Science.gov

Sample records for railway power-line interference

  1. An improved adaptive power line interference canceller for electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Martens, Suzanna M M; Mischi, Massimo; Oei, S Guid; Bergmans, Jan W M

    2006-11-01

    Power line interference may severely corrupt a biomedical recording. Notch filters and adaptive cancellers have been suggested to suppress this interference. We propose an improved adaptive canceller for the reduction of the fundamental power line interference component and harmonics in electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. The method tracks. the amplitude, phase, and frequency of all the interference components for power line frequency deviations up to about 4 Hz. A comparison is made between the performance of our method, former adaptive cancellers, and a narrow and a wide notch filter in suppressing the fundamental power line interference component. For this purpose a real ECG signal is corrupted by an artificial power line interference signal. The cleaned signal after applying all methods is compared with the original ECG signal. Our improved adaptive canceller shows a signal-to-power-line-interference ratio for the fundamental component up to 30 dB higher than that produced by the other methods. Moreover, our method is also effective for the suppression of the harmonics of the power line interference.

  2. Effect of Power Line Interference on Microphone Calibration Measurements Made at or Near Harmonics of the Power Line Frequency.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Randall P; Nedzelnitsky, Victor

    2007-01-01

    The electrical measurements required during the primary calibrations of laboratory standard microphones by the reciprocity method can be influenced by power line interference. Because of this influence, the protocols of international inter-laboratory key comparisons of microphone calibrations usually have not included measurements at power line frequencies. Such interference has been observed in microphone output voltage measurements made with a microphone pressure reciprocity calibration system under development at NIST. This system was configured for a particular type of standard microphone in such a way that measurements of relatively small signal levels, which are more susceptible to the effect of power line interference, were required. This effect was investigated by acquiring microphone output voltage measurement data with the power line frequency adjusted to move the frequency of the interference relative to the center frequency of the measurement system passband. These data showed that the effect of power line interference for this system configuration can be more than one percent at test frequencies harmonically related to the power line frequency. These data also showed that adjusting the power line frequency to separate the interference and test frequencies by as little as 1.0 Hz can reduce the effect of the interference by at least an order of magnitude. Adjustment of the power line frequency could enable accurate measurements at test frequencies that otherwise might be avoided.

  3. Power line carrier interference from HVDC converter terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Tatro, P.J.; Adamson, K.A. ); Eitzmann, M.A.; Smead, M. . Power Systems Engineering Dept.)

    1993-07-01

    Power line carrier (PLC) equipment typically operates in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 300 kHz. Interference studies for HVDC converters usually concentrate on interference from noise sources within this frequency range. However, operating experience at the Sandy Pond converter terminal has indicated that PLC equipment is also susceptible to interference from sources of power system harmonics below the PLC frequency range. Extensive field testing and analytical studies have shown that each PLC circuit has a resonant frequency below the operating frequency. If excited at this resonant frequency, high voltages may exist within the PLC circuit. The resulting saturation of PLC components leads to local generation of radio frequency (RF) noise that interferes with proper operation of PLC circuits. Sources of power system harmonics in the 3-10 kHz range, such as line commutated dc converters, are potential sources of this type of interference.

  4. [The realization of tracking power-line interference adaptive coherent model base on part FFT].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2007-08-01

    Adaptive coherent model can be easily implemented and it can simultaneously reject the power-line interference and baseline wander. But the relevancy of the filter's bandwidth at low-frequency and power-line interference limits its application on ECG filtering. A part fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is presented. It is used to track power-line frequency and adjust the sample frequency. Experiments show that the method still rejects interference efficiently despite of the slow fluctuation of power-line frequency.

  5. A fast, robust algorithm for power line interference cancellation in neural recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Power line interference may severely corrupt neural recordings at 50/60 Hz and harmonic frequencies. The interference is usually non-stationary and can vary in frequency, amplitude and phase. To retrieve the gamma-band oscillations at the contaminated frequencies, it is desired to remove the interference without compromising the actual neural signals at the interference frequency bands. In this paper, we present a robust and computationally efficient algorithm for removing power line interference from neural recordings. Approach. The algorithm includes four steps. First, an adaptive notch filter is used to estimate the fundamental frequency of the interference. Subsequently, based on the estimated frequency, harmonics are generated by using discrete-time oscillators, and then the amplitude and phase of each harmonic are estimated by using a modified recursive least squares algorithm. Finally, the estimated interference is subtracted from the recorded data. Main results. The algorithm does not require any reference signal, and can track the frequency, phase and amplitude of each harmonic. When benchmarked with other popular approaches, our algorithm performs better in terms of noise immunity, convergence speed and output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While minimally affecting the signal bands of interest, the algorithm consistently yields fast convergence (<100 ms) and substantial interference rejection (output SNR >30 dB) in different conditions of interference strengths (input SNR from -30 to 30 dB), power line frequencies (45-65 Hz) and phase and amplitude drifts. In addition, the algorithm features a straightforward parameter adjustment since the parameters are independent of the input SNR, input signal power and the sampling rate. A hardware prototype was fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process and tested. Software implementation of the algorithm has been made available for open access at https://github.com/mrezak/removePLI. Significance. The proposed

  6. Unsupervised learning technique for surface electromyogram denoising from power line interference and baseline wander.

    PubMed

    Niegowski, Maciej; Zivanovic, Miroslav; Gomez, Marisol; Lecumberri, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to single-channel power line interference (PLI) and baseline wander (BW) removal from surface electromyograms (EMG). It is based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) using a priori knowledge about the interferences. It performs a linear decomposition of the input signal spectrogram into non-negative components, which represent the PLI, BW and EMG spectrogram estimates. They all exhibit very different time-frequency patterns: PLI and BW are both sparse whereas EMG is noise-like. Initialization of the classical NMF algorithm with accurately designed PLI, BW and EMG structures and a carefully adjusted matrix decomposition rank increases the separation performance. The comparative study suggests that the proposed method outperforms two state-of-the-art reference methods.

  7. Fetal ECG Extraction from Abdominal Signals: A Review on Suppression of Fundamental Power Line Interference Component and Its Harmonics

    PubMed Central

    Ţarălungă, Dragoş-Daniel; Ungureanu, Georgeta-Mihaela; Gussi, Ilinca; Strungaru, Rodica; Wolf, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Interference of power line (PLI) (fundamental frequency and its harmonics) is usually present in biopotential measurements. Despite all countermeasures, the PLI still corrupts physiological signals, for example, electromyograms (EMG), electroencephalograms (EEG), and electrocardiograms (ECG). When analyzing the fetal ECG (fECG) recorded on the maternal abdomen, the PLI represents a particular strong noise component, being sometimes 10 times greater than the fECG signal, and thus impairing the extraction of any useful information regarding the fetal health state. Many signal processing methods for cancelling the PLI from biopotentials are available in the literature. In this review study, six different principles are analyzed and discussed, and their performance is evaluated on simulated data (three different scenarios), based on five quantitative performance indices. PMID:24660020

  8. Reduction of power line interference using active electrodes and a driven-right-leg circuit in electroencephalographic recording with a minimum number of electrodes.

    PubMed

    Nonclercq, A; Mathys, P

    2004-01-01

    Unwanted power line interference is one of the most common problems in electroencephalographic recording. This paper examines how the use of active electrodes together with a driven-right-leg circuit can significantly improve interference reduction, even when the same electrode is used for common and reference which is attractive because it saves an electrode. General conclusions about the active electrodes and the driven-right-leg circuits were obtained thanks to a prototype that uses the same electrode for both common and reference. Measurements were performed both on a subject and on an electrical equivalent model.

  9. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  10. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  11. Analysis of the monitoring data of geomagnetic storm interference in the electrification system of a high-speed railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianguang; Ge, Xiaoning; Zong, Wei; Zhou, You; Liu, Mingguang

    2016-10-01

    To study the impact of geomagnetic storm on the equipment of traction electrification system in the high-speed railway, geomagnetically induced current (GIC) monitoring devices were installed in the Hebi East traction power supply substation of the Beijing-Hong Kong Dedicated Passenger Line in January 2015, and GICs were captured during the two geomagnetic storms on 17 March and 23 June 2015. In order to investigate the GIC flow path, both in the track circuit and in the traction network adopting the autotransformer feeding system, a GIC monitor plan was proposed for the electrical system in the Hebi East traction power supply substation. This paper analyzes the correlation between the GIC captured on 17 March and the geomagnetic data obtained from the Malingshan Geomagnetic Observatory and presents a regression analysis between the measured GIC and the calculated geoelectric fields on 23 June in the high-speed railway. The maximum GICs measured in the track circuit are 1.08 A and 1.74 A during the two geomagnetic storms. We find that it is necessary to pay attention on the throttle transformers and track circuits, as the most sensitive elements responding to the extreme geomagnetic storms in the high-speed railway.

  12. Ames Lab 101: Next Generation Power Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Alan Russell discusses the need to develop new power lines that are stronger and more conductive as a way to address the problem of the nation's aging and inadequate power grid.

  13. Ames Lab 101: Next Generation Power Lines

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Alan

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Alan Russell discusses the need to develop new power lines that are stronger and more conductive as a way to address the problem of the nation's aging and inadequate power grid.

  14. Motor run-up system. [power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeges, J. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A starting system is described for bringing a large synchronous motor up to speed to prevent large power line disturbances at the moment the motor is connected to the power line. The system includes (1) a digital counter which generates a count determined by the difference in frequency between the power line and a small current generated by the synchronous motor; (2) a latch which stores the count; and (3) a comparator which compares the stored count with a newly generated count to determine whether the synchronous motor is accelerating or decelerating. Signals generated by the counter and comparator control the current to a clutch that couples a starting motor to the large synchronous motor.

  15. 76 FR 71892 - Broadband Over Power Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 15 Broadband Over Power Lines AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... public comment on those studies, and (3) provide a reasoned explanation of its choice of the... action addressing the court's concerns and its proposals in the RFC/FNPRM. It finds that the...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1411 - Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines with no load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment traveling under or near a power line on a construction site with no load. Equipment traveling on a... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1411 Power line safety—while traveling under or...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1411 - Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines with no load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment traveling under or near a power line on a construction site with no load. Equipment traveling on a... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1411 Power line safety—while traveling under or...

  18. Phase protection system for ac power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, W. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The system described provides protection for phase sensitive loads from being or remaining connected to ac power lines whenever a phase reversal occurs. It comprises a solid state phase detection circuit, a dc power relay circuit, an ac-to-dc converter for energizing the relay circuit, and a bistable four terminal transducer coupled between the phase detection circuit and the power relay circuit, for controlling both circuits.

  19. Generation mechanism of power line harmonic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrov, Alexander; Gushchin, Mikhail; Korobkov, Sergei

    The questions concerning the generation of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) and magne-tospheric line radiation (MLR) are discussed, including the effective source of high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and fine dynamic structure of the frequency spectrum of PLHR and MLR. It is shown, that thyristor-based power regulators used by large electrical power consumers produce the periodic sequences of current pulses with duration of about 10 microseconds in a power line. The repetition rate of these pulses is typically 100/120 Hz; the bandwidth is as broad as 100 kHz. For high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, the power line represents an effective traveling-wave (or Beverage) antenna, especially in a frequency range of several kHz corresponding to VLF whistler band in Earth ionosphere and magnetosphere. For the fixed length of the power line, which acts as antenna, radiation directivity diagram in relation to horizon depends of frequency. Hence the spatial separation of whistlers emitted at various frequencies (1-10 kHz in a consid-ered case) is possible, with subsequent propagation of whistlers with different frequencies along different L-shells. Estimations show that the efficiency of power line as travelling-wave antenna can be changed by variations of its load, but not more than twice ("weekend effect"). Since the PLHR can represent the sequence of short electromagnetic bursts, then careful se-lection of frequency-time resolution of the data acquisition equipment is needed. Typically, the time constant of the data recording and processing is too large, and the spectra of PLHR or MLR are characterized by a well-known line structure. At the same time, original bursty structure of PLHR can not be defined. Fine structure of MLR is also discussed. Frequency drift of MLR can be explained by the perturbations of the magnetospheric plasma by intense ULF waves and particle flows affecting the propagation of PLHR. Hence the physical nature of PLHR and MLR is the same, excepting the

  20. Circuit for Communication Over Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Normal F.; Greer, Lawrence C., III; Nappier, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many distributed systems share common sensors and instruments along with a common power line supplying current to the system. A communication technique and circuit has been developed that allows for the simple inclusion of an instrument, sensor, or actuator node within any system containing a common power bus. Wherever power is available, a node can be added, which can then draw power for itself, its associated sensors, and actuators from the power bus all while communicating with other nodes on the power bus. The technique modulates a DC power bus through capacitive coupling using on-off keying (OOK), and receives and demodulates the signal from the DC power bus through the same capacitive coupling. The circuit acts as serial modem for the physical power line communication. The circuit and technique can be made of commercially available components or included in an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design, which allows for the circuit to be included in current designs with additional circuitry or embedded into new designs. This device and technique moves computational, sensing, and actuation abilities closer to the source, and allows for the networking of multiple similar nodes to each other and to a central processor. This technique also allows for reconfigurable systems by adding or removing nodes at any time. It can do so using nothing more than the in situ power wiring of the system.

  1. Current transducers used in power line measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcarz, Sz.; Gołebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    There are many solutions used for current measurements in power lines. The study shows a transducer consisting of a ferromagnetic core, a beam placed in an air-gap and a sensor for optical readout. The beam is made of silicon with a thin 50%Ni50%Fe film. The material of the core is permalloy. A distribution of magnetic field depends on current supplying the power line. The beam is deflected due to magnetic field in the air-gap. A deflection of the beam is measured by the optical fibre sensor. Its advantage is simple design, high precision of processing, non-electric transmission, low costs and ability of a non-contact measurement. Comsol Multiphysics 4.4 and Magnetic Fields Module (mef) were used for modeling. An influence of magnetic circuit's materials and dimensions of the ferromagnetic core and the air-gap were tested in order to determine the most sufficient distribution of magnetic field in the air-gap. The study shows results of the modeling of the transducer compared to practical results for a similar construction scaled down to lower current values.

  2. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, Lawrence C., III (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  3. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  4. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  5. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  6. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  7. 47 CFR 15.113 - Power line carrier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power line carrier systems. 15.113 Section 15.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.113 Power line carrier systems. Power line carrier systems, as defined in § 15.3(t),...

  8. Bionic Vision-Based Intelligent Power Line Inspection System

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunpeng; He, Feijia; Xu, Jinxin

    2017-01-01

    Detecting the threats of the external obstacles to the power lines can ensure the stability of the power system. Inspired by the attention mechanism and binocular vision of human visual system, an intelligent power line inspection system is presented in this paper. Human visual attention mechanism in this intelligent inspection system is used to detect and track power lines in image sequences according to the shape information of power lines, and the binocular visual model is used to calculate the 3D coordinate information of obstacles and power lines. In order to improve the real time and accuracy of the system, we propose a new matching strategy based on the traditional SURF algorithm. The experimental results show that the system is able to accurately locate the position of the obstacles around power lines automatically, and the designed power line inspection system is effective in complex backgrounds, and there are no missing detection instances under different conditions. PMID:28203269

  9. Bionic Vision-Based Intelligent Power Line Inspection System.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingwu; Ma, Yunpeng; He, Feijia; Xi, Shuya; Xu, Jinxin

    2017-01-01

    Detecting the threats of the external obstacles to the power lines can ensure the stability of the power system. Inspired by the attention mechanism and binocular vision of human visual system, an intelligent power line inspection system is presented in this paper. Human visual attention mechanism in this intelligent inspection system is used to detect and track power lines in image sequences according to the shape information of power lines, and the binocular visual model is used to calculate the 3D coordinate information of obstacles and power lines. In order to improve the real time and accuracy of the system, we propose a new matching strategy based on the traditional SURF algorithm. The experimental results show that the system is able to accurately locate the position of the obstacles around power lines automatically, and the designed power line inspection system is effective in complex backgrounds, and there are no missing detection instances under different conditions.

  10. Satellite observations of power line harmonic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullough, K.

    1983-06-01

    Observations of the spheric wavefield over North America, the adjacent North Atlantic, and their Southern-Hemisphere geomagnetic conjugates made with Ariel 4 are analyzed in terms of the relative influence of power-line harmonic radiation (PLHR) on wave-particle interactions affecting the earth's radiation belts. Inconsistencies in previous reports on the Sunday effect, on the starting frequencies of chorus emissions, and on the global distribution of PLHR are reviewed, and the validity of Ariel-3 and Ariel-4 findings of increased PLHR-induced emissions over the industrial areas of the US is asserted. At 9.6 kHz, the emissions over North America and the North Atlantic are characterized by almost identical spherical wavefields, while the whistler-mode signal in the Atlantic conjugate zone was found to be weaker than that in the North American conjugate; at 3.2 kHz, the sea-conjugate signal was weakened, but the land-conjugate signal was found to be identical to the land signal. It is inferred that multihop propagation permanently present over the mainland but rare over the sea is the result of duct structures which can be supported by PLHR.

  11. 78 FR 32165 - Broadband Over Power Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... has potential applications for broadband and Smart Grid uses--while protecting incumbent radio... providing for Access BPL technology--which has potential applications for broadband and Smart Grid uses... service from interference caused by radiofrequency (RF) emissions from Access BPL systems. The...

  12. Monitoring System of Power Line Icing Based on GPRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wancheng, Xie

    GPRS-based power line monitoring system for ice. The system is based on the images to monitor the power line monitoring device for ice. System through the use of simplified Sobel algorithm and Hough transform to image edge detection, with DSP high-speed computing performance and optimization of DSP code, and realized the power line ice thickness of the terminal identification and automatic alarm function; using the terminal identification means, is intelligent Monitoring of a new attempt.

  13. Biological effects of power line fields: New York State Power Lines Project Scientific Advisory Panel: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbom, A.; Albert, E.N.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Grodzinsky, A.J.; Marron, M.T.; Martin, A.O.; Persinger, M.A.; Shelanski, M.L.; Wolpow, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    The New York State Power Lines Project was established to conduct research and to review the scientific literature to determine whether health hazards of electric and magnetic fields are possible. Particular attention was directed to the fields generated by 765-kV overhead transmission lines. The research program provided support to 16 research groups studying human, animal and isolated cell sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields. No effects were found on reproduction, growth or development. Several studies showed no evidence of genetic or chromosomal damage that might lead to inherited effects or cause cancer. While most measurements of behavior and brain function did not demonstrate changes, some did show changes that were small but consistent. Some of these appear to result from changes in body rhythms, and might interfere with normal sleep patterns. There were also changes in pain responses and in the ability of rats to learn. A more serious concern comes from a study of cancer in children suggesting that children with leukemia and brain cancer are more likely to live in homes where there are elevated 60-Hz magnetic field levels. Although much more research is needed before the question whether the magnetic fields actually cause or promote cancer can be resolved, the basis for such an hypothesis is now established. 159 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. 29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Passive optical sensor for lightning detection on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Florídia, C.; Bezerra, E. L.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we present the results of a passive optical sensor for monitoring lightning strikes on overhead power lines, which can also be used for several other applications. The optic sensor is very simple and cheap and basically consists in the use of an antenna connected directly to a semiconductor laser. No batteries and solar panels are necessary to implement this sensing system in power lines towers. It was tested in laboratory and showed a good performance.

  16. Extraction of power lines from mobile laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Qing; Li, Jonathan; Wen, Chenglu; Huang, Pengdi

    2016-03-01

    Modern urban life is becoming increasingly more dependent on reliable electric power supply. Since power outages cause substantial financial losses to producers, distributors and consumers of electric power, it is in the common interest to minimize failures of power lines. In order to detect defects as early as possible and to plan efficiently the maintenance activities, distribution networks are regularly inspected. Carrying out foot patrols or climbing the structures to visually inspect transmission lines and aerial surveys (e.g., digital imaging or most recent airborne laser scanning (ALS) are the two most commonly used methods of power line inspection. Although much faster in comparison to the foot patrol inspection, aerial inspection is more expensive and usually less accurate, in complex urban areas particularly. This paper presents a scientific work that is done in the use of mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds for automated extraction of power lines. In the proposed method, 2D power lines are extracted using Hough transform in the projected XOY plane and the 3D power line points are visualized after the point searching. Filtering based on an elevation threshold is applied, which is combined with the vehicle's trajectory in the horizontal section.

  17. 53. Exterior view of marine railway complex with railway #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Exterior view of marine railway complex with railway #3 in foreground, #2 middle, #1 back. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels) - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  18. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  19. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  20. "These Power Lines Make Me Ill": A Typology of Residents' Health Responses to a New High-Voltage Power Line.

    PubMed

    Porsius, Jarry T; Claassen, Liesbeth; Woudenberg, Fred; Smid, Tjabe; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2017-03-17

    Little attention has been devoted to the potential diversity in residents' health responses when exposed to an uncertain environmental health risk. The present study explores whether subgroups of residents respond differently to a new high-voltage power line (HVPL) being put into operation. We used a quasi-experimental prospective field study design with two pretests during the construction of a new HVPL, and two posttests after it was put into operation. Residents living nearby (0-300 m, n = 229) filled out questionnaires about their health and their perception of the environment. We applied latent class growth models to investigate heterogeneity in the belief that health complaints were caused by a power line. Classes were compared on a wide range of variables relating to negative-oriented personality traits, perceived physical and mental health, and perceptions of the environment. We identified five distinct classes of residents, of which the largest (49%) could be described as emotionally stable and healthy with weak responses to the introduction of a new power line. A considerable minority (9%) responded more strongly to the new line being activated. Residents in this class had heard more about the health effects of power lines beforehand, were more aware of the activation of the new line, and reported a decrease in perceived health afterwards. Based on our findings we can conclude that there is a considerable heterogeneity in health responses to a new HVPL. Health risk perceptions appear to play an important role in this typology, which has implications for risk management.

  1. Modelling of power lines in lightning incidence calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M. ); Srivastava, K.D. )

    1990-01-01

    When applying the electrogeometric model to power lines to determine the frequency and characteristics of the collected lightning strokes, the power line has traditionally been represented by a set of horizontal wires, i.e. both the sag of the wires and the existence of the towers have been ignored. This approach has serious shortcomings including inability to determine the percentage of the strokes terminating on the towers, failure to correctly predict the effect of height on median current, and giving an approximate value for the number of collected strokes without telling the corresponding degree of error. This paper eliminates the above problems by presenting a computerized solution which takes into consideration the sag of the wires, the existence of the towers, and the inequality of the striking distances to towers and to wires. The features of the program are discussed in the paper, and some of its results are given.

  2. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  3. Power Line Carrier Techniques Applied to Spacecraft Data Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedu, J.-Y.; Morisse, J.; Auvergne, X.; Plancke, P.

    Power Line Carrier (PLC) data transmission coupled with spread spectrum technique is evaluated for onboard satellite purpose. Power Line Carrier present a great advantage in terms of mass saving and integration cost by suppressing the data bus harness. Spread Spectrum techniques allows data transmission inside the power supply noise. This paper will address the major functionality keys of this transmission method and will define the main trades off to conduct. INTRODUCTION A major trend for the next satellite generation stands in the increase of the equipment unit's quantity, of their complexity and of their communication needs. A first approach to reduce the number of links and also the overall mass stands in multiplexing Acq/Ctr on data bus. ALCATEL SPACE with its so-called new avionics 4000 has made a significant step with an intensive use of the data bus : round 140 units on its proprietary OBDH-485 bus and round 10 units on the MIL-STD-1553 data bus for Telecom Geostationnary satellite class. According to this state of the art, the following step is the suppression of the data bus harness by means of Wireless or Power Line Carrier (PLC) techniques that has been identified as a development axis. Many PLC components are available for domestic/industry applications. Nevertheless, transmission levels, operating frequencies, radiation hardening performances of these parts are usually not compatible with space environment constraints. 2/12

  4. Energy harvesting from electric power lines employing the Halbach arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Zhang, Jitao; Lu, Caijiang; Yang, Aichao

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes non-invasive energy harvesters to scavenge alternating magnetic field energy from electric power lines. The core body of a non-invasive energy harvester is a linear Halbach array, which is mounted on the free end of a piezoelectric cantilever beam. The Halbach array augments the magnetic flux density on the side of the array where the power line is placed and significantly lowers the magnetic field on the other side. Consequently, the magnetic coupling strength is enhanced and more alternating magnetic field energy from the current-carrying power line is converted into electrical energy. An analytical model is developed and the theoretical results verify the experimental results. A power of 566 μW across a 196 kΩ resistor is generated from a single wire, and a power of 897 μW across a 212 kΩ resistor is produced from a two-wire power cord carrying opposite currents at 10 A. The harvesters employing Halbach arrays for a single wire and a two-wire power cord, respectively, exhibit 3.9 and 3.2 times higher power densities than those of the harvesters employing conventional layouts of magnets. The proposed devices with strong response to the alternating currents are promising to be applied to electricity end-use environment in electric power systems.

  5. [Emergency response management near the tracks of the public railway network: special aspects of missions connected with the German national railway system].

    PubMed

    Krämer, P; Aul, A; Vock, B; Frank, C

    2010-11-01

    Emergency response management and rescue operations concerning the railway network in Germany need special attention and implementation in several ways. The emergency response concerning the German national railway network managed by Deutsche Bahn AG is subject to various rules and regulations which have to be followed precisely. Only by following these rules and procedures is the safety of all emergency staff at the scene ensured. The German national railway network (Deutsche Bahn AG) provides its own emergency response control center, which specializes in managing its response to emergencies and dispatches an emergency response manager to the scene. This person serves as the primary Deutsche Bahn AG representative at the scene and is the only person who is allowed to earth the railway electrical power lines. This article will discuss different emergency situations concerning railway accidents and the emergency medical response to them based on a near collision with a high speed train during a rescue mission close to the railway track. Injury to personnel could only be avoided by chance and luck. The dangers and risks for rescue staff are specified. Furthermore, the article details practical guidelines for rescue operations around the German national railway track system.

  6. Trend on High-speed Power Line Communication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Osamu

    High-speed power line communication (PLC) is useful technology to easily build the communication networks, because construction of new infrastructure is not necessary. In Europe and America, PLC has been used for broadband networks since the beginning of 21th century. In Japan, high-speed PLC was deregulated only indoor usage in 2006. Afterward it has been widely used for home area network, LAN in hotels and school buildings and so on. And recently, PLC is greatly concerned as communication technology for smart grid network. In this paper, the author surveys the high-speed PLC technology and its current status.

  7. Power Line Communication (PLC) in Space - Current Status and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Power Line Communication (PLC) technology as known from various terrestrial applications, e.g. in building automation, in the automotive sector and on aircraft, appears to be a promising technology for the use on spacecraft. Starting from a critical overview on existing terrestrial PLC applications with their pros and cons, the paper gives a motivation for the introduction of the PLC technology on spacecraft, discusses the potential areas where it can be applied and is highlighting the potential problem areas. A short overview of on-going ESA PLC activities is provided and an outlook is given.

  8. Community response to railway noise: A review of social surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, U.

    1988-01-01

    The many studies on the effects of railway noise on the neighbourhood differ greatly in their design, acoustic and sociological measurement and in their evaluation methods. As the influence of these factors on the sometimes differing results is not quantifiable, only qualitative results can be summarized and commented on. There are only a few studies with special emphasis on the effects of shunting yards, high-speed trains and urban train systems, and therefore only the results concerning free-flow railway traffic are summarized. The LAeq measured outside was shown in almost all the studies to be the most suitable for predicting general annoyance and most of the disturbance reactions compared with other acoustic data, e.g., peak level, pass-by frequency, etc. It is not possible to deduce from the studies in question a limiting value beyond which railway noise is no longer tolerable. Compared to other areas of interference, it is generally agreed that railway noise is at its most annoying in the area of communication. Sleep interference, on the other hand, was only seldomly mentioned and was not considered to be so serious. In addition to the noise level, non-acoustic factors such as attitude towards the railway, neighbourhood environment, etc., obviously considerably affect the annoyance reaction to railway noise too. The question of habituation to railway noise cannot be conclusively answered from the studies analyzed. At the same LAeq, railway noise gives rise to less annoyance than does road-traffic noise. These differences vary according to whether the reference time is day or night, the noise level range is high or low, and according to which annoyance and disturbance reaction is considered.

  9. Raptor electrocution on power lines: Current issues and outlook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Electrocution on power lines is one of many human-caused mortality factors that affect raptors. Cost-effective and relatively simple raptor-safe standards for power line modification and construction have been available for over 25 years. During the 1970s and early 1980s, electric industry efforts to reduce raptor electrocutions were very coordinated and proactive, but predictions about resolving the problem were overly optimistic. Today, raptors continue to be electrocuted, possibly in large numbers. The electrocution problem has not been resolved, partly because of the sheer number of potentially lethal power poles in use and partly because electrocution risks may be more pervasive and sometimes less conspicuous than once believed. Also, responses to the problem by individual utilities have not been uniform, and deregulation of the electric industry during the 1990s may have deflected attention from electrocution issues. To control raptor electrocutions in the future, the industry must increase information sharing and technology transfer, increase efforts to retrofit lethal power poles, and above all ensure that every new and replacement line constructed incorporates raptor-safe standards at all phases of development. Finally, responsibility for the electrocution problem must be shared. Federal, state, and local governments, academic institutions, the conservation community, and the consumer all can play critical roles in an effort that will, by necessity, extend well into the new century.

