exemption--Iron Bull... of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iron Bull Railroad Company (IBRC) to USRC... near Iron Springs, Utah, and milepost 14.7 at or near Iron Mountain, Utah, a distance of 14.6 miles...

  15. Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujorianu, Marius C.; Bujorianu, Manuela L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we sketch a framework for interdisciplinary modeling of space systems, by proposing a holistic view. We consider different system dimensions and their interaction. Specifically, we study the interactions between computation, physics, communication, uncertainty and autonomy. The most comprehensive computational paradigm that supports a holistic perspective on autonomous space systems is given by cyber-physical systems. For these, the state of art consists of collaborating multi-engineering efforts that prompt for an adequate formal foundation. To achieve this, we propose a leveraging of the traditional content of formal modeling by a co-engineering process.

  16. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  17. Physical Foundations of Self-organizing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Georgiev, Georgi

    2014-03-01

    The appearance of coherent global pattern due to local interactions is known as self-organization. Self-organization is a spontaneous process in highly non-equilibrium dissipative systems that form structures which tend to maximize energy dissipation by leveling off energy gradients. This follows as a direct consequence of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Also, a local interaction embodies in the above definition a mechanistic dimension to self-organization. The link between mechanics and the Second Law of Thermodynamics lie in the Principle of Least Action, a strong law of nature that is obeyed in every spontaneous process. Thus, self-organization rests on two basic foundational principles of nature namely, the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Principle of Least Action. We attempt to develop a formal definition of self-organization based on those principles.

  18. Physics of Correlated Systems, Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Chris H.

    2014-06-25

    The funding of this DOE project has enabled the P.I. and his collaborators to tackle a number of problems involving nonperturbatively coupled atomic systems, including their interactions with each other and/or with an external electromagnetic field of the type provided by either a continuous-wave or a femtosecond short-pulse laser. The progress includes a new, deeper understanding of an old and famous theory of autoionization lineshapes, developed initially by Ugo Fano in 1935 and later extended in a highly cited 1961 article; the new result specifically is that in a collaboration with the Heidelberg group we have been able to demonstrate an unexpectedly simple behavior in the time domain that is relevant for modern short-pulse lasers. This study also demonstrates a way to modify and even control the lineshapes of unstable atomic and molecular energy levels.

  19. Preliminary characterization of the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Historical information about the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile is limited. The unit is believed to have been a borrow area for earth fill that began receiving railroad crossties during the 1960s. The number of crossties at the unit began to increase significantly in 1984 when major repair of the SRS rail system was initiated. An estimated 100,000 used railroad crossties have accumulated at the unit since 1984. In an effort to determine the impact of the railroad crossties on the environment a total of 28 soil samples were collected from four test borings in March of 1991. Sample depths ranged from ground surface to 21.5 feet. Three of the borings were extended to the water table and groundwater samples were collected, one in an upgradient background'' area, and two downgradient from the unit. Few analytes were reported above detection limits. Test results are summarized in Section 4.0 and analytes not detected are summarized in Appendix A to this report. In three soil samples collected from depths between 10 and 21.5 feet, copper occurred at levels slightly above background. These copper values were detected in the sidegradient test boring and in the two downgradient test borings. Three organic analytes, acetone, pyridine, and Toluene, were reported above detection limits but well below drinking water standards (DWS) in all test borings, including the upgradient boring. Radionuclide activities were reported above background in both soil and water samples from all test borings. There do not appear to be any statistically significant trends in radionuclide activities with depth, or between upgradient or downgradient borings. The analytes detected in the test borings downgradient from the unit cannot be attributed to the railroad crosstie pile as they are not significantly different than the values reported for the upgradient, background test boring.

  20. National short line railroad database project, 1995-1996: A report to the Federal Railroad Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.; Byberg, T.

    1996-06-30

    The objective of the project was to create a central database containing information representing the American short line railroad industry. In the report, processes involved with obtaining, developing, and maintaining the information in the database are discussed. Several data analysis procedures used to help ensure the integrity of the data are addressed. The second annual American Short Line Railroad Association Data Profile for the 1994 Calendar year is also presented in the paper. Further information extracted and comparisons made during the analysis process are described in detail. Discussions on the development of the paper survey and an electronic survey for the third annual data profile for the 1995 calendar year are also presented. The design and implementation of the electronic survey software package are reviewed in detail. The final process presented is the distribution and collection of the 1995 electronic and paper surveys.

