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Sample records for rainforest boundary dynamics

  1. Menispermaceae and the diversification of tropical rainforests near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Jacques, Frédéric M B; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Li, Hong-Lei; Lin, Li; Li, Rui-Qi; Liu, Yang; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2012-07-01

    • Modern tropical rainforests have the highest biodiversity of terrestrial biomes and are restricted to three low-latitude areas. However, the actual timeframe during which tropical rainforests began to appear on a global scale has been intensely disputed. Here, we used the moonseed family (Menispermaceae), an important physiognomic and structural component of tropical rainforests on a worldwide basis, to obtain new insights into the diversification of this biome. • We integrated phylogenetic, biogeographic and molecular dating methods to analyse temporal and spatial patterns of global diversification in Menispermaceae. • Importantly, a burst of moonseed diversification occurred in a narrow window of time, which coincides with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Our data also suggest multiple independent migrations from a putative ancestral area of Indo-Malay into other tropical regions. • Our data for Menispermaceae suggest that modern tropical rainforests may have appeared almost synchronously throughout the three major tropical land areas close to, or immediately following, the K-Pg mass extinction.

  2. Tropical Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  3. Tropical Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  4. Recruitment dynamics in a rainforest seedling community: context-independent impact of a keystone consumer.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter T; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Lake, P S

    2008-05-01

    The influence of keystone consumers on community structure is frequently context-dependent; the same species plays a central organising role in some situations, but not others. On Christmas Island, in the Indian Ocean, a single species of omnivorous land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis, dominates the forest floor across intact rainforest. We hypothesised that this consumer plays a key role in regulating seedling recruitment and in controlling litter dynamics on the island, independent of the type of vegetation in which it occurred. To test this hypothesis, we conducted crab exclusion experiments in two forest types on the island and followed the dynamics of seedling recruitment and litter processing for six years. To determine if these effects were likely to be general across the island, we compared land crab densities and seedling abundance and diversity at ten sites across island rainforest. Surveys across island rainforest showed that seedlings of species susceptible to predation by land crabs are consistently rare. Abundance and diversity of these species were negatively correlated to red crab abundance. Although red land crabs may be important determinants of seedling recruitment to the overstorey, differences in overstorey and seedling composition at the sites suggests that recruitment of vulnerable trees still occurs at a temporal scale exceeding that of this study. These "windows" of recruitment may be related to infrequent events that reduce the effects of land crabs. Our results suggest that unlike the context dependence of most keystone consumers in continental systems, a single consumer, the red land crab, consistently controls the dynamics of seedling recruitment across this island rainforest.

  5. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, A. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Wyper, P. F.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2017-03-01

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.

  6. 'Tales of Symphonia': extinction dynamics in response to past climate change in Madagascan rainforests.

    PubMed

    Virah-Sawmy, Malika; Bonsall, Michael B; Willis, Katherine J

    2009-12-23

    Madagascar's rainforests are among the most biodiverse in the world. Understanding the population dynamics of important species within these forests in response to past climatic variability provides valuable insight into current and future species composition. Here, we use a population-level approach to analyse palaeoecological records over the last 5300 years to understand how populations of Symphonia cf. verrucosa became locally extinct in some rainforest fragments along the southeast coast of Madagascar in response to rapid climate change, yet persisted in others. Our results indicate that regional (climate) variability contributed to synchronous decline of S. cf. verrucosa populations in these forests. Superimposed on regional fluctuations were local processes that could have contributed or mitigated extinction. Specifically, in the forest with low soil nutrients, population model predictions indicated that there was coexistence between S. cf. verrucosa and Erica spp., but in the nutrient-rich forest, interspecific effects between Symphonia and Erica spp. may have pushed Symphonia to extinction at the peak of climatic change. We also demonstrate that Symphonia is a good indicator of a threshold event, exhibiting erratic fluctuations prior to and long after the critical climatic point has passed.

  7. Squirmer dynamics near a boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Kenta; Gaffney, Eamonn A.

    2013-12-01

    The boundary behavior of axisymmetric microswimming squirmers is theoretically explored within an inertialess Newtonian fluid for a no-slip interface and also a free surface in the small capillary number limit, preventing leading-order surface deformation. Such squirmers are commonly presented as abridged models of ciliates, colonial algae, and Janus particles and we investigate the case of low-mode axisymmetric tangential surface deformations with, in addition, the consideration of a rotlet dipole to represent torque-motor swimmers such as flagellated bacteria. The resulting boundary dynamics reduces to a phase plane in the angle of attack and distance from the boundary, with a simplifying time-reversal duality. Stable swimming adjacent to a no-slip boundary is demonstrated via the presence of stable fixed points and, more generally, all types of fixed points as well as stable and unstable limit cycles occur adjacent to a no-slip boundary with variations in the tangential deformations. Nonetheless, there are constraints on swimmer behavior—for instance, swimmers characterized as pushers are never observed to exhibit stable limit cycles. All such generalities for no-slip boundaries are consistent with observations and more geometrically faithful simulations to date, suggesting the tangential squirmer is a relatively simple framework to enable predications and classifications for the complexities associated with axisymmetric boundary swimming. However, in the presence of a free surface, with asymptotically small capillary number, and thus negligible leading-order surface deformation, no stable surface swimming is predicted across the parameter space considered. While this is in contrast to experimental observations, for example, the free-surface accumulation of sterlet sperm, extensive surfactants are present, most likely invalidating the low capillary number assumption. In turn, this suggests the necessity of surface deformation for stable free-surface three

  8. Boundary detection via dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udupa, Jayaram K.; Samarasekera, Supun; Barrett, William A.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports a new method for detecting optimal boundaries in multidimensional scene data via dynamic programming (DP). In its current form the algorithm detects 2-D contours on slices and differs from other reported DP-based algorithms in an essential way in that it allows freedom in 2-D for finding optimal contour paths (as opposed to a single degree of freedom in the published methods). The method is being successfully used in segmenting object boundaries in a variety of medical applications including orbital volume from CT images (for craniofacial surgical planning), segmenting bone in MR images for kinematic analysis of the joints of the foot, segmenting the surface of the brain from the inner surface of the cranial vault, segmenting pituitary gland tumor for following the effect of a drug on the tumor, segmenting the boundaries of the heart in MR images, and segmenting the olfactory bulb for verifying hypotheses related to the size of this bulb in certain disease states.

  9. A Broad Approach to Abrupt Boundaries: Looking Beyond the Boundary at Soil Attributes within and Across Tropical Vegetation Types

    PubMed Central

    Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G.; Moles, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation boundaries. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across boundary transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the boundary is more similar to “rainforest soil” than to “woodland soil”. Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at boundaries and in non-boundary sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. Finally, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation boundaries and edge effects worldwide. PMID:23593312

  10. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G; Armesto, Juan J; Díaz, M Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  11. Increased Drought Impacts on Temperate Rainforests from Southern South America: Results of a Process-Based, Dynamic Forest Model

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G.; Armesto, Juan J.; Díaz, M. Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests. PMID:25068869

  12. The dynamics of ant mosaics in tropical rainforests characterized using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Leponce, Maurice; Corbara, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Compin, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    Ants, the most abundant taxa among canopy-dwelling animals in tropical rainforests, are mostly represented by territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAs) whose territories are distributed in a mosaic pattern (arboreal ant mosaics). Large TDA colonies regulate insect herbivores, with implications for forestry and agronomy. What generates these mosaics in vegetal formations, which are dynamic, still needs to be better understood. So, from empirical research based on 3 Cameroonian tree species (Lophira alata, Ochnaceae; Anthocleista vogelii, Gentianaceae; and Barteria fistulosa, Passifloraceae), we used the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, neural network) to illustrate the succession of TDAs as their host trees grow and age. The SOM separated the trees by species and by size for L. alata, which can reach 60 m in height and live several centuries. An ontogenic succession of TDAs from sapling to mature trees is shown, and some ecological traits are highlighted for certain TDAs. Also, because the SOM permits the analysis of data with many zeroes with no effect of outliers on the overall scatterplot distributions, we obtained ecological information on rare species. Finally, the SOM permitted us to show that functional groups cannot be selected at the genus level as congeneric species can have very different ecological niches, something particularly true for Crematogaster spp., which include a species specifically associated with B. fistulosa, nondominant species and TDAs. Therefore, the SOM permitted the complex relationships between TDAs and their growing host trees to be analyzed, while also providing new information on the ecological traits of the ant species involved. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Contextualising impacts of logging on tropical rainforest catchment sediment dynamics using the stratigraphic record of in-channel bench deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Will; Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Annammala, Kogila

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that commercial logging and conversion of tropical rainforest to oil palm plantation leads to enhanced fluvial sediment flux to the coastal zone but the dynamics of delivery and mechanisms that act to retain sediment and nutrients within rainforest ecosystems, e.g. riparian zone and floodplain storage, are poorly understood and underexploited as a management tool. While accretion of lateral in-channel bench deposits in response to forest clearance has been demonstrated in temperate landscapes, their development and value as sedimentary archives of catchment response to human disturbance remains largely unexplored in tropical rainforest river systems. Working within the Segama River basin, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that (1) lateral bench development in tropical rainforest rivers systems is enhanced by upstream catchment disturbance and that (2) the sedimentary record of these deposits can be used to infer changes in sediment provenance and intensification of sediment flux associated with logging activities. Sediment cores were taken from in-channel bench deposits with upstream catchment contributing areas of 721 km2 and 2800 km2 respectively. Accretion rates were determined using fallout 210Pb and 137Cs and the timing of peak accumulation was shown to correspond exactly with the known temporal pattern of logging and associated fluvial sediment response over the period 1980 to present following low pre-logging rates. Major and minor element geochemistry of deposits was used to assess the degree of weathering that deposited sediment had experienced. This was linked to surface (heavily weathered) and subsurface (less weathered) sediment sources relating to initial disturbance by logging and post-logging landsliding responses respectively. A shift in the dominant source of deposited material from surface (i.e. topsoil) to subsurface (i.e. relatively unweathered subsoil close to bedrock) origin was observed

  14. Forest dynamics in the temperate rainforests of Alaska: from individual tree to regional scales

    Treesearch

    Tara M. Barrett

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of remeasurement data from 1079 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots revealed multi-scale change occurring in the temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska. In the western half of the region, including Prince William Sound, aboveground live tree biomass and carbon are increasing at a rate of 8 ( ± 2 ) percent per decade, driven by an increase in Sitka...

  15. The role of stream water carbon dynamics and export in the carbon balance of a tropical seasonal rainforest, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Schaefer, Douglas A; Sha, Li-Qing; Deng, Yun; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Dai, Kai-Jie

    2013-01-01

    A two-year study (2009 ~ 2010) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C) forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN), southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC) and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC) and organic C (POC) were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT), only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC) export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1), about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest.

  16. The Role of Stream Water Carbon Dynamics and Export in the Carbon Balance of a Tropical Seasonal Rainforest, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Schaefer, Douglas A.; Sha, Li-Qing; Deng, Yun; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Dai, Kai-Jie

    2013-01-01

    A two-year study (2009 ∼ 2010) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C) forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN), southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC) and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC) and organic C (POC) were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT), only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC) export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha−1 yr−1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest. PMID:23437195

  17. Identification and dynamics of a cryptic suture zone in tropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, C.; Hoskin, C.J.; MacKenzie, J.B.; Phillips, B.L.; Tonione, M.; Silva, N.; VanDerWal, J.; Williams, S.E.; Graham, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Suture zones, shared regions of secondary contact between long-isolated lineages, are natural laboratories for studying divergence and speciation. For tropical rainforest, the existence of suture zones and their significance for speciation has been controversial. Using comparative phylogeographic evidence, we locate a morphologically cryptic suture zone in the Australian Wet Tropics rainforest. Fourteen out of 18 contacts involve morphologically cryptic phylogeographic lineages, with mtDNA sequence divergences ranging from 2 to 15 per cent. Contact zones are significantly clustered in a suture zone located between two major Quaternary refugia. Within this area, there is a trend for secondary contacts to occur in regions with low environmental suitability relative to both adjacent refugia and, by inference, the parental lineages. The extent and form of reproductive isolation among interacting lineages varies across species, ranging from random admixture to speciation, in one case via reinforcement. Comparative phylogeographic studies, combined with environmental analysis at a fine-scale and across varying climates, can generate new insights into suture zone formation and to diversification processes in species-rich tropical rainforests. As arenas for evolutionary experimentation, suture zones merit special attention for conservation. PMID:19203915

  18. Delineating and Defining the Boundaries of an Active Landslide in the Rainforest of Puerto Rico Using a Combination of Airborne and Terrestrial LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Joyce, J.; Phillips, D. A.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.

    2013-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is a remote sensing technique that uses light, often using pulses from a laser to measure the distance to a target. Both terrestrial and airborne based LIDAR techniques have been frequently used to map landslides. Airborne LIDAR has the advantage of identifying large scarps of landslides covered by tree canopies and is widely applied in identifying historical and current active landslides hidden in forested areas. However, because landslides naturally have relatively small vertical surface deformation in the foot area, it is practically difficult to identify the margins of landslide foot area with the limited spatial resolution (few decimeters) of airborne LIDAR. Alternatively, ground-based LIDAR can achieve resolution of several centimeters and also has the advantages of being portable, repeatable, and less costly. Thus ground based LIDAR can be used to identify small deformations in landslide foot areas by differencing repeated Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) surveys. This study demonstrates a method of identifying the superficial boundaries as well as the bottom boundary (sliding plane) of an active landslide in National Rainforest Park, Puerto Rico, USA, using the combination of ground based and airborne LIDAR data. The method of combining terrestrial and airborne LIDAR data can be used to study landslides in other regions. This study indicates that intensity and density of laser point clouds are remarkably useful in identifying superficial boundaries of landslides.

  19. Lithospheric dynamics near plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-09-01

    The progress report on research conducted between 15 Mar. - 14 Sep. 1992 is presented. The focus of the research during the first grant year has been on several problems broadly related to the nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation and stress along major seismic zones, with an emphasis on western North America but with additional work on seismic zones in oceanic lithosphere as well. The principal findings of our research to date are described in the accompanying papers and abstract. Topics covered include: (1) Global Positioning System measurements of deformations associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: evidence for conjugate faulting; (2) Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California: 1986-1989; (3) present-day crustal deformation in the Salton Trough, southern California; (4) oceanic transform earthquakes with unusual mechanisms or locations: relation to fault geometry and state of stress in the lithosphere; and (5) crustal strain and the 1992 Mojave Desert earthquakes.

  20. Lithospheric dynamics near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    The progress report on research conducted between 15 Mar. - 14 Sep. 1992 is presented. The focus of the research during the first grant year has been on several problems broadly related to the nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation and stress along major seismic zones, with an emphasis on western North America but with additional work on seismic zones in oceanic lithosphere as well. The principal findings of our research to date are described in the accompanying papers and abstract. Topics covered include: (1) Global Positioning System measurements of deformations associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: evidence for conjugate faulting; (2) Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California: 1986-1989; (3) present-day crustal deformation in the Salton Trough, southern California; (4) oceanic transform earthquakes with unusual mechanisms or locations: relation to fault geometry and state of stress in the lithosphere; and (5) crustal strain and the 1992 Mojave Desert earthquakes.

  1. Sensitivity of North Patagonian temperate rainforests to changes in rainfall regimes: a process-based, dynamic forest model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, A. G.; Armesto, J. J.; Díaz, M. F.; Huth, A.

    2012-06-01

    Rainfall changes due to climate change and their potential impacts on forests demand the development of predictable tools coupling vegetation dynamics to hydrologic processes. Such tools need to be accurate at local scales (i.e. < 100 ha) to develop efficient forest management strategies for climate change adaptation. In this study, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model to predict hydrological balance of North Patagonian temperate rainforests on Chiloé Island, Chile (42° S). The developed model includes detailed calculations of forest water fluxes and incorporates the dynamical linkage of rainfall regimes to soil moisture, and individual tree growth. We confronted model results with detailed field measurements of water fluxes in a young secondary stand (YS). We used the model to compare forest sensitivity in the YS and an old-growth stand (OG, > 500 yr-old), i.e. changes in forest evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (biomass and basal area). We evaluated sensitivity using changes in rainfall regimes comparable to future climatic scenarios for this century in the study region. The model depicted well the hydrological balance of temperate rainforests. We found a higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climatic conditions. Dryer climatic conditions predicted for this century in the study area led to changes in the hydrological balance that impacted forest structure, with stronger impacts in OG. Changes in climatic parameters decreased evapotranspiration (up to 15 % in OG compared to current values) and soil moisture to 32 % . These changes in water fluxes induced decreases in above-ground biomass in OG (up to 27 %). Our results support the use of the model for detailed analyses of climate change impacts on hydrological balance of forests. Also, it provides a tool suitable for analyses of the impacts of multiple drivers of global change on forest processes (e.g., climate change, fragmentation, forest management).

  2. Symmetry boundary condition in dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Souvik; Lan, Chuanjin; Li, Zhen; Hirleman, E. Daniel; Ma, Yanbao

    2015-07-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a coarse-grained particle method for modeling mesoscopic hydrodynamics. Most of the DPD simulations are carried out in 3D requiring remarkable computation time. For symmetric systems, this time can be reduced significantly by simulating only one half or one quarter of the systems. However, such simulations are not yet possible due to a lack of schemes to treat symmetric boundaries in DPD. In this study, we propose a numerical scheme for the implementation of the symmetric boundary condition (SBC) in both dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and multibody dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) using a combined ghost particles and specular reflection (CGPSR) method. We validate our scheme in four different configurations. The results demonstrate that our scheme can accurately reproduce the system properties, such as velocity, density and meniscus shapes of a full system with numerical simulations of a subsystem. Using a symmetric boundary condition for one half of the system, we demonstrate about 50% computation time saving in both DPD and MDPD. This approach for symmetric boundary treatment can be also applied to other coarse-grained particle methods such as Brownian and Langevin Dynamics to significantly reduce computation time.

  3. Fractal boundaries in magnetotail particle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Rexford, J. L.; Lee, Y. C.

    1990-01-01

    It has been recently established that particle dynamics in the magnetotail geometry can be described as a nonintegrable Hamiltonian system with well-defined entry and exit regions through which stochastic orbits can enter and exit the system after repeatedly crossing the equatorial plane. It is shown that the phase space regions occupied by orbits of different numbers of equatorial crossings or different exit modes are separated by fractal boundaries. The fractal boundaries in an entry region for stochastic orbits are examined and the capacity dimension is determined.

  4. Dynamics of wave equations with moving boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, To Fu; Marín-Rubio, Pedro; Surco Chuño, Christian Manuel

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with long-time dynamics of weakly damped semilinear wave equations defined on domains with moving boundary. Since the boundary is a function of the time variable the problem is intrinsically non-autonomous. Under the hypothesis that the lateral boundary is time-like, the solution operator of the problem generates an evolution process U (t , τ) :Xτ →Xt, where Xt are time-dependent Sobolev spaces. Then, by assuming the domains are expanding, we establish the existence of minimal pullback attractors with respect to a universe of tempered sets defined by the forcing terms. Our assumptions allow nonlinear perturbations with critical growth and unbounded time-dependent external forces.

  5. Postglacial formation and dynamics of North Patagonian Rainforest in the Chonos Archipelago, Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, S. G.; Bennett, K. D.

    2004-12-01

    Pollen analysis of continuous sediment cores from two lakes in the northern Chonos Archipelago (44°S) in southern Chile shows a complete postglacial record of vegetation change. The fossil records indicate that deglaciation was complete in the northern Chonos by at least 13,600 14C yr BP. Ericaceous heath and grassland persisted for more than 600 years after deglaciation under the influence of dry/cold climates and frequent burning. Nothofagus- Pilgerodendron- Podocarpus forest, with modern analogues in the southern Chonos Archipelago, was established across the northern islands by 12,400 14C yr BP under increasingly warm and wet climates. There is no evidence for a return to cooler climates during the Younger Dryas chronozone. The rise of Tepualia stipularis and Weinmannia trichosperma as important forest components between 10,600 and 6000 14C yr BP may be associated with climates that were warmer than present. The collapse of Pilgerodendron communities during this time may have been triggered by a combination of factors related to disturbance frequency including tephra deposition events, fire and climate change. After 6000 14C yr BP Pilgerodendron recovers and Nothofagus-Pilgerodendron-Tepualia forest persists until the present. European logging and burning activity may have increased the susceptibility of North Patagonian Rainforest to invasion by introduced species and to future collapse of the long-lived Pilgerodendron communities.

  6. Dynamics of bacterial communities in soils of rainforest fragments under restoration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Rafael; Zucchi, Tiago; Taketani, Rodrigo; Andreote, Fernando; Cardoso, Elke

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10% of its original area still remains. Many projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different ages of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant diversity highly influenced the bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, one with the youngest (10 years) and the other with the oldest (native) site suggests their use as bioindicators of soil quality and soil recovery of forest fragments under restoration.

  7. Post-Hurricane Successional Dynamics in Abundance and Diversity of Canopy Arthropods in a Tropical Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Schowalter, T D; Willig, M R; Presley, S J

    2017-01-03

    We quantified long-term successional trajectories of canopy arthropods on six tree species in a tropical rainforest ecosystem in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico that experienced repeated hurricane-induced disturbances during the 19-yr study (1991-2009). We expected: 1) differential performances of arthropod species to result in taxon- or guild-specific responses; 2) differences in initial conditions to result in distinct successional responses to each hurricane; and 3) the legacy of hurricane-created gaps to persist despite subsequent disturbances. At least one significant effect of gap, time after hurricane, or their interaction occurred for 53 of 116 analyses of taxon abundance, 31 of 84 analyses of guild abundance, and 21 of 60 analyses of biodiversity (e.g., richness, evenness, dominance, and rarity). Significant responses were ∼60% more common for time after hurricane than for gap creation, indicating that temporal changes in habitat during recovery were of primary importance. Both increases and decreases in abundance or diversity occurred in response to each factor. Guild-level responses were probably driven by changes in the abundance of resources on which they rely. For example, detritivores were most abundant soon after hurricanes when litter resources were elevated, whereas sap-suckers were most abundant in gaps where new foliage growth was the greatest. The legacy of canopy gaps created by Hurricane Hugo persisted for at least 19 yr, despite droughts and other hurricanes of various intensities that caused forest damage. This reinforces the need to consider historical legacies when seeking to understand responses to disturbance.

  8. Population dynamics of a group of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting a rainforest fragment in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Krishna, B A; Singh, Mridula; Singh, Mewa

    2006-01-01

    We observed the overall population dynamics and number of births and deaths in identified individuals between January 2002 and October 2005, in a large group of lion-tailed macaques in the Anaimalai Hills of the Western Ghats in the south Indian state of Tamilnadu. The group inhabited an isolated rainforest fragment located inside a private tea/coffee garden. The group size increased from 56 in January 2002 to 84 in October 2005. All females reproduced, and the interbirth interval was 23.18 months. Of the 37 infants born between 2002 and 2005, only 1 died providing an infant survivorship rate of about 97.3%. Although births occurred in all months, most of the infants were born between February and March, and this pattern of births was consistent over the years, indicating a major birth peak in this species. The population growth rate in this unusually large group was found to be higher than even in those groups of lion-tailed macaques that inhabit large and relatively undisturbed rainforest complexes. This high growth rate could be attributed to the availability of abundant cultivated fruit plants including commercial crops such as coffee seeds. The observations provide a perspective for the management of other groups of this endangered species inhabiting rainforest fragments.

  9. ʻŌhiʻa Lehua rainforest: born among Hawaiian volcanoes, evolved in isolation: the story of a dynamic ecosystem with relevance to forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller-Dombois, Dieter; Jacobi, James D.; Boehmer, Hans Juergen; Price, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1970s, a multidisciplinary team of forest biologists began a study of Hawaiian ecosystems under the International Biological Program (IBP). Research focus was on the intact native ecosystems in and around Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, in particular the ʻŌhiʻa Lehua rainforest. Patches of dead ʻŌhiʻa stands had been reported from the windward slopes of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Subsequent air photo analyses by a team of US and Hawai'i State foresters discovered rapidly spreading ʻŌhiʻa dieback, also called ʻŌhiʻa forest decline. A killer disease was suspected to destroy the Hawaiian rain forest in the next 15-25 years. Ecological research continued with a focus on the dynamics of the Hawaiian rainforest. This book explains what really happened and why the ʻŌhiʻa rainforest survived in tact as everyone can witness today.

  10. Testing the Pleistocene Tropical Rainforest Refugia Hypothesis: Glacial Tropical Aridity and Vegetation Dynamics in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettwein, V. J.; Maslin, M.; Wagner, T.; Platzman, E.; Zabel, M.; Evershed, R.

    2001-12-01

    The Pleistocene climate and vegetation history of the Amazon Basin is comparatively poorly known. Until now, Amazon Basin aridity has been inferred from highly localised and qualitative indicators of moisture. However, reconstructing glacial Amazon aridity is essential for two main reasons: Firstly it is a key physiological control on the distribution of vegetation and therefore provides a means of testing the Pleistocene tropical refugia hypothesis, which attempts to explain the immense diversity and species endemism of the Amazon Basin. Secondly, Amazonian wetlands represent a major source of atmospheric methane; thus it has been suggested that glacial tropical aridity is the primary control on the reduced levels of atmospheric methane as seen in the ice core records. Deep-sea sediments collected as part of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 155 have enabled past Amazon Basin moisture levels to be quantified for the first time. Maslin and Burns (2000) reconstructed the discharge of the Amazon River using planktonic foraminifera δ 18O, and demonstrated that the discharge of the Amazon was potentially reduced to just 50% of its modern outflow during the Younger Dryas. However, their study covered only the last 14 ka. Here we present the latest results that extend this moisture record back through the Last Glacial Maximum. We also make comparisons with the past vegetation dynamics of the region which have been reconstructed using the δ 13C signature of organic matter (both bulk- and n-alkanes) to differentiate between C3 (rainforest) and C4 (savannah) plants. We also present magnetic characterisation and ICP-ms data, which show the origin of any major variation in the source and quantity of the Amazon River sediment discharge during the last glacial period. Maslin, M.A., and Burns, S.J., Science, 290, 2285 (2000).

  11. The Dynamics of Coronal-Hole Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, A. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Wyper, P. F.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2015-12-01

    The source of the slow solar wind at the Sun is the subject of intense debate in solar and heliospheric physics. Because the majority of the solar wind observed at Earth is slow wind, understanding its origin is essential for understanding and predicting Earth's space weather environment. In-situ and remote observations show that, compared to the fast wind, the slow solar wind corresponds to higher freeze-in temperatures, as indicated by charge-state ratios, and more corona-like elemental abundances. These results indicate that the most likely source for the slow wind is the hot plasma in the closed-field corona; however, the release mechanism for the wind from the closed-field regions is far from understood. Here we present the first fully dynamic, 3D MHD simulations of a coronal-hole boundary driven by photospheric convective flows. We determine in detail the opening and closing of coronal flux due to photospheric motions at the base of a helmet streamer. These changes should lead to the release of plasma from the closed magnetic field at the edge of the streamer. Our analysis demonstrates that the bulk of the release is due to interchange reconnection. We calculate the effective of numerical Lundquist number on the dynamics and discuss the implications of our results for theories of slow-wind origin, in particular the S-Web model. We also discuss the implications of our results for observations, in particular from the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions. This work was supported by the NASA SR&T and TR&T Programs.

  12. Western boundary upwelling dynamics off Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vic, Clément; Capet, Xavier; Roullet, Guillaume; Carton, Xavier

    2017-05-01

    Despite its climatic and ecosystemic significance, the coastal upwelling that takes place off Oman is not well understood. A primitive-equation, regional model forced by climatological wind stress is used to investigate its dynamics and to compare it with the better-known Eastern Boundary Upwellings (EBUs). The solution compares favorably with existing observations, simulating well the seasonal cycles of thermal structure, surface circulation (mean and turbulent), and sea-surface temperature (SST). There is a 1.5-month lag between the maximum of the upwelling-favorable wind-stress-curl forcing and the oceanic response (minima in sea-surface height and SST), which we attribute to onshore-propagating Rossby waves. A southwestward-flowing undercurrent (opposite to the direction of the near-surface flow) is also simulated with a core depth of 1000 m, much deeper than found in EBUs (150-200 m). An EKE budget reveals that, in contrast to EBUs, the upwelling jet is more prone to barotropic than baroclinic instability and the contribution of locally-generated instabilities to EKE is higher by an order of magnitude. Advection and redistribution of EKE by standing mesoscale features also play a significant role in EKE budget.

  13. Comparative dynamics of small mammal populations in treefall gaps and surrounding understorey within Amazonian rainforest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, H.; Gaines, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Variation in food resource availability can have profound effects on habitat selection and dynamics of populations. Previous studies reported higher food resource availability and fruit removal in treefall gaps than in the understorey. Therefore, gaps have been considered 'keystone habitat' for Neotropical frugivore birds. Here we test if this prediction would also hold for terrestrial small mammals. In the Amazon, we quantified food resource availability in eleven treefall gaps and paired understorey habitats and used feeding experiments to test if two common terrestrial rodents (Oryzomys megacephalus and Proechimys spp.) would perceive differences between habitats. We live-trapped small mammals in eleven gaps and understorey sites for two years, and compared abundance, fitness components (survival and per capita recruitment) and dispersal of these two rodent species across gaps and understorey and seasons (rainy and dry). Our data indicated no differences in resource availability and consumption rate between habitats. Treefall gaps may represent a sink habitat for Oryzomys where individuals had lower fitness, apparently because of habitat-specific ant predation on early life stages, than in the understorey, the source habitat. Conversely, gaps may be source habitat for Proechimys where individuals had higher fitness, than in the understorey, the sink habitat. Our results suggest the presence of source-sink dynamics in a tropical gap-understorey landscape, where two rodent species perceive habitats differently. This may be a mechanism for their coexistence in a heterogeneous and species-diverse system.

