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Sample records for railway track allocation

  1. Kalman Filter Based Railway Tracking from Mobile LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwa, Y.; Sonh, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study introduces a new method to reconstruct 3D model of railway tracks from a railway corridor scene captured by mobile LiDAR data. The proposed approach starts to approximate the orientation of railway track trajectory from LiDAR point clouds and extract a strip, which direction is orthogonal to the trajectory of railway track. Within the strip, a track region and its track points are detected based on the Bayesian decision process. Once the main track region is localized, rail head points are segmented based on the region growing approach from the detected track points and then initial track models are reconstructed using a third-degree polynomial function. Based on the initial modelling result, a potential track region with varying lengths is dynamically predicted and the model parameters are updated in the Kalman Filter framework. The key aspect is that the proposed approach is able to enhance the efficiency of the railway tracking process by reducing the complexity for detecting track points and reconstructing track models based on the use of the track model previously reconstructed. An evaluation of the proposed method is performed over an urban railway corridor area containing multiple railway track pairs.

  2. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  3. 22. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-5 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 19. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Cradle and Track Plan, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Cradle and Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-1 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Interaction of railway vehicles with track in cross-winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Ding, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a framework for simulating railway vehicle and track interaction in cross-wind. Each 4-axle vehicle in a train is modeled by a 27-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. Two parallel rails of a track are modeled as two continuous beams supported by a discrete-elastic foundation of three layers with sleepers and ballasts included. The vehicle subsystem and the track subsystem are coupled through contacts between wheels and rails based on contact theory. Vertical and lateral rail irregularities simulated using an inverse Fourier transform are also taken into consideration. The simulation of steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces on a moving railway vehicle in cross-wind is then discussed in the time domain. The Hilber Hughes Taylor α-method is employed to solve the nonlinear equations of motion of coupled vehicle and track systems in cross-wind. The proposed framework is finally applied to a railway vehicle running on a straight track substructure in cross-wind. The safety and comfort performance of the moving vehicle in cross-wind are discussed. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework and the associated computer program can be used to investigate interaction problems of railway vehicles with track in cross-wind.

  6. Interaction between a railway track and uniformly moving tandem wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovskiy, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    Interaction among loaded wheels via railway track is studied. The vertical parametric oscillations of an infinite row of identical equally spaced wheels, bearing constant load and uniformly moving over a railway track, are calculated by means of Fourier series technique. If the distance between two consecutive wheels is big enough, then one can disregard their interaction via the railway track and consider every wheel as a single one. In this case, however, the Fourier series technique represents an appropriate computation time-saving approximation to a Fourier integral transformation technique that describes the oscillations of a single moving wheel. Two schemes are considered. In the first scheme, every wheel bears the same load. In the second one, consecutive wheels bear contrarily directed loads of the same magnitude. The second scheme leads to simpler calculations and so is recommended to model the wheel-track interaction. The railway track periodicity due to sleeper spacing is taken into account. Each period is the track segment between two adjacent sleepers. A partial differential equation with constant coefficients governs the vertical oscillations of each segment. Boundary conditions bind the oscillations of two neighbour segments and provide periodicity to the track. The shear deformation in the rail cross-section strongly influences the parametric oscillations. It also causes discontinuity of the rail centre-line slope at any point, where a concentrated transverse force is applied. Therefore, Timoshenko beam properties with respect to the topic of this paper are discussed. Interaction between a railway track and a bogie moving at moderate speed is studied. The study points to influence of the bogie frame oscillations on variation in the wheel-rail contact force over the sleeper span. The simplified bogie model considered includes only the primary suspension. A static load applied to the bogie frame centre presents the vehicle body.

  7. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Gworek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Railway transport is a source of pollution to soils and living organisms by e.g. PAHs, PCBs, oil-derived products, pesticides and heavy metals. Soil toxicity evaluation requires chemical analyses, indicating the type and content of particular pollutants, as well as biological analyses, which allow assessing the reaction of organisms to these pollutants. This paper is focused on a multi-aspect evaluation of the degree of toxicity and pollution of soil in selected railway areas from north-eastern Poland by application of numerous biotests and chemical analyses. The soils were sampled on railway tracks from the following railway stations: Białystok Fabryczny, Siemianówka, Hajnówka, Iława Główna and Waliły. The most toxic soils occur on the railway tracks at Białystok Fabryczny and Siemianówka. They had a significant toxic effect on test organisms from various trophic levels. The contents of PAHs, PCBs, heavy metals, oil-derived hydrocarbons and pesticide residues were determined in the examined soils. In all cases the detected pollutants did not exceed the admissible levels. The highest content of oil-derived substances was noted in soils from Białystok Fabryczny and concentrations were moderate in soils from Siemianówka. Although the pollutants determined in soils from railway tracks did not exceed the admissible values, they had a toxic effect on numerous test organisms from different trophic levels. This suggests a synergistic effect of low concentrations (within the admissible levels) of several pollutants together, which resulted in a toxic effect on the organisms. Thus, there is a strong need of not only chemical, but also ecotoxicological analyses during the evaluation of environmental conditions. Based on data obtained from biological and chemical analyses, we concluded that railway transport may pose a hazard to the natural environment to a larger extent that hitherto expected.

  8. Fault detection in railway track using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremins, M.; Shuai, Qi; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, J.

    2014-04-01

    In this research, piezoelectric transducers are incorporated in an impedance-based damage detection approach for railway track health monitoring. The impedance-based damage detection approach utilizes the direct relationship between the mechanical impedance of the track and electrical impedance of the piezoelectric transducer bonded. The effect of damage is shown in the change of a healthy impedance curve to an altered, damaged curve. Using a normalized relative difference outlier analysis, the occurrences of various damages on the track are determined. Furthermore, the integration of inductive circuitry with the piezoelectric transducer is found to be able to considerably increase overall damage detection sensitivity.

  9. Use of imazapyr against Equisetum arvense on Swedish railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet

    2004-06-01

    Since glyphosate has been used extensively for weed control in Swedish railway tracks, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L), previously relatively rare, has become very common. Glyphosate, although effective against most other weeds found on railway tracks, gives poor control of E. arvense, so that heavy infestation with this weed is now common. Imazapyr (applied as a 250g AE litre(-1) SL, Arsenal) has controlled E. arvense, but is known to be very mobile. Adequate control of the weed requires application of > or = 4 litres ha(-1) of imazapyr SL but environmental factors preclude the use of > 2 litres ha(-1). A suitable strategy was found to be one application of imazapyr SL at 2 litres ha(-1) in each of two successive years but best weed control was obtained by supplementing imazapyr in the first year with glyphosate 360 g AE litre(-1) SL (RoundUp Bio) at 3 litres ha(-1).

  10. Railway Track Circuit Fault Diagnosis Using Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Tim; Verbert, Kim; Babuska, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Timely detection and identification of faults in railway track circuits are crucial for the safety and availability of railway networks. In this paper, the use of the long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is proposed to accomplish these tasks based on the commonly available measurement signals. By considering the signals from multiple track circuits in a geographic area, faults are diagnosed from their spatial and temporal dependences. A generative model is used to show that the LSTM network can learn these dependences directly from the data. The network correctly classifies 99.7% of the test input sequences, with no false positive fault detections. In addition, the t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) method is used to examine the resulting network, further showing that it has learned the relevant dependences in the data. Finally, we compare our LSTM network with a convolutional network trained on the same task. From this comparison, we conclude that the LSTM network architecture is better suited for the railway track circuit fault detection and identification tasks than the convolutional network.

  11. Perspectives on railway track geometry condition monitoring from in-service railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, P.; Roberts, C.; Yeo, G.; Stewart, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a view of the current state of monitoring track geometry condition from in-service vehicles. It considers technology used to provide condition monitoring; some issues of processing and the determination of location; how things have evolved over the past decade; and what is being, or could/should be done in future research. Monitoring railway track geometry from an in-service vehicle is an attractive proposition that has become a reality in the past decade. However, this is only the beginning. Seeing the same track over and over again provides an opportunity for observing track geometry degradation that can potentially be used to inform maintenance decisions. Furthermore, it is possible to extend the use of track condition information to identify if maintenance is effective, and to monitor the degradation of individual faults such as dipped joints. There are full unattended track geometry measurement systems running on in-service vehicles in the UK and elsewhere around the world, feeding their geometry measurements into large databases. These data can be retrieved, but little is currently done with the data other than the generation of reports of track geometry that exceeds predefined thresholds. There are examples of simpler systems that measure some track geometry parameters more or less directly and accurately, but forego parameters such as gauge. Additionally, there are experimental systems that use mathematics and models to infer track geometry using data from sensors placed on an in-service vehicle. Finally, there are systems that do not claim to measure track geometry, but monitor some other quantity such as ride quality or bogie acceleration to infer poor track geometry without explicitly measuring it.

  12. Track detection in railway sidings based on MEMS gyroscope sensors.

    PubMed

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M; Castro, J Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A; Pulido, José A

    2012-11-23

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns.

  13. Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M.; Castro, J. Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A.; Pulido, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns. PMID:23443376

  14. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  15. Lateral Dynamics Of A Railway Truck On Flexible Tangent Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha*, A. K.; Karmakar, R.; Bhattacharyya, R.

    A railway vehicle becomes unstable beyond a critical speed. Assessment of the critical speed is important for safety and passenger comfort. Bond graph model of a railway truck-wheelset system on flexible tangent track has been created with eighteen degrees of freedom considering six degrees of freedom for each wheelset and the truck unit without any linearity approximation for the wheelsets. Kalker's linear creep theory has been used for rail-wheel contact forces. The bond graph model of a single wheelset created earlier has been used for the front and rear wheelsets to model the truck-wheelset system. The model is created and simulated for a given set of nominal parameter values with rigid track condition. Truck-critical speeds and stability bahaviour are studied through simulations. Critical speed of a truck is found to be higher than that of a wheelset at the same axle load and conicity for nominal primary suspension and wheelbase. Contrary to the variation of critical speed of a single wheelset with increasing conicity critical speed of a truck decreases with increasing conicity.

  16. Application of MetaRail railway noise measurement methodology: comparison of three track systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivoda, M.; Kudrna, M.; Presle, G.

    2003-10-01

    Within the fourth RTD Framework Programme, the European Union has supported a research project dealing with the improvement of railway noise (emission) measurement methodologies. This project was called MetaRail and proposed a number of procedures and methods to decrease systematic measurement errors and to increase reproducibility. In 1999 the Austrian Federal Railways installed 1000 m of test track to explore the long-term behaviour of three different ballast track systems. This test included track stability, rail forces and ballast forces, as well as vibration transmission and noise emission. The noise study was carried out using the experience and methods developed within MetaRail. This includes rail roughness measurements as well as measurements of vertical railhead, sleeper and ballast vibration in parallel with the noise emission measurement with a single microphone at a distance of 7.5 m from the track. Using a test train with block- and disc-braked vehicles helped to control operational conditions and indicated the influence of different wheel roughness. It has been shown that the parallel recording of several vibration signals together with the noise signal makes it possible to evaluate the contributions of car body, sleeper, track and wheel sources to the overall noise emission. It must be stressed that this method is not focused as is a microphone-array. However, this methodology is far easier to apply and thus cheaper. Within this study, noise emission was allocated to the different elements to answer questions such as whether the sleeper eigenfrequency is transmitted into the rail.

  17. Perceptual constancy in auditory perception of distance to railway tracks.

    PubMed

    De Coensel, Bert; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta; Brown, A L

    2013-07-01

    Distance to a sound source can be accurately estimated solely from auditory information. With a sound source such as a train that is passing by at a relatively large distance, the most important auditory information for the listener for estimating its distance consists of the intensity of the sound, spectral changes in the sound caused by air absorption, and the motion-induced rate of change of intensity. However, these cues are relative because prior information/experience of the sound source-its source power, its spectrum and the typical speed at which it moves-is required for such distance estimates. This paper describes two listening experiments that allow investigation of further prior contextual information taken into account by listeners-viz., whether they are indoors or outdoors. Asked to estimate the distance to the track of a railway, it is shown that listeners assessing sounds heard inside the dwelling based their distance estimates on the expected train passby sound level outdoors rather than on the passby sound level actually experienced indoors. This form of perceptual constancy may have consequences for the assessment of annoyance caused by railway noise.

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar technique for railway track characterization in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Chiara, Francesca; Fontul, Simona; Fortunato, Eduardo; D'Andrea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance actions are significant for transport infrastructures but, today, costs have to be necessary limited. A proper quality control since the construction phase is a key factor for a long life cycle and for a good economy policy. For this reason, suitable techniques have to be chosen and non-destructive tests represent an efficient solution, as they allow to evaluate infrastructure characteristics in a continuous or quasi-continuous way, saving time and costs, enabling to make changes if tests results do not comply with the project requirements. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry and they cannot be detected by the common monitoring procedures, namely the measurements of track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. Therefore, it represents a reliable technique to assess track geometry problems and consequently to improve maintenance planning. In Portugal, rail inspection is performed with Plasser & Theurer EM120 equipment and recently 400 MHz IDS antennas were installed on it. GPR tests were performed on the Portuguese rail network and, as case study in this paper, a renewed track was

  19. Track gauge optimisation of railway switches using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pålsson, Björn A.; Nielsen, Jens C. O.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for the optimisation of a prescribed track gauge variation (gauge widening) in the switch panel of a railway turnout (switch and crossing, S&C) is presented. The aim is to reduce rail profile degradation. A holistic approach is applied, where both routes and travel directions (moves) of traffic in the switch panel are considered simultaneously. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective minimisation problem which is solved using a genetic-type optimisation algorithm which provides a set of Pareto optimal solutions. The dynamic vehicle-turnout interaction is evaluated using a multi-body simulation tool and the energy dissipation in the wheel-rail contacts is used for the assessment of gauge parameters. Two different vehicle models are used, one freight car and one passenger train set, and a stochastic spread in wheel profile and wheel-rail friction coefficient is accounted for. It is found that gauge configurations with a large gauge-widening amplitude for the stock rail on the field side are optimal for both the through and diverging routes, while the results for the gauge side show a larger route dependence. The optimal gauge configurations are observed to be similar for both vehicle types.

  20. A PROPOSAL FOR MAKING A RISK MAP OF ROCKFALL BY EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE TO RAILWAY TRACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukata, Takahiro; Mori, Taiki; Shibuya, Satoru

    An incident of rockfall may trigger serious damage to the safety as well as the after-the-event maintenance of railway transportation. In an attempt to minimize such damage caused by rockfall incident, the railway companies regularly in spect the concerned slopes along the railway, and take necessary measures. In the current practice, however, it is very difficult to make a full control of slopes in danger spreading over the wide area due to the limited human and financial resources. Accordingly, it is urgently needed for the railway firms to establish cost-effective as well as reliable system for the slope management. A risk map based on the impact statement of rockfall to railway track is of great use for not only enhancing the efficiency of slope inspection, but also planning the disaster prevention of railway. In this paper, a methodology for establishing a risk map by considering the impact statement to railway truck in a quantitative manner is proposed. In so doing, the rockfall movement on a slope was numerically simulated in match with each categorized type of slopes. The applicability of this proposed method for the slope management practice is examined based on a number of case histories.

  1. [Emergency response management near the tracks of the public railway network: special aspects of missions connected with the German national railway system].

    PubMed

    Krämer, P; Aul, A; Vock, B; Frank, C

    2010-11-01

    Emergency response management and rescue operations concerning the railway network in Germany need special attention and implementation in several ways. The emergency response concerning the German national railway network managed by Deutsche Bahn AG is subject to various rules and regulations which have to be followed precisely. Only by following these rules and procedures is the safety of all emergency staff at the scene ensured. The German national railway network (Deutsche Bahn AG) provides its own emergency response control center, which specializes in managing its response to emergencies and dispatches an emergency response manager to the scene. This person serves as the primary Deutsche Bahn AG representative at the scene and is the only person who is allowed to earth the railway electrical power lines. This article will discuss different emergency situations concerning railway accidents and the emergency medical response to them based on a near collision with a high speed train during a rescue mission close to the railway track. Injury to personnel could only be avoided by chance and luck. The dangers and risks for rescue staff are specified. Furthermore, the article details practical guidelines for rescue operations around the German national railway track system.

  2. Detection of damaged supports under railway track based on frequency shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longqi; Zhang, Yao; Lie, Seng Tjhen

    2017-03-01

    In railway transportation systems, the tracks are usually fastened on sleepers which are supported by the ballast. A lot of research has been conducted to guarantee the safety of railway track because of its importance, and more concern is expressed about monitoring of track itself such as railway level and alignment. The ballast and fasteners which provide strong support to the railway track are important as well whereas the detection of loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast mainly relies on visual inspection. Although it is reliable when the fastener is missing and the damaged ballast is on the surface, it provides less help if the fastener is only loose and the damaged ballast is under the sleepers, which are however frequently observed in practice. This paper proposes an approach based on frequency shift to identify the damaged supports including the loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast. In this study, the rail-sleeper-ballast system is modeled as an Euler beam evenly supported by a series of springs, the stiffness of which are reduced when the fastener is loose or missing and the ballast under the sleepers is damaged. An auxiliary mass is utilized herein and when it is mounted on the beam, the natural frequencies of the whole system will change with respect to the location of the auxiliary mass. The auxiliary mass induced frequency shift is analyzed and it is found the natural frequencies change periodically when the supports are undamaged, whereas the periodicity will be broken due to damaged supports. In fact, the natural frequencies drop clearly when the auxiliary mass moves over the damaged support. A special damage index only using the information of the damaged states is proposed and both numerical and experimental examples are carried out to validate the proposed method.

  3. Numerical prediction of rail roughness growth on tangent railway tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. C. O.

    2003-10-01

    Growth of railhead roughness (irregularities, waviness) is predicted through numerical simulation of dynamic train-track interaction on tangent track. The hypothesis is that wear is caused by longitudinal slip due to driven wheelsets, and that wear is proportional to the longitudinal frictional power in the contact patch. Emanating from an initial roughness spectrum corresponding to a new or a recent ground rail, an initial roughness profile is determined. Wheel-rail contact forces, creepages and wear for one wheelset passage are calculated in relation to location along a discretely supported track model. The calculated wear is scaled by a chosen number of wheelset passages, and is then added to the initial roughness profile. Field observations of rail corrugation on a Dutch track are used to validate the simulation model. Results from the simulations predict a large roughness growth rate for wavelengths around 30-40 mm. The large growth in this wavelength interval is explained by a low track receptance near the sleepers around the pinned-pinned resonance frequency, in combination with a large number of driven passenger wheelset passages at uniform speed. The agreement between simulations and field measurements is good with respect to dominating roughness wavelength and annual wear rate. Remedies for reducing roughness growth are discussed.

  4. Accurate and high-performance 3D position measurement of fiducial marks by stereoscopic system for railway track inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Pantyushina, Ekaterina N.; Volkova, Daria A.

    2016-04-01

    Modern demands for railway track measurements require high accuracy (about 2-5 mm) of rails placement along the track to ensure smooth, safe and fast transportation. As a mean for railways geometry measurements we suggest a stereoscopic system which measures 3D position of fiducial marks arranged along the track by image processing algorithms. The system accuracy was verified during laboratory tests by comparison with precise laser tracker indications. The accuracy of +/-1.5 mm within a measurement volume 150×400×5000 mm was achieved during the tests. This confirmed that the stereoscopic system demonstrates good measurement accuracy and can be potentially used as fully automated mean for railway track inspection.

  5. Experimental settlement and dynamic behavior of a portion of ballasted railway track under high speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Shaer, A.; Duhamel, D.; Sab, K.; Foret, G.; Schmitt, L.

    2008-09-01

    The study of railway tracks under high speed trains is one of the most important researches in the domain of transport. A reduced scale experiment with three sleepers is presented to study the dynamic behavior and the settlement of ballasted tracks. A large number of trains passing at high speeds are simulated by signals, applied with the help of hydraulic jacks, having the shape of the letter M and representing the passages of bogies on sleepers. This experiment offers results such as displacements, accelerations, pressures and settlements that allow to better understand the dynamic behavior of a portion of a ballasted railway track at reduced scale and to estimate the settlement versus the number of load cycles. It was found that mechanical properties such as the global stiffness of the track can have important variations during the experiment. The settlement was also found to be a function of the acceleration of sleepers and above all it was observed, for accelerations above a critical value, that the increase of settlement per cycle was very high.

  6. A novel model for determining the amplitude-wavelength limits of track irregularities accompanied by a reliability assessment in railway vehicle-track dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming

    2017-03-01

    The loads on a vehicle and the vibrations transmitted to track infrastructures due to the operation of rolling stocks are mainly determined by the irregularities of the track profile. Hence, it is rather important to ascertain the limits of track irregularities, including amplitudes and wavelengths, to guarantee the dynamic performance of running vehicles and guiding tracks. Furthermore, the operation and management levels as well as irregularity status for different railways are highly dissimilar. Therefore, it is a necessary to conduct a reliability assessment for a specific railway line. In the present work, a large amount of measured track irregularities are concentrated as a group form of the track irregularity power spectrum density. A track irregularity inversion model is presented to obtain realistic representations of track profile deformations with information regarding amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities. Then, the methodologies for determining the limits of track irregularities and achieving a reliability assessment are presented by introducing the probability density evolution method and development of a Wavelet-Wigner-Hough method. Using the vehicle-track interaction model, numerical studies for confirming the limits of track irregularities and evaluating the reliability of the dynamic performance of the vehicle can be conducted to provide valuable suggestions. This paper offers new possibilities for studying the limit amplitudes, characteristic wavelengths of track irregularities as well as corresponding reliabilities when a railway vehicle runs under different track geometric conditions.

  7. Computer-aided evaluation of the railway track geometry on the basis of satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Chrostowski, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, all over the world there has been a period of intensive development of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) measurement techniques and their extension for the purpose of their applications in the field of surveying and navigation. Moreover, in many countries a rising trend in the development of rail transportation systems has been noticed. In this paper, a method of railway track geometry assessment based on mobile satellite measurements is presented. The paper shows the implementation effects of satellite surveying railway geometry. The investigation process described in the paper is divided on two phases. The first phase is the GNSS mobile surveying and the analysis obtained data. The second phase is the analysis of the track geometry using the flat coordinates from the surveying. The visualization of the measured route, separation and quality assessment of the uniform geometric elements (straight sections, arcs), identification of the track polygon (main directions and intersection angles) are discussed and illustrated by the calculation example within the article.

  8. A railway track dynamics model based on modal substructuring and a cyclic boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, Luis; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a technique for modelling the coupled dynamics of a railway vehicle and the track. The method is especially useful for simulating the dynamics of high speed trains running on nonlinear tracks. The main hypothesis is a cyclic system: an infinite track on which there is an infinite set of identical vehicles spaced at a regular interval of distance. Thus the main problems of the finite-length track models (e.g. the waves that reflect at the end of the track and interact with the vehicle; and the time interval of integration must be shorter than the track length divided by the velocity) are avoided. The flexibility of the method can be observed from the case studies presented in the present work: a vehicle passing over a hanging sleeper, and the vehicle-track dynamics for different ballast compaction cases. The results show the influence of the hanging sleeper gap on the wheel-rail contact forces, and the bending moment at the sleeper for different ballast compaction cases.

  9. Waveband Analysis of Track Irregularities in High-Speed Railway from On-Board Acceleration Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Seok; Choi, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang-Soo; Kim, Young Guk; Kim, Seog Won; Park, Choonsoo

    This paper is focused on waveband analysis of the lateral and vertical track irregularities from the on-board acceleration measurement of in-service high-speed trains. The track irregularities play important roles to determine dynamic stability of vehicles and ride quality of passengers, so that their amplitude and wavelength should be monitored continuously and carefully. Measuring acceleration at the axle-box or bogie of the trains has been under consideration for low-cost implementation and robust to a harsh railway environment. To estimate the track irregularities, lateral and vertical vibration caused by the wheel/track interaction is measured by the axle-box and bogie mounted accelerometers of an in-service high-speed train. A Kalman filter is used to prevent unrealistic drifts in the estimation. By applying the waveband-pass and compensation filters to the estimated displacement, it is possible to estimate the track irregularities. A distance-wavelength representation is used to identify their waveband in an intuitive way. It is verified by comparing with a commercial track geometry measurement system. From their comparison, it confirms that the representation can produce a satisfactory result.

  10. Modeling and nonlinear hunting stability analysis of high-speed railway vehicle moving on curved tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Sen-Yung; Chen, Hsing-Hao

    2009-07-01

    A heuristic nonlinear creep model is used to derive the nonlinear coupled differential equations of motion of a high-speed railway vehicle traveling on a curved track. The vehicle dynamics are modeled using a 21 degree-of-freedom (21-DOF) system which takes account of the lateral displacement and yaw angle of each wheelset, the lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll angle and yaw angle of the truck frames, and the lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll angle, pitch angle and yaw angle of the car body. To analyze the respective effects of the major system parameters on the vehicle dynamics, the 21-DOF system is reduced to 20-DOF, 14-DOF and 6-DOF models, respectively, by excluding designated subsets of the system parameters. The validity of the analytical models and the numerical solution procedure is confirmed by comparing the result obtained using the 6-DOF model for the critical velocity of a railway vehicle traveling on a tangent track with the solution presented in the literature. In general, the results obtained in this study show that the critical hunting speed derived using the 6-DOF or 14-DOF model is generally higher than that evaluated using the 20-DOF model. In addition, the critical hunting speed evaluated via the heuristic nonlinear creep model is lower than that derived using a linear creep model.

  11. The effect of critically moving loads on the vibrations of soft soils and isolated railway tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auersch, L.

    2008-02-01

    The dynamic response of the railway track is strongly influenced by the underlying soil. For a soft soil and very high train speeds or for a very soft soil and regular train speeds, the train speed can be close to the speed of elastic waves in the soil. This paper presents a detailed study of the so-called "moving-load effect", i.e. an amplification of the dynamic response due to the load movement, for the tracks on soft soil. The analysis is carried out by evaluating the related integrals in the wavenumber domain. The influence of the load speed is quantified for a large set of parameters, showing that the effect on the soil vibration is reduced with increase of the frequency, track width and inverse wave velocity. Therefore, the moving-load effect associated with vibratory train loads is negligible whereas the amplification associated with the moving dead weight of the train can be significant. The strong moving-load effect on a perfectly homogeneous soil, however, can be strongly diminished by a layered or randomly varying soil situation. This theoretical result is affirmed by measurements at a test site in Germany where the trains run on a very soft soil at a near-critical speed. The results for soft soils are compared with experimental and theoretical results for a stiff soil. It is found that the influence of the stiffness of the soil is much stronger than the moving-load effect. This holds for the soil vibration as well as for the track vibration which both show a minor dependence on the load speed but a considerable dependence on the soil stiffness in theory and experiment. Railway tracks can include soft isolation elements such as rail pads, sleeper shoes and ballast mats. For these types of isolation elements and normal soil conditions, the influence of the load speed is usually negligible. There is only one isolation measure for which the moving load may be effective: a track which is constructed as a heavy mass-spring system. The resonance of this track

  12. Analysis of the Influence of Cracked Sleepers under Static Loading on Ballasted Railway Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán Domingo, Laura; Zamorano Martín, Clara; Palenzuela Avilés, Cristina; Real Herráiz, Julia I.

