Science.gov

Sample records for raimo klli aldis

  1. Surface contribution to high-order aberrations using the Aldis therem and Andersen's algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Estardante, A.; Cornejo-Rodriguez, Alejandro

    1990-07-01

    Formulae and computer programs were developed for surface contributions to high order aberrations coefficients using the Aldis theorem and Andersen algor ithms for a symmetr ical optical system. 2. THEORY Using the algorithms developed by T. B. Andersent which allow to calculate the high order aberrations coefficients of an optical system. We were able to obtain a set of equations for the contributions of each surface of a centered optical system to such aberration coefficiets by using the equations of Andersen and the so called Aldis theorem 3. COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND EXAMPLES. The study for the case of an object at infinite has been completed and more recently the object to finite distance case has been also finished . The equations have been properly programed for the two above mentioned situations . Some typical designs of optical systems will be presented and some advantages and disadvantages of the developed formulae and method will be discussed. 4. CONCLUSIONS The algorithm developed by Anderson has a compact notation and structure which is suitable for computers. Using those results obtained by Anderson together with the Aldis theorem a set of equations were derived and programmed for the surface contributions of a centered optical system to high order aberrations. 5. REFERENCES 1. T . B. Andersen App 1. Opt. 3800 (1980) 2. A. Cox A system of Optical Design Focal Press 1964 18 / SPIE

  2. Method for Forming Copious (F sub 2(+))A Centers in Certain Stable, Broadly-Tunable Laser-Active Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    iodide, Rubidium iodide lithium crystals and other comparable crystalline materials , especially materials doped with lithium (Li). A principal object of...ion centers in Kl:Li and RbI:Li, or in comparable crystalline materials ; by growing, coloring, and annealing the K::Li or the RbI:Li crystals in nitrogen-free inert (e.g., argon) atmospheres.

  3. Breaking the Nordic Defense Deadlock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    11, pp. 117-142. 31. Pertti Suominen, Armeijan silmänä ja korvana—Tiedustelu- päällikkö Raimo Heiskanen (Chief of Intelligence Raimo Heiskanen — As...Sheehan several times and held several high-ranking positions in the Norwegian Armed Forces. 90. Mirva Heiskanen , “Kansliapäällikkö Arto Räty

  4. High order surface aberration contributions from phase space analysis of differential rays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Herkommer, Alois M

    2016-03-21

    Phase space methods are very popular for illumination systems or paraxial system analysis. In this paper it will be shown that it is also a promising tool to visualize and quantify surface aberration contributions, including all orders. The method is based on the calculation and propagation of a differential ray pair. In order to validate the method we compare to Aldis calculus, an exact method to determine high order aberrations in rotational symmetric systems. A triplet lens is used as an example to visualize the results. The analysis indicates that the phase space method is a very good approximation to Aldis calculus and moreover it is not limited to any symmetry assumptions.

  5. Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis (of Youth) Immunohistochemical and Serological Evidence for Another Clinical Presentation of Borrelia Infection in Patients of Western Austria.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Michael; Zelger, Bettina G; Emberger, Michael; Zelger, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth (ALDY) is a more recently described inflammatory disease of the skin of unknown etiology with clinical similarities to morphea. The authors clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically investigated 14 biopsies from 12 patients in western Austria with this disease. There were 6 female and 6 male patients with solitary (n = 7) and multiple lesions (n = 5) affecting the trunk (n = 11), upper arm (n = 2), thigh (n = 1), and calf (n = 1). Clinically, early lesions were erythematous in nature leading to central paleness, scaling, wrinkling, dermal atrophy, slight pigmentation, and telangiectasia later on. Histopathologically, all specimens showed the typical features of ALDY with a superficial lichenoid process with sprinkling of lymphocytes along the basal cell layer and within the epidermis accompanied by mild fibrosis. Pigment incontinence, superficial fibrosis, and dilatation of superficial capillary vessels are prominent features in more advanced stages of disease. Immunohistologically, using a polyclonal antibody against Borrelia, 11/14 specimens revealed spirochetes, either vital (n = 4) or degenerated (n = 7), in close proximity to collagen bundles. Thirteen of 14 specimens in addition showed focal (n = 4) or clustered (n = 9) positivity for CD20 in the papillary dermis. Nine of 12 sera tested for Borrelia with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were positive. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and morphea have previously been reported to be possibly related to Borrelia infection. We postulate that a similar relationship to Borrelia infection may be true for ALDY implying that ALDY may be an early superficial stage of morphea.