  14. Seasonal dynamics in photosynthesis of woody plants at the northern limit of Asian tropics: potential role of fog in maintaining tropical rainforests and agriculture in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Holbrook, N Michele; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The lowland tropical rainforests in Xishuangbanna, Southwest (SW) China, mark the northern limit of Asian tropics. Fog has been hypothesized to play a role in maintaining rainforests and tropical crop production in this region, but the physiological mechanism has not been studied. The goals of this study were to characterize the seasonal dynamics in photosynthesis and to assess the potential for fog to mitigate chilling-induced photodamage for tropical trees and crops in Xishuangbanna. We measured seasonal dynamics in light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (Aa), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 concentration, quantum yield of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum P700 changes (Pm; indicates the amount of active PSI complex), as well as chilling resistance and fog (light/shading) effects on low temperature-induced decline in Fv/Fm and Pm for native tree and introduced lower latitude tree or woody shrub species grown in a tropical botanical garden. Despite significant decreases in Aa, gs, Pm and Fv/Fm, most species maintained considerably high Aa during the cool season (2.51-14.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Shaded leaves exposed to seasonal low temperatures had higher Fv/Fm than sun-exposed leaves in the cool season. All species could tolerate 1.4 °C in the dark, whereas a combined treatment of low temperature and high light caused a distinctly faster decline in Pm and Fv/Fm compared with low temperature treatment alone. Because fog persistence avoids or shortens the duration of high light condition in the morning when the temperatures are still low, our results provide support for the hypothesis that fog reduces chilling damage to tropical plants in this region and thus plays a role in maintaining tropical rainforests and agriculture in SW China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Hydrodynamic boundary conditions and dynamic forces between bubbles and surfaces.

    PubMed

    Manor, Ofer; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Tang, Xiaosong; O'Shea, Sean J; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C

    2008-07-11

    Dynamic forces between a 50 microm radius bubble driven towards and from a mica plate using an atomic force microscope in electrolyte and in surfactant exhibit different hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the bubble surface. In added surfactant, the forces are consistent with the no-slip boundary condition at the mica and bubble surfaces. With no surfactant, a new boundary condition that accounts for the transport of trace surface impurities explains variations of dynamic forces at different speeds and provides a direct connection between dynamic forces and surface transport effects at the air-water interface.

  16. Hydrodynamic Boundary Conditions and Dynamic Forces between Bubbles and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manor, Ofer; Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Tang, Xiaosong; O'Shea, Sean J.; Stevens, Geoffrey W.; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic forces between a 50μm radius bubble driven towards and from a mica plate using an atomic force microscope in electrolyte and in surfactant exhibit different hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the bubble surface. In added surfactant, the forces are consistent with the no-slip boundary condition at the mica and bubble surfaces. With no surfactant, a new boundary condition that accounts for the transport of trace surface impurities explains variations of dynamic forces at different speeds and provides a direct connection between dynamic forces and surface transport effects at the air-water interface.

  17. Accurate boundary conditions for exterior problems in gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Hariharan, S. I.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical solution of exterior problems is typically accomplished by introducing an artificial, far-field boundary and solving the equations on a truncated domain. For hyperbolic systems, boundary conditions at this boundary are often derived by imposing a principle of no reflection. However, waves with spherical symmetry in gas dynamics satisfy equations where incoming and outgoing Riemann variables are coupled. This suggests that natural reflections may be important. A reflecting boundary condition is proposed based on an asymptotic solution of the far-field equations. Nonlinear energy estimates are obtained for the truncated problem and numerical experiments presented to validate the theory.

  18. Accurate boundary conditions for exterior problems in gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Hariharan, S. I.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical solution of exterior problems is typically accomplished by introducing an artificial, far field boundary and solving the equations on a truncated domain. For hyperbolic systems, boundary conditions at this boundary are often derived by imposing a principle of no reflection. However, waves with spherical symmetry in gas dynamics satisfy equations where incoming and outgoing Riemann variables are coupled. This suggests that natural reflections may be important. A reflecting boundary condition is proposed based on an asymptotic solution of the far field equations. Nonlinear energy estimates are obtained for the truncated problem and numerical experiments presented to validate the theory.

  19. Low density gas dynamic wall boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, F. G.

    1986-01-01

    Low density nozzles or large expansion ratio nozzles used in space experience rarefaction effects near their exit in the form of velocity slip and temperature jump at the walls. In addition, the boundary layers become very thick and there is a very strong viscous/inviscid interaction. For these reasons no existing design technique has been found to accurately predict the nozzle flow properties up to the nozzle exit. The objective of this investigation was to examine the slip boundary conditions and formulate them in a form appropriate for use with a full Navier-Stokes numerical code. The viscous/inviscid interaction would automatically be accounted for by using a compressible Navier-Stokes code. Through examination of the interaction of molecules with solid surfaces, a model for the distribution function of the reflected molecules has been determined and this distribution function has been used to develop a new slip boundary condition that can be shown to yield more realistic surface boundary conditions.

  20. Rapid replacement of riparian rainforest habitat and the impacts on the meandering dynamics of the Kinabatangan River, Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Alexander J.; Constantine, José A.

    2014-05-01

    Meandering rivers are defined by their nature to migrate, remobilising floodplain sediment and constructing new surfaces for riparian vegetation to colonise. The presence of riparian vegetation has long been known to limit the ability of rivers to erode riverbanks, but it has remained unclear the principal means by which vegetation provides this function. As a result, most models that predict meandering behaviour do not fully incorporate vegetation, thereby limiting their utility where forest is rapidly replaced. The problem is particularly acute along the Kinabatangan River of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo, where oil palm plantations are replacing one of the oldest riparian rainforests on the planet. The area of Sabah has seen rapid and extensive land use change in the last 40 years, as virgin rainforest has been systematically cleared for logging, and to make way for oil palm plantations. In the 18 years from 1990 to 2008, Sabah lost half of its intact rainforest, which equates to more than 1.85 million hectares. Using Landsat imagery dating back to 1973, we report here the impacts of this rapid land-use change on rates of meander migration on a 280-km reach of the Kinabatangan River. The river planform has been remarkably stable throughout the time period of study, but individual meanders show a rapid response to large discharge events, migrating over an order of magnitude faster than nearby reaches. Rapidly migrating meanders generally occur along portions of floodplain that have been artificially cleared of riparian vegetation, potentially resulting in significant increases in sediment load and within-channel bar development. A field campaign is planned to investigate the mechanisms by which riparian vegetation effect meander migration in these tropical regions.

  1. Effect of Dynamic Sector Boundary Changes on Air Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Lee, Paul; Kessell, Angela; Homola, Jeff; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dynamic sector boundary changes on air traffic controller workload was investigated with data from a human-in-the-loop simulation. Multiple boundary changes were made during simulated operations, and controller rating of workload was recorded. Analysis of these data showed an increase of 16.9% in controller workload due to boundary changes. This increased workload was correlated with the number of aircraft handoffs and change in sector volume. There was also a 12.7% increase in average workload due to the changed sector design after boundary changes. This increase was correlated to traffic flow crossing points getting closer to sector boundaries and an increase in the number of flights with short dwell time in a sector. This study has identified some of the factors that affect controller workload when sector boundaries are changed, but more research is needed to better understand their relationships.

  2. Helmdon's First Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Sue

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how Helmdon Primary School is transformed in a memorable learning experience. It started out as a simple idea, a whole-school art exhibition centred on the theme of a tropical rainforest. The focal point was to be a life-sized rainforest created using a variety of media in the school hall. The school wanted the children to…

  3. Helmdon's First Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Sue

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how Helmdon Primary School is transformed in a memorable learning experience. It started out as a simple idea, a whole-school art exhibition centred on the theme of a tropical rainforest. The focal point was to be a life-sized rainforest created using a variety of media in the school hall. The school wanted the children to…

  4. Root systems of successional and old-growth forest species and its role on nutrient dynamics within a tropical rainforest in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Soedjito, H.

    1990-01-01

    Most studies of nutrient dynamics in tropical rainforest have focused on the above ground portion of forest trees. However, the aim of this dissertation is to demonstrate the root systems also play an important role in nutrient dynamics. Nutrient dynamics, in general, are likely to differ between successional forest and old-growth forest. To test for differences in nutrient uptake between trees of successional and old-growth forests, the author experimentally compared seedlings of six different species by measuring biomass allocation and nutrient concentrations as well as determining spatial patterns of root distribution and the absorption ability of the root systems by usign the [sup 32]P radiotracer technique. Young saplings of ten species from natural habitats were also examined for the same parameters, and the results to determine whether results of the laboratory experiments were consistent with field results. It was found that as seedlings, roots of successional forest species penetrate deeper into the soil and have longer lateral roots than old-growth forest species. Successional forest species also had greater biomass accumulation rates, higher ability to absorb [sup 32]P, and contained higher levels of nutrients than species of old-growth forest. Mycorrhizal associations are suspected to be responsible for the high nutrient concentrations, primarily of P and N, within successional species. Successional forest tree species had more cases of infection by vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM), while old-growth forest species were infected by both VAM and ectomycorrhizas. Therefore, successional seedlings can play an important role in conserving released nutrients after disturbance. At the landscape level, successional species together with old-growth species can maintain sustainable nutrient cycling within tropical rainforests.

  5. Grain boundary migration in metals: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao

    Grain boundary migration is key to materials microstructural processes such as grain growth and recrystallization. Quantitative boundary dynamic data is difficult to obtain, yet important for quantitative prediction of microstructural evolution and understanding migration fundamentals. Our molecular dynamics simulations first focus on curvature driven grain boundary migration to extract the reduced mobility and activation energy for migration as a function of boundary misorientation in aluminum. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observations except that the activation energy for migration found is much smaller than in experiment. This discrepancy led to a more systematic study of the absolute mobility and atomistic level mechanism for boundary migration. To study the mobility of a flat, fully defined boundary, we developed a strain-energy-anisotropy-driven migration simulation method. We applied this method to a series of Sigma5 [010] asymmetric tilt grain boundaries and extracted the absolute mobility as a function of temperature and inclination. Simulation results suggest that the mobility is a sensitive function of temperature and inclination. The boundary mobility tends to be minimized when one of the grain boundary planes has low Miller indices. Meanwhile, the comparison between grain boundary mobility, grain boundary self-diffusivity and energy suggests strong correlation at special inclinations, when one of the boundary planes is a high symmetry plane. In addition, we derive the grain boundary stiffness and reduced mobility as a function of boundary inclination. The grain boundary stiffness exhibits a large anisotropy, which is of the same order of magnitude as that of the grain boundary mobility. However, these two anisotropies nearly cancel, leaving the reduced mobility nearly isotropic. Finally, we identify the migration mechanism through frequent quenches and analysis of the atomic displacements, local and global excess volume

  6. Relaxation dynamics of a system with a grain boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. B.; Mustonen, Ville; Wood, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Recently an interesting phase transition scenario in the context of a planar Ising system with a grain boundary was revealed [Abraham , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 076101 (2004)]. In this paper we study in more detail the relaxation dynamics of this system and show how the grain boundary acts as a guide spatially confining matter transport. This is done by performing simulations using the continuous time Monte Carlo algorithm with Kawasaki dynamics. We also set up the problem as a solid-on-solid model and formulate corresponding Langevin equations for the dynamics in two cases, with and without matter conservation.

  7. Modeling Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, C. E.; Gatski, T. B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of an ensemble of linear disturbances in boundary-layer flows at various Reynolds numbers is studied through an analysis of the transport equations for the mean disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate. Effects of adverse and favorable pressure-gradients on the disturbance dynamics are also included in the analysis. Unlike the fully turbulent regime where nonlinear phase scrambling of the fluctuations affects the flow field even in proximity to the wall, the early stage transition regime fluctuations studied here are influenced across the boundary layer by the solid boundary. In addition, the dominating dynamics in the disturbance kinetic energy equation is governed by the energy production, pressure-transport and viscous diffusion - also in contrast to the fully turbulent regime. For the disturbance dissipation rate, a dynamic balance exists between the destruction and diffusion of dissipation.

  8. Dynamic boundaries of event horizon magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This Letter analyses three-dimensional (3D) simulations of Kerr black hole magnetospheres that obey the general relativistic equations of perfect magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Particular emphasis is on the event horizon magnetosphere (EHM) which is defined as the the large-scale poloidal magnetic flux that threads the event horizon of a black hole. (This is distinct from the poloidal magnetic flux that threads the equatorial plane of the ergosphere, which forms the ergospheric disc magnetosphere.) Standard MHD theoretical treatments of Poynting jets in the EHM are predicated on the assumption that the plasma comprising the boundaries of the EHM plays no role in producing the Poynting flux. The energy flux is electrodynamic in origin and it is essentially conserved from the horizon to infinity; this is known as the Blandford-Znajek (B-Z) mechanism. In contrast, within the 3D simulations, the lateral boundaries are strong pistons for MHD waves and actually inject prodigious quantities of Poynting flux into the EHM. At high black hole spin rates, strong sources of Poynting flux adjacent to the EHM from the ergospheric disc will actually diffuse to higher latitudes and swamp any putative B-Z effects. This is in contrast to lower spin rates, which are characterized by much lower output powers, and where modest amounts of Poynting flux are injected into the EHM from the accretion disc corona.

  9. Dynamic recrystallization behaviour at grain boundaries and triple junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviour and nucleation mechanisms were investigated using copper and copper alloy bicrystals, tricrystals and polycrystals. New grains were preferentially formed along grain boundaries in the bicrystals. After grain-boundary migration and bulging, nuclei appeared behind the deeply bulged grain boundary regions. The critical strain for nucleation was about one-quarter to one-half of the peak strain. The characteristics of nucleation at a grain boundary depended sensitively on grain boundary character. In copper alloy bicrystals, nucleation was much delayed due to solute drag of migrating grain boundaries. The nucleation at triple junctions, in contrast, took place at a much lower strain. New grain formation at triple junction was stimulated by development of folds. All the new grains were twin-related (Σ3) to the matrix and were formed behind the migrating grain boundaries. Therefore, it was revealed that the DRX mechanism in copper and copper alloys was essentially controlled by annealing twin formation. Variant selection of the twinning plane depended sensitively on the direction of the grain-boundary migration and on the geometry, however, was not affected by activated slip plane or dislocation glide. The DRX nucleation mechanisms at grain boundaries and at triple junctions are discussed with respect to grainboundary migration and annealing twin formation.

  10. Advanced three-dimensional dynamic analysis by boundary element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, P. K.; Ahma, S.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced formulations of boundary element method for periodic, transient transform domain and transient time domain solution of three-dimensional solids have been implemented using a family of isoparametric boundary elements. The necessary numerical integration techniques as well as the various solution algorithms are described. The developed analysis has been incorporated in a fully general purpose computer program BEST3D which can handle up to 10 subregions. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the dynamic analyses.

  11. Advanced three-dimensional dynamic analysis by boundary element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, P. K.; Ahma, S.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced formulations of boundary element method for periodic, transient transform domain and transient time domain solution of three-dimensional solids have been implemented using a family of isoparametric boundary elements. The necessary numerical integration techniques as well as the various solution algorithms are described. The developed analysis has been incorporated in a fully general purpose computer program BEST3D which can handle up to 10 subregions. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the dynamic analyses.

  12. Deterministic Quantization by Dynamical Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dolce, Donatello

    2010-06-15

    We propose an unexplored quantization method. It is based on the assumption of dynamical space-time intrinsic periodicities for relativistic fields, which in turn can be regarded as dual to extra-dimensional fields. As a consequence we obtain a unified and consistent interpretation of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics in terms of Deterministic Geometrodynamics.

  13. Coleman-Gurtin type equations with dynamic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Ciprian G.; Shomberg, Joseph L.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new formulation and generalization of the classical theory of heat conduction with or without fading memory. As a special case, we investigate the well-posedness of systems which consist of Coleman-Gurtin type equations subject to dynamic boundary conditions, also with memory. Nonlinear terms are defined on the interior of the domain and on the boundary and subject to either classical dissipation assumptions, or to a nonlinear balance condition in the sense of Gal (2012). Additionally, we do not assume that the interior and the boundary share the same memory kernel.

  14. People, Parks and Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith Y.

    1992-01-01

    The MLE Learning Center, a publicly funded day care center and after-school program in Brooklyn, New York, helps children develop awareness of a global community by using local resources to teach the children about the rainforest. (LB)

  15. People, Parks and Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith Y.

    1992-01-01

    The MLE Learning Center, a publicly funded day care center and after-school program in Brooklyn, New York, helps children develop awareness of a global community by using local resources to teach the children about the rainforest. (LB)

  16. Improvement in computational fluid dynamics through boundary verification and preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, David E.

    This thesis provides improvements to computational fluid dynamics accuracy and efficiency through two main methods: a new boundary condition verification procedure and preconditioning techniques. First, a new verification approach that addresses boundary conditions was developed. In order to apply the verification approach to a large range of arbitrary boundary conditions, it was necessary to develop unifying mathematical formulation. A framework was developed that allows for the application of Dirichlet, Neumann, and extrapolation boundary condition, or in some cases the equations of motion directly. Verification of boundary condition techniques was performed using exact solutions from canonical fluid dynamic test cases. Second, to reduce computation time and improve accuracy, preconditioning algorithms were applied via artificial dissipation schemes. A new convective upwind and split pressure (CUSP) scheme was devised and was shown to be more effective than traditional preconditioning schemes in certain scenarios. The new scheme was compared with traditional schemes for unsteady flows for which both convective and acoustic effects dominated. Both boundary conditions and preconditioning algorithms were implemented in the context of a "strand grid" solver. While not the focus of this thesis, strand grids provide automatic viscous quality meshing and are suitable for moving mesh overset problems.

  17. Detecting dynamical boundaries from kinematic data in biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Shane D.; Tanaka, Martin L.; Senatore, Carmine

    2010-03-01

    Ridges in the state space distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents can be used to locate dynamical boundaries. We describe a method for obtaining dynamical boundaries using only trajectories reconstructed from time series, expanding on the current approach which requires a vector field in the phase space. We analyze problems in musculoskeletal biomechanics, considered as exemplars of a class of experimental systems that contain separatrix features. Particular focus is given to postural control and balance, considering both models and experimental data. Our success in determining the boundary between recovery and failure in human balance activities suggests this approach will provide new robust stability measures, as well as measures of fall risk, that currently are not available and may have benefits for the analysis and prevention of low back pain and falls leading to injury, both of which affect a significant portion of the population.

  18. Investigation of Boundary Conditions for Flexible Multibody Spacecraft Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLean, John R.; Huynh, An; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    2007-01-01

    In support of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, a set of generic multibody dynamics algorithms integrated within the Trick simulation environment have addressed the variety of on-orbit manipulator simulation requirements for engineering analysis, procedures development and crew familiarization/training at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Enhancements to these dynamics algorithms are now being driven by a new set of Constellation program requirements for flexible multibody spacecraft simulation. One particular issue that has been discussed within the NASA community is the assumption of cantilever-type flexible body boundary conditions. This assumption has been commonly utilized within manipulator multibody dynamics formulations as it simplifies the computation of relative motion for articulated flexible topologies. Moreover, its use for modeling of space-based manipulators such as the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) has been extensively validated against flight data. For more general flexible spacecraft applications, however, the assumption of cantilever-type boundary conditions may not be sufficient. This paper describes the boundary condition assumptions that were used in the original formulation, demonstrates that this formulation can be augmented to accommodate systems in which the assumption of cantilever boundary conditions no longer applies, and verifies the approach through comparison with an independent model previously validated against experimental hardware test data from a spacecraft flexible dynamics emulator.

  19. Boundary Dynamics: Implications for Building Parent-School Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Mitchell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on systems theory, complexity theory, and the organizational sciences to engage boundary dynamics in the creation of parent-school partnerships. These partnerships help children succeed through an emergent process of dialogue and relationship building in the peripheral spaces where parents and schools interact on behalf of…

  20. Rivers as Political Boundaries: Peru and its Dynamic Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the

  1. Effect of 7 yr of experimental drought on vegetation dynamics and biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Galbraith, David; Almeida, Samuel; Portela, Bruno Takeshi Tanaka; da Costa, Mauricio; Silva Junior, João de Athaydes; Braga, Alan P; de Gonçalves, Paulo H L; de Oliveira, Alex A R; Fisher, Rosie; Phillips, Oliver L; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Levy, Peter; Meir, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    *At least one climate model predicts severe reductions of rainfall over Amazonia during this century. Long-term throughfall exclusion (TFE) experiments represent the best available means to investigate the resilience of the Amazon rainforest to such droughts. *Results are presented from a 7 yr TFE study at Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazonia. We focus on the impacts of the drought on tree mortality, wood production and above-ground biomass. *Tree mortality in the TFE plot over the experimental period was 2.5% yr(-1), compared with 1.25% yr(-1) in a nearby control plot experiencing normal rainfall. Differences in stem mortality between plots were greatest in the largest (> 40 cm diameter at breast height (dbh)) size class (4.1% yr(-1) in the TFE and 1.4% yr(-1) in the control). Wood production in the TFE plot was c. 30% lower than in the control plot. Together, these changes resulted in a loss of 37.8 +/- 2.0 Mg carbon (C) ha(-1) in the TFE plot (2002-2008), compared with no change in the control. *These results are remarkably consistent with those from another TFE (at Tapajós National Forest), suggesting that eastern Amazonian forests may respond to prolonged drought in a predictable manner.

  2. Floquet Dynamics of Boundary-Driven Systems at Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdanier, William; Kolodrubetz, Michael; Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-06-01

    A quantum critical system described at low energy by a conformal field theory (CFT) and subjected to a time-periodic boundary drive displays multiple dynamical regimes, depending on the drive frequency. We compute the behavior of quantities including the entanglement entropy and Loschmidt echo, confirming analytic predictions from field theory by exact numerics on the transverse field Ising model and demonstrate universality by adding nonintegrable perturbations. The dynamics naturally separate into three regimes: a slow-driving limit, which has an interpretation as multiple quantum quenches with amplitude corrections from CFT; a fast-driving limit, in which the system behaves as though subject to a single quantum quench; and a crossover regime displaying heating. The universal Floquet dynamics in all regimes can be understood using a combination of boundary CFT and Kibble-Zurek scaling arguments.

  3. Dynamic multiple thresholding breast boundary detection algorithm for mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Zhou Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Daly, Caroline Plowden; Douglas, Julie A.; Zhang Yiheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Shi Jiazheng; Wei Jun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Automated detection of breast boundary is one of the fundamental steps for computer-aided analysis of mammograms. In this study, the authors developed a new dynamic multiple thresholding based breast boundary (MTBB) detection method for digitized mammograms. Methods: A large data set of 716 screen-film mammograms (442 CC view and 274 MLO view) obtained from consecutive cases of an Institutional Review Board approved project were used. An experienced breast radiologist manually traced the breast boundary on each digitized image using a graphical interface to provide a reference standard. The initial breast boundary (MTBB-Initial) was obtained by dynamically adapting the threshold to the gray level range in local regions of the breast periphery. The initial breast boundary was then refined by using gradient information from horizontal and vertical Sobel filtering to obtain the final breast boundary (MTBB-Final). The accuracy of the breast boundary detection algorithm was evaluated by comparison with the reference standard using three performance metrics: The Hausdorff distance (HDist), the average minimum Euclidean distance (AMinDist), and the area overlap measure (AOM). Results: In comparison with the authors' previously developed gradient-based breast boundary (GBB) algorithm, it was found that 68%, 85%, and 94% of images had HDist errors less than 6 pixels (4.8 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 89%, 90%, and 96% of images had AMinDist errors less than 1.5 pixels (1.2 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 96%, 98%, and 99% of images had AOM values larger than 0.9 for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. The improvement by the MTBB-Final method was statistically significant for all the evaluation measures by the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: The MTBB approach that combined dynamic multiple thresholding and gradient information provided better performance than the breast boundary

  4. A stochastic boundary forcing for dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2007-07-01

    The method of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective, coarse grained model of the hydrodynamics of complex fluids. DPD simulations of wall-bounded flows are however often associated with spurious fluctuations of the fluid properties near the wall. We present a novel stochastic boundary forcing for DPD simulations of wall-bounded flows, based on the identification of fluctuations in simulations of the corresponding homogeneous system at equilibrium. The present method is shown to enforce accurately the no-slip boundary condition, while minimizing spurious fluctuations of material properties, in a number of benchmark problems.

  5. A well posed boundary value problem in transonic gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A boundary value problem for the Tricomi equation was studied in connection with transonic gas dynamics. The transformed equation delta u plus 1/3Y u sub Y equals 0 in canonical coordinates was considered in the complex domain of two independent complex variables. A boundary value problem was then set by prescribing the real part of the solution on the boundary of the real unit circle. The Dirichlet problem in the upper unit semicircle with vanishing values of the solution at Y = 0 was solved explicitly in terms of the hypergeometric function for the more general Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. An explicit representation of the solution was also given for a mixed Dirichlet and Neumann problem for the same equation and domain.

  6. Modelling of grain boundary dynamics using amplitude equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüter, Claas; Neugebauer, Jörg; Boussinot, Guillaume; Svendsen, Bob; Prahl, Ulrich; Spatschek, Robert

    2017-07-01

    We discuss the modelling of grain boundary dynamics within an amplitude equations description, which is derived from classical density functional theory or the phase field crystal model. The relation between the conditions for periodicity of the system and coincidence site lattices at grain boundaries is investigated. Within the amplitude equations framework, we recover predictions of the geometrical model by Cahn and Taylor for coupled grain boundary motion, and find both {<100\\rangle} and {<110\\rangle} coupling. No spontaneous transition between these modes occurs due to restrictions related to the rotational invariance of the amplitude equations. Grain rotation due to coupled motion is also in agreement with theoretical predictions. Whereas linear elasticity is correctly captured by the amplitude equations model, open questions remain for the case of nonlinear deformations.

  7. Droughts threaten Bornean rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    At 130 million years old, the rainforests of Southeast Asia are the oldest in the world and home to thousands of species of plants and animals, some endemic to these forests. The rainforests also play important roles in modulating regional rainfall and in the global carbon cycle. However, since the 1960s, increased warming in the Indian Ocean and frequent El Niño events have reduced rainfall in the region by approximately 1.0% per decade. Furthermore, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change predicts that over the 21st century, Southeast Asia will experience higher land temperatures, more droughts, and increased seasonality; that is, wet seasons during the fall will get wetter, and dry seasons during the spring will get drier. However, few studies in the past have investigated how trees in the southeastern Asian rainforests respond to droughts and climate change.

  8. Dynamical boundary for anti-de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-12-01

    We argue that a natural boundary condition for gravity in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces is to hold the renormalized boundary stress tensor density fixed, instead of the boundary metric. This leads to a well-defined variational problem, as well as new counterterms and a finite on-shell action. We elaborate this in various (even and odd) dimensions in the language of holographic renormalization. Even though the form of the new renormalized action is distinct from the standard one, once the cutoff is taken to infinity, their values on classical solutions coincide when the trace anomaly vanishes. For AdS4 , we compute the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner form of this renormalized action and show in detail how the correct thermodynamics of Kerr-AdS black holes emerge. We comment on the possibility of a consistent quantization with our boundary conditions when the boundary is dynamical, and make a connection to the results of Compere and Marolf. The difference between our approach and microcanonical-like ensembles in standard AdS/CFT is emphasized.

  9. Model Order Reduction for Fluid Dynamics with Moving Solid Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haotian; Wei, Mingjun

    2016-11-01

    We extended the application of POD-Galerkin projection for model order reduction from usual fixed-domain problems to more general fluid-solid systems when moving boundary/interface is involved. The idea is similar to numerical simulation approaches using embedded forcing terms to represent boundary motion and domain change. However, such a modified approach will not get away with the unsteadiness of boundary terms which appear as time-dependent coefficients in the new Galerkin model. These coefficients need to be pre-computed for prescribed motion, or worse, to be computed at each time step for non-prescribed motion. The extra computational cost gets expensive in some cases and eventually undermines the value of using reduced-order models. One solution is to decompose the moving boundary/domain to orthogonal modes and derive another low-order model with fixed coefficients for boundary motion. Further study shows that the most expensive integrations resulted from the unsteady motion (in both original and domain-decomposition approaches) have almost negligible impact on the overall dynamics. Dropping these expensive terms reduces the computation cost by at least one order while no obvious effect on model accuracy is noticed. Supported by ARL.

  10. Elastic Stiffness of Grain Boundary Scars and Dislocation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Homin; Bowick, Mark

    2006-03-01

    We analytically calculate the stiffness of finite-length grain boundaries (scars) on a spherical crystal within the continuum elasticity theory. The scar is composed of an isolated disclination with +1 topological charge together with a finite number of dislocations. We determine the elastic free energy of a single finite-grain boundary scar by considering interacting defects, such as Disclination-Disclination (D-D), Disclination-dislocation (D-d), and dislocation-dislocation (d-d). The harmonic potential binding dislocations to the scar is obtained by determining the free energy of a single dislocation perturbed away from its equilibrium position. The elastic spring constants so obtained are compared to experimental data on dislocation dynamics [1]. We conclude with some comments on interstitial dynamics. [1] Lipowsky, P., Bowick, M. J., Meinke, J. H., Nelson, D. R. and Bausch, A. R. Nature Mater. 4, 407-411 (2005).

  11. Minimum Wind Dynamic Soaring Trajectories under Boundary Layer Thickness Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Gabriel; Triantafyllou, Michael; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic soaring is the flight technique where a glider, either avian or manmade, extracts its propulsive energy from the non-uniformity of horizontal winds. Albatrosses have been recorded to fly an impressive 5000 km/week at no energy cost of their own. In the sharp boundary layer limit, we show that the popular image, where the glider travels in a succession of half turns, is suboptimal for travel speed, airspeed, and soaring ability. Instead, we show that the strategy that maximizes the three criteria simultaneously is a succession of infinitely small arc-circles connecting transitions between the calm and windy layers. The model is consistent with the recordings of albatross flight patterns. This lowers the required wind speed for dynamic soaring by over 50% compared to previous beliefs. In the thick boundary layer limit, energetic considerations allow us to predict a minimum wind gradient necessary for sustained soaring consistent with numerical models.

  12. Gaussian estimates on networks with dynamic stochastic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordoni, Francesco; di Persio, Luca

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness for the solution to a stochastic reaction-diffusion equation, defined on a network, and subjected to nonlocal dynamic stochastic boundary conditions. The result is obtained by deriving a Gaussian-type estimate for the related leading semigroup, under rather mild regularity assumptions on the coefficients. An application of the latter to a stochastic optimal control problem on graphs, is also provided.