    2014-01-01

    The principal causes of cracking in prestressed concrete sleepers are the dynamic loads induced by track irregularities and imperfections in the wheel-rail contact and the in-phase and out-of-phase track resonances. The most affected points are the mid-span and rail-seat sections of the sleepers. Central and rail-seat crack detection require visual inspections, as legislation establishes, and involve sleepers' renewal even though European Normative considers that thicknesses up to 0.5 mm do not imply an inadequate behaviour of the sleepers. For a better understanding of the phenomenon, the finite element method constitutes a useful tool to assess the effects of cracking from the point of view of structural behaviour in railway track structures. This paper intends to study how the cracks at central or rail-seat section in prestressed concrete sleepers influence the track behaviour under static loading. The track model considers three different sleeper models: uncracked, cracked at central section, and cracked at rail-seat section. These models were calibrated and validated using the frequencies of vibration of the first three bending modes obtained from an experimental modal analysis. The results show the insignificant influence of the central cracks and the notable effects of the rail-seat cracks regarding deflections and stresses. PMID:25530998

  13. A comprehensive model of the railway wheelset-track interaction in curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Casas, José; Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; Baeza, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Train-track interaction has been extensively studied in the last 40 years at least, leading to modelling approaches that can deal satisfactorily with many dynamic problems arising at the wheel/rail interface. However, the available models are usually not considering specifically the running dynamics of the vehicle in a curve, whereas a number of train-track interaction phenomena are specific to curve negotiation. The aim of this paper is to define a model for a flexible wheelset running on a flexible curved track. The main novelty of this work is to combine a trajectory coordinate set with Eulerian modal coordinates; the former permits to consider curved tracks, and the latter models the small relative displacements between the trajectory frame and the solid. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the problem, one single flexible wheelset is considered instead of one complete bogie, and suitable forces are prescribed at the primary suspension seats so that the mean values of the creepages and contact forces are consistent with the low frequency curving dynamics of the complete vehicle. The wheelset model is coupled to a cyclic track model having constant curvature by means of a wheel/rail contact model which accounts for the actual geometry of the contacting profiles and for the nonlinear relationship between creepages and creep forces. The proposed model can be used to analyse a variety of dynamic problems for railway vehicles, including rail corrugation and wheel polygonalisation, squeal noise, numerical estimation of the wheelset service loads. In this paper, simulation results are presented for some selected running conditions to exemplify the application of the model to the study of realistic train-track interaction cases and to point out the importance of curve negotiation effects specifically addressed in the work.

  14. Microtubule doublets are double-track railways for intraflagellar transport trains.

    PubMed

    Stepanek, Ludek; Pigino, Gaia

    2016-05-06

    The cilium is a large macromolecular machine that is vital for motility, signaling, and sensing in most eukaryotic cells. Its conserved core structure, the axoneme, contains nine microtubule doublets, each comprising a full A-microtubule and an incomplete B-microtubule. However, thus far, the function of this doublet geometry has not been understood. We developed a time-resolved correlative fluorescence and three-dimensional electron microscopy approach to investigate the dynamics of intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains, which carry ciliary building blocks along microtubules during the assembly and disassembly of the cilium. Using this method, we showed that each microtubule doublet is used as a bidirectional double-track railway: Anterograde IFT trains move along B-microtubules, and retrograde trains move along A-microtubules. Thus, the microtubule doublet geometry provides direction-specific rails to coordinate bidirectional transport of ciliary components.

  15. Optical-electronic system controlling the position of a railway track with the help of reference marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavrygina, Margarita A.; Konyakhin, Igor A.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Verezhinskaia, Ekaterina A.

    2016-04-01

    Rail transport is the largest rail network worldwide. If you compare the number of passengers and of goods transported by different modes of transport, it appears that the share of rail transport represents a very tangible part of them. Ensuring a high level of rail safety is currently one of the primary tasks of States and organizations involved in rail. In order to contain a railway and to provide its performance, you must ensure a high quality of the Railway, so the establishment of systems to control the position of the path is relevant, especially in the field of optical-electronic instrument making. The purpose of work is development and research of optical-electronic system for controlling the position of a railway track with the help of reference marks.

  16. Experimental validation of wavelet based solution for dynamic response of railway track subjected to a moving train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziol, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    New approaches allowing effective analysis of railway structures dynamic behaviour are needed for appropriate modelling and understanding of phenomena associated with train transportation. The literature highlights the fact that nonlinear assumptions are of importance in dynamic analysis of railway tracks. This paper presents wavelet based semi-analytical solution for the infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a nonlinear foundation and subjected to a set of moving forces, being representation of railway track with moving train, along with its preliminary experimental validation. It is shown that this model, although very simplified, with an assumption of viscous damping of foundation, can be considered as a good enough approximation of realistic structures behaviour. The steady-state response of the beam is obtained by applying the Galilean co-ordinate system and the Adomian's decomposition method combined with coiflet based approximation, leading to analytical estimation of transverse displacements. The applied approach, using parameters taken from real measurements carried out on the Polish Railways network for fast train Pendolino EMU-250, shows ability of the proposed method to analyse parametrically dynamic systems associated with transportation. The obtained results are in accordance with measurement data in wide range of physical parameters, which can be treated as a validation of the developed wavelet based approach. The conducted investigation is supplemented by several numerical examples.

  17. A theoretical investigation on influences of slab tracks on vertical dynamic responses of railway viaducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li; Cai, Yuanqiang; Wang, Peng; Sun, Honglei

    2016-07-01

    A railway viaduct model consisting of infinite spans of elastically-supported girders carrying a slab track of infinite length is established to investigate the influence of the slabs on the vertical dynamic response of the viaduct, when a moving harmonic point load or a moving sprung wheel is applied. The infinite rail, the discontinuous slabs and girders of identical span lengths are idealized as Euler-Bernoulli beams. The rail fasteners, the cushion layer beneath the slab and the elastic bearings at the girder supports are represented by discretely distributed springs of hysteretic damping. Due to the repetitive nature of the girders, the model can be divided into periodic three-beam units by the span length of the girder, and then solved analytically in the frequency domain using the property of periodic structure. Besides the first natural frequency of the girder with elastic bearings, it is found that the resonance frequency of the slab on the cushion layer has a significant influence on the dynamic response of the track and the girder. Parametric excitations due to the moving wheel periodically passing the discontinuous slabs contribute significantly to the wheel/rail interactions.

  18. Investigations of propagating wave types in railway tracks at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryue, J.; Thompson, D. J.; White, P. R.; Thompson, D. R.

    2008-08-01

    At low frequencies waves propagate in a rail as bending, extensional or torsional waves. At higher frequencies, above about 1.5 kHz, the rail cross-section deforms and many higher order wave types exist. This cross-section deformation has to be taken into account for an accurate evaluation of the dispersion properties at high frequencies. Simulation results in the literature show that a multiplicity of wave modes is possible within this high-frequency range. In this work, wave types that propagate primarily through separate regions of the rail cross-section are investigated for frequencies up to 80 kHz. Two numerical methods are applied to obtain the dispersion properties for a railway track model including rail pads as a continuous foundation. These are a conventional finite element (FE) method and a wavenumber finite element (WFE) method, each of which can include the effects of cross-sectional deformation. In order to validate the predicted results, experiments were performed on a short test track using an impact hammer and accelerometers. Additional measurements used piezoceramic transducers to excite the rail at higher frequencies. The results are compared with simulations in terms of the group velocity and they present very good agreement. From this comparison, it is identified which wave types predominantly propagate on various regions of the rail cross-section.

  19. A semi-analytical beam model for the vibration of railway tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostovasilis, D.; Thompson, D. J.; Hussein, M. F. M.

    2017-04-01

    The high frequency dynamic behaviour of railway tracks, in both vertical and lateral directions, strongly affects the generation of rolling noise as well as other phenomena such as rail corrugation. An improved semi-analytical model of a beam on an elastic foundation is introduced that accounts for the coupling of the vertical and lateral vibration. The model includes the effects of cross-section asymmetry, shear deformation, rotational inertia and restrained warping. Consideration is given to the fact that the loads at the rail head, as well as those exerted by the railpads at the rail foot, may not act through the centroid of the section. The response is evaluated for a harmonic load and the solution is obtained in the wavenumber domain. Results are presented as dispersion curves for free and supported rails and are validated with the aid of a Finite Element (FE) and a waveguide finite element (WFE) model. Closed form expressions are derived for the forced response, and validated against the WFE model. Track mobilities and decay rates are presented to assess the potential implications for rolling noise and the influence of the various sources of vertical-lateral coupling. Comparison is also made with measured data. Overall, the model presented performs very well, especially for the lateral vibration, although it does not contain the high frequency cross-section deformation modes. The most significant effects on the response are shown to be the inclusion of torsion and foundation eccentricity, which mainly affect the lateral response.

  20. Non-stationary random ground vibration due to loads moving along a railway track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Feng; Gao, Qiang; Lin, J. H.; Williams, F. W.

    2006-11-01

    The pseudo-excitation method (PEM) and the precise integration algorithm are combined to compute the non-stationary random ground vibration caused by loads moving along a railway track at constant speed. The rails are modeled as a single infinite Euler beam connected to sleepers and hence to ballast. This ballast rests on the ground, which is assumed to consist of layered transversely isotropic soil. The equations of motion of the system are established in a Cartesian coordinate system which moves with the loads. The non-stationary power spectral density and the time-dependent standard deviation can be derived conveniently by means of PEM, while the precise integration algorithm for two-point boundary value problems is applied to the solution of the equations of motion in the frequency/wavenumber domain. By virtue of the transverse isotropic property of the layered soils, the threefold iteration process in the frequency/wavenumber domain is reduced into a twofold iteration process. Hence the computational efficiency is improved considerably.

  1. Modelling, validation and analysis of a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track system model with linear and nonlinear track properties in the presence of wheel flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzzal, R. U. A.; Ahmed, A. K. W.; Bhat, R. B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents dynamic contact loads at wheel-rail contact point in a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track model as well as dynamic response at vehicle-track component levels in the presence of wheel flats. The 17-degrees of freedom lumped mass vehicle is modelled as a full car body, two bogies and four wheelsets, whereas the railway track is modelled as two parallel Timoshenko beams periodically supported by lumped masses representing the sleepers. The rail beam is also supported by nonlinear spring and damper elements representing the railpad and ballast. In order to ensure the interactions between the railpads, a shear parameter beneath the rail beams has also been considered into the model. The wheel-rail contact is modelled using nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. In order to solve the coupled partial and ordinary differential equations of the vehicle-track system, modal analysis method is employed. Idealised Haversine wheel flats with the rounded corner are included in the wheel-rail contact model. The developed model is validated with the existing measured and analytical data available in the literature. The nonlinear model is then employed to investigate the wheel-rail impact forces that arise in the wheel-rail interface due to the presence of wheel flats. The validated model is further employed to investigate the dynamic responses of vehicle and track components in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration in the presence of single wheel flat.

  2. The time domain moving Green function of a railway track and its application to wheel-rail interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, X.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, S.

    2016-09-01

    When dealing with wheel-rail interactions for a high-speed train using the time domain Green function of a railway track, it would be more reasonable to use the moving Green function associated with a reference frame moving with the train, since observed from this frame wheel/rail forces are stationary. In this paper, the time domain moving Green function of a railway track as an infinitely long periodic structure is defined, derived, discussed and applied. The moving Green function is defined as the Fourier transform, from the load frequency domain to the time domain, of the response of the rail due to a moving harmonic load. The response of the rail due to a moving harmonic load is calculated using the Fourier transform-based method. A relationship is established between the moving Green function and the conventional impulse response function of the track. Properties of the moving Green function are then explored which can largely simplify the calculation of the Green function. And finally, the moving Green function is applied to deal with interactions between wheels and a track with or without rail dampers, allowing non-linearity in wheel-rail contact and demonstrating the effect of the rail dampers.

  3. A dynamic wheel-rail impact analysis of railway track under wheel flat by finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Jian; Gu, Yuantong; Murray, Martin Howard

    2013-06-01

    Wheel-rail interaction is one of the most important research topics in railway engineering. It involves track impact response, track vibration and track safety. Track structure failures caused by wheel-rail impact forces can lead to significant economic loss for track owners through damage to rails and to the sleepers beneath. Wheel-rail impact forces occur because of imperfections in the wheels or rails such as wheel flats, irregular wheel profiles, rail corrugations and differences in the heights of rails connected at a welded joint. A wheel flat can cause a large dynamic impact force as well as a forced vibration with a high frequency, which can cause damage to the track structure. In the present work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the impact analysis induced by the wheel flat is developed by the use of the FE analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS and validated by another validated simulation. The effect of wheel flats on impact forces is thoroughly investigated. It is found that the presence of a wheel flat will significantly increase the dynamic impact force on both rail and sleeper. The impact force will monotonically increase with the size of wheel flats. The relationships between the impact force and the wheel flat size are explored from this FEA and they are important for track engineers to improve their understanding of the design and maintenance of the track system.

  4. Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Patricia; Rohmer, Odile; Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Bonnefond, Anne; Margiocchi, Florence; Poisson, Franck; Muzet, Alain

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies were devoted to permanent effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity. We investigated the effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular response in young and middle-aged adults living for many years either near a railway track or in a quiet area. Forty subjects (50% males) divided into two age groups (juniors: 26.2+/-3.6 and seniors: 56.2+/-4.2) participated in this experiment. Half of them lived near a railway track (RW group: 2.6 to 19 years) and the other half in a quiet environment (QE group: 8.1 to 14.2 years). After an adaptation night, all subjects underwent two nights in the laboratory: one control night and one noisy night (30 by-passes of a freight train). Sleep and cardiovascular modifications were assessed in response to noise. Sleep fragmentation indices were lower in RW subjects compared to QE whatever their age. In response to noise, there was a higher cardiovascular response rate to noise in RW juniors and a lower cardiovascular response rate in RW seniors compared to their age-paired QE counterparts. In conclusion, permanent exposure to nocturnal railway noise leads to decreased sleep fragmentation and to cardiovascular habituation. It is suggested that during the initial period experienced by residents living near railway tracks, nocturnal railway noise could induce a sensitization process on the autonomic response to noise reflecting a startle/defense reflex due to its functional significance, which progressively turns to habituation in the long-term if no adverse effect is experienced.

  5. Tracking It Down: Predictors of Risky Drinking in an Australian Railway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Davey, Jeremy; Obst, Patricia; Sheehan, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Surveys employees (N=4,979) of an Australian state railway to determine self-reported employee alcohol use and the influence of work-related risk factors on this use. Examination of risk factors previously associated with work-related problem drinking showed that gender, nights away from home for work, job satisfaction, and availability of alcohol…

  6. Smart current collector—fibre optic hit detection system for improved security on railway tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Kerstin; Ecke, Wolfgang; Kautz, Michael; Willett, Simon; Unterwaditzer, Hansjörg; Bosselmann, Thomas; Rothhardt, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    In a deregulated EU railway market, monitoring the vehicle and infrastructure interfaces is mandatory for the enhanced availability of operation and for reducing costs. Therefore, infrastructure managers need monitoring tools on overhead contact lines (OCLs). We know from earlier investigations that a measurement of contact forces alone is not sufficient (Schröder et al 2013 Opt. Lasers Eng. 51 172-9). In this study, we introduce a system which is fast enough to detect short disturbances and which can be used with regular trains. It is based on fibre optic sensors integrated with conventional current collectors (CCs). The system is designed to monitor hard and soft hits on the CC in horizontal (driving) and vertical (contact) direction. It was systematically tested in the laboratory as well as in test runs on commercial railways in several countries. With its help, a variety of minor as well as serious defects have been discovered and repaired at the CC-OCL interface.

  7. Dynamic resource allocation for target tracking in sensor and robot networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xiaoning; Tan, Jindong

    2005-05-01

    Sensor network is generally composed of a set of sensors with limited computation capability and power supply. Thus, a well-defined allocation scheme is essential for maintaining the whole sensor network. This paper investigates the dynamic resource allocation problem in a sensor and robot networks for mobile target tracking tasks. Most of sensors will be in sleep mode except for the ones that can contribute for tracking. The sensor network resource allocation is achieved by a hierarchical structure--clustering. Upon detecting an interested event, a set of sensors form a cluster. Only cluster members will be activated during the tracking task. The cluster headship and membership will be updated based on the target's movement properties. In this paper, the clustering algorithm considers sensing area with communication holes and a routing tree is set up within the cluster. For a cluster with communication and/or sensing holes, mobile sensors will be deployed to enhance the sensing and communication capability in the clustering area. Simulations have been used to verify the proposed algorithm.

  8. Sex Allocation in California Oaks: Trade-Offs or Resource Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Knops, Johannes M. H.; Koenig, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs in sex resource allocation are commonly inferred from a negative correlation between male and female reproduction. We found that for three California oak species, aboveground annual net productivity (ANP) differences among individuals were primarily correlated with water availability and soil fertility. Reproductive biomass increased with ANP, but the relative allocation to reproduction was constant, indicating that reproduction tracked productivity, which in turn tracked site quality. Although there was a negative correlation between male and female reproduction, this was not the result of a resource investment trade-off, but rather a byproduct of the positive correlation between female reproductive biomass and ANP combined with the greater overall resource allocation to female, compared to male, function. Thus, we reject the hypothesis of a trade-off between these key life-history components within individuals of these species. For long-lived individuals, a plastic resource tracking response to environmental fluctuations may be more adaptive than directly linking life-history traits through trade-offs. PMID:22952692

  9. The use of decay rates to analyse the performance of railway track in rolling noise generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Diehl, R. J.

    2006-06-01

    Through the development and testing of theoretical models for rolling noise in the past, it has been well demonstrated that the rate of decay of vibration along the rail is closely linked to the noise performance of the track, since it controls the effective radiating length of the rail. The decay rates of vibration along the rail have long been used by researchers as an intermediate, measurable parameter by which to test and improve the accuracy of prediction models. Recently, it has been suggested that the decay rates should be used as a criterion for the selection of track for noise measurements that are part of the acceptance testing of interoperable trains in Europe. In this context, a more detailed understanding of the factors that affect the measurement of decay rates and a consistent approach to the data processing have become important topics. Here, a method is suggested for the calculation of decay rates from frequency response measurements. Different effects are shown in the measured decay rates of a ballasted track with mono-bloc sleepers, a slab track and a ballasted track with bi-bloc sleepers. In the last case, a model for a periodically supported track is used to study the effects observed. It is shown that a peak in the decay rate just above the pinned-pinned frequency may be overestimated because of the measurement procedure that has been used.

  10. Hunting stability analysis of high-speed railway vehicle trucks on tangent tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sen-Yung; Cheng, Yung-Chang

    2005-04-01

    Using the linear creep model, this paper derives the governing differential equations of motion for a truck moving on tangent tracks. The truck is modeled by a 10 degree-of-freedom (DOF) system which considers the lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll angle and yaw angle of each wheelset and the lateral displacement and yaw angle of the truck frame. It is shown that the critical hunting speeds evaluated using the 10-DOF system differ significantly from those calculated using a system with six-DOF. The influences on the critical hunting speeds of certain physical parameters not considered in the six-DOF system are evaluated for wheels of different conicities. The accuracy of the present analysis is verified by comparing the limiting case and the current numerical results with the findings available in published literature.

  11. A numerical model for calculating vibration due to a harmonic moving load on a floating-slab track with discontinuous slabs in an underground railway tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a new method for modelling floating-slab tracks with discontinuous slabs in underground railway tunnels. The track is subjected to a harmonic load moving with a constant velocity. The model consists of two sub-models. The first is an infinite track with periodic double-beam unit formulated as a periodic infinite structure. The second is modelled with a new version of the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) model that accounts for a tunnel wall embedded in a half-space. The two sub-models are coupled by writing the force transmitted from the track to the tunnel as a continuous function using Fourier series representation and satisfying the compatibility condition. The displacements at the free surface are calculated for a track with discontinuous slab and compared with those of a track with continuous slab. The results show that the far-field vibration can be significantly increased due to resonance frequencies of slabs for tracks with discontinuous slabs.

  12. A Novel Sensor Selection and Power Allocation Algorithm for Multiple-Target Tracking in an LPI Radar Network

    PubMed Central

    She, Ji; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    Radar networks are proven to have numerous advantages over traditional monostatic and bistatic radar. With recent developments, radar networks have become an attractive platform due to their low probability of intercept (LPI) performance for target tracking. In this paper, a joint sensor selection and power allocation algorithm for multiple-target tracking in a radar network based on LPI is proposed. It is found that this algorithm can minimize the total transmitted power of a radar network on the basis of a predetermined mutual information (MI) threshold between the target impulse response and the reflected signal. The MI is required by the radar network system to estimate target parameters, and it can be calculated predictively with the estimation of target state. The optimization problem of sensor selection and power allocation, which contains two variables, is non-convex and it can be solved by separating power allocation problem from sensor selection problem. To be specific, the optimization problem of power allocation can be solved by using the bisection method for each sensor selection scheme. Also, the optimization problem of sensor selection can be solved by a lower complexity algorithm based on the allocated powers. According to the simulation results, it can be found that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the total transmitted power of a radar network, which can be conducive to improving LPI performance. PMID:28009819

  13. A Novel Sensor Selection and Power Allocation Algorithm for Multiple-Target Tracking in an LPI Radar Network.

    PubMed

    She, Ji; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2016-12-21

    Radar networks are proven to have numerous advantages over traditional monostatic and bistatic radar. With recent developments, radar networks have become an attractive platform due to their low probability of intercept (LPI) performance for target tracking. In this paper, a joint sensor selection and power allocation algorithm for multiple-target tracking in a radar network based on LPI is proposed. It is found that this algorithm can minimize the total transmitted power of a radar network on the basis of a predetermined mutual information (MI) threshold between the target impulse response and the reflected signal. The MI is required by the radar network system to estimate target parameters, and it can be calculated predictively with the estimation of target state. The optimization problem of sensor selection and power allocation, which contains two variables, is non-convex and it can be solved by separating power allocation problem from sensor selection problem. To be specific, the optimization problem of power allocation can be solved by using the bisection method for each sensor selection scheme. Also, the optimization problem of sensor selection can be solved by a lower complexity algorithm based on the allocated powers. According to the simulation results, it can be found that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the total transmitted power of a radar network, which can be conducive to improving LPI performance.

  14. Research in software allocation for advanced manned mission communications and tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnagiris, Tom; Wolff, Bill; Kusmanoff, Antone

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the planned processing hardware and software/firmware for the Communications and Tracking System of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) was performed. The intent of the assessment was to determine the optimum distribution of software/firmware in the processing hardware for maximum throughput with minimum required memory. As a product of the assessment process an assessment methodology was to be developed that could be used for similar assessments of future manned spacecraft system designs. The assessment process was hampered by changing requirements for the Space Station. As a result, the initial objective of determining the optimum software/firmware allocation was not fulfilled, but several useful conclusions and recommendations resulted from the assessment. It was concluded that the assessment process would not be completely successful for a system with changing requirements. It was also concluded that memory requirements and hardware requirements were being modified to fit as a consequence of the change process, and although throughput could not be quantitized, potential problem areas could be identified. Finally, inherent flexibility of the system design was essential for the success of a system design with changing requirements. Recommendations resulting from the assessment included development of common software for some embedded controller functions, reduction of embedded processor requirements by hardwiring some Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) to make better use of processor capabilities, and improvement in communications between software development personnel to enhance the integration process. Lastly, a critical observation was made regarding the software integration tasks did not appear to be addressed in the design process to the degree necessary for successful satisfaction of the system requirements.

  15. Tracking the association between metro-railway construction works and PM levels in an urban Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A; Kelessis, A

    2016-10-15

    Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as "low pollution" or "moderate pollution", while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as "poor" air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as "very poor" air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined.

  16. Non-destructive tests for railway evaluation: Detection of fouling and joint interpretation of GPR and track geometric parameters - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona; Marecos, Vânia; Loizos, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    During the last years high-performance railway lines have increased both their number and capabilities. As all types of infrastructures, railways have to maintain a proper behaviour during the entire life cycle. This work is focused on the analysis of the GPR method and its capabilities to detect defects in both infra and superstructure in railways. Different GPR systems and frequency antennas (air-coupled with antennas of 1.0 and 1.8 GHz, and ground-coupled with antennas of 1.0 and 2.3 GHz) were compared to establish the best procedures. For the assessment of the ground conditions, both GPR systems were used in combination with Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) load tests, in order to evaluate the bearing capacity of the subgrade. Moreover, Light Falling Weight Deflectometer (LFWD) measures were performed for the validation of the interpretation of the damaged areas identified from GPR and FWD tests. Finally, to corroborate the joint interpretation of GPR and FWD-LFWD, drill cores were extracted in the damaged areas identified based on the field data. Comparing all the data, a good agreement was obtained between the methods, when identifying both anomalous deflections and reflections. It was also demonstrated that ground-coupled systems have clear advantages compared to air-coupled systems since these antennas provide both better signal penetration and vertical resolution to detect fine details like cracking. Regarding the assessment of the thickness, three different high-speed track infrastructure solutions were constructed in a physical model, using asphalt as subballast layer. Four different antennas were used, two ground- and two air-coupled systems. Two different methodologies were assumed to calibrate the velocity of wave propagation: coring and metal plate. Comparing the results obtained, it was observed that the ground-coupled system provided higher values of wave velocity than the air-coupled system. The velocity values were also obtained by the

  17. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  18. [Current problems of occupational morbidity on the railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Kameneva, E A; Artemenkov, Iu M; Glebova, G M

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the present working conditions on railway transport, by using the results of employee rating, characterizes railway services showing the greatest magnitude of adverse and dangerous factors of working conditions. It also characterizes occupational morbidity in railway transport workers over 5 years (1999-2003) and by hazards problems of occupational morbidity and by basic services: locomotive, wagon, and track ones. The paper also presents the rates of disability due to occupational diseases, characterizes the priorities of prevention of occupational diseases on the railway transport.

  19. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  20. 76 FR 47645 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed...\\ between the point of switch at Track Station 55 + 65 and the point of switch at Track Station 30 + 70,...

  1. 9. PERSPECTIVE OF EAST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM TRACK BED OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PERSPECTIVE OF EAST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM TRACK BED OF ADJACENT LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGE. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 53. Exterior view of marine railway complex with railway #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Exterior view of marine railway complex with railway #3 in foreground, #2 middle, #1 back. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels) - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  3. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  4. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, Ill. BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt...) approximately 0.60 miles of track (Lumber Street Line) from West Cermak Road at the Colonial Brick...