  6. Mobilizing Political Action on Behalf of Future Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Our failure to mobilize sufficient effort to fight climate change reflects a combination of political and economic forces, on both the national and the global level. To state the problem in its simplest terms, writes Joseph Aldy, future, unborn generations would enjoy the benefits of policies to reduce carbon emissions whereas the current…

  7. The Small Computer and Its Impact on the Field Grade Officer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Text, edited by William Aldis Wright. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1936. 6. Shakespeare , William. Macbeth (The Complete Works of William...Doulbeday & Company, Inc., 1930. 5. Shakespeare , William. A Midsummer Nights Dream (The Complete Works of William Skakespeare), The Cambridge Edition

  8. Black phosphorus-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of low-molecular-weight compounds in biofluids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Ding, Jun; Yu, Lei; Hussain, Dilshad; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of small molecules by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been a challenging task due to matrix-derived interferences in low m/z region and poor reproducibility of MS signal response. In this study, we developed an approach by applying black phosphorus (BP) as a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) matrix for the quantitative analysis of small molecules for the first time. Black phosphorus-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (BP/ALDI-MS) showed clear background and exhibited superior detection sensitivity toward quaternary ammonium compounds compared to carbon-based materials. By combining stable isotope labeling (SIL) strategy with BP/ALDI-MS (SIL-BP/ALDI-MS), a variety of analytes labeled with quaternary ammonium group were sensitively detected. Moreover, the isotope-labeled forms of analytes also served as internal standards, which broadened the analyte coverage of BP/ALDI-MS and improved the reproducibility of MS signals. Based on these advantages, a reliable method for quantitative analysis of aldehydes from complex biological samples (saliva, urine, and serum) was successfully established. Good linearities were obtained for five aldehydes in the range of 0.1-20.0 μM with correlation coefficients (R (2)) larger than 0.9928. The LODs were found to be 20 to 100 nM. Reproducibility of the method was obtained with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10.4 %, and the recoveries in saliva samples ranged from 91.4 to 117.1 %. Taken together, the proposed SIL-BP/ALDI-MS strategy has proved to be a reliable tool for quantitative analysis of aldehydes from complex samples. Graphical Abstract An approach for the determination of small molecules was developed by using black phosphorus (BP) as a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) matrix.

  9. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This third volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Han- through Miy-. Reports include: (1) Elementary Education Students' Memories of Mathematics in Family Context (Markku S. Hannula, Raimo Kaasila, Erkki…

  10. Bile pigments: newcomers to the cell signaling arena.

    PubMed

    Maines, Mahin D

    2003-01-01

    The article highlighted in this issue is "2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Accumulation of Biliverdin and Hepatic Peliosis in Rats," by Marjo Nittynen, Jouni T. Tuomisto, Seppo Auriola, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Paula Syrjälä, Ulla Simanainen, Matti Viluksela, and Jouko Tuomisto (pp. 112-123).

  11. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth: a separate entity or on the spectrum of mycosis fungoides? Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Trager, Jonathan D K; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M

    2015-06-01

    Annular lichenoid dermatitis (ALDY) is a rare dermatosis that is most often seen in children and young adults and is characterized by annular patches with raised borders, most frequently on the trunk and the groin. A distinct lichenoid tissue reaction involving the base of the rete, resulting in squared-off rete ridges, helps to differentiate this from other lichenoid dermatoses and mycosis fungoides (MF). Herein, we report an additional case of this condition in a 7-year-boy, whose biopsy exhibited the typical quadrangular rete alteration and also contained distinct aggregates of CD8+ lymphocytes, Langerhans cells and colloid bodies within the involved rete. A literature review with emphasis on the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis reveals additional clinical features of ALDY to potentially help differentiate this entity from annular presentations of mycosis fungoides.