  1. [Mental health and automation: remarks on a case study in the railroad industry

    PubMed

    Seligmann-Silva

    1997-01-01

    This article focuses on some relations between mental health and current technical, organganizaizational, and contextual changes in work. The paper presents some features of a case study, examining the impacts of the work situation in a railroad company on traffic controllers and conductors of a computorized, automatedded system. The article also discusses the implications for the safety of the system as a whole, including passengers.

  2. Track-train dynamics. [railroad car design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, P. W.; Morosow, G.; Macpherson, J.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline one of the serious dynamic problems involving railroad cars and to propose an orderly approach to the definition of a dynamic model through analysis and testing that can be used to investigate various fixes. The problem in question is the hunting phenomenon involving lateral instability of the car suspension (trucks). This phenomenon has been recognized as a major contributing factor in a significant number of derailments causing millions of dollars in losses. This paper expounds on the mechanics and characteristics of hunting. The planned solution is outlined as a building block approach directed at formulating a test verified dynamic model of an open hopper freight car-truck assembly. Results obtained to date are presented together with conclusions related to the program.

  3. Physical Processes in the MAGO/MFT Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garanin, Sergey F; Reinovsky, Robert E.

    2015-03-23

    The Monograph is devoted to theoretical discussion of the physical effects, which are most significant for the alternative approach to the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF): the MAGO/MTF approach. The book includes the description of the approach, its difference from the major CTF systems—magnetic confinement and inertial confinement systems. General physical methods of the processes simulation in this approach are considered, including plasma transport phenomena and radiation, and the theory of transverse collisionless shock waves, the surface discharges theory, important for such kind of research. Different flows and magneto-hydrodynamic plasma instabilities occurring in the frames of this approach are also considered. In virtue of the general physical essence of the considered phenomena the presented results are applicable to a wide range of plasma physics and hydrodynamics processes. The book is intended for the plasma physics and hydrodynamics specialists, post-graduate students, and senior students-physicists.

  4. Physics and Application of Nanofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpusenka, Alena V.

    We report results of the three main groups of experiments: DNA bending, fluctuations and single cell mapping. In our work on the estimation of the herniation onset, we have observed DNA molecules of various lengths confined to the different nanochannels. We have discovered a certain diviation from the commonly used theories and presented a newly qualitative theory based on the observed results. We have also performed numerical analysis of the energy profile at the junction of the nanochannels in a crisscross lattice. Results qualitatively agree with experimental observations. We also performed experimental observation and analysis of the magnitude of length and density fluctuations in DNA that has been stretched to a new equilibrium state in the nanofluidic channels. We found that experimental data agrees with the Rouse model and can be described using a one-dimensional overdamped oscillator chain with nonzero equilibrium spring length. A discussion of how the measurement process would influence the apparent measured dynamic properties was done. In the last section, we first report the profiling of the 5-methyl cytosine distribution within single genomic-sized barcode molecules. To achieve gene-relevant resolution, we linearized the molecule by stretching it in a nanochannel and detected the location of the methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBD) conjugated with methylated parts of the barcode. The same technique was used in the chromatin mapping experiments. We report our work on the detection of the trimethylated H3K4 and acetylated H3K9 histone markers on the three different reconstituted chromatin (calf thymus, HeLa, chicken erythrocyte). We demonstrated successful results in quantification of the relative histone modifications at a single molecule scale. Lastly, we report the results of development of the single cell fluidic system, which is able to operate with genetic material after cell lysis is performed on the chip. We also show that cleaning procedure

  5. Non-Hermitian quantum mechanics and localization in physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, Naomichi

    1998-12-31

    Recent studies on a delocalization phenomenon of a non-Hermitian random system is reviewed. The complex spectrum of the system indicates delocalization transition of its eigenfunctions. It is emphasized that the delocalization is related to various physical phenomena such as flux-line pinning in superconductors and population biology of bacteria colony.

  6. Quantum algorithm for obtaining the eigenstates of a physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hefeng

    2016-05-01

    We propose a quantum algorithm for solving the following problem: given the Hamiltonian of a physical system and one of its eigenvalues, how do we obtain the corresponding eigenstate? The algorithm is based on the resonance phenomenon. For a probe qubit coupled to a quantum system, the system exhibits resonance dynamics when the frequency of the probe qubit matches a transition frequency in the system. Therefore the system can be guided to evolve to the eigenstate with a known eigenvalue by inducing the resonance between the probe qubit and a designed transition in the system. This algorithm can also be used to obtain the energy spectrum of a physical system and can achieve even quadratic speedup over the phase estimation algorithm.

  7. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments.