  5. Railway vehicle performance optimisation using virtual homologation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, H.; Madeira, J. F. A.; Ambrósio, J.; Pombo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike regular automotive vehicles, which are designed to travel in different types of roads, railway vehicles travel mostly in the same route during their life cycle. To accept the operation of a railway vehicle in a particular network, a homologation process is required according to local standard regulations. In Europe, the standards EN 14363 and UIC 518, which are used for railway vehicle acceptance, require on-track tests and/or numerical simulations. An important advantage of using virtual homologation is the reduction of the high costs associated with on-track tests by studying the railway vehicle performance in different operation conditions. This work proposes a methodology for the improvement of railway vehicle design with the objective of its operation in selected railway tracks by using optimisation. The analyses required for the vehicle improvement are performed under control of the optimisation method global and local optimisation using direct search. To quantify the performance of the vehicle, a new objective function is proposed, which includes: a Dynamic Performance Index, defined as a weighted sum of the indices obtained from the virtual homologation process; the non-compensated acceleration, which is related to the operational velocity; and a penalty associated with cases where the vehicle presents an unacceptable dynamic behaviour according to the standards. Thus, the optimisation process intends not only to improve the quality of the vehicle in terms of running safety and ride quality, but also to increase the vehicle availability via the reduction of the time for a journey while ensuring its operational acceptance under the standards. The design variables include the suspension characteristics and the operational velocity of the vehicle, which are allowed to vary in an acceptable range of variation. The results of the optimisation lead to a global minimum of the objective function in which the suspensions characteristics of the vehicle are

  6. Development of fragility curves for railway embankment and ballast scour due to overtopping flood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, Ryota; Bricker, Jeremy David; Ichii, Koji; Kawahara, Yoshihisa

    2016-11-01

    Fragility curves evaluating a risk of railway embankment fill and track ballast scour were developed. To develop fragility curves, two well-documented events of single-track railway washout during floods in Japan were investigated. Type of damage to the railway was categorized into no damage, ballast scour, and embankment scour, in order of damage severity. Railway overtopping water depth for each event was estimated based on well-documented hydrologic and hydraulic analyses. Normal and log-normal fragility curves were developed based on damage probability derived from field records and the estimated overtopping water depth. A combined ballast and embankment scour model was validated by comparing the results of previous studies and the spatial distribution of railway damage type records.

  7. The development of railway safety in Finland.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    This study reviews the development of railway safety in Finland from 1959 to 2008. The results show that the level of safety has greatly improved over the past five decades. The total number of railway fatalities did not show any obvious decreasing or increasing trend during the first decade, but since the early 1970s the annual number of fatalities has decreased from about 100 to 20. The estimated overall annual reduction per year from 1970 to 2008 was 5.4% (with a 95% confidence interval from -8.2% to -2.6%). The reduction in subcategories per million train-kilometres from 1959 to 2008 was 4.4% per year for passengers, 8.3% for employees, 5.0% for road users at level crossings and 3.6% for others (mainly trespassers). The safety improvement for passengers and staff was probably influenced by the introduction of central locking of doors in passenger cars and improved procedures to protect railway employees working on the tracks. The number of road users killed at level crossings has fallen due to the installation of barriers and the construction of overpasses and underpasses at crossings with dense traffic, removal of level crossings, and an improvement of conditions such as visibility at crossings. The number of trespasser fatalities has seen the least decline. Key plans for the future include further reduction of the number of level crossings on the state railway network from the current roughly 3500-2200 by 2025, and involving communities in safety work related to railway trespassers.

  8. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  9. Crack detection of railway turnouts using PZT sensors (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yiqing; Li, Z. G.; Wu, F.

    2014-05-01

    Railway turnouts (railroad switches) are the weakest components of a rail track system. Cracks may occur in the railway turnouts due to cyclic loadings and impact loadings imposed by passing trains. It is of great significance to continuously monitor the health condition of the railway turnouts and promptly detect crack once it initiates. It is well-known that acoustic emission (AE) signals are generated when a crack initiates and propagates. Detecting the high-frequency AE signals by piezoelectric sensors can help identify the crack and its location. This paper reports the design and implementation of a PZT-based system for crack monitoring of railway turnouts. This online monitoring system is activated for signal collection by a trigger system when a train is arriving to pass through the instrumented railway turnout. It mainly detects the AE signals generated when a crack initiates during the train passage or when the initiated crack expands during the passage of a heavy haul wagon. This system has been installed on a railroad line for over one year and has successfully detected the damage occurring at a railroad switch during its service period. This paper also briefs a guided-wave-based system for monitoring of micro-cracks in rail tracks by integrating FBG and PZT sensors.

  10. DC Cable for Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  11. Marine railway system

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, W.N.

    1993-08-10

    A marine railway carriage is described, comprising: a lower frame having substantially parallel spaced sides and provided with railway wheels; an upper frame pivotally connected to the lower frame at spaced points adjacent the sides, respectively, on a transverse horizontal axis adjacent the normally forward end of the lower frame; spring means connected at the opposite ends thereof to the lower and upper frame, respectively, adjacent the normally rear end of the lower frame, and biasing the frames toward separation; and support means on the upper frame adapted to engage a boat.

  12. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and—less consistently—spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide.

  13. The definition of the railway position control error in the plane and profile using the optical-electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Anton V.; Timofeev, Alexandr N.; Nekrylov, Ivan S.

    2015-05-01

    Continuous development of high-speed railway traffic in the world toughens requirements, including to the accuracy of installation and control of provision of a railway track. For the current technologies of service of a railway track using its absolute coordinates the perspective decision is creation along railway lines of a special fiducial network. In this case by means of optical-electronic systems, concerning reference points, obtaining the objective information on actual position of a railway track in a longitudinal cross-section and the plan with a margin error which isn't exceeding 1,5 mm in rather severe conditions of continuous operation of traveling machines at speeds up to 10 km/h is possible.

  14. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-11-01

    Subsidence was measured for the first time on railway tracks in the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements is the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a form of transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicates that this line shows dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). Significant sinkhole-related subsidence was also measured by DInSAR techniques on the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. This study demonstrates that DInSAR velocity maps, coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys, may help in the identification of the railway track sections that are affected by active subsidence.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of free vibration characteristics of an in situ railway concrete sleeper to variations of rail pad parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Remennikov, Alex M.

    2006-11-01

    The vibration of in situ concrete sleepers in a railway track structure is a major factor causing cracking of prestressed concrete sleepers and excessive railway track maintenance cost. Not only does the ballast interact with the sleepers, but the rail pads also take part in affecting their free vibration characteristics. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of free vibration behaviors of an in situ railway concrete sleeper (standard gauge sleeper), incorporating sleeper/ballast interaction, subjected to the variations of rail pad properties. Through finite element analysis, Timoshenko-beam and spring elements were used in the in situ railway concrete sleeper modeling. This model highlights the influence of rail pad parameters on the free vibration characteristics of in situ sleepers. In addition, information on the first five flexural vibration modes indicates the dynamic performance of railway track when using different types of rail pads, as it plays a vital role in the cracking deterioration of concrete sleepers.

  16. 76 FR 31009 - Iowa Northern Railway Company-Operation Exemption-North Central Iowa Rail Corridor, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Northern Railway Company--Operation Exemption--North Central Iowa Rail Corridor, LLC Iowa Northern Railway Company (IANR), a Class III, has filed a verified notice of exemption... Belmond, Iowa, and milepost 79.95 at Forest City, Iowa, and includes 600 feet of connecting track...

  17. Railway ground vibrations induced by wheel and rail singular defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P.; Alexandrou, Georgios; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Railway local irregularities are a growing source of ground-borne vibration and can cause negative environmental impacts, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this paper analyses the effect of railway track singular defects (discontinuities) on ground vibration generation and propagation. A vehicle/track/soil numerical railway model is presented, capable of accurately predicting vibration levels. The prediction model is composed of a multibody vehicle model, a flexible track model and a finite/infinite element soil model. Firstly, analysis is undertaken to assess the ability of wheel/rail contact models to accurately simulate the force generation at the wheel/rail contact, in the presence of a singular defect. It is found that, although linear contact models are sufficient for modelling ground vibration on smooth tracks, when singular defects are present higher accuracy wheel/rail models are required. Furthermore, it is found that the variation in wheel/rail force during the singular defect contact depends on the track flexibility, and thus requires a fully coupled vehicle/track/foundation model. Next, a parametric study of ground vibrations generated by singular rail and wheel defects is undertaken. Six shapes of discontinuity are modelled, representing various defect types such as transition zones, switches, crossings, rail joints and wheel flats. The vehicle is modelled as an AM96 train set and it is found that ground vibration levels are highly sensitive to defect height, length and shape.

  18. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  19. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    . The estimation strategy has good performance also under degraded adhesion conditions and could be put on board of high-speed railway vehicles; it represents an accurate and reliable solution. The IMU board is tested via a dedicated Hardware in the Loop (HIL) test rig: it includes an industrial robot able to replicate the motion of the railway vehicle. Through the generated experimental outputs the performances of the innovative localisation algorithm have been evaluated: the HIL test rig permitted to test the proposed algorithm, avoiding expensive (in terms of time and cost) on-track tests, obtaining encouraging results. In fact, the preliminary results show a significant improvement of the position and speed estimation performances compared to those obtained with SCMT algorithms, currently in use on the Italian railway network.

  20. Support system for generating statistics of existing railway rolling stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important element of the transport system in European countries. Assumptions of rail transport has become more and more attractive in both passenger and freight transport. An example of this may be just noisy action "lorries on track", the promotion of intermodal transport. The principal factors affecting the condition of railway traffic safety are: the technical condition of the railway infrastructure, the technical condition of the rolling stock, the operation of crossings. The main purpose of this article is to present a tool to assist generate statistics operation railway wagons. As part of the project telemetric module allows the location of the freight wagon and the state of its load. Computer program supports GPS module will enable the location of a wagon with an accuracy of 1 meter, generate graphs of speed, road grade and load freight wagon.sheet".

  1. Increasing the Operational Stability of Railway Core by Modifying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedoseev, S. N.; Mukhtar, Z. M.

    2015-09-01

    At the present time in conditions of high intensity use of the railways of great importance paid to longer service life the railroad tracks, elements turnout in particular crosspieces. The main element of the railway track turnouts are carrying out a change of direction of movement of trains. Many translations have exhausted their time and are obsolete. From is technical condition turnout's largely dependent reliability of rail transport. Turnouts are the most complicated structure in the railway. Individual elements of the railway line - the spider who perceives high impact loads. Crossings should have sufficient strength and wear resistance because undergo complex dynamic loads. High dynamic impact and wear areas are also experiencing the antennae, which are located near the cores. The basic technological aspects to improve the characteristics steel by modifying. The technology of producing high-manganese steel modified special modifier to improve the structural strength of receiving the item. As a result of a series of experimental heats received the samples that were subjected to mechanical testing. Structural studies have shown improvements steel microstructure as well as its mechanical properties.

  2. [Problems of radiation hygiene in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Freĭman, E S

    1995-01-01

    Railway radiation hygiene is a modern trend of research. The main problems in this sphere are as follows: hygienic assessment of utilization of railway sources in railway objects; safe transportation of radioactive agents; prevention of accidents in railway transport; radiobiological examinations of workers, etc.

  3. Digital Versatile Rewritable Disc (DVD-RAM) Complementary Allocated Pit Address (CAPA) Signal and Tracking Error Signal Detection Method; Improving Objective Lens Radial Shift Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Takashi; Satoh, Hiroharu; Ohsawa, Hideki

    1998-04-01

    The complementary allocated pit address (CAPA) signal in a digital versatile rewritable disc (DVD-RAM) is susceptible to an objective lens radial shift; the reduction of its signal amplitude occurs and the S/N ratio decreases. To alleviate this situation, we propose a new readout signal processing scheme, the center separate detection method (CSD) of discarding a large amount of the 0-th diffracted light beam from the disc. We confirmed the expected results by numerical simulation.

  4. Railway diesel crankcase lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

    1987-06-30

    A railway diesel crankcase lubricant composition is described comprising a diesel lubricating oil and from about 0.25 to 2.0 weight percent of minor amount of oxidation and corrosion inhibiting agent. The reaction product is of a polyoxyisopropylene diamine, diabasic acid anhydride and polyalkylene polyamine wherein: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyoxyisopropylenediamine where x is a numeral of about 2 to about 50, forming a maleamic acid; (ii) reacting the maleamic acid with a polyalkylene polyamine, forming a condensate product and; (iii) recovering the condensate product.

  5. Railway switch transport model.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Martin; Prosen, Tomaž; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple model of coupled heat and particle transport based on zero-dimensional classical deterministic dynamics, which is reminiscent of a railway switch whose action is a function only of the particle's energy. It is shown that already in the minimal three-terminal model, where the second terminal is considered as a probe with zero net particle and heat currents, one can find extremely asymmetric Onsager matrices as a consequence of time-reversal symmetry breaking of the model. This minimalistic transport model provides a better understanding of thermoelectric heat engines in the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  6. Modern techniques for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngigi, R. W.; Pislaru, C.; Ball, A.; Gu, F.

    2012-05-01

    A modern railway system relies on sophisticated monitoring systems for maintenance and renewal activities. Some of the existing conditions monitoring techniques perform fault detection using advanced filtering, system identification and signal analysis methods. These theoretical approaches do not require complex mathematical models of the system and can overcome potential difficulties associated with nonlinearities and parameter variations in the system. Practical applications of condition monitoring tools use sensors which are mounted either on the track or rolling stock. For instance, monitoring wheelset dynamics could be done through the use of track-mounted sensors, while vehicle-based sensors are preferred for monitoring the train infrastructure. This paper attempts to collate and critically appraise the modern techniques used for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics by analysing the advantages and shortcomings of these methods.

  7. Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities.

  8. Continuous-function ground conductivity model for the determination of electric railway earth conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.C. ); Hill, R.J. . School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    A method is described for the determination of ground conductivity as a continuous function of depth and frequency for applications along spatially linear structures such as railway tracks. The technique involves measurements of mutual resistance using a modified dipole array excited with AC currents up to audio frequency. After representation of the experimental data by analytic functions, the ground conductivity-depth variation is obtained as a degenerate hypergeometric function. The determined ground conductivity is utilized to model the self and mutual conductance of and between the running rails in a single-track railway. The result is verified by experimental measurement.

  9. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS. LOOKING SOUTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE YARD. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Northern Lines Railway, Inc. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Northern Lines Railway, Inc. (NLR), has agreed to grant restricted local trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the rail lines owned by BNSF and...

  12. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  13. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... June 26, 2013, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 and 49 CFR Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway...

  14. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: Under 49 U.S.C.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately...

  15. An Intrusion Detection System for the Protection of Railway Assets Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology. PMID:25268920

  16. An intrusion detection system for the protection of railway assets using Fiber Bragg Grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-09-29

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology.

  17. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  18. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  19. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  20. Railway network design with multiple project stages and time sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuby, Michael; Xu, Zhongyi; Xie, Xiaodong

    This paper presents a spatial decision support system for network design problems in which different kinds of projects can be built in stages over time. It was developed by the World Bank and China's Ministry of Railways to plan investment strategies for China's overburdened railway system. We first present a mixed-integer program for the single-period network design problem with project choices such as single or multiple tracks and/or electrification with economies of scale. Then, because such projects can be built all at once or in stages, we developed a heuristic backwards time sequencing procedure with a cost adjustment factor to solve the ``project staging'' problem. Other innovations include a preloading routine; coordinated modeling of arcs, paths, and corridors; and a custom-built GIS.

  1. A numerical model for calculating vibration from a railway tunnel embedded in a full-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2007-08-01

    Vibration generated by underground railways transmits to nearby buildings causing annoyance to inhabitants and malfunctioning to sensitive equipment. Vibration can be isolated through countermeasures by reducing the stiffness of railpads, using floating-slab tracks and/or supporting buildings on springs. Modelling of vibration from underground railways has recently gained more importance on account of the need to evaluate accurately the performance of vibration countermeasures before these are implemented. This paper develops an existing model, reported by Forrest and Hunt, for calculating vibration from underground railways. The model, known as the Pipe-in-Pipe model, has been developed in this paper to account for anti-symmetrical inputs and therefore to model tangential forces at the tunnel wall. Moreover, three different arrangements of supports are considered for floating-slab tracks, one which can be used to model directly-fixed slabs. The paper also investigates the wave-guided solution of the track, the tunnel, the surrounding soil and the coupled system. It is shown that the dynamics of the track have significant effect on the results calculated in the wavenumber-frequency domain and therefore an important role on controlling vibration from underground railways.

  2. 75 FR 21389 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... of CSXT's continued entry onto and exit from the track. The supplemental trackage rights will allow... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. Pursuant to a written supplemental trackage rights agreement (supplemental agreement)...

  3. Railway noise annoyance: exposure-response relationships and testing a theoretical model by structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Schady, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In some regions the exposure to railway noise is extremely concentrated, which may lead to high residential annoyance. Nonacoustical factors contribute to these reactions, but there is limited evidence on the interrelations between the nonacoustical factors that influence railway noise annoyance. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine exposure-response relationships between long-term railway noise exposure and annoyance in a region severely affected by railway noise and (2) to determine a priori proposed interrelations between nonacoustical factors by structural equation analysis. Residents (n = 320) living close to railway tracks in the Middle Rhine Valley completed a socio-acoustic survey. Individual noise exposure levels were calculated by an acoustical simulation model for this area. The derived exposure-response relationships indicated considerably higher annoyance at the same noise exposure level than would have been predicted by the European Union standard curve, particularly for the night-time period. In the structural equation analysis, 72% of the variance in noise annoyance was explained by the noise exposure (L(den)) and nonacoustical variables. The model provides insights into several causal mechanisms underlying the formation of railway noise annoyance considering indirect and reciprocal effects. The concern about harmful effects of railway noise and railway traffic, the perceived control and coping capacity, and the individual noise sensitivity were the most important factors that influence noise annoyance. All effects of the nonacoustical factors on annoyance were mediated by the perceived control and coping capacity and additionally proposed indirect effects of the theoretical model were supported by the data.

  4. [Current state and prospects of development of railway hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Suvorov, S V

    1999-01-01

    Current planning in railway hygiene is conducted according to the special requirements of railway industry. Specific medical and prophylactic programs specified are on safety arrangements of railway workers, environmental protection in connection with intensive functioning of railways. The authors represent major prospective trends of research in occupational medicine and industrial ecology for railway transport.

  5. An efficient direction field-based method for the detection of fasteners on high-speed railways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfeng; Tao, Wei; Liu, Manhua; Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety. The fastener is a major part of the railway which fastens the tracks to the ground. The current article presents an efficient method to detect fasteners on the basis of image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which can be used to detect the absence of fasteners on the corresponding track in high-speed(up to 400 km/h). The Direction Field is extracted as the feature descriptor for recognition. In addition, the appropriate weight coefficient matrix is presented for robust and rapid matching in a complex environment. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method is computation efficient and robust for the detection of fasteners in a complex environment. Through the practical device fixed on the track inspection train, enough fastener samples are obtained, and the feasibility of the method is verified at 400 km/h.

  6. An Efficient Direction Field-Based Method for the Detection of Fasteners on High-Speed Railways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinfeng; Tao, Wei; Liu, Manhua; Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety. The fastener is a major part of the railway which fastens the tracks to the ground. The current article presents an efficient method to detect fasteners on the basis of image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which can be used to detect the absence of fasteners on the corresponding track in high-speed(up to 400 km/h). The Direction Field is extracted as the feature descriptor for recognition. In addition, the appropriate weight coefficient matrix is presented for robust and rapid matching in a complex environment. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method is computation efficient and robust for the detection of fasteners in a complex environment. Through the practical device fixed on the track inspection train, enough fastener samples are obtained, and the feasibility of the method is verified at 400 km/h. PMID:22164022

  7. About morphological findings in fatal railway collisions.

    PubMed

    Driever, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard

    2002-04-18

    The autopsy findings in fatal cases of railway collisions of the Bonn Institute of Legal Medicine in 1992-1999 were investigated and compared to the statements in the investigation files of the public prosecutor with regard to classification as accident or suicide as well as with regard to type and speed of collision. Of the 38 deaths, 10 were hit in an upright position, 11 fatal collisions affected persons lying outside the track and 13 were hit and overrun lying inside the track. According to the investigation classification 21 persons committed suicide (56%), while 10 died in an accident (26%). Our survey confirmed the leading role of being over-rolled in a lying position as an indication for suicides, while in accidents the upright hit was most important. With exception of the persons primarily affected between the rails in upright position and over-rolled consecutively an unequivocal assignment of injury patterns to the hit categories was possible. In cases of persons being primarily over-rolled in a lying position especially the criteria (i) opening of body cavities, (ii) organ injuries and (iii) loss of parts of the body allowed for careful conclusion on hit, respectively, overrunning speed.

  8. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  9. [Hygienic optimization of the use of chemical protective means on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Pankova, V B; Elizarov, B B; Mezentsev, A P; Komleva, E A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents data characterizing the working conditions of railway workers. It shows that there is the greatest levels of noise and vibration, the burden and intensity of work. The worst working conditions are noted in energy supply, car, locomotive services and track facilities. The working conditions determine a significant industrial risk of railway workers since the prevention of health abnormalities by using chemical protective means is a topical problem. The priority lines of hygienic rationale for optimization the choice and use of chemical protective means for workers exposed to occupational hazards are determined.

  10. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  11. Efficacy and fate of glyphosate on Swedish railway embankments.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet; Stenström, John

    2005-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, as Spectra (240 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto Europe AB), RoundUp (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto) and RoundUp Bio (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto), have been used for weed control on Swedish railway embankments since 1986. This article summarizes results from studies of the weed effect and behaviour of glyphosate for the period 1984-2003. Studies on a railway embankment with a range of application rates showed excellent weed control at 5 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio. The appearance of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA [(aminomethyl)phosphonic acid] in the embankment, eg mobility and persistence, was also studied. Mobility was low in most cases, the main proportion of both glyphosate and AMPA being found in the upper 30-cm layer although minor amounts penetrated to lower depths. The 50% disappearance time of glyphosate was generally <5 months in railway embankments but cases with longer persistence were found. Transport to the groundwater was observed for glyphosate and AMPA in groundwater pipes along tracks. Downward transport appears to be dependent on the application rate, which should not exceed 3 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio to avoid groundwater contamination. A lower rate of glyphosate mixed with a low rate of another herbicide may achieve acceptable weed control and be environmentally safer.

  12. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural and railway applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, H. Y.; Liu, S. Y.; Guan, B. O.; Chung, W. H.; Chan, T. H.; Cheng, L. K.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, due to the high cost of optical devices, fiber-optics sensor systems were only employed in niche areas where conventional electrical sensors are not suitable. This scenario changed dramatically in the last few years following the explosion of the Internet which caused the rapid expansion of the optical fiber telecommunication industry and substantially driven down the cost of optical components. In recent years, fiber-optic sensors and particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted a lot of interests and are being used in numerous applications. We have conducted several field trials of FBG sensors for railway applications and structural monitoring. About 30 FBG sensors were installed on the rail tracks of Kowloon-Canton Railway Corp. for train identification and speed measurements and the results obtained show that FBG sensors exhibit very good performance and could play a major role in the realization of "Smart Railway". FBG sensors were also installed on Hong Kong's landmark TsingMa Bridge, which is the world longest suspension bridge (2.2 km) that carries both trains and regular road traffic. The trials were carried out with a high-speed (up to 20 kHz) interrogation system based on CCD and also with a interrogation unit that based on scanning optical filter (up to 70 Hz). Forty FBGs sensors were divided into 3 arrays and installed on different parts of the bridge (suspension cable, rocker bearing and truss girders). The objectives of the field trial on the TsingMa Bridge are to monitor the strain of different parts of the bridge under railway load and highway load, and to compare the FBG sensors' performance with conventional resistive strain gauges already installed on the bridge. The measured results show that excellent agreement was obtained between the 2 types of sensors.

  13. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4-...

  14. 3. Claremont Railway Bridge and Clement and Rossiter Store in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Claremont Railway Bridge and Clement and Rossiter Store in context, looking southeast - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  15. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  16. [Achievements and prospects in railway transport hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    1997-01-01

    A unique Institute of Railway Hygiene was created 70 years ago in Russia, one of the major railway countries in the world. Since then the Institute's staffers have carried out huge work on improvement of railway workers' health, prevention of their exposure to noise, unfavorable microclimate, vibration and other occupational hazards. Significant contribution into the world occupational hygiene was made by such Institute's professionals as S.F. Kazansky, P.I. Nikitin, A.M. Volkov and others.

  17. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-06-01

    Previously not measured subsidence on railway tracks was detected using DInSAR displacement maps produced for the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain). This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analyzed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements corresponds to the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicate that this line show dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). By using DInSAR techniques, it was also measured the significant subsidence related to the activity of sinkholes in the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. Thus, this study demonstrate that DInSAR velocity maps coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys may help in the identification of the sectors of railway tracks that may compromise the safety of travellers.

  18. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  19. Optimization of piezoelectric energy harvester for wireless smart sensors in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2013-04-01

    Wireless sensor network is one of the prospective methods for railway monitoring due to the long-term operation and low-maintenance performances. How to supply power to the wireless sensor nodes has drawn much attention recently. In railway monitoring, the idea of converting ambient vibration energy from vibration of railway track induced by passing trains to electric energy has made it a potential way for powering the wireless sensor nodes. Nowadays, most of vibration based energy harvesters are designed at resonance. However, as railway vibration frequency is a wide band range, how to design an energy harvester working at that range is critical. In this paper, the energy consumption of the wireless smart sensor platform, Imote2, at different working states were investigated. Based on the energy consumption, a design of a bimorph cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester has been optimized to generate maximum average power between a wide-band frequency range. Significant power and current outputs have been increased after optimal design. Finally, the rechargeable battery life for supplying the Imote2 for railway monitoring is predicted by using the optimized piezoelectric energy harvesting system.

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss in a longitudinal study of Norwegian railway workers

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johnsen, Torstein Seip; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse longitudinal data to assess the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in Norwegian railway workers. Design Longitudinal. Setting A major Norwegian railway company. Methods We examined data from the first and last audiograms for the period 1991–2014, from 9640 railway workers with varying occupational noise exposure and with an average observation period of 10 years. The course of hearing acuity in seven groups of railway workers (train drivers, conductors, bus drivers, traffic controllers, train maintenance workers, track maintenance workers and others) were compared with each other and with ISO standards (ISO 1999). Results The change in hearing threshold during the observation period was 2–3 dB in the 0.5–4 kHz range and 6–7 dB in the 3–6 kHz range adjusted for age and sex, for all occupational groups, which is slightly less than expected (8 dB) according to ISO 1999. Conclusions The risk of NIHL in Norwegian railway workers during the period 1991–2014 has been negligible. PMID:27591022

  1. A Complex Network Model for Analyzing Railway Accidents Based on the Maximal Information Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fu-Bo; Li, Ke-Ping

    2016-10-01

    It is an important issue to identify important influencing factors in railway accident analysis. In this paper, employing the good measure of dependence for two-variable relationships, the maximal information coefficient (MIC), which can capture a wide range of associations, a complex network model for railway accident analysis is designed in which nodes denote factors of railway accidents and edges are generated between two factors of which MIC values are larger than or equal to the dependent criterion. The variety of network structure is studied. As the increasing of the dependent criterion, the network becomes to an approximate scale-free network. Moreover, employing the proposed network, important influencing factors are identified. And we find that the annual track density-gross tonnage factor is an important factor which is a cut vertex when the dependent criterion is equal to 0.3. From the network, it is found that the railway development is unbalanced for different states which is consistent with the fact. Supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. 2016YJS087, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. U1434209, and the Research Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Railway Traffic Control and Safety, Beijing Jiaotong University under Grant No. RCS2016ZJ001

  2. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  3. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  4. Surviving track through Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Surviving track through Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  5. 78 FR 42999 - City of Pickens, S.C. and City of Easley, S.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Pickens Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board City of Pickens, S.C. and City of Easley, S.C.--Acquisition Exemption--Pickens Railway Company The City of Pickens, S.C., and the City of Easley, S.C. (collectively, the Cities... Line. The Cities are acquiring the Line's right- of-way, but not its track or track material. In...