  10. A Study on the Performance of Wavelet OFDM in Power Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Hisao; Kodama, Nobutaka

    Recently, the demand of high speed network in home is increasing. Some Multicarrier Modulation (MCM) based systems use FFT OFDM, and some use a Wavelet OFDM in place of FFT OFDM. Wavelet transforms consist of an M-band transmultiplexers, which use filters of greater length than the rectangular windows used in FFT OFDM. The use of symbols of longer duration allows obtaining lower side-lobe levels with respect to FFT OFDM. Better stop-band attenuation results in both lower levels of inter-carrier interference (ICI) and greater robustness to narrowband interference. For the power line channel, we have chosen two channels measured by network analyzer. The root mean square (R.M.S.) delay spreads of Channels A and B are 0.22 [μsec] and 1.1 [μsec], respectively. In this paper, the PHY (Physical layer) data rates [Mbps] achievable by Wavelet OFDM over Channels A and B are shown for two different kinds of FEC. Then, the effects of ISI and ICI on Wavelet OFDM can be compensated by increasing the number of carriers. Finally, it is shown that Wavelet OFDM characteristic is better than that of FFT OFDM about PHY rates [Mbps] with the same channels.

  11. Living and Working Safely Around High-Voltage Power Lines.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2001-06-01

    High-voltage transmission lines can be just as safe as the electrical wiring in the homes--or just as dangerous. The crucial factor is ourselves: they must learn to behave safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live and work around power lines. It deals primarily with nuisance shocks due to induced voltages, and with potential electric shock hazards from contact with high-voltage lines. References on possible long-term biological effects of transmission lines are shown. In preparing this booklet, the Bonneville Power Administration has drawn on more than 50 years of experience with high-voltage transmission. BPA operates one of the world`s largest networks of long-distance, high-voltage lines. This system has more than 400 substations and about 15,000 miles of transmission lines, almost 4,400 miles of which are operated at 500,000 volts.

  12. Predicted Performances of Power Line Communication in Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degardin, V.; Junqua, I.; Lienard, M.; Degauque, P.; Bertuol, S.; Genoulaz, J.; Dunand, M.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of using power line communication to transmit information in a large aircraft is studied. The communication link, which has been identified and chosen in the frame of the TAUPE European project, is the cabin lighting system since its tree shape and large structure allows covering most of the other possible applications. A statistical theoretical analysis, based on the multiconductor transmission line theory, has been carried out to determine the properties of the channel transfer function. This has been done in two steps: First a simplified network was considered to outline the parameters of the network geometry playing an important role on the path loss, and then by modelling a test bench which will be used as a demonstrator. The PLC link has been modelled for predicting data rate and bit error rate, taking the EMC constraints into account.

  13. The relationship between railway noise and community annoyance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Changwoo; Kim, Jaehwan; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab

    2006-10-01

    A study of community annoyance caused by exposures to railway noise was carried out in 18 areas along railway lines to accumulate social survey data and assess the relationship between railway noise levels and annoyance responses in Korea. Railway noise levels were measured with portable sound-level meters. Social surveys were administered to people living within 50 m of noise measurement sites. A questionnaire contained demographic factors, degree of noise annoyance, interference with daily activities, and health-related symptoms. The question relating to noise annoyance was answered on an 11-point numerical scale. The randomly selected respondents, who were aged between 18 to 70 years of age, completed the questionnaire independently. In total, 726 respondents participated in social surveys. Taking into consideration the urban structure and layout of the residential areas of Korea, Japan, and Europe, one can assume that the annoyance responses caused by the railway noise in this study will be similar to those found in Japan, which are considerably more severe than those found in European countries. This study showed that one of the most important factors contributing to the difference in the annoyance responses between Korea and Europe is the distance between railways and houses.

  14. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  15. Power line harmonic radiation: A systematic study using DEMETER spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, F.; Santolík, O.; Parrot, M.; Berthelier, J. J.

    We present results of a systematic survey of Power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) observed by the DEMETER spacecraft. DEMETER is a French micro-satellite launched in June, 2004 with an altitude of orbit of about 700 km. It is designed specifically to study electromagnetic effects connected with seismic and man-made activity. All available high-resolution burst-mode electromagnetic data measured since the beginning of the mission till July 2006 (altogether about 1650 h of data) have been analyzed using an automatic identification procedure. This procedure was specially developed to search for emissions of PLHR type. It is running in DEMETER control center in Orléans, France. 49 PLHR events with frequency spacing of 50/100 or 60/120 Hz have been found, allowing us to perform a statistical study of properties of PLHR. It is shown that for all the events, the observed frequency spacing corresponds well to the power system frequency at anticipated source locations. Moreover, the frequency of the observed lines often (80%) corresponds to the exact harmonics of the power system base frequency. Finally, the most intense events are observed at lower frequencies and no weak events are observed under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  16. DC Cable for Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  17. Marine railway system

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, W.N.

    1993-08-10

    A marine railway carriage is described, comprising: a lower frame having substantially parallel spaced sides and provided with railway wheels; an upper frame pivotally connected to the lower frame at spaced points adjacent the sides, respectively, on a transverse horizontal axis adjacent the normally forward end of the lower frame; spring means connected at the opposite ends thereof to the lower and upper frame, respectively, adjacent the normally rear end of the lower frame, and biasing the frames toward separation; and support means on the upper frame adapted to engage a boat.

  18. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Byambasuren, Bat-erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-01-01

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results. PMID:26907274

  19. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Byambasuren, Bat-Erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-02-19

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results.

  20. Wireless power transfer and fault diagnosis of high-voltage power line via robotic bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Zhang, Zhen; Qiu, Chun; Li, Wenlong; Ching, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new idea of wireless power transfer (WPT) and fault diagnosis (FD) of high-voltage power line via robotic bird. The key is to present the conceptual robotic bird with WPT coupling coil for detecting and capturing the energy from the high-voltage power line. If the power line works in normal condition, the robotic bird is able to stand on the power line and extract energy from it. If fault occurs on the power line, the corresponding magnetic field distribution will become different from that in the normal situation. By analyzing the magnetic field distribution of the power line, the WPT to the robotic bird and the FD by the robotic bird are performed and verified.

  1. Measurements of Impedance and Attenuation at CENELEC Bands for Power Line Communications Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cavdar, I. Hakki; Karadeniz, Engin

    2008-01-01

    Power line impedance is a very important parameter on the design of power line communications (PLC) modem architecture. Variations on the impedance of the power line affect the communications circuit performance. In order to determine impedance of the power lines, measurements were carried out in Turkey at frequencies ranging from 10 to 170 kHz, (CENELEC A,B,C,D bands). Measurements were conducted in three categories: rural, urban and the industrial power lines. Experimental results are presented in graphical form. The measured impedances were determined as 3-17 ohms, 1-17 ohms, and 1-21 ohms for rural, urban and the industrial lines, respectively. A set of the formulas between impedance and frequency are developed on the power lines using the regression analysis from the obtained empirical data. Signal attenuations on the power lines in the CENELEC band are also measured for rural, urban and industrial regions. Attenuation measurements are repeated for phase-neutral, phase-ground and the neutral-ground conductors. Signal attenuations are found to be 4-30 dB, for different power lines. To establish validity of obtained results for the design of PLC systems, the results are compared with previous investigations. The effects of some household appliances such as TV, PC, UPS, lighting and cooling systems on the impedances and the attenuations for power line communications systems are observed. Some suggestions and proposals are presented for PLC modem designers. PMID:27873974

  2. a Meteorological Risk Assessment Method for Power Lines Based on GIS and Multi-Sensor Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-01

    Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  3. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... CFR 385.206 and 385.212 (2011), Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley...

  4. RNA Interference

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > RNA Interference Fact Sheet RNA Interference Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is RNA interference? RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process ...

  5. Research of Characteristics of the Low Voltage Power Line in Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shaoliang; Qin, Shiqun; Gao, Wenchang; Cheng, Fengyu; Cao, Zhongyue

    The power line communications (PLCs) can count on existing electrical connections reaching each corner in the locations where such applications are required, so signal transmission over power lines is nowadays gaining more and more interest for applications like internet. The research of characteristics of the low voltage power line is the fundamental and importance task. This work presents a device to test the characteristics of the low voltage power line. The low voltage power line channel characteristics overground and the channel characteristics underground were tested in using this device. Experiments show that, the characteristics are different between the PLCs channel underground coal mine and the PLC channel overground. Different technology should be adopted to structure the PLCs channel model underground coal mine and transmit high speed digital signal. But how to use the technology better to the high-speed digital communication under coal mine is worth of further studying.

  6. [Problems of radiation hygiene in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Freĭman, E S

    1995-01-01

    Railway radiation hygiene is a modern trend of research. The main problems in this sphere are as follows: hygienic assessment of utilization of railway sources in railway objects; safe transportation of radioactive agents; prevention of accidents in railway transport; radiobiological examinations of workers, etc.

  7. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  8. Railway diesel crankcase lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

    1987-06-30

    A railway diesel crankcase lubricant composition is described comprising a diesel lubricating oil and from about 0.25 to 2.0 weight percent of minor amount of oxidation and corrosion inhibiting agent. The reaction product is of a polyoxyisopropylene diamine, diabasic acid anhydride and polyalkylene polyamine wherein: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyoxyisopropylenediamine where x is a numeral of about 2 to about 50, forming a maleamic acid; (ii) reacting the maleamic acid with a polyalkylene polyamine, forming a condensate product and; (iii) recovering the condensate product.

  9. Railway switch transport model.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Martin; Prosen, Tomaž; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple model of coupled heat and particle transport based on zero-dimensional classical deterministic dynamics, which is reminiscent of a railway switch whose action is a function only of the particle's energy. It is shown that already in the minimal three-terminal model, where the second terminal is considered as a probe with zero net particle and heat currents, one can find extremely asymmetric Onsager matrices as a consequence of time-reversal symmetry breaking of the model. This minimalistic transport model provides a better understanding of thermoelectric heat engines in the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all voltages... an energized power line is prohibited, except where the employer demonstrates that all of...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power line safety (all voltages)-equipment operations... FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1410 Power line safety (all...

  14. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa.

  15. Do Power Lines and Protected Areas Present a Catch-22 Situation for Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D.; MacTavish, Lynne M.; Yarnell, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  121,655±90,845 km2) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  492,300±259,427 km2) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  16. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    PubMed

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  17. Modification of atmospheric DC fields by space charge from high-voltage power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fews, A. P.; Wilding, R. J.; Keitch, P. A.; Holden, N. K.; Henshaw, D. L.

    Corona ion discharge is responsible for a flux of small ions emanating from an overhead power line capable of modifying the ambient electrical environment. The ensuing space charge can be detected as a change in magnitude of the earth's natural DC electric field at ground level. DC field mill meters were used to measure the vertical component of electric fields upwind and downwind of 132 and 400 kV power lines. Evidence of space charge blowing downwind of power lines was observed in 21 out of 22 cases. Time series measurements recorded in the downwind direction were highly variable with fields of higher magnitude compared to those recorded upwind. Model DC field profiles were used to estimate a lower limit to the space charge density at body height arising from power lines. The average lower limit was ˜3000 cm -3 excess unipolar charges. The result suggests that between 10% and 60% of outdoor aerosols gain excess charge by the attachment of corona ions. Downwind of a 400 kV line in Somerset that was prone to excessive corona discharge, the estimated mean lower limit excess unipolar space charge density was ˜6000 cm -3, suggesting that up to 100% of aerosols gain excess charge by the attachment of corona ions. Investigations into the time variation of DC electric fields around motorways and the natural diurnal variation of the earth's DC field were also undertaken and compared to the power line data. The results show that the power line time series are clearly distinguishable from typical examples of both types of field variation, demonstrating the relatively highly charged atmospheres that generally exist around high-voltage power lines. The results are of potential public health concern, because they suggest a degree of aerosol charging that may result in a non-trivial increase in lung deposition of inhaled pollutant aerosols.

  18. Childhood cancer and exposure to corona ions from power lines: an epidemiological test.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Bunch, K J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported an association between childhood leukaemia in Britain and proximity of the child's address at birth to high-voltage power lines that declines from the 1960s to the 2000s. We test here whether a 'corona-ion hypothesis' could explain these results. This hypothesis proposes that corona ions, atmospheric ions produced by power lines and blown away from them by the wind, increase the retention of airborne pollutants in the airways when breathed in and hence cause disease. We develop an improved model for calculating exposure to corona ions, using data on winds from meteorological stations and considering the whole length of power line within 600 m of each subject's address. Corona-ion exposure is highly correlated with proximity to power lines, and hence the results parallel the elevations in leukaemia risk seen with distance analyses. But our model explains the observed pattern of leukaemia rates around power lines less well than straightforward distance measurements, and ecological considerations also argue against the hypothesis. This does not disprove the corona-ion hypothesis as the explanation for our previous results, but nor does it provide support for it, or, by extension, any other hypothesis dependent on wind direction.

  19. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Northern Lines Railway, Inc. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Northern Lines Railway, Inc. (NLR), has agreed to grant restricted local trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the rail lines owned by BNSF and...

  20. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  1. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... June 26, 2013, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 and 49 CFR Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway...

  2. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: Under 49 U.S.C.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately...

  3. Space Weather Effects on Mid-Latitude Railways: a Statistical Study of Anomalies observed in the Operation of Signaling and Train Control Equipment on the East-Siberian Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinskii, V. V.; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Lyahov, N. N.; Dorman, L. I.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.

    The end result of a long chain of space weather events beginning on the Sun is the induction of currents in ground-based long conductors as power lines pipelines and railways Intense geomagnetically induced currents GIC can hamper rail traffic by disturbing signaling and train control systems In few cases induced voltages were believed to have affected signaling equipment in Sweden Jansen et al 2000 and in the North of Russia Belov et al 2005 GIC threats have been a concern for technological systems at high-latitude locations due to disturbances driven by electrojet intensifications However other geomagnetic storm processes such as SSC and ring current enhancement can also cause GIC concerns for the technological systems Objective of this report is to continue our research Ptitsyna et al 2005 on possible influence of geomagnetic storms on mid-latitude railways and to perform a statistical research in addition to case studies This will help in providing a basis for railway companies to evaluate the risk of disruption to signaling and train control equipment and devise engineering solutions In the present report we analyzed anomalies in operation of automatic signaling and train control equipment occurred in 2004-2005 on the East-Siberian Railway located at mid-latitudes latitudes 51N-56N longitudes 96E-114E The anomalies consist mainly in unstable functioning and false operations in traffic automatic control systems rail chain switches locomotive control devices etc often resulting in false engagement of railway

  4. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  5. Visual based navigation for power line inspection by using virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón, Alexander; Mondragón, Iván. F.; Prieto, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Power line inspection is an important task for the maintenance of electrical infrastructure. UAVs (Unmanned aerial vehicle) can be very useful in the inspection process because the high costs of obtaining images of power lines from different perspectives and the logistic problems of manned flights. The use of the power line as a reference for navigation can be difficult because the different backgrounds, we consider the use of the tower as a reference in order to improve the orientation of the UAV respect to the electrical grid. In this work we generate a process for navigation based in tower detection. The navigation is performed by using the information extracted from a frontal camera in a visual control scheme and validated in virtual environments.

  6. A system for tranmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, S.P.; Durall, R.L.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-07-30

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an ac power line. The modulation signal frequency range is selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the ac power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal. 4 figs.

  7. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-01-01

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  8. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-09-05

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  9. Refining Estimates of Bird Collision and Electrocution Mortality at Power Lines in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Loss, Scott R.; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Collisions and electrocutions at power lines are thought to kill large numbers of birds in the United States annually. However, existing estimates of mortality are either speculative (for electrocution) or based on extrapolation of results from one study to all U.S. power lines (for collision). Because national-scale estimates of mortality and comparisons among threats are likely to be used for prioritizing policy and management strategies and for identifying major research needs, these estimates should be based on systematic and transparent assessment of rigorously collected data. We conducted a quantitative review that incorporated data from 14 studies meeting our inclusion criteria to estimate that between 12 and 64 million birds are killed each year at U.S. power lines, with between 8 and 57 million birds killed by collision and between 0.9 and 11.6 million birds killed by electrocution. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the majority of uncertainty in our estimates arises from variation in mortality rates across studies; this variation is due in part to the small sample of rigorously conducted studies that can be used to estimate mortality. Little information is available to quantify species-specific vulnerability to mortality at power lines; the available literature over-represents particular bird groups and habitats, and most studies only sample and present data for one or a few species. Furthermore, additional research is needed to clarify whether, to what degree, and in what regions populations of different bird species are affected by power line-related mortality. Nonetheless, our data-driven analysis suggests that the amount of bird mortality at U.S. power lines is substantial and that conservation management and policy is necessary to reduce this mortality. PMID:24991997

  10. Bird behavior and mortality in relation to power lines in prairie habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the magnitude of avian mortality caused by power transmission lines in prairie habitats during the two spring and two fall migration periods between July 1980 and May 1982. Searches for dead birds were made at least twice weekly during each migration period. Study sites were selected to include 'worst-case' situations involving potentially large concentrations of birds.In total, 633 dead birds were found beneath 9.6 km of power lines. About 81% of the birds were found during fall migration. Removal of birds by scavengers was of minor, although local, importance, and observer error in finding birds was greatest in areas of dense vegetation. Total kill was estimated at 1,332 birds.Data were gathered on more than 7,000 bird flights observed in the vicinity of the power lines. Sixty-eight percent of the birds did not respond to the presence of the power lines. Flaring and climbing over the conductor or overhead ground wire occurred in about 25% of the flights. One hundred nine birds in 82 flocks were observed to collide with a power line. Of these birds, 87% flared to climb over the power line before colliding. The overhead ground wire was responsible for most deaths, as 102 of 109 birds collided with it.Whereas none of the mortality observed was considered to be biologically significant at the particular sites examined, the cumulative effect of mortality sustained from collisions with power lines may be important, particularly to populations of rare or endangered birds.

  11. Refining estimates of bird collision and electrocution mortality at power lines in the United States.

    PubMed

    Loss, Scott R; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Collisions and electrocutions at power lines are thought to kill large numbers of birds in the United States annually. However, existing estimates of mortality are either speculative (for electrocution) or based on extrapolation of results from one study to all U.S. power lines (for collision). Because national-scale estimates of mortality and comparisons among threats are likely to be used for prioritizing policy and management strategies and for identifying major research needs, these estimates should be based on systematic and transparent assessment of rigorously collected data. We conducted a quantitative review that incorporated data from 14 studies meeting our inclusion criteria to estimate that between 12 and 64 million birds are killed each year at U.S. power lines, with between 8 and 57 million birds killed by collision and between 0.9 and 11.6 million birds killed by electrocution. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the majority of uncertainty in our estimates arises from variation in mortality rates across studies; this variation is due in part to the small sample of rigorously conducted studies that can be used to estimate mortality. Little information is available to quantify species-specific vulnerability to mortality at power lines; the available literature over-represents particular bird groups and habitats, and most studies only sample and present data for one or a few species. Furthermore, additional research is needed to clarify whether, to what degree, and in what regions populations of different bird species are affected by power line-related mortality. Nonetheless, our data-driven analysis suggests that the amount of bird mortality at U.S. power lines is substantial and that conservation management and policy is necessary to reduce this mortality.

  12. Effects of conductor sag on spatial distribution of power line magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mamishev, A.V.; Nevels, R.D.; Russell, B.D.

    1996-07-01

    Traditional extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field computation techniques assume that the current carrying power line conductors are straight horizontal wires. This assumption results in a model whose magnetic fields are distorted from those produced in reality. An exact solution and an approximation are proposed for modeling magnetic fields produced by the sagged conductors of power lines, by taking advantage of the fact that the equation of the catenary exactly describes the line sag. The proposed approaches differ in the required computational burden and in the precision of the results. A field mapping measurement example illustrates the applicability and the need for this analysis. The relative importance of the catenary effect is discussed.

  13. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  14. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  15. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  16. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates.

  17. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  18. An algorithm for power line detection and warning based on a millimeter-wave radar video.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qirong; Goshi, Darren S; Shih, Yi-Chi; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2011-12-01

    Power-line-strike accident is a major safety threat for low-flying aircrafts such as helicopters, thus an automatic warning system to power lines is highly desirable. In this paper we propose an algorithm for detecting power lines from radar videos from an active millimeter-wave sensor. Hough Transform is employed to detect candidate lines. The major challenge is that the radar videos are very noisy due to ground return. The noise points could fall on the same line which results in signal peaks after Hough Transform similar to the actual cable lines. To differentiate the cable lines from the noise lines, we train a Support Vector Machine to perform the classification. We exploit the Bragg pattern, which is due to the diffraction of electromagnetic wave on the periodic surface of power lines. We propose a set of features to represent the Bragg pattern for the classifier. We also propose a slice-processing algorithm which supports parallel processing, and improves the detection of cables in a cluttered background. Lastly, an adaptive algorithm is proposed to integrate the detection results from individual frames into a reliable video detection decision, in which temporal correlation of the cable pattern across frames is used to make the detection more robust. Extensive experiments with real-world data validated the effectiveness of our cable detection algorithm.

  19. NEW APPROACHES: Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Lydia

    1997-03-01

    A readily obtainable meter can be used to measure the magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances. Simple calculations show that all likely exposures are below, mostly well below, the maximum exposures recommended by the World Health Organisation.

  20. Power Line Technician. Second Edition. Module C. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module is the third in a series that is designed to help students achieve greater professional and personal success as power line technicians. Each module represents one or more complete units of instruction with components organized into one instructor and one student "package": the instructor's manual and the student workbook. The…

  1. Power Line Technician. Second Edition. Module D. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module is the fourth in a series that is designed to help students achieve greater professional and personal success as power line technicians. Each module represents one or more complete units of instruction with components organized into one instructor and one student "package": the instructor's manual and the student workbook.…

  2. Wired: impacts of increasing power line use by a growing bird population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Francisco; Encarnação, Vitor; Rosa, Gonçalo; Gilbert, Nathalie; Infante, Samuel; Costa, Julieta; D’Amico, Marcello; Martins, Ricardo C.; Catry, Inês

    2017-02-01

    Power lines are increasingly widespread across many regions of the planet. Although these linear infrastructures are known for their negative impacts on bird populations, through collision and electrocution, some species take advantage of electricity pylons for nesting. In this case, estimation of the net impact of these infrastructures at the population level requires an assessment of trade-offs between positive and negative impacts. We compiled historical information (1958–2014) of the Portuguese white stork Ciconia ciconia population to analyze long-term changes in numbers, distribution range and use of nesting structures. White stork population size increased 660% up to 12000 breeding pairs between 1984 and 2014. In the same period, the proportion of nests on electricity pylons increased from 1% to 25%, likely facilitated by the 60% increase in the length of the very high tension power line grid (holding the majority of the nests) in the stork’s distribution range. No differences in breeding success were registered for storks nesting on electricity pylons versus other structures, but a high risk of mortality by collision and electrocution with power lines was estimated. We discuss the implications of this behavioral change, and of the management responses by power line companies, both for stork populations and for managers.

  3. Power Line Technician. Second Edition. Module B. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module is the second in a series that is designed to help students achieve greater professional and personal success as power line technicians. Each module represents one or more complete units of instruction with components organized into one instructor and one student "package": the instructor's manual and the student workbook.…

  4. 76 FR 76044 - Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama... prohibited to all vessels and persons unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port (COTP) Mobile.... Coast Guard Sector Mobile (spw), Building 102, Brookley Complex South Broad Street Mobile, AL...

  5. A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

  6. Power Line Technician. Second Edition. Module A. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module is the first in a series that is designed to help students achieve greater professional and personal success as power line technicians. Each module represents one or more complete units of instruction with components organized into one instructor and one student "package": the instructor's manual and the student workbook. The…

  7. Power line characterization from an airborne data collection with a millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshi, Darren S.; Bui, Long Q.

    2014-05-01

    Enhancing the operational safety of small, maneuverable rotorcraft has been a critical consideration in the development of next generation situational awareness sensor suites. From landing assistance to target detection and obstacle avoidance, millimeter wave radars have become the leading candidate for such solutions due to their ability to operate in degraded visual environments, whether it is weather, induced debris, or night conditions that must be dealt with. Power lines pose arguably the largest safety risk for helicopter operation due to their difficulty in detection and proper identification to support avoidance maneuvering, where even under perfect conditions they can be nearly invisible to the naked eye. The backscatter phenomenology from braided power lines has been well-studied and formulated in previous literature, albeit mainly in controlled laboratory settings or limited field trials. Subsequently, the ability to simply detect power lines at operational distances up to around 2 km has been demonstrated. In this work, an analysis is performed on the measureable characteristics of power lines captured in a representative operational environment for helicopters. The test location included a diverse set of power line configurations with surrounding ground and tower clutter, representing a realistic scenario. A radiometrically calibrated w-band real-beam FMCW sensor allows the study and estimation of target RCS, as well as evaluation against the developed theory. All analysis is performed on dynamically captured data from a helicopter, where platform dynamics and system stability also play a significant role in a processed result. Results from this work will aid the effective development of next generation situational awareness systems.

  8. Measurements and Modeling of Noise on 22.9-kV Medium-Voltage Underground Power Line for Broadband Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Shin, Donghwan; Kim, Yonghwa; Lee, Jaejo; Eom, Kihwan

    This paper proposed the measurements and modeling of noise on the 22.9-kV Medium-Voltage (MV) underground power distribution cable for Broadband Power Line Communication (BPLC). The proposed measurement system was composed of inductive coupler and Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope (DPO). The measurement noise data was obtained from thirty-two pad mounted transformers in the test field located in Choji area of Ansan city. After conducting analysis of noise characteristics in time and frequency domain, the noise model are presented. In order to analyze the noise in frequency domain, Power Spectral Density (PSD) was computed with empirical data using Welch's method. The modeling of the power line noise at each frequency carried out using Cumulative Probability Distribution (CPD) of the noise power. It compared with common Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) of Nakagami-m distribution, Gaussian distribution, Gamma distribution. In low frequency range, gamma distribution was fitted with the CPD. Nakagami-m distribution provides a good fitting to the noise CPD above 20MHz frequency range.

  9. High-voltage overhead power lines in epidemiology: patterns of time variations in current load and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Reitan, J B; Tynes, T; Kvamshagen, K A; Vistnes, A I

    1996-01-01

    In epidemiological studies of electromagnetic fields and health effects, exposure classification is crucial. There is no generally accepted biophysical interaction mechanism, but many studies are based on the hypothesis of a causal relationship with the strength of magnetic field. Some definition of the magnitude of exposure must be used, e.g., mean magnetic flux density, the integral of magnetic flux and time, or a peak value. Magnetic fields around a particular power line depend on the current load. The aim of the present study was to follow variations in line current load in the power supply system of the largest Norwegian city on a yearly, monthly, daily and diurnal basis. Fairly large variations in load were found, but increases in consumption were not necessarily reflected in current load on high voltage lines. The correlation between outdoor temperature and current load varied widely, depending on the type of power station feeding the line in question. The registered time variations are large enough to interfere with epidemiological classification of residences and testing of epidemiological hypotheses.

  10. [Current state and prospects of development of railway hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Suvorov, S V

    1999-01-01

    Current planning in railway hygiene is conducted according to the special requirements of railway industry. Specific medical and prophylactic programs specified are on safety arrangements of railway workers, environmental protection in connection with intensive functioning of railways. The authors represent major prospective trends of research in occupational medicine and industrial ecology for railway transport.

  11. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)-assembly and disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two... Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)—assembly and disassembly...) Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited. No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or...

  16. Attenuation Characteristic Modeling of Power-line Channel in Cargo Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Shinji; Ishii, Seiichiro; Nishioka, Jun; Yamada, Yoshio

    Power-line communication (PLC) based local area network (LAN) in cargo ships is one of the promising applications of the PLC technology. In this paper, the signal attenuation characteristic when transmitting with the differential-mode (DIF) and the common-mode (COM) has been modeled respectively to design the PLC network in a cargo ship. The characteristic has been analyzed from the measured transfer function of 440V power-line channels for reefer containers in two typical ships. The measured transfer function was averaged from 2M to 30MHz (or until the measurement limit frequency) and approximated by the number of branches and the length of a signal propagating route. The mean accuracy of the obtained approximation equations was ±4dB. The area where the signal attenuation of COM transmission is less than that of DIF transmission has been studied from the equations.

  17. A simple packet retransmission strategy for throughput and delay enhancement on power line communication channels

    SciTech Connect

    Onunga, J.O. ); Donaldson, R.W. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    A new, simple, and effective communication protocol is developed and evaluated for use on power line distribution networks. The protocol involves retransmission of unacknowledged packets, which are sent in either single or multiple (N) copies in accordance with estimates of communication link quality. Multiple packet copies can be code combined at the receiver, using majority voting on each bit position, to reduce packet error rates. Adaptive link quality estimates are based on the receipt or absence of positive acknowledgements. Information throughput efficiency is calculated and N optimized in terms of system variables. Performance benefits of code combining are clearly demonstrated. The algorithm was implemented and tested using a five-station intrabuilding power line communications network operating at 1.2, 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 kbit/s data rate. Substantial throughput and delay improvement occurred on poor quality links, without degrading performance on good links.

  18. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  19. Power-Line Harmonic Radiation: Can It Significantly Affect the Earth's Radiation Belts?

    PubMed

    Thorne, R M; Tsurutani, B T

    1979-05-25

    It has been suggested that harmonic radiation from the earth's 50- and 60-hertz power transmission lines might significantly influence the distribution of electrons in the radiation belts. On the basis of observations presented here, it seems advisable to accept such a hypothesis with caution. New evidence suggests that power-line radiation does not play any major role in the nonadiabatic dynamics of radiation belt electrons.

  20. Power-line harmonic radiation - Can it significantly affect the earth's radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that harmonic radiation from the earth's 50- and 60-hertz power transmission lines might significantly influence the distribution of electrons in the radiation belts. On the basis of observations presented here, it seems advisable to accept such a hypothesis with caution. New evidence suggests that power-line radiation does not play any major role in the nonadiabatic dynamics of radiation belt electrons.