  13. Three dimensional dynamics of rotating structures under mixed boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bediz, Bekir; Romero, L. A.; Ozdoganlar, O. Burak

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the spectral-Tchebychev (ST) technique for solution of three dimensional (3D) dynamics of rotating structures. In particular, structures that exhibit coupled dynamic response require a 3D modeling approach to capture their dynamic behavior. Rotational motions further complicate this behavior, inducing coriolis, centrifugal softening, and (nonlinear) stress-stiffening effects. Therefore, a 3D solution approach is needed to accurately capture the rotational dynamics. The presented 3D-ST technique provides a fast-converging and precise solution approach for rotational dynamics of structures with complex geometries and mixed boundary conditions. Specifically, unlike finite elements techniques, the presented technique uses a series expansion approach considering distributed-parameter system equations: The integral boundary value problem for rotating structures is discretized using the spectral-Tchebychev approach. To simplify the domain of the structures, cross-sectional and rotational transformations are applied to problems with curved cross-section and pretwisted geometry. The nonlinear terms included in the integral boundary value problem are linearized around an equilibrium solution using the quasi-static method. As a result, mass, damping, and stiffness matrices, as well as a forcing vector, are obtained for a given rotating structure. Several case studies are then performed to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the 3D-ST solution. For each problem, the natural frequencies and modes shapes from the 3D-ST solution are compared to those from the literature (when available) and to those from a commercial finite elements software. The case studies include rotating/spinning parallelepipeds under free and mixed boundary conditions, and a cantilevered pretwisted beam (i.e., rotating blade) with an airfoil geometry rotating on a hub. It is seen that the natural frequencies and mode shapes from the 3D-ST technique differ from those from the

  14. A Poisson-Boltzmann dynamics method with nonperiodic boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Ray

    2003-12-01

    We have developed a well-behaved and efficient finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann dynamics method with a nonperiodic boundary condition. This is made possible, in part, by a rather fine grid spacing used for the finite difference treatment of the reaction field interaction. The stability is also made possible by a new dielectric model that is smooth both over time and over space, an important issue in the application of implicit solvents. In addition, the electrostatic focusing technique facilitates the use of an accurate yet efficient nonperiodic boundary condition: boundary grid potentials computed by the sum of potentials from individual grid charges. Finally, the particle-particle particle-mesh technique is adopted in the computation of the Coulombic interaction to balance accuracy and efficiency in simulations of large biomolecules. Preliminary testing shows that the nonperiodic Poisson-Boltzmann dynamics method is numerically stable in trajectories at least 4 ns long. The new model is also fairly efficient: it is comparable to that of the pairwise generalized Born solvent model, making it a strong candidate for dynamics simulations of biomolecules in dilute aqueous solutions. Note that the current treatment of total electrostatic interactions is with no cutoff, which is important for simulations of biomolecules. Rigorous treatment of the Debye-Hückel screening is also possible within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework: its importance is demonstrated by a simulation of a highly charged protein.

  15. Rainforest: Reptiles and Amphibians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Rainforest reptiles and amphibians are a vibrantly colored, multimedia art experience. To complete the entire project one may need to dedicate many class periods to production, yet in each aspect of the project a new and important skill, concept, or element is being taught or reinforced. This project incorporates the study of warm and cool color…

  16. Rainforest: Reptiles and Amphibians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Rainforest reptiles and amphibians are a vibrantly colored, multimedia art experience. To complete the entire project one may need to dedicate many class periods to production, yet in each aspect of the project a new and important skill, concept, or element is being taught or reinforced. This project incorporates the study of warm and cool color…

  17. Making Rainforests Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustbader, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching about tropical rainforests in a concrete way using what's outside the door. This activity uses an eastern deciduous hardwood forest as an example. Step-by-step instructions include introductory activities, plus descriptions of stations in the forest to be visited. Resources include books, audio-visual materials,…

  18. Making Rainforests Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustbader, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching about tropical rainforests in a concrete way using what's outside the door. This activity uses an eastern deciduous hardwood forest as an example. Step-by-step instructions include introductory activities, plus descriptions of stations in the forest to be visited. Resources include books, audio-visual materials,…

  19. Planetary boundary layer dynamics over the Amazon rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereiradeoliveira, Amauri

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the Amazon rain forest, in the area of the Amazon boundary layer experiment (ABLE) 2A and 2B experiments showed the existence of a low level circulation with low level nocturnal maxima winds. These circulations are shown to be induced by the thermal contrast between the river and the forest. A linear model was applied to identify the horizontal extent of these circulations and an associated perturbation pressure gradient consistent with the observations. A second order closure model was used to simulate changes in the PBL caused by the thermal circulation. Good agreement with the observations was obtained when the forcing was a horizontal pressure gradient equal to 0.5 mb/100km of limited vertical extent. The dynamics of the equatorial PBL was shown to be plausibly explained using a hypothesis of a river breeze circulation.

  20. Dynamic expression of a Hydra FGF at boundaries and termini.

    PubMed

    Lange, Ellen; Bertrand, Stephanie; Holz, Oliver; Rebscher, Nicole; Hassel, Monika

    2014-12-01

    Guidance of cells and tissue sheets is an essential function in developing and differentiating animal tissues. In Hydra, where cells and tissue move dynamically due to constant cell proliferation towards the termini or into lateral, vegetative buds, factors essential for guidance are still unknown. Good candidates to take over this function are fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). We present the phylogeny of several Hydra FGFs and analysis of their expression patterns. One of the FGFs is expressed in all terminal regions targeted by tissue movement and at boundaries crossed by moving tissue and cells with an expression pattern slightly differing in two Hydra strains. A model addressing an involvement of this FGF in cell movement and morphogenesis is proposed: Hydra FGFf-expressing cells might serve as sources to attract tissue and cells towards the termini of the body column and across morphological boundaries. Moreover, a function in morphogenesis and/or differentiation of cells and tissue is suggested.

  1. Dynamics of a gravitational billiard with a hyperbolic lower boundary.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M. L.; Miller, B. N.; Thompson, M. A.

    1999-12-01

    Gravitational billiards provide a simple method for the illustration of the dynamics of Hamiltonian systems. Here we examine a new billiard system with two parameters, which exhibits, in two limiting cases, the behaviors of two previously studied one-parameter systems, namely the wedge and parabolic billiard. The billiard consists of a point mass moving in two dimensions under the influence of a constant gravitational field with a hyperbolic lower boundary. An iterative mapping between successive collisions with the lower boundary is derived analytically. The behavior of the system during transformation from the wedge to the parabola is investigated for a few specific cases. It is surprising that the nature of the transformation depends strongly on the parameter values. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Dynamics of the Open Closed Field Line Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanswick, E.; Roy, E.; Nishimura, T.; Unick, C.; Jackel, B. J.; Donovan, E.

    2015-12-01

    In most cases, large-scale features of the auroral distribution are the projection, along magnetic field lines, of corresponding magnetospheric features. The poleward boundary of the oval is a key example of such a feature. At almost all local times, this is most often interpreted as the ionospheric marker of the latitudinal transition between open lobe and closed central plasma sheet field lines. Earlier work by Blanchard et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 1995 & 1997] used ground-based photometric observations of 630 nm "redline" aurora and in situ particle observations from simultaneous DMSP overflights to demonstrate that the poleward boundary of the redline aurora is a particularly robust signature of the poleward boundary of the plasma sheet. Owing to the orbits of the DMSP spacecraft and the relative newness of the photometer program (CANOPUS) that provided the optical observations, the Blanchard results represent a limited sampling of magnetic local time and a limited number of events. In this paper we revisit the Blanchard et al study, using particle data from the NASA FAST satellite and the DMSP program, together with redline observations obtained by ground-based All-Sky Imagers. Our results indicate that the Blanchard technique for identifying the polar cap boundary holds true for essentially all magnetic local times on the night side, but that the picture is more nuanced than previously appreciated. Here we present these results, and discuss specific examples where the technique does not work (and explore why). Furthermore, this work is motivated by a new extensive network of highly sensitive redline imagers that has been deployed across northern and central Canada which provides high time resolution large-scale snapshots of the instantaneous polar cap boundary. This in turn enables us to explore magnetospheric dynamics at the interface between the lobe and central plasma sheet in fundamentally new and exciting ways.

  3. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.

  4. Periodic boundary conditions for dislocation dynamics simulations in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V V; Rhee, M; Cai, W

    2000-11-20

    This article presents an implementation of periodic boundary conditions (PBC) for Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations in three dimensions (3D). We discuss fundamental aspects of PBC development, including preservation of translational invariance and line connectivity, the choice of initial configurations compatible with PBC and a consistent treatment of image stress. On the practical side, our approach reduces to manageable proportions the computational burden of updating the long-range elastic interactions among dislocation segments. The timing data confirms feasibility and practicality of PBC for large-scale DD simulations in 3D.

  5. On the relationship between grain-boundary migration and grain-boundary diffusion by molecular-dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfelder, B. |; Keblinski, P.; Wolf, D.; Phillpot, S.R.

    1998-07-01

    A molecular-dynamics method for the simulation of the intrinsic migration behavior of individual, flat grain boundaries is presented. A constant driving force for grain-boundary migration is generated by imposing an anisotropic elastic strain on a bicrystal such that the elastic-energy densities in its two halves are different. For the model case of the large-planar-unit-cell, high-angle (001) twist boundary in Cu the authors demonstrate that the drift velocity is proportional to the applied driving force, thus enabling determination of the boundary mobility. The activation energy for grain-boundary migration is found to be distinctly lower than that for grain-boundary self-diffusion. A decrease in the related activation energies with increasing temperature is shown to arise from a crossover in the underlying mechanisms, from solid-like at low temperatures to liquid-like at high-temperatures that is accompanied by an underlying grain-boundary structural transition.

  6. Dynamic relaxation of a liquid cavity under amorphous boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Andrea; Grigera, Tomás S; Verrocchio, Paolo

    2012-05-28

    The growth of cooperatively rearranging regions was invoked long ago by Adam and Gibbs to explain the slowing down of glass-forming liquids. The lack of knowledge about the nature of the growing order, though, complicates the definition of an appropriate correlation function. One option is the point-to-set (PTS) correlation function, which measures the spatial span of the influence of amorphous boundary conditions on a confined system. By using a swap Monte Carlo algorithm we measure the equilibration time of a liquid droplet bounded by amorphous boundary conditions in a model glass-former at low temperature, and we show that the cavity relaxation time increases with the size of the droplet, saturating to the bulk value when the droplet outgrows the point-to-set correlation length. This fact supports the idea that the point-to-set correlation length is the natural size of the cooperatively rearranging regions. On the other hand, the cavity relaxation time computed by a standard, nonswap dynamics, has the opposite behavior, showing a very steep increase when the cavity size is decreased. We try to reconcile this difference by discussing the possible hybridization between mode-coupling theory and activated processes, and by introducing a new kind of amorphous boundary conditions, inspired by the concept of frozen external state as an alternative to the commonly used frozen external configuration.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of He bubble nucleation at grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Yongfeng Zhang; Paul C Millett; Michael Tonks; Liangzhe Zhang; Bulent Biner

    2012-08-01

    The nucleation behavior of He bubbles in nano-grained body-centered-cubic (BCC) Mo is simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a bicrystal model, focusing on the effect of grain boundary (GB) structure. Three types of GBs, the (100) twist S29, the ?110? symmetrical tilt (tilt angle of 10.1?), and the (112) twin boundaries, are studied as representatives of random GB, low angle GB with misfit dislocations, and special sigma boundaries. With the same amount of He, more He clusters form in nano-grained Mo with smaller average size compared to that in bulk. The effects of the GB structure originate from the excess volume in GBs. Trapping by excess volume results in reduction in mobility of He atoms, which enhances the nucleation with higher density of bubbles, and impedes the growth of He bubbles by absorption of mobile He atoms. Furthermore, the distribution of excess volume in GBs determines the distribution of He clusters. The effect of GBs becomes less pronounced with increasing vacancy concentration in the matrix.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of laser-induced bubble near elastic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiu Mei; He, Jie; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao Wu

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a laser-generated single cavitation bubble near an elastic boundary is investigated by a fiber-optic diagnostic technique based on optical beam deflection (OBD). The maximum bubble radii and the bubble life-time for each oscillation cycle are determined according to the characteristic signals. It is shown that with the increase of the number of oscillating cycles, the maximum radii and the life-time of the bubble are decreased sharply. Furthermore, the effect of material elasticity on nonlinear dynamics of cavitation bubble has also been investigated in some detail. The maximum bubble size and thus the bubble life time decreases with an increase in elastic modulus. In addition, increasing elastic modulus leads to a significant decrease of the collapse amplitude and the bubble energy. These results are valuable in the fields of cavitation erosion, collateral damage in laser surgery, and cavitation-mediated enhancement of pulsed laser ablation of tissue.

  9. Rainforests and Rousseau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Marla

    2012-01-01

    One of the fifth-grade art-curriculum objectives is to create a relief print. In this era of budget cuts, the author was looking for a way for her students to meet this objective by making colorful prints without using a lot of expensive printing ink. She knew she wanted to use a rainforest animal theme, as well as share the colorful art of Henri…

  10. Rainforests and Rousseau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Marla

    2012-01-01

    One of the fifth-grade art-curriculum objectives is to create a relief print. In this era of budget cuts, the author was looking for a way for her students to meet this objective by making colorful prints without using a lot of expensive printing ink. She knew she wanted to use a rainforest animal theme, as well as share the colorful art of Henri…

  11. Onset of turbulent mean dynamics in boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamman, Curtis; Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz

    2012-11-01

    Statistical properties of turbulence in low Reynolds number boundary layers are compared. Certain properties are shown to approach an asymptotic state resembling higher Reynolds number flow much earlier during transition than previously thought. This incipient turbulence is less stochastic and more organized than developed turbulence farther downstream, but the mean dynamics and production mechanisms are remarkably similar. The onset of turbulence in our recent simulations is also similar to that observed in the bypass transition of Wu & Moin where continuous freestream turbulence, rather than small-amplitude linear waves, triggers transition. For these inflow disturbances, self-sustaining turbulence occurs rapidly after laminar flow breakdown without requiring a significant development length nor significant randomization. Slight disagreements with FST-induced bypass transition are observed that correlate with the extra strain a turbulent freestream would impose upon the near-wall dynamics. Nevertheless, the turbulence statistics are similar shortly after the skin-friction overshoot independent of upstream receptivity. This early onset of deterministic turbulence provides support for reduced-order modeling of turbulent boundary layers based on non-linear stability mechanisms.

  12. Open boundary molecular dynamics of sheared star-polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Sablić, Jurij; Praprotnik, Matej; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael

    2016-02-28

    Open boundary molecular dynamics (OBMD) simulations of a sheared star polymer melt under isothermal conditions are performed to study the rheology and molecular structure of the melt under a fixed normal load. Comparison is made with the standard molecular dynamics (MD) in periodic (closed) boxes at a fixed shear rate (using the SLLOD dynamics). The OBMD system exchanges mass and momentum with adjacent reservoirs (buffers) where the external pressure tensor is imposed. Insertion of molecules in the buffers is made feasible by implementing there a low resolution model (blob-molecules with soft effective interactions) and then using the adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) to connect with the bulk MD. Straining with increasing shear stress induces melt expansion and a significantly different redistribution of pressure compared with the closed case. In the open sample, the shear viscosity is also a bit lowered but more stable against the viscous heating. At a given Weissenberg number, molecular deformations and material properties (recoverable shear strain and normal stress ratio) are found to be similar in both setups. We also study the modelling effect of normal and tangential friction between monomers implemented in a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) thermostat. Interestingly, the tangential friction substantially enhances the elastic response of the melt due to a reduction of the kinetic stress viscous contribution.

  13. The Oldest, Slowest Rainforests in the World? Massive Biomass and Slow Carbon Dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides Temperate Forests in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Jalabert, Rocio; Malhi, Yadvinder; Lara, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and mean wood residence time in medium-age stands in the Alerce Costero National Park (AC) in the Coastal Range and in old-growth forests in the Alerce Andino National Park (AA) in the Andean Cordillera. Aboveground live biomass was 113-114 Mg C ha(-1) and 448-517 Mg C ha(-1) in AC and AA, respectively. Aboveground productivity was 3.35-3.36 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in AC and 2.22-2.54 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in AA, values generally lower than others reported for temperate wet forests worldwide, mainly due to the low woody growth of Fitzroya. NPP was 4.21-4.24 and 3.78-4.10 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in AC and AA, respectively. Estimated mean wood residence time was a minimum of 539-640 years for the whole forest in the Andes and 1368-1393 years for only Fitzroya in this site. Our biomass estimates for the Andes place these ecosystems among the most massive forests in the world. Differences in biomass production between sites seem mostly apparent as differences in allocation rather than productivity. Residence time estimates for Fitzroya are the highest reported for any species and carbon dynamics in these forests are the slowest reported for wet forests worldwide. Although primary productivity is low in Fitzroya forests, they probably act as ongoing biomass carbon sinks on long-term timescales due to their low mortality rates and exceptionally long residence times that allow biomass to be accumulated for millennia.

  14. The Oldest, Slowest Rainforests in the World? Massive Biomass and Slow Carbon Dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides Temperate Forests in Southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia-Jalabert, Rocio; Malhi, Yadvinder; Lara, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and mean wood residence time in medium-age stands in the Alerce Costero National Park (AC) in the Coastal Range and in old-growth forests in the Alerce Andino National Park (AA) in the Andean Cordillera. Aboveground live biomass was 113–114 Mg C ha-1 and 448–517 Mg C ha-1 in AC and AA, respectively. Aboveground productivity was 3.35–3.36 Mg C ha-1 year-1 in AC and 2.22–2.54 Mg C ha-1 year-1 in AA, values generally lower than others reported for temperate wet forests worldwide, mainly due to the low woody growth of Fitzroya. NPP was 4.21–4.24 and 3.78–4.10 Mg C ha-1 year-1 in AC and AA, respectively. Estimated mean wood residence time was a minimum of 539–640 years for the whole forest in the Andes and 1368–1393 years for only Fitzroya in this site. Our biomass estimates for the Andes place these ecosystems among the most massive forests in the world. Differences in biomass production between sites seem mostly apparent as differences in allocation rather than productivity. Residence time estimates for Fitzroya are the highest reported for any species and carbon dynamics in these forests are the slowest reported for wet forests worldwide. Although primary productivity is low in Fitzroya forests, they probably act as ongoing biomass carbon sinks on long-term timescales due to their low mortality rates and exceptionally long residence times that allow biomass to be accumulated for millennia. PMID:26353111

  15. Wake Dynamics in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.

    The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer processes over heterogeneous landscapes and complex terrain. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is a relatively thin (˜ 1 km) turbulent layer of air near the earth's surface, in which most human activities and engineered systems are concentrated. Its dynamics are crucially important for biosphere-atmosphere couplings and for global atmospheric dynamics, with significant implications on our ability to predict and mitigate adverse impacts of land use and climate change. In models of the ABL, land surface heterogeneity is typically represented, in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, as changes in aerodynamic roughness length and surface heat and moisture fluxes. However, many real landscapes are more complex, often leading to massive boundary layer separation and wake turbulence, for which standard models fail. Trees, building clusters, and steep topography produce extensive wake regions currently not accounted for in models of the ABL. Wind turbines and wind farms also generate wakes that combine in complex ways to modify the ABL. Wind farms are covering an increasingly significant area of the globe and the effects of large wind farms must be included in regional and global scale models. Research presented in this thesis demonstrates that wakes caused by landscape heterogeneity must be included in flux parameterizations for momentum, heat, and mass (water vapor and trace gases, e.g. CO2 and CH4) in ABL simulation and prediction models in order to accurately represent land-atmosphere interactions. Accurate representation of these processes is crucial for the predictions of weather, air quality, lake processes, and ecosystems response to climate change. Objectives of the research reported in this thesis are: 1) to investigate turbulent boundary layer adjustment, turbulent transport and scalar flux in wind farms of varying configurations and develop an improved

  16. Multiscale molecular dynamics using the matched interface and boundary method

    SciTech Connect

    Geng Weihua; Wei, G.W.

    2011-01-20

    The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is an established multiscale model for electrostatic analysis of biomolecules and other dielectric systems. PB based molecular dynamics (MD) approach has a potential to tackle large biological systems. Obstacles that hinder the current development of PB based MD methods are concerns in accuracy, stability, efficiency and reliability. The presence of complex solvent-solute interface, geometric singularities and charge singularities leads to challenges in the numerical solution of the PB equation and electrostatic force evaluation in PB based MD methods. Recently, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method has been utilized to develop the first second order accurate PB solver that is numerically stable in dealing with discontinuous dielectric coefficients, complex geometric singularities and singular source charges. The present work develops the PB based MD approach using the MIB method. New formulation of electrostatic forces is derived to allow the use of sharp molecular surfaces. Accurate reaction field forces are obtained by directly differentiating the electrostatic potential. Dielectric boundary forces are evaluated at the solvent-solute interface using an accurate Cartesian-grid surface integration method. The electrostatic forces located at reentrant surfaces are appropriately assigned to related atoms. Extensive numerical tests are carried out to validate the accuracy and stability of the present electrostatic force calculation. The new PB based MD method is implemented in conjunction with the AMBER package. MIB based MD simulations of biomolecules are demonstrated via a few example systems.

  17. Multiscale molecular dynamics using the matched interface and boundary method

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Weihua; Wei, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is an established multiscale model for electrostatic analysis of biomolecules and other dielectric systems. PB based molecular dynamics (MD) approach has a potential to tackle large biological systems. Obstacles that hinder the current development of PB based MD methods are concerns in accuracy, stability, efficiency and reliability. The presence of complex solvent-solute interface, geometric singularities and charge singularities leads to challenges in the numerical solution of the PB equation and electrostatic force evaluation in PB based MD methods. Recently, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method has been utilized to develop the first second order accurate PB solver that is numerically stable in dealing with discontinuous dielectric coefficients, complex geometric singularities and singular source charges. The present work develops the PB based MD approach using the MIB method. New formulation of electrostatic forces is derived to allow the use of sharp molecular surfaces. Accurate reaction field forces are obtained by directly differentiating the electrostatic potential. Dielectric boundary forces are evaluated at the solvent-solute interface using an accurate Cartesian-grid surface integration method. The electrostatic forces located at reentrant surfaces are appropriately assigned to related atoms. Extensive numerical tests are carried out to validate the accuracy and stability of the present electrostatic force calculation. The new PB based MD method is implemented in conjunction with the AMBER package. MIB based MD simulations of biomolecules are demonstrated via a few example systems. PMID:21088761

  18. Near-Earth plasma sheet boundary dynamics during substorm dipolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Birn, Joachim; Sergeev, Victor A.; Le Contel, Olivier; Varsani, Ali; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Takuma; Apatenkov, Sergey; Artemyev, Anton; Ergun, Robert E.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Giles, Barbara J.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Magnes, Werner; Mauk, Barry; Russell, Christopher T.; Singer, Howard J.; Stawarz, Julia; Strangeway, Robert J.; Anderson, Brian; Bromund, Ken R.; Fischer, David; Kepko, Laurence; Le, Guan; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Slavin, James A.; Cohen, Ian; Jaynes, Allison; Turner, Drew L.

    2017-09-01

    We report on the large-scale evolution of dipolarization in the near-Earth plasma sheet during an intense (AL -1000 nT) substorm on August 10, 2016, when multiple spacecraft at radial distances between 4 and 15 R E were present in the night-side magnetosphere. This global dipolarization consisted of multiple short-timescale (a couple of minutes) B z disturbances detected by spacecraft distributed over 9 MLT, consistent with the large-scale substorm current wedge observed by ground-based magnetometers. The four spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale were located in the southern hemisphere plasma sheet and observed fast flow disturbances associated with this dipolarization. The high-time-resolution measurements from MMS enable us to detect the rapid motion of the field structures and flow disturbances separately. A distinct pattern of the flow and field disturbance near the plasma boundaries was found. We suggest that a vortex motion created around the localized flows resulted in another field-aligned current system at the off-equatorial side of the BBF-associated R1/R2 systems, as was predicted by the MHD simulation of a localized reconnection jet. The observations by GOES and Geotail, which were located in the opposite hemisphere and local time, support this view. We demonstrate that the processes of both Earthward flow braking and of accumulated magnetic flux evolving tailward also control the dynamics in the boundary region of the near-Earth plasma sheet.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Rainforest Depiction in Children's Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how rainforests are portrayed in children's resources. Twenty books and 12 websites on rainforests, designed for pupils aged between 9 and 14 years, were examined to determine the types and range of animals depicted and how plant life in general is portrayed. The most commonly depicted animal was the orang-utan and other…

  20. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  1. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  2. Rainforest Depiction in Children's Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how rainforests are portrayed in children's resources. Twenty books and 12 websites on rainforests, designed for pupils aged between 9 and 14 years, were examined to determine the types and range of animals depicted and how plant life in general is portrayed. The most commonly depicted animal was the orang-utan and other…

  3. Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics Over the Amazon Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Amauri Pereira De.

    1990-02-01

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) over the Amazon rain forest, in the area of the ABLE 2A and 2B experiments showed the existence of a low level circulation with low level nocturnal maxima winds. These circulations are shown to be induced by the thermal contrast between the river and the forest. A linear model was applied to identify the horizontal extent of these circulations and an associated perturbation pressure gradient consistent with the observations. A second order closure model was used to simulate changes in the PBL caused by the thermal circulation. Good agreement with the observations was obtained when the forcing was a horizontal pressure gradient equal to 0.5 mb/100km of limited vertical extent. The dynamics of the equatorial PBL was shown to be plausibly explained using a hypothesis of a river breeze circulation.

  4. Dynamical properties of nucleus boundaries in photoinduced structural change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Kunio; Nasu, Keiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of the boundaries of photoinduced nuclei in electron-phonon systems is theoretically studied. By regarding the spatial distribution of the excited electronic state population as a geometric pattern, we applied the multifractal analysis to it and calculated the temporal behavior of the fractal dimension f(α) as a function of the Lipschitz-Hölder exponent α, which is an appropriate method for understanding the cooperative relaxation process of photoexcited states. We found that the incubation period observed in various types of photoinduced cooperative phenomena corresponds to the formation of embryonic nuclei which is driven by nonadiabatic/adiabatic transition between electronic states during the relaxation of the Franck-Condon state.

  5. Dynamics of boundary layer electrons around a laser wakefield bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J.; Chen, M.; Zhang, G.-B.; Yuan, T.; Yu, J.-Y.; Shen, Z.-C.; Yu, L.-L.; Weng, S.-M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of electrons forming the boundary layer of a highly nonlinear laser wakefield driven in the so called bubble or blowout regime is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that when the driver pulse intensity increases or the focal spot size decreases, a significant amount of electrons initially pushed by the laser pulse can detach from the bubble structure at its tail, middle, or front and form particular classes of waves locally with high densities, referred to as the tail wave, lateral wave, and bow wave. The tail wave and bow wave correspond to real electron trajectories, while the lateral wave does not. The detached electrons can be ejected transversely, containing considerable energy, and reducing the efficiency of the laser wakefield accelerator. Some of the transversely emitted electrons may obtain MeV level energy. These electrons can be used for wake evolution diagnosis and producing high frequency radiation.

  6. Equilibrium boundary conditions, dynamic vacuum energy, and the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2008-10-15

    The near-zero value of the cosmological constant {lambda} in an equilibrium context may be due to the existence of a self-tuning relativistic vacuum variable q. Here, a cosmological nonequilibrium context is considered with a corresponding time-dependent cosmological parameter {lambda}(t) or vacuum energy density {rho}{sub V}(t). A specific model of a closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe is presented, which is determined by equilibrium boundary conditions at one instant of time (t=t{sub eq}) and a particular form of vacuum-energy dynamics (d{rho}{sub V}/dt{proportional_to}{rho}{sub M}). This homogeneous and isotropic model has a standard big bang phase at early times (t<

  7. Dynamics of Nanoscale Grain-Boundary Decohesion in Aluminum by Molecular-Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Phillips, D. R.; Glaessegen, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics and energetics of intergranular crack growth along a flat grain boundary in aluminum is studied by a molecular-dynamics simulation model for crack propagation under steady-state conditions. Using the ability of the molecular-dynamics simulation to identify atoms involved in different atomistic mechanisms, it was possible to identify the energy contribution of different processes taking place during crack growth. The energy contributions were divided as: elastic energy, defined as the potential energy of the atoms in fcc crystallographic state; and plastically stored energy, the energy of stacking faults and twin boundaries; grain-boundary and surface energy. In addition, monitoring the amount of heat exchange with the molecular-dynamics thermostat gives the energy dissipated as heat in the system. The energetic analysis indicates that the majority of energy in a fast growing crack is dissipated as heat. This dissipation increases linearly at low speed, and faster than linear at speeds approaching 1/3 the Rayleigh wave speed when the crack tip becomes dynamically unstable producing periodic dislocation bursts until the crack is blunted.

  8. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  9. >From geometry to dynamics of microstructure: using boundary lengths to quantify boundary misorientations and anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, John; Jiang, Z.; Prior, D. J.; Tullis, J.; Drury, M. R.; Trimby, P. W.