  6. A computationally efficient software application for calculating vibration from underground railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2009-08-01

    The PiP model is a software application with a user-friendly interface for calculating vibration from underground railways. This paper reports about the software with a focus on its latest version and the plans for future developments. The software calculates the Power Spectral Density of vibration due to a moving train on floating-slab track with track irregularity described by typical values of spectra for tracks with good, average and bad conditions. The latest version accounts for a tunnel embedded in a half space by employing a toolbox developed at K.U. Leuven which calculates Green's functions for a multi-layered half-space.

  7. Modeling on energy harvesting from a railway system using piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Shi, Zhifei; Xiang, Hongjun; Song, Gangbing

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical models of piezoelectric energy harvesting from railway systems using patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers are studied. An infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation subjected to moving multi-loads is adopted to describe the dynamic behavior of railway track. The voltage and electric power of piezoelectric transducers installed at the bottom of a steel rail are derived analytically. Comparisons with earlier works and experimental results are given, indicating that the present solutions are reliable. Additionally, a parametric study is conducted to discuss the effects of axle loads, running velocity and load resistors on the solutions. The numerical results show that patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers can harvest the available energy from track vibration to supply power for a wireless sensor network node and can also serve as sensors to monitor basic train information, such as the running velocity, the location and the axle load. The present investigations provide a theoretical guide in the design of piezoelectric patch and stack energy harvesters used in railway systems, which can serve as power sources for distributed wireless sensor networks in remote areas. The research results also demonstrate the potential of piezoelectric patches and stack harvesters in designing self-powered wireless sensor networks used in railway systems to ensure train operation safety.

  8. [Occupational morbidity of railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed.

  9. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  10. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission...

  11. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  12. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  13. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  14. [Social and medical problems of occupational health of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, O N

    2000-01-01

    The article "Social and medical problems of healthcare in railway transport" presents principal factors influencing railway workers' health. The factors are those of social importance and influencing occupational suitability, general morbidity and morbidity with transitory disablement, disability in railway transport and its causes. The article shows therapeutic, sanitary and epidemiologic, social measures of prophylaxis for better work conditions and preservation of railway workers' health.

  15. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  16. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  17. 47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, and drive equipment for Railways #l and #2, Marine Railway Headhouse, ground floor, north end, drive gears in foreground, pulling gears for Railway # 1 in background. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  18. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  19. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  20. 76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  1. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Adams--Warnock Railway, Inc. (AWRY), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under ] 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate,...

  2. Stable time patterns of railway suicides in Germany: comparative analysis of 7,187 cases across two observation periods (1995–1998; 2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of fatalities on the European Union (EU) railways are suicides, representing about 60% of all railway fatalities. The aim of this study was to compare time patterns of suicidal behaviour on railway tracks in Germany between two observation periods (1995–1998 and 2005–2008) in order to investigate their stability and value in railway suicide prevention. Methods Cases were derived from the National Central Registry of person accidents on the German railway network (STABAG). The association of daytime, weekday and month with the mean number of suicides was analysed applying linear regression. Potential differences by observation period were assessed by adding observation period and the respective interaction terms into the linear regression. A 95% confidence interval for the mean number of suicides was computed using the t distribution. Results A total of 7,187 railway suicides were recorded within both periods: 4,102 (57%) in the first period (1995–1998) and 3,085 (43%) in the second (2005–2008). The number of railway suicides was highest on Mondays and Tuesdays in the first period with an average of 3.2 and 3.5 events and of 2.6 events on both days in the second period. In both periods, railway suicides were more common between 6:00 am and noon, and between 6:00 pm and midnight. Seasonality was only prominent in the period 1995–1998. Conclusions Over the course of two observation periods, the weekday and circadian patterns of railway suicides remained stable. Therefore, these patterns should be an integral part of railway suicide preventive measures, e.g. gatekeeper training courses. PMID:24498876

  3. Real-time monitoring of railway infrastructures using fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, N.; Carcaterra, A.; Sestieri, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present the results of a field trial with a FBG sensor array system for the real time monitoring of railway traffic and for the structural health monitoring of both the railway track and train wheels. The test campaign is performed on the 2nd line of Milan metropolitan underground, employing more than 50 FBG sensors along 1.5 km of the rail track, where the trains are tested during daily passenger rail transport, with a roughly maximum speeds of 90 km/h. The measurements were continuatively performed for over 6 months, with a sampling frequency of about 400 Hz. The large amount of data/sensors allows a rather accurate statistical treatment of the measurement data and permits, with dedicated algorithms, the estimation of rail and wheel wear, key traffic parameters such as the number of axles, the train speed and load, and, in the next future, the detection of localized imperfections.

  4. Research on noise and vibration reduction at DB to improve the environmental friendliness of railway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Werning, B.; Beier, M.; Degen, K. G.; Stiebel, D.

    2006-06-01

    One of the most prominent keywords relating to the environmental friendliness of railway traffic is noise reduction. Thus, the research and development programme "Low Noise Railway" of Deutsche Bahn (DB) is under way to treat the noise of the vehicles and infrastructure. The noise reduction of the trains and the rail/wheel system are being tackled within several projects. The direct noise experienced by railway-lineside residents due to train movements on the track can be reduced by minimising the sound radiation directly at the source. This is the first-choice solution, as it proves to be the most effective countermeasure regarding a cost-benefit relation. The limit values for the noise emission as specified in the technical specification for interoperability are an essential criterion to be confirmed during the procurement process of railway vehicles. A recently developed acoustical quality management scheme establishes systematic noise management to complete the vehicle procurement process in the phases of concept, design, construction and manufacturing. In freight traffic quiet railway wheels for block brake operation will play an important role in the future to meet the goal of a low-noise railway system. A first attempt to realise successfully the low-noise potential of such optimised wheels was performed, even if with mixed results. To show ways of reducing the noise of the cooling ventilation in locomotives, DB is a partner in a development project led by Siemens. A notable 8 dB(A) noise reduction was measured. Concerning bridge noise, a project was started based on an effective and cost-efficient combination of experiments and simulations in order to develop specifications for the construction of generic low-noise bridges.

  5. Railway transportation as a serious source of organic and inorganic pollution.

    PubMed

    Wiłkomirski, B; Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B; Galera, H; Wierzbicka, M; Malawska, M

    2011-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, Fe, Co, Cr, Mo) contents were established in soil and plant samples collected in different areas of the railway junction Iława Główna, Poland. Soil and plant samples were collected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the loading ramp, main track within platform area, rolling stock cleaning bay and the railway siding. It was found that all the investigated areas were strongly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH contamination of the soil was the highest in the railway siding and in the platform area (59,508 and 49,670 μg kg(-1), respectively). In the loading ramp and cleaning bay, the PAH concentration in soil was lower but still relatively very high (17,948 and 15,376 μg kg(-1), respectively). The contamination in the railway siding exceeded the average control level up to about 80 times. In the soil of all the investigated areas, four- and five-ring PAHs prevailed. The concentrations of PAHs were determined in four dominating species of plants found at the junction. The highest concentration was found in the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale (22,492 μg kg(-1)) growing in the cleaning bay. The comparison of the soil contamination with PAHs in the investigated railway junction showed a very significant increase of the PAHs level since 1995. It was found that the heavy metal contamination was also very high. Pb, Zn, Hg and Cd were established at the highest levels in the railway siding area, whereas Fe concentration was the highest in the platform area. A significant increase in mercury content was observed in the cleaning bay area. The investigations proved very significant increase of contamination with PAHs and similar heavy metals contamination in comparison with the concentration determined in the same areas 13 years ago.

  6. A Mathematical Model for Railway Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. N.

    1996-01-01

    We present a general method for modeling safety aspects of railway control systems. Using our modeling method, one can progressively refine an abstract railway safety model, sucessively adding layers of detail about how a real system actually operates, while maintaining a safety property that refines the original abstract safety property. This method supports a top-down approach to specification of railway control systems and to proof of a variety of safety-related properties. We demonstrate our method by proving safety of the classical block control system.

  7. The growth of railway ground vibration problems - A review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, David P; Marecki, Grzegorz P; Kouroussis, Georges; Thalassinakis, Ioannis; Woodward, Peter K

    2016-10-15

    Ground-borne noise and vibration from railway lines can cause human distress/annoyance, and also negatively affect real estate property values. Therefore this paper analyses a collection of technical ground-borne noise and vibration reports, detailing commercial vibration assessments undertaken at 1604 railway track sections, in 9 countries across the world. A wide range of rail projects are considered including light rail, tram lines, underground/tunnelled lines, freight, conventional rail and high speed rail. It documents the rise in ground-borne vibration problems and trends in the prediction industry, with the aim of informing the current research area. Firstly, the reports are analysed chronologically and it is found that railway vibration is a growing global concern, and as such, assessments have become more prevalent. International assessment metrics are benchmarked and it is found that velocity decibels (VdB), vibration dose value (VDV) and peak particle velocity (PPV) are the most commonly used methods of assessment. Furthermore, to predict vibration levels, the physical measurement of frequency transfer functions is preferential to numerical modelling. Results from the reports show that ground vibration limits are exceeded in 44% of assessments, and that ground-borne noise limits are exceeded in 31%. Moreover, mitigation measures were required on approximately 50% of projects, revealing that ground-borne noise and vibration is a widespread railroad engineering challenge. To solve these problems, the most commonly used abatement strategy is a modification of the railtrack structure (active mitigation), rather than the implementation of a more passive solution in the far-field.

  8. a Comparative Earthwork and Cost Analysis of Improving AN Existing Railway Line and Constructing a New High-Speed Line in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, K. A.; Gulal, V. E.

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, high-speed railways have become an important transportation system due to their high operational speed, and globally, the networks of these railways have been extended. In addition, there is ongoing work on the construction of new high-speed railways as well as improving existing lines to achieve the same operational speed. To contribute to high-speed railway works in Turkey, this study compared two high-speed railway lines; an existing conventional line, the design of which was improved, and a new high-speed line. The design of an existing conventional railway line was improved according to optimal geometric characteristics of high-speed railways and an alternative line was simulated. These two lines were evaluated on three different types of land in terms of the required volume of earthworks, engineering structures and total cost. The results show that the length of the conventional line was reduced after the improvement process; however, new engineering structures are needed. Furthermore, compared to the alternative line, the track length and total length of engineering structures required for the improvement of the existing line was shorter and the volume of required earthworks was less resulting in lower costs.

  9. Steel - Structural, reinforcing; Pressure vessel, railway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains specifications for structural steel used in various constructions; concrete reinforcement; plate and forgings for boilers and pressure vesseles; rails, axles, wheels and other accessories for railway service.

  10. Control system for maximum use of adhesive forces of a railway vehicle in a tractive mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Lee, Kwan Soo; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2008-04-01

    The realization of maximum adhesive forces for a railway vehicle is a very difficult process, because it involves using tractive efforts and depends on friction characteristics in the contact zone between wheels and rails. Tractive efforts are realized by means of tractive torques of motors, and their maximum values can provide negative effects such as slip and skid. These situations usually happen when information about friction conditions is lacking. The negative processes have a major influence on wearing of contact bodies and tractive units. Therefore, many existing control systems for vehicles use an effect of a prediction of a friction coefficient between wheels and rails because measuring a friction coefficient at the moment of running vehicle movement is very difficult. One of the ways to solve this task is to use noise spectrum analysis for friction coefficient detection. This noise phenomenon has not been clearly studied and analyzed. In this paper, we propose an adhesion control system of railway vehicles based on an observer, which allows one to determine the maximum tractive torque based on the optimal adhesive force between the wheels (wheel pair) of a railway vehicle and rails (rail track) depending on weight load from a wheel to a rail, friction conditions in the contact zone, a lateral displacement of wheel set and wheel sleep. As a result, it allows a railway vehicle to be driven in a tractive mode by the maximum adhesion force for real friction conditions.

  11. Subjective Reaction to Structurally Radiated Sound from Underground Railways: Field Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, E. G.; Herreros, J.; Walker, J. G.

    1996-05-01

    Structurally radiated noise from underground railways is becoming a major problem for railways administrations, due to the increase in the number of tunnels in urban areas, and to the increase in train speeds, wheelset tonnage and operation frequency. As a result, the number of complaints from residents living above railway tunnels is also increasing. Several control measures have been proposed in the past 15 years, both for the track design and for the vehicle design. Nevertheless, these measures are expensive, and not always effective. While several standards have been proposed for vibration limits in the type of problem, there are few standards to define acceptable levels for this type of structure-borne sound. This paper presents field results obtained during 1994 and 1995 in the vicinity of underground railways, where measurements of vibration and low-frequency noise were obtained during train pass-bys. These results, together with measurements of environment noise due to other sources, are considered together with the responses to a questionnaire completed by the people by the people affected. This paper complements laboratory work carried out at the ISVR [1].

  12. Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals. PMID:19899845

  13. Annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance due to night-time railway noise examined in the field.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Rolny, Vinzent; Maass, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria

    2012-11-01

    Railway noise interferes with daytime activities and disturbs sleep leading to annoyance of exposed residents. The main objective of this paper was to establish exposure-response relationships between nocturnal railway noise exposure and annoyance and to examine self-reported sleep disturbances as short-term reactions to noise. In a field study 33 residents living close to railway tracks in the Cologne/Bonn area (Germany) were investigated. Railway noise was measured indoors during nine consecutive nights at each site. Questionnaires referring to annoyance and non-acoustical factors were performed. Annoyance ratings increased significantly with the total number of trains and freight trains per night, and non-significantly with rising number of passenger trains and energy equivalent sound pressure level (L(Aeq)), when adjusting the model for non-acoustical variables. The total number of trains and the number of freight trains also significantly affected self-reported awakening frequency, but no other aspects of subjective sleep disturbances. The responses of this subject sample referring to railway noise in the previous night point to rather low impairments of exposed residents.

  14. 1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and Rossiter Store in context, looking west - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  15. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN CENTER, RAILWAY RIVER TRUSS ON LEFT, HIGHWAY TRUSSES IN BACKGROUND - White Rock Bridge, Spanning Pawcatuck River & White Rock Canal, Westerly, Washington County, RI

  16. 57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun Sam on the ways seen from Starboard Bow. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  17. 55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug Sam on the ways seen from Port Bow. This was first railway built by BBW on site (Ca.1936). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. 37. Detail of pulling gear, electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Detail of pulling gear, electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse (1919), originally in Headhouse for Railway #2. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  20. 40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly building. Note BBW Tug Sam on railway and BBW-Built Stardust (#1) at end of dock. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  1. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility 233 is on the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. View westsouthwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west-southwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's edge to Facility 233 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain is in front of electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  6. 9. Detail, chains connecting to railway, leading into Building 24 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail, chains connecting to railway, leading into Building 24 and mechanical hauling equipment. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST DOWN MARKET STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER MARKET STREET AND DESCENDS TO MEET SUBWAY AT 44TH STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  10. Parametric study of wheel transitions at railway crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, C.; Markine, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle-track interaction at railway crossings is complex due to the discontinuity of the crossings. In this study, the effect of the local crossing geometry, the track alignment, and the wheel profiles on the wheel transition behaviour is investigated using the multi-body system software package VI-Rail. The transition behaviour is evaluated based on the location of the transition point along the crossing (and the location of impact), the contact pressure and the energy dissipation during the wheel-rail contact. A detailed parametric study of the crossing geometry has been performed, through which the most effective parameters for defining the crossing geometry are identified. These parameters are the cross-sectional shape of the nose rail, which can be tuned by one variable, and the vertical distance between the top of the wing rail and the nose rail. Additionally, a parametric study on the interaction influence of the crossing geometry, the track alignment and the wheel profile is performed using the design of experiments method with a two-level full factorial design. The longitudinal height profile of the crossing and the wheel profile are the most significant factors.

  11. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  12. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  13. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  14. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  15. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  16. 56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse, south end: hole in foreground is where gear now installed in Headhouse for Marine Railway #3 was removed. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  17. Optical signal processing of video surveillance for recognizing and measurement location railway infrastructure elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diyazitdinov, Rinat R.; Vasin, Nikolay N.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of optical signals, which are received from CCD sensors of video cameras, allows to extend the functionality of video surveillance systems. Traditional video surveillance systems are used for saving, transmitting and preprocessing of the video content from the controlled objects. Video signal processing by analytics systems allows to get more information about object's location and movement, the flow of technological processes and to measure other parameters. For example, the signal processing of video surveillance systems, installed on carriage-laboratories, are used for getting information about certain parameters of the railways. Two algorithms for video processing, allowing recognition of pedestrian crossings of the railways, as well as location measurement of the so-called "Anchor Marks" used to control the mechanical stresses of continuous welded rail track are described in this article. The algorithms are based on the principle of determining the region of interest (ROI), and then the analysis of the fragments inside this ROI.

  18. Research on Operational Characteristics of Imported Rails under Conditions of East Siberian Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Valuev, D. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Serikbol, A.

    2016-04-01

    In world’s manufacturing of railroad rails there are several thermal bonding methods: differentiated waterflow quenching, air-blast or spray quenching, rail head’s hardening in polymer solution and bulk oil hardening; rails’ service durability is strongly dependent on thermo-hardening methods. Until recently, all of rails, produced at Nizhniy Tagil and Kuznetsk Metallurgical Works, were subjected to bulk oil hardening. Only in 2010-2011, in the Russian Federation, differentiated air quenching of rails was started at the JSC “EVRAZ ZSMK” and rail heads’ hardening in polymer solution - at the JSC “Mechel”. At the same time, exploitation of imported rails with differentiated hardening has been performed on Russian railways since 1995. Service durability of these rails in Siberia and the Far North is of considerable interest. In this paper we investigated the quality of P65-type rails, made in Japan, removed after use from curved track section of the East-Siberian railway.

  19. Development of a model to assess acoustic treatments to reduce railway noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H.; Squicciarini, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.

    2016-09-01

    Porous materials have recently been used in absorptive treatments around railway tracks to reduce noise emissions. To investigate the effect of porous materials, a finite element model has been developed. 2D models for porous materials have been considered either as an equivalent fluid or as a poroelastic material based on the Biot theory. The two models have been validated and compared with each other to check the effect of the skeleton vibration. The poroelastic FE model has been coupled with a 2D acoustic boundary element model for use in railway applications. The results show that it may be necessary to include the frame vibration, especially at low frequencies where a frame resonance occurs. A method for the characterization of porous materials is also discussed. From this it is shown that the elastic properties of the material determine the resonance frequency and the magnitude.

  20. Channel Allocation Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert S.

    The Frequency Allocation Subcommittee of the Coordinating Committee for Cable Communication Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, was formed to produce a background report on the general problems of frequency allocation and assignments in cable television. The present paper, based on the subcommittee's interim report,…

  1. Minimum depth of soil cover above long-span soil-steel railway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Morteza; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Abdulrazagh, Parisa Haji

    2013-12-01

    Recently, soil-steel bridges have become more commonly used as railway-highway crossings because of their economical advantages and short construction period compared with traditional bridges. The currently developed formula for determining the minimum depth of covers by existing codes is typically based on vehicle loads and non-stiffened panels and takes into consideration the geometrical shape of the metal structure to avoid the failure of soil cover above a soil-steel bridge. The effects of spans larger than 8 m or more stiffened panels due to railway loads that maintain a safe railway track have not been accounted for in the minimum cover formulas and are the subject of this paper. For this study, two-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses of four low-profile arches and four box culverts with spans larger than 8 m were performed to develop new patterns for the minimum depth of soil cover by considering the serviceability criterion of the railway track. Using the least-squares method, new formulas were then developed for low-profile arches and box culverts and were compared with Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code formulas. Finally, a series of three-dimensional (3D) finite element FE analyses were carried out to control the out-of-plane buckling in the steel plates due to the 3D pattern of train loads. The results show that the out-of-plane bending does not control the buckling behavior of the steel plates, so the proposed equations for minimum depth of cover can be appropriately used for practical purposes.

  2. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING TOWARDS SHUNTS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING TOWARDS SHUNTS IN THEIR PRESENT-DAY POSITIONS, STORAGE SHED, AND MACHINE SHOP. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS WESTERN SIDE OF CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS AND A SELF-UNLOADING IRON ORE SHIP AT DOCK. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 21. Historic view looking northeast from tracks of Shell Interlocking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic view looking northeast from tracks of Shell Interlocking Tower after construction, 1909. Photographic copy of photograph published in Railway Age Gazette, February 4, 1910. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  6. Track geometry estimation from car-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunashima, Hitoshi; Naganuma, Yasukuni; Kobayashi, Takahito

    2014-05-01

    Track maintenance works based on track geometry recordings are essential to enhance the safety and comfort of railway transportation. The track condition monitoring system is mainly used for the choice of area needing track tamping works for the purpose of the good riding comfort. An advantage of car-body acceleration measurement devices is their simple structures, which make it easier to carry out maintenance. However, the car-body acceleration waveform is considerably different from track geometry. This paper demonstrates the possibility to estimate the track geometry of Shinkansen tracks using car-body motions only. In an inverse problem to estimate track irregularity from car-body motions, a Kalman Filter (KF) was applied to solve the problem. Estimation results showed that track irregularity estimation in vertical direction is possible with acceptable accuracy for real use.

  7. An improved network model for railway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Keping; Ma, Xin; Shao, Fubo

    In railway traffic, safety analysis is a key issue for controlling train operation. Here, the identification and order of key factors are very important. In this paper, a new network model is constructed for analyzing the railway safety, in which nodes are regarded as causation factors and links represent possible relationships among those factors. Our aim is to give all these nodes an importance order, and to find the in-depth relationship among these nodes including how failures spread among them. Based on the constructed network model, we propose a control method to ensure the safe state by setting each node a threshold. As the results, by protecting the Hub node of the constructed network, the spreading of railway accident can be controlled well. The efficiency of such a method is further tested with the help of numerical example.

  8. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  9. Error rate information in attention allocation pilot models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, W. H.; Onstott, E. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Northrop urgency decision pilot model was used in a command tracking task to compare the optimized performance of multiaxis attention allocation pilot models whose urgency functions were (1) based on tracking error alone, and (2) based on both tracking error and error rate. A matrix of system dynamics and command inputs was employed, to create both symmetric and asymmetric two axis compensatory tracking tasks. All tasks were single loop on each axis. Analysis showed that a model that allocates control attention through nonlinear urgency functions using only error information could not achieve performance of the full model whose attention shifting algorithm included both error and error rate terms. Subsequent to this analysis, tracking performance predictions for the full model were verified by piloted flight simulation. Complete model and simulation data are presented.

  10. The influence of source-receiver interaction on the numerical prediction of railway induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulier, P.; Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.

    2014-06-01

    The numerical prediction of vibrations in buildings due to railway traffic is a complicated problem where wave propagation in the soil couples the source (railway tunnel or track) and the receiver (building). This through-soil coupling is often neglected in state-of-the-art numerical models in order to reduce the computational cost. In this paper, the effect of this simplifying assumption on the accuracy of numerical predictions is investigated. A coupled finite element-boundary element methodology is employed to analyze the interaction between a building and a railway tunnel at depth or a ballasted track at the surface of a homogeneous halfspace, respectively. Three different soil types are considered. It is demonstrated that the dynamic axle loads can be calculated with reasonable accuracy using an uncoupled strategy in which through-soil coupling is disregarded. If the transfer functions from source to receiver are considered, however, large local variations in terms of vibration insertion gain are induced by source-receiver interaction, reaching up to 10 dB and higher, although the overall wave field is only moderately affected. A global quantification of the significance of through-soil coupling is made, based on the mean vibrational energy entering a building. This approach allows assessing the common assumption in seismic engineering that source-receiver interaction can be neglected if the distance between source and receiver is sufficiently large compared to the wavelength of waves in the soil. It is observed that the interaction between a source at depth and a receiver mainly affects the power flow distribution if the distance between source and receiver is smaller than the dilatational wavelength in the soil. Interaction effects for a railway track at grade are observed if the source-receiver distance is smaller than six Rayleigh wavelengths. A similar trend is revealed if the passage of a freight train is considered. The overall influence of dynamic

  11. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  12. Modelling the leaching of imazapyr in a railway embankment.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Nicholas J; Almqvist, Sara; Stenström, John; Börjesson, Elisabet; Jonsson, Erik; Torstensson, Lennart

    2006-10-01

    The use of herbicides on railway tracks is known to present a risk to groundwater, but little is known of the mechanisms influencing leaching through the coarse material used to construct railway embankments. Therefore, in the present study, four different models based on the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) were compared with previously reported field data on the leaching of imazapyr. In particular, the significance of non-equilibrium processes was investigated by comparing different CDE formulations accounting for preferential finger flow, particle-facilitated transport and kinetic sorption. The traditional CDE assuming 'local equilibrium' based on 24 h batch sorption data gave poor results (model efficiency - 1.1). It strongly underestimated leaching of imazapyr in the first 4 months following application, thus confirming the importance of non-equilibrium transport processes. Accounting for short-term sorption kinetics made little difference, giving similar results to the 'local equilibrium' CDE simulation. A simulation accounting for particle-facilitated transport could accurately match this accelerated transport, and also gave the best overall fit to the data (model efficiency 0.76). However, not even this model could match the long-term retention of imazapyr residues observed close to the soil surface more than 1 year after application, and it also underestimated the time of breakthrough to groundwater. This strongly suggests that a long-term retention/sorption process not included in any of the models tested (i.e. sorption hysteresis or bound residues) acted to retard leaching. The formation of 'protected' residues was also indicated by a much slower degradation of imazapyr more than 1 year after application. Industry.

  13. Robust pedestrian detection and tracking in crowded scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lypetskyy, Yuriy

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a vision based tracking system developed for very crowded situations like underground or railway stations. Our system consists on two main parts - searching of people candidates in single frames, and tracking them frame to frame over the scene. This paper concentrates mostly on the tracking part and describes its core components in detail. These are trajectories predictions using KLT vectors or Kalman filter, adaptive active shape model adjusting and texture matching. We show that combination of presented algorithms leads to robust people tracking even in complex scenes with permanent occlusions.

  14. New form of road/railway transition curve

    SciTech Connect

    Lipicnik, M.

    1998-11-01

    Road and railway transition curves have again become the subject of important scientific research and serious traffic engineering analyses because of high driving speeds and demands for automatic drive (i.e., car pilots). This article shows, in an original way, how to define or reconstruct the track of a vehicle when passing the elements of a continuous curve (straight lines, circles) so the track (curve) suits all requirements to which transition curves must be adapted. The praxis whereby a known mathematical curve (e.g., a cubic parabola, lemniscate, or chlotoid) was assumed as a transition curve and its suitability was analyzed has been passed over. On the basis of assumed kinematics models of the motion of a vehicle along joint alignment elements with a changing radius of curvature, the writers have analyzed different transition curves resulting in safe, comfortable, and economic driving. The curve resulting from a parabolic velocity chart of front wheel rotation during such movement which found the most suitable has been named POLUSA; a geometrical analysis of POLUSA has been performed and a manual for practical use completed.