  1. Analysis of the grounding system for a mobile communication site placed on HV power line mast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bîrsan, I.; Munteanu, C.; Horgoș, M.; Ilut, T.

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential distribution on the soil surface or potential variation on the main directions inside computing mobile site. I want to study a system made the earth a mobile communications site, antennas operator and the system of which the earth is placed on a High Voltage Power Line Mast (LEA 110 KV). I made direct measurements and I use a 3D software for analyze the results and simulating some possible solutions.

  2. Numerical simulation of overvoltage caused by lightning on aerial power lines, including the corona effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahcene, Z.; Bernard, G.

    1981-12-01

    A corona effect analog model is studied, and the influence of surges due to lightning on power lines is discussed. The effect of a lightning strike on lines with and without guard cables was simulated. Results show that the surge is very strongly damped as it travels away from the strike point. The corona effect lengthens front times and dampens the high frequency components of the propagated waves.

  3. Electromagnetic fields and cancer in children residing near Norwegian high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Tynes, T; Haldorsen, T

    1997-02-01

    The aim of the nested case-control study reported here was to test the hypothesis that exposure to electromagnetic fields of the type generated by high-voltage power lines increases the incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years. The study population comprised children who during at least one of the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, 1987, or 1989 had lived in a census ward crossed by a high-voltage power line. The cases were diagnosed from 1965 to 1989 and were matched to controls by year of birth, sex, and municipality. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields was calculated by means of computer programs in which power line characteristics and distance were taken into account. No association was found between exposure to time-weighted average exposure to magnetic fields and cancer at all sites, brain tumors, lymphoma, or leukemia. Cancer at other sites showed elevated odds ratios in the two highest exposure categories in some, but not all, measures of exposure. This study provides little support for an association between children's exposure to magnetic fields and cancer and no support for an association between leukemia and such exposure, but no firm conclusions can be drawn owing to the small numbers involved.

  4. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.

    PubMed

    Lercher, P; Brink, M; Rudisser, J; Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Baulac, M; Defrance, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643) we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A), Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A), Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A), Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  5. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4-...

  6. 3. Claremont Railway Bridge and Clement and Rossiter Store in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Claremont Railway Bridge and Clement and Rossiter Store in context, looking southeast - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  7. [Achievements and prospects in railway transport hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    1997-01-01

    A unique Institute of Railway Hygiene was created 70 years ago in Russia, one of the major railway countries in the world. Since then the Institute's staffers have carried out huge work on improvement of railway workers' health, prevention of their exposure to noise, unfavorable microclimate, vibration and other occupational hazards. Significant contribution into the world occupational hygiene was made by such Institute's professionals as S.F. Kazansky, P.I. Nikitin, A.M. Volkov and others.

  8. Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

  9. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  10. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  11. The ac power line protection for an IEEE 587 Class B environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roehr, W. D.; Clark, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The 587B series of protectors are unique, low clamping voltage transient suppressors to protect ac-powered equipment from the 6000V peak open-circuit voltage and 3000A short circuit current as defined in IEEE standard 587 for Category B transients. The devices, which incorporate multiple-stage solid-state protector components, were specifically designed to operate under multiple exposures to maximum threat levels in this severe environment. The output voltage peaks are limited to 350V under maximum threat conditions for a 120V ac power line, thus providing adequate protection to vulnerable electronic equipment. The principle of operation and test performance data is discussed.

  12. Extremum seeking x-ray position feedback using power line harmonic leakage as the perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, S.; Kissick, D. J.; Venugopalan, N.; Ogata, C. M.; Makarov, O.; Stepanov, S.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2016-09-01

    Small x-ray beam sizes necessary for probing nanoscale phenomena require exquisite stability to prevent data corruption by noise. One source of instability at synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines is the slow detuning of x-ray optics to marginal alignment where the onset of clipping increases the beam's susceptibility to higher frequency position oscillations. In this article, we show that a 1 μ m amplitude horizontal x-ray beam oscillation driven by power line harmonic leakage into the electron storage ring can be used as perturbation for horizontal position extremum seeking feedback. Feedback performance is characterized by convergence to 1.5% away from maximum intensity at optimal alignment.

  13. [Occupational morbidity of railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed.

  14. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  15. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  16. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  17. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  18. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  19. [Social and medical problems of occupational health of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, O N

    2000-01-01

    The article "Social and medical problems of healthcare in railway transport" presents principal factors influencing railway workers' health. The factors are those of social importance and influencing occupational suitability, general morbidity and morbidity with transitory disablement, disability in railway transport and its causes. The article shows therapeutic, sanitary and epidemiologic, social measures of prophylaxis for better work conditions and preservation of railway workers' health.

  20. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  1. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  2. 47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, and drive equipment for Railways #l and #2, Marine Railway Headhouse, ground floor, north end, drive gears in foreground, pulling gears for Railway # 1 in background. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  3. Assessment of frequent cutting as a plant-community management technique in power-line corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luken, James O.; Hinton, Andrew C.; Baker, Douglas G.

    1991-05-01

    Repeated cutting of vegetation at or near ground level in power-line corridors is a common practice for inhibiting tree growth and regeneration. However, few data exist on long-term community responses. In this study, we sampled 20 northern Kentucky power-line corridors and compared their seedling and sapling communities to the edges and interiors of adjacent undisturbed forests. Mean seedling and sapling density in corridors was roughly twice that of adjacent undisturbed forest interiors, suggesting that repeated cutting is not a viable method of inhibiting tree regeneration. Corridor communities were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Fraxinus americana (white ash), but ordinations indicated strong similaritties among communities in corridors and adjacent forests. Many of the tree species found in adjacent forests, with the exception of a few shade-tolerant species, had highest seedling and sapling densities in corridors. Stump or root sprouting by many species appears to regenerate forests quickly after cutting. However, disturbed soil and detritus accumulations caused by management crews and their equipment may also create a large variety of microsites for seedling establishment. Because repeated cutting selects for dominance by species with highest sprout growth rates, it should not be used as the sole management technique. It may instead be used to alter the vigor, stature, and stored reserves of trees so that herbicides or other methods of tree control can be used more efficiently.

  4. Investigation into the Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients on Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, K.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage ratings needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations. and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

  6. Development of Getting Up Detection and Report Device using Power Line Communication and Mat-Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Kazuo; Tanaka, Kanya; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yasuoka, Katsunori; Uchibori, Akihiko; Oka, Masato

    In this paper, we propose the getting up detection and report device which can be installed in middle-small facilities and ordinary houses. This device combines a mat sensor which detects rising and a power line communication (PLC) device as a reporting system. This device does not need any additional construction for installation as long as facilities equip electric power supply 100V for ordinary businesses. At first, the mat sensor in the system detects rising of an elderly person or lying down to bed. The PLC system sends ON/OFF signal and reports to nurses and staff members in their rooms. Since the main objective of the PLC system is to keep exact detection and transmission of the mat-sensor ON/OFF signal, high-speed network is not necessary. It is required that the system should be robust against noises of household electrical appliances. We used the selected-career method as a transmission method in which we located 2 lines of tone frequency (132kHz or 115kHz) for the power line transmission in the device. The effectiveness of the proposed device has been confirmed by the field experiments in welfare facilities for elderly people.

  7. A power line data communication interface using spread spectrum technology in home automation

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Khan, A.Z.

    1996-07-01

    Building automation technology is rapidly developing towards more reliable communication systems, devices that control electronic equipments. These equipment if controlled leads to efficient energy management, and savings on the monthly electricity bill. Power Line communication (PLC) has been one of the dreams of the electronics industry for decades, especially for building automation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate communication methods among electronic control devices through an AC power line carrier within the buildings for more efficient energy control. The paper outlines methods of communication over a powerline, namely the X-10 and CE bus. It also introduces the spread spectrum technology as to increase speed to 100--150 times faster than the X-10 system. The powerline carrier has tremendous applications in the field of building automation. The paper presents an attempt to realize a smart house concept, so called, in which all home electronic devices from a coffee maker to a water heater microwave to chaos robots will be utilized by an intelligent network whenever one wishes to do so. The designed system may be applied very profitably to help in energy management for both customer and utility.

  8. Avian behavior and mortality at power lines in coastal South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savereno, A.J.; Savereno, L.A.; Boettcher, R.; Haig, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    We compared avian behavior and mortality associated with two 115-kV transmission lines on the central South Carolina coast during 3,392 hours of observation from May 1991 through May 1994. One line was marked with 30-cm-diameter yellow aviation markers. The second line was unmarked, but was similar in most other aspects. We conducted ground searches (n = 445) beneath each line year-round to document avian mortality due to power-line collisions. At marked lines, birds that approached at line height changed behavior more at unmarked lines (P< 0.001), and fewer crossed between static and conductor wires. Collision rate was 53% lower at marked than unmarked lines. Among collisions at both sites, 82% of birds collided with static wires. Based on observed collisions and carcass recoveries, wading birds particularly appeared to be at risk. We concluded that aviation markers were effective at increasing line visibility and reducing collisions and recommend marking static wires of power lines in potentially sensitive areas.

  9. Investigation Into The Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients On Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, Ken

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage rating needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  10. Current densities and total contact currents associated with 400 kV power line tasks.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Elovaara, Jarmo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze all current values from measured periods while performing tasks on 400 kV power lines. Our aim was also to study the average current densities and average total contact currents caused by electric fields in 400 kV power line tasks. Two workers simulated the following tasks: (A) climbing up a portal tower, (B) climbing up a portal transposing tower, (C) working on the cross-arm of a portal tower, (D) climbing up a portal tube tower, (E) climbing up a Tannenbaum tower on the side of the energized circuit with the other circuit unenergized, (F) climbing up a Tannenbaum tower with both circuits energized, and (G) climbing up a Donau tower. The highest average current density in the neck was 2.5 mA/m(2) (calculated internal electric field 31.5-63.0 mV/m), and the highest average of the contact currents was 240.0 µA. All measured values at 400 kV towers were lower than the limit value of 10 mA/m(2) in the first version of Directive 2004/40/EC and the basic restrictions (0.1 and 0.8 V/m) of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection.

  11. Mapping threats to power line corridors for Connecticut rights-of-way management.

    PubMed

    Poulos, H M; Camp, A E

    2011-02-01

    Trees are a major threat to power line security across forested regions of the world. We developed a decision support system for identifying locations in Connecticut, USA where trees have grown tall enough to make contact with transmission lines during storms. We used the Random Forest algorithm, danger tree presence/absence data, and 25 raster environmental datasets to develop (1) an understanding of the abiotic environmental settings that host danger trees and (2) a spatially explicit map of danger tree distributions across Connecticut power line corridors. Danger trees were prevalent in locations (1) with an infrequent history of storms; (2) forested and residential land uses; and (3) low to middle elevations. Products from this research can be transferred to adaptive right-of-way management because they present managers with key information on where danger trees are likely to occur, and the methods presented herein have great potential for future application to other regions managers seek to identify high priority areas for danger tree removal.

  12. The role of power line rights-of-way as an alternative habitat for declined mire butterflies.

    PubMed

    Lensu, Terhi; Komonen, Atte; Hiltula, Outi; Päivinen, Jussi; Saari, Veli; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2011-10-01

    Habitat loss is one of the greatest threats for biodiversity. In Finland, two thirds of natural mires have been drained for silviculture, which transforms open wetlands into dense forests. However, vegetation management of power line rights-of-way (ROW) maintain the drained mires as open areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the power line ROW vegetation management on butterfly abundance, species richness and community structure by comparing the managed power line ROWs to unmanaged drained control sites and to natural mires. The species richness or abundance of mire butterflies did not differ between the power line ROWs and natural mires. In contrast, both species richness and abundance of butterflies was low on the unmanaged control sites. Tree canopy cover had a negative effect on mire butterflies and this is most likely related to changes in microclimate. The results indicate that the active vegetation removal in the power line ROWs maintain alternative habitats for mire butterflies; yet, the power line ROWs cannot substitute the natural mires.

  13. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  14. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  15. 76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  16. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Adams--Warnock Railway, Inc. (AWRY), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under ] 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate,...

  17. A Bayesian Prediction Framework of Weather Based Power Line Damages in the Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    frediani, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Wanik, D.; Scerbo, D.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictability of damages to overhead power distribution lines from severe weather events in the New England area. During storms, trees and branches can come down and interact with power lines that results in significant interruptions to electricity distribution, causing major interruptions to residents and monetary losses to the utility company. In Connecticut, a densely forested state, severe winds and precipitation (in the form of rain and snow) from storms are key weather factors that challenge the power grid infrastructure vulnerability. Evaluating the local predictability of these impacts may aid local power utilities with crew allocation and preparedness during an event. A probabilistic approach to damage prediction caused by trees subjected to severe weather is being investigated in the region. This study specifically, explores the feasibility of applying Bayesian inversion technique to weather parameters by developing a damage decision tree composed of various meteorological and static parameters, like wind gust, precipitation (rain and snow accumulation and rates), high canopy forest density and tree trimming history for the power distribution lines. The resulting decision tree can be used as a Bayesian inversion database to predict the probability distribution of damages given a storm forecast. The Bayesian database is based on a historical data source provided by The Connecticut Light & Power Company (Connecticut's primary power utility) containing geographical information of trouble spots caused by thunderstorm and winter/snow-storm events; power line specifications and trimming history; and high-resolution model analysis of those storms. The analysis is based on a 2-sqkm model grid cropped over the state of Connecticut comprising a database of 3,307 pixels per storm. Each storm pixel is flagged to contain power line damages or no-damages. A total of 50 storm simulations is used to build the database. Pairs of

  18. Power lines: Urban space, energy development and the making of the modern Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Todd Andrew

    "Power Lines: Urban Space, Energy Development, and the Making of the Modern Southwest" explores the social and environmental transformation of the postwar Southwest and the resulting disputes between urban boosters, federal officials, Native Americans, and environmental activists. The dissertation focuses on the infrastructure built to provide the burgeoning populations of Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other Southwestern cities with electricity. This infrastructure allowed metropolitan boosters in the Southwest to attract Cold War defense manufacturing and to build a new suburban landscape even as industrialization on Indian lands provided electricity for those landscapes. Tracing the transition of electrical generation from a dispersed geography relying on local resources to a centralized geography utilizing primarily coal from Navajo land, "Power Lines" demonstrates the increasing centrality of Indian lands and labor to the metropolitan Southwest. Paying close attention to these networks reveals the far-reaching changes caused by postwar metropolitan growth. "Power Lines" challenges understandings of urban space that neglect the material resources that allow cities to "live." As the nation's cities and suburbs became increasingly energy-intensive, electrical utilities reached deep into the metropolitan periphery, transforming landscapes hundreds of miles from city centers into urban space. The construction of the new "geography of power" in the Southwest also reflects the impact of growth liberalism on postwar growth, as federal money funded suburban, manufacturing, and infrastructure developments. This pursuit of growth produced new political struggles, both as the development of energy resources conflicted with emerging environmentalist sensibilities and as American Indians increasingly resented the industrialization of their land for the benefit of others. By the 1970s, the simultaneous pursuit and criticism of growth came to define the modern Southwest. The

  19. Observations of radiation from power lines in near-earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V. E.; Dudkin, F. L.; Pronenko, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The possible effects of technogenic impacts on the ionosphere, with the continuing trend towards its sustainable growth, are unknown today. It is therefore very important and urgent task to conduct statistically valid research related to the study of variations of ionospheric parameters due to the influence of powerful technogenic factors, primarily due to a significant increase of the electromagnetic energy production. In this paper, we discuss new results of observations of electromagnetic fields in the ionosphere at the power lines main frequency of 50 (60) Hz and its harmonics onboard SICH-1M (2004) and CHIBIS-M (2012-2014) satellites. The spatial distribution of the observed phenomena and their connection with possible ground-based sources-powerful transmission lines is presented. It is concluded that organization of regular monitoring of technogenic fields may allow continuous control of energy consumption in both the local (within a country or even a powerful consumer) and global scales.

  20. Spectral response of atmospheric electric field measurements near AC high voltage power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Matthews, J. C.; Wright, M. D.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    To understand the influence of corona ion emission on the atmospheric electrical field, measurements were made near to two AC high voltage power lines. A JCI 131 field-mill recorded the atmospheric electric field over one year. Meteorological measurements were also taken. The data series is divided in four zones (dependent on wind direction): whole zones, Z0; zone 1, Z1; zone 2, Z2; zone 3, Z3. Z3 is the least affected by corona ion emission and for that reason it is used as a reference against Z1 and Z2, which are strongly influenced by this phenomena. Analysis was undertaken for all weather days and dry days only. The Lomb-Scargle strategy developed for unevenly spaced time-series is used to calculate the spectral response of the aforementioned zones. Only frequencies above 1 minute are considered.

  1. Achieving EMC Emissions Compliance for an Aeronautics Power Line Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominiak, S.; Vos, G.; ter Meer, T.; Widmer, H.

    2012-05-01

    Transmitting data over the power distribution network - Power Line Communications (PLC) -provides an interesting solution to reducing the weight and complexity of wiring networks in commercial aircraft. One of the potential roadblocks for the introduction of this technology is achieving EMC emissions compliance. In this article an overview of the EMC conducted and radiated emissions testing for PLC- enabled aeronautics equipment is presented. Anomalies resulting from chamber resonances leading to discrepancies between the conducted emissions tests and the measured radiated emissions are identified and described. Measurements made according to the current version of the civil aeronautical EMC standard, EUROCAE ED-14F (RTCA DO-160F), show that PLC equipment can achieve full EMC emissions compliance.

  2. Measurements of induced voltages and currents in a distribution power line and associated atmospheric parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Perez, Julio

    1988-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of thunderstorms around the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has affected scheduled launch, landing, and other ground operations for many years. In order to protect against and provide safe working facilities, KSC has performed and hosted several studies on lightning phenomena. For the reasons mentioned above, KSC has established the Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (ASFL). At these facilities KSC launches wire-towing rockets into thunderstorms to trigger natural lightning to the launch site. A program named Rocket Triggered Lightning Program (RTLP) is being conducted at the ASFL. This report calls for two of the experiments conducted in the summer 1988 Rocket Triggered Lightning Program. One experiment suspended an electric field mill over the launching areas from a balloon about 500 meters high to measure the space charges over the launching area. The other was to connect a waveform recorder to a nearby distribution power line to record currents and voltages wave forms induced by natural and triggered lightning.

  3. Ergonomics hazards analysis of linemen's power line fixing work in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Sun, Linyan; Du, Jianhua; Wu, Fengge

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative methods, such as OWAS (Ovako working posture analysis system) and behavior observation, to analyze musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors of power line fixing work in China. Video-based sampling was used to record and analyze the frequency and posture of on-pole activities. Those key subtasks showed ergonomics characteristics of on-pole fixing tasks. Insulator-fixing was the longest subtask (33% of total working time). Bar-installing was the second longest (26% of total working time). It was evident that bar-installing and insulator-fixing were full of hazardous risks. The action categories of the 2 subtasks were higher than of the other ones. The 2 subtasks were also time-consuming, difficult and induced MSDs. Assistant linemen faced more hazardous factors than chief linemen.

  4. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  5. Estimating magnetic fields of homes near transmission lines in the California Power Line Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Ximena P; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-07-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk.

  6. An interactive 2-D power-line modeling and simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, David; Adelman, Ross

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Power-Line unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Modeling and Simulation (ARL-PLUMS) is a tool for estimating and analyzing quasi-static electric and magnetic fields due to power lines. This tool consists of an interactive 2-D graphical user interface (GUI) and a compute engine that can be used to calculate and visualize the E-Field and H-Field due to as many as seven conductors (two 3-phase circuits and a ground wire). ARL-PLUMS allows the user to set the geometry of the lines and the load conditions on those lines, and then calculate Ey, Ez, Hy, or Hz along a linear path or cutting plane, or in the form of a movie. The path can be along the ground or in the air to simulate the fields that might be observed, for example, by a robotic vehicle or a UAV. ARL-PLUMS makes several simplifying assumptions in order to allow simulations to be completed on a laptop PC interactively. In most cases, the results are excellent, providing a "90% solution" in just a few minutes of total modeling and simulation time. This paper describes the physics used by ARL-PLUMS, including the simplifying assumptions and the 2-D Method of Moments solver. Examples of electric and magnetic fields for different wire configurations, including typical 3-phase distribution and transmissions lines, are provided. Comparisons to similar results using a full 3-D model are also shown, and a discussion of errors that may be expected from the 2-D simulations is provided.

  7. Computer vision-guided robotic system for electrical power lines maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Jack; Laliberte, T.; Houde, Regis; Pelletier, Michel; Gosselin, Clement M.; Laurendeau, Denis

    1995-12-01

    The paper presents several modules of a computer vision assisted robotic system for the maintenance of live electrical power lines. The basic scene of interest is composed of generic components such as a crossarm, a power line and a porcelain insulator. The system is under the supervision of an operator which validates each subtask. The system uses a 3D range finder mounted at the end effector of a 6 dof manipulator for the acquisition of range data on the scene. Since more than one view is required to obtain enough information on the scene, a view integration procedure is applied to the data in order to merge the information in a single reference frame. A volumetric description of the scene, in this case an octree, is built using the range data. The octree is transformed into an occupancy grid which is used for avoiding collisions between the manipulator and the components of the scene during the line manipulation step. The collision avoidance module uses the occupancy grid to create a discrete electrostatic potential field representing the various goals (e.g. objects of interest) and obstacles in the scene. The algorithm takes into account the articular limits of the robot and uses a redundant manipulator to ensure that the collision avoidance constraints do not compete with the task which is to reach a given goal with the end-effector. A pose determination algorithm called Iterative Closest Point is presented. The algorithm allows to compute the pose of the various components of the scene and allows the robot to manipulate these components safely. The system has been tested on an actual scene. The manipulation was successfully implemented using a synchronized geometry range finder mounted on a PUMA 760 robot manipulator under the control of Cartool.

  8. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  9. A Mathematical Model for Railway Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. N.

    1996-01-01

    We present a general method for modeling safety aspects of railway control systems. Using our modeling method, one can progressively refine an abstract railway safety model, sucessively adding layers of detail about how a real system actually operates, while maintaining a safety property that refines the original abstract safety property. This method supports a top-down approach to specification of railway control systems and to proof of a variety of safety-related properties. We demonstrate our method by proving safety of the classical block control system.

  10. NIOSH alert: Request for assistance in preventing electrocutions of crane operators and crew members working near overhead power lines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In this alert, NIOSH warned that crane operators and crew members may be electrocuted when working near overhead power lines. Five cases were described which resulted in six electrocutions. Case 1 involved a 29 year old who pushed the crane cable on a 1 yard cement bucket into a 7,200 volt power line. Case 2 involved a 33 year old well driller who was electrocuted when a metal pipe lifted by a truck mounted crane contacted a 12,000 volt overhead power line. The third case involved a 24 year old forman for a telecommunications company who was electrocuted when he grabbed the door handle of a truck mounted crane whose boom was in contact with a 7,200 volt overhead power line. Case 4 involved a 37 year old construction laborer electrocuted while pulling a wire rope attached to a crane cable toward a load. The fifth case involved a 20 year old male truck driver and his 70 year old male employer who were electrocuted when the boom of a truck mounted crane contacted a 7,200 volt conductor of an overhead power line.

  11. Steel - Structural, reinforcing; Pressure vessel, railway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains specifications for structural steel used in various constructions; concrete reinforcement; plate and forgings for boilers and pressure vesseles; rails, axles, wheels and other accessories for railway service.

  12. Relative accuracy of grid references derived from postcode and address in UK epidemiological studies of overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Bunch, K J

    2014-12-01

    In the UK, the location of an address, necessary for calculating the distance to overhead power lines in epidemiological studies, is available from different sources. We assess the accuracy of each. The grid reference specific to each address, provided by the Ordnance Survey product Address-Point, is generally accurate to a few metres, which will usually be sufficient for calculating magnetic fields from the power lines. The grid reference derived from the postcode rather than the individual address is generally accurate to tens of metres, and may be acceptable for assessing effects that vary in the general proximity of the power line, but is probably not acceptable for assessing magnetic-field effects.

  13. Flight route Designing and mission planning Of power line inspecting system Based On multi-sensor UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowei, Xie; Zhengjun, Liu; Zhiquan, Zuo

    2014-03-01

    In order to obtain various information of power facilities such as spatial location, geometry, images data and video information in the infrared and ultraviolet band and so on, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) power line inspecting system needs to integrate a variety of sensors for data collection. Low altitude and side-looking imaging are required for UAV flight to ensure sensors to acquire high-quality data and device security. In this paper, UAV power line inspecting system is deferent from existing ones that used in Surveying and Mapping. According to characteristics of UAV for example equipped multiple sensor, side-looking imaging, working at low altitude, complex terrain conditions and corridor type flight, this paper puts forward a UAV power line inspecting scheme which comprehensively considered of the UAV performance, sensor parameters and task requirements. The scheme is finally tested in a region of Guangdong province, and the preliminary results show that the scheme is feasible.

  14. Annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance due to night-time railway noise examined in the field.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Rolny, Vinzent; Maass, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria

    2012-11-01

    Railway noise interferes with daytime activities and disturbs sleep leading to annoyance of exposed residents. The main objective of this paper was to establish exposure-response relationships between nocturnal railway noise exposure and annoyance and to examine self-reported sleep disturbances as short-term reactions to noise. In a field study 33 residents living close to railway tracks in the Cologne/Bonn area (Germany) were investigated. Railway noise was measured indoors during nine consecutive nights at each site. Questionnaires referring to annoyance and non-acoustical factors were performed. Annoyance ratings increased significantly with the total number of trains and freight trains per night, and non-significantly with rising number of passenger trains and energy equivalent sound pressure level (L(Aeq)), when adjusting the model for non-acoustical variables. The total number of trains and the number of freight trains also significantly affected self-reported awakening frequency, but no other aspects of subjective sleep disturbances. The responses of this subject sample referring to railway noise in the previous night point to rather low impairments of exposed residents.

  15. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  16. Underbarrier interference

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, B.

    2011-04-15

    Research Highlights: > In tunneling a momentum, tangent to a border of the prebarrier region, is important. > A tangent momentum, transferred under the barrier, is real in contrast to normal one. > Real momenta lead to caustics points under the barrier where new branches are formed. > Resulting eigenstate can be not small after the barrier. > This results in a possibility of penetration through an almost classical barrier. - Abstract: Quantum tunneling through a two-dimensional static barrier becomes unusual when a momentum of an electron has a tangent component with respect to a border of the prebarrier region. If the barrier is not homogeneous in the direction perpendicular to tunneling a fraction of the electron state is waves propagating away from the barrier. When the tangent momentum is zero a mutual interference of the waves results in an exponentially small outgoing flux. The finite tangent momentum destroys the interference due to formation of caustics by the waves. As a result, a significant fraction of the prebarrier density is carried away from the barrier providing a not exponentially small penetration even through an almost classical barrier. The total electron energy is well below the barrier.

  17. Reliability assessment of an OVH HV power line truss transmission tower subjected to seismic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Karol; Jakubowska, Patrycja; Soltysik, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    The study focuses on the reliability of a transmission tower OS24 ON150 + 10, an element of an OVH HV power line, under seismic loading. In order to describe the seismic force, the real-life recording of the horizontal component of the El Centro earthquake was adopted. The amplitude and the period of this excitation are assumed random, their variation is described by Weibull distribution. The possible space state of the phenomenon is given in the form of a structural response surface (RSM methodology), approximated by an ANOVA table with directional sampling (DS) points. Four design limit states are considered: stress limit criterion for a natural load combination, criterion for an accidental combination (one-sided cable snap), vertical and horizontal translation criteria. According to these cases the HLRF reliability index β is used for structural safety assessment. The RSM approach is well suited for the analysis - it is numerically efficient, not excessively time consuming, indicating a high confidence level. Given the problem conditions, the seismic excitation is shown the sufficient trigger to the loss of load-bearing capacity or stability of the tower.

  18. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-01-01

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:25051035

  19. A skeptic's view of PLR effects in the magnetosphere. [Power Line Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Thorne, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A summary is provided of the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of man-made Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLR) on the earth's magnetosphere and its energetic particle population. It is generally agreed that PLR is strongly attenuated as it propagates into the outer magnetosphere (outside the plasmasphere) and, other than rare cases where ducting occurs, the emissions either do not manage to propagate to the equatorial plane or are sufficiently reduced in amplitude to be below the sensitivity of currently orbiting plasma wave instrumentation. In either case PLR emissions are too weak to have a significant direct effect on scattering the trapped particle population; any possible effects must be indirect. It has, therefore, been postulated that PLR can act as an 'embryonic emission' for triggering intense whistler mode 'chorus', which then via cyclotron resonant interactions, cause particle pitch-angle scattering. Points of disagreement are related to the geographic distribution of chorus, the chorus starting frequency, the Sunday effect, and PLR effects within the plasmasphere.

  20. Target and nontarget discrimination of herbicides applied to vegetation in a power-line corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luken, James O.; Beiting, Steven W.; Kareth, Scott K.; Kumler, Robyn L.; Liu, Jun H.; Seither, Craig A.

    1994-03-01

    We tested two cutting regimens (cut/spray and cut/delay spray) and four radiarc-applied herbicides (Garlon + Tordon, Accord, Accord + Escort, and Krenite) in an Ohio power-line corridor to determine which management combination best eliminated target species (i.e., trees) and preserved nontarget species (i.e., low shrubs, vines, perennial herbs, and grasses). When spraying was delayed after cutting, the herbicide with the least impact on nontarget species (Krenite) also was least efficient at killing target trees. Spraying soon after cutting improved tree-killing efficiency of several herbicides, but it also increased the negative impact on nontarget species. The herbicide with the most consistent tree-killing ability (Accord + Escort) had the most impact on nontarget species. Because none of the herbicide/cutting treatments performed ideally, resource managers must decide the acceptable impact on nontarget species when considering herbicide use. Future success of herbicides as part of an integrated succession management approach requires more selective application methods and formulations so that target effects can be maximized and nontarget effects can be minimized.