    2003-11-01

    The microstructure of a quartzite experimentally deformed and partially recrystallised at 900 °C, 1.2 GPa confining pressure and strain rate 10 -6/s was investigated using orientation contrast and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Boundaries between misoriented domains (grains or subgrains) were determined by image analysis of orientation contrast images. In each domain, EBSD measurements gave the complete quartz lattice orientation and enabled calculation of misorientation angles across every domain boundary. Results are analysed in terms of the boundary density, which for any range of misorientations is the boundary length for that range divided by image area. This allows a more direct comparison of misorientation statistics between different parts of a sample than does a treatment in terms of boundary number. The strain in the quartzite sample is heterogeneous. A 100×150 μm low-strain partially recrystallised subarea C was compared with a high-strain completely recrystallised subarea E. The density of high-angle (>10°) boundaries in E is roughly double that in C, reflecting the greater degree of recrystallisation. Low-angle boundaries in C and E are produced by subgrain rotation. In the low-angle range 0-10° boundary densities in both C and E show an exponential decrease with increasing misorientation. The densities scale with exp(- θ/ λ) where λ is approximately 2° in C and 1° in E; in other words, E has a comparative dearth of boundaries in the 8-10° range. We explain this dearth in terms of mobile high-angle boundaries sweeping through and consuming low-angle boundaries as the latter increase misorientation through time. In E, the density of high-angle boundaries is larger than in C, so this sweeping would have been more efficient and could explain the relative paucity of 8-10° boundaries. The boundary density can be generalised to a directional property that gives the degree of anisotropy of the boundary network and its preferred

  10. Characterising coarse PBA dynamics in real-time above and below a tropical rainforest canopy using a dual channel UV fluorescence aerosol spectrometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabey, A.; Gallagher, M. W.; Burgess, R.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.,; Kaye, P. H.; Stanley, W. R.; Davies, F.; Foot, V. E.

    2009-04-01

    single-particle dual channel UV fluorescence spectrometer (Kaye et al., 2008) capable of detecting PBA by inducing fluorescence in two so-called biofluorophores - one present during metabolism and the other an amino acid - in the particle size range 1 m < Dp < 20 m. Real-time PBA measurements were performed above and below the canopy of a tropical rainforest in Borneo, Malaysia as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects. PBA were found to dominate the coarse loading at Dp > 2 m. In qualitative agreement with measurements of culturable airborne material in a tropical forest's understory (Gilbert, 2005) a diurnal cycle of PBA number concentration is present, reaching a maximum of ~4000 l-1 at local midnight and falling to ~100 l-1 around midday. The role of the planetary boundary layer's collapse and re-establishment in dictating this variation in is also investigated using LIDAR data. Transient PBA concentration spikes lasting several minutes are superposed on the smooth underlying diurnal variation and occur at similar times each day. Nucleopore filter samples were also taken in-situ and analysed under an Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) in Manchester. The images obtained showed the PBA fraction to be dominated by fungal spores of diameter 2-5 m, from various species including ABM. Since such species tend to release spores in bursts at regular times this appears to account for the PBA concentration spikes.

  11. On the Wave Equation with Hyperbolic Dynamical Boundary Conditions, Interior and Boundary Damping and Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitillaro, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the problem u_{tt}-Δ u+P(x,u_t)=f(x,u) quad & in (0,∞)×Ω, u=0 & on (0,∞)× Γ_0, u_{tt}+partial_ν u-Δ_Γ u+Q(x,u_t)=g(x,u)quad & on (0,∞)× Γ_1, u(0,x)=u_0(x),quad u_t(0,x)=u_1(x) & in overline Ω, where {Ω} is a open bounded subset of R^N with C 1 boundary ({N ≥ 2}), {Γ = partialΩ}, {(Γ0,Γ1)} is a measurable partition of {Γ}, {Δ_{Γ}} denotes the Laplace-Beltrami operator on {Γ}, {ν} is the outward normal to {Ω}, and the terms P and Q represent nonlinear damping terms, while f and g are nonlinear subcritical perturbations. In the paper a local Hadamard well-posedness result for initial data in the natural energy space associated to the problem is given. Moreover, when {Ω} is C 2 and {overline{Γ0} \\cap overline{Γ1} = emptyset}, the regularity of solutions is studied. Next a blow-up theorem is given when P and Q are linear and f and g are superlinear sources. Finally a dynamical system is generated when the source parts of f and g are at most linear at infinity, or they are dominated by the damping terms.

  12. Application of boundary integral equations for analyzing the dynamics of elastic, viscoelastic, and poroelastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, A. A.; Igumnov, L. A.; Litvinchuk, S. Yu.; Metrikin, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    Two approaches (classical and nonclassical) of the boundary integral equation method for solving three-dimensional dynamical boundary value problems of elasticity, viscoelasticity, and poroelasticity are considered. The boundary integral equation model is used for porous materials. The Kelvin-Voigt model and the weakly singular hereditary Abel kernel are used to describe the viscoelastic properties. Both approaches permit solving the dynamic problems exactly not only in the isotropic but also in the anisotropic case. The boundary integral equation solution scheme is constructed on the basis of the boundary element technique. The numerical results obtained by the classical and nonclassical approaches are compared.

  13. Halogenated organic species over the tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Colomb, A.; Hofmann, R.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne measurements of the halogenated trace gases methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean and 1000 km of pristine tropical rainforest in Suriname and French Guyana (3-6° N, 51-59° W) in October 2005. In the boundary layer (0-1.4 km), maritime air masses initially low in forest hydrocarbons, advected over the forest by southeasterly trade winds, were measured at various distances from the coast. Since the organohalogens presented here have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes (0.4-1.0 years) in comparison to the transport times (1-2 days), emissions will accumulate in air traversing the rainforest. The distributions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were analyzed as a function of forest contact time and the respective relationship used to determine fluxes from the rainforest during the long dry season. Emission fluxes have been calculated for methyl chloride and chloroform as 9.4 (±4.0 2σ) and 0.34 (0.14± 2σ) μg m-2 h-1, respectively. No significant flux from the rainforest was observed for methyl bromide within the limits of these measurements. The flux of methyl chloride was in general agreement with the flux measured over the same region in March 1998 during the LBA Claire project using a different analytical system. This confirms that the rainforest is a strong source for methyl chloride and suggests that this emission is relatively uniform throughout the year. In contrast the chloroform flux derived here is a factor of three less than previous measurements made in March 1998 suggesting a pronounced ecosystem variation. The differences in chloroform fluxes could not be attributed to either temperature or rainfall changes. The global extrapolation of the derived fluxes led to 1.5 (±0.6 2σ) Tg yr-1 for methyl chloride, which is in the range of the missing source postulated by previous model studies and 55 (±22 2σ) Gg yr-1 for chloroform.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary migration during recrystallization employing tilt and twist dislocation boundaries to provide the driving pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godiksen, R. B. N.; Schmidt, S.; Jensen, D. Juul

    2008-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary migration, where the driving pressure P is the excess stored energy due to dislocation structures, have been performed. This represents recrystallization in metals. Two types of dislocation structures have been simulated: (a) tilt dislocation boundaries, where edge dislocations are arranged as parallel arrays, (b) twist dislocation boundaries, where screw dislocations are arranged in interconnected dislocation networks. The velocity v and mobility M of the migrating grain boundaries have been calculated from the simulations. v and M are higher in twist-type simulations than in tilt-type simulations, although the activation energies are similar in the two cases. v ~ P is observed for tilt simulations where the driving pressure is changed by varying the density of dislocation boundaries and for twist simulations where the driving pressure is changed by varying the misorientation across dislocation boundaries. When the misorientations across edge dislocation boundaries are varied, however, the simulations show v ~ P2. It is suggested that this deviation from the usual v ~ P-relationship is due to local interactions between the grain boundary and nearby individual dislocations. Misorientation variations across grain boundaries have also been simulated, but the mobilities show little dependence on this. The present simulations result in mobilities and activation energies that are, respectively, significantly higher and somewhat lower than experimental values. A direct mimic of experimental observations is, however not the purpose of this study. Rather the present simulations are based on idealized dislocation structures and suggest that variations in the dislocation structures may play a dominant role in recrystallization dynamics and that local effects are very important phenomena, essential for the interpretation of recrystallization mechanisms.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundaries in thin nanocrystalline silicon films

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, G.P.; Doolen, G.D.; Mainieri, R.; Campbell, D.K.; Luchnikov, V.A. |

    1997-10-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, the grain boundaries in thin polycrystalline silicon films (considered as promising material for future nanoelectronic devices) are investigated. It is shown that in polysilicon film with randomly oriented grains the majority of grain boundaries are disordered. However, some grains with small mutual orientation differences can form extended crystalline patterns. The structure of the grain boundaries satisfies the thermodynamical criterion. The majority of atoms in the grain boundaries are tetrahedrally coordinated with the nearest neighbors, even though the grain boundaries are disordered. The grain boundary matter is characterized as an amorphous phase with a characteristic tetragonality value.

  16. Neural dynamics in Parkinsonian brain: The boundary between synchronized and nonsynchronized dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M.; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.

    2011-04-01

    Synchronous oscillatory dynamics is frequently observed in the human brain. We analyze the fine temporal structure of phase-locking in a realistic network model and match it with the experimental data from Parkinsonian patients. We show that the experimentally observed intermittent synchrony can be generated just by moderately increased coupling strength in the basal ganglia circuits due to the lack of dopamine. Comparison of the experimental and modeling data suggest that brain activity in Parkinson's disease resides in the large boundary region between synchronized and nonsynchronized dynamics. Being on the edge of synchrony may allow for easy formation of transient neuronal assemblies.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of He bubble nucleation at grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Millett, Paul C; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Liangzhe; Biner, Bulent

    2012-08-01

    The nucleation behavior of He bubbles in single-crystal (sc) and nano-grain body-centered-cubic (bcc) Mo is simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, focusing on the effects of the grain boundary (GB) structure. In sc Mo, the nucleation behavior of He bubbles depends on irradiation conditions. He bubbles nucleate by either clustering of He atoms with pre-existing vacancies or self-interstitial-atom (SIA) punching without initial vacancies. In nano-grain Mo, strong precipitation of He at the GBs is observed, and the density, size and spatial distribution of He bubbles vary with the GB structure. The corresponding He bubble density is higher in nano-grain Mo than that in sc Mo and the average bubble size is smaller. In the GB plane, He bubbles distribute along the dislocation cores for GBs consisting of GB dislocations and randomly for those without distinguishable dislocation structures. The simulation results in nano-grain Mo are in agreement with previous experiments in metal nano-layers, and they are further explained by the effect of excess volume associated with the GBs.

  18. Structure and dynamics of Saturn's outer magnetosphere and boundary regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1983-01-01

    In 1979-1981, the three USA spacecraft Pioneer 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 discovered and explored the magnetosphere of Saturn to the limited extent possible on flyby trajectories. Considerable variation in the locations of the bow shock (BS) and magnetopause (MP) surfaces were observed in association with variable solar wind conditions and, during the Voyager 2 encounter, possible immersion in Jupiter's distant magnetic tail. The limited number of BS and MP crossings were concentrated near the subsolar region and the dawn terminator, and that fact, together with the temporal variability, makes it difficult to assess the three dimensional shape of the sunward magnetospheric boundary. The combined BS and MP crossing positions from the three spacecraft yield an average BS-to-MP stagnation point distance ratio of 1.29 +/- 0.10. This is near the 1.33 value for the Earth's magnetosphere, implying a similar sunward shape at Saturn. Study of the structure and dynamical behavior of the outer magnetosphere, both in the sunward hemisphere and the magnetotail region using combined plasma and magnetic field data, suggest that Saturn's magnetosphere is more similar to that of Earth than that of Jupiter.

  19. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James; Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  20. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  1. The dynamic variability of dissolved and particulate organic matter and nutrients in a changing tropical rainforest: First results from a new geochemical program in northern Amazonia, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, R.; Bovolo, I.; Parkin, G.; Wagner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Current knowledge suggests that the two largest threats to ecosystems are changes in land use and climate variability. Focussing on the tropics, these changes put an immediate threat on the health and fate of rainforest ecosystems. It has been shown for Amazonia that natural seasonal variability when linked to transitional periods of extreme weather events, can trigger an almost instantaneous and large increase in the release of nutrients and carbon from soils into rivers driven by variation in precipitation (Raymond, 2005; Mayorga et al., 2005). A new hydrology and climate monitoring program at the Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development in Guyana will investigate the ability of the rainforest and its soils to generate, store and recycle carbon, nutrients and water over a multi-year period; and to address the issue of the forests response to combined natural and anthropogenic induced change. It is important to establish the range of variability between wet and dry seasons, thereby characterising the current state of the forest and how it responds to external forcing. A detailed understanding of the quality and cycling of key soil properties, including carbon and nutrients, is critical to assess the status and potential change of forest vegetation and ecosystems. Comparisons of the processes and impacts of natural climate variability and forestry activity in pristine and sustainably used forest areas will be made. We introduce the conceptual strategy and experimental design of the new research program and present first geochemical results based on field work in March and July 2010 comparing dry and wet seasons. The preliminary analyses of elemental and spectrophotometric (UV-absorbance) data generated from top soil, river water and river bed sediments from the Burro Burro River transect through pristine and managed forest will be presented. The data will be used to assess the nature and variability of low and high molecular

  2. A Boundary Integral Approach for Three-Dimensional Underwater Explosion Bubble Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    AD-A252 412 TECHNICAL REPORT BRL-TR-3365 BRL A BOUNDARY INTEGRAL APPROACH FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL UNDERWATER EXPLOSION BUBBLE DYNAMICS STEPHEN...Dimensional Underwater Explosion Bubble Dynamics______________________________________________ 1I162618BAH80 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen Wikerson 7...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The development of a numerical solution for three-dimensional underwater explosion bubble dynamics using the Boundary Integral

  3. Trench and forearc dynamics of the Chilean subduction plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrmann, J.; Geersen, J.

    2016-12-01

    This contribution is a review of the trench and forearc dynamics of the Chilean subduction plate boundary that has seen episodes of empty trench/subduction erosion and sedimented trench/subduction accretion. This is shown in high-resolution swath bathymetric data collected over the last two decades between 19°S and 46°S. Offshore Northern Chile a very rough lower plate with practically no sediment cover is subducted, giving rise to steady-state forearc consumption. Marked structural elements in the marine forearc are seaward and landward-dipping normal faults, in some places occurring all the way to the trench. The leading edge of the overriding plate shows milling down of basement rocks and mélange formation before subduction. Off Southern Chile there is intermittent forearc building and destruction in response to (1) time-space shifts in sediment delivery to the trench and (2) subduction of large topographic features. Submarine mass wasting with some of the largest known slumps on Earth, is seen all along the margin, and locally contributes much of the trench fill especially where sedimentation rates are high. Frontal sediment accretion to the overriding plate is primarily a function of denudation in the hinterland and, thus, sediment availability. Available mass balance estimates suggest that in areas of subduction erosion the rate of forearc destruction may be around one centimeter per year. Where there is at least intermittent sediment accretion, rates of forearc growth may be equally high. However, much of the trench fill is subducted even in accretionary settings. Comparable margins do not seem to show such staggered patterns of subduction erosion and accretion even though some sediment is offered to the trench, and subduction of topographic features punctuates forearc evolution. Thus, the Chile case stands out as being quite unique, but is a showcase example to explain time-space patterns of accretion and upper plate destruction in fossil subduction

  4. Current Dynamics of Estuarine Circulation in the Lateral Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudsepp, U.

    1998-12-01

    High spatial resolution measurements of current velocity performed by the shipboard mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) in the lateral boundary layer of the southern Gulf of Finland during two 5-day periods are described and analysed with a focus on the dominant dynamics. The measurement site represents a small (15×20 km), relatively deep (up to 100 m) bay opened to large-scale estuarine circulation. The measurement period was characterized by calm winds and a strong seasonal pycnocline (Brunt-Väisälä frequencyN=6-9*10-2 s-1). The quasi-steady velocity field revealed polarization of currents along the shore whereas an intensive baroclinic coastal jet was observed over a cross-shore scale of 1-2 km. The level of vertical separation of the alongshore flow coincided with the pycnocline at the coast, but was shifted below it in the offshore region. The cross-shore flow was considerably weaker and showed a three-layer structure with an opposite phase between the first and second surveys. It is suggested that the observed jet resembles a non-locally forced eastward propagating coastally trapped wave. In the offshore area the alongshore flow field satisfies local geostrophic balance quite well, except in the pycnocline where strong vertical stratification exerts considerable vertical stress. As vertical velocity shear is well correlated with vertical stratification, the horizontal advection prevails over vertical mixing. Horizontal inhomogeneities of density distribution are partly explained by vertical velocities with an estimated magnitude of less than 0·6 mm/s and the spatial pattern following bottom topography.

  5. Contextualising impacts of logging on tropical rainforest catchment sediment dynamics and source processes using the stratigraphic record of an in-channel bench deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, W. H.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Annammala, K. V.

    2012-04-01

    While rivers draining tropical rainforested catchments are considered to be relatively stable in terms of their hydrological regime, forest disturbance due to logging can lead to extreme, non-linear responses in both flow and sediment load. With growing concern regarding the downstream impacts of enhanced sediment loads and, in particular in tropical regions, the impacts on coastal habitats, data are required to set recent human impacts on drainage basin response into a longer-term natural response context. Landforms that are constructed incrementally by fluvial processes offer sedimentary archives of river basin sediment responses to disturbance. In this regard, floodplain deposits have been used extensively, but less attention has focussed on mid-catchment lateral channel bench deposits. This study reports the stratigraphic record of a mid-catchment lateral bench deposit in the rotationally logged Segama catchment in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Accretion rates derived from fallout radionuclide depth profiles (excess Pb-210 and Cs-137) indicate a significant increase in accretion rates since the 1980s when logging operations began and peaks in accretion match known periods of intensive disturbance. Within this framework, downcore profiles of mineral magnetic and geochemical properties are used to infer switches in sediment source from surface/near-surface (slopewash and pipe erosion) to deeper subsurface (landslide) processes in line with the impact of logging operations. The wider role of in-channel bench deposits as sediment stores in disturbed tropical rainforest catchments is considered.

  6. Structure and Dynamics of the Arizona Monsoon Boundary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    into southcentral Mexico and interacting with the northern portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). In Figure 6.9, a portion of that...off the Mexican coast) than indicated by Bryson and Hare; however, the concept of a convergence zone is clearly indicated. This boundary separating...a correspondingly warmer and lower stratosphere. The monsoon boundary, therefore, is also a zone separating a region with a deep troposphere from one

  7. Boundary-induced dynamics in one-dimensional topological systems and memory effects of edge modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics induced by a change of boundary conditions reveals rate-dependent signatures associated with topological properties in one-dimensional Kitaev chain and SSH model. While the perturbation from a change of the boundary propagates into the bulk, the density of topological edge modes in the case of transforming to open boundary condition reaches steady states. The steady-state density depends on the transformation rate of the boundary and serves as an illustration of quantum memory effects in topological systems. Moreover, while a link is physically broken as the boundary condition changes, some correlation functions can remain finite across the broken link and keep a record of the initial condition. By testing those phenomena in the nontopological regimes of the two models, none of the interesting signatures of memory effects can be observed. Our results thus contrast the importance of topological properties in boundary-induced dynamics.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of grain-boundary diffusion of vacancies in bcc iron

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, T.; Ho, P. S.; Yip, S.; Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.; Brokman, A.

    1981-06-01

    The jumping of vacancies in a bcc iron ..sigma.. = 5 tilt boundary was simulated by computer molecular dynamics. The data yielded a reasonable value of the activation energy for migration and showed that the jump processes are highly structure-dependent. The use of a temperature dependent transition probability matrix to describe the diffusion of the vacancies in the grain boundary is suggested. Formation of one type of boundary interstitial was observed which was found to be immobile.

  9. Gradient Divergence of Fluid-Dynamic Quantities in Rarefied Gases on Smooth Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Shigeru; Taguchi, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of fluid-dynamic (or macroscopic) quantities of rarefied gases is studied, with a special interest in its non-analytic feature near boundaries. It is shown that their gradients normal to the boundary diverge even if the boundary is smooth, irrespective of the value of the (nonzero) Knudsen number. The boundary geometry determines the diverging rate. On a planar or concave boundary, the logarithmic divergence ln s should be observed, where s is the normal distance from the boundary. In other cases, the diverging rate is enhanced to be the inverse-power s^{-1/n}, where n({≥ }2) is the degree of the dominant terms of the polynomial which locally represents the boundary. Some numerical demonstrations are given as well.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary thermal resistance in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Tianyi Chen; Di Chen; Bulent H. Sencer; Lin Shao

    2014-09-01

    By means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have calculated Kaptiza resistance of UO2 with or without radiation damage. For coincident site lattice boundaries of different configurations, the boundary thermal resistance of unirradiated UO2 can be well described by a parameter-reduced formula by using boundary energies as variables. We extended the study to defect-loaded UO2 by introducing damage cascades in close vicinity to the boundaries. Following cascade annealing and defect migrations towards grain boundaries, the boundary energy increases and so does Kaptiza resistance. The correlations between these two still follow the same formula extracted from the unirradiated UO2. The finding will benefit multi-scale modeling of UO2 thermal properties under extreme radiation conditions by combining effects from boundary configurations and damage levels.

  11. Dynamics of turbulent western-boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow-water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuetevi, C. Q. C.; Wirth, A.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western-boundary currents (WBCs) crossing the Equator are considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced-gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s-1 and greater, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in the form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer, VSL) and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the VSL, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity; the second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. Characteristic scales of the dynamics and dissipation are determined. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse-resolution numerical models is proposed.

  12. The Topology of Non-Linear Global Carbon Dynamics: From Tipping Points to Planetary Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S.; Steffen, W.; Rockstrom, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper develops a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and explores the relationship between nonlinear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover, terrestrial carbon stocks and atmospheric carbon stocks are considered. The goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual earth system, but rather, to construct a conceptually reasonable representation of a feedback system between different carbon stores like that of the actual earth system and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ``safe operating space'' for humans. We explore the topology of our Earth System model using stability analysis and numerical bifurcation techniques. The analysis of the model illustrates the potential complexity of planetary boundaries and highlights some challenges associated with navigating them. More specifically, recent work has focused on planetary boundaries in atmospheric carbon, phosphorous, etc. This paper analyzes how such boundaries interact in an earth system model. We present a simple heuristic model that helps organize questions and explore interactions regarding carbon dynamics and land-use change. The main points that emerge from the analysis are: 1) planetary boundaries can be topologically complex and difficult to measure in practice, 2) Non-linear feedbacks can cause planetary boundaries to move rapidly, 3) Climate change policy should move beyond the simple notion of tipping points and move toward the conceptually richer notion of basin boundaries of attractors consistent with a safe operating space for humans.

  13. On global solutions for quasilinear one-dimensional parabolic problems with dynamical boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvelesiani, Simon; Lippoth, Friedrich; Walker, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    We provide sufficient and almost optimal conditions for global existence of classical solutions in parabolic Hölder spaces to quasilinear one-dimensional parabolic problems with dynamical boundary conditions.

  14. On the grain boundary character distribution of Incoloy 800H during dynamic recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Di, Hongshuang; Huang, Guangjie

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigated the influence of hot deformation parameters on the distribution and proliferation of twin boundaries during dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The results showed that microstructure evolution is characterized by a process of ;dynamic recovery (DRV)→necklace/multiple necklace→fully DRX; with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. The predominant proliferation mechanism of Σ3n (1 ≤ n ≤ 3) boundaries is transformed from Σ3 regeneration to new twinning during the growth of DRX grains.

  15. Molecular-dynamic investigation of the interaction of vacancies with symmetrical tilt grain boundaries in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckman, A. V.; Demyanov, B. F.; Dragunov, A. S.

    2015-06-01

    The molecular-dynamic method has been used to study the interaction of lattice vacancies with symmetrical grain boundaries (GBs) in aluminum. The fraction of trapped vacancies has been found to depend linearly on the distance to the GB plane. The average velocity of the vacancy migration toward the boundary decreases exponentially with an increase in the distance between the GB plane and vacancy. The radius of the region of trapping of a vacancy by the boundary is limited to two to three lattice parameters and grows with an increase in temperature. Four types of boundaries, which are characterized by different capability for the trapping of vacancies, have been determined.

  16. Complex dynamics of a boundary layer with free stream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Nicole; Neuscamman, Stephanie; Warhaft, Zellman

    2008-11-01

    Boundary layers in nature and in engineering applications often occur with turbulent free streams above them. Previous work by Hancock and Bradshaw (JFM, 205, 1989), Thole and Bogard (J. Fluids Eng., 118, 1996), and others has shown that free stream turbulence affects the statistics of a boundary layer significantly. In the present wind tunnel study using hot wire anemometry, a flat plate generates a boundary layer that is subjected to a variety of free stream turbulence conditions using active and passive grids. The free stream varies in turbulence intensity from 0.25% to 11% and in free stream turbulent Taylor- scale Reynolds number from 20 to 550. The ratio of the free stream length scale to the boundary layer thickness is also varied. Spectral data reveal a double-peaked energy spectrum, indicating the interaction of two different, major length scales. The double peak develops as the plate is approached from the free stream, and, though the feature is most pronounced at higher free stream Reynolds numbers, it is also evident at very low free stream turbulence intensities. This work was supported by the US NSF.

  17. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics.

    PubMed

    Videler, J J

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, scales, riblets and roughness may influence the flow velocity gradient, the type of flow and the thickness of the boundary layer around animals, and may seriously affect their drag in a positive or negative way. The long-chain polymers found in mucus decrease the pressure gradient and considerably reduced drag due to friction. The effect is probably due to channelling of the flow particles in the direction of the main flow, resulting in a reduction of turbulence. Compliant surfaces could probably reduce drag by equalising and distributing pressure pulses. However, the existing evidence that drag reduction actually occurs is not convincing. There is no indication that instantaneous heating, reducing the viscosity in the boundary layer, is used by animals as a drag-reducing technique. Small longitudinal ridges on rows of scales on fish can reduce shear stress in the boundary by a maximum of 10% compared with the shear stress of a smooth surface. The mechanism is based on the impedance of cross flow under well-defined conditions. The effect has been visualized with the use of particle image velocimetry techniques. The function of the swords and spears of several fast, pelagic, predatory fish species is still enigmatic. The surface structure of the sword of a swordfish is shown to be both rough and porous. The height of the roughness elements on the tip of the sword is close to the critical value for the induction of a laminar-to-turbulent flow transition at moderate cruising speeds. A flow tank is described that is designed to visualize the effects of surface imperfections on flow in the boundary layer in direct comparison with a smooth flat wall. The flow in a 1 m long, 10 cm

  18. Dynamics of the penetration boundaries of solar protons during a strong magnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glukhov, G. A.; Kratenko, Y. P.; Mineev, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    The variations in the equatorial penetration boundary of solar protons with E sub p = 0.9 to 8.0 MeV during a strong magnetic storm of April 3 to 5, were analyzed. The dynamics of this boundary is compared with the dynamics of the outer trapping boundary of electrons with E sub e = - 0.3 to 0.6 MeV. The solar-proton penetration and the structure of the real magnetic field are studied. The unique data on the thin structure of development of a magnetospheric substorm were obtained for the first time.

  19. Contrasting Strategies of Tree Function in a Seasonal Amazon Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R.; Agee, E.; Brum, M., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Fatichi, S.; Ewing, G.

    2015-12-01

    The increased frequency and severity of drought conditions in the Amazon Basin region have emphasized the question of rainforest vulnerability and resilience to heat and drought-induced stresses. However, what emerges from much research is that the impacts of droughts, essential controlling factors of the rainforest function, and variability of tree-scale strategies are yet to be fully understood. We present here a preliminary analysis of hydraulic relations of a seasonal Amazon rainforest using a set of ecohydrologic data collected through the GoAmazon project over dry and wet seasons. Expressions of different hydraulic strategies are identified that convey different implications for tree resilience during short- (diurnal) and longer-term (seasonal) stress periods. These hydraulic strategies appear to be inter-related with the tree growth and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics, contributing to the understanding of trait coordination at the whole-plant scale. Integration of individual responses is conducted over a range of wood density and exposure conditions. The results of this research thus shed light on the implication of variations in the rainforest function for future stresses, vital for predictive models of ecosystem dynamics of next generation.

  20. Supercooled dynamics of grain boundary particles in two-dimensional colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Thomas O. E.; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.; Dullens, Roel P. A.

    2011-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the dynamics of particles constituting grain boundaries in a two-dimensional colloidal crystal, using video-microscopy. A clear plateau in the mean square displacement of the grain boundary particles is found, followed by an upswing indicative of cage breaking. The van Hove correlation functions and the non-Gaussian parameter show that grain boundary particle dynamics are highly heterogeneous. Furthermore, we identified clusters of cooperatively moving particles and analyzed the time-dependence of the weight-averaged mean cluster size. We find good correlation between the behavior of the mean square displacement, and the time dependence of the non-Gaussian parameter and the cluster size, as also reported for various supercooled systems. Our results therefore provide experimental support for the similarity between particle dynamics in grain boundaries and in supercooled liquids as suggested by recent computer simulations.

  1. Visualization of boundaries in CT volumetric data sets using dynamic M-|∇f| histogram.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Peng, Hu; Chen, Xun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Direct volume rendering is widely used for three-dimensional medical data visualization such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Distinct visualization of boundaries is able to provide valuable and insightful information in many medical applications. However, it is conventionally challenging to detect boundaries reliably due to limitations of the transfer function design. Meanwhile, the interactive strategy is complicated for new users or even experts. In this paper, we build a generalized boundary model contaminated by noise and prove boundary middle value (M) has a good statistical property. Based on the model we propose a user-friendly strategy for the boundary extraction and transfer function design, using M, boundary height (Δh), and gradient magnitude (|∇f|). In fact, it is a dynamic iterative process. First, potential boundaries are sorted orderly from high to low according to the value of their height. Then, users iteratively extract the boundary with the highest value of Δh in a newly defined domain, where different boundaries are transformed to disjoint vertical bars using M-|∇f| histogram. In this case, the chance of misclassification among different boundaries decreases.

  2. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  3. Boundary in the dynamic phase of globally coupled oscillatory and excitable units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Hiroaki

    2017-07-01

    There is a crucial boundary between dynamic phase 1 and dynamic phase 2 of globally coupled oscillatory and excitable units, where the mean field is constant and oscillates in the former and the latter, respectively. This boundary is theoretically derived here for a large population of dynamical units, each having only a phase variable, where it is assumed that both the coupling strength and the distribution width of bifurcation parameters are equally small. This theory, which is applicable only if all or most of the units are intrinsically oscillatory, is confirmed to agree with simulation results for two different distribution densities.

  4. Conservative boundary conditions for 3D gas dynamics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerasimov, B. P.; Karagichev, A. B.; Semushin, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for 3D-gas dynamics computer simulation in regions of complicated shape by means of nonadjusted rectangular grids providing unified treatment of various problems. Some test problem computation results are given.