  8. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments. PMID:24126551

  9. Railroading Powder River style: bigger investments and bigger trains

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-07-15

    The Joint Line, co-owned and operated by Union Pacific and Burlington Norfolk Santa Fe (BNSF) railroads, carried a record 354 million tons of coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, on 15,000 to 17,000 ton trains. The average haul is almost 1,000 miles. Torrential rainfall and coal dust caused derailment and buckling problems in 2005. The article reports progress in repairing the track and expanding railroad capacity since then. Many are anxious about the railroad's ability to move ever increasing amounts of coal. 3 photos.

  10. 20 CFR 216.16 - What is regular non-railroad employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is regular non-railroad employment. 216.16 Section 216.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.16 What...

  11. 20 CFR 227.3 - Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum. 227.3 Section 227.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.3 Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum....

  12. 20 CFR 216.16 - What is regular non-railroad employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is regular non-railroad employment. 216.16 Section 216.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.16 What...

  13. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  14. 26 CFR 31.6001-3 - Additional records under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional records under Railroad Retirement... Railroad Retirement Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. (1) Every employer liable for tax under the Railroad... settlement of taxes under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act made pursuant to the regulations in this part....

  15. 49 CFR 1245.2 - Reports of railroad employees, service and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reports of railroad employees, service and... CLASSIFICATION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; REPORTS OF SERVICE AND COMPENSATION § 1245.2 Reports of railroad employees... thereafter until further ordered, each Class I railroad is required to file a Quarterly Report of...

  16. 49 CFR 220.43 - Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations and railroad operating rules. 220.43 Section 220.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS... regulations and railroad operating rules. Radio communication shall not be used in connection with a...

  17. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  18. 49 CFR 242.125 - Certification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... railroads. 242.125 Section 242.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as a conductor may rely...

  19. 26 CFR 31.6001-3 - Additional records under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional records under Railroad Retirement... Railroad Retirement Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. (1) Every employer liable for tax under the Railroad... settlement of taxes under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act made pursuant to the regulations in this part....

  20. 49 CFR 242.125 - Certification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... railroads. 242.125 Section 242.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as a conductor may rely...

  1. 49 CFR 1246.1 - Monthly report of number of railroad employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Monthly report of number of railroad employees... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS NUMBER OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES § 1246.1 Monthly report of number of railroad employees. Each class I railroad shall file...

  2. 49 CFR 240.225 - Reliance on qualification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... other railroads. 240.225 Section 240.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... determinations made by other railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as...

  3. 20 CFR 216.16 - What is regular non-railroad employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is regular non-railroad employment. 216.16 Section 216.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.16 What...

  4. 20 CFR 227.3 - Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum. 227.3 Section 227.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.3 Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum....

  5. 49 CFR 242.125 - Certification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... railroads. 242.125 Section 242.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as a conductor may rely...

  6. 49 CFR 242.113 - Prior safety conduct as an employee of a different railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... railroad. 242.113 Section 242.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... railroad. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program which complies with the requirements...

  7. 20 CFR 227.3 - Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum. 227.3 Section 227.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.3 Reduction for railroad retirement family maximum....

  8. 49 CFR 1246.1 - Monthly report of number of railroad employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monthly report of number of railroad employees... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS NUMBER OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES § 1246.1 Monthly report of number of railroad employees. Each class I railroad shall file...

  9. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  10. 49 CFR 240.225 - Reliance on qualification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... other railroads. 240.225 Section 240.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... determinations made by other railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as...

  11. 26 CFR 31.6001-3 - Additional records under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional records under Railroad Retirement... Railroad Retirement Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. (1) Every employer liable for tax under the Railroad... settlement of taxes under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act made pursuant to the regulations in this part....

  12. 26 CFR 31.6001-3 - Additional records under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional records under Railroad Retirement... Railroad Retirement Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. (1) Every employer liable for tax under the Railroad... settlement of taxes under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act made pursuant to the regulations in this part....

  13. 49 CFR 1245.2 - Reports of railroad employees, service and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reports of railroad employees, service and... CLASSIFICATION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; REPORTS OF SERVICE AND COMPENSATION § 1245.2 Reports of railroad employees... thereafter until further ordered, each Class I railroad is required to file a Quarterly Report of...

  14. 49 CFR 242.113 - Prior safety conduct as an employee of a different railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... railroad. 242.113 Section 242.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... railroad. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program which complies with the requirements...

  15. 49 CFR 242.113 - Prior safety conduct as an employee of a different railroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... railroad. 242.113 Section 242.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... railroad. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program which complies with the requirements...