  1. Electrocution of Raptors on Power Lines: A Review of Necropsy Methods and Findings.

    PubMed

    Kagan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution. A combination of gross, subgross, and radiographic examinations can aid in identification of subtle injury. Diagnosis is made based on the presence of skin and/or feather burns. Other necropsy findings may include skin lacerations, subcutaneous burns, bruising, limb avulsion, hemopericardium, and vascular rupture. At the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Forensics Laboratory, from 2000 to 2015, 417 raptor deaths were determined to have been caused by electrocution. Bald eagles and golden eagles were the most commonly submitted species. In a retrospective review of 377 cases, for which whole bodies were submitted, 18% of the electrocuted birds had only a single, small (less than 3 cm in diameter) external burn. Small, isolated burns tended to occur on the undersides of the wings at and distal to the elbow and on the lower legs and feet. These areas should be most carefully examined in cases where electrocution injury is not immediately apparent.

  2. Air ion mobility spectra and concentrations upwind and downwind of overhead AC high voltage power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Matthew D.; Buckley, Alison J.; Matthews, James C.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Henshaw, Denis L.

    2014-10-01

    Corona ions produced by high-voltage power lines (HVPLs) can alter the nearby electrical environment, potentially increasing aerosol charge levels downwind. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the concentration and mobility of ions from AC HVPLs and their dispersion away from the line. We present ion concentration and mobility measurements made near AC HVPLs in South-West England. Examples of typical mobility spectra are shown highlighting features commonly observed. Corona was observed during 33 of 46 measurements, at 9 of 11 sites, with positive or ‘bipolar' (both polarities) ion production commonly seen. Ion production usually increases atmospheric concentrations by only a modest amount, but extreme cases can enhance concentration by an order of magnitude or more. A polarity imbalance is required to increase aerosol charge via ion attachment; this was observed on 15 of 24 days when positive corona was observed, but was not seen for negative ions. Ion mobility was higher downwind compared with upwind for both ion polarities, but the increase was not statistically significant. Future work should focus on identifying and characterising ‘heavy-producing' HVPLs, and obtaining results in conditions which may favour negative ion production e.g. high humidity, inclement weather or during nighttime.

  3. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  4. 1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and Rossiter Store in context, looking west - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  5. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN CENTER, RAILWAY RIVER TRUSS ON LEFT, HIGHWAY TRUSSES IN BACKGROUND - White Rock Bridge, Spanning Pawcatuck River & White Rock Canal, Westerly, Washington County, RI

  6. 57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun Sam on the ways seen from Starboard Bow. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  7. 55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug Sam on the ways seen from Port Bow. This was first railway built by BBW on site (Ca.1936). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 37. Detail of pulling gear, electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Detail of pulling gear, electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse (1919), originally in Headhouse for Railway #2. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  10. 40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly building. Note BBW Tug Sam on railway and BBW-Built Stardust (#1) at end of dock. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility 233 is on the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. View westsouthwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west-southwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's edge to Facility 233 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain is in front of electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  16. 9. Detail, chains connecting to railway, leading into Building 24 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail, chains connecting to railway, leading into Building 24 and mechanical hauling equipment. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST DOWN MARKET STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER MARKET STREET AND DESCENDS TO MEET SUBWAY AT 44TH STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 40 CFR 53.55 - Test for effect of variations in power line voltage and ambient temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... line voltage and ambient temperature. 53.55 Section 53.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power line voltage and ambient temperature. (a) Overview. (1) This test procedure is a combined... temperature. Tests shall be conducted in a temperature-controlled environment over four 6-hour time...

  20. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  1. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  2. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  3. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  4. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  5. 56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse, south end: hole in foreground is where gear now installed in Headhouse for Marine Railway #3 was removed. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  6. An improved network model for railway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Keping; Ma, Xin; Shao, Fubo

    In railway traffic, safety analysis is a key issue for controlling train operation. Here, the identification and order of key factors are very important. In this paper, a new network model is constructed for analyzing the railway safety, in which nodes are regarded as causation factors and links represent possible relationships among those factors. Our aim is to give all these nodes an importance order, and to find the in-depth relationship among these nodes including how failures spread among them. Based on the constructed network model, we propose a control method to ensure the safe state by setting each node a threshold. As the results, by protecting the Hub node of the constructed network, the spreading of railway accident can be controlled well. The efficiency of such a method is further tested with the help of numerical example.

  7. A novel modular approach to active power-line harmonic filtering in distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shatshat, Ramadan A.

    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient and reliable modular active harmonic filter system to realize a cost-effective solution to the harmonic problem. The proposed filter system consists of a number CSC modules, each dedicated to filter a specific harmonic of choice (Frequency-Splitting Approach). The power rating of the modules will decrease and their switching frequency will increase as the order of the harmonic to be filtered is increased. The overall switching losses are minimized due to the selected harmonic elimination and balanced a "power rating"-"switching frequency" product. Two ADALINEs are proposed as a part of the filter controller for processing the signals obtained from the power-line. One ADALINE (the Current ADALINE) extracts the fundamental and harmonic components of the distorted current. The other ADALINE (the Voltage ADALINE) estimates the line voltage. The outputs of both ADALINEs are used to construct the modulating signals of the filter modules. The proposed controller decides which CSC filter module(s) is connected to the electric grid. The automated connection of the corresponding filter module(s) is based on decision-making rules in such a way that the IEEE 519-1992 limits are not violated. The information available on the magnitude of each harmonic component allows us to select the active filter bandwidth (i.e., the highest harmonic to be suppressed). This will result in more efficiency and higher performance. The proposed controller adjusts the I dc in each CSC module according to the present magnitude of the corresponding harmonic current. This results in optimum dc-side current value and minimal converter losses. The comparison of the proposed modular active filter scheme and the conventional one converter scheme on practical use in industry is presented. This comparison shows that the proposed solution is more economical, reliable and flexible compared to conventional one. High speed and accuracy of ADALINE, self

  8. VLF Radio Field Strength Measurement of power line carrier system in San Diego, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertel, H. K.

    1981-01-01

    The radio frequency interference (RFI) potential was evaluated for a Powerline Carriet (PLC) installed in San Diego which monitors the performance of an electrical power system. The PLC system generated 30 amperes at 5.79 kHz. The RF radiations were measured to be (typically) 120 dBuV/m at the beginning of the 12 kV powerline and 60 dBuV/m at the end of the powerline. The RF fields varied inversely as the distance squared. Measurements were also performed with a 45 kHz PLC system. The RF fields were of similar amplitude.

  9. Wire Marking Results in a Small but Significant Reduction in Avian Mortality at Power Lines: A BACI Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Rafael; Ponce, Carlos; Palacín, Carlos; Martín, Carlos A.; Martín, Beatriz; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background Collision with electric power lines is a conservation problem for many bird species. Although the implementation of flight diverters is rapidly increasing, few well-designed studies supporting the effectiveness of this costly conservation measure have been published. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information on the largest worldwide marking experiment to date, including carcass searches at 35 (15 experimental, 20 control) power lines totalling 72.5 km, at both transmission (220 kV) and distribution (15 kV–45 kV) lines. We found carcasses of 45 species, 19 of conservation concern. Numbers of carcasses found were corrected to account for carcass losses due to removal by scavengers or being overlooked by researchers, resulting in an estimated collision rate of 8.2 collisions per km per month. We observed a small (9.6%) but significant decrease in the number of casualties after line marking compared to before line marking in experimental lines. This was not observed in control lines. We found no influence of either marker size (large vs. small spirals, sample of distribution lines only) or power line type (transmission vs. distribution, sample of large spirals only) on the collision rate when we analyzed all species together. However, great bustard mortality was slightly lower when lines were marked with large spirals and in transmission lines after marking. Conclusions Our results confirm the overall effectiveness of wire marking as a way to reduce, but not eliminate, bird collisions with power lines. If raw field data are not corrected by carcass losses due to scavengers and missed observations, findings may be biased. The high cost of this conservation measure suggests a need for more studies to improve its application, including wire marking with non-visual devices. Our findings suggest that different species may respond differently to marking, implying that species-specific patterns should be explored, at least for species of conservation

  10. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  11. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas. PMID:26565700

  12. Assessment of electromagnetic field levels from surrounding high-tension overhead power lines for proposed land use.

    PubMed

    Al-Bassam, E; Elumalai, A; Khan, A; Al-Awadi, L

    2016-05-01

    The surrounding outdoor environment for new development has a big effect on the indoor quality of life. The main aim of this work was to determine the suitability of the area for building new schools with reference to electromagnetic field (EMF) effects. The specific objective of this study was to detect the safe distance from the EMF posed by the high-tension overhead power lines in the vicinity of the specified area. The measurements were taken for both the electric and magnetic fields in different months in order to detect the highest EMF levels during the peak power load season. EMDEX II with E-probe and EMDEX II with Linda were used for the measurements. These instruments were all calibrated by ENERTECH Company in USA. The EMF associated with high tension transmission lines that surrounded the proposed site has to be below 0.2 μT (Italian EMF regulations are the most suitable regulations for the establishment of schools in Kuwait). The safety clearance distance from the existing 300-kV high-tension power line has been assigned as 200 m and from other existing 132-kV high-tension power line was 50 m. The proposed site with its predefined boundaries has a magnetic field below the Italian EMF regulations for the establishment of new schools.

  13. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  14. Perceived Stress among Malaysian Railway Workers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Elkalmi, Ramadan; Alshakka, Mohammed; Ghanem, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress is a common work-related problem worldwide. Railway workers are predominantly stressed due to their rigid protocols and limited rest opportunities. This study aimed to determine the level of, and factors associated with, stress among railway workers in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 729 railway workers employed at Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) in eight states in Malaysia via a postal survey. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic characteristics and the validated Malay version of Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10). Response rate was 70.4% (513/729). Results Mean (SD) age of workers was 41.4 (10.7), with the majority aged 30 years or older (79.3%). Mean (SD) perceived stress was 18.8 (4.3). In multiple linear regression analysis, the significant predictors of high stress were high school versus tertiary education (β = 0.10, 95% CI 0.11, 1.73, P = 0.027) and being a white collar worker versus blue collar (β = 0.113, 95% CI 0.10, 1.74, P = 0.010). Conclusions Education level and type of work were significantly associated with perceived stress among railway workers in this study. PMID:27904423

  15. All Aboard the Information Super...Railway!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Frank, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    New information technology is viewed as analogous to a railway network that serves many, in diverse areas, and leads users to new frontiers. It is suggested that higher education can contribute to this system by developing useful new applications, providing guidelines for appropriate "passenger" behavior, and enhancing quality. (MSE)

  16. The development of railway safety in Finland.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    This study reviews the development of railway safety in Finland from 1959 to 2008. The results show that the level of safety has greatly improved over the past five decades. The total number of railway fatalities did not show any obvious decreasing or increasing trend during the first decade, but since the early 1970s the annual number of fatalities has decreased from about 100 to 20. The estimated overall annual reduction per year from 1970 to 2008 was 5.4% (with a 95% confidence interval from -8.2% to -2.6%). The reduction in subcategories per million train-kilometres from 1959 to 2008 was 4.4% per year for passengers, 8.3% for employees, 5.0% for road users at level crossings and 3.6% for others (mainly trespassers). The safety improvement for passengers and staff was probably influenced by the introduction of central locking of doors in passenger cars and improved procedures to protect railway employees working on the tracks. The number of road users killed at level crossings has fallen due to the installation of barriers and the construction of overpasses and underpasses at crossings with dense traffic, removal of level crossings, and an improvement of conditions such as visibility at crossings. The number of trespasser fatalities has seen the least decline. Key plans for the future include further reduction of the number of level crossings on the state railway network from the current roughly 3500-2200 by 2025, and involving communities in safety work related to railway trespassers.

  17. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    PubMed

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  18. Power Line Communication Experiment using Wavelet OFDM in U.S..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Hisao; Kodama, Nobutaka

    Recently, the demand of high speed network in home is increasing, and PLC is expected as one of the solutions. We can see related researches on the high speed PLC system using a frequency band 2 MHz to 30 MHz. In this paper, we propose a wavelet based OFDM as a suitable method for realizing the high speed PLC system. The proposed wavelet OFDM method is composed of the M-band transmultiplexer which consists of the perfect reconstruction cosine-modulated filter bank. And the attenuation of the first side-lobe is above 35dB, which is a characteristic of the proposed method. As a result, we show that the proposed method has the inter-carrier interference characteristic which is superior to FFT-OFDM, and it also provides the flexible notch filter function which can reduce the influence on other communication systems existing in the communication band which the PLC uses. Finally, we describe that the simulation results about the BER characteristic of the proposed method in AWGN were almost the same as the theory, and that transmission rates which were measured by using prototype modems in a field test house in U.S. were above 35Mbps.

  19. Buy or Lease Cost Model - Selected Railway Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    applications; specifically, there is no adequate buy or lease cost model applicable to railway car acquisition for the Defense Freight Railway Interchange...it would be less costly to lease cars rather than buy them. Lease/ buy calculations are labor intensive, and do not easily permit the sensitivity...corpora- tion using railway tank cars observes that their calculations always favor buy over lease options. To compensate for non-quantitative costs and

  20. Magnetic fields of high voltage power lines and risk of cancer in Finnish adults: nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Verkasalo, P. K.; Pukkala, E.; Kaprio, J.; Heikkilä, K. V.; Koskenvuo, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of cancer in association with magnetic fields in Finnish adults living close to high voltage power lines. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SUBJECTS: 383,700 people who lived during 1970-89 within 500 metres of overhead power lines of 110-400 kV in a magnetic field calculated to be > or = 0.01 microT. Study subjects were identified by record linkages of nationwide registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of observed and expected cases of cancer, standardised incidence ratios, and incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex, age, calendar year, and social class--for example, by continuous cumulative exposure per 1 microT year with 95% confidence intervals from multiplicative models for all cancers combined and 21 selected types. RESULTS: Altogether 8415 cases of cancer were observed (standardised incidence ratio 0.98; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.00) in adults. All incidence rate ratios for both sexes combined were non-significant and between 0.91 and 1.11. Significant excesses were observed in multiple myeloma in men (incidence rate ratio 1.22) and in colon cancer in women (1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Typical residential magnetic fields generated by high voltage power lines do not seem to be related to the risk of overall cancer in adults. The previously suggested associations between extremely low frequency magnetic fields and tumours of the nervous system, lymphoma, and leukaemia in adults and breast cancer in women were not confirmed. PMID:8898595

  1. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander; Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails, and a

  2. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  3. Railway vehicle performance optimisation using virtual homologation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, H.; Madeira, J. F. A.; Ambrósio, J.; Pombo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike regular automotive vehicles, which are designed to travel in different types of roads, railway vehicles travel mostly in the same route during their life cycle. To accept the operation of a railway vehicle in a particular network, a homologation process is required according to local standard regulations. In Europe, the standards EN 14363 and UIC 518, which are used for railway vehicle acceptance, require on-track tests and/or numerical simulations. An important advantage of using virtual homologation is the reduction of the high costs associated with on-track tests by studying the railway vehicle performance in different operation conditions. This work proposes a methodology for the improvement of railway vehicle design with the objective of its operation in selected railway tracks by using optimisation. The analyses required for the vehicle improvement are performed under control of the optimisation method global and local optimisation using direct search. To quantify the performance of the vehicle, a new objective function is proposed, which includes: a Dynamic Performance Index, defined as a weighted sum of the indices obtained from the virtual homologation process; the non-compensated acceleration, which is related to the operational velocity; and a penalty associated with cases where the vehicle presents an unacceptable dynamic behaviour according to the standards. Thus, the optimisation process intends not only to improve the quality of the vehicle in terms of running safety and ride quality, but also to increase the vehicle availability via the reduction of the time for a journey while ensuring its operational acceptance under the standards. The design variables include the suspension characteristics and the operational velocity of the vehicle, which are allowed to vary in an acceptable range of variation. The results of the optimisation lead to a global minimum of the objective function in which the suspensions characteristics of the vehicle are

  4. Characterization of vertical electric fields and associated voltages induced on a overhead power line from close artificially initiated lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Marcos; Uman, Martin A.; Thomson, Ewen M.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1991-08-01

    Measurements were characterized of simultaneous vertical electric fields and voltages induced at both ends of a 448 m overhead power line by artificially initiated lightning return strokes. The lightning discharges struck ground about 20 m from one end of the line. The measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories: those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which are called oscillatory; and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which are called impulsive. Voltage amplitudes range from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages.

  5. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. [Current problems of occupational morbidity on the railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Kameneva, E A; Artemenkov, Iu M; Glebova, G M

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the present working conditions on railway transport, by using the results of employee rating, characterizes railway services showing the greatest magnitude of adverse and dangerous factors of working conditions. It also characterizes occupational morbidity in railway transport workers over 5 years (1999-2003) and by hazards problems of occupational morbidity and by basic services: locomotive, wagon, and track ones. The paper also presents the rates of disability due to occupational diseases, characterizes the priorities of prevention of occupational diseases on the railway transport.

  8. Railway-controller-perceived competence in incidents and accidents.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Railway controllers play a pivotal role in service recovery of normal rail system operations when incidents and accidents occur. Those in this position must have sufficient competence to overcome task difficulties caused by accident uncertainties. This study adopts Taiwan's railway system as a case study to diagnose railway-controller-perceived competence when facing diverse tasks during incidents and accidents that are derived from a proposed conceptual model. Railway-controller-perceived competence is measured using the Rasch model. Analytical results indicate that working with an external rescue agency handling a rescue operation, explanations to the public, and communication with an external rescue agency are considered the most troublesome tasks. Additionally, railway-controller-perceived competence differs based on the work experience. This information will prove useful for rail system operators and government regulators when designing and regulating railway controller competence management systems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study presents a systematic approach for examining the gap between railway-controller-perceived competence and task difficulties associated with incidents and accidents. The relevance of findings encompasses the effects of transportation ergonomics and railway issues on the problem-solving competence and decision-making skills of railway controllers, and the competence management system.

  9. Sensory Evaluation of Ride on Railway Vehicle Using Motion Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Takehara, Shoichiro; Sasaki, Koichi; Suda, Yoshihiro; Koga, Takaaki

    Sensory evaluation of ride on a railway vehicle is performed based on international standards such as ISO2631. However, it is expected that this evaluation would be insufficient because of the development of technologies of a railway vehicle. The evaluation for view and sound from the viewpoint of ergonomic and psychological perspectives might be needed as well as traditional evaluations in the future. Authors focused on the relation between view and motion of the railway vehicle. The experiment in sensory evaluation of ride on a railway vehicle using a motion simulator was performed. In this paper, the way and results of the experiment and the environmental psychological analysis are described.

  10. Magnetic fields dispersed by high-voltage power lines: an advanced evaluation method based on 3-D models of electrical lines and the territory.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, D; Zoppetti, N

    2004-01-01

    An advanced numerical evaluation tool is proposed for calculating the magnetic flux density dispersed by high-voltage power lines. When compared to existing software packages based on the application of standardized methods, this tool turned out to be particularly suitable for making accurate evaluations on vast portions of the territory, especially when the contribution of numerous aerial and/or underground lines must be taken into account. The aspects of the tool of greatest interest are (1) the interaction with an electronic archive of power lines, from which all the information necessary for the calculation is obtained; (2) the use of three-dimensional models of both the power lines and the territory crossed by these; (3) the direct interfacing with electronic cartography; and finally (4) the use of a representation procedure for the results that is based on contour maps. The tool had proven to be very useful especially for Environmental Impact Assessment procedures relative to new power lines.

  11. Health responses to a new high-voltage power line route: design of a quasi-experimental prospective field study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New high-voltage power transmission lines will be introduced due to increasing demand for reliable and renewable energy supplies. Some residents associate non-specific health complaints with exposure to electromagnetic fields from nearby power lines. This study protocol describes the design and rationale of a prospective study investigating whether the introduction of a new power line triggers health responses in residents living nearby. Methods/Design The study is designed as a quasi-experimental field study with two pretests during the construction of a new power line route, and two posttests after it has been put into operation. Key outcomes are self-reported non-specific somatic and cognitive health complaints, and attribution of these health complaints to a power line. The main determinant is proximity to the new power line route. One member of every household (n = 2379) residing in close proximity (0-500 meters) to the overhead parts of a new power line route in the Netherlands is invited to participate, as well as a sample of household members (n = 2382) residing farther away (500-2000 meters). Multilevel analysis will be employed to test whether an increase in key outcome measures is related to proximity to the line. Longitudinal structural equation models will be applied to test to what extent health responses are mediated by psychosocial health mechanisms and moderated by negative oriented personality traits. Discussion This is the first study to investigate health responses to a new power line route in a prospective manner. The results will provide theoretical insight into psychosocial mechanisms operating during the introduction of an environmental health risk, and may offer suggestions to policymakers and other stakeholders for minimizing adverse health responses when introducing new high-voltage power lines. PMID:24606914

  12. Power storage system for electric railway

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to a power storage system for electric railway which comprises a motor-generator connected to a power system for feeding an electric vehicle with electric power, and a flywheel coupled to the motor-generator, and in which the motor-generator is allowed to store the electric power and thereafter discharge it in correspondence with approach of the electric vehicle to a predetermined running section and running thereof in the section.

  13. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  14. Current densities and total contact currents for 110 and 220 kV power line tasks.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Elovaara, Jarmo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze all values of electric current from measured periods while performing tasks on 110 and 220 kV power lines. Additionally, the objective was to study the average current densities and average total contact currents caused by electric fields in 110 and 220 kV power line tasks. One worker simulated the following tasks: (A) tested insulation voltage at a 110 kV portal tower, (B) checked the wooden towers for rot at a 110 kV portal tower, (C) tested insulation voltage at a 220 kV portal tower, and (D) checked the wooden towers for rot at a 220 kV portal tower. The highest average current density in the neck was 2.0 mA/m(2) (calculated internal electric field was 19.0-38.0 mV/m), and the highest average contact current was 234 µA. All measured values at 110 and 220 kV towers were lower than the basic restrictions (0.1 and 0.8 V/m) of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection.

  15. Childhood cancer and magnetic fields from high-voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, M E; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Draper, G J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic low-intensity extremely-low-frequency magnetic-field exposure is associated with increased risk of childhood leukaemia; it is not certain the association is causal. Methods: We report a national case–control study relating childhood cancer risk to the average magnetic field from high-voltage overhead power lines at the child's home address at birth during the year of birth, estimated using National Grid records. From the National Registry of Childhood Tumours, we obtained records of 28 968 children born in England and Wales during 1962–1995 and diagnosed in Britain under age 15. We selected controls from birth registers, matching individually by sex, period of birth, and birth registration district. No participation by cases or controls was required. Results: The estimated relative risk for each 0.2 μT increase in magnetic field was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 2.32) for leukaemia, 0.80 (0.43–1.51) for CNS/brain tumours, and 1.34 (0.84–2.15) for other cancers. Conclusion: Although not statistically significant, the estimate for childhood leukaemia resembles results of comparable studies. Assuming causality, the estimated attributable risk is below one case per year. Magnetic-field exposure during the year of birth is unlikely to be the whole cause of the association with distance from overhead power lines that we previously reported. PMID:20877338

  16. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander; Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installation of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)

  17. View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail Room, from elevated west dock toward east. Office is on right (south) and mezzanine on left (north). West wall of American Railway Express Room is between - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. RUINS OF NORTH ABUTMENT OF OR & L RAILWAY TRESTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUINS OF NORTH ABUTMENT OF OR & L RAILWAY TRESTLE ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE NO. 3A, VIEW FROM THE EAST - Oahu Railway & Land Company Trestle Ruins, Spanning Makaha Stream between Makaha Beach & Farrington Highway, near Kili Drive, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Interior view of first floor of American Railway Express Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of first floor of American Railway Express Room from mezzanine (east section of two story portion of Railway Express Building), looking south - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate rail on sled/roller railway). Steel fabrication building and traveling crane in background. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  1. Structural vulnerability and intervention of high speed railway networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Funian; Wang, Shuliang; Dai, Yang; Wang, Yixing

    2016-11-01

    This paper employs complex network theory to assess the structural vulnerability of high speed railway networks subjected to two different malicious attacks. Chinese, US and Japanese high speed railway networks are used to discuss the vulnerable characteristics of systems. We find that high speed railway networks are very fragile when suffering serious disturbances and two attack rules can cause analogous damages to one high speed railway network, which illustrates that the station with large degree possesses high betweenness, vice versa. Meanwhile, we discover that Japanese high speed railway network has the best global connectivity, but Chinese high speed railway network has the best local connectivity and possesses the largest transport capacity. Moreover, we find that there exist several redundant paths in Chinese high speed railway network and discover the critical stations of three HSRNs. Furthermore, the nearest-link method is adopted to implement topological interventions and to improve the connectivity and reliability of high speed railway networks. In addition, the feasibility and effectiveness of topological interventions are shown by simulations.

  2. Closing the Circle: Travelling with "The Railway Man."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Eric Lomax's autobiographical book "The Railway Man." Notes how it chronicles his boyhood obsession with train-spotting and the subsequent ways in which his life has been freaked by railway co-incidences. Describes how the author invited Eric Lomax to come and discuss this work with his students. (SG)

  3. 24. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Wrought Iron Details, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Wrought Iron Details, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-8A - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-16 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 22. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-5 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September 8, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4229, 9/6/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 20. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Design of Cradle, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Design of Cradle, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-2 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July 5, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #3988, 7/5/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 25. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Proposed Road Over Chains, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Proposed Road Over Chains, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-9 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 5, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4930, 5/5/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March 9, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4801, 3/9/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and USS Acushnet. View to soutwest, June 10, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5080, 6/10/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 28. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Section showing bilge and keel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Section showing bilge and keel blocks, 1919. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-20 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 19. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Cradle and Track Plan, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Cradle and Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-1 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 29, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5049, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 28, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5046, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View to southeast, June 2, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5054, 6/7/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    PubMed

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.

  2. Distance to High-Voltage Power Lines and Risk of Childhood Leukemia – an Analysis of Confounding by and Interaction with Other Potential Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Camilla; Bräuner, Elvira V.; Rod, Naja H.; Albieri, Vanna; Andersen, Claus E.; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged <15, diagnosed with leukemia during 1968–1991, from the Danish Cancer Registry and 2048 controls randomly selected from the Danish childhood population and individually matched by gender and year of birth. We used geographical information systems to determine the distance between residence at birth and the nearest 132–400 kV overhead power line. Concentrations of domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution (NOx at the front door) were estimated using validated models. We found a statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon regarding risk of childhood leukemia (p = 0.01) when using the median radon level as cut-off point but not when using the 75th percentile (p = 0.90). We found no evidence of an interaction between distance to nearest power line and traffic-related air pollution (p = 0.73). We found almost no change in the estimated association between distance to power line and risk of childhood leukemia when adjusting for socioeconomic status of the municipality, urbanization, maternal age, birth order, domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution. The statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon was based on few exposed cases and controls and sensitive to the choice of exposure categorization and might, therefore, be due to chance. PMID:25259740

  3. Distance to high-voltage power lines and risk of childhood leukemia--an analysis of confounding by and interaction with other potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Camilla; Bräuner, Elvira V; Rod, Naja H; Albieri, Vanna; Andersen, Claus E; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged <15, diagnosed with leukemia during 1968-1991, from the Danish Cancer Registry and 2048 controls randomly selected from the Danish childhood population and individually matched by gender and year of birth. We used geographical information systems to determine the distance between residence at birth and the nearest 132-400 kV overhead power line. Concentrations of domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution (NOx at the front door) were estimated using validated models. We found a statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon regarding risk of childhood leukemia (p = 0.01) when using the median radon level as cut-off point but not when using the 75th percentile (p = 0.90). We found no evidence of an interaction between distance to nearest power line and traffic-related air pollution (p = 0.73). We found almost no change in the estimated association between distance to power line and risk of childhood leukemia when adjusting for socioeconomic status of the municipality, urbanization, maternal age, birth order, domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution. The statistically significant interaction between distance to nearest power line and domestic radon was based on few exposed cases and controls and sensitive to the choice of exposure categorization and might, therefore, be due to chance.

  4. Placement of Base Stations in Broadband Power Line Communications Access Networks by Means of Multi-criteria Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidine, Abdelfatteh; Lehnert, Ralf

    Broadband Power Line Communications (B-PLC) technology is an alternative for broadband access networks, allowing bit rates up to currently 200Mbps. This technique uses the wiring of the low-voltage grid in order to offer to the users the telecommunications services, such as Internet, VoIP, VoD, etc. The B-PLC design process is sub-divided into two parts: the Generalized Base Station Placement (GBSP) problem and the PLC Channel Allocation Problem (P-CAP). This paper focuses on GBSP that is modeled as multi-criteria combinatorial optimization problem. Based on our published mathematical modeling, this paper supplies more numerical experiments for the evaluation of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) in solving GBSP. Their performance is compared with the single-objective optimization.

  5. Research on Continuous Operation of the Railway by Considering the Value of the Local Railway in Nagano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Tatsuo; Wakui, Katsuaki; Koyama, Ken

    After revision of the Railway Business Act in 2000, the abolition of the local railway has increased in Japan. However, continuing activities by people living along local line has been focussed in recent years. Moreover, a lot of local railway's business are obtaining the subsidy from the municipality where railway route is located. When the government puts out the grant to the company, it is necessary to have the accountability for the peoples. This research is focused on the value of the local railways for residents are measured, and an economical value of that is estimate by using the Contingent Valuation Method. As for the route for analysis in Nagano, Bessho-line(Ueda), Yashiro-line(Nagano) and Kamikohchi-line(Matsumoto) were chosen. Moreover, policies of each municipality to these routes are evaluated by using these values.