  15. Perceived Stress among Malaysian Railway Workers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Elkalmi, Ramadan; Alshakka, Mohammed; Ghanem, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress is a common work-related problem worldwide. Railway workers are predominantly stressed due to their rigid protocols and limited rest opportunities. This study aimed to determine the level of, and factors associated with, stress among railway workers in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 729 railway workers employed at Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) in eight states in Malaysia via a postal survey. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic characteristics and the validated Malay version of Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10). Response rate was 70.4% (513/729). Results Mean (SD) age of workers was 41.4 (10.7), with the majority aged 30 years or older (79.3%). Mean (SD) perceived stress was 18.8 (4.3). In multiple linear regression analysis, the significant predictors of high stress were high school versus tertiary education (β = 0.10, 95% CI 0.11, 1.73, P = 0.027) and being a white collar worker versus blue collar (β = 0.113, 95% CI 0.10, 1.74, P = 0.010). Conclusions Education level and type of work were significantly associated with perceived stress among railway workers in this study. PMID:27904423

  16. All Aboard the Information Super...Railway!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Frank, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    New information technology is viewed as analogous to a railway network that serves many, in diverse areas, and leads users to new frontiers. It is suggested that higher education can contribute to this system by developing useful new applications, providing guidelines for appropriate "passenger" behavior, and enhancing quality. (MSE)

  17. Analysis of the monitoring data of geomagnetic storm interference in the electrification system of a high-speed railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianguang; Ge, Xiaoning; Zong, Wei; Zhou, You; Liu, Mingguang

    2016-10-01

    To study the impact of geomagnetic storm on the equipment of traction electrification system in the high-speed railway, geomagnetically induced current (GIC) monitoring devices were installed in the Hebi East traction power supply substation of the Beijing-Hong Kong Dedicated Passenger Line in January 2015, and GICs were captured during the two geomagnetic storms on 17 March and 23 June 2015. In order to investigate the GIC flow path, both in the track circuit and in the traction network adopting the autotransformer feeding system, a GIC monitor plan was proposed for the electrical system in the Hebi East traction power supply substation. This paper analyzes the correlation between the GIC captured on 17 March and the geomagnetic data obtained from the Malingshan Geomagnetic Observatory and presents a regression analysis between the measured GIC and the calculated geoelectric fields on 23 June in the high-speed railway. The maximum GICs measured in the track circuit are 1.08 A and 1.74 A during the two geomagnetic storms. We find that it is necessary to pay attention on the throttle transformers and track circuits, as the most sensitive elements responding to the extreme geomagnetic storms in the high-speed railway.

  18. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure.

    PubMed

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  19. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  20. Adaptive Control Allocation in the Presence of Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Crespo, Luis G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive control allocation framework is proposed. In the adaptive control allocation structure, cooperative actuators are grouped and treated as an equivalent control effector. A state feedback adaptive control signal is designed for the equivalent effector and allocated to the member actuators adaptively. Two adaptive control allocation algorithms are proposed, which guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic state tracking in the presence of uncertain loss of effectiveness and constant-magnitude actuator failures. The proposed algorithms can be shown to reduce the controller complexity with proper grouping of the actuators. The proposed adaptive control allocation schemes are applied to two linearized aircraft models, and the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  1. An Efficient Cloud Computing-Based Architecture for Freight System Application in China Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baopeng; Zhang, Ning; Li, Honghui; Liu, Feng; Miao, Kai

    Cloud computing is a new network computing paradigm of distributed application environment. It utilizes the computing resource and storage resource to dynamically provide on-demand service for users. The distribution and parallel characters of cloud computing can leverage the railway freight system. We implement a cloud computing-based architecture for freight system application, which explores the Tashi and Hadoop for virtual resource management and MapReduce-based search technology. We propose the semantic model and setup configuration parameter by experiment, and develop the prototype system for freight search and tracking.

  2. Cost-effective FBG interrogation combined with cepstral-based signal processing for railway traffic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinet, D.; Kouroussis, G.; Dupuy, J.; Moeyaert, V.; Verlinden, O.; Caucheteur, C.

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high mechanical and corrosion resistance, low signal attenuation, optical fiber sensors and more particularly fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have demonstrated their high potential in various sensors applications such as health monitoring of structural pieces when their are placed under constrain, vibration or temperature variation. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of a low cost optical fiber Bragg gratings interrogator, based on the edge filter demodulation technique, combined with a cepstral-based signal processing to address three cascaded FBGs along a railway track. We show in real-life conditions that, thanks to this method, it is possible from a noisy measurement to retrieve the speed of the trains.

  3. Online Condition Monitoring of a Rail Fastening System on High-Speed Railways Based on Wavelet Packet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiahong; Liu, Chong; Ren, Tongqun; Liu, Haixia; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    The rail fastening system is an important part of a high-speed railway track. It is always critical to the operational safety and comfort of railway vehicles. Therefore, the condition detection of the rail fastening system, looseness or absence, is an important task in railway maintenance. However, the vision-based method cannot identify the severity of rail fastener looseness. In this paper, the condition of rail fastening system is monitored based on an automatic and remote-sensing measurement system. Meanwhile, wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the acceleration signals, based on which two damage indices are developed to locate the damage position and evaluate the severity of rail fasteners looseness, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment is performed on a high-speed railway experimental platform. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to assess the condition of the rail fastening system. The monitoring system significantly reduces the inspection time and increases the efficiency of maintenance management. PMID:28208732

  4. Online Condition Monitoring of a Rail Fastening System on High-Speed Railways Based on Wavelet Packet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiahong; Liu, Chong; Ren, Tongqun; Liu, Haixia; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-02-08

    The rail fastening system is an important part of a high-speed railway track. It is always critical to the operational safety and comfort of railway vehicles. Therefore, the condition detection of the rail fastening system, looseness or absence, is an important task in railway maintenance. However, the vision-based method cannot identify the severity of rail fastener looseness. In this paper, the condition of rail fastening system is monitored based on an automatic and remote-sensing measurement system. Meanwhile, wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the acceleration signals, based on which two damage indices are developed to locate the damage position and evaluate the severity of rail fasteners looseness, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment is performed on a high-speed railway experimental platform. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to assess the condition of the rail fastening system. The monitoring system significantly reduces the inspection time and increases the efficiency of maintenance management.

  5. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    PubMed

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  6. Prediction of vibrations induced by underground railway traffic in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Liu, W. F.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.; Liu, W. N.

    2008-02-01

    This paper examines the problem of subway induced vibrations on line 4 of Beijing metro, which is currently under construction and is planned to pass in close proximity of the Physics Laboratory of Beijing University. The laboratory has a lot of equipment that is very sensitive to traffic induced vibrations and future operation of metro line 4 is a matter of concern. Hence, it is important to study the influence of subway induced vibrations inside the laboratory and to propose a viable solution to mitigate the vibrations. In this paper, the tunnel north of Chengfulu station is modelled using a coupled periodic FE-BE model and the free-field response due to moving trains is predicted. In addition, vibration measurements have been performed on the site of the Physics Laboratory to estimate the existing vibration levels due to road traffic. The predicted and measured vibrations are superimposed to assess the vibrations due to the combined effect of road and railway traffic in the vicinity of the Physics Laboratory. Apart from the numerical investigations, vibration measurements have also been performed on a similar site at line 1 of Beijing metro to substantiate the estimated results on metro line 4. Finally, it is studied how the vibrations can be controlled using a floating slab track, which is widely used as an effective measure of vibration isolation in tunnels. The efficiency of a 7.9 Hz floating slab track as a vibration countermeasure is assessed in this paper. This study demonstrates the applicability of the numerical model for the relevant assessment of subway induced vibrations and its use to study the performance of different track structures in the tunnel.

  7. Buy or Lease Cost Model - Selected Railway Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    applications; specifically, there is no adequate buy or lease cost model applicable to railway car acquisition for the Defense Freight Railway Interchange...it would be less costly to lease cars rather than buy them. Lease/ buy calculations are labor intensive, and do not easily permit the sensitivity...corpora- tion using railway tank cars observes that their calculations always favor buy over lease options. To compensate for non-quantitative costs and

  8. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. Railway-controller-perceived competence in incidents and accidents.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Railway controllers play a pivotal role in service recovery of normal rail system operations when incidents and accidents occur. Those in this position must have sufficient competence to overcome task difficulties caused by accident uncertainties. This study adopts Taiwan's railway system as a case study to diagnose railway-controller-perceived competence when facing diverse tasks during incidents and accidents that are derived from a proposed conceptual model. Railway-controller-perceived competence is measured using the Rasch model. Analytical results indicate that working with an external rescue agency handling a rescue operation, explanations to the public, and communication with an external rescue agency are considered the most troublesome tasks. Additionally, railway-controller-perceived competence differs based on the work experience. This information will prove useful for rail system operators and government regulators when designing and regulating railway controller competence management systems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study presents a systematic approach for examining the gap between railway-controller-perceived competence and task difficulties associated with incidents and accidents. The relevance of findings encompasses the effects of transportation ergonomics and railway issues on the problem-solving competence and decision-making skills of railway controllers, and the competence management system.

  11. Sensory Evaluation of Ride on Railway Vehicle Using Motion Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Takehara, Shoichiro; Sasaki, Koichi; Suda, Yoshihiro; Koga, Takaaki

    Sensory evaluation of ride on a railway vehicle is performed based on international standards such as ISO2631. However, it is expected that this evaluation would be insufficient because of the development of technologies of a railway vehicle. The evaluation for view and sound from the viewpoint of ergonomic and psychological perspectives might be needed as well as traditional evaluations in the future. Authors focused on the relation between view and motion of the railway vehicle. The experiment in sensory evaluation of ride on a railway vehicle using a motion simulator was performed. In this paper, the way and results of the experiment and the environmental psychological analysis are described.

  12. Influence of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway on the habitat selection of wild animals, using satellite data and satellite-based ARGOS system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) was in trial operation since 1 July 2006, is the world's highest-elevation railway and the longest highland railway, extending over 1956 km from Xining (Qinghai's capital in northwestern China) to Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region. This QTR railway was crosses five nature reserves along the route Hoh Xil (COCOX- ILI), Qinghai Sanjiangyuan, Chang Tang, Lin-chou Pengbo, and La-lu, and Hoh xil nature reserve is the important breeding sites of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). In order to clearly the habitat use and habitat selection of the Tibetan Antelope was divided in the north and south by the QTR railway, we planned the capture of ten Tibetan Antelopes and attach a satellite-based ARGOS system platform transmitter terminal (PTT) to the Tibetan Antelopes. And we succeeded in the capture of two Tibetan Antelopes for the first time in the world in 2007a summer and attached an ARGOS PTT. In this study, we estimate RASTER model of habitat change, using satellite-based ARGOS PTT tracking analyst data and satellite (Terra/MODIS, Terra/ASTER, ALOS and SPOT/vegetation instrument data) land cover change data, order to clearly the spatial and temporal characteristics of wide area habitat selection of Tibetan Antelope.

  13. Power storage system for electric railway

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to a power storage system for electric railway which comprises a motor-generator connected to a power system for feeding an electric vehicle with electric power, and a flywheel coupled to the motor-generator, and in which the motor-generator is allowed to store the electric power and thereafter discharge it in correspondence with approach of the electric vehicle to a predetermined running section and running thereof in the section.

  14. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  15. Allocation of time in three academic specialties.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; Spaite, D W; Smith, R; Criss, E

    1988-01-01

    A survey was done to: 1) characterize the allocation and distribution of time by tenure track emergency physicians, and 2) compare the time distribution of emergency physicians to two other academic disciplines. All emergency medicine residency programs were surveyed by telephone to determine if faculty were eligible for tenure and if tenure was available, how many hours per week were spent on clinical duties, research, and administrative tasks. Similar information was compiled from cardiology and orthopedic surgery faculty at the same universities. Data from the survey revealed that a tenure track assistant professor spends 23 hours (46%) working clinical shifts in the emergency department; 11 hours (20%) doing research and 18 hours (34%) in administrative tasks. In contrast, cardiologists spend significantly more time in clinical duties (32 hours) and research (18 hours). However, cardiologists spend significantly less time in administrative duties (10 hours). Data for orthopedic surgeons show a similar pattern. Distributions within each academic discipline were also analyzed and a significant difference in research time was found between four tenure track emergency medicine programs and the other eighteen. Data from this survey may help academic emergency physicians evaluate how they are allocating their time in comparison to other busy clinical specialties.

  16. Approaches to Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul; Simon, Lou Anna Kimsey

    1976-01-01

    Various budgeting patterns and strategies are currently in use, each with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. Neither cost-benefit analysis nor cost-effectiveness analysis offers any better solution to the allocation problem than do the unsupported contentions of departments or the historical unit costs. An operable model that performs…

  17. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the NOX allowances for 2003 in the NOX Budget units' compliance accounts and...

  18. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.53 Recordation of NOX allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will record the NOX allowances for 2003 in the NOX Budget units' compliance accounts and...

  19. Sensor4PRI: a sensor platform for the protection of railway infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-02-27

    Wireless Sensor Networks constitute pervasive and distributed computing systems and are potentially one of the most important technologies of this century. They have been specifically identified as a good candidate to become an integral part of the protection of critical infrastructures. In this paper we focus on railway infrastructure protection and we present the details of a sensor platform designed to be integrated into a slab track system in order to carry out both installation and maintenance monitoring activities. In the installation phase, the platform helps operators to install the slab tracks in the right position. In the maintenance phase, the platform collects information about the structural health and behavior of the infrastructure when a train travels along it and relays the readings to a base station. The base station uses trains as data mules to upload the information to the internet. The use of a train as a data mule is especially suitable for collecting information from remote or inaccessible places which do not have a direct connection to the internet and require less network infrastructure. The overall aim of the system is to deploy a permanent economically viable monitoring system to improve the safety of railway infrastructures.

  20. Vibrations inside buildings due to subway railway traffic. Experimental validation of a comprehensive prediction model.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia; Ruiz, Jésus Fernández; Alves Costa, Pedro; Medina Rodríguez, L; Cardoso, António Silva

    2016-10-15

    The present paper focuses on the experimental validation of a numerical approach previously proposed by the authors for the prediction of vibrations inside buildings due to railway traffic in tunnels. The numerical model is based on the concept of dynamic substructuring and is composed by three autonomous models to simulate the following main parts of the problem: i) generation of vibrations (train-track interaction); ii) propagation of vibrations (track-tunnel-ground system); iii) reception of vibrations (building coupled to the ground). The experimental validation consists in the comparison between the results predicted by the proposed numerical model and the measurements performed inside a building due to the railway traffic in a shallow tunnel located in Madrid. Apart from the brief description of the numerical model and of the case study, the main options and simplifications adopted on the numerical modeling strategy are discussed. The balance adopted between accuracy and simplicity of the numerical approach proved to be a path to follow in order to transfer knowledge to engineering practice. Finally, the comparison between numerical and experimental results allowed finding a good agreement between both, fact that ensures the ability of the proposed modeling strategy to deal with real engineering practical problems.

  1. Fault detection method for railway wheel flat using an adaptive multiscale morphological filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan; Zuo, Ming J.; Lin, Jianhui; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-02-01

    This study explores the capacity of the morphology analysis for railway wheel flat fault detection. A dynamic model of vehicle systems with 56 degrees of freedom was set up along with a wheel flat model to calculate the dynamic responses of axle box. The vehicle axle box vibration signal is complicated because it not only contains the information of wheel defect, but also includes track condition information. Thus, how to extract the influential features of wheels from strong background noise effectively is a typical key issue for railway wheel fault detection. In this paper, an algorithm for adaptive multiscale morphological filtering (AMMF) was proposed, and its effect was evaluated by a simulated signal. And then this algorithm was employed to study the axle box vibration caused by wheel flats, as well as the influence of track irregularity and vehicle running speed on diagnosis results. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by bench testing. Research results demonstrate that the AMMF extracts the influential characteristic of axle box vibration signals effectively and can diagnose wheel flat faults in real time.

  2. Sensor4PRI: A Sensor Platform for the Protection of Railway Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks constitute pervasive and distributed computing systems and are potentially one of the most important technologies of this century. They have been specifically identified as a good candidate to become an integral part of the protection of critical infrastructures. In this paper we focus on railway infrastructure protection and we present the details of a sensor platform designed to be integrated into a slab track system in order to carry out both installation and maintenance monitoring activities. In the installation phase, the platform helps operators to install the slab tracks in the right position. In the maintenance phase, the platform collects information about the structural health and behavior of the infrastructure when a train travels along it and relays the readings to a base station. The base station uses trains as data mules to upload the information to the internet. The use of a train as a data mule is especially suitable for collecting information from remote or inaccessible places which do not have a direct connection to the internet and require less network infrastructure. The overall aim of the system is to deploy a permanent economically viable monitoring system to improve the safety of railway infrastructures. PMID:25734648

  3. View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail Room, from elevated west dock toward east. Office is on right (south) and mezzanine on left (north). West wall of American Railway Express Room is between - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. RUINS OF NORTH ABUTMENT OF OR & L RAILWAY TRESTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUINS OF NORTH ABUTMENT OF OR & L RAILWAY TRESTLE ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE NO. 3A, VIEW FROM THE EAST - Oahu Railway & Land Company Trestle Ruins, Spanning Makaha Stream between Makaha Beach & Farrington Highway, near Kili Drive, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Interior view of first floor of American Railway Express Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of first floor of American Railway Express Room from mezzanine (east section of two story portion of Railway Express Building), looking south - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. 52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate rail on sled/roller railway). Steel fabrication building and traveling crane in background. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  7. Structural vulnerability and intervention of high speed railway networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Funian; Wang, Shuliang; Dai, Yang; Wang, Yixing

    2016-11-01

    This paper employs complex network theory to assess the structural vulnerability of high speed railway networks subjected to two different malicious attacks. Chinese, US and Japanese high speed railway networks are used to discuss the vulnerable characteristics of systems. We find that high speed railway networks are very fragile when suffering serious disturbances and two attack rules can cause analogous damages to one high speed railway network, which illustrates that the station with large degree possesses high betweenness, vice versa. Meanwhile, we discover that Japanese high speed railway network has the best global connectivity, but Chinese high speed railway network has the best local connectivity and possesses the largest transport capacity. Moreover, we find that there exist several redundant paths in Chinese high speed railway network and discover the critical stations of three HSRNs. Furthermore, the nearest-link method is adopted to implement topological interventions and to improve the connectivity and reliability of high speed railway networks. In addition, the feasibility and effectiveness of topological interventions are shown by simulations.

  8. Closing the Circle: Travelling with "The Railway Man."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Eric Lomax's autobiographical book "The Railway Man." Notes how it chronicles his boyhood obsession with train-spotting and the subsequent ways in which his life has been freaked by railway co-incidences. Describes how the author invited Eric Lomax to come and discuss this work with his students. (SG)

  9. 24. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Wrought Iron Details, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Wrought Iron Details, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-8A - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-16 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September 8, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4229, 9/6/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 20. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Design of Cradle, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Design of Cradle, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-2 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July 5, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #3988, 7/5/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 25. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Proposed Road Over Chains, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Proposed Road Over Chains, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-9 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 5, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4930, 5/5/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March 9, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4801, 3/9/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and USS Acushnet. View to soutwest, June 10, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5080, 6/10/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. 28. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Section showing bilge and keel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Section showing bilge and keel blocks, 1919. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-20 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 29, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5049, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 28, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5046, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View to southeast, June 2, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5054, 6/7/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Parameter identification of multi-body railway vehicle models - Application of the adjoint state approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, S.; Puel, G.; Aubry, D.; Funfschilling, C.

    2016-12-01

    For the calibration of multi-body models of railway vehicles, the identification of the model parameters from on-track measurement is required. This involves the solution of an inverse problem by minimising the misfit function which describes the distance between model and measurement using optimisation methods. The application of gradient-based optimisation methods is advantageous but necessitates an efficient approach for the computation of the gradients considering the large number of model parameters and the costly evaluation of the forward model. This work shows that the application of the adjoint state approach to the nonlinear vehicle-track multi-body system is suitable, reducing on the one hand the computational cost and increasing on the other hand the precision of the gradients. Gradients from the adjoint state method are computed for vehicle models and validated taking into account measurement noise.

  6. Sensitivity of train stochastic dynamics to long-term evolution of track irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestoille, N.; Soize, C.; Funfschilling, C.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of the track geometry on the dynamic response of the train is of great concern for the railway companies, because they have to guarantee the safety of the train passengers in ensuring the stability of the train. In this paper, the long-term evolution of the dynamic response of the train on a stretch of the railway track is studied with respect to the long-term evolution of the track geometry. The characterisation of the long-term evolution of the train response allows the railway companies to start off maintenance operations of the track at the best moment. The study is performed using measurements of the track geometry, which are carried out very regularly by a measuring train. A stochastic model of the studied stretch of track is created in order to take into account the measurement uncertainties in the track geometry. The dynamic response of the train is simulated with a multibody software. A noise is added in output of the simulation to consider the uncertainties in the computational model of the train dynamics. Indicators on the dynamic response of the train are defined, allowing to visualize the long-term evolution of the stability and the comfort of the train, when the track geometry deteriorates.

  7. Allocation of nutrients to somatic tissues in young ovariectomized grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Judd, Evan T; Hatle, John D; Drewry, Michelle D; Wessels, Frank J; Hahn, Daniel A

    2010-11-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma "relative" to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of ¹³C and ¹⁵N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  8. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  9. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    PubMed

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.

  10. Constrained control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the allocation of several flight controls to the generation of specified body-axis moments. The number of controls is greater than the number of moments being controlled, and the ranges of the controls are constrained to certain limits. The controls are assumed to be individually linear in their effect throughout their ranges of motion, and independent of one another in their effects. The geometries of the subset of the constrained controls and of its image in moment space are examined. A direct method of allocating these several controls is presented, that guarantees the maximum possible moment is generated within the constraints of the controls. The results are illustrated by an example problem involving three controls and two moments.

  11. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  12. Research on Continuous Operation of the Railway by Considering the Value of the Local Railway in Nagano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Tatsuo; Wakui, Katsuaki; Koyama, Ken

    After revision of the Railway Business Act in 2000, the abolition of the local railway has increased in Japan. However, continuing activities by people living along local line has been focussed in recent years. Moreover, a lot of local railway's business are obtaining the subsidy from the municipality where railway route is located. When the government puts out the grant to the company, it is necessary to have the accountability for the peoples. This research is focused on the value of the local railways for residents are measured, and an economical value of that is estimate by using the Contingent Valuation Method. As for the route for analysis in Nagano, Bessho-line(Ueda), Yashiro-line(Nagano) and Kamikohchi-line(Matsumoto) were chosen. Moreover, policies of each municipality to these routes are evaluated by using these values.

  13. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, T.; Remennikov, AM

    2016-09-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction.

  14. Ship Tracks

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Ship Tracks in a Stratiform Cloud Layer     ... stratocumulus. These striking linear patterns are known as "ship tracks", and are produced when fine particles (also called aerosols) from ... be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. Ship tracks are important examples of aerosol-cloud interactions. They are ...

  15. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, L. M. Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  16. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  17. Safety analysis and realization of safe information transmission optical LAN on high-speed railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ying; Wu, Chongqing; Li, Zuoyi

    2001-10-01

    High-speed railway that has been progressing very quickly is one of the greatest techniques in present time because of its high speed, economy, comfort, environment benefits and other advantages. And among all of these, safe is the backbone and lifeline, so the chief task in developing high-speed railway is to establish safety guarantee system. Also in this safety guarantee system, train control is one of the key techniques to guarantee safe train operation and to advance ability of transportation, so operation safe is located in the hardcore position. That is to say, it is imperative to set up a safe, real-time and reliable automatic train control system. And we can easily find out that this kind of system is now developed and applied in many countries. Important information related to train control, such as the received and transmitted information of track-sided equipment, is called safe information, because it deals with train operation's safe, reliability, and even directly with people's life and wealth. It is so important that if there were some kind of fault with its making, transmission, or processing, fatal accident would occur. So to some degree, it is impossible to transmit and process this information through present railway communication network because of the former's extreme importance and the latter's no safe capability. Therefore, a specific communication network that mainly considers about safe transmission and management should be established in order to realize the specific function for this specific information. High-speed railway safe information transmission optical LAN, which adopts optical fiber as transmission media and transmits safe information, is a kind of LAN designed for the request for safe, real-time and highly reliable automatic train control system in the process of our country's high-speed railway construction and commonly train speed. In this paper, after analyzing the characteristics of automatic train control system and the

  18. Why trains stay on tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayak, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we give both qualitative and quantitative explanations of why a train stays on its track, in spite of perturbations that could cause it to derail. We show that train stability originates from the conical shape of the wheels, which gives rise to a restoring normal force in response to a lateral disturbance. We first demonstrate translational stabilization in a simple situation where the rails are assumed frictionless and the steering motion of the wheel is neglected. We then develop a more comprehensive model, taking friction and steering into account. We show that rolling friction couples the rotational motion to the translational motion, enhancing overall stability. Finally, we find approximate formulae for the parameters governing stability, and show good agreement with parameters of a real railway coach.

  19. Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, over CSX tracks in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, over CSX tracks in North Branch, Maryland, looking northwest. The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Plant can be seen in the background. NPS property boundary is out of view at lower right. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  20. Educational Systems and the Trade-Off between Labor Market Allocation and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…

  1. Wheel-rail dynamic forces induced by random vertical track irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiroiu, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper investigates the wheel-rail dynamic forces produced by railway vehicles in motion, which are an important issue especially for the high-speed rail transport from the point of view of traffic safety, ride quality and undesirable effects on vehicles, on track and on the land in the vicinity of railways. The research is carried out on a model which includes track system, vehicle unsprung mass, vehicle primary suspension and the bogie sprung mass. The wheel-rail dynamic overloads are evaluated assuming random vertical irregularities of the track. The estimation of wheel-rail dynamic forces is made for a range of vehicle speeds up to 300 km/h and the influence of track and vehicle various parameters is investigated.