  5. Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.

  6. Boundary layer dynamics in the description of magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.; Rostoker, G.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of eleven magnetospheric substorm events for which good-quality ground-based magnetometer data and ISEE satellite data were both available. It is shown that the magnetotail particle and field observations associated with a substorm expansive phase can be explained through the spatial movement of the boundary layers and central plasma sheet in the magnetotail. The sweeping of these regions past the satellite, even in the absence of temporal variations within the various regions, can lead to a set of plasma flow observations typical of what is observed in the magnetotail during substorm activity.

  7. Considerations of blood properties, outlet boundary conditions and energy loss approaches in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Woo; Lee, Joon Sang

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research, analysis of computational fluid dynamics of cerebral vessels has several limitations. Although blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, velocity and pressure fields were computed under the assumptions of incompressible, laminar, steady-state flows and Newtonian fluid dynamics. The pulsatile nature of blood flow is not properly applied in inlet and outlet boundaries. Therefore, we present these technical limitations and discuss the possible solution by comparing the theoretical and computational studies.

  8. Considerations of Blood Properties, Outlet Boundary Conditions and Energy Loss Approaches in Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Woo

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research, analysis of computational fluid dynamics of cerebral vessels has several limitations. Although blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, velocity and pressure fields were computed under the assumptions of incompressible, laminar, steady-state flows and Newtonian fluid dynamics. The pulsatile nature of blood flow is not properly applied in inlet and outlet boundaries. Therefore, we present these technical limitations and discuss the possible solution by comparing the theoretical and computational studies. PMID:24642855

  9. Semi-analytical solution for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Shuo; Chen, Yan-Yu; Yu, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2017-02-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution of a time-history kernel for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To facilitate the kernel derivation, the concept of virtual atoms in real space that can conform with an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice is adopted. The generalized Langevin equation is regularized using eigenvalue decomposition and, consequently, an analytical expression of an inverse Laplace transform is obtained. With construction of dynamical matrices in the virtual domain, a semi-analytical form of the time-history kernel functions for an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice can be found. The time-history kernel functions for different crystal lattices are derived to show the generality of the proposed method. Non-equilibrium MD simulations in a triangular lattice with and without the absorbing boundary condition are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the solution.

  10. Semi-analytical solution for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Shuo; Chen, Yan-Yu; Yu, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2017-07-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution of a time-history kernel for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To facilitate the kernel derivation, the concept of virtual atoms in real space that can conform with an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice is adopted. The generalized Langevin equation is regularized using eigenvalue decomposition and, consequently, an analytical expression of an inverse Laplace transform is obtained. With construction of dynamical matrices in the virtual domain, a semi-analytical form of the time-history kernel functions for an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice can be found. The time-history kernel functions for different crystal lattices are derived to show the generality of the proposed method. Non-equilibrium MD simulations in a triangular lattice with and without the absorbing boundary condition are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the solution.

  11. Reflecting boundary conditions for classical molecular dynamics simulations of nonideal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrinenko, Ya S.; Morozov, I. V.; Valuev, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of boundary conditions on results of the classical molecular dynamics simulations of nonideal electron-ion plasma is analyzed. A comprehensive study is performed for the convergence of per-particle potential energy and pressure with the number of particles using both the nearest image method (periodic boundaries) and harmonic reflective boundaries. As a result an error caused by finiteness of the simulation box is estimated. Moreover the electron oscillations given by the spectra of the current autocorrelation function are analyzed for both types of the boundary conditions. Nonideal plasmas with the nonideality parameter in range 0.26-2.6 is considered. To speed up the classical molecular dynamics simulations the graphics accelerators code is used.

  12. Dynamic forces between bubbles and surfaces and hydrodynamic boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Manor, Ofer; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C

    2008-10-21

    A bubble attached to the end of an atomic force microscope cantilever and driven toward or away from a flat mica surface across an aqueous film is used to characterize the dynamic force that arises from hydrodynamic drainage and electrical double layer interactions across the nanometer thick intervening aqueous film. The hydrodynamic response of the air/water interface can range from a classical fully immobile, no-slip surface in the presence of added surfactants to a partially mobile interface in an electrolyte solution without added surfactants. A model that includes the convection and diffusion of trace surface contaminants can account for the observed behavior presented. This model predicts quantitatively different interfacial dynamics to the Navier slip model that can also be used to fit dynamic force data with a post hoc choice of a slip length.

  13. Existence and Asymptotic Behavior of the Wave Equation with Dynamic Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Graber, Philip Jameson; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-08-15

    The goal of this work is to study a model of the strongly damped wave equation with dynamic boundary conditions and nonlinear boundary/interior sources and nonlinear boundary/interior damping. First, applying the nonlinear semigroup theory, we show the existence and uniqueness of local in time solutions. In addition, we show that in the strongly damped case solutions gain additional regularity for positive times t>0. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term and if the boundary source dominates the boundary damping, then the solution grows as an exponential function. Moreover, in the absence of the strong damping term, we prove that the solution ceases to exists and blows up in finite time.

  14. Microstructural Aspects of Grain Boundary Bulge in a Dynamically Recrystallized Mg-Al-Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D. K.; Chang, C. P.; Kao, P. W.

    2010-07-01

    Microstructural features of grain boundary bulging have been studied in a dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) Mg-Al-Zn alloy. Unidirectional compression was used to deform the specimens to different strains at 473 K (200 °C). Microstructural characterization of the deformed specimens was performed by using both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the present results, it is suggested that in AZ31 Mg alloy, the DRXed grain is developed from grain boundary bulging. After a grain boundary segment starts to bulge, a bridging dislocation wall forms and anchors the bulged grain boundary. During further deformation, the misorientation of this bridging wall gradually increases, then transforms into a grain boundary, and a DRXed grain forms. Electron backscattered diffraction was used to study the orientation relationship between bulges/DRXed grains and the parent grains, and no special orientation relationship was found between them.

  15. Tuning the thermal conductivity of silicon carbide by twin boundary: a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qunfeng; Luo, Hao; Wang, Liang; Shen, Shengping

    2017-02-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a semiconductor with excellent mechanical and physical properties. We study the thermal transport in SiC by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The work is focused on the effects of twin boundaries and temperature on the thermal conductivity of 3C-SiC. We find that compared to perfect SiC, twinned SiC has a markedly reduced thermal conductivity when the twin boundary spacing is less than 100 nm. The Si-Si twin boundary is more effective to phonon scattering than the C-C twin boundary. We also find that the phonon scattering effect of twin boundary decreases with increasing temperature. Our findings provide insights into the thermal management of SiC-based electronic devices and thermoelectric applications.

  16. Low-Dimensional Dynamical Characteristics of Shock Wave /Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Conical Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-16

    Shock Wave /Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Conical Flows FA9550-11-1-0203 Dr. Charles E. Tinney, Aerospace Engineering and Engineering...Low-Dimensional Dynamical Characteristics of Shock Wave /Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Conical Flows Contract/Grant Number: FA9550-11-1-0203...driven by transonic resonance (Zaman et al, 2002). What is common about many of these planar nozzle studies is that there is just one single

  17. Wave-turbulence dynamics in the stably stratified boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, F.; Finnigan, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    New data obtained at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory are analyzed to obtain separation of wave, turbulence, and mean field necessary for a complete treatment of wave-turbulence interaction. The data were compared with a linear stability analysis of the background atmospheric state, showing good agreement between measured wave parameters (such as wavelength, period, and vector phase velocity) and the eigenvalues of the linear solution. The analysis of the budgets of wave heat flux and temperature variance revealed the essential role of wave-turbulence interaction in maintaining a large amplitude temperature wave and countergradient heat flux. A mechanism for the maintenance of turbulence by waves in strongly stratified boundary layers is described, which emphasizes that the time-mean Richardson number is an irrelevant parameter at such times.

  18. Dynamic behaviour of thin composite plates for different boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprintu, Iuliana E-mail: rotaruconstantin@yahoo.com; Rotaru, Constantin E-mail: rotaruconstantin@yahoo.com

    2014-12-10

    In the context of composite materials technology, which is increasingly present in industry, this article covers a topic of great interest and theoretical and practical importance. Given the complex design of fiber-reinforced materials and their heterogeneous nature, mathematical modeling of the mechanical response under different external stresses is very difficult to address in the absence of simplifying assumptions. In most structural applications, composite structures can be idealized as beams, plates, or shells. The analysis is reduced from a three-dimensional elasticity problem to a oneor two-dimensional problem, based on certain simplifying assumptions that can be made because the structure is thin. This paper aims to validate a mathematical model illustrating how thin rectangular orthotropic plates respond to the actual load. Thus, from the theory of thin plates, new analytical solutions are proposed corresponding to orthotropic rectangular plates having different boundary conditions. The proposed analytical solutions are considered both for solving equation orthotropic rectangular plates and for modal analysis.

  19. A New DMSP Magnetometer & Auroral Boundary Dataset and Estimates of Field Aligned Currents in Dynamic Auroral Boundary Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Kilcommons, Liam M; Redmon, Robert J; Knipp, Delores J

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a method for reprocessing the multi-decadal, multi-spacecraft Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Magnetometer (DMSP SSM) dataset and have applied it to fifteen spacecraft-years of data (DMSP Flight 16-18, 2010-2014). This Level-2 dataset improves on other available SSM datasets with recalculated spacecraft locations and magnetic perturbations, artifact signal removal, representations of the observations in geomagnetic coordinates, and in-situ auroral boundaries. Spacecraft locations have been recalculated using ground-tracking information. Magnetic perturbations (measured field minus modeled main-field) are recomputed. The updated locations ensure the appropriate model field is used. We characterize and remove a slow-varying signal in the magnetic field measurements. This signal is a combination of ring current and measurement artifacts. A final artifact remains after processing: step-discontinuities in the baseline caused by activation/deactivation of spacecraft electronics. Using coincident data from the DMSP precipitating electrons and ions instrument (SSJ4/5), we detect the in-situ auroral boundaries with an improvement to the Redmon et al. [2010] algorithm. We embed the location of the aurora and an accompanying figure of merit in the Level-2 SSM data product. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of this new dataset by estimating field-aligned current (FAC) density using the Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) technique. The FAC estimates are then expressed in dynamic auroral boundary coordinates using the SSJ-derived boundaries, demonstrating a dawn-dusk asymmetry in average FAC location relative to the equatorward edge of the aurora. The new SSM dataset is now available in several public repositories.

  20. Grain Boundary Structures and Collective Dynamics of Inversion Domains in Binary Two-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Doaa; Mkhonta, S. K.; Elder, K. R.; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2017-06-01

    Understanding and controlling the properties and dynamics of topological defects is a lasting challenge in the study of two-dimensional materials, and is crucial to achieve high-quality films required for technological applications. Here grain boundary structures, energies, and dynamics of binary two-dimensional materials are investigated through the development of a phase field crystal model that is parametrized to match the ordering, symmetry, energy, and length scales of hexagonal boron nitride. Our studies reveal some new dislocation core structures for various symmetrically and asymmetrically tilted grain boundaries, in addition to those obtained in previous experiments and first-principles calculations. We also identify a defect-mediated growth dynamics for inversion domains governed by the collective atomic migration and defect core transformation at grain boundaries and junctions, a process that is related to inversion symmetry breaking in binary lattice.

  1. Dynamical effects of suction/heating on turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwelder, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The main emphasis of this quarter has been to test the effects of suction in a controlled environment with the emulated wall eddy structure. A study of the curved working wall of the test section in the Goertler Wind Tunnel showed that there were sufficient stresses within the plexiglas that cutting elongated slits for suction would probably cause the surface to develop step-type roughnesses. Thus several individual holes were initially drilled along the streamline direction in a spanwise region between two vortices. Air was withdrawn through this series of holes to provide a semi-continuous region of suction. Differing rates of suction through these holes were used to explore the effects upon the eddy structure. These preliminary results were obtained using visualization; i.e., smoke as introduced via a smoke wire into the boundary layer. Images were captured using a video camera and analyzed to determine the best suction rates. The preliminary results showed that suction has a large effect upon individual streaks of low speed fluid. Without the suction, the low speed region lying in the upwelling zone between two streamwise vortices was broken down by a secondary instability. This instability typically caused the low speed fluid marked with the smoke to oscillate from side to side in a manifestation of an inflectional instability in the spanwise direction as found and reported earlier in this research. With increasing distance downstream, the oscillation amplitude grew very rapidly until it broke down into complete turbulence.

  2. Conservation biology. Combined insults spell trouble for rainforests.

    PubMed

    Wuethrich, B

    2000-07-07

    Scientists are now saying that a combination of interacting factors--including forest fragmentation, logging, and El Niño-driven drought--has altered the fire regimes of tropical forests and is changing regional climates and reconfiguring the landscape. These interactions are synergistic, they say--that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The concept provides a new paradigm for understanding the dynamics of fragmented rainforests and for approaching their conservation.

  3. Vertical distribution of HOx concentrations driven by boundary layer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomm, Sebastian; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lu, Keding; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Wolfe, Glenn; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key compounds for the degradation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Therefore, accurate and precise measurements of HOx radicals (= OH + HO2) at different altitudes and in different regions are necessary to test our understanding of atmospheric chemical processes. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is of special interest as it is chemically the most active part of the atmosphere. Until today, there is a general lack of measurements investigating the distribution of radicals, trace gases, and aerosols in the PBL with high spatial resolution. Here, we present results of measurements performed in June/July 2012 in the Po valley region in Italy as part of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS). A Zeppelin NT was used as an airborne platform for measurements of HOx radical concentrations and total OH reactivity (kOH) applying a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument. In addition a comprehensive set of other trace gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies, particle number concentration, and meteorological parameters were measured. During the morning hours, a layered atmospheric structure with vertical gradients in trace gas concentrations was observed. In altitudes larger than 600 m above ground, air masses with low trace gas concentrations (NOx < 500 ppt, kOH < 3 s-1) were probed, whereas air masses in altitudes below 100 m above ground were influenced by ground emissions resulting in higher trace gas concentrations (NOx > 6 ppb, kOH > 6 s-1). The airship Zeppelin NT was used to perform localized height profiles between 75 and 900 m above ground in order to investigate the influence of these trace gas gradients on HOx radical concentrations. Due to changing chemical conditions, the measured OH concentration shows a variability with height up to a factor of 2.5 and for the measured HO2 concentration up to a factor of 5. Additionally, we present

  4. Dynamic recrystallization and grain boundary migration in B2 FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, I.; Gaydosh, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy were used to examine polycrystalline specimens of the B2-structured alloy FeAl strained under tension to fracture at elevated temperature. Strain-induced grain boundary migration was observed above 900 K and dynamic recrystallization was found at 1000 K and 1100 K. Little evidence of dynamic recovery was evident but some networks were formed at 1100 K.

  5. Mussel bed boundaries as dynamic equilibria: thresholds, phase shifts, and alternative states.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Megan J; Desharnais, Robert A; Robles, Carlos D; Arriola, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Ecological thresholds are manifested as a sudden shift in state of community composition. Recent reviews emphasize the distinction between thresholds due to phase shifts-a shift in the location of an equilibrium-and those due to alternative states-a switch between two equilibria. Here, we consider the boundary of intertidal mussel beds as an ecological threshold and demonstrate that both types of thresholds may exist simultaneously and in close proximity on the landscape. The discrete lower boundary of intertidal mussel beds was long considered a fixed spatial refuge from sea star predators; that is, the upper limit of sea star predation, determined by desiccation tolerance, fixed the lower boundary of the mussel bed. However, recent field experiments have revealed the operation of equilibrium processes that maintain the vertical position of these boundaries. Here, we cast analytical and simulation models in a landscape framework to show how the discrete lower boundary of the mussel bed is a dynamic predator-prey equilibrium, how the character of that boundary depends on its location in the landscape, and how boundary formation is robust to the scale of local interactions.

  6. Understanding the Effect of Grain Boundary Character on Dynamic Recrystallization in Stainless Steel 316L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Megan; Morse, Michael; Corolewski, Caleb; Fritchman, Koyuki; Stifter, Chris; Poole, Callum; Hurley, Michael; Frary, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs during high-temperature deformation in metals and alloys with low to medium stacking fault energies. Previous simulations and experimental research have shown the effect of temperature and grain size on DRX behavior, but not the effect of the grain boundary character distribution. To investigate the effects of the distribution of grain boundary types, experimental testing was performed on stainless steel 316L specimens with different initial special boundary fractions (SBF). This work was completed in conjunction with computer simulations that used a modified Monte Carlo method which allowed for the addition of anisotropic grain boundary energies using orientation data from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The correlation of the experimental and simulation work allows for a better understanding of how the input parameters in the simulations correspond to what occurs experimentally. Results from both simulations and experiments showed that a higher fraction of so-called "special" boundaries ( e.g., Σ3 twin boundaries) delayed the onset of recrystallization to larger strains and that it is energetically favorable for nuclei to form on triple junctions without these so-called "special" boundaries.

  7. Thermal resistance of twist boundaries in silicon nanowires by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Jan K.; Schröer, Kevin; Brendel, Lothar; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-04-01

    The thermal boundary resistance (Kapitza resistance) of (001) twist boundaries in silicon is investigated by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In order to enable continuous adjustment of the mismatch angle, a cylindrical geometry with fixed atomic positions at the boundaries is devised. The influence of the boundary conditions on the Kapitza resistance is removed by means of a finite size analysis. Due to the diamond structure of silicon, twist boundaries with mismatch angles ϕ and 90 ° - ϕ are not equivalent, whereas those with ± ϕ or with 90 ° ± ϕ are. The Kapitza resistance increases with mismatch angle up to 45 ° , where it reaches a plateau around 1.56 ± 0.05 K m 2 / GW . Between 80 ° and the 90 ° Σ 1 grain boundary it drops by about 30%. Surprisingly, lattice coincidence at other angles ( Σ 5 , Σ 13 , Σ 27 , Σ 25 ) has no noticable effect on the Kapitza resistance. However, there is a clear correlation between the Kapitza resistance and the width of a non-crystalline layer at the twist boundaries.

  8. Learning the dynamics and time-recursive boundary detection of deformable objects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Walter; Cetin, Müjdat; Chan, Raymond; Willsky, Alan S

    2008-11-01

    We propose a principled framework for recursively segmenting deformable objects across a sequence of frames. We demonstrate the usefulness of this method on left ventricular segmentation across a cardiac cycle. The approach involves a technique for learning the system dynamics together with methods of particle-based smoothing as well as nonparametric belief propagation on a loopy graphical model capturing the temporal periodicity of the heart. The dynamic system state is a low-dimensional representation of the boundary, and the boundary estimation involves incorporating curve evolution into recursive state estimation. By formulating the problem as one of state estimation, the segmentation at each particular time is based not only on the data observed at that instant, but also on predictions based on past and future boundary estimates. Although this paper focuses on left ventricle segmentation, the method generalizes to temporally segmenting any deformable object.

  9. Numerical approximation of boundary conditions with applications to inviscid equations of gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the state of the art of well-posedness and stability analysis of difference approximations for initial boundary value problems of the hyperbolic type is presented. The applicability of recent theoretical development to practical calculations for nonlinear gas dynamics is examined. The one dimensional inviscid gas dynamics equations in conservation law form are selected for numerical experiments. The class of implicit schemes developed from linear multistep methods in ordinary differential equations is chosen and the use of linear extrapolation as an explicit or implicit boundary scheme is emphasized. Specification of boundary data in the primitive variables and computation in terms of the conservative variables in the interior is discussed. Some numerical examples for the quasi-one-dimensional nozzle are given.

  10. Development of an immersed boundary-phase field-lattice Boltzmann method for Neumann boundary condition to study contact line dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, J. Y.; Shu, C.; Chew, Y. T.

    2013-02-01

    The implementation of Neumann boundary condition in the framework of immersed boundary method (IBM) is presented in this paper to simulate contact line dynamics using a phase field-lattice Boltzmann method. Immersed boundary method [10] is known as an efficient algorithm for modelling fluid-solid interaction. Abundance of prominent works have been devoted to refine IBM [1,11,12]. However, they are mainly restricted to problems with Dirichlet boundary condition. Research that implements the Neumann boundary condition in IBM is very limited to the best of our knowledge. This deficiency significantly limits the application of IBM in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) since physical phenomena associated with Neumann boundary conditions are extremely diverse. The difficulty is attributed to the fact that implementation of Neumann boundary condition is much more complex than that of Dirichlet boundary condition. In the present work, we initiate the first endeavour to implement Neumann boundary condition in IBM with assistance of its physical interpretation rather than simple mathematical manipulation. Concretely speaking, rooted from physical conservation law, the Neumann boundary condition is considered as contribution of flux from the boundary to its relevant physical parameter in a control volume. Moreover, the link between the flux and its corresponding flow field variable is directly manipulated through the immersed boundary concept. In this way, the Neumann boundary conditions can be implemented in IBM. The developed method is applied together with phase field-lattice Boltzmann method to study contact line dynamics. The phase field method [27,39], which becomes increasingly popular in multiphase flow simulation, can efficiently capture complex interface topology and naturally resolve the contact line singularity. Meanwhile, the lattice Boltzmann method is known as an alternative to model fluid dynamics and holds good prospect to simulate multiphase flows with

  11. Dynamics of Helium-Loaded Grain Boundaries under Shear Deformation in alpha-Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Yang, Li; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-03-01

    To simulate the motion and behavior of helium-loaded grain boundaries (GBs) in bcc Fe under shear deformation using the molecular dynamics simulation method. Here, we report preliminary results on the effects of helium on coupled migration and relative translation of a sigma3 GB at 300 K.

  12. Dynamics of a vapor nanobubble collapsing near a solid boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciola, Carlo Massimo; Magaletti, Francesco; Gallo, Mirko; Sinibaldi, Giorgia; Marino, Luca

    2016-11-01

    The collapse of a nano-bubble near a solid wall is addressed exploiting a phase field model. The dynamics, triggered by a shock wave in the liquid, is explored for different conditions. It is characterized by a sequence of collapses and rebounds of the pure vapor bubble accompanied by the emission of shock waves in the liquid. The shocks are reflected by the wall to impinge back on the re-expanding bubble. The presence of the wall and the impinging shock wave break the symmetry of the system, leading, for sufficiently strong intensity of the incoming shock wave, to the poration of the bubble and the formation of an annular structure and a liquid jet Intense peaks of pressure and temperatures are found also at the wall, confirming that the strong localized loading combined with the jet impinging the wall is a potential source of substrate damage induced by the cavitation. Comparison of the numerical results with recent experiments on the collapse of a Laser induced cavitation bubble will also be discussed. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Project No. [339446], BIC - Following Bubbles from Inception to Cavitation.

  13. Halogenated organic species over the tropical South American rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Colomb, A.; Hofmann, R.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-06-01

    Airborne measurements of the halogenated trace gases methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean and about 1000 km of pristine tropical rainforest in Suriname and French Guyana (3 6° N, 51 59° W) in October 2005. In the boundary layer (0 1.4 km), maritime air masses, advected over the forest by southeasterly trade winds, were measured at various distances from the coast. Since the organohalogens presented here have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes (0.4 1.0 years) in comparison to the advection times from the coast (1 2 days), emissions will accumulate in air traversing the rainforest. The distributions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were analyzed as a function of time the air spent over land and the respective relationship used to determine net fluxes from the rainforest for one week within the long dry season. Net fluxes from the rainforest ecosystem have been calculated for methyl chloride and chloroform as 9.5 (±3.8 2σ) and 0.35 (±0.15 2σ)μg m-2 h-1, respectively. No significant flux was observed for methyl bromide within the limits of these measurements. The global budget of methyl chloride contains large uncertainties, in particular with regard to a possible source from tropical vegetation. Our measurements are used in a large-scale approach to determine the net flux from a tropical ecosystem to the planetary boundary layer. The obtained global net flux of 1.5 (±0.6 2σ) Tg yr-1 for methyl chloride is at the lower end of current estimates for tropical vegetation sources, which helps to constrain the range of tropical sources and sinks (0.82 to 8.2 Tg yr-1 from tropical plants, 0.03 to 2.5 Tg yr-1 from senescent/dead leaves and a sink of 0.1 to 1.6 Tg yr-1 by soil uptake). Nevertheless, these results show that the contribution of the rainforest ecosystem is the major source in the global budget of methyl chloride. For chloroform, the extrapolated global net flux from tropical ecosystems

  14. The Origins of Tropical Rainforest Hyperdiversity.

    PubMed

    Pennington, R Toby; Hughes, Mark; Moonlight, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    Traditional models for tropical species richness contrast rainforests as "museums" of old species or "cradles" of recent speciation. High plant species diversity in rainforests may be more likely to reflect high episodic evolutionary turnover of species--a scenario implicating high rates of both speciation and extinction through geological time.

  15. Automated boundary extraction of the spinal canal in MRI based on dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jaehan; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2012-01-01

    The spinal cord is the only communication link between the brain and the body. The abnormalities in it can lead to severe pain and sometimes to paralysis. Due to the growing gap between the number of available radiologists and the number of required radiologists, the need for computer-aided diagnosis and characterization is increasing. To ease this gap, we have developed a computer-aided diagnosis and characterization framework in lumbar spine that includes the spinal cord, vertebrae, and intervertebral discs. In this paper, we propose two spinal cord boundary extraction methods that fit into our framework based on dynamic programming in lumbar spine MRI. Our method incorporates the intensity of the image and the gradient of the image into a dynamic programming scheme and works in a fully-automatic fashion. The boundaries generated by our method is compared against reference boundaries in terms of Fréchet distance which is known to be a metric for shape analysis. The experimental results from 65 clinical data show that our method finds the spinal canal boundary correctly achieving a mean Fréchet distance of 13.5 pixels. For almost all data, the extracted boundary falls within the spinal cord. So, it can be used as a landmark when marking background regions and finding regions of interest.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of grain boundary structure and properties at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensin, Saryu Jindal

    This thesis reports research involving the development and application of atomistic simulation methods to study the effects of high homologous temperatures on the structural, thermodynamic, kinetic and mechanical properties of grain boundaries in metals. Our interest in these properties is due to the role they play in governing the evolution of microstructure and deformation of metals during solidification processing. The interest in developing more predictive models for the formation of solidification defects highlights a need to better understand the thermodynamic driving forces underlying grain-boundary premelting and the mobility and shear strength of these interfaces at high temperatures. In this work we study two different elemental systems, namely Ni and Cu, and consider a variety of grain boundary structures characterized by different misorientation angles, twist/tilt character and zero-temperature energies. A method to calculate the disjoining potential from molecular dynamics (MD) is developed and applied to grain boundaries in Ni. The disjoining potential characterizes the variation in grain-boundary free energy as a function of the width of a premelted interfacial layer. The MD method for the calculation of this property is applied to grain boundaries that display continuous premelting transitions, as well as a boundary characterized by a disordered atomic structure displaying a finite interfacial width at the melting temperature. The disjoining potential represents an important input property to larger scale models of solidification and grain coalescence. We further develop analysis methods to characterize the change in the atomic structure of an asymmetric tilt grain boundary in elemental Cu as a function of temperature. This boundary is characterized by a potential-energy surface with multiple minima as a function of the relative translation of the grains parallel to the interface plane. The more complex structure of this boundary, relative to the

  17. Dynamics of place, boundary and object encoding in rat anterior claustrum

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Maciej M.; O’Mara, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Discrete populations of brain cells signal differing types of spatial information. These “spatial cells” are largely confined to a closely-connected network of sites. We describe here, for the first time, cells in the anterior claustrum of the freely-moving rat encoding place, boundary and object information. This novel claustral spatial signal potentially directly modulates a wide variety of anterior cortical regions. We hypothesize that one of the functions of the claustrum is to provide information about body position, boundaries and landmark information, enabling dynamic control of behavior. PMID:26557060

  18. Torque spectroscopy of DNA: base-pair stability, boundary effects, backbending, and breathing dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Oberstrass, Florian C.; Fernandes, Louis E.; Lebel, Paul; Bryant, Zev

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global DNA linking number can be accommodated by localized changes in helical structure. We have used single-molecule torque measurements to investigate sequence-specific strand separation and Z-DNA formation. By controlling the boundary conditions at the edges of sequences of interest, we have confirmed theoretical predictions of distinctive boundary-dependent backbending patterns in torque-twist relationships. Abrupt torque jumps are associated with the formation and collapse of DNA bubbles, permitting direct observations of DNA breathing dynamics. PMID:23679785

  19. Robust automatic segmentation of corneal layer boundaries in SDOCT images using graph theory and dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Francesco; Chiu, Stephanie J; McNabb, Ryan P; Kuo, Anthony N; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2011-06-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures in corneal images is crucial for the diagnosis and study of anterior segment diseases. However, manual segmentation is a time-consuming and subjective process. This paper presents an automatic approach for segmenting corneal layer boundaries in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography images using graph theory and dynamic programming. Our approach is robust to the low-SNR and different artifact types that can appear in clinical corneal images. We show that our method segments three corneal layer boundaries in normal adult eyes more accurately compared to an expert grader than a second grader-even in the presence of significant imaging outliers.

  20. Time dependent boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems. [such as fluid dynamics equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Kevin W.

    1987-01-01

    Nonreflecting boundary conditions are defined for multidimensional fluid dynamics problems where waves enter and leave the interior of a domain modeled by hyperbolic equations. Separate equations are defined for each type of incoming and outgoing wave. Temporally varying problems are considered in terms of a nonreflecting boundary condition which permit the amplitude of incoming waves to remain constant over time. Conservative expressions are presented that include dissipative terms. Applications of the computational techniques are illustrated with sample results for a traveling shock wave, a shock tube, a spherical explosion and expansion problems on one- and two-dimensions.