  6. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, L. M. Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  7. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  8. Kalman Filter Based Railway Tracking from Mobile LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwa, Y.; Sonh, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study introduces a new method to reconstruct 3D model of railway tracks from a railway corridor scene captured by mobile LiDAR data. The proposed approach starts to approximate the orientation of railway track trajectory from LiDAR point clouds and extract a strip, which direction is orthogonal to the trajectory of railway track. Within the strip, a track region and its track points are detected based on the Bayesian decision process. Once the main track region is localized, rail head points are segmented based on the region growing approach from the detected track points and then initial track models are reconstructed using a third-degree polynomial function. Based on the initial modelling result, a potential track region with varying lengths is dynamically predicted and the model parameters are updated in the Kalman Filter framework. The key aspect is that the proposed approach is able to enhance the efficiency of the railway tracking process by reducing the complexity for detecting track points and reconstructing track models based on the use of the track model previously reconstructed. An evaluation of the proposed method is performed over an urban railway corridor area containing multiple railway track pairs.

  9. Railways and energy. World Bank staff working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses questions which arise in discussions about the effects which increases in oil prices have on railway development. Part I of the paper reviews the relative energy efficiencies of rail and of road transport, and measures for decreasing railway energy consumption. Only energy used for traction is considered. Part II is a review of the factors which determine the economic viability of railway electrification, and includes a methodology which can readily be used for prefeasibility analyses to determine whether a more detailed study is warranted. (Copyright (c) 1984 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  10. Interferences in Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is

  11. Power line emission 50/60 Hz and Schumann resonances observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, Denys; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Dudkin, Fedir; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-04-01

    The overhead power lines are the sources of intense wideband electromagnetic (EM) emission, especially in ELF-VLF range, because of significant length (up to a few thousand kilometers) and strong 50/60 Hz currents with noticeable distortion. The radiation efficiency of the power line emission (PLE) increases with the harmonic order, so they are well observed by ground-based EM sensors. However their observations by low orbiting satellites (LEO) are very rare, particularly at basic harmonic 50/60 Hz, because of the ionospheric plasma opacity in ELF band. The Schumann resonance (SR) is the narrow-band EM noise that occurs due to the global thunderstorm activity in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The first five eigenmodes of the SR are 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz and, thus, SR harmonics are also strongly absorbed by the Earth ionosphere. The published numerical simulations show that the penetration depth of such an ELF emission into the Earth's ionosphere is limited to 50-70 km for electric field and 120-240 km for magnetic field. From this follows, that PLE and SR can hardly ever be detected by LEO satellites, i.e. above the F-layer of ionosphere. In spite of this fact, these emissions were recently observed with use of the electric field antennas placed on the satellites C/NOFS (USA) and Chibis-M (Russia). Microsatellite Chibis-M was launched on January 24, 2012, at 23:18:30 UTC from the cargo ship "Progress M-13M" to circular orbit with altitude ~500 km and inclination ~52° . Chibis-M mass is about 40 kg where one third is a scientific instrumentation. The dimensions of the microsatellite case are 0.26x0.26x0.54 m with the outside mounted solar panels, service and scientific instrumentation. The main scientific objective of Chibis-M is the theoretical model verification for the atmospheric gamma-ray bursts. It requires the study of the accompanying EM processes such as the plasma waves produced by the lightning discharges in the VLF band. Chibis-M decayed on 15

  12. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  13. A Study on Railway Signal System to Apply CDMA-QAM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Asano, Akira; Sano, Minoru; Takahashi, Sei; Nakamura, Hideo

    Recently, QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) transmission is paid to attention in digital modulation method, and it has been used for wireless LAN and digital broadcasting. QAM is a modulation method that puts information on carrier amplitude and phase. So QAM can achieve high-capacity data transmission that the use efficiency of frequency band is good. But QAM has a bad characteristic that is weak to the noise and the interference because distance between each symbol is short. Then we propose the method that not transmission data but CDMA signal, obtained after transmission data is modulated by spread code and multiplexed, is given to each symbol of QAM. And we studied about railway signal system on track circuit as a sample to apply this method. As result of computer simulations, we verified to be able to achieve the improvement of signal to noise ratio by optimizing the constellation map of QAM. We report with the method of a synchronous acquisition.

  14. Interference laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    The most important component of quantum optics is laser interference. Interference patterns are formed by splitting a coherent beam into multiple beams and correlating them. This study introduces a variety of beam correlators and discusses their characteristics. Beam correlator basics such as interference region in terms of pulse width, group delay dispersion effects on pulse width, optical delay adjustment, and interference pattern simulation are explained. A discussion of the history of interference processing begins with the method in 1967 and continues through the advancement of shorter wavelengths and pulse widths. The recent techniques of solid-liquid-solid for 3D nanofabrication, duplicated structures with laser-induced periodic surface structure, processing inside transparent materials, and 2D and 3D periodic structures fabricated by photo-sensitization are also presented.

  15. Effects of low frequency electric fields on synaptic integration in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: implications for power line emissions

    PubMed Central

    Cavarretta, Francesco; Carnevale, Nicholas T.; Tegolo, Domenico; Migliore, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The possible cognitive effects of low frequency external electric fields (EFs), such as those generated by power lines, are poorly understood. Their functional consequences for mechanisms at the single neuron level are very difficult to study and identify experimentally, especially in vivo. The major open problem is that experimental investigations on humans have given inconsistent or contradictory results, making it difficult to estimate the possible effects of external low frequency electric fields on cognitive functions. Here we investigate this issue with realistic models of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Our findings suggest how and why EFs, with environmentally observed frequencies and intensities far lower than what is required for direct neural activation, can perturb dendritic signal processing and somatic firing of neurons that are crucially involved in cognitive tasks such as learning and memory. These results show that individual neuronal morphology, ion channel dendritic distribution, and alignment with the electric field are major determinants of overall effects, and provide a physiologically plausible explanation of why experimental findings can appear to be small and difficult to reproduce, yet deserve serious consideration. PMID:25346660

  16. Current densities and total contact currents during forest clearing tasks under 400 kV power lines

    PubMed Central

    Kuisti, Harri; Elovaara, Jarmo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze all values of electric currents from measured periods while performing tasks in forest clearing. The objective was also to choose and analyze measurement cases, where current measurements successfully lasted the entire work period (about 30 min). Two forestry workers volunteered to perform four forest clearing tasks under 400 kV power lines. The sampling frequency of the current measurements was 1 sample/s. The maximum values of the current densities were 1.0–1.2 mA/m2 (calculated internal EFs 5.0–12.0 mV/m), and the average values were 0.2–0.4 mA/m2. The highest contact current was 167.4 μA. All measured values during forest clearing tasks were lower than basic restrictions (0.1 V/m and 0.8 V/m) of the International Commission on Non‐Ionizing Radiation Protection. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:423–428, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27192179

  17. Re-creation of aerosol charge state found near HV power lines using a high voltage corona charger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. C.; Wright, M. D.; Biddiscombe, M. F.; Underwood, R.; Usmani, O. S.; Shallcross, D. E.; Henshaw, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    Corona ionisation from AC HV power lines (HVPL) can release ions into the environment, which have the potential to electrically charge pollutant aerosol in the atmosphere. It has been hypothesised that these charged particles have an enhanced probability of being deposited in human airways upon inhalation due to electrostatic attraction by image charge within the lung, with implications for human health. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from a Technegas generator were artificially charge-enhanced using a corona charger. Once generated, particles were passed through the charger, which was either on or off, and stored in a 15 litre conducting bag for ∼20 minutes to observe size and charge distribution changes over time. Charge states were estimated using two Sequential Mobility Particle Sizers measuring the size and mobility distributions. Charge-neutral particles were measured 7 times and positive particles 9 times, the average charge-neutral value of x was 1.00 (sd = 0.06) while the average positive value was 4.60 (0.72). The system will be used to generate positive or charge neutral particles for delivery to human volunteers in an inhalation study to assess the impact of charge on ultrafine (size < 100 nm) particle deposition.

  18. Joint terminals and relay optimization for two-way power line information exchange systems with QoS constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaolin; Rong, Yue

    2015-12-01

    The quality-of-service (QoS) criteria (measured in terms of the minimum capacity requirement in this paper) are very important to practical indoor power line communication (PLC) applications as they greatly affect the user experience. With a two-way multicarrier relay configuration, in this paper we investigate the joint terminals and relay power optimization for the indoor broadband PLC environment, where the relay node works in the amplify-and-forward (AF) mode. As the QoS-constrained power allocation problem is highly non-convex, the globally optimal solution is computationally intractable to obtain. To overcome this challenge, we propose an alternating optimization (AO) method to decompose this problem into three convex/quasi-convex sub-problems. Simulation results demonstrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm under practical PLC channel conditions. Compared with the conventional bidirectional direct transmission (BDT) system, the relay-assisted two-way information exchange (R2WX) scheme can meet the same QoS requirement with less total power consumption.

  19. 22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK STRUCTURE ATOP PARKING STRUCTURE (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J

    2001-07-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  1. 1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north at Hedges Creek trestle. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Hedges Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 38.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  2. 10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH MANUFACTURED BY MEAD-MORRISON MANUFACTURING COMPANY, HAVING A 450 TON CAPACITY - Anderson-Christofani Shipyard, Innes Avenue & Griffith Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy projects above roll-up doors and elevated dock - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing west. Projecting metal canopy and roll-up doors are principal elements - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express Building, facing east - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. [The emergence of China's Railway Health Services and its motivation in the late Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2014-03-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, the railway authority of China commenced establishing their self-run medical institutions, setting up the hygienic standards of railway system, and opening a new prospects of railway health services and epidemic prevention, reflecting the emergence of China's Railway Health Services. The motivations of all these approaches were related to three factors, that is,"the eastward dissemination of western medicine","the medical requirement of railway employees", and"the emergent situation of railway health and epidemic prevention".

  7. 65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY - WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of February 1955 photograph showing the winding machinery of the California Street Cable Railroad. The two suspended sheaves on the right of the photograph bore down on the cable as it left the winders, supplying tension to the cable and eliminating the need for a long tension run. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Energy efficiency of electrified passenger railway in the Canadian context

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements of electrified passenger trains have not been adequately addressed in the technical literature. This paper examines in the Canadian context: (1) the energy implications of passenger railway electrification in terms of propulsion energy requirements (from primary energy source to final consumption) as well as the indirect energy needed for rolling stock and infrastructure, and (2) the relative energy efficiencies of electric and diesel-electric railway traction systems.

  9. [Cases of toxocara infection on the Sverdlovsk railway].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, V D; Azeva, L N; Renov, S G; Agafonova, G V

    2002-01-01

    The results of serological testing for Toxocara infection in patients who had referred for a railway hospital of the Sverdlovsk railway were summarized. Positive serological tests were in the titer ranges 1:200 to 1:1600 in 12.8% of the examinees, including the titer range 1:800 or more in 8.5%. Brief extracts from some case histories are given.

  10. [Work condition of electricians servicing railway shunting and maneuvering yards].

    PubMed

    Talivanova, R V; Elizarov, B B; Kudrin, V A; Ovechkina, Zh V

    1995-01-01

    The article represents main occupational hazards and work conditions of such railway occupation as electromechanic and electromounter of shunting yards of railway stations. Complete hygienic evaluation of the occupational activities is given for individuals working at Moskovskaya, Oktjabrskaya and Sevemaya railroads. Health state of the workers was studied according to transitory disablement materials, the morbidity and its structure were analyzed. The authors outline some suggestions to improve the work conditions and decrease the morbidity.

  11. Small-world properties of the Indian railway network.

    PubMed

    Sen, Parongama; Dasgupta, Subinay; Chatterjee, Arnab; Sreeram, P A; Mukherjee, G; Manna, S S

    2003-03-01

    Structural properties of the Indian railway network is studied in the light of recent investigations of the scaling properties of different complex networks. Stations are considered as "nodes" and an arbitrary pair of stations is said to be connected by a "link" when at least one train stops at both stations. Rigorous analysis of the existing data shows that the Indian railway network displays small-world properties. We define and estimate several other quantities associated with this network.

  12. 77 FR 40147 - Pan Am Southern, LLC.-Abandonment Exemption-in Worcester County, MA; Springfield Terminal Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...; Springfield Terminal Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Worcester County, MA Pan Am Southern, LLC (PAS) and Springfield Terminal Railway Company (ST) (collectively, applicants) jointly...

  13. Experimental validation of a statistical model for evaluating the past or future magnetic field exposures of a population living near power lines.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Alain; Bourdages, Michel; Levallois, Patrick; Gauvin, Denis; Gingras, Suzanne; Deadman, Jan Erik; Goulet, Daniel L; Plante, Michel

    2004-07-01

    This study was designed to provide an experimental validation for a statistical model predicting past or future exposures to magnetic fields (MF) from power lines. The model estimates exposure, combining the distribution of ambient MF in the absence of power lines with the distribution of past or future MF produced by power lines. In the study, validation is carried out by comparing exposures predicted by the model with the actual measurements obtained from a large-scale epidemiological study. The comparison was made for a group of 220 women living near a 735 kV power line. Knowing that the individual arithmetic means of MF exposures follow a log-normal distribution, the Pearson correlation between the log-transformed measured means and the calculated ones was determined and found to be 0.77. Predicted values of MF exposures were slightly lower than measured values. The calculated geometric mean of the group was 0.33 microT, compared to 0.38 microT for the measured geometric mean. The present study shows good agreement between the measured MF exposure of an individual inside a house near a 735 kV line and the MF exposure calculated using a statistical model.

  14. The effects of railway transportation on the enrichment of heavy metals in the artificial soil on railway cut slopes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Wang, KeXiu; Ai, Ying Wei; Li, Wei; Gao, Hongying; Fang, Chen

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the artificial soils on the railway cut slopes may have great influence on the revegetation of the cut slopes. The purpose of this study was to assess the variation of heavy metal contamination levels with railway operation time and analyze their possible resources. A total of 100 soil samples from four cut slopes, which were affected by railway transportation for different years, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe). The concentrations of Cd, Pb showed increasing trend with increasing operation time of railways, while such trend was not found in Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe. According to the soil quality standard of China, Cd was considered to have considerable contamination, while Pb has less, but Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe have none. Moreover, cadmium exhibited remarkably higher levels rather than those reported in other studies. Enrichment factors and ecological index showed that Cd and Pb showed a moderate enrichment and a considerable ecological risk in most of the soil samples. The results of descriptive statistic, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis were totally consistent with each other. Their results revealed that Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe had common origins, and they may come from natural resources. While Cd and Pb were significantly influenced by railway transportation, leaked cargos, fuel combustion, the use of lubricate oils and sleeper impregnation oils during railway transportation may be their main resources.

  15. A measurement-driven approach to assess power line telecommunication (PLT) network quality of service (QoS) performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betta, G.; Capriglione, D.; Ferrigno, L.; Laracca, M.

    2009-10-01

    Power line telecommunication (PLT) technology offers cheap and fast ways for providing in-home broadband services and local area networking. Its main advantage is due to the possibility of using the pre-existing electrical grid as a communication channel. Nevertheless, technical challenges arise from the difficulty of operating on a hostile medium, not designed for communication purposes, characterized by complex channel modeling and by varying time response. These aspects put practical problems for designers and testers in the assessment of network quality of service performance parameters such as the throughput, the latency, the jitter, and the reliability. The measurement of these parameters has not yet been standardized so that there do not exist reference test set-ups and measurement methodologies (i.e. the type of isolation from the ac main, the observation time and the number of experiments, the measurement uncertainty and so on). Consequently, experiments executed by adopting different methods may lead to incompatible measurement results, thus making it also impossible to have reliable comparisons of different PLT modems. Really, the development of standard procedures is a very difficult task because the scenarios in which the PLT modems can work are very wide and then the application of an exhaustive approach (in which all the parameters influencing the PLT performance should be considered) would be very complex and time consuming, thus making the modem characterization very expensive. In this paper, the authors propose a methodological approach to develop an efficient measurement procedure able to reliably assess the performance of PLT modems (in terms of network quality of service parameters) with a minimum number of experiments. It is based on both creating a reconfigurable grid to which real disturbing loads are connected and implementing an original design of the experiment technique based on the effects of the uncertainty of the measurement results

  16. Plasmonic optical interference.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dukhyun; Shin, Chang Kyun; Yoon, Daesung; Chung, Deuk Seok; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Luke P

    2014-06-11

    Understanding optical interference is of great importance in fundamental and analytical optical design for next-generation personal, industrial, and military applications. So far, various researches have been performed for optical interference phenomena, but there have been no reports on plasmonic optical interference. Here, we report that optical interference could be effectively coupled with surface plasmons, resulting in enhanced optical absorption. We prepared a three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructure that consists of a plasmonic layer at the top, a nanoporous dielectric layer at the center, and a mirror layer at the bottom. The plasmonic layer mediates strong plasmonic absorption when the constructive interference pattern is matched with the plasmonic component. By tailoring the thickness of the dielectric layer, the strong plasmonic absorption can facilely be controlled and covers the full visible range. The plasmonic interference in the 3D nanostructure thus creates brilliant structural colors. We develop a design equation to determine the thickness of the dielectric layer in a 3D plasmonic nanostructure that could create the maximum absorption at a given wavelength. It is further demonstrated that the 3D plasmonic nanostructure can be realized on a flexible substrate. Our 3D plasmonic nanostructures will have a huge impact on the fields of optoelectronic systems, biochemical optical sensors, and spectral imaging.

  17. 48. Exterior detail of Marine Railway #1. Note rail/roller type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Exterior detail of Marine Railway #1. Note rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate for railway/rollers on sled) and removable catwalk on bed. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  18. [Information digital technologies and medical psychologic prevention of stress state in railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Kostin, A V; Kostina, S A

    2015-01-01

    The authors determined criteria of medical and psychologic training of railway transport workers, with applied information digital technologies. The results obtained prove that application of software "Railway worker" ("Zheleznodorozhnik") reduces frequency and duration of "emotional stress states".

  19. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  20. 76 FR 60599 - Boston & Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemptions-in Rockingham, NH; Springfield Terminal Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...; Springfield Terminal Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemptions--in Rockingham, NH Boston & Maine Corporation (B&M) and Springfield Terminal Railway Company (ST) (collectively, applicants) have jointly...

  1. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Gworek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Railway transport is a source of pollution to soils and living organisms by e.g. PAHs, PCBs, oil-derived products, pesticides and heavy metals. Soil toxicity evaluation requires chemical analyses, indicating the type and content of particular pollutants, as well as biological analyses, which allow assessing the reaction of organisms to these pollutants. This paper is focused on a multi-aspect evaluation of the degree of toxicity and pollution of soil in selected railway areas from north-eastern Poland by application of numerous biotests and chemical analyses. The soils were sampled on railway tracks from the following railway stations: Białystok Fabryczny, Siemianówka, Hajnówka, Iława Główna and Waliły. The most toxic soils occur on the railway tracks at Białystok Fabryczny and Siemianówka. They had a significant toxic effect on test organisms from various trophic levels. The contents of PAHs, PCBs, heavy metals, oil-derived hydrocarbons and pesticide residues were determined in the examined soils. In all cases the detected pollutants did not exceed the admissible levels. The highest content of oil-derived substances was noted in soils from Białystok Fabryczny and concentrations were moderate in soils from Siemianówka. Although the pollutants determined in soils from railway tracks did not exceed the admissible values, they had a toxic effect on numerous test organisms from different trophic levels. This suggests a synergistic effect of low concentrations (within the admissible levels) of several pollutants together, which resulted in a toxic effect on the organisms. Thus, there is a strong need of not only chemical, but also ecotoxicological analyses during the evaluation of environmental conditions. Based on data obtained from biological and chemical analyses, we concluded that railway transport may pose a hazard to the natural environment to a larger extent that hitherto expected.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix to Subtitle A - United States Railway Association-Employee Responsibilities and Conduct

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States Railway Association-Employee... Subtitle A, App. Appendix to Subtitle A—United States Railway Association—Employee Responsibilities and... United States Railway Association (the Association). The standards and requirements are appropriate...

  6. The School Car: Bringing the Three R's to Newfoundland's Remote Railway Settlements (1936-1942).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noseworthy, Randy P.

    During the mid-1930s, the main line of the Newfoundland (Canada) Railway stretched 547 miles from St. John's to Port aux Basques, and railway workers and their families lived along the line in small isolated settlements. The provincial department of education, the Newfoundland Railway, and the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company devised an…

  7. Some engineering and mathematical aspects in the design of heavy goods railway lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Although railway is one of the best environmentally transportation for goods and passengers, large parts of the railway sector is striving to increase the capacity and punctuality, see [1]. In this paper we discuss some practical and theoretical aspects of a research connected to design of heavy goods railway lines.

  8. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  9. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  10. Crack detection of railway turnouts using PZT sensors (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yiqing; Li, Z. G.; Wu, F.

    2014-05-01

    Railway turnouts (railroad switches) are the weakest components of a rail track system. Cracks may occur in the railway turnouts due to cyclic loadings and impact loadings imposed by passing trains. It is of great significance to continuously monitor the health condition of the railway turnouts and promptly detect crack once it initiates. It is well-known that acoustic emission (AE) signals are generated when a crack initiates and propagates. Detecting the high-frequency AE signals by piezoelectric sensors can help identify the crack and its location. This paper reports the design and implementation of a PZT-based system for crack monitoring of railway turnouts. This online monitoring system is activated for signal collection by a trigger system when a train is arriving to pass through the instrumented railway turnout. It mainly detects the AE signals generated when a crack initiates during the train passage or when the initiated crack expands during the passage of a heavy haul wagon. This system has been installed on a railroad line for over one year and has successfully detected the damage occurring at a railroad switch during its service period. This paper also briefs a guided-wave-based system for monitoring of micro-cracks in rail tracks by integrating FBG and PZT sensors.

  11. Evaluation of the conservation potential of a refit energy management system (using a power line subcarrier) in a large, high-rise apartment complex. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    An energy conservation study of the application of an energy management system (EMS) utilizing power line subcarrier communication equipment was made in a large apartment building in New York, New York. The building utilized individual cooling and resistance heating units in each apartment. The EMS turned the individual units on and off (with override by tenants) on a schedule determined by the building operator. Summer savings were found to be 11%; winter savings were 20%. Annual savings were projected to be 19%. The study demonstrated the conservation value of power line subcarrier technology as an alternative to submetering. It also developed and evaluated control strategies for the system and served as a field test to accelerate commercialization of the technology.

  12. The Power Behind the Controversy: Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High Voltage Power Line Installation in the State of Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Rachael M.

    Following a proposal for the installation of high voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas, a controversial policy debate emerged. Proponents of the transmission line argue that such an installation is inevitable and necessary to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region. Opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. This study seeks to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with proposed transmission lines, which is a critical step in comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. First, based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. Next, this study focuses more specifically on the role of value predispositions, specific emotional dimensions of affect heuristics, and perceptions pertaining to high voltage power line risks and benefits. Using original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, other factors claimed by previous literature, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics are considered. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly -- through affective feelings -- shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high voltage power lines. Recognizing that risk perceptions factor into policy decisions, some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues

  13. US Army Research Laboratory Power-Line UAV Modeling and Simulation (ARL-PLUMS Ver 2.x) Software Tool: User Manual and Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Manual and Technical Report by Ross N Adelman and David M Hull Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Approved for...plane. In addition, a set of false-color plots can be created to show the time-varying nature of the fields as a movie. ARL-PLUMS also comes with an...power-line support structures or along the edges of a right of way for different wire configurations. One may also want to build sensors for

  14. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  15. About morphological findings in fatal railway collisions.

    PubMed

    Driever, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard

    2002-04-18

    The autopsy findings in fatal cases of railway collisions of the Bonn Institute of Legal Medicine in 1992-1999 were investigated and compared to the statements in the investigation files of the public prosecutor with regard to classification as accident or suicide as well as with regard to type and speed of collision. Of the 38 deaths, 10 were hit in an upright position, 11 fatal collisions affected persons lying outside the track and 13 were hit and overrun lying inside the track. According to the investigation classification 21 persons committed suicide (56%), while 10 died in an accident (26%). Our survey confirmed the leading role of being over-rolled in a lying position as an indication for suicides, while in accidents the upright hit was most important. With exception of the persons primarily affected between the rails in upright position and over-rolled consecutively an unequivocal assignment of injury patterns to the hit categories was possible. In cases of persons being primarily over-rolled in a lying position especially the criteria (i) opening of body cavities, (ii) organ injuries and (iii) loss of parts of the body allowed for careful conclusion on hit, respectively, overrunning speed.

  16. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machelski, Czesław

    2015-12-01

    The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness) become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces), as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell's span, geometry (static scheme) and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure's characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  17. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  18. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  19. Support system for generating statistics of existing railway rolling stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important element of the transport system in European countries. Assumptions of rail transport has become more and more attractive in both passenger and freight transport. An example of this may be just noisy action "lorries on track", the promotion of intermodal transport. The principal factors affecting the condition of railway traffic safety are: the technical condition of the railway infrastructure, the technical condition of the rolling stock, the operation of crossings. The main purpose of this article is to present a tool to assist generate statistics operation railway wagons. As part of the project telemetric module allows the location of the freight wagon and the state of its load. Computer program supports GPS module will enable the location of a wagon with an accuracy of 1 meter, generate graphs of speed, road grade and load freight wagon.sheet".

  20. Determinants of sleepiness at work among railway control workers.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Teresa; Carvalhais, José; Neto, Catarina; Teles, Júlia; Noriega, Paulo; Rebelo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades the control of the Portuguese railway network has become much more centralized in three centres, there integrating the functions of route flow management, electrical control and signalling. This study aimed to investigate the influence of work and individual determinants in sleepiness among railway control workers, namely socio-demographic factors, work ability, psychosocial factors, shiftwork characteristics, fatigue perception, and sleep. Sleepiness by shift was associated with quality of sleep, job satisfaction, fatigue perception, quantitative demands, and age. The results indicate a high prevalence of sleepiness during the night shift and show the relevance of the quality of sleep as a predictor in the three models of sleepiness for morning, afternoon and night shifts. This study, done at the major Portuguese railway control centre, alerted managers to the importance of schedule planning as well as sleepiness prevention plans and makes these results a reference for future research.

  1. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  2. Localization of Interference Fringes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, J. M.; Comastri, Silvia A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a proof for determining the localized fringes position arrived at when one considers the interference of two extended sources when one is able to observe fringes only at certain points in space. Shows how the localized fringes may be found in a device used to observe Newton's rings. (Author/CS)

  3. Interference and Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference with interference is a rapidly growing area. The literature has begun to relax the “no-interference” assumption that the treatment received by one individual does not affect the outcomes of other individuals. In this paper we briefly review the literature on causal inference in the presence of interference when treatments have been randomized. We then consider settings in which causal effects in the presence of interference are not identified, either because randomization alone does not suffice for identification, or because treatment is not randomized and there may be unmeasured confounders of the treatment-outcome relationship. We develop sensitivity analysis techniques for these settings. We describe several sensitivity analysis techniques for the infectiousness effect which, in a vaccine trial, captures the effect of the vaccine of one person on protecting a second person from infection even if the first is infected. We also develop two sensitivity analysis techniques for causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding which generalize analogous techniques when interference is absent. These two techniques for unmeasured confounding are compared and contrasted. PMID:25620841

  4. Quantum interference in polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Movassagh, Ramis; Datta, Supriyo

    2014-12-01

    The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments - if coherence in probe connections can be arranged - in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.

  5. Quantum interference in polyenes.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Movassagh, Ramis; Datta, Supriyo

    2014-12-14

    The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments - if coherence in probe connections can be arranged - in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.

  6. Quantum interference in polyenes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Movassagh, Ramis; Datta, Supriyo

    2014-12-14

    The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments – if coherence in probe connections can be arranged – in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.

  7. The socio-environmental determinants of railway suicide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Railway suicide has significant adverse impacts for the victims, their family and friends, witnesses to the incident, general public and train network. There is no previous review on the socio-environmental factors and railway suicide. The research question asked in this review was: ‘What socio-environmental risk and protective predictors are significantly associated with railway suicide?’ Methods The review searched Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Scopus for English-language studies that assessed the associations between socio-environmental (i.e. geographical, physical, economic and social) factors and railway suicide from their inception to June 2013. It was reported based on the PRISMA Statement. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. They were categorised into railway environments (availability of railways and trains, accessibility to railways and familiarity with trains), population characteristics and impact of media reporting. Findings from ecological studies using population level railway suicide data suggested weak and inconsistent evidence for the first two categories. The evidence on the impact of media reporting was moderately strong, with irresponsible media reporting being associated with an increased risk of railway suicide. Conclusions There is a need for further research activity to strengthen evidence about socio-environmental risk factors for railway suicide. The focus of this research should be on the factors that determine individuals’ decisions of using the railway as a method of suicide, with the consideration of a range of geographical, physical, social, and economic factors. PMID:24405530

  8. [The diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport].

    PubMed

    Molodtsov, R N; Shemetova, G N

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the epidemiologic and medical social aspects of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport in 2000-2010 exemplified by Privolzhskiy railroad. The established tendencies in prevalence of pathology of cardio-vascular system in railroad workers makes the issues of practical implementation of priority of prevention in the organization of medical care to this group of patients to come to foreground. The main directions for complex prevention of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport are presented.