  12. The Russian Way of War: Post Soviet Adaptations in the Russian Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    The Second Chechen War (Shrivenham: The Strategic and Combat Studies Institute (in association with The Conflict Studies Research Centre), 2000), 5...Combat Studies Institute (in association with The Conflict Studies Research Centre), 2000), 11. 106Anup Shah, “Crisis in Chechnya,” Global Issues...War, ed. Anne Aldis (Shrivenham: The Strategic and Combat Studies Institute (in association with The Conflict Studies Research Centre), 2000), 6

  13. A Multi-Objective Decision-Making Model for Resources Allocation in Humanitarian Relief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Ration Planning Appropriate Acceptability Food Quality/Safety Food Handling Supply Chain Management Distribution Food Security...relevant input and output variables, suitable objectives may become obvious. • Casual empiricism : objectives may be generated by observing people who are...attributes scales. (Keeney 1992; Kirkwood 1997; Raimo et al. 2002) • Natural vs Constructed: Natural attributes can be measured in natural scale (i.e

  14. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth ... and beyond: a series of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Sighinolfi, Pamela; Greco, Antonietta; Garagnani, Lorella; Conti, Andrea; Fantini, Fabrizio

    2009-05-01

    Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth (ALDY) is a clinico-pathologic entity described in children and young patients, clinically reminiscent of morphea, annular erythema, vitiligo or mycosis fungoides. We report on six patients presenting single or multiple lesions, distributed particularly on the flanks and abdomen, with clinical and histologic features consistent with ALDY. Two patients were young girls and four were adults males. Three patients received topical therapy and four showed complete resolution of the lesions after a 24-65 months follow-up. Analogously to the cases reported so far, immunohistochemistry showed a T cell infiltrate with a predominance of CD8+ lymphocytes, while T cell receptor rearrangement was absent in all cases. It seems appropriate to include annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth among the dermatoses with a lichenoid pattern. For the first time, we found that it can affect also adult patients, therefore we propose to rename the disease annular lichenoid dermatitis. The differential diagnosis with mycosis fungoides, especially in adult patients, is particularly crucial for their proper management and treatment.

  15. Preparation of nanofluids using laser ablation in liquid technique

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, P.X.; Soong, Yee

    2007-06-01

    In this work we report some results on thermal and transport properties of Ag-di water and Al-di water nanofluids that were prepared using Nd:yag laser to ablate Ag and Al in deionized water. The produced nanofluids were characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy and TEM analysis. Our results on the UV-VIS spectra of the generated nanofluids demonstrated that using laser ablation in liquid we could generate stable colloids containing well-dispersed nanosized particles without use of any dispersants or surface reactive reagents. For Ag-di water nanofluids, the particles were spherical and the majority of the particles were in the 9 – 21 nm range with some big ones 23 - 26nm in size. The results on Al showed that the amplitude of the UV-VIS absorption spectra of Al-di water changed with time indicating that the ablated Al species reacts with water to yield an amorphous gel that transforms to the crystallized aluminum hydroxides with different shapes and sizes. The shapes were fibrous, triangular, rectangular, spherical shapes and joining of two pieces of triangles. In fact, these triangular and rectangular shapes were indeed pyramidal structures and hexagonal prisms, respectively.

  16. Multilocus sequence typing confirms the close genetic interrelatedness of three distinct flavescence dorée phytoplasma strain clusters and group 16SrV phytoplasmas infecting grapevine and alder in Europe.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Guillaume; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Salar, Pascal; Bonnet, Patrick; Maixner, Michael; Marcone, Carmine; Boudon-Padieu, Elisabeth; Foissac, Xavier

    2007-06-01

    Vineyards of southern France and northern Italy are affected by the flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasma, a quarantine pathogen transmitted by the leafhopper of Nearctic origin Scaphoideus titanus. To better trace propagation of FD strains and identify possible passage between the vineyard and wild plant compartments, molecular typing of phytoplasma strains was applied. The sequences of the two genetic loci map and uvrB-degV, along with the sequence of the secY gene, were determined among a collection of FD and FD-related phytoplasmas infecting grapevine, alder, elm, blackberry, and Spanish broom in Europe. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses consistently indicated the existence of three FD phytoplasma strain clusters. Strain cluster FD1 (comprising isolate FD70) displayed low variability and represented 17% of the disease cases in the French vineyard, with a higher incidence of the cases in southwestern France. Strain cluster FD2 (comprising isolates FD92 and FD-D) displayed no variability and was detected both in France (83% of the cases) and in Italy, whereas the more-variable strain cluster FD3 (comprising isolate FD-C) was detected only in Italy. The clonal property of FD2 and its wide distribution are consistent with diffusion through propagation of infected-plant material. German Palatinate grapevine yellows phytoplasmas (PGY) appeared variable and were often related to some of the alder phytoplasmas (AldY) detected in Italy and France. Finally, phylogenetic analyses concluded that FD, PGY, and AldY were members of the same phylogenetic subclade, which may have originated in Europe.