  1. Tropical rainforest ecology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning ecological studies of tropical rainforests. Topics include plant community structure and development, nutrient dynamics, rainfall characteristics and water budgets, forest dynamics, and descriptive studies performed in specific forest areas. Effects of human activities and factors affecting forest depletion and rejuvination are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Rainforests: Conservation and resource management. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conservation of rainforest ecology and management of natural resources. Topics include plant community structure and development, nutrient dynamics, rainfall characteristics and water budgets, and forest dynamics. Studies performed in specific forest areas are included. Effects of human activities are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Wall Boundary Layer Measurements for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol D.; Bennett, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the boundary layer parameters in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics tunnel were conducted during extensive calibration activities following the facility conversion from a Freon-12 heavy-gas test medium to R-134a. Boundary-layer rakes were mounted on the wind-tunnel walls, ceiling, and floor. Measurements were made over the range of tunnel operation envelope in both heavy gas and air and without a model in the test section at three tunnel stations. Configuration variables included open and closed east sidewall wall slots, for air and R134a test media, reentry flap settings, and stagnation pressures over the full range of tunnel operation. The boundary layer thickness varied considerably for the six rakes. The thickness for the east wall was considerably larger that the other rakes and was also larger than previously reported. There generally was some reduction in thickness at supersonic Mach numbers, but the effect of stagnation pressure, and test medium were not extensive.

  4. Lipid-gramicidin interactions: dynamic structure of the boundary lipid by 2D-ELDOR.

    PubMed

    Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Crepeau, Richard H; Borbat, Petr P; Ge, Mingtao; Freed, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    The use of 2D-electron-electron double resonance (2D-ELDOR) for the characterization of the boundary lipid in membrane vesicles of DPPC and gramicidin A' (GA) is reported. We show that 2D-ELDOR, with its enhanced spectral resolution to dynamic structure as compared with continuous-wave electron spin resonance, provides a reliable and useful way of studying lipid-protein interactions. The 2D-ELDOR spectra of the end-chain spin label 16-PC in DPPC/GA vesicles is composed of two components, which are assigned to the bulk lipids (with sharp auto peaks and crosspeaks) and to the boundary lipids (with broad auto peaks). Their distinction is clearest for higher temperatures and higher GA concentrations. The quantitative analysis of these spectra shows relatively faster motions and very low ordering for the end chain of the bulk lipids, whereas the boundary lipids show very high "y-ordering" and slower motions. The y-ordering represents a dynamic bending at the end of the boundary lipid acyl chain, which can then coat the GA molecules. These results are consistent with the previous studies by Ge and Freed (1999) using continuous-wave electron spin resonance, thereby supporting their model for GA aggregation and H(II) phase formation for high GA concentrations. Improved instrumental and simulation methods have been employed.

  5. Magnetic local time variation and scaling of poleward auroral boundary dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longden, N.; Chisham, G.; Freeman, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The balance of dayside and nightside reconnection processes within the Earth's magnetosphere and its effect on the amount of open magnetic flux threading the ionosphere is well understood in terms of the expanding-contracting polar cap model. However, the nature and character of the consequential fluctuations in the polar cap boundary are poorly understood. By using the poleward auroral luminosity boundary (PALB), as measured by the FUV instrument of the IMAGE spacecraft, as a proxy for the polar cap boundary, we have studied the motion of this boundary for more than 2 years across the complete range of magnetic local time. Our results show that the dayside PALB dynamics are broadly self-similar on timescales of 12 min to 6 h and appear to be monofractal. Similarity with the characteristics of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field variability suggests that this dayside monofractal behavior is predominantly inherited from the solar wind via the reconnection process. The nightside PALB dynamics exhibit scale-free behavior at intermediate time scales (12-90 min) and appear to be multifractal. We propose that this character is a result of the intermittent multifractal structure of magnetotail reconnection.

  6. Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests.

    PubMed

    James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P

    2013-01-01

    African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, one with over 100 members. In the east of the Congo Basin, most models (92%) show a wet signal, whereas in west equatorial Africa, the majority (73%) project an increase in dry season water deficits. This drying is amplified as global temperature increases, and in over half of coupled models by greater than 3% per °C of global warming. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics in a subset of models suggests that this could be partly because of a rearrangement of zonal circulation, with enhanced convection in the Indian Ocean and anomalous subsidence over west equatorial Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, in some seasons, the Amazon Basin. Further research to assess the plausibility of this and other mechanisms is important, given the potential implications of drying in these rainforest regions.

  7. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations

    PubMed Central

    Roznik, Elizabeth A.; Sapsford, Sarah J.; Pike, David A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11–28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence. PMID:26294048

  8. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    PubMed

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-21

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence.

  9. Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests

    PubMed Central

    James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P.

    2013-01-01

    African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, one with over 100 members. In the east of the Congo Basin, most models (92%) show a wet signal, whereas in west equatorial Africa, the majority (73%) project an increase in dry season water deficits. This drying is amplified as global temperature increases, and in over half of coupled models by greater than 3% per °C of global warming. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics in a subset of models suggests that this could be partly because of a rearrangement of zonal circulation, with enhanced convection in the Indian Ocean and anomalous subsidence over west equatorial Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, in some seasons, the Amazon Basin. Further research to assess the plausibility of this and other mechanisms is important, given the potential implications of drying in these rainforest regions. PMID:23878329

  10. Dynamic Turbulence Modelling in Large-eddy Simulations of the Cloud-topped Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M. P.; Mansour, N. N.; Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of large eddy simulation, or LES, to study the atmospheric boundary layer dates back to the early 1970s when Deardor (1972) used a three-dimensional simulation to determine velocity and temperature scales in the convective boundary layer. In 1974 he applied LES to the problem of mixing layer entrainment (Deardor 1974) and in 1980 to the cloud-topped boundary layer (Deardor 1980b). Since that time the LES approach has been applied to atmospheric boundary layer problems by numerous authors. While LES has been shown to be relatively robust for simple cases such as a clear, convective boundary layer (Mason 1989), simulation of the cloud-topped boundary layer has proved more of a challenge. The combination of small length scales and anisotropic turbulence coupled with cloud microphysics and radiation effects places a heavy burden on the turbulence model, especially in the cloud-top region. Consequently, over the past few decades considerable effort has been devoted to developing turbulence models that are better able to parameterize these processes. Much of this work has involved taking parameterizations developed for neutral boundary layers and deriving corrections to account for buoyancy effects associated with the background stratification and local buoyancy sources due to radiative and latent heat transfer within the cloud (see Lilly 1962; Deardor 1980a; Mason 1989; MacVean & Mason 1990, for example). In this paper we hope to contribute to this effort by presenting a number of turbulence models in which the model coefficients are calculated dynamically during the simulation rather than being prescribed a priori.

  11. Testing thermal gradient driving force for grain boundary migration using molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsic mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.

  12. Time-dependent and outflow boundary conditions for Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Huan; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple method to impose both no-slip boundary conditions at fluid-wall interfaces and at outflow boundaries in fully developed regions for Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) fluid systems. The procedure to enforce the no-slip condition is based on a velocity-dependent shear force, which is a generalized force to represent the presence of the solid-wall particles and to maintain locally thermodynamic consistency. We show that this method can be implemented in both steady and time-dependent fluid systems and compare the DPD results with the continuum limit (Navier-Stokes) results. We also develop a force-adaptive method to impose the outflow boundary conditions for fully developed flow with unspecified outflow velocity profile or pressure value. We study flows over the backward-facing step and in idealized arterial bifurcations using a combination of the two new boundary methods with different flow rates. Finally, we explore the applicability of the outflow method in time-dependent flow systems. The outflow boundary method works well for systems with Womersley number of O(1), i.e., when the pressure and flowrate at the outflow are approximately in-phase. PMID:21499548

  13. Application of a boundary element method to the study of dynamical torsion of beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czekajski, C.; Laroze, S.; Gay, D.

    1982-01-01

    During dynamic torsion of beam elements, consideration of nonuniform warping effects involves a more general technical formulation then that of Saint-Venant. Nonclassical torsion constants appear in addition to the well known torsional rigidity. The adaptation of the boundary integral element method to the calculation of these constants for general section shapes is described. The suitability of the formulation is investigated with some examples of thick as well as thin walled cross sections.

  14. Application of a boundary element method to the study of dynamical torsion of beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czekajski, C.; Laroze, S.; Gay, D.

    1982-01-01

    During dynamic torsion of beam elements, consideration of nonuniform warping effects involves a more general technical formulation then that of Saint-Venant. Nonclassical torsion constants appear in addition to the well known torsional rigidity. The adaptation of the boundary integral element method to the calculation of these constants for general section shapes is described. The suitability of the formulation is investigated with some examples of thick as well as thin walled cross sections.

  15. Amorphization in the vicinity of a grain boundary: A molecular-dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Kiwi, Miguel; Ramírez, Ricardo

    1996-10-01

    The dynamics of the melting process of a binary system (such as the one formed by Co and Zr) that contains a grain boundary is investigated by means of molecular dynamics using Lennard-Jones-type interatomic potentials. The evolution of the disordering sequence, as the temperature is increased, is quantitatively studied and graphically illustrated. It is found that the presence of the defect acts like a seed for the disordering, with the genesis of an intermediate amorphous phase. The latter is properly identified and characterized and constitutes an intermediate stage before the proper melting process sets in.

  16. Study of the diurnal variability of atmospheric chemistry with respect to boundary layer dynamics during DOMINO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stratum, B. J. H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; van den Dries, K.; van Laar, T. W.; Martinez, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Diesch, J.-M.; Drewnick, F.; Fischer, H.; Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Harder, H.; Regelin, E.; Sinha, V.; Adame, J. A.; Sörgel, M.; Sander, R.; Bozem, H.; Song, W.; Williams, J.; Yassaa, N.

    2012-03-01

    We study the interactions between atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and atmospheric chemistry using a mixed-layer model (MXLCH) coupled to chemical reaction schemes. Guided by both atmospheric and chemical measurements obtained during the DOMINO campaign (2008), numerical experiments are performed to study the role of ABL dynamics and the accuracy of chemical schemes with different complexity: MOZART-4 and a reduced mechanism of this chemical system. Both schemes produce satisfactory results, indicating that the reduced scheme is capable of reproducing the O3-NOx-VOC-HOx diurnal cycle during conditions characterised by a low NOx regime and small O3 tendencies (less than 1 ppb per hour). By focussing on the budget equations of chemical species in the mixed-layer model, we show that for species like O3, NO and NO2, the influence of entrainment and boundary layer growth is of the same order as chemical production/loss. This indicates that an accurate representation of ABL processes is crucial in understanding the daily cycle of chemical species. By comparing the time scales of chemical reactive species with the mixing time scale of turbulence, we propose a classification based on the Damköhler number to further determine the importance of dynamics on chemistry during field campaigns. Our findings advocate an integrated approach, simultaneously solving the ABL dynamics and chemical reactions, in order to obtain a better understanding of chemical pathways and processes and the interpretation of the results obtained during measurement campaigns.

  17. Plant Traits Demonstrate That Temperate and Tropical Giant Eucalypt Forests Are Ecologically Convergent with Rainforest Not Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Jordan, Greg J.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world’s tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest – open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management. PMID:24358359

  18. Plant traits demonstrate that temperate and tropical giant eucalypt forests are ecologically convergent with rainforest not savanna.

    PubMed

    Tng, David Y P; Jordan, Greg J; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world's tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest - open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management.

  19. Inflow/outflow boundary conditions and global dynamics of spatial mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, J. C.; Huerre, P.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical simulation of incompressible spatially-developing shear flows poses a special challenge to computational fluid dynamicists. The Navier-Stokes equations are elliptic and boundary equations need to be specified at the inflow and outflow boundaries in order to compute the fluid properties within the region of interest. It is, however, difficult to choose inflow and outflow conditions corresponding to a given experimental situation. Furthermore the effects that changes in the boundary conditions or in the size of the computational domain may induce on the global dynamics of the flow are presently unknown. These issues are examined in light of recent developments in hydrodynamic stability theory. The particular flow considered is the spatial mixing layer but it was expected that similar phenomena were bound to occur in other cases such as channel flow, the boundary layer, etc. A short summary of local/global and absolute/convective instability concepts is given. The results of numerical simulations are presented which strongly suggest that global resonances may be triggered in domains of finite streamwise extent although the evolution of the perturbation vorticity field is everywhere locally convective. A relationship between finite domains and pressure sources which might help in devising a scheme to eliminate these difficulties is discussed.

  20. No-slip boundary conditions and forced flow in multiparticle collision dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Plimpton, Steven J; Grest, Gary S

    2012-12-01

    Multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a particle-based fluid simulation technique that is becoming increasingly popular for mesoscale fluid modeling. However, some confusion and conflicting results persist in literature regarding several important methodological details, in particular the enforcement of the no-slip condition and thermostatting in forced flow. These issues persist in simple flows past stationary boundaries, which we exclusively focus on here. We discuss the parametrization of MPCD fluids and its consequences for fluid-solid boundaries in great detail, and show that the method of virtual particles proposed by Lamura et al. and adopted by many others is required only for parameter choices that lead to viscosities dominated by collisional contributions. We test several implementations of the virtual particle method and discuss how to completely eliminate slip at stationary boundaries. We also show that stochastic boundary reflection rules are inherently problematic for forced flow and suggest a possible remedy. Finally, we discuss the most robust way to achieve forced flow and evaluate several thermostatting methods in the process. All discussion is limited to solid objects that do not move as a result of collisions with MPCD particles (i.e., walls). However, the results can be extended to solutes that experience forces and torques due to interactions with MPCD particles (e.g., colloids). The detailed analysis presented for this simple case provides the level of rigor and accuracy to the MPCD method required for the study of more complex systems.

  1. Effect of Large Finite-Size Wind Farms and Their Wakes on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Through the use of large-eddy simulation, the effect of large finite-size wind farms and their wakes on conventionally-neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and power extraction is investigated. Specifically, this study focuses on a wind farm that comprises 25 rows of wind turbines, spanning a distance of 10 km. It is shown that large wind farms have a significant effect on internal boundary layer growth both inside and downwind of the wind farms. If the wind farm is large enough, the internal boundary layer interacts with the thermally-stratified free atmosphere above, leading to a modification of the ABL height and power extraction. In addition, it is shown that large wind farms create extensive wakes, which could have an effect on potential downwind wind farms. Specifically, for the case considered here, a power deficit as large as 8% is found at a distance of 10 km downwind from the wind farm. Furthermore, this study compares the wind farm wake dynamics for cases in which the conventionally neutral ABLs are driven by a unidirectional pressure gradient and Coriolis forces.

  2. The dynamic nature of the reconsolidation process and its boundary conditions: Evidence based on human tests.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2016-04-01

    The reconsolidation process is the mechanism by which the strength and/or content of consolidated memories are updated. This process is triggered by the presentation of a reminder (training cues). It is not always possible to trigger the reconsolidation process. For example, memory age and strength are boundary conditions for the reconsolidation process. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes in these conditions. We propose that the boundary conditions of the reconsolidation process are not fixed and vary as a consequence of the interaction between memory features and reminder characteristics. To modify memory properties, participants received a threatening social protocol that improves memory acquisition or a control condition (fake, without social interaction) prior to learning pairs of meaningless syllables. To determine whether a strong young or old declarative memory undergoes the reconsolidation process, we used an interference task (a second list of pairs of meaningless syllables) to disrupt memory re-stabilization. To assess whether the older memory could be strengthened, we repeated the triggering of reconsolidation. Strong young or old memories modulated by a threatening experience could be interfered during reconsolidation and updated (strengthened) by reconsolidation. Rather than being fixed, boundary conditions vary according to the memory features (strong memory), which indicates the dynamic nature of the reconsolidation process. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to modify these limits by recruiting the reconsolidation process and making it functionally operative again. This novel scenario opens the possibility to new therapeutically approaches that take into account the reconsolidation process.

  3. Interaction of a Dynamic Vortex Generator with a laminar Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Erica; Chan, Wilfred; Hayostek, Shelby; Leong, Chia Min; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The effectiveness in delaying boundary layer separation by vortex generators (VGs) is well established. However, there could be a drag penalty when the flow it attached. Therefore, in this study, a piezo-based dynamic vortex generator was developed with the goal of mitigating any additional drag that might occur when not in use. The dynamic VG (DVG) was driven by bimorph piezoelectric motor and was designed to operate at frequencies up to 300 Hz. Experimental studies were performed on the interaction of the laminar boundary layer over a flat plate with a DVG placed at a skew angle of 18° with respect to the free-stream direction. The experiments were conducted for different height of the DVG, where the Reynolds number based on the local boundary layer thickness was about 2000. In addition, the DVG was oscillating at different frequencies and amplitudes and its effect of the flow field was compared to a steady VG. Simultaneous measurements of the DVG performance and the flow field behind it were accomplished using a laser displacement sensor and Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV), respectively. The SPIV data were taken at multiple downstream locations and the flow structures formed in the wake of the DVG will be discussed.

  4. Dynamic Perturbation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer and Experimental Identification of Critical-Layer-Type Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Ian; McKeon, Beverley J.

    2010-11-01

    A zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer is perturbed by a spatially impulsive patch of two-dimensional roughness elements, which are actuated dynamically to alternate between smooth and rough surface conditions, and the downstream response is measured by hot-wire anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The dynamic perturbation is observed to contribute a periodic signature to the downstream flow-field, which manifests itself in critical-layer type behavior. The downstream flow field is reconstructed in a phase-locked sense in order to compare the observed behavior with asymptotic representations of the expected behavior at matched flow conditions. Perturbation using a periodic disturbance is shown to reveal underlying features of the turbulent boundary layer which are intimately connected to the critical layer framework for turbulent pipe flow proposed by McKeon & Sharma (see the DFD-2010 presentation on `Structure from the critical layer framework in turbulent flow' by Sharma & McKeon), while simultaneously providing practical insight on the manipulation of the structure of boundary layers.

  5. Dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer response to ocean mesoscale sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Niklas; Taguchi, Bunmei; Nonaka, Masami; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Nakamura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    A recent theory for the mid-latitude atmospheric response to ocean mesoscale sea surface temperature (SST) variations is tested in the Southern Ocean using an extended integration of an atmospheric general circulation model. The theory is based on a linearization of the steady state, atmospheric boundary-layer dynamics, and yields the atmospheric response as classical Ekman dynamics extended to include advection, and sea surface temperature induced changes of atmospheric mixing and hydrostatic pressure. The theory predicts the response at each horizontal wave number to be governed by spectral transfer function between sea surface temperature and boundary layer variables, that are dependent on large-scale winds and the formulation of boundary layer mixing. The general circulation model, AFES, is shown to reproduce observed regressions between surface wind stress and sea surface temperatures. These 'coupling coefficients' are explained by SST induced changes of the surface stability, that directly impact surface stress, and changes of the surface winds. Estimates of the spectral transfer function between the latter and surface temperature are consistent with the theory, and suggest that it faithfully captures the underlying physics.

  6. Predicting moisture dynamics of fine understory fuels in a moist tropical rainforest system: results of a pilot study undertaken to identify proxy variables useful for rating fire danger.

    PubMed

    Ray, David; Nepstad, Dan; Brando, Paulo

    2010-08-01

    *The use of fire as a land management tool in the moist tropics often has the unintended consequence of degrading adjacent forest, particularly during severe droughts. Reliable models of fire danger are needed to help mitigate these impacts. *Here, we studied the moisture dynamics of fine understory fuels in the east-central Brazilian Amazon during the 2003 dry season. Drying stations established under varying amounts of canopy cover (leaf area index (LAI) = 0 - 5.3) were subjected to a range of water inputs (5-15 mm) and models were developed to forecast litter moisture content (LMC). Predictions were then compared with independent field data. *A multiple linear regression relating litter moisture content to forest structure (LAI), ambient vapor pressure deficit (VPD(M)) and an index of elapsed time since a precipitation event (d(-1)) was identified as the best-fit model (adjusted R(2) = 0.89). Relative to the independent observations, model predictions were relatively unbiased when the LMC was

  7. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis by boundary element method. Ph.D. Thesis, 1986 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Shahid

    1991-01-01

    An advanced implementation of the direct boundary element method (BEM) applicable to free-vibration, periodic (steady-state) vibration and linear and nonlinear transient dynamic problems involving two and three-dimensional isotropic solids of arbitrary shape is presented. Interior, exterior, and half-space problems can all be solved by the present formulation. For the free-vibration analysis, a new real variable BEM formulation is presented which solves the free-vibration problem in the form of algebraic equations (formed from the static kernels) and needs only surface discretization. In the area of time-domain transient analysis, the BEM is well suited because it gives an implicit formulation. Although the integral formulations are elegant, because of the complexity of the formulation it has never been implemented in exact form. In the present work, linear and nonlinear time domain transient analysis for three-dimensional solids has been implemented in a general and complete manner. The formulation and implementation of the nonlinear, transient, dynamic analysis presented here is the first ever in the field of boundary element analysis. Almost all the existing formulation of BEM in dynamics use the constant variation of the variables in space and time which is very unrealistic for engineering problems and, in some cases, it leads to unacceptably inaccurate results. In the present work, linear and quadratic isoparametric boundary elements are used for discretization of geometry and functional variations in space. In addition, higher order variations in time are used. These methods of analysis are applicable to piecewise-homogeneous materials, such that not only problems of the layered media and the soil-structure interaction can be analyzed but also a large problem can be solved by the usual sub-structuring technique. The analyses have been incorporated in a versatile, general-purpose computer program. Some numerical problems are solved and, through comparisons

  8. Assessing tropical rainforest growth traits: Data - Model fusion in the Congo basin and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Virgin forest ecosystems resemble the key reference level for natural tree growth dynamics. The mosaic cycle concept describes such dynamics as local disequilibria driven by patch level succession cycles of breakdown, regeneration, juvenescence and old growth. These cycles, however, may involve different traits of light demanding and shade tolerant species assemblies. In this work a data model fusion concept will be introduced to assess the differences in growth dynamics of the mosaic cycle of the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest ecosystem. Field data from 34 forest patches located in an ice age forest refuge, recently pinpointed to the ground and still devoid of direct human impact up to today - resemble the data base. A 3D error assessment procedure versus BGC model simulations for the 34 patches revealed two different growth dynamics, consistent with observed growth traits of pioneer and late succession species assemblies of the Western Congolian Lowland rainforest. An application of the same procedure to Central American Pacific rainforests confirms the strength of the 3D error field data model fusion concept to Central American Pacific rainforests confirms the strength of the 3D error field data model fusion concept to assess different growth traits of the mosaic cycle of natural forest dynamics.

  9. The impact of anthropogenic emissions on the otherwise pristine Amazonian rainforest: Insights on aerosol dynamics as observed during GoAmazon2014/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, S.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Rizzo, L. V.; Holanda, B. A.; Barbosa, H. M.; Ditas, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Moran, D.; Saturno, J.; Andreae, M. O.; de Sá, S. S.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Wang, J.; Palm, B. B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon Basin during the wet season has one of the lowest aerosol concentrations worldwide, with air masses with negligible human impact covering thousands of kilometers of pristine forest. The natural environment is strongly modified near urbanized areas, in particular Manaus, a city of nearly two million people. This unique location provides the ideal laboratory to study isolated urban emissions as well the pristine environment by perturbing it in a relatively known fashion. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment was designed with these questions in mind, combining remote sensing, in situ, and airborne measurements. This manuscript describes the measurements taken at the T0 site, upwind of Manaus, (the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory, ATTO site), at the T2 site, near Manaus, frequently impacted by relatively fresh emissions from the city and at T3, 60 km downwind of Manaus. This work relates the aerosol dynamics of the mixture of anthropogenic emissions from Manaus and the biogenic air masses, and how it evolves from T2 to T3 under different atmospheric conditions. Focus is on the aerosol size distribution, supported by aerosol mass spectrometry and gas-phase composition, in particular at the T2 site. At T0, the aerosol number concentration has been observed to increase from an average of 380 cm-3 to 1750 cm-3 from the wet to the dry season. The mean geometric diameter increased as well, from 95 nm to 145 nm. Interestingly, at the T2 site no significant difference was observed in number concentration between wet and dry seasons (approximately 4300 cm-3) with an average diameter of 60 nm during the former and 97 nm in the latter. Such measurements provide a unique dataset to understand the aerosol life cycle and the impact of urban emissions in the heart of the Amazon Forest.

  10. Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems Theory: The Case of the Missing Boundary Equilibrium Bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, S. J.; Homer, M. E.; Jeffrey, M. R.; Szalai, R.

    2016-10-01

    We present two codimension-one bifurcations that occur when an equilibrium collides with a discontinuity in a piecewise smooth dynamical system. These simple cases appear to have escaped recent classifications. We present them here to highlight some of the powerful results from Filippov's book Differential Equations with Discontinuous Righthand Sides (Kluwer, 1988). Filippov classified the so-called boundary equilibrium collisions without providing their unfolding. We show the complete unfolding here, for the first time, in the particularly interesting case of a node changing its stability as it collides with a discontinuity. We provide a prototypical model that can be used to generate all codimension-one boundary equilibrium collisions, and summarize the elements of Filippov's work that are important in achieving a full classification.

  11. A Study of Boundary Layer and Mass Bleed in a Short Length Supersonic Diffuser for a Gas Dynamic Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    layer and mass bleed in a short length supersonic diffuser for a gas dynamic laser Habel, Paul Grimmer Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School...http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17957 Downloaded from NPS Archive: Calhoun A STUDY OF BOUNDARY LAYER AND MASS BLEED IN A SHORT LENGTH SUPERSONIC DIFFUSER FOR...L THESIS I A Study of Boundary Layer and Mass Bleed in a Short Length Supersonic Diffuser for a Gas Dynamic Laser by Paul Grimmer Habel March 1976

  12. No-slip boundary condition in finite-size dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, S. Kumar; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an efficient, particle based mesoscopic numerical scheme to simulate dynamics of complex fluids and micro-flows, with spatio-temporal scales in the range of micrometers and microseconds. While the traditional DPD method treated particles as point masses, a modified DPD scheme was introduced recently [W. Pan, I.V. Pivkin, G.E. Karniadakis, Single-particle hydrodynamics in DPD: a new formulation, Europhysics Letters 84 (2008) 10012] by including transverse forces between finite sized particles in addition to the central forces of the standard DPD. The capability of a DPD scheme to solve confined wall bounded flows, depends on its ability to model the flow boundaries and effectively impose the classical no-slip boundary condition. Previous simulations with the modified DPD scheme used boundary conditions from the traditional DPD schemes, resorting to the velocity reversal of re-inserted particles which cross the solid wall. In the present work, a new method is proposed to impose no-slip or tunable slip boundary condition by controlling the non-central dissipative components in the modified DPD scheme. The solid wall is modeled in such a way that the fluid particles feel the presence of a continuous wall rather than a few discrete frozen particles as in conventional wall models. The fluid particles interact with the walls using a modified central repulsive potential to reduce the spurious density fluctuations. Several different benchmark problems (Poiseuille flow, lid-driven cavity and flow past circular cylinder) were solved using the new approach to demonstrate its validity.

  13. Historical distribution of Sundaland’s Dipterocarp rainforests at Quaternary glacial maxima

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Charles H.; Hijmans, Robert J.; Piessens, Thomas; Saw, Leng Guan; van Welzen, Peter C.; Slik, J. W. Ferry

    2014-01-01

    The extent of Dipterocarp rainforests on the emergent Sundaland landmass in Southeast Asia during Quaternary glaciations remains a key question. A better understanding of the biogeographic history of Sundaland could help explain current patterns of biodiversity and support the development of effective forest conservation strategies. Dipterocarpaceae trees dominate the rainforests of Sundaland, and their distributions serve as a proxy for rainforest extent. We used species distribution models (SDMs) of 317 Dipterocarp species to estimate the geographic extent of appropriate climatic conditions for rainforest on Sundaland at the last glacial maximum (LGM). The SDMs suggest that the climate of central Sundaland at the LGM was suitable to sustain Dipterocarp rainforest, and that the presence of a previously suggested transequatorial savannah corridor at that time is unlikely. Our findings are supported by palynologic evidence, dynamic vegetation models, extant mammal and termite communities, vascular plant fatty acid stable isotopic compositions, and stable carbon isotopic compositions of cave guano profiles. Although Dipterocarp species richness was generally lower at the LGM, areas of high species richness were mostly found off the current islands and on the emergent Sunda Shelf, indicating substantial species migration and mixing during the transitions between the Quaternary glacial maxima and warm periods such as the present. PMID:25385612

  14. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of flow generated by two rotating concentric cylinders: boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Haber, S; Filipovic, N; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2006-10-01

    The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method was used to simulate the flow in a system comprised of a fluid occupying the space between two cylinders rotating with equal angular velocities. The fluid, initially at rest, ultimately reaches a steady, linear velocity distribution (a rigid-body rotation). Since the induced flow field is solely associated with the no-slip boundary condition at the walls, we employed this system as a benchmark to examine the effect of bounce-back reflections, specular reflections, and Pivkin-Karniadakis no-slip boundary conditions, upon the steady-state velocity, density, and temperature distributions. An additional advantage of the foregoing system is that the fluid occupies inherently a finite bounded domain so that the results are affected by the prescribed no-slip boundary conditions only. Past benchmark systems such as Couette flow between two infinite parallel plates or Poiseuille flow in an infinitely long cylinder must employ artificial periodic boundary conditions at arbitrary upstream and downstream locations, a possible source of spurious effects. In addition, the effect of the foregoing boundary conditions on the time evolution of the simulated velocity profile was compared with that of the known, time-dependent analytical solution. It was shown that bounce-back reflection yields the best results for the velocity distributions with small fluctuations in density and temperature at the inner fluid domain and larger deviations near the walls. For the unsteady solutions a good fit is obtained if the DPD friction coefficient is proportional to the kinematic viscosity. Based on dimensional analysis and the numerical results a universal correlation is suggested between the friction coefficient and the kinematic viscosity.