  2. Railways and energy. World Bank staff working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses questions which arise in discussions about the effects which increases in oil prices have on railway development. Part I of the paper reviews the relative energy efficiencies of rail and of road transport, and measures for decreasing railway energy consumption. Only energy used for traction is considered. Part II is a review of the factors which determine the economic viability of railway electrification, and includes a methodology which can readily be used for prefeasibility analyses to determine whether a more detailed study is warranted. (Copyright (c) 1984 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  3. RAMSES: a nowcasting system for mitigating geo-hydrological risk along the railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Chiaravalloti, Francesco; Sabatino, Pietro; Brocca, Luca; Laviola, Sante; Baldini, Luca; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Mario M.; Marra, Gian Paolo; Niccoli, Raffaele; Arcuri, Salvatore; Catalano, Filippo; Stassi, Sergio; Baccillieri, Maurizio; Agostino, Mario; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of exceptional rainfall events of short / very short duration (from 15 minutes to about 2 hours) caused incidents and service interruptions due to landslides, collapses of bridges, and erosion of the ballast, along the Calabrian railway. RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot CNR project, recently co-funded by RFI S.p.A. and aimed at mitigating the risk along the railway. Forecasting of weather events responsible of heavy convective rainfall, even when provided with some advance, is not generally performed with reliable localization. In fact, objective limits of the numerical weather prediction derive from grid resolution, often exceeding the size of convective cells. These phenomena, whose recurrence periods seem to show a reduction due to climate changes, affect limited areas and are characterized by a very short life cycle. As a consequence, failures of hydraulic crossings are increasingly being recorded together with landslide-related debris invasion along the drainage network and slopes. RAMSES aims at improving short term (3-6 hours) weather forecasts and ground effects at local scale. The employed approach is base on synergistic and integrated operational tools to provide weather information on small-size basins. The system will also allow to promptly identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on quasi-real time radar and Meteosat data. The extension of the temporal horizon of the forecast up to three hours will be performed by using the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) model. This latter employs, as a "first guess", the output of the WRF numerical model: such analyses are updated and improved by means of observational data from different instruments (e.g. on land weather stations, radar, satellites, etc.). Finally, the assessment of ground effects will be accomplished for selected study areas, by means of landslide susceptibility

  4. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  5. Analysis and design of on-grade reinforced concrete track support structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, F. G.; Williams, R. D.; Greening, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    For the improvement of rail service, the Department of Transportation, Federal Rail Administration, is sponsoring a test track on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway. The test track will contain nine separate rail support structures, including one conventional section for control and three reinforced concrete structures on grade, one slab and two beam sections. The analysis and design of these latter structures was accomplished by means of the finite element method, NASTRAN, and is presented.

  6. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  7. Nondestructive tests for railway monitoring. European Experience in COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontul, Simona; Solla, Mercedes; Loizos, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The railway monitoring is an important issue for a proper maintenance planning. With the increase in loads and travel speed, it is important to be able to diagnose the track defects and to plan the proper maintenance without interfering with the users. Traditionally, the maintenance actions are planned based on the geometric level parameters assessed without contact with the line, at traffic speed, by dedicated inspection vehicles. Nevertheless, the geometric condition of the line does not provide information on the defects causes. In order to complements the information on the causes, geophysics measurements can be performed in a nondestructive way. Among these later methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. A resume of the European experience in COST Action TU1208 of the application of GPR for railway monitoring and the measurement interpretation is presented in this paper. Also complementary nondestructive tests and other geophysical methods are referred, together with case studies of their application. The main troubleshooting and the needs for data analysis

  8. Water Development, Allocation, and Institutions: A Role for Integrated Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from inadequate water infrastructure, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Each of these three challenges compounds the burdens imposed by inadequacies associated with the other two. Weak water infrastructure makes it hard to allocate water efficiently and undermines tracking of water rights and use, which blocks effective functioning of water institutions. Inefficient water allocation makes it harder to secure resources to develop new water infrastructure. Poorly developed water institutions undermine the security of water rights, which damages incentives to develop water infrastructure or use water efficiently. This paper reports on the development of a prototype basin scale economic optimization, in which existing water supplies are allocated more efficiently in the short run to provide resources for more efficient long-run water infrastructure development. Preliminary results provide the basis for designing water administrative proposals, building effective water infrastructure, increasing farm income, and meeting transboundary delivery commitments. The application is to the Kabul River Basin in Afghanistan, where food security has been compromised by a history of drought, war, damaged irrigation infrastructure, lack of reservoir storage, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Results illustrate increases in economic efficiency achievable when development programs simultaneously address interdependencies in water allocation, development, and institutions.

  9. 22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK STRUCTURE ATOP PARKING STRUCTURE (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J

    2001-07-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  11. 1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north at Hedges Creek trestle. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Hedges Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 38.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  12. 10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH MANUFACTURED BY MEAD-MORRISON MANUFACTURING COMPANY, HAVING A 450 TON CAPACITY - Anderson-Christofani Shipyard, Innes Avenue & Griffith Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy projects above roll-up doors and elevated dock - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing west. Projecting metal canopy and roll-up doors are principal elements - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express Building, facing east - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. Reduction of Doppler effect for the needs of wayside condition monitoring system of railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybała, Jacek; Radkowski, Stanisław

    2013-07-01

    Technology of acoustic condition monitoring of vehicles in motion is based on the assumption that diagnostically relevant information is stored in the acoustic signal generated by a passing vehicle. Analyzing the possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of condition monitoring of a passing vehicle with stationary microphones, it should be noted that the acoustic signal recorded in these conditions is disturbed with the disturbance resulting from the Doppler effect. Reduction of signal's frequential structure disturbance resulting from the Doppler effect allows efficient analysis of changes in frequential structure of recorded signals and as a result extraction of relevant diagnostic information related with technical condition of running gear of vehicle. This article presents a method for removal of signal's frequential structure disturbances related with relative move of vehicles and stationary monitoring station. For elimination of the frequential non-stationary of signals disturbance-oriented dynamic signal resampling method was used. The paper provides a test of two methods for defining the time course of local disturbance of signal's frequential structure: the method based on the Hilbert transform and the method of analytical description of signal's disturbance based on the knowledge of a phenomenon that causes frequential non-stationarity of signals. As an example, the results of the processing and analysis of acoustic signals recorded by wayside measuring station, during the passage of WM-15A railway vehicle on an experimental track of Polish Railway Institute, are presented.

  17. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  18. A study on Data Transmission Scheme for High Functional Railway Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Sano, Minoru; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Railway signaling systems that transmit control information via rails have been deployed in many applications, for example, digital automatic train control (ATC) systems for controlling train speed. Since the performance of digital ATC systems depends on the signal transmission speed, recently there have been many studies aimed at realizing high-speed data transmission. However, it is difficult to increase the transmission speed because rails have strong attenuation in proportion to an increase of the frequency. In this paper, we aimed to increase the transmission speed by improving the modulation scheme to overcome these limitations. We proposed CDMA-QAM method that is combined code-division multiple access (CDMA) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). And we evaluated in a field trial the CDMA-QAM rail transmission device developed using DSP. On the other hand, an analog ATC based on an amplitude modulation (AM) is still employed in some railway lines. It is difficult for their lines to introduce the digital signal due to track circuit configurations and interoperability conditions. So we studied a data transmission scheme that makes it possible to mix an analog signal and a digital signal, and evaluated the influence given to both signals using a developed device that generates the mixed signal of analog and digital signal.

  19. [The emergence of China's Railway Health Services and its motivation in the late Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2014-03-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, the railway authority of China commenced establishing their self-run medical institutions, setting up the hygienic standards of railway system, and opening a new prospects of railway health services and epidemic prevention, reflecting the emergence of China's Railway Health Services. The motivations of all these approaches were related to three factors, that is,"the eastward dissemination of western medicine","the medical requirement of railway employees", and"the emergent situation of railway health and epidemic prevention".

  20. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  1. 65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY - WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of February 1955 photograph showing the winding machinery of the California Street Cable Railroad. The two suspended sheaves on the right of the photograph bore down on the cable as it left the winders, supplying tension to the cable and eliminating the need for a long tension run. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Energy efficiency of electrified passenger railway in the Canadian context

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements of electrified passenger trains have not been adequately addressed in the technical literature. This paper examines in the Canadian context: (1) the energy implications of passenger railway electrification in terms of propulsion energy requirements (from primary energy source to final consumption) as well as the indirect energy needed for rolling stock and infrastructure, and (2) the relative energy efficiencies of electric and diesel-electric railway traction systems.

  3. [Cases of toxocara infection on the Sverdlovsk railway].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, V D; Azeva, L N; Renov, S G; Agafonova, G V

    2002-01-01

    The results of serological testing for Toxocara infection in patients who had referred for a railway hospital of the Sverdlovsk railway were summarized. Positive serological tests were in the titer ranges 1:200 to 1:1600 in 12.8% of the examinees, including the titer range 1:800 or more in 8.5%. Brief extracts from some case histories are given.

  4. Community response to railway noise: A review of social surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, U.

    1988-01-01

    The many studies on the effects of railway noise on the neighbourhood differ greatly in their design, acoustic and sociological measurement and in their evaluation methods. As the influence of these factors on the sometimes differing results is not quantifiable, only qualitative results can be summarized and commented on. There are only a few studies with special emphasis on the effects of shunting yards, high-speed trains and urban train systems, and therefore only the results concerning free-flow railway traffic are summarized. The LAeq measured outside was shown in almost all the studies to be the most suitable for predicting general annoyance and most of the disturbance reactions compared with other acoustic data, e.g., peak level, pass-by frequency, etc. It is not possible to deduce from the studies in question a limiting value beyond which railway noise is no longer tolerable. Compared to other areas of interference, it is generally agreed that railway noise is at its most annoying in the area of communication. Sleep interference, on the other hand, was only seldomly mentioned and was not considered to be so serious. In addition to the noise level, non-acoustic factors such as attitude towards the railway, neighbourhood environment, etc., obviously considerably affect the annoyance reaction to railway noise too. The question of habituation to railway noise cannot be conclusively answered from the studies analyzed. At the same LAeq, railway noise gives rise to less annoyance than does road-traffic noise. These differences vary according to whether the reference time is day or night, the noise level range is high or low, and according to which annoyance and disturbance reaction is considered.

  5. [Work condition of electricians servicing railway shunting and maneuvering yards].

    PubMed

    Talivanova, R V; Elizarov, B B; Kudrin, V A; Ovechkina, Zh V

    1995-01-01

    The article represents main occupational hazards and work conditions of such railway occupation as electromechanic and electromounter of shunting yards of railway stations. Complete hygienic evaluation of the occupational activities is given for individuals working at Moskovskaya, Oktjabrskaya and Sevemaya railroads. Health state of the workers was studied according to transitory disablement materials, the morbidity and its structure were analyzed. The authors outline some suggestions to improve the work conditions and decrease the morbidity.

  6. Small-world properties of the Indian railway network.

    PubMed

    Sen, Parongama; Dasgupta, Subinay; Chatterjee, Arnab; Sreeram, P A; Mukherjee, G; Manna, S S

    2003-03-01

    Structural properties of the Indian railway network is studied in the light of recent investigations of the scaling properties of different complex networks. Stations are considered as "nodes" and an arbitrary pair of stations is said to be connected by a "link" when at least one train stops at both stations. Rigorous analysis of the existing data shows that the Indian railway network displays small-world properties. We define and estimate several other quantities associated with this network.

  7. Tracking Evasive Objects via a Search Allocation Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    on August 03,2010 at 21:46:23 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. existing search theory does not have an immediate answer to such a...Orleans. Downloaded on August 03,2010 at 21:46:23 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. dedicated in the j-th sensing action to cell i. Without loss...licensed use limited to: University of New Orleans. Downloaded on August 03,2010 at 21:46:23 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. object has certain

  8. 77 FR 40147 - Pan Am Southern, LLC.-Abandonment Exemption-in Worcester County, MA; Springfield Terminal Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...; Springfield Terminal Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Worcester County, MA Pan Am Southern, LLC (PAS) and Springfield Terminal Railway Company (ST) (collectively, applicants) jointly...

  9. The relationship between railway noise and community annoyance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Changwoo; Kim, Jaehwan; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab

    2006-10-01

    A study of community annoyance caused by exposures to railway noise was carried out in 18 areas along railway lines to accumulate social survey data and assess the relationship between railway noise levels and annoyance responses in Korea. Railway noise levels were measured with portable sound-level meters. Social surveys were administered to people living within 50 m of noise measurement sites. A questionnaire contained demographic factors, degree of noise annoyance, interference with daily activities, and health-related symptoms. The question relating to noise annoyance was answered on an 11-point numerical scale. The randomly selected respondents, who were aged between 18 to 70 years of age, completed the questionnaire independently. In total, 726 respondents participated in social surveys. Taking into consideration the urban structure and layout of the residential areas of Korea, Japan, and Europe, one can assume that the annoyance responses caused by the railway noise in this study will be similar to those found in Japan, which are considerably more severe than those found in European countries. This study showed that one of the most important factors contributing to the difference in the annoyance responses between Korea and Europe is the distance between railways and houses.

  10. Online Tracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to track you on all kinds of internet-connected devices that have browsers, such as smart phones, tablets, laptop and desktop computers. How does tracking in mobile apps occur? When you access mobile applications, companies don’t have access to ...

  11. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  12. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  13. Space Network Control Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the Space Network Control (SNC) Conference. In the late 1990s, when the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System is operational, Space Network communication services will be supported and controlled by the SNC. The goals of the conference were to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches, to identify solutions applicable to the Space Network, and to identify avenues of study in support of the SNC development. The conference was divided into three sessions: (1) Concepts for Space Network Allocation; (2) SNC and User Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) Human-Computer Interface Concepts; and (3) Resource Allocation Tools, Technology, and Algorithms. Key recommendations addressed approaches to achieving higher levels of automation in the scheduling process.

  14. The effects of railway transportation on the enrichment of heavy metals in the artificial soil on railway cut slopes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Wang, KeXiu; Ai, Ying Wei; Li, Wei; Gao, Hongying; Fang, Chen

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the artificial soils on the railway cut slopes may have great influence on the revegetation of the cut slopes. The purpose of this study was to assess the variation of heavy metal contamination levels with railway operation time and analyze their possible resources. A total of 100 soil samples from four cut slopes, which were affected by railway transportation for different years, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe). The concentrations of Cd, Pb showed increasing trend with increasing operation time of railways, while such trend was not found in Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe. According to the soil quality standard of China, Cd was considered to have considerable contamination, while Pb has less, but Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe have none. Moreover, cadmium exhibited remarkably higher levels rather than those reported in other studies. Enrichment factors and ecological index showed that Cd and Pb showed a moderate enrichment and a considerable ecological risk in most of the soil samples. The results of descriptive statistic, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis were totally consistent with each other. Their results revealed that Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe had common origins, and they may come from natural resources. While Cd and Pb were significantly influenced by railway transportation, leaked cargos, fuel combustion, the use of lubricate oils and sleeper impregnation oils during railway transportation may be their main resources.

  15. Development and management of a radon assessment strategy suitable for underground railway tunnelling projects.

    PubMed

    Purnell, C J; Frommer, G; Chan, K; Auch, A A

    2004-01-01

    The construction of underground tunnels through radon-bearing rock poses a radiation health risk to tunnelling workers from exposure to radon gas and its radioactive decay products. This paper presents the development and practical application of a radon assessment strategy suitable for the measurement of radon in tunnelling work environments in Hong Kong. The assessment strategy was successfully evaluated on a number of underground railway tunnelling projects over a 3 y period. Radon measurements were undertaken using a combination of portable radon measurement equipment and track etch detectors (TEDs) deployed throughout the tunnels. The radon gas monitoring results were used to confirm that ventilation rates were adequate or identified, at an early stage, when further action to reduce radon levels was required. Exposure dose estimates based on the TED results showed that the exposure of tunnel workers to radon did not exceed 3 mSv per annum for the duration of each project.

  16. A Study on Railway Signal System to Apply CDMA-QAM Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Asano, Akira; Sano, Minoru; Takahashi, Sei; Nakamura, Hideo

    Recently, QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) transmission is paid to attention in digital modulation method, and it has been used for wireless LAN and digital broadcasting. QAM is a modulation method that puts information on carrier amplitude and phase. So QAM can achieve high-capacity data transmission that the use efficiency of frequency band is good. But QAM has a bad characteristic that is weak to the noise and the interference because distance between each symbol is short. Then we propose the method that not transmission data but CDMA signal, obtained after transmission data is modulated by spread code and multiplexed, is given to each symbol of QAM. And we studied about railway signal system on track circuit as a sample to apply this method. As result of computer simulations, we verified to be able to achieve the improvement of signal to noise ratio by optimizing the constellation map of QAM. We report with the method of a synchronous acquisition.

  17. Effect of discrete track support by sleepers on rail corrugation at a curved track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X. S.; Wen, Z. F.

    2008-08-01

    The paper investigates into the effect of discrete track support by sleepers on the initiation and development of rail corrugation at a curved track when a railway vehicle passes through using a numerical method. The numerical method considers a combination of Kalker's rolling contact theory with non-Hertzian form, a linear frictional work model and a dynamics model of a half railway vehicle coupled with the curved track. The half-vehicle has a two-axle bogie and doubled suspension systems. It is treated as a full dynamic rigid multi-body model. In the track model, an Euler beam is used to model the rail, and the discrete track support by sleepers moving backward with respect to the vehicle running direction is considered to simulate the effect of the discrete sleeper support on the wheels/rails in rolling contact when the vehicle moves on the track. The sleeper is treated as a rigid body and the ballast bed is replaced with equivalent mass bodies. The numerical analysis exams in detail the variations of wheel/rail normal loads, the creepages, and the rail wear volume along the curved track. Their variations are much concerned with the discrete track support. The numerical results show that the discrete track support causes the fluctuating of the normal loads and creepages at a few frequencies. These frequencies comprise the passing frequency of the sleepers and the excited track resonant frequencies, which are higher than the sleeper passing frequency. Consequently, rail corrugation with several wavelengths initiates and develops. Also the results show that the contact vibrating between the curved rails and the four wheels of the same bogie has different frequencies. In this way, the different key frequencies to be excited play an important role in the initiation and development of curved rail corrugation. Therefore, the corrugations caused by the four wheels of the same bogie present different wavelengths. The paper shows and discusses the depths of the initial

  18. 48. Exterior detail of Marine Railway #1. Note rail/roller type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Exterior detail of Marine Railway #1. Note rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate for railway/rollers on sled) and removable catwalk on bed. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  19. [Information digital technologies and medical psychologic prevention of stress state in railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Kostin, A V; Kostina, S A

    2015-01-01

    The authors determined criteria of medical and psychologic training of railway transport workers, with applied information digital technologies. The results obtained prove that application of software "Railway worker" ("Zheleznodorozhnik") reduces frequency and duration of "emotional stress states".

  20. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  1. 76 FR 60599 - Boston & Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemptions-in Rockingham, NH; Springfield Terminal Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...; Springfield Terminal Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemptions--in Rockingham, NH Boston & Maine Corporation (B&M) and Springfield Terminal Railway Company (ST) (collectively, applicants) have jointly...

  2. Evaluation of the interim measurement protocol for railway noise source description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, M. H. A.; Jansen, H. W.; Dittrich, M. G.

    2006-06-01

    The Dutch national calculation scheme for railway noise has been declared the default interim method for railway noise calculation by the EU, until the introduction of results from the Harmonoise project. It includes a measurement protocol for determining emission input data in the format suitable for the present calculation scheme. The calculation scheme contains a fixed database of emission data for common Dutch rolling stock. The measurement protocol provides for the addition of emission data of new or foreign rolling stock. This is relevant for the Netherlands, as such rolling stock increasingly appears on the network, but also for other European countries that are going to use the interim method, since emission data for their rolling stock have to be established. The protocol features two procedures. Procedure A allows using the existing fixed database of emission data. Selection of a particular dataset (or 'category') can be based on external appearance of rolling stock (without measurements) or pass-by sound pressure level measurements at a site with known rail roughness. If a user finds that none of the existing data sets properly represent its rolling stock, the optional procedure B is available. This procedure assesses pass-by levels, track and wheel roughness levels. The measurement protocol is based on a type-test-like procedure requiring controlled conditions for the vehicle and track. A measurement campaign has been undertaken to test procedures A and B. This campaign coincided with a Swiss campaign to establish the sound emission of freight vehicles equipped with composite block brakes. The test of the protocol was focussed both on the practicability of the required measurements and on the unambiguity and comprehensiveness of the test. Open questions, findings, resulting conclusions and recommendations regarding the protocol are discussed here.

  3. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. The Concept of Photonics-Based Virtual Ground Tracking Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Cong, B.; Nie, Y. M.; He, J.; Wang, X. Q.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose the concept of virtual ground tracking station for space missions. Based on microwave photonics, the virtual tracking station can realize spatial diversity, antenna arraying, dynamic resource allocation and distributed signal processing. Compared with conventional design, the flexibility, efficiency and performance can be significantly improved.

  5. Mobile Laser Scanning Systems for Measuring the Clearance Gauge of Railways: State of Play, Testing and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Mikrut, Sławomir; Kohut, Piotr; Pyka, Krystian; Tokarczyk, Regina; Barszcz, Tomasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The paper contains a survey of mobile scanning systems for measuring the railway clearance gauge. The research was completed as part of the project carried out for the PKP (PKP Polish Railway Lines S.A., Warsaw, Poland) in 2011–2013. The authors conducted experiments, including a search for the latest solutions relating to mobile measurement systems that meet the basic requirement. At the very least, these solutions needed to be accurate and have the ability for quick retrieval of data. In the paper, specifications and the characteristics of the component devices of the scanning systems are described. Based on experiments, the authors did some examination of the selected mobile systems to be applied for measuring the clearance gauge. The Riegl (VMX-250) and Z+F (Zoller + Fröhlich) Solution were tested. Additional test measurements were carried out within a 30-kilometer section of the Warsaw-Kraków route. These measurements were designed so as to provide various elements of the railway infrastructure, the track geometry and the installed geodetic control network. This ultimately made it possible to reduce the time for the preparation of geodetic reference measurements for the testing of the accuracy of the selected systems. Reference measurements included the use of the polar method to select profiles perpendicular to the axis of the track. In addition, the coordinates selected were well defined as measuring points of the objects of the infrastructure of the clearance gauge. All of the tested systems meet the accuracy requirements initially established (within the range of 2 cm as required by the PKP). The tested systems have shown their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27187400

  6. Synthesis of waste interception and allocation networks

    SciTech Connect

    El-Halwagi, M.M.; Hamad, A.A.; Garrison, G.W.

    1996-11-01

    This article introduces the novel concept of synthesizing waste-interception networks (WINs) and incorporates it within a mass-integration framework for the global allocation of pollutants. The essence of this notion is to provide selective interception and rerouting of undesirable species at the heart of the process instead of dealing with the pollutants in the terminal waste streams. It also provides a unified framework for simultaneously tackling gaseous and liquid pollution. Several tools are developed to track the pollutant throughout the process and determine the optimal interception policies. The problem is formulated as an optimization program that seeks to determine the optimum locations for interception the pollutants, extent of separation, and separating agents to carry out the interception tasks. Furthermore, the WINs can be used within a mass-integration scheme for the global allocation of species throughout the plant. These new concepts and associated mathematical formulation are demonstrated using a case study on the removal of a chlorinated hydrocarbon. This approach has benefits over conventional recycle/reuse (such as MEN synthesis).

  7. Resource allocation using risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T. F.; Eisenhawer, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Allocating limited resources among competing priorities is an important problem in management. In this paper we describe an approach to resource allocation using risk as a metric. We call this approach the Logic-Evolved Decision (LED) approach because we use logic-models to generate an exhaustive set of competing options and to describe the often highly complex model used for evaluating the risk reduction achieved by different resource allocations among these options. The risk evaluation then proceeds using probabilistic or linguistic input data.

  8. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  9. Effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring of automated systems.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, R; Mouloua, M; Molloy, R

    1996-12-01

    The effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring for automation failure during multitask flight simulation were examined. Participants monitored an automated engine status task while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks over three 30-min sessions. Two methods of adaptive task allocation, both involving temporary return of the automated engine status task to the human operator ("human control"), were examined as a possible countermeasure to monitoring inefficiency. For the model-based adaptive group, the engine status task was allocated to all participants in the middle of the second session for 10 min, following which it was again returned to automation control. The same occurred for the performance-based adaptive group, but only if an individual participant's monitoring performance up to that point did not meet a specified criterion. For the nonadaptive control groups, the engine status task remained automated throughout the experiment. All groups had low probabilities of detection of automation failures for the first 40 min spent with automation. However, following the 10-min intervening period of human control, both adaptive groups detected significantly more automation failures during the subsequent blocks under automation control. The results show that adaptive task allocation can enhance monitoring of automated systems. Both model-based and performance-based allocation improved monitoring of automation. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix to Subtitle A - United States Railway Association-Employee Responsibilities and Conduct

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States Railway Association-Employee... Subtitle A, App. Appendix to Subtitle A—United States Railway Association—Employee Responsibilities and... United States Railway Association (the Association). The standards and requirements are appropriate...

  14. The School Car: Bringing the Three R's to Newfoundland's Remote Railway Settlements (1936-1942).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noseworthy, Randy P.

    During the mid-1930s, the main line of the Newfoundland (Canada) Railway stretched 547 miles from St. John's to Port aux Basques, and railway workers and their families lived along the line in small isolated settlements. The provincial department of education, the Newfoundland Railway, and the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company devised an…

  15. Some engineering and mathematical aspects in the design of heavy goods railway lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Although railway is one of the best environmentally transportation for goods and passengers, large parts of the railway sector is striving to increase the capacity and punctuality, see [1]. In this paper we discuss some practical and theoretical aspects of a research connected to design of heavy goods railway lines.

  16. Motion-based object tracking method for safety at level crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmane, Houssam; Khoudour, Louahdi; Ruichek, Yassine

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a tracking method to detect and track independently moving targets, attempting to traverse the railway, in monocular camera sequences. This method is capable of tracking the maximum number of pixels belonging to an object. The method starts by detecting and separating moving objects due to background subtraction and an energy vector-based clustering. Next, the method performs the step of tracking locally. Tracking starts by generating initial optical flow of all object pixels by propagating the optical flow of Harris corner points (calculated by Lucas-Kanade technique) using normal distribution. An iterative procedure, including Kalman filtering with adaptive parameters, color intensity difference-based optimization, and validation constraints, is then implemented to reach precise and robust optical flow estimation for the majority of the pixels of the tracked objects. Different experimental results are presented, evaluated, and discussed to show the effectiveness of the method of tracking objects that may move in complex and overlapping trajectories.

  17. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  18. Development of a wear model for the wheel profile optimisation on railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignesti, M.; Innocenti, A.; Marini, L.; Meli, E.; Rindi, A.

    2013-09-01

    The modelling and the reduction of wear due to wheel-rail interaction is a fundamental aspect in the railway field, mainly correlated to safety, maintenance interventions and costs. In this work, the authors present two innovative wheel profiles, specifically designed with the aim of improving the wear and stability behaviour of the standard ORE S1002 wheel profile matched with the UIC60 rail profile canted at 1/20 rad, which represents the wheel-rail combination adopted in the Italian railway line. The two wheel profiles, conventionally named CD1 and DR2, have been developed by the authors in collaboration with Trenitalia S.p.A. The CD1 profile has been designed with the purpose of spreading the contact points in the flange zone on a larger area in order to reduce wear phenomena and having a constant equivalent conicity for small lateral displacements of the wheelset with respect to the centred position in the track. The DR2 wheel profile is instead designed to guarantee the same kinematic characteristics of the matching formed by ORE S1002 wheel profile and UIC60 rail profile with laying angle α p equal to 1/40 rad, widely common in European railways and characterised by good performances in both wear and kinematic behaviour. The evolution of wheel profiles due to wear has been evaluated through a wear model developed and validated by the authors in previous works. The wear model comprises two mutually interactive units: a vehicle model for the dynamic simulations and a model for the wear assessment. The whole model is based on a discrete process: each discrete step consists in one dynamic simulation and one profile update by means of the wear model while, within the discrete step, the profiles are supposed to be constant. The choice of an appropriate step is crucial in terms of precision and computational effort: the particular strategy adopted in the current work has been chosen for its capacity in representing the nonlinear wear evolution and for the low

  19. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  20. Development of an Evaluation System for Vertical Vibration of Railway Vehicles with Field-Portable Actuators (2nd Report, Excitation Tests of an Actual Commuter Vehicle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigami, Tadao; Tomioka, Takahiro

    Bending vibration characteristics of railway vehicles have been investigated in general under excitation tests, in which a carbody was directly excited by a shaker. It is however very difficult with their results to evaluate the ride quality of passengers under conditions that the vehicle runs on a certain track. The authors are therefore developing an evaluation system for vertical vibration of railway vehicles. This system consists of an excitation system equipped with linear actuators, the elastic supporting device installed between wheels and rails, and analytical techniques to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) and the ride quality level (LT) which feature the ride quality. In this paper, we describe the excitation tests performed using an actual commuter car and the estimated PSD and LT are compared with what substantially measured under the running conditions.