  9. [Biosafety at the railway transport objects of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Kas'kov, Iu N; Podkorytov, Iu I; Kas'kova, O Iu

    2010-01-01

    The results of a microbiological investigation of drinking water quality were analyzed. Water samples taken from the centralized and noncentralized water supply sources failed to meet hygienic standards in 14-18% of cases and those from water tubes did in 4-6%. Water samples from the household and community water use reservoirs showed the excess of the allowable levels of lactose-positive colibacilli and coliphages, which were 46.5 +/- 16.8 and 10.6 +/- 6.8% per dm3, respectively. L. pneumophila strains were isolated from the drinking water of railway carriages. Proposals are given to improve railway sociohygienic monitoring.

  10. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Methods Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. Results The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Conclusions Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However

  11. Psychological reactions of drivers to railway suicide.

    PubMed

    Tranah, T; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    Around 90 London Underground train drivers experience a person jumping or falling in front of their train each year. The majority of these incidents are suicides or attempted suicides. 76 drivers were interviewed in order to assess the range of responses to these incidents. The following psychometric instruments were used: Present State Examination (PSE9); Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Interview; General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28); Impact of Events Scale (IES); Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale; Recent Difficulties/Events scale; Perceived Stress Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). When interviewed 1 month after the incident 13 (17.11%) drivers presented with PTSD. Diagnoses other than PTSD e.g. neurotic depression and phobic state were present in 24 (31.58%) drivers (including 12 of the 13 PTSD cases who had one additional diagnosis). On the basis of diagnoses three groups were identified: Group 1 drivers had PTSD and in most cases an additional PSE9 diagnosis; Group 2 drivers had a PSE9 diagnosis only; Group 3 drivers were not cases. 56 drivers were again interviewed 6 months after the incident to assess duration of caseness and/or symptoms and to identify any cases of delayed onset. Two drivers were still cases at 6 months (neurotic depression and phobic state), no driver presented with PTSD at 6 months. At 6 months there was a significant drop in symptom scores compared with measures taken at 1 month. These results suggest that although approximately one-third of drivers suffered a severe psychological reaction following a railway suicide, when interviewed again 6 months after the incident most drivers reported a marked reduction in symptoms.

  12. Transmission of Correlated Messages over Interference Channels with Strong Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Suhan; Yoon, Eunchul; Moon, Hichan

    Transmission of correlated messages over interference channels with strong interference is considered. As a result, an achievable rate region is presented. It is shown that if the messages are correlated, the achievable rate region can be larger than the capacity region given by Costa and El Gamal. As an example, the Gaussian interference channel is considered.

  13. Binaural modulation detection interference.

    PubMed

    Sheft, S; Yost, W A

    1997-09-01

    The ability to detect amplitude modulation (AM) of a tonal probe can be disrupted by the presence of modulated masking tones. Two experiments examined whether a disparity in the interaural parameters of the probe and masker can reduce the amount of interference. In the first experiment, the effects of interaural time and intensity differences were studied in separate sets of conditions. With low-frequency carriers, the detection of 10-Hz probe modulation in the presence of 10-Hz masker modulation was not significantly affected by interaural time differences. With higher-frequency carriers, dichotic stimuli were generated through combinations of diotic, dichotic, or monotic probe and masker presentations in which the probe and masker did not share a common interaural intensity difference. In these conditions, the amount of interference was affected by the interaural configuration. However, monotic level differences between the probe and masker may have contributed to the effect of interaural configuration. In the second experiment, the probe and masker were presented through separate speakers in an enclosed listening environment. Spatial separation between the sources for the probe and masker led to a small reduction in the amount of interference. When the masker modulation rate was varied with the probe AM rate fixed at 10 Hz, the extent of tuning in the modulation domain in the sound-field conditions was similar to that obtained with diotic stimulus presentation over headphones.

  14. Interaction of railway vehicles with track in cross-winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Ding, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a framework for simulating railway vehicle and track interaction in cross-wind. Each 4-axle vehicle in a train is modeled by a 27-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. Two parallel rails of a track are modeled as two continuous beams supported by a discrete-elastic foundation of three layers with sleepers and ballasts included. The vehicle subsystem and the track subsystem are coupled through contacts between wheels and rails based on contact theory. Vertical and lateral rail irregularities simulated using an inverse Fourier transform are also taken into consideration. The simulation of steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces on a moving railway vehicle in cross-wind is then discussed in the time domain. The Hilber Hughes Taylor α-method is employed to solve the nonlinear equations of motion of coupled vehicle and track systems in cross-wind. The proposed framework is finally applied to a railway vehicle running on a straight track substructure in cross-wind. The safety and comfort performance of the moving vehicle in cross-wind are discussed. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework and the associated computer program can be used to investigate interaction problems of railway vehicles with track in cross-wind.

  15. [The health promotion of the employees of the railway transport].

    PubMed

    Kudel'kina, N A; Shchetinin, A N

    2008-01-01

    The newly developed methodological and technical approaches to the further enhancement of the actual railway transport health care system which is poorly effective in the nowadays social and economic conditions are exposed. The development of the organizational and functional pattern of the primary prevention of non-communicable diseases to promote professional health among railway employees. The priority targets are such key profession of the the railway transport as locomotive crew workers. The overall approach is declared on the basis of the preventive, regular and permanent application of the suite of "health promoting technologies" considering the professional and working conditions, the structure of morbidity, the characteristics of the individual health and life-style of the employees. The outcomes of the carried out preventive activities in the framework of the new functional and structural organization of the ambulatory polyclinical unit of the sectorial health care system demonstrated the trustworthy positive amelioration of health and quality of life among the employees of the railway transport.

  16. [Sanitary epidemiologic safety and technical regulations on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Leksin, A G

    2009-01-01

    The author necessitated that requirements on sanitary and epidemiologic safety of life support systems for engine driver cabin (microclimate maintainance system, protection from vibration and noise, illumination, workplace ergonomics, etc) should be included into technical regulations for railway vehicles, both newly constructed and modernized.

  17. [Epidemiological features and causes of railway traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Zhou, D S

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on epidemiological features of railway traffic accidents and factors influencing traffic safety. An analysis of various kinds of railway traffic accidents over 30 years in Nanjing Railway Branch, Showed that railway traffic accidents have become a sort of modern social disease, and had particular epidemiological features. The peak of the epidemic curve appeared cyclically and had a close relation to social disturbances, Frequency of accident occurrence was the highest in the first season (period of spring transport) and the third season (period of high temperature) of the year thus most accidents happen in February and August. Most accidents occurred on Fridays and least on Mondays. Distribution of accidents had obvious "antenna" phenomenon in round graph which had a 24-hour cycle. Analysing the multiple factors influencing traffic safety, the results showed that the upper-limit-age of a train driver should not be more than 50 years old; The phenomenon "bathtub" between personage accident rate and age must be taken seriously. More attention should be paid to the psychological aspects when recruiting train drivers. In our country, it is urgent to set up standard of psychomovement function for choosing train locomotive drivers. Fatigue was one of the direct causes resulting in accident occurrences. No statistical correlation was found between biorhythm and accident occurrence.

  18. Technological Support of Critical Parts for Railway Transport Working Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabets, A. V.; Gabets, D. A.; Markov, A. M.; Radchenko, M. V.; Leonov, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The materials of complex research of operational properties of a new brand cast iron CHMN-35M. Optimal chemical composition was determined. The obtained results allow to conclude about possibility of its use for the manufacture of critical parts of rolling stock of railway transport, in particular of a side bearing cap

  19. Increasing the Operational Stability of Railway Core by Modifying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedoseev, S. N.; Mukhtar, Z. M.

    2015-09-01

    At the present time in conditions of high intensity use of the railways of great importance paid to longer service life the railroad tracks, elements turnout in particular crosspieces. The main element of the railway track turnouts are carrying out a change of direction of movement of trains. Many translations have exhausted their time and are obsolete. From is technical condition turnout's largely dependent reliability of rail transport. Turnouts are the most complicated structure in the railway. Individual elements of the railway line - the spider who perceives high impact loads. Crossings should have sufficient strength and wear resistance because undergo complex dynamic loads. High dynamic impact and wear areas are also experiencing the antennae, which are located near the cores. The basic technological aspects to improve the characteristics steel by modifying. The technology of producing high-manganese steel modified special modifier to improve the structural strength of receiving the item. As a result of a series of experimental heats received the samples that were subjected to mechanical testing. Structural studies have shown improvements steel microstructure as well as its mechanical properties.

  20. 40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, dated July 1937. (Microfiched drawings located at the Denver Service Center, #113/41906-set of 2) IMPROVEMENTS IN SEWAGE TREATMENT AND FILTER CHAMBER. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  1. Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, Penna." This device turned seaplanes ninety degrees in their movement between storage in the hangars (to the left, out of view) and the Delaware River used for take-offs and landings. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Marine Aviation Hangars, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  2. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  3. An Application of Wedelin's Method to Railway Crew Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Rei; Imaizumi, Jun; Fukumura, Naoto; Morito, Susumu

    So many scheduling problems arise in railway industries. One of the typical scheduling problems is Crew Scheduling Problem. Much attention has been paid to this problem by a lot of researchers, but many studies have not been done to the problems in railway industries in Japan. In this paper, we consider a railway crew scheduling problem in Japan. The problem can be formulated into Set Covering Problem (SCP). In SCP, a row corresponds to a trip representing a minimal task and a column corresponds to a pairing representing a sequence of trips performed by a certain crew. Many algorithms have been developed and proposed for it. On the other hand, in practical use, it is important to investigate how these algorithms behave and work on a certain problem. Therefore, we focus on Wedelin's algorithm, which is based on Lagrange relaxation and is known as one of the high performance algorithms for SCP, and mainly examine the basic idea of this algorithm. Furthermore, we show effectiveness of this procedure through computational experiments on instances from Japanese railway.

  4. View of top of Railway Express Building and roof of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of top of Railway Express Building and roof of loading dock, facing west from rooftop. View shows intersection of loading dock portion with two story section of building - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. Linguistic Interference in Immigrants' Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Robert

    A study of the linguistic interference of nine multilingual immigrants to the Saguenay Peninsula of Quebec province examined three types of interference in their spoken English. They included: (1) interlingual interference from the mother tongue; (2) intralingual intrusion from structures and lexical items from within English in situations and…

  6. Interference Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT IN HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND JUNE 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2011 – FEB 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT IN HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...However, such deployments require efficient frequency allocation schemes for managing interference from the pico- and macro base stations that are

  7. Railway noise annoyance and the importance of number of trains, ground vibration, and building situational factors.

    PubMed

    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Ögren, Mikael; Jerson, Tomas; Öhrström, Evy

    2012-01-01

    Internationally accepted exposure-response relationships show that railway noise causes less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft noise. Railway transport, both passenger and freight transport, is increasing, and new railway lines are planned for environmental reasons. The combination of more frequent railway traffic and faster and heavier trains will, most probably, lead to more disturbances from railway traffic in the near future. To effectively plan for mitigations against noise and vibration from railway traffic, new studies are needed to obtain a better basis of knowledge. The main objectives of the present study was to investigate how the relationship between noise levels from railway traffic and general annoyance is influenced by (i) number of trains, (ii) the presence of ground borne vibrations, and (iii) building situational factors, such as orientation of balcony/patio and bedroom window. Socio-acoustic field studies were executed in residential areas; (1) with relatively intense railway traffic; (2) with strong vibrations, and; (3) with the most intense railway traffic in the country. Data was obtained for 1695 respondents exposed to sound levels ranging from L(Aeq,24h) 45 to 65 dB. Both number of trains and presence of ground-borne vibrations, and not just the noise level per se, are of relevance for how annoying railway noise is perceived. The results imply that, for the proportion annoyed to be equal, a 5 - 7 dB lower noise level is needed in areas where the railway traffic causes strong ground-borne vibrations and in areas with a very large number of trains. General noise annoyance was twice as high among residents in dwellings with balcony / patio oriented towards the railway and about 1.5 times higher among residents with bedroom windows facing the railway.

  8. Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High-Voltage Power Line Installations in the State of Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Rachael M; Song, Geoboo

    2016-10-01

    Recently, a controversial policy debate has arisen concerning the installation of high-voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas. While proponents argue that such an installation is inevitable to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region, opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. Of particular interest is to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with such divisive proposals, which is critical for comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. Based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high-voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. In doing so, we analyze original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, while considering other factors claimed by previous literature to influence risk perceptions, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly-through affective feelings-shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high-voltage power lines. We conclude this article by suggesting some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues of this nature.

  9. Robust mainlobe interference suppression for coherent interference environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yasen; Bao, Qinglong; Chen, Zengping

    2016-12-01

    A mainlobe interference suppression method is proposed in this paper, which can still work when the signal of interest (SOI) is present in the training data. In this method, the iterative adaptive approach (IAA) is applied to spatial spectrum estimation at first. Then, IAA spatial spectrum is used to reconstruct the interference-plus-noise covariance matrix (INCM). Next, the eigenvector associated with mainlobe interference in INCM is determined, and the eigen-projection matrix can be calculated to suppress the mainlobe interference. Meanwhile, the sidelobe-interference-plus-noise covariance matrix (SINCM) can be reconstructed. Finally, the adaptive weight vector is obtained. One main advantage is that the proposed method can deal with coherent mainlobe interference and sidelobe interferences simultaneously. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  10. Interaction between a railway track and uniformly moving tandem wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovskiy, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    Interaction among loaded wheels via railway track is studied. The vertical parametric oscillations of an infinite row of identical equally spaced wheels, bearing constant load and uniformly moving over a railway track, are calculated by means of Fourier series technique. If the distance between two consecutive wheels is big enough, then one can disregard their interaction via the railway track and consider every wheel as a single one. In this case, however, the Fourier series technique represents an appropriate computation time-saving approximation to a Fourier integral transformation technique that describes the oscillations of a single moving wheel. Two schemes are considered. In the first scheme, every wheel bears the same load. In the second one, consecutive wheels bear contrarily directed loads of the same magnitude. The second scheme leads to simpler calculations and so is recommended to model the wheel-track interaction. The railway track periodicity due to sleeper spacing is taken into account. Each period is the track segment between two adjacent sleepers. A partial differential equation with constant coefficients governs the vertical oscillations of each segment. Boundary conditions bind the oscillations of two neighbour segments and provide periodicity to the track. The shear deformation in the rail cross-section strongly influences the parametric oscillations. It also causes discontinuity of the rail centre-line slope at any point, where a concentrated transverse force is applied. Therefore, Timoshenko beam properties with respect to the topic of this paper are discussed. Interaction between a railway track and a bogie moving at moderate speed is studied. The study points to influence of the bogie frame oscillations on variation in the wheel-rail contact force over the sleeper span. The simplified bogie model considered includes only the primary suspension. A static load applied to the bogie frame centre presents the vehicle body.

  11. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Aiken Railway Company, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of... pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35665 must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395...

  12. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw... CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for an intra- corporate family transaction. Applicants state that both rail carriers... carrier corporations. This is a transaction within a corporate family of the type specifically...

  13. Interference Rejection and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    filtering matrix for the noise and interference that is defined as Cnoise = [ 0N ,G−M Toeplitz ([ c∗M−1, 01,N−1 ]T [c∗, 01,N−1 ])] , (9.30) where 0i, j...is the i × j zero matrix. The Toeplitz operator, Toeplitz (column, row), generates a Toeplitz matrix from a column vector and a row vector. Note that...2002). 22. Gray, R.M.: Toeplitz and circulant matrices: A review. Foundations Trends Commun. Inform. Theory 2, 155–239 (2006). 23. Hara, S., Prasad, R

  14. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  15. Soil and plant contamination with heavy metals in the area of the old railway junction Tarnowskie Góry and near two main railway routes.

    PubMed

    Malawska, M; Wiłkomirski, B

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mo, Zn, Co, Cu) content was determined in soil and plant samples collected in the different areas of the railway junction Tarnowskie Góry, as well as, near two main railway routes, i.e. Warsaw-Gdańsk and Katowice-Gdynia. In Tarnowskie Góry soil and plant samples were collected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the rolling stock cleaning bay, platform area, railway siding and loading ramp. It was found that the contamination of soil and plants by heavy metal was the highest in loading ramp. A particularly high pollution level of copper was observed. The contamination level near the railway routes decreased accordingly to the distance from routes which suggests pollutant role of railway transport.

  16. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Railway axles are subjected to cyclic loading which can lead to fatigue failure. For safe operation of railway axles a damage tolerance approach taking into account a possible defect on railway axle surface is often required. The contribution deals with an estimation of residual fatigue lifetime of railway axle with initial inclined surface crack. 3D numerical model of inclined semi-elliptical surface crack in railway axle was developed and its curved propagation through the axle was simulated by finite element method. Presence of press-fitted wheel in the vicinity of initial crack was taken into account. A typical loading spectrum of railway axle was considered and residual fatigue lifetime was estimated by NASGRO approach. Material properties of typical axle steel EA4T were considered in numerical calculations and lifetime estimation.

  17. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas. PMID:24936948

  18. Railway crossing risk area detection using linear regression and terrain drop compensation techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-06-16

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas.

  19. Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. Methods We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1-<0.2, 0.2-<0.4, and ≥ 0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged <14 within these municipalities from 1986 to 2007, and we sampled four matched controls for each case, collecting information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects. Results Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥ 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Conclusions Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation. PMID:20353586

  20. The Safety Related Software for Railway Control with Respect to Automatic Level Crossing Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Trzaska-Rycaj, Katarzyna

    The paper deals with design problems of correct and high reliable software for railway traffic control systems. The correct software (corresponding to formal or semi-formal criteria) has an important part in safety related (SIL4) railway control systems. The paper treats about actual state of art in design of safety related software for railway application. The proposed methods, recommended by CENELEC and UIC are introduced to example of automatic level crossing signaling system.

  1. [Effects of the nature of work on the health status of traffic controllers of railway transport].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Kudrin, V A; Ovechkina, Zh V

    1995-01-01

    The work of railway traffic controllers involves emotional strain and, hence, is associated with a rather high morbidity. Circulatory disorders occurred in this population 1.9 times more frequently and gastrointestinal disturbances 2.2 times more often than in other workers of railway transport. These data necessitated development of sanitary and hygienic recommendations aimed at improvement of the working conditions for railway traffic controllers.

  2. [Occupational hygiene of railway transport workers as a specific branch of occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Iu N; Suvorov, S V

    1992-01-01

    Occupational hygiene of the railway transport is a well defined sphere of knowledge. It is closely connected with the general occupational medicine and yet occupies a significant place in the railway medicine. Occupational medicine of the railway transport is based on results of sciences connected with each other and at the same time it serves for the favourable research is included sciences, such as occupational physiology and hygiene pathology, sanitary technics, chemistry, acoustics et al.

  3. Beamforming design with proactive interference cancelation in MISO interference channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Tian, Yafei; Yang, Chenyang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we design coordinated beamforming at base stations (BSs) to facilitate interference cancelation at users in interference networks, where each BS is equipped with multiple antennas and each user is with a single antenna. By assuming that each user can select the best decoding strategy to mitigate the interference, either canceling the interference after decoding when it is strong or treating it as noise when it is weak, we optimize the beamforming vectors that maximize the sum rate for the networks under different interference scenarios and find the solutions of beamforming with closed-form expressions. The inherent design principles are then analyzed, and the performance gain over passive interference cancelation is demonstrated through simulations in heterogeneous cellular networks.

  4. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2016-04-20

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  5. [On the epidemic of cholera and its prevention and control by the railway authorities in 1932].

    PubMed

    Huang, H P; Song, M H

    2016-01-28

    In 1932, the epidemic of cholera in China was serious, spreading to all provinces nationwide, causing heavy casualties. In order to prevent cholera epidemics spread along the railway line, the National Government Ministry of Railways and the local railway administration had taken all countermeasures, including the promulgation of epidemic prevention laws and regulations, quarantine, isolated check-up, disinfection, vaccination and even interruption of traffic. The measures of railway authorities had achieved a certain success. In August 1932, cholera epidemic began to subside gradually.

  6. Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relation to proximity to railways.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, H O; Hammal, D M; Dummer, T J B; Parker, L; Bithell, J F

    2003-03-10

    We investigated whether living close to railway lines is a risk factor for childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in electoral wards in England and Wales, 1966-1987. The national rail network, 1966-1987, was digitised and the numbers of cases in each ward were related to two measures of environmental exposure to railways: a proximity and a density function, contributions to these functions being weighted by the frequency of use and time in use of each stretch of railway. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios in relation to these measures of exposure to railways, both unadjusted and adjusted for population mixing. We found no association between risk of leukaemia and railway proximity (unadjusted rate ratio for trend from the lowest to the median value=1.006, 95% CI: 0.998 - 1.013, P=0.14) and a very small association with railway density, of marginal statistical significance (rate ratio for trend=1.001, 95% CI: 1.000 - 1.003, P=0.05). This effect depended on two deprived, urban wards with high railway density and high population mixing and became nonsignificant (P=0.09) after allowing for population mixing. The very weak association between railway density and risk of childhood leukaemia is likely to be a consequence of the association between population mixing and proximity to railways in very deprived, urban wards.

  7. Demonstrations of beats as moving interference patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, T. S.; Dishman, L. G.

    1982-02-01

    A ripple tank demonstration is described that displays the dynamic interference patterns responsible for producing beats. Photographs are provided of a computer simulation of various beat interference patterns. Young's two-slit interference pattern is presented as a special case (the zero-beat case) of the more general beat interference pattern. Equations for the constructive interference paths of beat interference patterns are derived.

  8. Single-plasmon interferences.

    PubMed

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons.

  9. Single-plasmon interferences

    PubMed Central

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W.; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons. PMID:26998521

  10. Optically bistable interference filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weiting

    1990-07-01

    In general the temperature dependence of refractive index of coating materials is usually small. The most notable exception being the lead telluride. Thinfilm filters made of PbTe possess anomalously high nortlinearily in refractive index. We have investigated the phenomenon theoretically and experimexitally. 2 . BISTABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERFERENCE FILTERS It can be proved that the transmittance and reflectance of a twin-cavity NLIF which consists of two F-B filters coupled by a single low-index are given by 2 a(1r1 )(1-r0) T --i. -. (1) -d (1r01) (1r12) (1-i-Fsin 4)(1+sin p) where a r01 F . Te phase change of the cavity 0 IS 2r0dnAI0D (2) 2k5dT 1k where the absorbtance A 00 the initial detunning of fresonance and the first term on the right side of the equation(1)-(2) the output characteristics of the NLIF can be calculated. 3 . EXPERIMENTAL CASE The interference filters suggested to be used in my research will be made by vacuum deposition with a thermal source. The filters will be made according to the prescripti The dominant mechanism responsible for d(nhl) must be the change in the refractive index. A low limit on the OB switch-on time is found to be O. 35us and switch-off time is 5. 5us. 4. REFERENCES 1. W. T. Feng " Temperature effects on properties of zinc selenide and lead telluride" to be published in Infrared Physics. 2. H. S. Carslaw Conduction

  11. Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

    A novel hydraulic brake pressure control (BPC) valve for the railway rolling stock was proposed in the part I of this study. As a second report, this paper is concerned with the dynamic analysis and the performance evaluation of the hydraulic brake system using the BPC valve. In order to analyze the behavior of the BPC valve, a simplified transfer function and a nonlinear model of the valve are derived respectively. By use of simple linear model, it is achieved to determine the initial values of essential parameter simply. In addition, it is also achieved to investigate overall dynamic performance of brake system and to evaluate the effect of design parameters through the numerical analysis using detailed nonlinear model. The validity of mathematical models is confirmed by experiments. Finally, the performance of the hydraulic brake system using newly manufactured BPC valve is confirmed with an actual braking device of the E2 series Shinkansen railway.

  12. Modern techniques for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngigi, R. W.; Pislaru, C.; Ball, A.; Gu, F.

    2012-05-01

    A modern railway system relies on sophisticated monitoring systems for maintenance and renewal activities. Some of the existing conditions monitoring techniques perform fault detection using advanced filtering, system identification and signal analysis methods. These theoretical approaches do not require complex mathematical models of the system and can overcome potential difficulties associated with nonlinearities and parameter variations in the system. Practical applications of condition monitoring tools use sensors which are mounted either on the track or rolling stock. For instance, monitoring wheelset dynamics could be done through the use of track-mounted sensors, while vehicle-based sensors are preferred for monitoring the train infrastructure. This paper attempts to collate and critically appraise the modern techniques used for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics by analysing the advantages and shortcomings of these methods.

  13. Use of imazapyr against Equisetum arvense on Swedish railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet

    2004-06-01

    Since glyphosate has been used extensively for weed control in Swedish railway tracks, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L), previously relatively rare, has become very common. Glyphosate, although effective against most other weeds found on railway tracks, gives poor control of E. arvense, so that heavy infestation with this weed is now common. Imazapyr (applied as a 250g AE litre(-1) SL, Arsenal) has controlled E. arvense, but is known to be very mobile. Adequate control of the weed requires application of > or = 4 litres ha(-1) of imazapyr SL but environmental factors preclude the use of > 2 litres ha(-1). A suitable strategy was found to be one application of imazapyr SL at 2 litres ha(-1) in each of two successive years but best weed control was obtained by supplementing imazapyr in the first year with glyphosate 360 g AE litre(-1) SL (RoundUp Bio) at 3 litres ha(-1).

  14. Railway network design with multiple project stages and time sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuby, Michael; Xu, Zhongyi; Xie, Xiaodong

    This paper presents a spatial decision support system for network design problems in which different kinds of projects can be built in stages over time. It was developed by the World Bank and China's Ministry of Railways to plan investment strategies for China's overburdened railway system. We first present a mixed-integer program for the single-period network design problem with project choices such as single or multiple tracks and/or electrification with economies of scale. Then, because such projects can be built all at once or in stages, we developed a heuristic backwards time sequencing procedure with a cost adjustment factor to solve the ``project staging'' problem. Other innovations include a preloading routine; coordinated modeling of arcs, paths, and corridors; and a custom-built GIS.

  15. Experimental interference of independent photons.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Blauensteiner, Bibiane; Zukowski, Marek; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Zeilinger, Anton

    2006-06-23

    Interference of photons emerging from independent sources is essential for modern quantum-information processing schemes, above all quantum repeaters and linear-optics quantum computers. We report an observation of nonclassical interference of two single photons originating from two independent, separated sources, which were actively synchronized with a rms timing jitter of 260 fs. The resulting (two-photon) interference visibility was (83+/-4)%.

  16. 9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB"; Photo no. "11,381 57; G-AFFTC 18 SEPT 57". Test Area 1-115. Photo shows engine no. 712 pulling one car. The superstructure of Test Stand 1-4 is prominent in the background. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Predicting surface vibration from underground railways through inhomogeneous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh

    2012-04-01

    Noise and vibration from underground railways is a major source of disturbance to inhabitants near subways. To help designers meet noise and vibration limits, numerical models are used to understand vibration propagation from these underground railways. However, the models commonly assume the ground is homogeneous and neglect to include local variability in the soil properties. Such simplifying assumptions add a level of uncertainty to the predictions which is not well understood. The goal of the current paper is to quantify the effect of soil inhomogeneity on surface vibration. The thin-layer method (TLM) is suggested as an efficient and accurate means of simulating vibration from underground railways in arbitrarily layered half-spaces. Stochastic variability of the soil's elastic modulus is introduced using a K-L expansion; the modulus is assumed to have a log-normal distribution and a modified exponential covariance kernel. The effect of horizontal soil variability is investigated by comparing the stochastic results for soils varied only in the vertical direction to soils with 2D variability. Results suggest that local soil inhomogeneity can significantly affect surface velocity predictions; 90 percent confidence intervals showing 8 dB averages and peak values up to 12 dB are computed. This is a significant source of uncertainty and should be considered when using predictions from models assuming homogeneous soil properties. Furthermore, the effect of horizontal variability of the elastic modulus on the confidence interval appears to be negligible. This suggests that only vertical variation needs to be taken into account when modelling ground vibration from underground railways.

  18. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural and railway applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, H. Y.; Liu, S. Y.; Guan, B. O.; Chung, W. H.; Chan, T. H.; Cheng, L. K.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, due to the high cost of optical devices, fiber-optics sensor systems were only employed in niche areas where conventional electrical sensors are not suitable. This scenario changed dramatically in the last few years following the explosion of the Internet which caused the rapid expansion of the optical fiber telecommunication industry and substantially driven down the cost of optical components. In recent years, fiber-optic sensors and particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted a lot of interests and are being used in numerous applications. We have conducted several field trials of FBG sensors for railway applications and structural monitoring. About 30 FBG sensors were installed on the rail tracks of Kowloon-Canton Railway Corp. for train identification and speed measurements and the results obtained show that FBG sensors exhibit very good performance and could play a major role in the realization of "Smart Railway". FBG sensors were also installed on Hong Kong's landmark TsingMa Bridge, which is the world longest suspension bridge (2.2 km) that carries both trains and regular road traffic. The trials were carried out with a high-speed (up to 20 kHz) interrogation system based on CCD and also with a interrogation unit that based on scanning optical filter (up to 70 Hz). Forty FBGs sensors were divided into 3 arrays and installed on different parts of the bridge (suspension cable, rocker bearing and truss girders). The objectives of the field trial on the TsingMa Bridge are to monitor the strain of different parts of the bridge under railway load and highway load, and to compare the FBG sensors' performance with conventional resistive strain gauges already installed on the bridge. The measured results show that excellent agreement was obtained between the 2 types of sensors.

  19. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  20. Red-light traffic enforcement at railway crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic witih smart vision systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. Embedded loop sensors can detect and count passing vehicles, radar can measure speed and presence of vehicles, and embedded vision systems or stationary camera systems can count vehicles and estimate the state of traffic along the road. This work presents a vision system which is targeted at detecting and reporting incidents at unsecured railways crossings. These crossings, even when guarded by automated barriers, pose a threat to drivers day and night. Our system is designed to detect and record vehicles which pass over the railway crossing by means of real-time motion analysis after the red light has been activated. We implement sparse optical flow in conjunction with motion clustering in order to detect critical events. We describe some modifications of the original Lucas Kanade optical flow method which makes our implementation faster and more robust compared to the original concept. In addition, the results of our optical flow method are compared with a HOG based vehicle detector which has been implemented and tested as an alternative methodology. The embedded system which is used for detection consists of a smart camera which observes one street lane as* well as the red light at the crossing. The camera is triggered by an electrical signal from the railway as soon ss a vehicle moves over th this line, image sequences are recorded and stored onboard the device.