  15. Dynamic programming in parallel boundary detection with application to ultrasound intima-media segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Xinyao; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin

    2013-12-01

    Segmentation of carotid artery intima-media in longitudinal ultrasound images for measuring its thickness to predict cardiovascular diseases can be simplified as detecting two nearly parallel boundaries within a certain distance range, when plaque with irregular shapes is not considered. In this paper, we improve the implementation of two dynamic programming (DP) based approaches to parallel boundary detection, dual dynamic programming (DDP) and piecewise linear dual dynamic programming (PL-DDP). Then, a novel DP based approach, dual line detection (DLD), which translates the original 2-D curve position to a 4-D parameter space representing two line segments in a local image segment, is proposed to solve the problem while maintaining efficiency and rotation invariance. To apply the DLD to ultrasound intima-media segmentation, it is imbedded in a framework that employs an edge map obtained from multiplication of the responses of two edge detectors with different scales and a coupled snake model that simultaneously deforms the two contours for maintaining parallelism. The experimental results on synthetic images and carotid arteries of clinical ultrasound images indicate improved performance of the proposed DLD compared to DDP and PL-DDP, with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical study on dynamic characteristics for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yubao; Yin, Hang; Huang, Hongyan; Yu, Daren

    2017-08-01

    Based on the sharp forward of shock train and taking the forthcoming unstart for a background, the dynamic characteristics for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot are investigated numerically using the dynamic mesh technique. Results indicate that the climbing path of shock train with the complex background waves exhibits a sharp and slow forward state at different time. The compression waves in the primary shock sweep the trailing edge of the separation bubble, and the recirculation within the shock train is communicated with the separation bubble, which reveals that the flow is in a critical state and is about to be unstart at the subsequent time. Furthermore, the dynamic pattern for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot can be classified into four distinct stages, namely, the formation of the jet plume without suction mass loss, the formation of the barrier shock with suction mass loss characterized by gradient increase and subsequent two oscillations, the evolution of the barrier shock and jet plume with suction mass loss that ramps up via a series of discrete step increases, and the formation of the stable structure accompanied by the linear suction mass loss.

  17. Approaching the Asymptotic Regime of Rapidly Rotating Convection: Boundary Layers versus Interior Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmach, S.; Lischper, M.; Julien, K.; Vasil, G.; Cheng, J. S.; Ribeiro, A.; King, E. M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is studied by combining results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), laboratory experiments, and asymptotic modeling. The asymptotic theory is shown to provide a good description of the bulk dynamics at low, but finite Rossby number. However, large deviations from the asymptotically predicted heat transfer scaling are found, with laboratory experiments and DNS consistently yielding much larger Nusselt numbers than expected. These deviations are traced down to dynamically active Ekman boundary layers, which are shown to play an integral part in controlling heat transfer even for Ekman numbers as small as 1 0-7. By adding an analytical parametrization of the Ekman transport to simulations using stress-free boundary conditions, we demonstrate that the heat transfer jumps from values broadly compatible with the asymptotic theory to states of strongly increased heat transfer, in good quantitative agreement with no-slip DNS and compatible with the experimental data. Finally, similarly to nonrotating convection, we find no single scaling behavior, but instead that multiple well-defined dynamical regimes exist in rapidly rotating convection systems.

  18. Stable boundary approximations for a class of implicit schemes for the one-dimensional inviscid equations of gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability to practical calculations of recent theoretical developments in the stability analysis of difference approximations for initial-boundary-value problems of the hyperbolic type. For the numerical experiments, select the one-dimensional inviscid gas-dynamic equations in conservation-law form is selected. A class of implicit schemes based on linear multistep methods for ordinary differential equations is chosen and the use of space or space-time extrapolations as implicit or explicit boundary schemes is emphasized. Some numerical examples with various inflow-outflow conditions highlight the commonly discussed issues: explicit versus implicit boundary schemes, unconditionally stable schemes, and underspecification or overspecification of boundary conditions.

  19. Air Flow Path Dynamics In The Vadose Zone Under Various Land Surface Climate Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Sakaki, T.; Schulte, P. E.; Cihan, A.; Christ, J.

    2010-12-01

    land surface dynamically affects the vapor transport pathways. A two-dimensional soil tank 2.4 m long and 1.2 m in height was used in the experimental investigation. The tank was packed using four test sands to represent a heterogeneous configuration. Constant temperature boundary conditions were created at the soil surface using thermostatically controlled heaters. A rain-making device controlled the water flux boundary conditions. The tank was instrumented with dielectric soil moisture sensors to measure soil moisture distribution and hydrophobic tensiometers to record transient air pressures. The data generated were then used to obtain a qualitative understanding of how the heat and water flux boundary conditions control the development of preferential air pathways, and to validate a two-phase flow numerical tool developed based on COMSOL multiphysics simulator.

  20. An application of partial differential equations and boundary value problems in computational fluid dynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Collino, B.J.; Gangadharan, S.; Wimberly, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper outlines a method used to create a complex grid map for a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling conducted at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida. The investigators used a Laplace operator in the CFD software Fluent to create an imaginary flow domain around a hydrofoil that runs nearly parallel to the stream function. The goal of this project is to eventually study the evolution of lift, drag, and pitching moment for the hydrofoil as a result of changing boundary layer conditions due to growth of the biological fouling Enteromorpha Clathrata.

  1. Dislocation mechanism of void growth at twin boundary of nanotwinned nickel based on molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yanan

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to investigate dislocation mechanism of void growth at twin boundary (TB) of nanotwinned nickel. Simulation results show that the deformation of nanotwinned nickel containing a void at TB is dominated by the slip involving both leading and trailing partials, where the trailing partials are the dissociation products of stair-rod dislocations formed by the leading partials. The growth of a void at TB is attributed to the successive emission of the leading partials followed by trailing partials as well as the escape of these partial dislocations from the void surface.

  2. Dynamic Stability Optimization of Laminated Composite Plates under Combined Boundary Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafei, Erfan; Kabir, Mohammad Zaman

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic stability and design optimization of laminated simply supported plates under planar conservative boundary loads are investigated in current study. Examples can be found in internal connecting elements of spacecraft and aerospace structures subjected to edge axial and shear loads. Designation of such elements is function of layup configuration, plate aspect ratio, loading combinations, and layup thickness. An optimum design aims maximum stability load satisfying a predefined stable vibration frequency. The interaction between compound loading and layup angle parameter affects the order of merging vibration modes and may stabilize the dynamic response. Laminated plates are assumed to be angle-plies symmetric to mid-plane surface. Dynamic equilibrium PDE has been solved using kernel integral transformation for modal frequency values and eigenvalue-based orthogonal functions for critical stability loads. The dictating dynamic stability mode is shown to be controlled by geometric stiffness distributions of composite plates. Solution of presented design optimization problem has been done using analytical approach combined with interior penalty multiplier algorithm. The results are verified by FEA approach and stability zones of original and optimized plates are stated as final data. Presented method can help designers to stabilize the dynamic response of composite plates by selecting an optimized layup orientation and thickness for prescribed design circumstances.

  3. Mg2SiO4 Forsterite Grain Boundary Structures and Self-diffusion from Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Adjaoud, O.; Marquardt, K.; Jahn, S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well understood that grain boundaries influence many key physicochemical properties of crystalline materials and earth materials are no exception to this. Grain boundaries in the mineral olivine have reshaped our understanding of geophysical processes in the earth's mantle, e.g. in form of enhanced element transport through grain boundary diffusion. Investigations of the relation between transport rate, energy and geometry of individual grain boundaries is compulsory to understand transport in aggregates with a lattice preferred orientation (LPO) that favours the presence and or alignment of specific grain boundaries over random grain boundaries in an undeformed rock. In this contribution, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations of a series of symmetric and one asymmetric tilt grain boundaries of Mg2SiO4 (forsterite), ranging from 9.58° to 90° in misorientation and varying surface termination (see 1). Our emphasis lies on unravelling structural characteristics of high and low angle grain boundaries and how these influence grain boundary energy and self-diffusion processes. To obtain diffusion rates for different grain boundary geometries, we equilibrate the respective grain boundary systems at ambient pressure and temperatures from 1900-2200K and trace their evolution for run durations of more than100 ps. Subsequently, we track the mean square displacement of the different atomic species within the grain boundary layer over time to estimate self-diffusion constants for each grain boundary geometry and temperature. First results suggest that diffusion rates decrease with increasing grain boundary energy. We will discuss these results in the light of recent experimental data and show strength and limitations of the method applied. 1. Adjaoud, O., Marquardt, K., Jahn, S., Phys Chem Miner 39, 749-760 (2012)

  4. An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gaoqiang; Feng, Zhili; Zhu, Yucan; Shi, Qingyu

    2016-09-01

    For better application of numerical simulation in optimization and design of friction stir welding (FSW), this paper presents a new frictional boundary condition at the tool/workpiece interface for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of FSW. The proposed boundary condition is based on an implementation of the Coulomb friction model. Using the new boundary condition, the CFD simulation yields non-uniform distribution of contact state over the tool/workpiece interface, as validated by the experimental weld macrostructure. It is found that interfacial sticking state is present over large area at the tool-workpiece interface, while significant interfacial sliding occurs at the shoulder periphery, the lower part of pin side, and the periphery of pin bottom. Due to the interfacial sticking, a rotating flow zone is found under the shoulder, in which fast circular motion occurs. The diameter of the rotating flow zone is smaller than the shoulder diameter, which is attributed to the presence of the interfacial sliding at the shoulder periphery. For the simulated welding condition, the heat generation due to friction and plastic deformation makes up 54.4 and 45.6% of the total heat generation rate, respectively. The simulated temperature field is validated by the good agreement to the experimental measurements.

  5. Dynamics of a flexible helical filament rotating in a viscous fluid near a rigid boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawed, M. K.; Reis, P. M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the effect of a no-slip rigid boundary on the dynamics of a flexible helical filament rotating in a viscous fluid, at low Reynolds number conditions (Stokes limit). This system is taken as a reduced model for the propulsion of uniflagellar bacteria, whose locomotion is known to be modified near solid boundaries. Specifically, we focus on how the propulsive force generated by the filament, as well as its buckling onset, are modified by the presence of a wall. We tackle this problem through numerical simulations that couple the elasticity of the filament, the hydrodynamic loading, and the wall effect. Each of these three ingredients is respectively modeled by the discrete elastic rods method (for a geometrically nonlinear description of the filament), Lighthill's slender body theory (for a nonlocal fluid force model), and the method of images (to emulate the boundary). The simulations are systematically validated by precision experiments on a rescaled macroscopic apparatus. We find that the propulsive force increases near the wall, while the critical rotation frequency for the onset of buckling usually decreases. A systematic parametric study is performed to quantify the dependence of the wall effects on the geometric parameters of the helical filament.

  6. An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gaoqiang; Feng, Zhili; Zhu, Yucan; Shi, Qingyu

    2016-07-11

    For better application of numerical simulation in optimization and design of friction stir welding (FSW), this paper presents a new frictional boundary condition at the tool/workpiece interface for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of FSW. The proposed boundary condition is based on an implementation of the Coulomb friction model. Using the new boundary condition, the CFD simulation yields non-uniform distribution of contact state over the tool/workpiece interface, as validated by the experimental weld macrostructure. It is found that interfacial sticking state is present over large area at the tool-workpiece interface, while significant interfacial sliding occurs at the shoulder periphery, the lower part of pin side, and the periphery of pin bottom. Due to the interfacial sticking, a rotating flow zone is found under the shoulder, in which fast circular motion occurs. The diameter of the rotating flow zone is smaller than the shoulder diameter, which is attributed to the presence of the interfacial sliding at the shoulder periphery. For the simulated welding condition, the heat generation due to friction and plastic deformation makes up 54.4 and 45.6% of the total heat generation rate, respectively. In conclusion, the simulated temperature field is validated by the good agreement to the experimental measurements.

  7. An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Gaoqiang; Feng, Zhili; Zhu, Yucan; ...

    2016-07-11

    For better application of numerical simulation in optimization and design of friction stir welding (FSW), this paper presents a new frictional boundary condition at the tool/workpiece interface for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of FSW. The proposed boundary condition is based on an implementation of the Coulomb friction model. Using the new boundary condition, the CFD simulation yields non-uniform distribution of contact state over the tool/workpiece interface, as validated by the experimental weld macrostructure. It is found that interfacial sticking state is present over large area at the tool-workpiece interface, while significant interfacial sliding occurs at the shoulder periphery, themore » lower part of pin side, and the periphery of pin bottom. Due to the interfacial sticking, a rotating flow zone is found under the shoulder, in which fast circular motion occurs. The diameter of the rotating flow zone is smaller than the shoulder diameter, which is attributed to the presence of the interfacial sliding at the shoulder periphery. For the simulated welding condition, the heat generation due to friction and plastic deformation makes up 54.4 and 45.6% of the total heat generation rate, respectively. In conclusion, the simulated temperature field is validated by the good agreement to the experimental measurements.« less

  8. Traction–separation relationships for hydrogen induced grain boundary embrittlement in nickel via molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, Wesley; Dingreville, Rémi; Spearot, Douglas

    2015-10-19

    A statistical approach combined with molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the influence of hydrogen on intergranular decohesion. This methodology is applied to a Ni Σ3(112)[11¯0] symmetric tilt grain boundary. Hydrogenated grain boundaries with different H concentrations are constructed using an energy minimization technique with initial H atom positions guided by Monte Carlo simulation results. Decohesion behavior is assessed through extraction of a traction–separation relationship during steady-state crack propagation in a statistically meaningful approach, building upon prior work employing atomistic cohesive zone volume elements (CZVEs). A sensitivity analysis is performed on the numerical approach used to extract the traction–separation relationships, clarifying the role of CZVE size, threshold parameters necessary to differentiate elastic and decohesion responses, and the numerical averaging technique. Results show that increasing H coverage at the Ni Σ3(112)[11¯0] grain boundary asymmetrically influences the crack tip velocity during propagation, leads to a general decrease in the work of separation required for crack propagation, and provides a reduction in the peak stress in the extracted traction–separation relationship. Furthermore the present framework offers a meaningful vehicle to pass atomistically derived interfacial behavior to higher length scale formulations for intergranular fracture.

  9. Traction–separation relationships for hydrogen induced grain boundary embrittlement in nickel via molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Barrows, Wesley; Dingreville, Rémi; Spearot, Douglas

    2015-10-19

    A statistical approach combined with molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the influence of hydrogen on intergranular decohesion. This methodology is applied to a Ni Σ3(112)[11¯0] symmetric tilt grain boundary. Hydrogenated grain boundaries with different H concentrations are constructed using an energy minimization technique with initial H atom positions guided by Monte Carlo simulation results. Decohesion behavior is assessed through extraction of a traction–separation relationship during steady-state crack propagation in a statistically meaningful approach, building upon prior work employing atomistic cohesive zone volume elements (CZVEs). A sensitivity analysis is performed on the numerical approach used to extract the traction–separationmore » relationships, clarifying the role of CZVE size, threshold parameters necessary to differentiate elastic and decohesion responses, and the numerical averaging technique. Results show that increasing H coverage at the Ni Σ3(112)[11¯0] grain boundary asymmetrically influences the crack tip velocity during propagation, leads to a general decrease in the work of separation required for crack propagation, and provides a reduction in the peak stress in the extracted traction–separation relationship. Furthermore the present framework offers a meaningful vehicle to pass atomistically derived interfacial behavior to higher length scale formulations for intergranular fracture.« less

  10. Equilibrium Limit of Boundary Scattering in Carbon Nanostructures: Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Thermal Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, Justin; Kinaci, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    It is widely known that graphene and many of its derivative nanostructures have exceedingly high reported thermal conductivities (up to 4000 W/mK at 300 K). Such attractive thermal properties beg the use of these structures in practical devices; however, to implement these materials while preserving transport quality, the influence of structure on thermal conductivity should be thoroughly understood. For graphene nanostructures, having average phonon mean free paths on the order of one micron, a primary concern is how size influences the potential for heat conduction. To investigate this, we employ a novel technique to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity from the Green-Kubo relations and equilibrium molecular dynamics in systems where phonon-boundary scattering dominates heat flow. Specifically, the thermal conductivities of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes are calculated in sizes up to 3 microns, and the relative influence of boundary scattering on thermal transport is determined to be dominant at sizes less than 1 micron, after which the thermal transport largely depends on the quality of the nanostructure interface. The method is also extended to carbon nanostructures (fullerenes) where phonon confinement, as opposed to boundary scattering, dominates, and general trends related to the influence of curvature on thermal transport in these materials are discussed.

  11. Hotspots of boundary accumulation: dynamics and statistics of micro-swimmers in flowing films

    PubMed Central

    Mathijssen, Arnold J. T. M.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Yeomans, Julia M.; Shendruk, Tyler N.

    2016-01-01

    Biological flows over surfaces and interfaces can result in accumulation hotspots or depleted voids of microorganisms in natural environments. Apprehending the mechanisms that lead to such distributions is essential for understanding biofilm initiation. Using a systematic framework, we resolve the dynamics and statistics of swimming microbes within flowing films, considering the impact of confinement through steric and hydrodynamic interactions, flow and motility, along with Brownian and run–tumble fluctuations. Micro-swimmers can be peeled off the solid wall above a critical flow strength. However, the interplay of flow and fluctuations causes organisms to migrate back towards the wall above a secondary critical value. Hence, faster flows may not always be the most efficacious strategy to discourage biofilm initiation. Moreover, we find run–tumble dynamics commonly used by flagellated microbes to be an intrinsically more successful strategy to escape from boundaries than equivalent levels of enhanced Brownian noise in ciliated organisms. PMID:26841796

  12. Boundary slip study on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces with dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Wang, Yuliang; Maali, Abdelhamid

    2009-07-21

    Slip length has been measured using the dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) method. Unlike the contact AFM method, the sample surface approaches an oscillating sphere with a very low velocity in the dynamic AFM method. During this process, the amplitude and phase shift data are recorded to calculate the hydrodynamic damping coefficient, which is then used to obtain slip length. In this study, a glass sphere with a large radius was glued to the end of an AFM cantilever to measure the slip length on rough surfaces. Experimental results for hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces show that the hydrodynamic damping coefficient decreases from the hydrophilic surface to the hydrophobic surface and from the hydrophobic one to the superhydrophobic one. The slip lengths obtained on the hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces are 43 and 236 nm, respectively, which indicates increasing boundary slip from the hydrophobic surface to the superhydrophobic one.

  13. Deep sequencing approaches for the analysis of prokaryotic transcriptional boundaries and dynamics.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine; Cockell, Simon J; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2017-05-01

    The identification of the protein-coding regions of a genome is straightforward due to the universality of start and stop codons. However, the boundaries of the transcribed regions, conditional operon structures, non-coding RNAs and the dynamics of transcription, such as pausing of elongation, are non-trivial to identify, even in the comparatively simple genomes of prokaryotes. Traditional methods for the study of these areas, such as tiling arrays, are noisy, labour-intensive and lack the resolution required for densely-packed bacterial genomes. Recently, deep sequencing has become increasingly popular for the study of the transcriptome due to its lower costs, higher accuracy and single nucleotide resolution. These methods have revolutionised our understanding of prokaryotic transcriptional dynamics. Here, we review the deep sequencing and data analysis techniques that are available for the study of transcription in prokaryotes, and discuss the bioinformatic considerations of these analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validity boundary of orbital-free molecular dynamics method corresponding to thermal ionization of shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chang; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-11-01

    With 6LiD as an example, we show that the applicable region of the orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) method in a large temperature range is determined by the thermal ionization process of bound electrons in shell structures. The validity boundary of the OFMD method is defined roughly by the balance point of the average thermal energy of an electron and the ionization energy of the lowest localized electronic state. This theoretical proposition is based on the observation that the deviation of the OFMD method originates from its less accurate description to the charge density in partially ionized shells, as compared with the results of the extended first-principles molecular dynamics method, which well reproduces the charge density of shell structures.

  15. On the Introduction of Unsteady Streaks into a Blasius Boundary Layer Using Dynamically Actuated Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bade, Kyle; Naguib, Ahmed; Lavoie, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Observations of the spatio-temporal growth of streamwise elongated streaks emanating from a cylindrical roughness element undergoing dynamic actuation into/out of a Blasius boundary layer are presented. Hot-wire measurements provide 2D maps of the disturbance velocity of these streaks. Modal decomposition methods are performed on these maps to evaluate the nature of the temporal growth of the streaks. For this analysis, various roughness element actuation heights, velocities, and accelerations are examined in order to identify the ``dynamic-roughness'' actuation parameters range for which transiently growing streaks can be produced while avoiding the introduction of T-S wave packets and/or non-linearly-growing disturbances. The establishment of such streaks with 5-10% disturbance magnitude will provide the basis for an experimental platform, and help develop efficient models for feedback bypass transition control in an ongoing study in collaboration with Princeton University. Funded by NSF grant number: CMMI 0932546.

  16. Roughness Effects on Wind-Turbine Wake Dynamics in a Boundary-Layer Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlas, E.; Buckingham, S.; van Beeck, J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand in wind energy has resulted in increasingly clustered wind farms, and raised the interest in wake research dramatically in the last couple of years. To this end, the present work employs an experimental approach with scaled three-bladed wind-turbine models in a large boundary-layer wind-tunnel. Time-resolved measurements are carried out with a three-component hot-wire anemometer in the mid-vertical plane of the wake up to a downstream distance of eleven turbine diameters. The major issue addressed is the wake dynamics i.e. the flow and turbulence characteristics as well as spectral content under two different neutral boundary-layer inflow conditions. The wind tunnel is arranged with and without roughened surfaces in order to mimic moderately rough and smooth conditions. The inflow characterization is carried out by using all three velocity components, while the rest of the study is focused on the streamwise component's evolution. The results show an earlier wake recovery, i.e. the velocity deficit due to the turbine is less persistent for the rough case due to higher incoming turbulence levels. This paves the way for enhanced mixing from higher momentum regions of the boundary layer towards the centre of the wake. The investigation on the turbulent shear stresses is in line with this observation as well. Moreover, common as well as distinguishing features of the turbulent-scales evolution are detected for rough and smooth inflow boundary-layer conditions. Wake meandering disappears for rough inflow conditions but persists for smooth case with a Strouhal number similar to that of a solid disk wake.

  17. Anisotropy of self-diffusion in forsterite grain boundaries derived from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Johannes; Adjaoud, Omar; Marquardt, Katharina; Jahn, Sandro

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion rates and associated deformation behaviour in olivine have been subjected to many studies, due to the major abundance of this mineral group in the Earth's upper mantle. However, grain boundary (GB) transport studies yield controversial results. The relation between transport rate, energy, and geometry of individual GBs is the key to understand transport in aggregates with lattice preferred orientation that favours the presence and/or alignment of specific GBs over random ones in an undeformed rock. In this contribution, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations of a series of symmetric and one asymmetric tilt GBs of Mg_2 SiO_4 forsterite, ranging from 9.58° to 90° in misorientation and varying surface termination. Our emphasis lies on unravelling structural characteristics of high- and low-angle grain boundaries and how the atomic structure influences grain boundary excess volume and self-diffusion processes. To obtain diffusion rates for different GB geometries, we equilibrate the respective systems at ambient pressure and temperatures from 1900 to 2200 K and trace their evolution for run durations of at least 1000 ps. We then calculate the mean square displacement of the different atomic species within the GB interface to estimate self-diffusion coefficients in the individual systems. Grain boundary diffusion coefficients for Mg, Si and O range from 10^{-18} to 10^{-21} m^3/s, falling in line with extrapolations from lower temperature experimental data. Our data indicate that higher GB excess volumes enable faster diffusion within the GB. Finally, we discuss two types of transport mechanisms that may be distinguished in low- and high-angle GBs.

  18. Magnetospheric boundary dynamics: DE 1 and DE 2 observations near the magnetopause and cusp

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, N.C.; Burke, W.J. ); Aggson, T.L. ); Basinska, E.M. ); Craven, P. ); Peterson, W.K. ); Sugiura, M. Tokai Univ., Tokyo ); Weimer, D.R. )

    1991-03-01

    A broad spectrum of particle and field measurements was taken near local noon by the Dynamics Explorer satellites during the magnetic storm of September 6, 1982. While at apogee, DE 1 sampled the magnetospheric boundary layer at mid southern latitudes and, due to the passage of an intense solar wind burst, briefly penetrated into the magnetosheath. In the boundary layer and the adjacent magnetosheath the plasma flow was directed toward dawn. Variance and de Hoffman-Teller analyses of electric and magnetic field data during the magnetopause crossing showed the magnetopause structure to be that of a rotational discontinuity or an intermediate shock with a substantial normal magnetic field component. This is consistent with an open magnetosphere model in which significant magnetic merging occurs at the local time of the spacecraft. The orbit of DE 2 carried it through the morning sector of the low-altitude, southern cusp. The measurements show a well-defined, cusp current system occurring on open magnetic field lines. At both cusp and subcusp latitudes the electric field was equatorward indicating a strongly eastward plasma flow. The boundary between these two regions was marked by the onset of magnetosheath precipitation and an electric field structure containing both poleward and equatorward spikes. The poleward spike has associated field-aligned currents which are closed by Pedersen currents and, from force balance considerations, is interpreted as the signature of a magnetic merging event at the magnetopause. The equatorward spike has the characteristics of a down-coming and reflected Alfven wave packet of finite dimensions. The high-altitude measurements suggest that the dayside boundary layer is made up of closed magnetic flux tubes, a large fraction of which drift to the magnetopause where merging with the IMF occurs.

  19. Fluid Dynamics of Biomimetic Pectoral Fin Propulsion Using Immersed Boundary Method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ningyu; Su, Yumin

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to study the fluid dynamics of a complex-shaped low-aspect-ratio pectoral fin that performs the labriform swimming. Simulations of flow around the fin are achieved by a developed immersed boundary (IB) method, in which we have proposed an efficient local flow reconstruction algorithm with enough robustness and a new numerical strategy with excellent adaptability to deal with complex moving boundaries involved in bionic flow simulations. The prescribed fin kinematics in each period consists of the power stroke and the recovery stroke, and the simulations indicate that the former is mainly used to provide the thrust while the latter is mainly used to provide the lift. The fin wake is dominated by a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure where the partial power-stroke vortex ring is linked to the recovery-stroke ring vertically. Moreover, the connection of force production with the fin kinematics and vortex dynamics is discussed in detail to explore the propulsion mechanism. We also conduct a parametric study to understand how the vortex topology and hydrodynamic characteristics change with key parameters. The results show that there is an optimal phase angle and Strouhal number for this complicated fin. Furthermore, the implications for the design of a bioinspired pectoral fin are discussed based on the quantitative hydrodynamic analysis. PMID:27478363

  20. Strongly Coupled Fluid-Body Dynamics in the Immersed Boundary Projection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2014-11-01

    A computational algorithm is developed to simulate dynamically coupled interaction between fluid and rigid bodies. The basic computational framework is built upon a multi-domain immersed boundary method library, whirl, developed in previous work. In this library, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. A solver for the dynamics of rigid-body systems is also included. The fluid and rigid-body solvers are strongly coupled with an iterative approach based on the block Gauss-Seidel method. Interfacial force, with its intimate connection with the Lagrange multipliers used in the fluid solver, is used as the primary iteration variable. Relaxation, developed from a stability analysis of the iterative scheme, is used to achieve convergence in only 2-4 iterations per time step. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of linked plates and three-dimensional propulsion of flexible fluked tail. This work has been supported by AFOSR, under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.

  1. Hybrid state vector methods for structural dynamic and aeroelastic boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    A computational technique is developed that is suitable for performing preliminary design aeroelastic and structural dynamic analyses of large aspect ratio lifting surfaces. The method proves to be quite general and can be adapted to solving various two point boundary value problems. The solution method, which is applicable to both fixed and rotating wing configurations, is based upon a formulation of the structural equilibrium equations in terms of a hybrid state vector containing generalized force and displacement variables. A mixed variational formulation is presented that conveniently yields a useful form for these state vector differential equations. Solutions to these equations are obtained by employing an integrating matrix method. The application of an integrating matrix provides a discretization of the differential equations that only requires solutions of standard linear matrix systems. It is demonstrated that matrix partitioning can be used to reduce the order of the required solutions. Results are presented for several example problems in structural dynamics and aeroelasticity to verify the technique and to demonstrate its use. These problems examine various types of loading and boundary conditions and include aeroelastic analyses of lifting surfaces constructed from anisotropic composite materials.

  2. Thermal boundary resistance predictions from molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, E. S.; McGaughey, A. J. H.

    2009-10-01

    The accuracies of two theoretical expressions for thermal boundary resistance are assessed by comparing their predictions to independent predictions from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In one expression (RE) , the phonon distributions are assumed to follow the equilibrium, Bose-Einstein distribution, while in the other expression (RNE) , the phonons are assumed to have nonequilibrium, but bulk-like distributions. The phonon properties are obtained using lattice dynamics-based methods, which assume that the phonon interface scattering is specular and elastic. We consider (i) a symmetrically strained Si/Ge interface, and (ii) a series of interfaces between Si and “heavy-Si,” which differs from Si only in mass. All of the interfaces are perfect, justifying the assumption of specular scattering. The MD-predicted Si/Ge thermal boundary resistance is temperature independent and equal to 3.1×10-9m2-K/W below a temperature of ˜500K , indicating that the phonon scattering is elastic, as required for the validity of the theoretical calculations. At higher-temperatures, the MD-predicted Si/Ge thermal boundary resistance decreases with increasing temperature, a trend we attribute to inelastic scattering. For the Si/Ge interface and the Si/heavy-Si interfaces with mass ratios greater than two, RE is in good agreement with the corresponding MD-predicted values at temperatures where the interface scattering is elastic. When applied to a system containing no interface, RE is erroneously nonzero due to the assumption of equilibrium phonon distributions on either side of the interface. While RNE is zero for a system containing no interface, it is 40%-60% less than the corresponding MD-predicted values for the Si/Ge interface and the Si/heavy-Si interfaces at temperatures where the interface scattering is elastic. This inaccuracy is attributed to the assumption of bulk-like phonon distributions on either side of the interface.

  3. Vortex dynamics of in-line twin synthetic jets in a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Hui; Duan, Fei

    2015-08-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on the vortices induced by twin synthetic jets (SJs) in line with a laminar boundary layer flow over a flat plate. The twin SJs operating at four different phase differences, i.e., Δϕ = 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, are visualized using a stereoscopic color dye visualization system and measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. It is found that depending on the phase difference of twin SJs, three types of vortex structures are produced. At Δϕ = 90°, the two hairpin vortices interact in a very constructive way in terms of the vortex size, strength, and celerity, forming one combined vortex. At Δϕ = 270°, the two individual hairpin vortices do not have much interaction, forming two completely separated hairpin vortices that behave like doubling the frequency of the single SJ case. At Δϕ = 0° and 180°, the two hairpin vortices produced by the twin SJ actuators are close enough, with the head of one hairpin vortex coupled with the legs of the other, forming partially interacting vortex structures. Quantitative analysis of the twin SJs is conducted, including the time histories of vortex circulation in the mid-span plane as well as a selected spanwise-wall-normal plane, and the influence of the twin SJs on the boundary layer flow filed. In addition, dynamic mode decomposition analysis of the PIV data is conducted to extract representative coherent structures. Through this study, a better understanding in the vortex dynamics associated with the interaction of in-line twin SJs in laminar boundary layers is achieved, which provides useful information for future SJ-array applications.