  1. Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Elberink, S.; Khoshelham, K.; Arastounia, M.; Diaz Benito, D.

    2013-10-01

    We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

  2. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  3. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machelski, Czesław

    2015-12-01

    The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness) become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces), as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell's span, geometry (static scheme) and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure's characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  4. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  5. Determinants of sleepiness at work among railway control workers.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Teresa; Carvalhais, José; Neto, Catarina; Teles, Júlia; Noriega, Paulo; Rebelo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades the control of the Portuguese railway network has become much more centralized in three centres, there integrating the functions of route flow management, electrical control and signalling. This study aimed to investigate the influence of work and individual determinants in sleepiness among railway control workers, namely socio-demographic factors, work ability, psychosocial factors, shiftwork characteristics, fatigue perception, and sleep. Sleepiness by shift was associated with quality of sleep, job satisfaction, fatigue perception, quantitative demands, and age. The results indicate a high prevalence of sleepiness during the night shift and show the relevance of the quality of sleep as a predictor in the three models of sleepiness for morning, afternoon and night shifts. This study, done at the major Portuguese railway control centre, alerted managers to the importance of schedule planning as well as sleepiness prevention plans and makes these results a reference for future research.

  6. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  7. The socio-environmental determinants of railway suicide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Railway suicide has significant adverse impacts for the victims, their family and friends, witnesses to the incident, general public and train network. There is no previous review on the socio-environmental factors and railway suicide. The research question asked in this review was: ‘What socio-environmental risk and protective predictors are significantly associated with railway suicide?’ Methods The review searched Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Scopus for English-language studies that assessed the associations between socio-environmental (i.e. geographical, physical, economic and social) factors and railway suicide from their inception to June 2013. It was reported based on the PRISMA Statement. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. They were categorised into railway environments (availability of railways and trains, accessibility to railways and familiarity with trains), population characteristics and impact of media reporting. Findings from ecological studies using population level railway suicide data suggested weak and inconsistent evidence for the first two categories. The evidence on the impact of media reporting was moderately strong, with irresponsible media reporting being associated with an increased risk of railway suicide. Conclusions There is a need for further research activity to strengthen evidence about socio-environmental risk factors for railway suicide. The focus of this research should be on the factors that determine individuals’ decisions of using the railway as a method of suicide, with the consideration of a range of geographical, physical, social, and economic factors. PMID:24405530

  8. [The diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport].

    PubMed

    Molodtsov, R N; Shemetova, G N

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the epidemiologic and medical social aspects of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport in 2000-2010 exemplified by Privolzhskiy railroad. The established tendencies in prevalence of pathology of cardio-vascular system in railroad workers makes the issues of practical implementation of priority of prevention in the organization of medical care to this group of patients to come to foreground. The main directions for complex prevention of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport are presented.

  9. [Biosafety at the railway transport objects of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Kas'kov, Iu N; Podkorytov, Iu I; Kas'kova, O Iu

    2010-01-01

    The results of a microbiological investigation of drinking water quality were analyzed. Water samples taken from the centralized and noncentralized water supply sources failed to meet hygienic standards in 14-18% of cases and those from water tubes did in 4-6%. Water samples from the household and community water use reservoirs showed the excess of the allowable levels of lactose-positive colibacilli and coliphages, which were 46.5 +/- 16.8 and 10.6 +/- 6.8% per dm3, respectively. L. pneumophila strains were isolated from the drinking water of railway carriages. Proposals are given to improve railway sociohygienic monitoring.

  10. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  11. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions.

  12. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  13. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  14. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Methods Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. Results The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Conclusions Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However

  15. Psychological reactions of drivers to railway suicide.

    PubMed

    Tranah, T; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    Around 90 London Underground train drivers experience a person jumping or falling in front of their train each year. The majority of these incidents are suicides or attempted suicides. 76 drivers were interviewed in order to assess the range of responses to these incidents. The following psychometric instruments were used: Present State Examination (PSE9); Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Interview; General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28); Impact of Events Scale (IES); Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale; Recent Difficulties/Events scale; Perceived Stress Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). When interviewed 1 month after the incident 13 (17.11%) drivers presented with PTSD. Diagnoses other than PTSD e.g. neurotic depression and phobic state were present in 24 (31.58%) drivers (including 12 of the 13 PTSD cases who had one additional diagnosis). On the basis of diagnoses three groups were identified: Group 1 drivers had PTSD and in most cases an additional PSE9 diagnosis; Group 2 drivers had a PSE9 diagnosis only; Group 3 drivers were not cases. 56 drivers were again interviewed 6 months after the incident to assess duration of caseness and/or symptoms and to identify any cases of delayed onset. Two drivers were still cases at 6 months (neurotic depression and phobic state), no driver presented with PTSD at 6 months. At 6 months there was a significant drop in symptom scores compared with measures taken at 1 month. These results suggest that although approximately one-third of drivers suffered a severe psychological reaction following a railway suicide, when interviewed again 6 months after the incident most drivers reported a marked reduction in symptoms.

  16. A Case Study on a Trial Site in Western Austria to Assess Benefits of Railway Lineside Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Lineside vegetation along railways can provide a wide range of ecosystem services and benefits. At the same time, there are several specific demands on the vegetation systems ensuring maintenance of highest standards of safety and operational performance. As a first step of the study, these demands on lineside vegetation but also their potentials for both rail specific internal and external benefits were summarized. For further analyses a case study was performed. A trial site, located in Austriás western federal state of Vorarlberg, was selected. The overall trial corridor was 22 km long and offered a large diversity in geomorphology, embankment types and surrounding land cover. A GIS-based classification of location types was conducted by using available open source geodata. Additionally, images, taken every fifty meters by a camera, mounted on a locomotive, supported the classification process. Following parameter were assessed: type of the track body, geomorphology, site conditions, technical facilities and surrounding land cover. Along railway infrastructure facilities, ecosystem services, provided by the lineside vegetation, are closely associated with improvement of the stability and resilience of embankments and cuttings. At the same time, specific criteria that must be fulfilled at every location type. These are safety and technical issues, such as keeping the railway clearance profile, economical issues respectively avoiding additional maintenance costs by strong plant growth. Supplementary ecosystem services are strongly related to the position in the landscape and the surrounding land cover. Along urban structures, that can be noise- or sight protection, provided by the lineside vegetation. On location types along agricultural land, lineside vegetation can provide ecological corridors or enhance the landscape structure. In this context, ecosystem services were derived to the previously assigned location types. The result of the case study is a GIS

  17. [The health promotion of the employees of the railway transport].

    PubMed

    Kudel'kina, N A; Shchetinin, A N

    2008-01-01

    The newly developed methodological and technical approaches to the further enhancement of the actual railway transport health care system which is poorly effective in the nowadays social and economic conditions are exposed. The development of the organizational and functional pattern of the primary prevention of non-communicable diseases to promote professional health among railway employees. The priority targets are such key profession of the the railway transport as locomotive crew workers. The overall approach is declared on the basis of the preventive, regular and permanent application of the suite of "health promoting technologies" considering the professional and working conditions, the structure of morbidity, the characteristics of the individual health and life-style of the employees. The outcomes of the carried out preventive activities in the framework of the new functional and structural organization of the ambulatory polyclinical unit of the sectorial health care system demonstrated the trustworthy positive amelioration of health and quality of life among the employees of the railway transport.

  18. [Sanitary epidemiologic safety and technical regulations on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Leksin, A G

    2009-01-01

    The author necessitated that requirements on sanitary and epidemiologic safety of life support systems for engine driver cabin (microclimate maintainance system, protection from vibration and noise, illumination, workplace ergonomics, etc) should be included into technical regulations for railway vehicles, both newly constructed and modernized.

  19. [Epidemiological features and causes of railway traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Zhou, D S

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on epidemiological features of railway traffic accidents and factors influencing traffic safety. An analysis of various kinds of railway traffic accidents over 30 years in Nanjing Railway Branch, Showed that railway traffic accidents have become a sort of modern social disease, and had particular epidemiological features. The peak of the epidemic curve appeared cyclically and had a close relation to social disturbances, Frequency of accident occurrence was the highest in the first season (period of spring transport) and the third season (period of high temperature) of the year thus most accidents happen in February and August. Most accidents occurred on Fridays and least on Mondays. Distribution of accidents had obvious "antenna" phenomenon in round graph which had a 24-hour cycle. Analysing the multiple factors influencing traffic safety, the results showed that the upper-limit-age of a train driver should not be more than 50 years old; The phenomenon "bathtub" between personage accident rate and age must be taken seriously. More attention should be paid to the psychological aspects when recruiting train drivers. In our country, it is urgent to set up standard of psychomovement function for choosing train locomotive drivers. Fatigue was one of the direct causes resulting in accident occurrences. No statistical correlation was found between biorhythm and accident occurrence.

  20. Technological Support of Critical Parts for Railway Transport Working Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabets, A. V.; Gabets, D. A.; Markov, A. M.; Radchenko, M. V.; Leonov, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The materials of complex research of operational properties of a new brand cast iron CHMN-35M. Optimal chemical composition was determined. The obtained results allow to conclude about possibility of its use for the manufacture of critical parts of rolling stock of railway transport, in particular of a side bearing cap

  1. 40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, dated July 1937. (Microfiched drawings located at the Denver Service Center, #113/41906-set of 2) IMPROVEMENTS IN SEWAGE TREATMENT AND FILTER CHAMBER. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  2. Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, Penna." This device turned seaplanes ninety degrees in their movement between storage in the hangars (to the left, out of view) and the Delaware River used for take-offs and landings. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Marine Aviation Hangars, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  3. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  4. An Application of Wedelin's Method to Railway Crew Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Rei; Imaizumi, Jun; Fukumura, Naoto; Morito, Susumu

    So many scheduling problems arise in railway industries. One of the typical scheduling problems is Crew Scheduling Problem. Much attention has been paid to this problem by a lot of researchers, but many studies have not been done to the problems in railway industries in Japan. In this paper, we consider a railway crew scheduling problem in Japan. The problem can be formulated into Set Covering Problem (SCP). In SCP, a row corresponds to a trip representing a minimal task and a column corresponds to a pairing representing a sequence of trips performed by a certain crew. Many algorithms have been developed and proposed for it. On the other hand, in practical use, it is important to investigate how these algorithms behave and work on a certain problem. Therefore, we focus on Wedelin's algorithm, which is based on Lagrange relaxation and is known as one of the high performance algorithms for SCP, and mainly examine the basic idea of this algorithm. Furthermore, we show effectiveness of this procedure through computational experiments on instances from Japanese railway.

  5. View of top of Railway Express Building and roof of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of top of Railway Express Building and roof of loading dock, facing west from rooftop. View shows intersection of loading dock portion with two story section of building - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  7. Railway noise annoyance and the importance of number of trains, ground vibration, and building situational factors.

    PubMed

    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Ögren, Mikael; Jerson, Tomas; Öhrström, Evy

    2012-01-01

    Internationally accepted exposure-response relationships show that railway noise causes less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft noise. Railway transport, both passenger and freight transport, is increasing, and new railway lines are planned for environmental reasons. The combination of more frequent railway traffic and faster and heavier trains will, most probably, lead to more disturbances from railway traffic in the near future. To effectively plan for mitigations against noise and vibration from railway traffic, new studies are needed to obtain a better basis of knowledge. The main objectives of the present study was to investigate how the relationship between noise levels from railway traffic and general annoyance is influenced by (i) number of trains, (ii) the presence of ground borne vibrations, and (iii) building situational factors, such as orientation of balcony/patio and bedroom window. Socio-acoustic field studies were executed in residential areas; (1) with relatively intense railway traffic; (2) with strong vibrations, and; (3) with the most intense railway traffic in the country. Data was obtained for 1695 respondents exposed to sound levels ranging from L(Aeq,24h) 45 to 65 dB. Both number of trains and presence of ground-borne vibrations, and not just the noise level per se, are of relevance for how annoying railway noise is perceived. The results imply that, for the proportion annoyed to be equal, a 5 - 7 dB lower noise level is needed in areas where the railway traffic causes strong ground-borne vibrations and in areas with a very large number of trains. General noise annoyance was twice as high among residents in dwellings with balcony / patio oriented towards the railway and about 1.5 times higher among residents with bedroom windows facing the railway.

  8. Target detection and tracking in maritime surveillance mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabordo, Madeleine G.; Aboutanios, Elias

    2015-05-01

    Target detection and tracking is an important element of military operations. Military commanders and personnel have been allocating and continue to allocate resources into the assessment of platforms' performances in target detection, tracking, identification and classification to assist in decision making regarding the allocation of military assets for surveillance missions. We present an application of target detection and tracking by military aircraft in maritime surveillance mission. We modelled platforms' capabilities and targets' motion and performed simulations of the scenario. Performance of military aircraft is quantified by the time taken to complete the mission, the percentage of targets detected and the extent of surveillance completed. Results show that the joint operation of the UAVs and the helicopter gives better detection results than the sole performance of the helicopter.

  9. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  10. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  11. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  12. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  13. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Aiken Railway Company, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of... pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35665 must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395...

  14. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw... CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for an intra- corporate family transaction. Applicants state that both rail carriers... carrier corporations. This is a transaction within a corporate family of the type specifically...

  15. A trust-based sensor allocation algorithm in cooperative space search problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Sensor allocation is an important and challenging problem within the field of multi-agent systems. The sensor allocation problem involves deciding how to assign a number of targets or cells to a set of agents according to some allocation protocol. Generally, in order to make efficient allocations, we need to design mechanisms that consider both the task performers' costs for the service and the associated probability of success (POS). In our problem, the costs are the used sensor resource, and the POS is the target tracking performance. Usually, POS may be perceived differently by different agents because they typically have different standards or means of evaluating the performance of their counterparts (other sensors in the search and tracking problem). Given this, we turn to the notion of trust to capture such subjective perceptions. In our approach, we develop a trust model to construct a novel mechanism that motivates sensor agents to limit their greediness or selfishness. Then we model the sensor allocation optimization problem with trust-in-loop negotiation game and solve it using a sub-game perfect equilibrium. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the trust-based sensor allocation algorithm in cooperative space situation awareness (SSA) search problems.

  16. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  17. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  18. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  19. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  20. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  1. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  2. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  3. 40 CFR 96.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 96.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record...

  4. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  5. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  6. 40 CFR 97.353 - Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Tracking System § 97.353 Recordation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By September 30, 2007, the Administrator will record in the CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  7. Soil and plant contamination with heavy metals in the area of the old railway junction Tarnowskie Góry and near two main railway routes.

    PubMed

    Malawska, M; Wiłkomirski, B

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mo, Zn, Co, Cu) content was determined in soil and plant samples collected in the different areas of the railway junction Tarnowskie Góry, as well as, near two main railway routes, i.e. Warsaw-Gdańsk and Katowice-Gdynia. In Tarnowskie Góry soil and plant samples were collected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the rolling stock cleaning bay, platform area, railway siding and loading ramp. It was found that the contamination of soil and plants by heavy metal was the highest in loading ramp. A particularly high pollution level of copper was observed. The contamination level near the railway routes decreased accordingly to the distance from routes which suggests pollutant role of railway transport.

  8. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Railway axles are subjected to cyclic loading which can lead to fatigue failure. For safe operation of railway axles a damage tolerance approach taking into account a possible defect on railway axle surface is often required. The contribution deals with an estimation of residual fatigue lifetime of railway axle with initial inclined surface crack. 3D numerical model of inclined semi-elliptical surface crack in railway axle was developed and its curved propagation through the axle was simulated by finite element method. Presence of press-fitted wheel in the vicinity of initial crack was taken into account. A typical loading spectrum of railway axle was considered and residual fatigue lifetime was estimated by NASGRO approach. Material properties of typical axle steel EA4T were considered in numerical calculations and lifetime estimation.

  9. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas. PMID:24936948

  10. Railway crossing risk area detection using linear regression and terrain drop compensation techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-06-16

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas.

  11. Influence of tunnel and soil parameters on vibrations from underground railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Stanus, Y.; Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.

    2009-10-01

    A parametric study is performed to identify the key parameters which have an important influence on the generation and propagation of vibrations from underground railways. In this paper, the parameters related to the tunnel and the soil are considered and their influence on the free field response is studied. The coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model and the pipe-in-pipe model have been used for this study. Both models account for the dynamic interaction between the train, the track, the tunnel and the soil. A general analytical formulation is used to compute the response of three-dimensional invariant or periodic media that are excited by moving loads. The response to moving loads is written in terms of the axle loads and the transfer functions. The parametric study can be carried out by separately analyzing the variations in the axle loads and the transfer functions. The axle loads are mainly influenced by the parameters related to the vehicle and the track, while the transfer functions are influenced by the properties of the track, the tunnel and the soil. In the present paper, the parameters related to the tunnel and soil are investigated. It is observed that the material damping and the shear modulus of the soil have an important influence on the propagation of vibrations. The influence of structural changes to the tunnel as well as geometrical properties such as the size and shape of the tunnel is investigated. It is observed that a larger tunnel results in a smaller response above the tunnel as more energy is radiated downwards. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the tunnel geometry has a considerable influence on the response closer to the tunnel.

  12. The Safety Related Software for Railway Control with Respect to Automatic Level Crossing Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Trzaska-Rycaj, Katarzyna

    The paper deals with design problems of correct and high reliable software for railway traffic control systems. The correct software (corresponding to formal or semi-formal criteria) has an important part in safety related (SIL4) railway control systems. The paper treats about actual state of art in design of safety related software for railway application. The proposed methods, recommended by CENELEC and UIC are introduced to example of automatic level crossing signaling system.

  13. [Effects of the nature of work on the health status of traffic controllers of railway transport].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Kudrin, V A; Ovechkina, Zh V

    1995-01-01

    The work of railway traffic controllers involves emotional strain and, hence, is associated with a rather high morbidity. Circulatory disorders occurred in this population 1.9 times more frequently and gastrointestinal disturbances 2.2 times more often than in other workers of railway transport. These data necessitated development of sanitary and hygienic recommendations aimed at improvement of the working conditions for railway traffic controllers.

  14. [Occupational hygiene of railway transport workers as a specific branch of occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Iu N; Suvorov, S V

    1992-01-01

    Occupational hygiene of the railway transport is a well defined sphere of knowledge. It is closely connected with the general occupational medicine and yet occupies a significant place in the railway medicine. Occupational medicine of the railway transport is based on results of sciences connected with each other and at the same time it serves for the favourable research is included sciences, such as occupational physiology and hygiene pathology, sanitary technics, chemistry, acoustics et al.

  15. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2016-04-20

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  16. [On the epidemic of cholera and its prevention and control by the railway authorities in 1932].

    PubMed

    Huang, H P; Song, M H

    2016-01-28

    In 1932, the epidemic of cholera in China was serious, spreading to all provinces nationwide, causing heavy casualties. In order to prevent cholera epidemics spread along the railway line, the National Government Ministry of Railways and the local railway administration had taken all countermeasures, including the promulgation of epidemic prevention laws and regulations, quarantine, isolated check-up, disinfection, vaccination and even interruption of traffic. The measures of railway authorities had achieved a certain success. In August 1932, cholera epidemic began to subside gradually.

  17. Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relation to proximity to railways.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, H O; Hammal, D M; Dummer, T J B; Parker, L; Bithell, J F

    2003-03-10

    We investigated whether living close to railway lines is a risk factor for childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in electoral wards in England and Wales, 1966-1987. The national rail network, 1966-1987, was digitised and the numbers of cases in each ward were related to two measures of environmental exposure to railways: a proximity and a density function, contributions to these functions being weighted by the frequency of use and time in use of each stretch of railway. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios in relation to these measures of exposure to railways, both unadjusted and adjusted for population mixing. We found no association between risk of leukaemia and railway proximity (unadjusted rate ratio for trend from the lowest to the median value=1.006, 95% CI: 0.998 - 1.013, P=0.14) and a very small association with railway density, of marginal statistical significance (rate ratio for trend=1.001, 95% CI: 1.000 - 1.003, P=0.05). This effect depended on two deprived, urban wards with high railway density and high population mixing and became nonsignificant (P=0.09) after allowing for population mixing. The very weak association between railway density and risk of childhood leukaemia is likely to be a consequence of the association between population mixing and proximity to railways in very deprived, urban wards.

  18. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY... conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, for schools and hospitals, shall be allocated... percent of all amounts allocated in any grant program cycle. No State will be allocated more than...

  19. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  20. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  1. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  2. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  3. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  4. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  5. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  6. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  7. Algorithms for optimal redundancy allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenkieboom, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heuristic and exact methods for solving the redundancy allocation problem are compared to an approach based on genetic algorithms. The various methods are applied to the bridge problem, which has been used as a benchmark in earlier work on optimization methods. Comparisons are presented in terms of the best configuration found by each method, and the computation effort which was necessary in order to find it.

  8. Wind tunnel analysis of the aerodynamic loads on rolling stock over railway embankments: the effect of shelter windbreaks.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Pindado, Santiago; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect.

  9. Wind Tunnel Analysis of the Aerodynamic Loads on Rolling Stock over Railway Embankments: The Effect of Shelter Windbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sanchez, Sergio; Lopez-Garcia, Oscar; Sanz-Andres, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Wind-flow pattern over embankments involves an overexposure of the rolling stock travelling on them to wind loads. Windbreaks are a common solution for changing the flow characteristic in order to decrease unwanted effects induced by the presence of cross-wind. The shelter effectiveness of a set of windbreaks placed over a railway twin-track embankment is experimentally analysed. A set of two-dimensional wind tunnel tests are undertaken and results corresponding to pressure tap measurements over a section of a typical high-speed train are herein presented. The results indicate that even small-height windbreaks provide sheltering effects to the vehicles. Also, eaves located at the windbreak tips seem to improve their sheltering effect. PMID:25544954

  10. Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

    A novel hydraulic brake pressure control (BPC) valve for the railway rolling stock was proposed in the part I of this study. As a second report, this paper is concerned with the dynamic analysis and the performance evaluation of the hydraulic brake system using the BPC valve. In order to analyze the behavior of the BPC valve, a simplified transfer function and a nonlinear model of the valve are derived respectively. By use of simple linear model, it is achieved to determine the initial values of essential parameter simply. In addition, it is also achieved to investigate overall dynamic performance of brake system and to evaluate the effect of design parameters through the numerical analysis using detailed nonlinear model. The validity of mathematical models is confirmed by experiments. Finally, the performance of the hydraulic brake system using newly manufactured BPC valve is confirmed with an actual braking device of the E2 series Shinkansen railway.

  11. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  12. 9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB"; Photo no. "11,381 57; G-AFFTC 18 SEPT 57". Test Area 1-115. Photo shows engine no. 712 pulling one car. The superstructure of Test Stand 1-4 is prominent in the background. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Predicting surface vibration from underground railways through inhomogeneous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh

    2012-04-01

    Noise and vibration from underground railways is a major source of disturbance to inhabitants near subways. To help designers meet noise and vibration limits, numerical models are used to understand vibration propagation from these underground railways. However, the models commonly assume the ground is homogeneous and neglect to include local variability in the soil properties. Such simplifying assumptions add a level of uncertainty to the predictions which is not well understood. The goal of the current paper is to quantify the effect of soil inhomogeneity on surface vibration. The thin-layer method (TLM) is suggested as an efficient and accurate means of simulating vibration from underground railways in arbitrarily layered half-spaces. Stochastic variability of the soil's elastic modulus is introduced using a K-L expansion; the modulus is assumed to have a log-normal distribution and a modified exponential covariance kernel. The effect of horizontal soil variability is investigated by comparing the stochastic results for soils varied only in the vertical direction to soils with 2D variability. Results suggest that local soil inhomogeneity can significantly affect surface velocity predictions; 90 percent confidence intervals showing 8 dB averages and peak values up to 12 dB are computed. This is a significant source of uncertainty and should be considered when using predictions from models assuming homogeneous soil properties. Furthermore, the effect of horizontal variability of the elastic modulus on the confidence interval appears to be negligible. This suggests that only vertical variation needs to be taken into account when modelling ground vibration from underground railways.

  14. Track-based event recognition in a realistic crowded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, Jasper R.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H.

    2014-10-01

    Automatic detection of abnormal behavior in CCTV cameras is important to improve the security in crowded environments, such as shopping malls, airports and railway stations. This behavior can be characterized at different time scales, e.g., by small-scale subtle and obvious actions or by large-scale walking patterns and interactions between people. For example, pickpocketing can be recognized by the actual snatch (small scale), when he follows the victim, or when he interacts with an accomplice before and after the incident (longer time scale). This paper focusses on event recognition by detecting large-scale track-based patterns. Our event recognition method consists of several steps: pedestrian detection, object tracking, track-based feature computation and rule-based event classification. In the experiment, we focused on single track actions (walk, run, loiter, stop, turn) and track interactions (pass, meet, merge, split). The experiment includes a controlled setup, where 10 actors perform these actions. The method is also applied to all tracks that are generated in a crowded shopping mall in a selected time frame. The results show that most of the actions can be detected reliably (on average 90%) at a low false positive rate (1.1%), and that the interactions obtain lower detection rates (70% at 0.3% FP). This method may become one of the components that assists operators to find threatening behavior and enrich the selection of videos that are to be observed.

  15. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  16. Red-light traffic enforcement at railway crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic witih smart vision systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. Embedded loop sensors can detect and count passing vehicles, radar can measure speed and presence of vehicles, and embedded vision systems or stationary camera systems can count vehicles and estimate the state of traffic along the road. This work presents a vision system which is targeted at detecting and reporting incidents at unsecured railways crossings. These crossings, even when guarded by automated barriers, pose a threat to drivers day and night. Our system is designed to detect and record vehicles which pass over the railway crossing by means of real-time motion analysis after the red light has been activated. We implement sparse optical flow in conjunction with motion clustering in order to detect critical events. We describe some modifications of the original Lucas Kanade optical flow method which makes our implementation faster and more robust compared to the original concept. In addition, the results of our optical flow method are compared with a HOG based vehicle detector which has been implemented and tested as an alternative methodology. The embedded system which is used for detection consists of a smart camera which observes one street lane as* well as the red light at the crossing. The camera is triggered by an electrical signal from the railway as soon ss a vehicle moves over th this line, image sequences are recorded and stored onboard the device.