  17. Multilocus Sequence Typing Confirms the Close Genetic Interrelatedness of Three Distinct Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma Strain Clusters and Group 16SrV Phytoplasmas Infecting Grapevine and Alder in Europe▿

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Guillaume; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Salar, Pascal; Bonnet, Patrick; Maixner, Michael; Marcone, Carmine; Boudon-Padieu, Elisabeth; Foissac, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Vineyards of southern France and northern Italy are affected by the flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasma, a quarantine pathogen transmitted by the leafhopper of Nearctic origin Scaphoideus titanus. To better trace propagation of FD strains and identify possible passage between the vineyard and wild plant compartments, molecular typing of phytoplasma strains was applied. The sequences of the two genetic loci map and uvrB-degV, along with the sequence of the secY gene, were determined among a collection of FD and FD-related phytoplasmas infecting grapevine, alder, elm, blackberry, and Spanish broom in Europe. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses consistently indicated the existence of three FD phytoplasma strain clusters. Strain cluster FD1 (comprising isolate FD70) displayed low variability and represented 17% of the disease cases in the French vineyard, with a higher incidence of the cases in southwestern France. Strain cluster FD2 (comprising isolates FD92 and FD-D) displayed no variability and was detected both in France (83% of the cases) and in Italy, whereas the more-variable strain cluster FD3 (comprising isolate FD-C) was detected only in Italy. The clonal property of FD2 and its wide distribution are consistent with diffusion through propagation of infected-plant material. German Palatinate grapevine yellows phytoplasmas (PGY) appeared variable and were often related to some of the alder phytoplasmas (AldY) detected in Italy and France. Finally, phylogenetic analyses concluded that FD, PGY, and AldY were members of the same phylogenetic subclade, which may have originated in Europe. PMID:17468266

  18. Spatio-temporal modelling of lightning climatologies for complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Thorsten; Umlauf, Nikolaus; Zeileis, Achim; Mayr, Georg J.; Schulz, Wolfgang; Diendorfer, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    This study develops methods for estimating lightning climatologies on the day-1 km-2 scale for regions with complex terrain and applies them to summertime observations (2010-2015) of the lightning location system ALDIS in the Austrian state of Carinthia in the Eastern Alps. Generalized additive models (GAMs) are used to model both the probability of occurrence and the intensity of lightning. Additive effects are set up for altitude, day of the year (season) and geographical location (longitude/latitude). The performance of the models is verified by 6-fold cross-validation. The altitude effect of the occurrence model suggests higher probabilities of lightning for locations on higher elevations. The seasonal effect peaks in mid-July. The spatial effect models several local features, but there is a pronounced minimum in the north-west and a clear maximum in the eastern part of Carinthia. The estimated effects of the intensity model reveal similar features, though they are not equal. The main difference is that the spatial effect varies more strongly than the analogous effect of the occurrence model. A major asset of the introduced method is that the resulting climatological information varies smoothly over space, time and altitude. Thus, the climatology is capable of serving as a useful tool in quantitative applications, i.e. risk assessment and weather prediction.

  19. Genetic diversity of European phytoplasmas of the 16SrV taxonomic group and proposal of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'.

    PubMed

    Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Salar, Pascal; Filippin, Luisa; Carle, Patricia; Angelini, Elisa; Foissac, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    In addition to the grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasmas, other members of taxonomic group 16SrV phytoplasmas infect grapevines, alders and species of the genera Clematis and Rubus in Europe. In order to investigate which phytoplasmas constitute discrete, species-level taxa, several strains were analysed by comparing their 16S rRNA gene sequences and a set of five housekeeping genes. Whereas 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values were >97.5 %, the proposed threshold to distinguish two 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa, phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequences of the tuf, rplV-rpsC, rplF-rplR, map and uvrB-degV genetic loci showed that two discrete phylogenetic clusters could be clearly distinguished. The first cluster grouped flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasmas, alder yellows (AldY) phytoplasmas, Clematis (CL) phytoplasmas and the Palatinate grapevine yellows (PGY) phytoplasmas. The second cluster comprised Rubus stunt (RS) phytoplasmas. In addition to the specificity of the insect vector, the Rubus stunt phytoplasma contained specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene. Hence, the Rubus stunt phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene was sufficiently differentiated to represent a novel putative taxon: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'.