  1. Efficacy and fate of glyphosate on Swedish railway embankments.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet; Stenström, John

    2005-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, as Spectra (240 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto Europe AB), RoundUp (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto) and RoundUp Bio (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto), have been used for weed control on Swedish railway embankments since 1986. This article summarizes results from studies of the weed effect and behaviour of glyphosate for the period 1984-2003. Studies on a railway embankment with a range of application rates showed excellent weed control at 5 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio. The appearance of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA [(aminomethyl)phosphonic acid] in the embankment, eg mobility and persistence, was also studied. Mobility was low in most cases, the main proportion of both glyphosate and AMPA being found in the upper 30-cm layer although minor amounts penetrated to lower depths. The 50% disappearance time of glyphosate was generally <5 months in railway embankments but cases with longer persistence were found. Transport to the groundwater was observed for glyphosate and AMPA in groundwater pipes along tracks. Downward transport appears to be dependent on the application rate, which should not exceed 3 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio to avoid groundwater contamination. A lower rate of glyphosate mixed with a low rate of another herbicide may achieve acceptable weed control and be environmentally safer.

  2. Railway Track Circuit Fault Diagnosis Using Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Tim; Verbert, Kim; Babuska, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Timely detection and identification of faults in railway track circuits are crucial for the safety and availability of railway networks. In this paper, the use of the long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is proposed to accomplish these tasks based on the commonly available measurement signals. By considering the signals from multiple track circuits in a geographic area, faults are diagnosed from their spatial and temporal dependences. A generative model is used to show that the LSTM network can learn these dependences directly from the data. The network correctly classifies 99.7% of the test input sequences, with no false positive fault detections. In addition, the t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) method is used to examine the resulting network, further showing that it has learned the relevant dependences in the data. Finally, we compare our LSTM network with a convolutional network trained on the same task. From this comparison, we conclude that the LSTM network architecture is better suited for the railway track circuit fault detection and identification tasks than the convolutional network.

  3. Railway ground vibrations induced by wheel and rail singular defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P.; Alexandrou, Georgios; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Railway local irregularities are a growing source of ground-borne vibration and can cause negative environmental impacts, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this paper analyses the effect of railway track singular defects (discontinuities) on ground vibration generation and propagation. A vehicle/track/soil numerical railway model is presented, capable of accurately predicting vibration levels. The prediction model is composed of a multibody vehicle model, a flexible track model and a finite/infinite element soil model. Firstly, analysis is undertaken to assess the ability of wheel/rail contact models to accurately simulate the force generation at the wheel/rail contact, in the presence of a singular defect. It is found that, although linear contact models are sufficient for modelling ground vibration on smooth tracks, when singular defects are present higher accuracy wheel/rail models are required. Furthermore, it is found that the variation in wheel/rail force during the singular defect contact depends on the track flexibility, and thus requires a fully coupled vehicle/track/foundation model. Next, a parametric study of ground vibrations generated by singular rail and wheel defects is undertaken. Six shapes of discontinuity are modelled, representing various defect types such as transition zones, switches, crossings, rail joints and wheel flats. The vehicle is modelled as an AM96 train set and it is found that ground vibration levels are highly sensitive to defect height, length and shape.

  4. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  5. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-09-23

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure.

  6. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure. PMID:27669278

  7. [Sociomedical aspects of reduction of risk in the development of occupational diseases and industrial trauma in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Ivanov, V K; Kutovoĭ, V S

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the main constituents of occupational risk in railway workers, which are based on the sanitary and biomedical criteria of injury safety. Sociomedical aspects of the incidence of railway occupational diseases and injuries are discussed. A list of major occupational factors and causes that determine a high occupational risk in railway workers is given.

  8. 77 FR 56910 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Iowa Traction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rail Line of Iowa Traction Railroad Company Iowa Traction Railway Company (Iowa Railway), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Iowa Traction Railroad...

  9. 77 FR 61049 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Change in Operators Exemption-Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Change in Operators Exemption-- Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc. Iowa Traction Railway Company (Iowa Railway) \\1\\ has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iowa Traction Railroad Company (Iowa Railroad) to...

  10. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Assignment of Lease Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company--Assignment of Lease Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company and Sierra Northern Railway Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company...) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends...

  11. 77 FR 69929 - Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins-Continuance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins--Continuance in Control Exemption--Aiken Railway Company, LLC Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation (WCRS) and Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins (the Hawkins) (collectively, Applicants)...

  12. Minimising mortality in endangered raptors due to power lines: the importance of spatial aggregation to optimize the application of mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Guil, Francisco; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Mosqueda, Ignacio; Gómez, María Elena; Aranda, Antonio; Arredondo, Angel; Guzmán, José; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano; Margalida, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Electrocution by power lines is one of the main causes of non-natural mortality in birds of prey. In an area in central Spain, we surveyed 6304 pylons from 333 power lines to determine electrocution rates, environmental and design factors that may influence electrocution and the efficacy of mitigation measures used to minimise electrocution cases. A total of 952 electrocuted raptors, representing 14 different species, were observed. Electrocuted raptors were concentrated in certain areas and the environmental factors associated with increased electrocution events were: greater numbers of prey animals; greater vegetation cover; and shorter distance to roads. The structural elements associated with electrocutions were shorter strings of insulators, one or more phases over the crossarm, cross-shaped design and pylon function. Of the 952 carcasses found, 148 were eagles, including golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). Electrocuted eagles were clustered in smaller areas than other electrocuted raptors. The factors associated with increased eagle electrocution events were: pylons function, shorter strings of insulators, higher slopes surrounding the pylon, and more numerous potential prey animals. Pylons with increased string of insulators had lower raptor electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, although this technique was unsuccessful for eagles. Pylons with cable insulation showed higher electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, both for raptors and eagles, despite this is the most widely used and recommended mitigation measure in several countries. To optimize the application of mitigation measures, our results recommend the substitution of pin-type insulators to suspended ones and elongating the strings of insulators.

  13. Minimising Mortality in Endangered Raptors Due to Power Lines: The Importance of Spatial Aggregation to Optimize the Application of Mitigation Measures

    PubMed Central

    Guil, Francisco; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Mosqueda, Ignacio; Gómez, María Elena; Aranda, Antonio; Arredondo, Ángel; Guzmán, José; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano; Margalida, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Electrocution by power lines is one of the main causes of non-natural mortality in birds of prey. In an area in central Spain, we surveyed 6304 pylons from 333 power lines to determine electrocution rates, environmental and design factors that may influence electrocution and the efficacy of mitigation measures used to minimise electrocution cases. A total of 952 electrocuted raptors, representing 14 different species, were observed. Electrocuted raptors were concentrated in certain areas and the environmental factors associated with increased electrocution events were: greater numbers of prey animals; greater vegetation cover; and shorter distance to roads. The structural elements associated with electrocutions were shorter strings of insulators, one or more phases over the crossarm, cross-shaped design and pylon function. Of the 952 carcasses found, 148 were eagles, including golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). Electrocuted eagles were clustered in smaller areas than other electrocuted raptors. The factors associated with increased eagle electrocution events were: pylons function, shorter strings of insulators, higher slopes surrounding the pylon, and more numerous potential prey animals. Pylons with increased string of insulators had lower raptor electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, although this technique was unsuccessful for eagles. Pylons with cable insulation showed higher electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, both for raptors and eagles, despite this is the most widely used and recommended mitigation measure in several countries. To optimize the application of mitigation measures, our results recommend the substitution of pin-type insulators to suspended ones and elongating the strings of insulators. PMID:22140549

  14. Hazard connected to railway tunnel construction in karstic area: applied geomorphological and hydrogeological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, G.; Cucchi, F.; Zini, L.

    2005-02-01

    In a mature karstic system, the realisation of galleries using the methodology of railway tunnel boring machine (TBM) involves particular problems due to the high risk of interference with groundwater (often subject to remarkable level variations) and with cavities and/or thick fill deposits. In order to define groundwater features it is necessary to investigate both hydrodynamic and karstification. To define and quantify the karst phenomenon in the epikarst of the Trieste Karst (Italy), an applied geomorphological approach has been experimented with surface and cavity surveys. The surface surveys have contributed to determining the potential karst versus the different outcropping lithologies and to define the structural setting of the rocky mass also through the realisation of geostructural stations and the survey of the main lines thanks to photo-interpretation. Moreover, all the dolines and the cavities present in the area interested by the gallery have been studied by analysing the probable extension of caves and/or of the secondary fill deposits and by evaluating the different genetic models. In an area 900m large and 27km long, which has been studied because of the underground karst, there are 41 dolines having diameters superior to 100m and 93 dolines whose diameters range between 100 and 50m; the dolines whose diameters are inferior to 50m are 282. The entrances of known and registered cavities in the cadastre records are 520. The hypogeal surveys have shown 5 typologies in which it has been possible to group all the cavities present in a hypothetical intersection with the excavation. The comparison between surface and hypogeal structural data and the direction of development of cavities has allowed for the definition of highly karstified discontinuity families, thus having a higher risk. The comparison of the collected data has enabled to identify the lithologies and areas having major risk and thus to quantify the probability of intersection with the

  15. Supersonic Wave Interference Affecting Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Eugene S.

    1958-01-01

    Some of the significant interference fields that may affect stability of aircraft at supersonic speeds are briefly summarized. Illustrations and calculations are presented to indicate the importance of interference fields created by wings, bodies, wing-body combinations, jets, and nacelles.

  16. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    PubMed

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  17. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  18. Interference Phenomenon with Mobile Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is presented in which the spacing and geometric pattern of pixels in mobile displays is measured. The technique is based on optical constructive interference. While the experiment is another opportunity to demonstrate wave interference from a grating-like structure, this can also be used to demonstrate concepts of solid state…

  19. Perspectives on railway track geometry condition monitoring from in-service railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, P.; Roberts, C.; Yeo, G.; Stewart, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a view of the current state of monitoring track geometry condition from in-service vehicles. It considers technology used to provide condition monitoring; some issues of processing and the determination of location; how things have evolved over the past decade; and what is being, or could/should be done in future research. Monitoring railway track geometry from an in-service vehicle is an attractive proposition that has become a reality in the past decade. However, this is only the beginning. Seeing the same track over and over again provides an opportunity for observing track geometry degradation that can potentially be used to inform maintenance decisions. Furthermore, it is possible to extend the use of track condition information to identify if maintenance is effective, and to monitor the degradation of individual faults such as dipped joints. There are full unattended track geometry measurement systems running on in-service vehicles in the UK and elsewhere around the world, feeding their geometry measurements into large databases. These data can be retrieved, but little is currently done with the data other than the generation of reports of track geometry that exceeds predefined thresholds. There are examples of simpler systems that measure some track geometry parameters more or less directly and accurately, but forego parameters such as gauge. Additionally, there are experimental systems that use mathematics and models to infer track geometry using data from sensors placed on an in-service vehicle. Finally, there are systems that do not claim to measure track geometry, but monitor some other quantity such as ride quality or bogie acceleration to infer poor track geometry without explicitly measuring it.

  20. 75 FR 82426 - Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company-Acquisition Exemption-Oklahoma Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company--Acquisition Exemption--Oklahoma Department of Transportation Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company (WTJR), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice...

  1. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and—less consistently—spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide.

  2. [Reasons for privileges for hard and hazardous work conditions in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Boiarchuk, I F; Elizarov, B B; Dorfman, A A

    1995-01-01

    Many railway occupations have special work conditions which considerably depend on peculiarities of work and therefore could not undergo hygienic regulation. The article gives examples of such occupations connected mostly with personal risk in railway traffic, marked work hardness, etc. Reasonable privileges and compensations are established for those occupations.

  3. [Application of AAS to detecting the influence of railway on the soil of navel orange garden].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Ai, Ying-Wei; Pei, Juan; L I, Wei; Zhou, Nan-Hua; Guo, Cong

    2010-06-01

    Railway transportation has boosted the economy of railway road area, meanwhile it brings some undesirable impacts on the environment of the railway road area. The quality of the fruits is directly related with the elements of the soil, so understanding the element contents of soil in navel oranges garden in the vicinity of railway is meaningful to the security of agriculture products and ecological conditions in the areas surrounding the railways. As a favorite fruit, navel orange is widely planted around the railway in the south China, especially in Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Jiangxi and Guizhou. The present paper studied the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Zn etc in the soil planting navel orange in the vicinity of Chengdu-Dazhou railway by AAS. The railway was built in 1997 and the research area was sited in Jintang county, Sichuan. The results showed that the contents of Pb and Mn in soil planting navel orange were significantly higher than those in the control soil, but the contents of Cd, Cu and Zn showed no significant difference.

  4. Mobility Experience of Persons with Visual Impairments in Indian Railway Station Environments.

    PubMed

    Raheja, Gaurav; Tyagi, Megha

    2016-01-01

    Mobility for persons with visual impairments in Indian railway stations poses multidimensional challenges for access to an inclusive travel experience. India is a home to about twenty million persons with diverse disabilities out of which about five million are persons with visual impairments. Diversity of passenger movements on a railway station including persons with visual impairments requires a Universal Design approach to respond to the accessibility issues in these contexts. This research study is based on a series of live on-site experiences conducted along with persons with visual impairments at New Delhi Railway Station. It also includes the generic studies carried out with other diversities of railway passengers including aging, gender and diverse physical abilities. It employs research methods like ethnography, focus group interactions and trace study to develop a deeper understanding of human and spatial parameters of mobility in railway station environments. A Universal Design perspective with a holistic understanding remains critical to the foundation of this research study. While it deals in specific requirements of persons with visual impairments, it also brings an illustration of handling diversity on a railway station from a unique Indian perspective. It concludes by highlighting and reinterpreting the Universal Design India Principles integrating the needs of persons with visual impairments in railway station environments. Brief recommendation for an inclusive mobility experience on railway station forms a vital part of this grounded research study.

  5. 77 FR 74914 - Decatur Junction Railway Co.; Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Illinois Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Decatur Junction Railway Co.; Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Line of Illinois Central Railroad Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Correction to notice of exemption. On October 11, 2012, Decatur Junction Railway Co. (DJR), a Class III ] rail carrier, filed...

  6. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  7. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  8. 75 FR 3523 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 22, 2009, BNSF Railway... Railroad Company (UP) over BNSF lines extending between BNSF milepost 10.2 at Tukwila, WA, and...

  9. 75 FR 12329 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial revocation of exemption... Railway Company (BNSF) to extend to December 18, 2010, the expiration date of the local trackage...

  10. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Central Illinois Railroad Company (CIRY) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY)...

  11. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  12. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  13. 78 FR 30395 - Grainbelt Corporation-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Grainbelt Corporation--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central Railroad Company By petition filed on February 28, 2013, Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC... arrangements between grantee GNBC and grantors BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) and Stillwater Central...

  14. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  15. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  16. 78 FR 2482 - Carload Express, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Ohio Terminal Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carload Express, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Ohio Terminal... 1180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC), upon OTRC's becoming a... to a concurrently filed verified notice of exemption in Ohio Terminal Railway...

  17. 75 FR 75545 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., Knoxville & Northern Railway Company, Cincinnati Inter- Terminal Railroad Company, and Tylerdale Connecting... & Northern Railway Company (AKNR), Cincinnati Inter-Terminal Railroad Company (CIT), and Tylerdale Connecting... Eastern Terminal, 360 I.C.C. 60 (1979). If the notice contains false or misleading information,...

  18. 78 FR 2483 - Ohio Terminal Railway Company-Operation Exemption-Hannibal Real Estate, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ohio Terminal Railway Company--Operation Exemption--Hannibal Real Estate, LLC Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under... verified notice of exemption in Carload Express, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Ohio...

  19. A graph model for preventing railway accidents based on the maximal information coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fubo; Li, Keping

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors influences railway safety. It is an important work to identify important influencing factors and to build the relationship between railway accident and its influencing factors. The maximal information coefficient (MIC) is a good measure of dependence for two-variable relationships which can capture a wide range of associations. Employing MIC, a graph model is proposed for preventing railway accidents which avoids complex mathematical computation. In the graph, nodes denote influencing factors of railway accidents and edges represent dependence of the two linked factors. With the increasing of dependence level, the graph changes from a globally coupled graph to isolated points. Moreover, the important influencing factors are identified from many factors which are the monitor key. Then the relationship between railway accident and important influencing factors is obtained by employing the artificial neural networks. With the relationship, a warning mechanism is built by giving the dangerous zone. If the related factors fall into the dangerous zone in railway operations, the warning level should be raised. The built warning mechanism can prevent railway accidents and can promote railway safety.

  20. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  1. 75 FR 11993 - Grainbelt Corporation-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Grainbelt Corporation--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway... it pertains to supplemental trackage rights granted to Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC) by BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) and Stillwater Central Railroad Company (SLWC) to permit the trackage rights to expire...

  2. 76 FR 47645 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed...\\ between the point of switch at Track Station 55 + 65 and the point of switch at Track Station 30 + 70,...

  3. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, Ill. BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt...) approximately 0.60 miles of track (Lumber Street Line) from West Cermak Road at the Colonial Brick...

  4. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  5. 75 FR 10341 - Montoff Transportation Company, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...] Montoff Transportation Company, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Montoff Transportation Company, LLC (Montoff), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) its right to reactivate rail service on a 42.80-mile...

  6. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  7. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  8. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  9. Development of fragility curves for railway embankment and ballast scour due to overtopping flood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, Ryota; Bricker, Jeremy David; Ichii, Koji; Kawahara, Yoshihisa

    2016-11-01

    Fragility curves evaluating a risk of railway embankment fill and track ballast scour were developed. To develop fragility curves, two well-documented events of single-track railway washout during floods in Japan were investigated. Type of damage to the railway was categorized into no damage, ballast scour, and embankment scour, in order of damage severity. Railway overtopping water depth for each event was estimated based on well-documented hydrologic and hydraulic analyses. Normal and log-normal fragility curves were developed based on damage probability derived from field records and the estimated overtopping water depth. A combined ballast and embankment scour model was validated by comparing the results of previous studies and the spatial distribution of railway damage type records.

  10. A new semi-active safety control strategy for high-speed railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin; Xu, Zhengguo; Sun, Youxian

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the safety of railway vehicles. A new semi-active control strategy is proposed based on the skyhook control theory. In view of the main railway vehicle safety performance indicators, the new control strategy aims at reducing the derailment coefficient of railway vehicles by restraining the lateral vibrations of the bogie and the wheelset. Furthermore, to evaluate the improvement of the safety performance brought about by the new control strategy, a complete railway vehicle model is established using the ADAMS/Rail software package. In further co-simulations, five conventional control methods are compared with the proposed approach under the same conditions. Co-simulation results indicate that the new control strategy is effective in improving the safety performance of railway vehicles.

  11. [Railway medical hygiene and health protection system in Croatia between 1945 and 1953].

    PubMed

    Lajnert, Sinisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system of medical hygiene and health care adopted by the Croatian section of Yugoslav Railways in the aftermath of World War Two until 1953, based on archival information. In 1945, the human resources section of the Railway Administration in Zagreb included the Department of Social Welfare with offices that managed health insurance in cases of illness and accidents, workers' pension fund, and sanitary care‥ On 19 June 1947, the regional railway executive board established a medical section within the so called Secretariat and appointed Dr Marijan Derkos as its head. On 3 July 1948, central and regional healthcare offices for traffic staff were established to manage and oversee the activities of health institutions providing services for railway workers. The seat of the regional office in Zagreb was in Grgurova street. After the dismantlement of the central healthcare office in charge of railway health institutions in 1953, regional boards established new institutions, that were now self-financed.

  12. Optical interference with digital holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossman, David; Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    In 1804, Thomas Young reported the observation of fringes in the intensity of light, and attributed it to the concept of interference between coherent sources. In this paper, we revisit this famous experiment and show how it can easily be demonstrated with digital holography. We look closely at the concept of interference with light and ask, "fringes in what?" We then show that depending on how light interferes, fringe patterns in observables other than intensity can be seen. We explain this conceptually and demonstrate it experimentally. We provide a holistic approach to the topic, aided by modern laboratory practices for a straightforward demonstration of the underlying physics.

  13. The growth of railway ground vibration problems - A review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, David P; Marecki, Grzegorz P; Kouroussis, Georges; Thalassinakis, Ioannis; Woodward, Peter K

    2016-10-15

    Ground-borne noise and vibration from railway lines can cause human distress/annoyance, and also negatively affect real estate property values. Therefore this paper analyses a collection of technical ground-borne noise and vibration reports, detailing commercial vibration assessments undertaken at 1604 railway track sections, in 9 countries across the world. A wide range of rail projects are considered including light rail, tram lines, underground/tunnelled lines, freight, conventional rail and high speed rail. It documents the rise in ground-borne vibration problems and trends in the prediction industry, with the aim of informing the current research area. Firstly, the reports are analysed chronologically and it is found that railway vibration is a growing global concern, and as such, assessments have become more prevalent. International assessment metrics are benchmarked and it is found that velocity decibels (VdB), vibration dose value (VDV) and peak particle velocity (PPV) are the most commonly used methods of assessment. Furthermore, to predict vibration levels, the physical measurement of frequency transfer functions is preferential to numerical modelling. Results from the reports show that ground vibration limits are exceeded in 44% of assessments, and that ground-borne noise limits are exceeded in 31%. Moreover, mitigation measures were required on approximately 50% of projects, revealing that ground-borne noise and vibration is a widespread railroad engineering challenge. To solve these problems, the most commonly used abatement strategy is a modification of the railtrack structure (active mitigation), rather than the implementation of a more passive solution in the far-field.

  14. 47 CFR 87.425 - Interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.425 Interference. Control towers and RCOs must not cause harmful interference to control towers or RCOs at adjacent airports. If interference between adjacent control towers...

  15. 47 CFR 87.425 - Interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.425 Interference. Control towers and RCOs must not cause harmful interference to control towers or RCOs at adjacent airports. If interference between adjacent control towers...

  16. 47 CFR 87.425 - Interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.425 Interference. Control towers and RCOs must not cause harmful interference to control towers or RCOs at adjacent airports. If interference between adjacent control towers...

  17. 47 CFR 87.425 - Interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.425 Interference. Control towers and RCOs must not cause harmful interference to control towers or RCOs at adjacent airports. If interference between adjacent control towers...

  18. 47 CFR 87.425 - Interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.425 Interference. Control towers and RCOs must not cause harmful interference to control towers or RCOs at adjacent airports. If interference between adjacent control towers...

  19. Interference problems for nongeostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollfrey, W.

    1984-01-01

    The interference problems faced by nongeostationary satellites may be of major significance. A general discussion indicates the scope of the problems and describes several configurations of importance. Computer programs are described, which are employed by NASA/JPL and the U.S. Air Force Satellite Control Facility to provide interference-free scheduling of commands and data transmission. Satellite system mission planners are not concerned with the precise prediction of interference episodes, but rather with the expected total amount of interference, the mean and maximum duration of events, and the mean spacing between episodes. The procedures in the theory of probability developed by the author which permit calculation of such quantities are described and applied to several real cases. It may be anticipated that the problems will become steadily worse in the future as more and more data transmissions attempt to occupy the same frequency band.

  20. RNA interference: unraveling a mystery.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Mary K

    2006-12-01

    Andrew Fire and Craig Mello have won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of RNA interference. Mary K. Montgomery, then a postdoc in the Fire laboratory, participated in some of the key experiments.

  1. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  2. Retrieval interference in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The role of interference effects in sentence processing has recently begun to receive attention, however whether these effects arise during encoding or retrieval remains unclear. This paper draws on basic memory research to help distinguish these explanations and reports data from an experiment that manipulates the possibility for retrieval interference while holding encoding conditions constant. We found clear support for the principle of cue-overload, wherein cues available at retrieval cannot uniquely distinguish among competitors, thus giving rise to interference effects. We discuss the data in relation to a cue-based parsing framework (Van Dyke & Lewis, 2003) and other interference effects observed in sentence processing (e.g., Gordon, Hendrick, & Johnson, 2001, 2004). We conclude from the available data that the memory system that subserves language comprehension operates according to similar principles as memory in other domains. PMID:18209744

  3. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  4. Evaluate interference in digital channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.; Sumida, J.

    1985-01-01

    Any future mobile satellite service (MSS) which is to provide simultaneous mobile communications for a large number of users will have to make very efficient use of the spectrum. As the spectrum available for an MSS is limited, the system's channels should be packed as closely together as possible, with minimum-width guard bands. In addition the employment of frequency reuse schemes is an important factor. Difficulties regarding these solutions are related to the introduction of interference in the link. A balance must be achieved between the competing aims of spectrum conservation and low interference. While the interference phenomenon in narrowband FM voice channels is reasonably well understood, very little effort, however, has been devoted to the problem in digital radios. Attention is given to work, which illuminates the effects of cochannel and adjacent channel interference on digital FM (FSK) radios.

  5. Fault detection in railway track using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremins, M.; Shuai, Qi; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, J.

    2014-04-01

    In this research, piezoelectric transducers are incorporated in an impedance-based damage detection approach for railway track health monitoring. The impedance-based damage detection approach utilizes the direct relationship between the mechanical impedance of the track and electrical impedance of the piezoelectric transducer bonded. The effect of damage is shown in the change of a healthy impedance curve to an altered, damaged curve. Using a normalized relative difference outlier analysis, the occurrences of various damages on the track are determined. Furthermore, the integration of inductive circuitry with the piezoelectric transducer is found to be able to considerably increase overall damage detection sensitivity.

  6. [Current tasks concerning occupational diseases in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Tsfasman, A Z

    1995-01-01

    The article deals with prevalence and structure of occupational diseases in railway workers, related diagnostic problems and major tasks in this sphere. Pulmonary diseases due to dust and vibration disease appeared to prevail in the morbidity structure, then in descending order come locomotion disorders, peripheral neural illnesses, intoxications, auditory neuritis caused by noise and skin diseases. Diagnosis of the occupational diseases lags behind their actual prevalence. Foremost tasks in this sphere are better diagnosis of the diseases, further studies of the most topical entities and practical accomplishment of scientific advances in primary and secondary prophylaxis.

  7. [Morbidity with temporary disability in railway tunnel workers].

    PubMed

    Kudrin, V A; Prokhorov, A A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents data on the health status of a large professional group of transport building workers--those who build BAM railway tunnels and those who build Moscow and Saint Petersburg underground stations. Major factors that are associated with underground work and that form the level of morbidity with temporary disability are identified. Respiratory, osteomuscular, digestive diseases, accidents, intoxications, and injuries are predominant in the structure of temporary disability. Lines of better organization of therapeutical-and-prophylactic aid to this contingent are defined.

  8. Development of Broadband Telecommunication System for Railways using Laser Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Shingo; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Tatsui, Daisuke; Seki, Kiyotaka; Haruyama, Shinichiro; Teraoka, Fumio

    We developed a high-speed telecommunication system applicable to railways, to improve customer service and efficiency of operator's telecommunication between the ground facilities and trains under operations. We manufactured a mobile telecommunication system, capable of recording the transfer rate of 1Gbps in theory by applying the laser beam communication technology. We carried out a field test using trains in active service, and obtained the result of the transfer rate of approximately 700Mbps on the TCP layer between the ground and the train running at a speed of approximately 130km/h.

  9. Multipolar interference effects in nanophotonics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2017-03-28

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an arbitrary nanoscale object can be characterized by a multipole decomposition of the electromagnetic field that allows one to describe the scattering intensity and radiation pattern through interferences of dominating multipole modes excited. In modern nanophotonics, both generation and interference of multipole modes start to play an indispensable role, and they enable nanoscale manipulation of light with many related applications. Here, we review the multipolar interference effects in metallic, metal-dielectric and dielectric nanostructures, and suggest a comprehensive view on many phenomena involving the interferences of electric, magnetic and toroidal multipoles, which drive a number of recently discussed effects in nanophotonics such as unidirectional scattering, effective optical antiferromagnetism, generalized Kerker scattering with controlled angular patterns, generalized Brewster angle, and non-radiating optical anapoles. We further discuss other types of possible multipolar interference effects not yet exploited in the literature and envisage the prospect of achieving more flexible and advanced nanoscale control of light relying on the concepts of multipolar interference through full phase and amplitude engineering.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.

  10. Effects of Exposure to Railway NOISE—A Comparison Between Areas with and Without Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents some of the results of field investigations on effects of exposure to noise and vibration from railway traffic. Effects on annoyance, sleep disturbances and psycho-social well-being as well as disturbance of different activities were evaluated by a postal questionnaire. Fifteen different sites located near railway lines in Sweden were investigated. The study covered areas with different number of trains per 24 hours in area with strong vibration caused by the railway traffic exceeding 2 mm/s as measured in the buildings as well as areas without vibration, or vibration weaker than 1 mm/s. 2833 persons between 18 and 75 years of age participated in the study. This paper presents only the results from two areas with and without vibration and a high number of trains per 24 hours. The results show that railway noise is experienced as more annoying in areas where there is simultaneous exposure to vibration from railway traffic. Disturbance of communication was the most frequently mentioned annoyance reaction, outside and inside the dwelling. To ensure an acceptable environmental quality where less than 5% of the exposed population is rather or very annoyed by railway noise, these noise levels must be below 80LAmaxand below 55LAeqin areas without vibration. In areas with simultaneous exposure to strong vibration, action against vibration or a longer distance between houses and the railway line is needed, corresponding to a 10 dB(A) lower noise level than in areas without vibration.