  17. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  18. Robust optimisation of railway crossing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang; Markine, Valeri; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for improving the crossing (frog) geometry through the robust optimisation approach, wherein the variability of the design parameters within a prescribed tolerance is included in the optimisation problem. Here, the crossing geometry is defined by parameterising the B-spline represented cross-sectional shape and the longitudinal height profile of the nose rail. The dynamic performance of the crossing is evaluated considering the variation of wheel profiles and track alignment. A multipoint approximation method (MAM) is applied in solving the optimisation problem of minimising the contact pressure during the wheel-rail contact and constraining the location of wheel transition at the crossing. To clarify the difference between the robust optimisation and the normal deterministic optimisation approaches, the optimisation problems are solved in both approaches. The results show that the deterministic optimum fails under slight change of the design variables; the robust optimum, however, has improved and robust performance.

  19. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  20. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  1. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  2. [Sociomedical aspects of reduction of risk in the development of occupational diseases and industrial trauma in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Ivanov, V K; Kutovoĭ, V S

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the main constituents of occupational risk in railway workers, which are based on the sanitary and biomedical criteria of injury safety. Sociomedical aspects of the incidence of railway occupational diseases and injuries are discussed. A list of major occupational factors and causes that determine a high occupational risk in railway workers is given.

  3. 77 FR 56910 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Iowa Traction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rail Line of Iowa Traction Railroad Company Iowa Traction Railway Company (Iowa Railway), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Iowa Traction Railroad...

  4. 77 FR 61049 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Change in Operators Exemption-Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Change in Operators Exemption-- Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc. Iowa Traction Railway Company (Iowa Railway) \\1\\ has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iowa Traction Railroad Company (Iowa Railroad) to...

  5. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Assignment of Lease Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company--Assignment of Lease Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company and Sierra Northern Railway Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company...) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends...

  6. 77 FR 69929 - Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins-Continuance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins--Continuance in Control Exemption--Aiken Railway Company, LLC Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation (WCRS) and Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins (the Hawkins) (collectively, Applicants)...

  7. Railway track component condition monitoring using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buggy, S. J.; James, S. W.; Staines, S.; Carroll, R.; Kitson, P.; Farrington, D.; Drewett, L.; Jaiswal, J.; Tatam, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    The use of optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors to monitor the condition of safety critical rail components is investigated. Fishplates, switchblades and stretcher bars on the Stagecoach Supertram tramway in Sheffield in the UK have been instrumented with arrays of FBG sensors. The dynamic strain signatures induced by the passage of a tram over the instrumented components have been analysed to identify features indicative of changes in the condition of the components.

  8. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  9. Relationships Between Abrasion Index and Shape Properties of Progressively Abraded Dolerite Railway Ballasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okonta, F. N.

    2014-07-01

    Sub-angular-shaped aggregates are used as rail foundation ballasts and must remain sub-angular during their service life time to maintain particle-particle interlocking, in order to ensure the stability of the rail line and prevent accidents by derailment. Here, the screening of dolerite quarry aggregates for use as railway foundation ballasts was investigated by employing simple digital image and chart methods. The average particle size ( d 50), flakiness index (FI), Los Angeles abrasion index (LAAI), sphericity (SPH) and roundness (RND) were determined for two batches of dolerite ballasts from the Rooikraal quarry in Johannesburg and Ngagane quarry in Newcastle. Thirty samples from each of the two batches of ballast were analysed. The ballasts were progressively abraded using a Los Angeles abrasion device and were analysed after each cycle of abrasion. A decrease in d 50 and an increase in FI with increased number of abrasion cycles were observed for both batches of dolerite ballast. The difference in the chart and digital image values of RND and SPH were marginal before abrasion; however, these differences increased with each abrasion cycle. The LAAI, d 50, mean RND and mean SPH correlated significantly and were found to have high regression coefficients. Thus, statistical models are proposed for the non-destructive routine screening of in-place ballasts in order to track marginal changes in aggregate shapes, facilitate ballast replacement programmes and avoid rail line instability.

  10. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  11. 75 FR 82426 - Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company-Acquisition Exemption-Oklahoma Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company--Acquisition Exemption--Oklahoma Department of Transportation Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company (WTJR), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice...

  12. [Reasons for privileges for hard and hazardous work conditions in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Boiarchuk, I F; Elizarov, B B; Dorfman, A A

    1995-01-01

    Many railway occupations have special work conditions which considerably depend on peculiarities of work and therefore could not undergo hygienic regulation. The article gives examples of such occupations connected mostly with personal risk in railway traffic, marked work hardness, etc. Reasonable privileges and compensations are established for those occupations.

  13. [Application of AAS to detecting the influence of railway on the soil of navel orange garden].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Ai, Ying-Wei; Pei, Juan; L I, Wei; Zhou, Nan-Hua; Guo, Cong

    2010-06-01

    Railway transportation has boosted the economy of railway road area, meanwhile it brings some undesirable impacts on the environment of the railway road area. The quality of the fruits is directly related with the elements of the soil, so understanding the element contents of soil in navel oranges garden in the vicinity of railway is meaningful to the security of agriculture products and ecological conditions in the areas surrounding the railways. As a favorite fruit, navel orange is widely planted around the railway in the south China, especially in Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Jiangxi and Guizhou. The present paper studied the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Zn etc in the soil planting navel orange in the vicinity of Chengdu-Dazhou railway by AAS. The railway was built in 1997 and the research area was sited in Jintang county, Sichuan. The results showed that the contents of Pb and Mn in soil planting navel orange were significantly higher than those in the control soil, but the contents of Cd, Cu and Zn showed no significant difference.

  14. Mobility Experience of Persons with Visual Impairments in Indian Railway Station Environments.

    PubMed

    Raheja, Gaurav; Tyagi, Megha

    2016-01-01

    Mobility for persons with visual impairments in Indian railway stations poses multidimensional challenges for access to an inclusive travel experience. India is a home to about twenty million persons with diverse disabilities out of which about five million are persons with visual impairments. Diversity of passenger movements on a railway station including persons with visual impairments requires a Universal Design approach to respond to the accessibility issues in these contexts. This research study is based on a series of live on-site experiences conducted along with persons with visual impairments at New Delhi Railway Station. It also includes the generic studies carried out with other diversities of railway passengers including aging, gender and diverse physical abilities. It employs research methods like ethnography, focus group interactions and trace study to develop a deeper understanding of human and spatial parameters of mobility in railway station environments. A Universal Design perspective with a holistic understanding remains critical to the foundation of this research study. While it deals in specific requirements of persons with visual impairments, it also brings an illustration of handling diversity on a railway station from a unique Indian perspective. It concludes by highlighting and reinterpreting the Universal Design India Principles integrating the needs of persons with visual impairments in railway station environments. Brief recommendation for an inclusive mobility experience on railway station forms a vital part of this grounded research study.

  15. 77 FR 74914 - Decatur Junction Railway Co.; Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Illinois Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Decatur Junction Railway Co.; Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Line of Illinois Central Railroad Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Correction to notice of exemption. On October 11, 2012, Decatur Junction Railway Co. (DJR), a Class III ] rail carrier, filed...

  16. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  17. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  18. 75 FR 3523 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 22, 2009, BNSF Railway... Railroad Company (UP) over BNSF lines extending between BNSF milepost 10.2 at Tukwila, WA, and...

  19. 75 FR 12329 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial revocation of exemption... Railway Company (BNSF) to extend to December 18, 2010, the expiration date of the local trackage...

  20. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Central Illinois Railroad Company (CIRY) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY)...

  1. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  2. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  3. 78 FR 30395 - Grainbelt Corporation-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Grainbelt Corporation--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central Railroad Company By petition filed on February 28, 2013, Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC... arrangements between grantee GNBC and grantors BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) and Stillwater Central...

  4. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  5. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  6. 78 FR 2482 - Carload Express, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Ohio Terminal Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carload Express, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Ohio Terminal... 1180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC), upon OTRC's becoming a... to a concurrently filed verified notice of exemption in Ohio Terminal Railway...

  7. 75 FR 75545 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., Knoxville & Northern Railway Company, Cincinnati Inter- Terminal Railroad Company, and Tylerdale Connecting... & Northern Railway Company (AKNR), Cincinnati Inter-Terminal Railroad Company (CIT), and Tylerdale Connecting... Eastern Terminal, 360 I.C.C. 60 (1979). If the notice contains false or misleading information,...

  8. 78 FR 2483 - Ohio Terminal Railway Company-Operation Exemption-Hannibal Real Estate, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ohio Terminal Railway Company--Operation Exemption--Hannibal Real Estate, LLC Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under... verified notice of exemption in Carload Express, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Ohio...

  9. A graph model for preventing railway accidents based on the maximal information coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fubo; Li, Keping

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors influences railway safety. It is an important work to identify important influencing factors and to build the relationship between railway accident and its influencing factors. The maximal information coefficient (MIC) is a good measure of dependence for two-variable relationships which can capture a wide range of associations. Employing MIC, a graph model is proposed for preventing railway accidents which avoids complex mathematical computation. In the graph, nodes denote influencing factors of railway accidents and edges represent dependence of the two linked factors. With the increasing of dependence level, the graph changes from a globally coupled graph to isolated points. Moreover, the important influencing factors are identified from many factors which are the monitor key. Then the relationship between railway accident and important influencing factors is obtained by employing the artificial neural networks. With the relationship, a warning mechanism is built by giving the dangerous zone. If the related factors fall into the dangerous zone in railway operations, the warning level should be raised. The built warning mechanism can prevent railway accidents and can promote railway safety.

  10. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  11. 75 FR 11993 - Grainbelt Corporation-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Grainbelt Corporation--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway... it pertains to supplemental trackage rights granted to Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC) by BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) and Stillwater Central Railroad Company (SLWC) to permit the trackage rights to expire...

  12. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  13. 75 FR 10341 - Montoff Transportation Company, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...] Montoff Transportation Company, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Montoff Transportation Company, LLC (Montoff), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) its right to reactivate rail service on a 42.80-mile...

  14. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  15. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  16. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  17. Railway suicide: the psychological effects on drivers.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; Tranah, T; O'Donnell, I; Catalan, J

    1992-05-01

    People have jumped (or fallen) in front of trains on the London Underground system in increasing numbers throughout the twentieth century. During the past decade there have been about 100 such incidents each year, of which around 90 would involve the train driver witnessing his train strike the person on the track. Most are suicides or attempts at suicide. They represent major unexpected and violent events in the lives of the train drivers and it might be expected that some of them would respond by developing a post-traumatic stress reaction of the type identified by Horowitz (1976) or other adverse psychological reactions or both. The research reported in this paper was designed to characterize the range of responses of drivers to the experiences of killing or injuring members of the public during the course of their daily work. It was found that 16.3% of the drivers involved in incidents did develop post-traumatic stress disorder and that other diagnoses, e.g. depression and phobic states, were present in 39.5% of drivers when interviewed one month after the incident.

  18. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  19. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  20. A new semi-active safety control strategy for high-speed railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin; Xu, Zhengguo; Sun, Youxian

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the safety of railway vehicles. A new semi-active control strategy is proposed based on the skyhook control theory. In view of the main railway vehicle safety performance indicators, the new control strategy aims at reducing the derailment coefficient of railway vehicles by restraining the lateral vibrations of the bogie and the wheelset. Furthermore, to evaluate the improvement of the safety performance brought about by the new control strategy, a complete railway vehicle model is established using the ADAMS/Rail software package. In further co-simulations, five conventional control methods are compared with the proposed approach under the same conditions. Co-simulation results indicate that the new control strategy is effective in improving the safety performance of railway vehicles.

  1. [Railway medical hygiene and health protection system in Croatia between 1945 and 1953].

    PubMed

    Lajnert, Sinisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system of medical hygiene and health care adopted by the Croatian section of Yugoslav Railways in the aftermath of World War Two until 1953, based on archival information. In 1945, the human resources section of the Railway Administration in Zagreb included the Department of Social Welfare with offices that managed health insurance in cases of illness and accidents, workers' pension fund, and sanitary care‥ On 19 June 1947, the regional railway executive board established a medical section within the so called Secretariat and appointed Dr Marijan Derkos as its head. On 3 July 1948, central and regional healthcare offices for traffic staff were established to manage and oversee the activities of health institutions providing services for railway workers. The seat of the regional office in Zagreb was in Grgurova street. After the dismantlement of the central healthcare office in charge of railway health institutions in 1953, regional boards established new institutions, that were now self-financed.

  2. A Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach for Railway Corridor Ground Hazard Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromer, Ryan; Hutchinson, Jean; Lato, Matt; Gauthier, Dave; Edwards, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing and monitoring ground hazard processes is a difficult endeavor along mountainous transportation corridors. This is primarily due to the quantity of hazard sites, complex topography, limited and sometimes hazardous access to sites, and obstructed views. The current hazard assessment approach for Canadian railways partly relies on the ability of inspection employees to assess hazard from track level, which isn't practical in complex slope environments. Various remote sensing sensors, implemented on numerous platforms have the potential to be used in these environments. They are frequently found to be complementary in their use, however, an optimum combination of these approaches has not yet been found for an operational rail setting. In this study, we investigate various cases where remote sensing technologies have been used to characterize and monitor ground hazards along railway corridors across the Canadian network, in order to better understand failure mechanisms, identify hazard source zones and to provide early warning. Since early 2012, a series of high resolution gigapixel images, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Aerial laser scanning (ALS), ground based photogrammetry, oblique aerial photogrammetry (from helicopter and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms), have been collected at ground hazard sites throughout the Canadian rail network. On a network level scale, comparison of sequential ALS scanning data has been found to be an ideal methodology for observing large-scale change and prioritizing high hazard sites for more detailed monitoring with terrestrial methods. The combination of TLS and high resolution gigapixel imagery at various temporal scales has allowed for a detailed characterization of the hazard level posed by the slopes, the identification of the main failure modes, an analysis of hazard activity, and the observation failure precursors such as deformation, rockfall and tension crack opening. At sites not feasible for ground

  3. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  4. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  5. [Current tasks concerning occupational diseases in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Tsfasman, A Z

    1995-01-01

    The article deals with prevalence and structure of occupational diseases in railway workers, related diagnostic problems and major tasks in this sphere. Pulmonary diseases due to dust and vibration disease appeared to prevail in the morbidity structure, then in descending order come locomotion disorders, peripheral neural illnesses, intoxications, auditory neuritis caused by noise and skin diseases. Diagnosis of the occupational diseases lags behind their actual prevalence. Foremost tasks in this sphere are better diagnosis of the diseases, further studies of the most topical entities and practical accomplishment of scientific advances in primary and secondary prophylaxis.

  6. [Morbidity with temporary disability in railway tunnel workers].

    PubMed

    Kudrin, V A; Prokhorov, A A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents data on the health status of a large professional group of transport building workers--those who build BAM railway tunnels and those who build Moscow and Saint Petersburg underground stations. Major factors that are associated with underground work and that form the level of morbidity with temporary disability are identified. Respiratory, osteomuscular, digestive diseases, accidents, intoxications, and injuries are predominant in the structure of temporary disability. Lines of better organization of therapeutical-and-prophylactic aid to this contingent are defined.

  7. Development of Broadband Telecommunication System for Railways using Laser Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Shingo; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Tatsui, Daisuke; Seki, Kiyotaka; Haruyama, Shinichiro; Teraoka, Fumio

    We developed a high-speed telecommunication system applicable to railways, to improve customer service and efficiency of operator's telecommunication between the ground facilities and trains under operations. We manufactured a mobile telecommunication system, capable of recording the transfer rate of 1Gbps in theory by applying the laser beam communication technology. We carried out a field test using trains in active service, and obtained the result of the transfer rate of approximately 700Mbps on the TCP layer between the ground and the train running at a speed of approximately 130km/h.

  8. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting...: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the... page, investor letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this...

  9. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  10. Development of a vehicle-track model assembly and numerical method for simulation of wheel-rail dynamic interaction due to unsupported sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Ahmed, A. K. W.; Rakheja, Subhash; Khajepour, Amir

    2010-12-01

    In practice, it is not very uncommon to find railway track systems with unsupported sleepers due to the uneven settlement of a ballasted track system. These unsupported sleepers are among the major vibration excitations for a train and track system when a train moves forwards on a track. The vibration induced by unsupported sleepers can cause a large dynamic contact force between wheels and rails. For heavily loaded high-speed trains, the deteriorated sleeper support may lead to accelerated degradation of the railway track and vehicle components, and may thus impose safety risk to the operation. This paper presents analyses of a coupled vehicle-track assembly consisting of a roll plane vehicle model, a continuous track system model and an adaptive wheel-rail contact model. In order to improve the simulation efficiency, a numerical approach based on the central finite difference method is proposed in this investigation. The developed model assembly and proposed simulation method are utilised to simulate the vehicle-track dynamic interaction in the presence of unsupported sleepers. The dynamic response in terms of the dynamic wheel-rail interaction force due to one or multiple unsupported sleepers is studied. Important factors influencing the dynamic wheel-rail interaction force in the presence of sleeper voids are also investigated. The results show that the vehicle speed, the gap size and the number of unsupported sleepers primarily dictate the magnitude of impact load which can be significant.

  11. Effects of Exposure to Railway NOISE—A Comparison Between Areas with and Without Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents some of the results of field investigations on effects of exposure to noise and vibration from railway traffic. Effects on annoyance, sleep disturbances and psycho-social well-being as well as disturbance of different activities were evaluated by a postal questionnaire. Fifteen different sites located near railway lines in Sweden were investigated. The study covered areas with different number of trains per 24 hours in area with strong vibration caused by the railway traffic exceeding 2 mm/s as measured in the buildings as well as areas without vibration, or vibration weaker than 1 mm/s. 2833 persons between 18 and 75 years of age participated in the study. This paper presents only the results from two areas with and without vibration and a high number of trains per 24 hours. The results show that railway noise is experienced as more annoying in areas where there is simultaneous exposure to vibration from railway traffic. Disturbance of communication was the most frequently mentioned annoyance reaction, outside and inside the dwelling. To ensure an acceptable environmental quality where less than 5% of the exposed population is rather or very annoyed by railway noise, these noise levels must be below 80LAmaxand below 55LAeqin areas without vibration. In areas with simultaneous exposure to strong vibration, action against vibration or a longer distance between houses and the railway line is needed, corresponding to a 10 dB(A) lower noise level than in areas without vibration.

  12. Effect of situational, attitudinal and demographic factors on railway vibration annoyance in residential areas.

    PubMed

    Peris, Eulalia; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Sharp, Calum; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    Railway induced vibration is an important source of annoyance among residents living in the vicinity of railways. Annoyance increases with vibration magnitude. However, these correlations between the degree of annoyance and vibration exposure are weak. This suggests that railway vibration induced annoyance is governed by more than just vibration level and therefore other factors may provide information to understand the wide variation in annoyance reactions. Factors coming into play when considering an exposure-response relationship between level of railway vibration and annoyance are presented. The factors investigated were: attitudinal, situational and demographic factors. This was achieved using data from field studies comprised of face-to-face interviews and internal vibration measurements (N = 755). It was found that annoyance scores were strongly influenced by two attitudinal factors: Concern of property damage and expectations about future levels of vibration. Type of residential area and age of the respondent were found to have an important effect on annoyance whereas visibility of the railway and time spent at home showed a significant but small influence. These results indicate that future railway vibration policies and regulations focusing on community impact need to consider additional factors for an optimal assessment of railway effects on residential environments.

  13. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  14. Inferential Aspects of Adaptive Allocation Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donald A.

    In clinical trials, adaptive allocation means that the therapies assigned to the next patient or patients depend on the results obtained thus far in the trial. Although many adaptive allocation procedures have been proposed for clinical trials, few have actually used adaptive assignment, largely because classical frequentist measures of inference…

  15. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  16. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  17. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  18. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  19. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  20. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  1. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  2. Resource Allocation: Ration, Fashion, or Innovashun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourens, Roy

    1986-01-01

    Resource allocation is a key factor in promoting or retarding innovation. In a restrictive economic climate, it is easy to use resource allocation for decremental rationing and to stifle innovative thinking. The technique can also be used to ensure that the institution's human resources are encouraged to identify opportunities for innovation. (MSE)

  3. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  4. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  5. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  6. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  7. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  8. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Congress appropriates less than $1.5 billion of HOME funds, $335,000 is substituted for $500,000. (4) The... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a... factors. The first and sixth factors are weighted 0.1; the other four factors are weighted 0.2....

  9. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  10. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information,...

  11. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  12. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  13. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  14. Projected 1998-99 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Edward

    Designed for use in calculating the distribution of state aid to colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) and in preparing financial and enrollment reports, this document provides a summary of projected cost allocations for the WTCS for 1998-99, derived from data submitted by the colleges on cost allocation schedules. Following a…

  15. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  16. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  17. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  18. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  19. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  20. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  1. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  2. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  3. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries will be established biennially or annually for certain species and... excluding set asides for recreational or tribal Indian fisheries) minus the allocation to the open...

  4. Human performance in a multiple-task environment: effects of automation reliability on visual attention allocation.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Ralph H; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic automation has been posited to alleviate the high demands of multiple-task environments; however, mixed effects have been found pertaining to performance aid success. To better understand these effects, attention allocation must be studied directly. We developed a multiple-task environment to study the effects of automation on visual attention. Participants interacted with a system providing varying levels of automation and automation reliability and then were transferred to a system with no support. Attention allocation was measured by tracking the number of times each task was viewed. We found that participants receiving automation allocated their time according to the task frequency and that tasks that benefited most from automation were most harmed when it was removed. The results suggest that the degree to which automation affects multiple-task performance is dependent on the relative attributes of the tasks involved. Moreover, there is an inverse relationship between support and cost when automation fails.

  5. A reduced-scale railway noise barrier's insertion loss and absorption coefficients: comparison of field measurements and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, T. A.; Nugent, R. E.

    2003-10-01

    In situ testing determined the insertion loss ( IL) and absorption coefficients of a candidate absorptive noise barrier (soundwall) to abate railway noise for residents of Anaheim, CA. A 4000 m barrier is proposed south of the tracks, but residential areas to the north have expressed concerns that barrier reflections will increase their noise exposure. To address these concerns, a 3.66 m high by 14.6 m long demonstration barrier was built in the parking lot of Edison Field, Anaheim, as part of a public open house, thereby allowing for acoustical measurements. Insertion loss ( IL) was measured in third-octave bands assuming 1/2-scale construction. The IL for three, scaled railway noise sub-sources (rail/wheel interface, locomotive, and train horn) was measured at six, scaled distances. The highest total, A-weighted IL, after corrections for finite-barrier and point-source speaker effects was 22 dB(A) for rail/wheel noise, 18 dB(A) for locomotive noise, and 20 dB(A) for train horn noise. These results can be compared favourably to IL predictions made using algorithms from the US Federal Rail Administration (FRA) noise assessment guidelines. For the actual barrier installation, shielded residential receivers located south of the project are expected to see their future noise exposures reduced from an unmitigated 78 CNEL to 65 CNEL. Absorption coefficients were measured using time delay spectrometry. At lower frequencies, measured absorption coefficients were notably less than the reverberation room results advertised in the manufacturer's literature, but generally conformed with impedance tube results. At higher frequencies the correspondence between measured absorption coefficients and reverberation room results was much improved. For the actual barrier installation, unshielded residential receivers to the north are expected to experience noise exposure increases of less than 1 dB(A). This factor of increase is consistent with a finding of no impact when assessed

  6. Edge-filter technique and dominant frequency analysis for high-speed railway monitoring with fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Kinet, Damien; Mendoza, Edgar; Dupuy, Julien; Moeyaert, Véronique; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Structural health and operation monitoring are of growing interest in the development of railway networks. Conventional systems of infrastructure monitoring already exist (e.g. axle counters, track circuits) but present some drawbacks. Alternative solutions are therefore studied and developed. In this field, optical fiber sensors, and more particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, are particularly relevant due to their immunity to electromagnetic fields and simple wavelength-division-multiplexing capability. Field trials conducted up to now have demonstrated that FBG sensors provide useful information about train composition, positioning, speed, acceleration and weigh-in-motion estimations. Nevertheless, for practical deployment, cost-effectiveness should be ensured, specifically at the interrogator side that has also to be fast (>1 kHz repetition rate), accurate (∼1 pm wavelength shift) and reliable. To reach this objective, we propose in this paper to associate a low cost and high-speed interrogator coupled with an adequate signal-processing algorithm to dynamically monitor cascaded wavelength-multiplexed FBGs and to accurately capture the parameters of interest for railway traffic monitoring. This method has been field-tested with a Redondo Optics Inc. interrogator based on the well-known edge-filter demodulation technique. To determine the train speed from the raw data, a dominant frequency analysis has been implemented. Using this original method, we show that we can retrieve the speed of the trains, even when the time history strain signature is strongly affected by the measurement noise. The results are assessed by complimentary data obtained from a spectrometer-based FBG interrogator.

  7. The Effects of Task Structure on Time-sharing Efficiency and Resource Allocation Optimality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, P. S.; Wickens, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    A distinction was made between two aspects of time sharing performance: time sharing efficiency and attention allocation optimality. A secondary task technique was employed to evaluate the effects of the task structures of the component time shared tasks on both aspects of the time sharing performance. Five pairs of dual tasks differing in their structural configurations were investigated. The primary task was a visual/manual tracking task which requires spatial processing. The secondary task was either another tracking task or a verbal memory task with one of four different input/output configurations. Congruent to a common finding, time-sharing efficiency was observed to decrease with an increasing overlap of resources utilized by the time shared tasks. Research also tends to support the hypothesis that resource allocation is more optimal when the time shared tasks placed heavy demands on common processing resources than when they utilized separate resources.

  8. Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  9. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  10. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research.

  11. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  12. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jack W.; Shields, Rob W; Valley, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  13. Consideration of nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces for dynamic vehicle-bridge interaction in high-speed railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolín, Pablo; Zhang, Nan; Goicolea, José M.; Xia, He; Astiz, Miguel Á.; Oliva, Javier

    2013-03-01

    In this work models with nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces are considered for analysing the dynamic interaction between high speed trains and bridges, in order to study dynamic effects both in the bridge and in the vehicles resulting from the coupling. Nonlinear contact models may be necessary for evaluating the stability and the safety of running traffic in situations such as vehicle overturn when the train is crossing a bridge under strong lateral winds or when an earthquake occurs. For studying the coupled dynamic response of trains and bridges, models of multibody dynamics are used for vehicles and the finite element method for structures. Special relevance is given here to the consideration of contact interaction forces between railway vehicles and the track. Four different interaction models are compared in this work: (1) a model where the vehicle wheelset is considered to be rigidly coupled to the track; (2) a staggered uncoupled method in which vehicle and structure are analysed separately; (3) a linear contact model in which lateral relative displacements between rails and train wheels are allowed, assuming biconic wheel and rail profiles and linear Kalker theory for tangential contact; (4) a nonlinear model in which realistic wheel and rail profiles, Hertz's nonlinear theory for normal contact and Kalker's nonlinear theory for tangential contact are used. The different models are applied and compared to experimental measurements for a test case of a high-speed train in China.

  14. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  15. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  16. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  17. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  18. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  19. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  20. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...