  16. 49 CFR 240.225 - Reliance on qualification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... other railroads. 240.225 Section 240.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... determinations made by other railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as...

  17. 49 CFR 1246.1 - Monthly report of number of railroad employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Monthly report of number of railroad employees... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS NUMBER OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES § 1246.1 Monthly report of number of railroad employees. Each class I railroad shall file...

  18. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  19. 49 CFR 1246.1 - Monthly report of number of railroad employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Monthly report of number of railroad employees... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS NUMBER OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES § 1246.1 Monthly report of number of railroad employees. Each class I railroad shall file...

  20. 49 CFR 1245.2 - Reports of railroad employees, service and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reports of railroad employees, service and... CLASSIFICATION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; REPORTS OF SERVICE AND COMPENSATION § 1245.2 Reports of railroad employees... thereafter until further ordered, each Class I railroad is required to file a Quarterly Report of...

  1. 49 CFR 240.225 - Reliance on qualification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other railroads. 240.225 Section 240.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... determinations made by other railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as...

  2. 49 CFR 1245.2 - Reports of railroad employees, service and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports of railroad employees, service and... CLASSIFICATION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; REPORTS OF SERVICE AND COMPENSATION § 1245.2 Reports of railroad employees... thereafter until further ordered, each Class I railroad is required to file a Quarterly Report of...

  3. 20 CFR 220.10 - Disability for work in an employee's regular railroad occupation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... railroad occupation. 220.10 Section 220.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad Occupation § 220.10 Disability for work in an employee's regular... North Rush Street, Chicago, IL 60611. (b) In accordance with section 2(a)(2) of the Railroad...

  4. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... interested parties. See 77 FR 2774-2775 (January 19, 2012). After examining the carrier's proposal and the... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...

  5. 26 CFR 31.6001-3 - Additional records under Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional records under Railroad Retirement... Railroad Retirement Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. (1) Every employer liable for tax under the Railroad... settlement of taxes under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act made pursuant to the regulations in this part....

  6. 49 CFR 1246.1 - Monthly report of number of railroad employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monthly report of number of railroad employees... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS NUMBER OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES § 1246.1 Monthly report of number of railroad employees. Each class I railroad shall file...

  7. 49 CFR 1245.2 - Reports of railroad employees, service and compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of railroad employees, service and... CLASSIFICATION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; REPORTS OF SERVICE AND COMPENSATION § 1245.2 Reports of railroad employees... thereafter until further ordered, each Class I railroad is required to file a Quarterly Report of...

  8. 20 CFR 216.16 - What is regular non-railroad employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is regular non-railroad employment. 216.16 Section 216.16 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.16 What...

  9. 49 CFR 240.225 - Reliance on qualification determinations made by other railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other railroads. 240.225 Section 240.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... determinations made by other railroads. (a) A railroad that is considering certification of a person as...

  10. 49 CFR 210.7 - Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility for noise defective railroad...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS General Provisions § 210.7 Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment. Any...

  11. 30 CFR 57.9307 - Design, installation, and maintenance of railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... railroads. 57.9307 Section 57.9307 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9307 Design, installation, and maintenance of railroads. Roadbeds and all elements of the railroad tracks shall be designed, installed, and maintained to...

  12. 20 CFR 202.7 - Service or operation in connection with railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... railroad transportation. 202.7 Section 202.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.7 Service or operation in connection with railroad transportation. The service rendered or the operation of equipment or facilities...

  13. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  14. 20 CFR 216.16 - What is regular non-railroad employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is regular non-railroad employment. 216... regular non-railroad employment. (a) Regular non-railroad employment is full or part-time employment for pay. (b) Regular non-railroad employment does not include any of the following: (1)...

  15. 20 CFR 369.1 - Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad..., POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.1 Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board. Use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board for...

  16. 20 CFR 369.1 - Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad..., POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.1 Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board. Use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board for...

  17. 20 CFR 369.1 - Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad..., POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.1 Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board. Use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board for...

  18. 20 CFR 369.1 - Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad..., POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.1 Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board. Use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board for...

  19. 20 CFR 369.1 - Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad..., POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.1 Unofficial use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board. Use of the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board for...

  20. Cyber-Physical System Security of Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-31

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of cyber-physical system security of smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and the cyber component of this cyber-physical system is increasing in importance. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. Scenarios associated with confidentiality, integrity, and availability are considered. The cyber security implications associated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in the United States are discussed.