  11. A PROPOSAL FOR MAKING A RISK MAP OF ROCKFALL BY EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE TO RAILWAY TRACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukata, Takahiro; Mori, Taiki; Shibuya, Satoru

    An incident of rockfall may trigger serious damage to the safety as well as the after-the-event maintenance of railway transportation. In an attempt to minimize such damage caused by rockfall incident, the railway companies regularly in spect the concerned slopes along the railway, and take necessary measures. In the current practice, however, it is very difficult to make a full control of slopes in danger spreading over the wide area due to the limited human and financial resources. Accordingly, it is urgently needed for the railway firms to establish cost-effective as well as reliable system for the slope management. A risk map based on the impact statement of rockfall to railway track is of great use for not only enhancing the efficiency of slope inspection, but also planning the disaster prevention of railway. In this paper, a methodology for establishing a risk map by considering the impact statement to railway truck in a quantitative manner is proposed. In so doing, the rockfall movement on a slope was numerically simulated in match with each categorized type of slopes. The applicability of this proposed method for the slope management practice is examined based on a number of case histories.

  12. Effect of situational, attitudinal and demographic factors on railway vibration annoyance in residential areas.

    PubMed

    Peris, Eulalia; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Sharp, Calum; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    Railway induced vibration is an important source of annoyance among residents living in the vicinity of railways. Annoyance increases with vibration magnitude. However, these correlations between the degree of annoyance and vibration exposure are weak. This suggests that railway vibration induced annoyance is governed by more than just vibration level and therefore other factors may provide information to understand the wide variation in annoyance reactions. Factors coming into play when considering an exposure-response relationship between level of railway vibration and annoyance are presented. The factors investigated were: attitudinal, situational and demographic factors. This was achieved using data from field studies comprised of face-to-face interviews and internal vibration measurements (N = 755). It was found that annoyance scores were strongly influenced by two attitudinal factors: Concern of property damage and expectations about future levels of vibration. Type of residential area and age of the respondent were found to have an important effect on annoyance whereas visibility of the railway and time spent at home showed a significant but small influence. These results indicate that future railway vibration policies and regulations focusing on community impact need to consider additional factors for an optimal assessment of railway effects on residential environments.

  13. The Origin and Role of Trust in Local Policy Elites' Perceptions of High-Voltage Power Line Installations in the State of Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Tumlison, Creed; Moyer, Rachael M; Song, Geoboo

    2016-12-20

    The debate over an installation of high-voltage power lines (HVPLs) has been intense, particularly in northwest Arkansas. Detractors claim that the installation will negatively affect both the natural environment and the local economy, which contains a large tourism component. By contrast, those in favor of installing HVPLs claim that the installation is necessary in order to reliably support the increasing demand for electric power. Using original data collected from a recent statewide Internet survey of 420 local policy elites in Arkansas, this article focuses on two key aspects. First, we examine how local policy elites' perceptions of risks versus benefits of HVPL installation in their communities are influenced by their levels of trust toward information provided by various sources (e.g., energy industry, environmental groups, and government). Second, we utilize cultural theory to explain how the cultural worldviews of policy elites--specifically, egalitarianism, individualism, hierarchism, and fatalism--shape these levels of trust and HVPL benefit-risk perceptions, while controlling for other factors claimed by previous literature, including levels of knowledge on energy-related issues and demographic characteristics. In general, our analysis indicates that policy elites' value-oriented formation of HVPL benefit-risk perceptions is partially due to the influence cultural values have on trust in information sources. We conclude this article by discussing broader implications for the origin and role of trust in policy elites' decisions throughout the policy-making process.

  14. An analog front end with a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s SAR ADC for a power line communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huabin, Chen; Jixuan, Xiang; Xiangyan, Xue; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an analog front end for a power line communication system, including a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s energy-efficient successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, a positive feedback programmable gain amplifier, a 9.8 ppm/°C bandgap reference and on-chip low-output voltage regulators. A two segment capacitive array structure (6 MSB 5 LSB) composed by split capacitors is designed for the SAR core to save area cost and release reference voltage accuracy requirements. Implemented in the GSMC 0.13 μm 1.5 V/12 V dual-gate 4P6M e-flash process, the analog front end occupies an area of 0.457 mm2 and consumes power of 18.8 mW, in which 1.1 mW cost by the SAR ADC. Measured at 500 kHz input, the spurious-free dynamic range and signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio of the ADC are 71.57 dB and 60.60 dB respectively, achieving a figure of merit of 350 fJ/conversion-step.

  15. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  16. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property. PMID:24401735

  17. Track detection in railway sidings based on MEMS gyroscope sensors.

    PubMed

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M; Castro, J Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A; Pulido, José A

    2012-11-23

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns.

  18. Accident prediction model for railway-highway interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon P; Nam, Doohee

    2006-03-01

    Considerable past research has explored relationships between vehicle accidents and geometric design and operation of road sections, but relatively little research has examined factors that contribute to accidents at railway-highway crossings. Between 1998 and 2002 in Korea, about 95% of railway accidents occurred at highway-rail grade crossings, resulting in 402 accidents, of which about 20% resulted in fatalities. These statistics suggest that efforts to reduce crashes at these locations may significantly reduce crash costs. The objective of this paper is to examine factors associated with railroad crossing crashes. Various statistical models are used to examine the relationships between crossing accidents and features of crossings. The paper also compares accident models developed in the United States and the safety effects of crossing elements obtained using Korea data. Crashes were observed to increase with total traffic volume and average daily train volumes. The proximity of crossings to commercial areas and the distance of the train detector from crossings are associated with larger numbers of accidents, as is the time duration between the activation of warning signals and gates. The unique contributions of the paper are the application of the gamma probability model to deal with underdispersion and the insights obtained regarding railroad crossing related vehicle crashes.

  19. An illusory size-speed bias and railway crossing collisions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Helen E; Perrone, John A; Isler, Robert B

    2013-06-01

    Collisions between motor vehicles and trains at railway level crossings have been a high-profile issue for many years in New Zealand and other countries. Errors made in judging a train's speed could possibly be attributed to motorists being unknowingly subjected to a size-speed illusion and this could put them at considerable risk. Leibowitz (1985) maintained that a large object seems to be moving slower than a small object travelling at the same speed. Support has been provided for Leibowitz's theory from studies using simple shapes on a screen. However, the reasons behind the size-speed illusion remain unknown and there is no experimental evidence that it applies to an approaching train situation. To investigate these issues, we tested observers' relative speed estimation performance for a train and a car approaching at a range of speeds and distances, in a simulated environment. The data show that participants significantly underestimated the speed of the train, compared to the car. A size-speed illusion seems to be operating in the case of the approaching train in our simulation and may therefore be a risk factor in some railway level crossing collisions.

  20. Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

    In this study, a novel hydraulic brake system is proposed in order to increase the reliability of railway brake systems. The reason hydraulic brake systems have not been taken up as a practical railway brake system until now is that the brake pressure control valve inherently has internal leakage and this causes insufficient fail-safe function. Accordingly, We focus on the development of a hydraulic brake pressure control valve (BPC valve) in this study. By virtue of adopting poppet elements in the valve, the braking force is maintained without internal leakage even when the electric power supply fails. The developed BPC valve includes a built-in pressure feedback mechanism and it enables the pressure control function to be maintained when the pressure transducer is broken. The operating principle and wear compensation methods for poppet elements are also examined in this study. The experimental results verify the linearity of static behavior, the stability, and the performance of the valve in maintaining output pressure.

  1. Perceptual constancy in auditory perception of distance to railway tracks.

    PubMed

    De Coensel, Bert; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta; Brown, A L

    2013-07-01

    Distance to a sound source can be accurately estimated solely from auditory information. With a sound source such as a train that is passing by at a relatively large distance, the most important auditory information for the listener for estimating its distance consists of the intensity of the sound, spectral changes in the sound caused by air absorption, and the motion-induced rate of change of intensity. However, these cues are relative because prior information/experience of the sound source-its source power, its spectrum and the typical speed at which it moves-is required for such distance estimates. This paper describes two listening experiments that allow investigation of further prior contextual information taken into account by listeners-viz., whether they are indoors or outdoors. Asked to estimate the distance to the track of a railway, it is shown that listeners assessing sounds heard inside the dwelling based their distance estimates on the expected train passby sound level outdoors rather than on the passby sound level actually experienced indoors. This form of perceptual constancy may have consequences for the assessment of annoyance caused by railway noise.

  2. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  3. Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M.; Castro, J. Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A.; Pulido, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns. PMID:23443376

  4. Dust in the underground railway tunnels of an Italian town.

    PubMed

    Ripanucci, G; Grana, M; Vicentini, L; Magrini, A; Bergamaschi, A

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses hazards associated with exposure to dust in tunnels and platforms of the A and B lines of Rome's underground railway and provides an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. The study focused on the analysis and measurement of dust granulometric classes PM10, respirable fraction, respirable combustible dust, and the organic, metallic, siliceous, and fibrous components. Comparing the measurement values from the tunnels and platforms with those found at the entrances to the underground railway stations, it emerges that dust concentration in the tunnels and platforms is three times higher, with a maximum PM10 value of 479 microg/m3. Averaged over 24 hours, in relation to the above ground levels, drivers and station staff are exposed to an additional value of 11 microg/m3 and 10 microg/m3, respectively. If commuters were to remain in the trains or on the station platforms, the 24-hour average exposure would increase by 3 microg/m3. Iron and silica were the major components found in the dust. The use of silica sand in the emergency braking system of the carriages is capable of causing a dispersion of quartz in the air in percentages varying from 5% to 14%. Methods are suggested in this article for the reduction of dust dispersion.

  5. Lateral Dynamics Of A Railway Truck On Flexible Tangent Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha*, A. K.; Karmakar, R.; Bhattacharyya, R.

    A railway vehicle becomes unstable beyond a critical speed. Assessment of the critical speed is important for safety and passenger comfort. Bond graph model of a railway truck-wheelset system on flexible tangent track has been created with eighteen degrees of freedom considering six degrees of freedom for each wheelset and the truck unit without any linearity approximation for the wheelsets. Kalker's linear creep theory has been used for rail-wheel contact forces. The bond graph model of a single wheelset created earlier has been used for the front and rear wheelsets to model the truck-wheelset system. The model is created and simulated for a given set of nominal parameter values with rigid track condition. Truck-critical speeds and stability bahaviour are studied through simulations. Critical speed of a truck is found to be higher than that of a wheelset at the same axle load and conicity for nominal primary suspension and wheelbase. Contrary to the variation of critical speed of a single wheelset with increasing conicity critical speed of a truck decreases with increasing conicity.

  6. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study.

    PubMed

    Trombetta Zannin, Paulo Henrique; Bunn, Fernando

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property.

  7. The Reliability and Safety of Railway Control Systems Based on New Information Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Perzyński, Tomasz

    The paper contains the safety analysis of the new generation of railway control systems designed with respect to new technologies: microcomputers connected via cable and wireless transmission networks. In the paper the THR and global safety criteria are introduced to designed, tested and exploited railway control systems. For one of the systems the verification of safety parameters was possible in the form of both forecasting estimation and exploitation result. The authors presented in the paper one of the methods of forecasting estimation of control and management railway systems.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Rubber-Damped Railway Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešek, Luděk; Půst, Ladislav

    The reduction of noise and vibrations is very important task in many industrial and transport applications. The sources of intensive noise and vibrations are also tram and railway wheels at high speeds. Therefore the modern types of steel railway wheels contain the visco-elastic paddings. The first problem treated in this contribution is concerned with the theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermo-mechanical properties of rubber-like damping elements loaded with prestress by harmonic force. The dynamic modal and spectral properties of the whole railway wheel with damping elements will be investigated by the 3-D FEM model as the second problem.

  9. Demonstrations of Beats as Moving Interference Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, T. S.; Dishman, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a ripple tank demonstration that displays interference patterns responsible for producing beats and provides photographs of computer simulations of various beat interference patterns. Includes programs for the computer simulation and equations of constructive interference paths in beat interference patterns. (Author/SK)

  10. Single Photon diffraction and interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, John

    2015-04-01

    A previous paper based on the Scalar Theory of Everything studied photon diffraction and interference (IntellectualArchive, Vol.1, No. 3, P. 20, Toronto, Canada July 2012. http://intellectualarchive.com/?link=item&id=597). Several photons were required in the experiment at the same time. Interference experiments with one photon in the experiment at a time also showed interference patterns. The previous paper with the Bohm Interpretation, models of the screen and mask, and the Transaction Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics were combined. The reverse wave required by the Transaction Interpretation was provided by a reflected plenum wave rather than a reverse time wave. The speed of the plenum wave was assumed to be much faster than the speed of photons/light. Using the assumptions of Fraunhofer diffraction resulted in the same equation for the photon distribution on a screen as the intensity pattern of the Fraunhofer diffraction. (http://myplace.frontier.com/ ~ jchodge/)

  11. Interference of probabilities in dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, Michail

    2014-08-15

    A new class of dynamical systems with a preset type of interference of probabilities is introduced. It is obtained from the extension of the Madelung equation by replacing the quantum potential with a specially selected feedback from the Liouville equation. It has been proved that these systems are different from both Newtonian and quantum systems, but they can be useful for modeling spontaneous collective novelty phenomena when emerging outputs are qualitatively different from the weighted sum of individual inputs. Formation of language and fast decision-making process as potential applications of the probability interference is discussed.

  12. Interference-based molecular transistors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Mol, Jan A.; Benjamin, Simon C.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular transistors have the potential for switching with lower gate voltages than conventional field-effect transistors. We have calculated the performance of a single-molecule device in which there is interference between electron transport through the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of a single molecule. Quantum interference results in a subthreshold slope that is independent of temperature. For realistic parameters the change in gate potential required for a change in source-drain current of two decades is 20 mV, which is a factor of six smaller than the theoretical limit for a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. PMID:27646692

  13. Effects of long-term 50Hz power-line frequency electromagnetic field on cell behavior in Balb/c 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    An, Guang-Zhou; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Du, Le; Miao, Xia; Jiang, Da-Peng; Li, Kang-Chu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Power-line frequency electromagnetic field (PF-EMF) was reported as a human carcinogen by some epidemiological research, but the conclusion is lack of robust experiment evidence. To identify the effects of long-term PF-EMF exposure on cell behavior, Balb/c 3T3 cells in exponential growth phase were exposed or sham-exposed to 50 Hertz (Hz) PF-EMF at 2.3 mT for 2 hours (h) one day, 5 days every week. After 11 weeks exposure, cells were collected instantly. Cell morphology was observed under invert microscope and Giemsa staining, cell viability was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell cycle and apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry, the protein level of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and CyclinD1 was detected by western blot, cell transformation was examined by soft agar clone assay and plate clone forming test, and cell migration ability was observed by scratch adhesion test. It was found that after PF-EMF exposure, cell morphology, apoptosis, cell migration ability and cell transformation didn't change. However, compared with sham group, cell viability obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution also changed after 11 weeks PF-EMF exposure. Meanwhile, the protein level of PCNA and CyclinD1 significantly decreased after PF-EMF exposure. These data suggested that although long-term 50Hz PF-EMF exposure under this experimental condition had no effects on apoptosis, cell migration ability and cell transformation, it could affect cell proliferation and cell cycle by down-regulation the expression of PCNA and CyclinD1 protein.

  14. HAER PA,58SUSQ,1A (sheet 2 of 3) Erie Railway, Susquehanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER PA,58-SUSQ,1A- (sheet 2 of 3) - Erie Railway, Susquehanna Repair Shops, Machine & Erecting Shop, North side of Main Street, extending Southwest from Exchange Street, Susquehanna, Susquehanna County, PA

  15. [Hygienic evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of impulse ultraviolet radiation sources in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Poliakova, V A; Gipp, E K; Shashkovskiĭ, S G; Shashkovskiĭ, M G

    2000-01-01

    The paper covers the use of impulse ultraviolet radiation sources for disinfecting the air and inside surfaces of the premises of railway station buildings and the water of long-distance passenger trains.

  16. Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities.

  17. High speed railway environment safety evaluation based on measurement attribute recognition model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Gao, Ningbo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  18. 77 FR 73114 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice, correction. SUMMARY:...

  19. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  20. 78 FR 48931 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ..., Ohio Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... 300.3 (near the intersection of Douglas Rd. and Dorr St.) in Toledo, Lucas County, Ohio (the...

  1. 78 FR 7484 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Pemiscot County Port Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... caution and in light of the concerns expressed by the Board, it is filing this notice to acquire the... protected by the conditions imposed in Norfolk & Western Railway--Trackage Rights--Burlington Northern,...

  2. 77 FR 45417 - Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  3. 76 FR 22166 - Manufacturers Railway Company-Discontinuance Exemption-in St. Louis County, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... 24, 2011, Manufacturers Railway Company (MRS) filed with the Surface Transportation Board a petition... contain any Federally granted rights-of-way. This notice corrects that statement. According to MRS,...

  4. Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, Alessio; Bacherini, Stefano; Fantechi, Alessandro; Zingoni, Niccolo

    2009-01-01

    Modeling guidelines constitute one of the fundamental cornerstones for Model Based Development. Their relevance is essential when dealing with code generation in the safety-critical domain. This article presents the experience of a railway signaling systems manufacturer on this issue. Introduction of Model-Based Development (MBD) and code generation in the industrial safety-critical sector created a crucial paradigm shift in the development process of dependable systems. While traditional software development focuses on the code, with MBD practices the focus shifts to model abstractions. The change has fundamental implications for safety-critical systems, which still need to guarantee a high degree of confidence also at code level. Usage of the Simulink/Stateflow platform for modeling, which is a de facto standard in control software development, does not ensure by itself production of high-quality dependable code. This issue has been addressed by companies through the definition of modeling rules imposing restrictions on the usage of design tools components, in order to enable production of qualified code. The MAAB Control Algorithm Modeling Guidelines (MathWorks Automotive Advisory Board)[3] is a well established set of publicly available rules for modeling with Simulink/Stateflow. This set of recommendations has been developed by a group of OEMs and suppliers of the automotive sector with the objective of enforcing and easing the usage of the MathWorks tools within the automotive industry. The guidelines have been published in 2001 and afterwords revisited in 2007 in order to integrate some additional rules developed by the Japanese division of MAAB [5]. The scope of the current edition of the guidelines ranges from model maintainability and readability to code generation issues. The rules are conceived as a reference baseline and therefore they need to be tailored to comply with the characteristics of each industrial context. Customization of these

  5. [About characteristics of mortality of workers of railway transport in the Republic of Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Rzayeva, A D

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the results of the study of mortality of workers of railway transport in the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2005-2010. It is demonstrated that rate of total mortality of this group of population fluctuated in the limits of 1.58-2.25 per thousand with fourfold prevalence of males among the deceased. The standardization of indicators revealed the dominance of risks among train guards, workers and inspectors of railway coaches.

  6. Railway noise annoyance: exposure-response relationships and testing a theoretical model by structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Schady, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In some regions the exposure to railway noise is extremely concentrated, which may lead to high residential annoyance. Nonacoustical factors contribute to these reactions, but there is limited evidence on the interrelations between the nonacoustical factors that influence railway noise annoyance. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine exposure-response relationships between long-term railway noise exposure and annoyance in a region severely affected by railway noise and (2) to determine a priori proposed interrelations between nonacoustical factors by structural equation analysis. Residents (n = 320) living close to railway tracks in the Middle Rhine Valley completed a socio-acoustic survey. Individual noise exposure levels were calculated by an acoustical simulation model for this area. The derived exposure-response relationships indicated considerably higher annoyance at the same noise exposure level than would have been predicted by the European Union standard curve, particularly for the night-time period. In the structural equation analysis, 72% of the variance in noise annoyance was explained by the noise exposure (L(den)) and nonacoustical variables. The model provides insights into several causal mechanisms underlying the formation of railway noise annoyance considering indirect and reciprocal effects. The concern about harmful effects of railway noise and railway traffic, the perceived control and coping capacity, and the individual noise sensitivity were the most important factors that influence noise annoyance. All effects of the nonacoustical factors on annoyance were mediated by the perceived control and coping capacity and additionally proposed indirect effects of the theoretical model were supported by the data.

  7. The Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection of Railway Axles from Their End Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaptsis, D.; Cooper, I.; Boyle, K.; Nicholson, P. I.

    2011-06-01

    As part of the development of a non destructive testing (NDT) system combining complementary inspection techniques, an inspection system based on phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) for detection of transverse cracking in solid railway axles is being developed. This paper presents the initial study, which includes the PAUT experimental setup and the initial results obtained after testing the system on railway axle blocks. The inspection of solid axles from their axle end face is investigated.

  8. The effects of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Hu, Zhongjun

    2012-11-15

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai-Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0-10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals.

  9. Annoyance evaluation due to overall railway noise and vibration in Pisa urban areas.

    PubMed

    Licitra, Gaetano; Fredianelli, Luca; Petri, Davide; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2016-10-15

    The noise impact of the whole railway infrastructure was characterized in the urban environment of Pisa, Italy. The ordinary train transits were considered, nevertheless it was given particular attention also to the noise sources referable to railway operations like manoeuvring, loading and unloading, truck movements, braking, squeals and whistles. These kinds of noise are usually neglected in the noise modelling and are hereafter called "unconventional noises". The characteristics of the railway infrastructure and the receptors' distribution guided the measuring point selection and led to a survey with a sample of 119 people ranging between the ages of 35 and 70 and residents in the area for at least 5 years. The differences between the ordinary noise modelling and the measured noise, including the unconventional ones, were investigated. Dose-effect relationships for %HA and measured or simulated railways noise were calculated and compared with others in literature. The last paragraph of this paper is dedicated to the exposure to railway vibration and its relation with noise exposure. The results show the limitations of traditional noise mapping for railway epidemiological studies based exclusively on ordinary transits and confirm the role of vibrations as enhancing factor for disturbance.

  10. A field study of effects of road traffic and railway noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters.

    PubMed

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Øverland, Britt; Ursin, Reidun; Moum, Torbjørn

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the effect of noise from railway and road traffic on sleep in subjects habitually exposed to nocturnal noise. Forty young and middle aged healthy subjects were studied with polysomnography (PSG) during two consecutive nights in their own bedroom. Noise measurements and recordings were conducted concurrently outside of the bedroom façade as well as inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (L(p,A,eq,night), L(p,A,Fmax,night), and L(AF5,night)) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. The group exposed to railway noise had significantly less Rapid eye movement, (REM) sleep than the group exposed to road traffic noise. A significant association was found between the maximum level (L(p,A,Fmax,night)) of railway noise and time spent in REM sleep. REM sleep was significantly shorter in the group exposed to at least a single railway noise event above 50 dB inside the bedroom. These results, obtained in an ecological valid setting, support previous laboratory findings that railway noise has a stronger impact than road traffic noise on physiological parameters during sleep, and that the maximum noise level is an important predictor of noise effects on sleep assessed by PSG, at least for railway noise.

  11. Large-scale application of the flood damage model RAilway Infrastructure Loss (RAIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Patric; Schönberger, Christine; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2016-11-01

    Experience has shown that river floods can significantly hamper the reliability of railway networks and cause extensive structural damage and disruption. As a result, the national railway operator in Austria had to cope with financial losses of more than EUR 100 million due to flooding in recent years. Comprehensive information on potential flood risk hot spots as well as on expected flood damage in Austria is therefore needed for strategic flood risk management. In view of this, the flood damage model RAIL (RAilway Infrastructure Loss) was applied to estimate (1) the expected structural flood damage and (2) the resulting repair costs of railway infrastructure due to a 30-, 100- and 300-year flood in the Austrian Mur River catchment. The results were then used to calculate the expected annual damage of the railway subnetwork and subsequently analysed in terms of their sensitivity to key model assumptions. Additionally, the impact of risk aversion on the estimates was investigated, and the overall results were briefly discussed against the background of climate change and possibly resulting changes in flood risk. The findings indicate that the RAIL model is capable of supporting decision-making in risk management by providing comprehensive risk information on the catchment level. It is furthermore demonstrated that an increased risk aversion of the railway operator has a marked influence on flood damage estimates for the study area and, hence, should be considered with regard to the development of risk management strategies.

  12. Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…

  13. Suprasegmental Aspects of Reading Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Colston R.

    Information is presented in this paper regarding suprasegmental features of Black English thay may cause reading interference for some Black children. Much of the research concerning reading problems of many Afro-American students stresses the segmental differences of the phonology, the morphology, the syntax, and lexical selection between two…

  14. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  15. Dynamically Substructured System Testing for Railway Vehicle Pantographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoten, D. P.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamashita, Y.

    2016-09-01

    ]The overall objective of this paper is to establish a dynamically substructured system (DSS) testing approach for railway vehicle pantographs. In this approach a pilot study quasi-pantograph (QP) is tested within a laboratory environment, where the catenary wire, contact wire and catenary support (abbreviated as ‘catenary’ in this paper) are modelled as a numerical substructure. This is simulated in real time and in parallel with the operation of the physical substructure, i.e. the QP rig itself. The entire DSS is driven by parametric excitation within the catenary model, whilst the numerical and physical substructures are synchronised at their interface via the DSS control technique of [1]. Simulation and physical experimental investigations of the pilot QP rig, constructed within the Advanced Control and Test Laboratory at the University of Bristol, UK, demonstrate the efficacy of the method when subjected to parametric variations, unknown parameter values and parametric excitation.

  16. [Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Among Railway Employees in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Azizov, V; Rzayeva, A; Agayeva, K; Mammedbeyli, A; Khatamzade, E

    2017-02-01

    We studied the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in two groups of railway employees aged over 39 years including pensioners. The first (main) group included employees (n=15 671) responsible for movement of trains and exposed to `action of harmful occupational factors. The second (control) group included persons (n=19 132) who were not exposed to harmful occupational factors. Both main and control groups were divided into subgroups according to age. Prospective follow-up of persons with postinfarction atherosclerosis and consequences of stroke was also conducted during 5 years. There was no significant difference in incidence of MI between main and control groups except age subgroups 65-69 years where it was significantly higher among subjects from the main group. Incidence of stroke, mortality in acute periods of MI and stroke in main and control groups were similar.

  17. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment and Management for Railway Transportation Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flammini, Francesco; Gaglione, Andrea; Mazzocca, Nicola; Pragliola, Concetta

    Scientists have been long investigating procedures, models and tools for the risk analysis in several domains, from economics to computer networks. This paper presents a quantitative method and a tool for the security risk assessment and management specifically tailored to the context of railway transportation systems, which are exposed to threats ranging from vandalism to terrorism. The method is based on a reference mathematical model and it is supported by a specifically developed tool. The tool allows for the management of data, including attributes of attack scenarios and effectiveness of protection mechanisms, and the computation of results, including risk and cost/benefit indices. The main focus is on the design of physical protection systems, but the analysis can be extended to logical threats as well. The cost/benefit analysis allows for the evaluation of the return on investment, which is a nowadays important issue to be addressed by risk analysts.

  18. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  19. Modelling the leaching of imazapyr in a railway embankment.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Nicholas J; Almqvist, Sara; Stenström, John; Börjesson, Elisabet; Jonsson, Erik; Torstensson, Lennart

    2006-10-01

    The use of herbicides on railway tracks is known to present a risk to groundwater, but little is known of the mechanisms influencing leaching through the coarse material used to construct railway embankments. Therefore, in the present study, four different models based on the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) were compared with previously reported field data on the leaching of imazapyr. In particular, the significance of non-equilibrium processes was investigated by comparing different CDE formulations accounting for preferential finger flow, particle-facilitated transport and kinetic sorption. The traditional CDE assuming 'local equilibrium' based on 24 h batch sorption data gave poor results (model efficiency - 1.1). It strongly underestimated leaching of imazapyr in the first 4 months following application, thus confirming the importance of non-equilibrium transport processes. Accounting for short-term sorption kinetics made little difference, giving similar results to the 'local equilibrium' CDE simulation. A simulation accounting for particle-facilitated transport could accurately match this accelerated transport, and also gave the best overall fit to the data (model efficiency 0.76). However, not even this model could match the long-term retention of imazapyr residues observed close to the soil surface more than 1 year after application, and it also underestimated the time of breakthrough to groundwater. This strongly suggests that a long-term retention/sorption process not included in any of the models tested (i.e. sorption hysteresis or bound residues) acted to retard leaching. The formation of 'protected' residues was also indicated by a much slower degradation of imazapyr more than 1 year after application. Industry.

  20. Fatal train accidents on Europe's railways: 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of fatal train accident rates and trends on Europe's main line railways from 1980 to 2009. The paper uses a new set of data for the European Union together with Norway and Switzerland, assembled partly under the auspices of the European Railway Agency and partly on the author's own account. The estimated overall trend in the number of fatal train collisions and derailments per train-kilometre is -6.3% per year from 1990 to 2009, with a 95% confidence interval of -8.7% to -3.9%. The estimated accident rate in 2009 is 1.35 fatal collisions or derailments per billion train-kilometres, giving an estimated mean number of fatal accidents in 2009 of 6.0. The overall number of fatalities per fatal accident in 1990-2009 is 4.10, with no apparent long term change over time, giving an estimated mean of 24.6 fatalities per year in train collisions and derailments in 2009. There are statistically significant differences in the fatal train accident rates and trends between the different European countries, although the estimates of the rates and trends for many individual countries have wide confidence limits. The distribution of broad causes of accidents appears to have remained unchanged over the long term, so that safety improvements appear to have been across the board, and not focused on any specific cause. The most frequent cause of fatal train collisions and derailments is signals passed at danger. In contrast to fatal train collisions and derailments, the rate per train-kilometre of serious accidents at level crossings remained unchanged in 1990-2009. The immediate causes of most of the serious level crossing accidents are errors or violations by road users.