  20. Predicting the Probability of Lightning Occurrence with Generalized Additive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabsic, Peter; Mayr, Georg; Simon, Thorsten; Zeileis, Achim

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the predictability of lightning in complex terrain. The main objective is to estimate the probability of lightning occurrence in the Alpine region during summertime afternoons (12-18 UTC) at a spatial resolution of 64 × 64 km2. Lightning observations are obtained from the ALDIS lightning detection network. The probability of lightning occurrence is estimated using generalized additive models (GAM). GAMs provide a flexible modelling framework to estimate the relationship between covariates and the observations. The covariates, besides spatial and temporal effects, include numerous meteorological fields from the ECMWF ensemble system. The optimal model is chosen based on a forward selection procedure with out-of-sample mean squared error as a performance criterion. Our investigation shows that convective precipitation and mid-layer stability are the most influential meteorological predictors. Both exhibit intuitive, non-linear trends: higher values of convective precipitation indicate higher probability of lightning, and large values of the mid-layer stability measure imply low lightning potential. The performance of the model was evaluated against a climatology model containing both spatial and temporal effects. Taking the climatology model as a reference forecast, our model attains a Brier Skill Score of approximately 46%. The model's performance can be further enhanced by incorporating the information about lightning activity from the previous time step, which yields a Brier Skill Score of 48%. These scores show that the method is able to extract valuable information from the ensemble to produce reliable spatial forecasts of the lightning potential in the Alps.

  1. Identification of ςB-Dependent Genes in Bacillus subtilis Using a Promoter Consensus-Directed Search and Oligonucleotide Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Petersohn, Anja; Bernhardt, Jörg; Gerth, Ulf; Höper, Dirk; Koburger, Torsten; Völker, Uwe; Hecker, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A consensus-directed search for ςB promoters was used to locate potential candidates for new ςB-dependent genes in Bacillus subtilis. Screening of those candidates by oligonucleotide hybridizations with total RNA from exponentially growing or ethanol-stressed cells of the wild type as well as a sigB mutant revealed 22 genes that required ςB for induction by ethanol. Although almost 50% of the proteins encoded by the newly discovered ςB-dependent stress genes seem to be membrane localized, biochemical functions have so far not been defined for any of the gene products. Allocation of the genes to the ςB-dependent stress regulon may indicate a potential function in the establishment of a multiple stress resistance. AldY and YhdF show similarities to NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases and YdbP to thioredoxins, supporting our suggestion that ςB-dependent proteins may be involved in the maintenance of the intracellular redox balance after stress. PMID:10482513

  2. An Observational Study on Aberrant Methylation of Runx3 With the Prognosis in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunna; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Bei; Xiao, Lili; Guo, Feng; Wei, Yueguang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss whether the methylation levels of Runx3 could be used as the early biomarker for predicting the prognosis in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) patients. A total of 200 subjects including 60 controls without CAG (Group 1), 70 patients with mild CAG (Group 2), and 70 patients with moderate and severe CAG (Group 3) were recruited for this cross-sectional investigation in the Department of Gastroenterology in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital from July 2013 to May 2014. The MlALDI-TOF-MS was used to measure the methylation levels of Runx3 in all of the subjects. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were chosen to determine the expression levels of Runx3. The correlations between methylation levels of Runx3 among these CAG patients and their prognosis were shown by logistic regression models. The results demonstrated that the methylation levels of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in Runx3 were higher in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05), whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of Runx3 were lower in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05). There were significantly negative correlations between the methylation levels of Runx3 with its expression and the healing prognosis of CAG patients. In brief, this study proved that the hypermethylation modifications of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in the promoter region of Runx3 could result in the down regulation of Runx3 expression to affect the prognosis of CAG. So the methylation levels of these CpG sites in Runx3 in the peripheral blood can be used as the biomarker for predicting the healing prognosis of CAG patients.

  3. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.