  4. Dynamics of the Auroral Luminosity Boundary of the Polar Cap During Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittnacher, M. J.; Chua, D.; Fillingim, M. O.; Parks, G. K.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The area of the polar cap during substorms has been measured using images from the Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Changes in the poleward boundary of auroral luminosity have been analyzed in relation to substorm phase and IMF orientation. Reconnection models of flux transport into the polar cap during the substorm growth phase, and loss from the polar cap during the expansion phase, provide a framework by which these UVI observations can be analyzed. By comparison of the observations with the model predictions we can determine to what extent these models accurately predict the polar cap dynamics, and also where anomalous behavior calls for a new understanding of the dynamics beyond what these models provide. It was found that the polar cap boundary near noon and midnight usually shifted down in latitude by 1-2 degrees and 3-4 degrees respectively, increasing the area of the polar cap during the substorm growth phase as predicted. However, this growth phase phenomenon also unexpectedly occurs independently of the IMF Bz component, as shown for a substorm on January 9, 1997. The polar cap area also increased due to motion of the dawn and dusk aurora to lower latitudes, although the latitudinal shifts were asymmetric, not always concurrent, and continued well into the substorm expansion phase. The polar cap area decreased immediately following the expansion phase due to the poleward motion of the aurora on the nightside, consistent with the model prediction. What is not explained by the models is that the poleward auroral boundary in the nightside region sometimes reached very high latitudes (greater than 80 degrees MLat) greatly decreasing the polar cap area, independent of the magnitude of the substorm.

  5. Generalized versus patient-specific inflow boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics simulations of cerebral aneurysmal hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Jansen, I G H; Schneiders, J J; Potters, W V; van Ooij, P; van den Berg, R; van Bavel, E; Marquering, H A; Majoie, C B L M

    2014-08-01

    Attempts have been made to associate intracranial aneurysmal hemodynamics with aneurysm growth and rupture status. Hemodynamics in aneurysms is traditionally determined with computational fluid dynamics by using generalized inflow boundary conditions in a parent artery. Recently, patient-specific inflow boundary conditions are being implemented more frequently. Our purpose was to compare intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics based on generalized versus patient-specific inflow boundary conditions. For 36 patients, geometric models of aneurysms were determined by using 3D rotational angiography. 2D phase-contrast MR imaging velocity measurements of the parent artery were performed. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed twice: once by using patient-specific phase-contrast MR imaging velocity profiles and once by using generalized Womersley profiles as inflow boundary conditions. Resulting mean and maximum wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index values were analyzed, and hemodynamic characteristics were qualitatively compared. Quantitative analysis showed statistically significant differences for mean and maximum wall shear stress values between both inflow boundary conditions (P < .001). Qualitative assessment of hemodynamic characteristics showed differences in 21 cases: high wall shear stress location (n = 8), deflection location (n = 3), lobulation wall shear stress (n = 12), and/or vortex and inflow jet stability (n = 9). The latter showed more instability for the generalized inflow boundary conditions in 7 of 9 patients. Using generalized and patient-specific inflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics results in different wall shear stress magnitudes and hemodynamic characteristics. Generalized inflow boundary conditions result in more vortices and inflow jet instabilities. This study emphasizes the necessity of patient-specific inflow boundary conditions for calculation of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms by using

  6. Regional Impacts of Climate Change on the Amazon Rainforest: 2080-2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2006-12-01

    A regional climate model with resolution of 60 km is coupled with a potential vegetation model to simulate future climate over South America. The following steps are taken to effectively communicate the results across disciplines and to make them useful to the policy and impacts communities: the simulation is aimed at a particular time period (2081-2100), the climate change results are translated into changes in vegetation distribution, and the results are reported on regional space scales relative to political boundaries. In addition, the model validation in clearly presented to provide perspective on uncertainty for the prognosis. The model reproduces today's climate and vegetation over tropical and subtropical South America accurately. In simulations of the future, the model is forced by the IPCC's A2 scenario of future emissions, which assumes that CO2 emissions continue to grow at essentially today's rate throughout the 21st century, reaching 757 ppmv averaged over 2081-2100. The model is constrained on its lateral boundaries by atmospheric conditions simulated by a global climate model, applied as anomalies to present day conditions, and predicted changes in sea surface temperatures. The extent of the Amazon rainforest is reduced by about 70 per cent in the simulation, and the shrubland (caatinga) vegetation of Brazil's Nordeste region spreads westward and southward well into the continental interior. Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina lose all of their rainforest vegetation, and Brazil and Peru lose most of it. The surviving rain forest is concentrated near the equator. Columbia's rainforest survives largely intact and, along the northern coast, Venezuela and French Guiana suffer relatively small reductions. The loss in Guyana and Surinam is 30-50 per cent. Much of the rainforest in the central Amazon north of about 15S is replaced by savanna vegetation, but in southern Bolivia, northern Paraguay, and southern Brazil, grasslands take the place of the

  7. Unsteady Flow Simulations about Moving Boundary Configurations Using Dynamic Domain Decomposition Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Guan-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A computational method is developed to solve the coupled governing equations of an unsteady flowfield and those of rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF). This method is capable of simulating the unsteady flowfields around multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help us to understand are the unsteady aerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of such a flowfield. By hybridizing two dynamic domain decomposition techniques, the grid generation task is simplified, the computer memory requirement is reduced, and the governing equations of the rigid-body dynamics are simplified with certain assumptions. Three dimensional, unsteady Navier -Stokes equations are solved on each of the subdomains by a fully-vectorized, finite-volume, upwind-biased, and approximately -factored method. These equations are solved on the composite meshes of hybrid subdomain grids that can move with respect to each other. Hence, the present method combines the advantages of an efficient, geometrically conservative, minimally and automatically dissipative algorithm with the advantages and flexibility of the domain decomposition techniques. Several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. This solution compares very well with the analytic solution of the isentropic equations. It is concluded, that as a minimum measure, the connectivity of nonconservative overlapped scheme needs to be second-order accurate for spatial and temporal discretizations, as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to below unity, if affordable, for flows with high flow gradients. The method is further scrutinized by simulating the flow past a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, and the flow past a sinusoidally pitching and

  8. Dynamic substructuring by the boundary flexibility vector method of component mode synthesis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Ayman Ahmed

    1990-01-01

    Component mode synthesis (CMS) is a method of dynamic analysis, for structures having a large number of degrees of freedom (DOF). These structures often required lengthy computer CPU time and large computer memory resources, if solved directly by the finite-element method (FEM). In CMS, the structure is divided into independent components in which the DOF are defined by a set of generalized coordinates defined by displacement shapes. The number of the generalized coordinates are much less than the original number of physical DOF, in the component. The displacement shapes are used to transform the component property matrices and any applied external loads, to a reduced system of coordinates. Reduced system property matrices are assembled, and any type of dynamic analysis is carried out in the reduced coordinate system. Any obtained results are back transformed to the original component coordinate systems. In all conventional methods of CMS, the mode shapes used for components are dynamic mode shapes, supplemented by static deflected shapes. Historically, all the dynamic mode shapes used in conventional CMS are the natural modes (eigenvectors) of components. A new method of CMS, namely the boundary flexibility vector method of CMS, is presented. The method provides for the incorporation of a set of static Ritz vectors, referred to as boundary flexibility vectors, as a replacement and/or supplement to conventional eigenvectors, as displacement shapes for components. The generation of these vectors does not require the solution of a costly eigenvalue problem, as in the case of natural modes in conventional CMS, and hence a substantial saving in CPU time can be achieved. The boundary flexibility vectors are generated from flexibility (or stiffness) properties of components. The formulation presented is for both free and fixed-interface components, and for both the free and forced vibration problems. Free and forced vibration numerical examples are presented to verify

  9. Influence of hysteresis on groundwater wave dynamics in an unconfined aquifer with a sloping boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoushtari, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Jazayeri; Cartwright, Nick; Perrochet, Pierre; Nielsen, Peter

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the influence of hysteresis on water table dynamics in an unconfined aquifer was examined using a numerical model to solve Richards' unsaturated flow equation. The model was subject to simple harmonic forcing across a sloping boundary with a seepage face boundary condition. Time series from both hysteretic and non-hysteretic models were subject to harmonic analysis to extract the amplitude and phase profiles for comparison with existing sand flume data (Cartwright et al., 2004). The results from both model types show good agreement with the data indicating no influence of hysteresis at the oscillation period examined (T = 348 s). The models were then used to perform a parametric study to examine the relationship between oscillation period and hysteresis effects with periods ranging from 3 min to 180 min. At short oscillation periods, (T ≈ 180 s) the effects of hysteresis were negligible with both models providing similar results. As the oscillation period increased, the hysteretic model showed less amplitude damping than the non-hysteretic model. For periods greater than T = 60 min, the phase lag in the non-hysteretic model is greater than for the hysteretic one. For periods less than T = 60 min this trend is reversed and the hysteretic model produced a greater phase lag than the non-hysteretic model. These findings suggest that consideration of hysteresis dynamics in Richards' equation models has no influence on water table wave dispersion for short period forcing such as waves (T ≈ 10 s) whereas for long period forcing such as tides (T ≈ 12.25 h) or storm surges (T ≈ days) hysteresis dynamics should be taken into account.

  10. Flow fields and vortex dynamics of bubbles collapsing near a solid boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Fabian; Gonzalez-Avila, Silvestre Roberto; Mettin, Robert; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2017-06-01

    When a cavitation bubble oscillates and collapses in the vicinity of a solid boundary (a substrate), it induces intense microconvection in the surrounding liquid and—of high practical importance—directly at the substrate. As the involved flows are fast, highly unsteady, and possess an impressive shear, experiments are difficult and data are scarce. Here, insight into the generation and dynamics of the liquid flows from individual cavitation bubbles collapsing in the vicinity of a solid boundary is provided. Single laser-induced cavitation bubbles (maximum radius around 375 μm) are seeded at precisely defined standoff distances to a substrate by a focused laser pulse. The bubble shape dynamics are imaged by synchronized high-speed cameras from two perpendicular viewing angles. Recording of the shape dynamics is combined with the simultaneous time-resolved measurement of the full flow field on a micrometer-resolution. Measurements employ a high-speed hybrid particle imaging velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry technique, with a temporal sampling of up to 135 kHz, using fluorescent microparticles as tracers. The time evolution of the unsteady flow field induced by one and the same bubble over a time period much longer than the bubble lifetime is determined. The shear flow at the substrate is analyzed and a liquid transport toward and away from the substrate surface is demonstrated. Depending on the bubble standoff distance, very different flow patterns are observed. The dominant liquid displacement is caused by the long-lived vortex ring being produced during bubble collapse. Most peculiar, the bubble standoff distance determines the sense of direction of the circulation associated with the vortex ring and, consequently, whether the vortex is ejected from the substrate or radially stretches over it. The results are relevant for the understanding of cavitation effects, such as surface cleaning, erosion, and mixing or in biomedical context and may serve as

  11. Boundary-controlled barostats for slab geometries in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattinoni, C.; Maćkowiak, Sz.; Heyes, D. M.; Brańka, A. C.; Dini, D.

    2014-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation barostat schemes are derived for achieving a given normal pressure for a thin liquid or solid layer confined between two parallel walls. This work builds on the boundary-controlled barostat scheme of Lupkowski and van Swol [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 737 (1990), 10.1063/1.459524]. Two classes of barostat are explored, one in which the external load is applied to a virtual regular lattice to which the wall atoms are bound using a tethering potential. The other type of barostat applies the external force directly to the wall atoms, which are not tethered. The extent to which the wall separation distribution is Gaussian is shown to be an effective measure of the quality of the barostat. The first class of barostat can suffer from anomalous dynamical signatures, even resonances, which are sensitive to the effective mass of the virtual lattice, whose value lacks any rigorous definition. The second type of barostat performs much better under equilibrium and wall-sliding nonequilibrium conditions and in not being so prone to resonance instabilities in the wall separation and does not require so many largely arbitrary parameters. The results of exploratory simulations which characterize the dynamical response of the model systems for both dry and wet or lubricated systems using the different barostats are presented. The barostats which have an inherent damping mechanism, such as the ones analogous to a damped harmonic oscillator, reduce the occurrence of large fluctuations and resonances in the separation between the two walls, and they also achieve a new target pressure more quickly. Near a nonequilibrium phase boundary the attributes of the barostat can have a marked influence on the observed behavior.

  12. The atmospheric boundary layer response to the dynamic new Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. L.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing ice-free area in the Arctic Ocean has transformed its climate system to one with more dynamic boundary layer clouds and seasonal sea ice. During the fall freeze season, the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) is a crucial mechanism for the loss of excessive ocean heat to the atmosphere, and it has been speculated to play an important role in the recent cloud cover increase and boundary layer (BL) instability observed in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Based on multi-year Japanese cruise ship observations from the ice-strengthened R/V Mirai, we are able to characterize the late summer and early fall ocean-BL interactions in this region. Although the BL is found to be well-mixed more than 90% of the time, the SSHF can explain only 10% of the mixed layer height variability. It is the cloud-generated convective turbulence that apparently dominates BL mixing in this ice-free region, which is similar to previous in-situ observations (SHEBA, ASCOS) over sea ice. The SSHF, however, may contribute to BL instability during conditions of uplift (low-pressure), and the presence of the highly stable stratus cloud regime. The efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus cloud regime) despite an enhanced ocean-atmosphere temperature difference (ΔT). In general, surface-generated mixing is favored during episodes of high surface wind speeds as opposed to pronounced ΔT. Our analysis suggests a weak local response of the boundary layer stability to the loss of sea ice cover during late summer, which is masked by the strong influence of the large-scale circulation (and clouds). Apart from the fall season, we also studied the Arctic Ocean BL properties during the cold months (Nov-Apr) using multi-year satellite measurements (COSMIC RO). As the boundary layer is typically stable at this time, one might expect major differences in the nature of surface-atmosphere coupling compared to that observed during late

  13. Dynamic Multiscale Boundary Conditions for 4D CT of Healthy and Emphysematous Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.; Thomas, Mathew; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the lung during breathing determine the movement of airways and alveoli, and thus impact airflow dynamics. Modeling airflow dynamics in health and disease is a key goal for predictive multiscale models of respiration. Past efforts to model changes in lung shape during breathing have measured shape at multiple breath-holds. However, breath-holds do not capture hysteretic differences between inspiration and expiration resulting from the additional energy required for inspiration. Alternatively, imaging dynamically – without breath-holds – allows measurement of hysteretic differences. In this study, we acquire multiple micro-CT images per breath (4DCT) in live rats, and from these images we develop, for the first time, dynamic volume maps. These maps show changes in local volume across the entire lung throughout the breathing cycle and accurately predict the global pressure-volume (PV) hysteresis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a full- or partial-lung dose of elastase or saline as a control. After three weeks, 4DCT images of the mechanically ventilated rats under anesthesia were acquired dynamically over the breathing cycle (11 time points, ≤100 ms temporal resolution, 8 cmH2O peak pressure). Non-rigid image registration was applied to determine the deformation gradient – a numerical description of changes to lung shape – at each time point. The registration accuracy was evaluated by landmark identification. Of 67 landmarks, one was determined misregistered by all three observers, and 11 were determined misregistered by two observers. Volume change maps were calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis at all time points using both the Jacobian of the deformation gradient and the inhaled air fraction. The calculated lung PV hysteresis agrees with pressure-volume curves measured by the ventilator. Volume maps in diseased rats show increased compliance and ventilation heterogeneity. Future predictive multiscale models of rodent

  14. Modeling coupled aerodynamics and vocal fold dynamics using immersed boundary methods.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Comer; Zhai, Guangnian; Scherer, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    The penalty immersed boundary (PIB) method, originally introduced by Peskin (1972) to model the function of the mammalian heart, is tested as a fluid-structure interaction model of the closely coupled dynamics of the vocal folds and aerodynamics in phonation. Two-dimensional vocal folds are simulated with material properties chosen to result in self-oscillation and volume flows in physiological frequency ranges. Properties of the glottal flow field, including vorticity, are studied in conjunction with the dynamic vocal fold motion. The results of using the PIB method to model self-oscillating vocal folds for the case of 8 cm H20 as the transglottal pressure gradient are described. The volume flow at 8 cm H20, the transglottal pressure, and vortex dynamics associated with the self-oscillating model are shown. Volume flow is also given for 2, 4, and 12 cm H2O, illustrating the robustness of the model to a range of transglottal pressures. The results indicate that the PIB method applied to modeling phonation has good potential for the study of the interdependence of aerodynamics and vocal fold motion.

  15. Boundary Control of Linear Uncertain 1-D Parabolic PDE Using Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Talaei, Behzad; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Singler, John

    2017-03-02

    This paper develops a near optimal boundary control method for distributed parameter systems governed by uncertain linear 1-D parabolic partial differential equations (PDE) by using approximate dynamic programming. A quadratic surface integral is proposed to express the optimal cost functional for the infinite-dimensional state space. Accordingly, the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is formulated in the infinite-dimensional domain without using any model reduction. Subsequently, a neural network identifier is developed to estimate the unknown spatially varying coefficient in PDE dynamics. Novel tuning law is proposed to guarantee the boundedness of identifier approximation error in the PDE domain. A radial basis network (RBN) is subsequently proposed to generate an approximate solution for the optimal surface kernel function online. The tuning law for near optimal RBN weights is created, such that the HJB equation error is minimized while the dynamics are identified and closed-loop system remains stable. Ultimate boundedness (UB) of the closed-loop system is verified by using the Lyapunov theory. The performance of the proposed controller is successfully confirmed by simulation on an unstable diffusion-reaction process.

  16. Numerical Modeling of 3-D Dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles Using the Boundary Integral Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.

  17. Boundary layer flow dynamics at a cold-water coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihen, Damien; White, Martin; Lundälv, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    The Tisler cold-water coral reef is a 2 km long reef in the north-eastern Skagerrak, Norway. The reef is comprised principally of Lophelia pertusa at depths between 70 and 160 m. Velocity shear and boundary layer shear stresses have been measured at Tisler Reef to quantify the effect of the reef structure on the benthic boundary layer (BBL) dynamics. Two different approaches to estimating the magnitude of the near seabed stress were employed: using a logarithmic (constant stress) boundary layer approach and direct Reynolds stress measurements. Resultant estimates of near seabed stresses using both methods were comparable. Using the logarithmic layer approach to estimate seabed stresses both inside and out of the reef structure demonstrated that, for any particular impinging flow strength, higher shear stresses were observed within the live coral region than in the dead coral rubble region with no live coral stands. Bottom shear stresses of up to 3.5 N m- 2 were measured within the reef complex and 1.2 N m- 2 in the rubble region outside the live reef. This difference is due to large roughness length scales inside the rough living coral area relative to the smaller scales in the coral rubble. Low frequency acoustic backscatter data, used as a proxy for relative suspended particulate matter concentrations, suggested that both local re-suspension and advection of suspended material most likely occur at, and through, the reef system. The high stresses measured inside the living reef may favour corals by increasing the degree of re-suspension for a given current speed and providing more particulates to the filter feeding polyps.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of shock waves using the absorbing boundary condition: A case study of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolesta, Alexey V.; Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L.; Sewell, Thomas D.

    2007-12-01

    We report a method that enables long-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of shock wave loading. The goal is to mitigate the severe interference effects that arise at interfaces or free boundaries when using standard nonequilibrium MD shock wave approaches. The essence of the method is to capture between two fixed pistons the material state at the precise instant in time when the shock front, initiated by a piston with velocity up at one end of the target sample, traverses the contiguous boundary between the target and a second, stationary piston located at the opposite end of the sample, at which point the second piston is also assigned velocity up and the simulation is continued. Thus, the target material is captured in the energy-volume Hugoniot state resulting from the initial shock wave, and can be propagated forward in time to monitor any subsequent chemistry, plastic deformation, or other time-dependent phenomena compatible with the spatial scale of the simulation. For demonstration purposes, we apply the method to shock-induced chemistry in methane based on the adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order force field [S. J. Stuart , J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6472 (2000)].

  19. A smooth dissipative particle dynamics method for domains with arbitrary-geometry solid boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.; Potami, Raffaele; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A smooth dissipative particle dynamics method with dynamic virtual particle allocation (SDPD-DV) for modeling and simulation of mesoscopic fluids in wall-bounded domains is presented. The physical domain in SDPD-DV may contain external and internal solid boundaries of arbitrary geometries, periodic inlets and outlets, and the fluid region. The SDPD-DV method is realized with fluid particles, boundary particles, and dynamically allocated virtual particles. The internal or external solid boundaries of the domain can be of arbitrary geometry and are discretized with a surface grid. These boundaries are represented by boundary particles with assigned properties. The fluid domain is discretized with fluid particles of constant mass and variable volume. Conservative and dissipative force models due to virtual particles exerted on a fluid particle in the proximity of a solid boundary supplement the original SDPD formulation. The dynamic virtual particle allocation approach provides the density and the forces due to virtual particles. The integration of the SDPD equations is accomplished with a velocity-Verlet algorithm for the momentum and a Runge-Kutta for the entropy equation. The velocity integrator is supplemented by a bounce-forward algorithm in cases where the virtual particle force model is not able to prevent particle penetration. For the incompressible isothermal systems considered in this work, the pressure of a fluid particle is obtained by an artificial compressibility formulation for liquids and the ideal gas law for gases. The self-diffusion coefficient is obtained by an implementation of the generalized Einstein and the Green-Kubo relations. Field properties are obtained by sampling SDPD-DV outputs on a post-processing grid that allows harnessing the particle information on desired spatiotemporal scales. The SDPD-DV method is verified and validated with simulations in bounded and periodic domains that cover the hydrodynamic and mesoscopic regimes for

  20. A cut-cell immersed boundary technique for fire dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanella, Marcos; McDermott, Randall; Forney, Glenn

    2015-11-01

    Fire simulation around complex geometry is gaining increasing attention in performance based design of fire protection systems, fire-structure interaction and pollutant transport in complex terrains, among others. This presentation will focus on our present effort in improving the capability of FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator, developed at the Fire Research Division, NIST. https://github.com/firemodels/fds-smv) to represent fire scenarios around complex bodies. Velocities in the vicinity of the bodies are reconstructed using a classical immersed boundary scheme (Fadlun and co-workers, J. Comput. Phys., 161:35-60, 2000). Also, a conservative treatment of scalar transport equations (i.e. for chemical species) will be presented. In our method, discrete conservation and no penetration of species across solid boundaries are enforced using a cut-cell finite volume scheme. The small cell problem inherent to the method is tackled using explicit-implicit domain decomposition for scalar, within the FDS time integration scheme. Some details on the derivation, implementation and numerical tests of this numerical scheme will be discussed.

  1. Spatial spreading model and dynamics of West Nile virus in birds and mosquitoes with free boundary.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhigui; Zhu, Huaiping

    2017-04-04

    In this paper, a reaction-diffusion system is proposed to model the spatial spreading of West Nile virus in vector mosquitoes and host birds in North America. Transmission dynamics are based on a simplified model involving mosquitoes and birds, and the free boundary is introduced to model and explore the expanding front of the infected region. The spatial-temporal risk index [Formula: see text], which involves regional characteristic and time, is defined for the simplified reaction-diffusion model with the free boundary to compare with other related threshold values, including the usual basic reproduction number [Formula: see text]. Sufficient conditions for the virus to vanish or to spread are given. Our results suggest that the virus will be in a scenario of vanishing if [Formula: see text], and will spread to the whole region if [Formula: see text] for some [Formula: see text], while if [Formula: see text], the spreading or vanishing of the virus depends on the initial number of infected individuals, the area of the infected region, the diffusion rate and other factors. Moreover, some remarks on the basic reproduction numbers and the spreading speeds are presented and compared.

  2. Dynamics of plumes in a compressible mantle with phase changes: Implications for phase boundary topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossmann, Andrea B.; van Keken, Peter E.

    2013-11-01

    While plumes rising from the deep mantle may be responsible for hotspot volcanism, their existence has not yet been unambiguously confirmed by seismological studies. Several seismic studies reported that the topography of the 670-km discontinuity is flat below hotspots, which disagrees with the elevation expected due to its negative Clapeyron slope and plume excess temperature. An improved numerical method that includes compressibility and consistently implemented phase transitions is used to study plume evolution in the Earth’s mantle. The influence of latent heat on plume behavior for varying convective vigor and Clapeyron slope of the endothermic phase change at 670 km depth is studied in axisymmetric spherical shell geometry. Minor differences in plume dynamics are found for models considering and neglecting latent heat. Three regimes of plume behavior at the endothermic phase boundary are observed: besides complete plume inhibition and penetration along the symmetry axis an intermediate regime in which the plume forms a ring around the symmetry axis is found. These models also predict that the 670-km discontinuity is flat below hotspots due to a large plume head in the lower mantle of about 1000 km diameter that significantly thins as it rises into the upper mantle. This is explained by the lower viscosity in the upper mantle and the spreading of the temporarily inhibited plume below the endothermic phase boundary, which reconciles the flat 670-km discontinuity with a deep mantle plume origin.

  3. An immersed boundary method for simulating vesicle dynamics in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Yunchang; Hu, Wei-Fan; Kim, Yongsam; Lai, Ming-Chih

    2016-10-01

    We extend our previous immersed boundary (IB) method for 3D axisymmetric inextensible vesicle in Navier-Stokes flows (Hu et al., 2014 [17]) to general three dimensions. Despite a similar spirit in numerical algorithms to the axisymmetric case, the fully 3D numerical implementation is much more complicated and is far from straightforward. A vesicle membrane surface is known to be incompressible and exhibits bending resistance. As in 3D axisymmetric case, instead of keeping the vesicle locally incompressible, we adopt a modified elastic tension energy to make the vesicle surface patch nearly incompressible so that solving the unknown tension (Lagrange multiplier for the incompressible constraint) can be avoided. Nevertheless, the new elastic force derived from the modified tension energy has exactly the same mathematical form as the original one except the different definitions of tension. The vesicle surface is discretized on a triangular mesh where the elastic tension and bending force are calculated on each vertex (Lagrangian marker in the IB method) of the triangulation. A series of numerical tests on the present scheme are conducted to illustrate the robustness and applicability of the method. We perform the convergence study for the immersed boundary forces and the fluid velocity field. We then study the vesicle dynamics in various flows such as quiescent, simple shear, and gravitational flows. Our numerical results show good agreements with those obtained in previous theoretical, experimental and numerical studies.

  4. Large-eddy simulations of mean and turbulence dynamics in unsteady Ekman boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Mostafa; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2015-11-01

    Unsteady geostrophic forcing in the atmosphere or ocean not only influences the mean wind, but also affects the turbulent statistics. In order to see when turbulence is in quasi-equilibrium with the mean, one needs to understand how the turbulence decays or develops, and how do the turbulent production, transport and dissipation respond to changes in the imposed forcing. This helps us understand the underlying dynamics of the unsteady boundary layers and develop better turbulence closures for weather/climate models and engineering applications. The present study focuses on the unsteady Ekman boundary layer where pressure gradient, Coriolis, and friction forces interact but are not necessarily in equilibrium. Several cases are simulated using LES to examine how the turbulence and resolved TKE budget terms are modulated by the variability of the mean pressure gradient. We also examine the influence of the forcing variability time-scale on the turbulence equilibrium and TKE budget. It is shown that when the forcing time-scale is in the order of the turbulence characteristic time-scale, the turbulence is no longer in quasi-equilibrium due to highly nonlinear mean-turbulence interactions and hence the conventional log-law and turbulence closures are no longer valid. NSF-PDM under AGS-10266362. Simulations performed at NCAR, and Della server at Princeton University. Cooperative Institute for Climate Science, NOAA-Princeton University under NA08OAR4320752.

  5. Towards Feedback Control of Bypass Transition: Experiments on Laminar Boundary Layer Response to Dynamically Actuated Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bade, Kyle; Naguib, Ahmed; Hanson, Ronald; Lavoie, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    The current work details observations of the growth of streamwise streaks emanating from cylindrical roughness elements undergoing dynamic actuation into-and-out of a Blasius boundary layer flow. The growth and streamwise propagation of these motions is of interest in a larger study in collaboration with Princeton University in which a multi-university effort aims to develop and implement a robust feedback control system for the weakening/elimination of the streaks (because of their role in initiating bypass transition). Phase-averaged hotwire measurements in the transverse and spanwise directions provide two-dimensional visualizations of the spatial and temporal growth of these motions. Various roughness heights as well as actuation velocities are examined in order to identify the actuation parameters range for which the streaks can be produced while avoiding the introduction of T-S wave packets. This work validates the ability to introduce the proper disturbances into the boundary layer in preparation for the follow up control study.

  6. Escape dynamics and fractal basin boundaries in the planar Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Assis, Sheila C.; Terra, Maisa O.

    2014-10-01

    The escape of trajectories of a spacecraft, or comet or asteroid in the presence of the Earth-Moon system is investigated in detail in the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, in a scattering region around the Moon. The escape through the necks around the collinear points and as well as the leaking produced by considering collisions with the Moon surface, taking the lunar mean radius into account, were considered. Given that different transport channels are available as a function of the Jacobi constant, four distinct escape regimes are analyzed. Besides the calculation of exit basins and of the spatial distribution of escape time, the qualitative dynamical investigation through Poincaré sections is performed in order to elucidate the escape process. Our analyses reveal the dependence of the properties of the considered escape basins with the energy, with a remarkable presence of fractal basin boundaries along all the escape regimes. Finally, we observe the plentiful presence of stickiness motion near stability islands which plays a remarkable role in the longest escape time behavior. The application of this analysis is important both in space mission design and study of natural systems, given that fractal boundaries are related with high sensitivity to initial conditions, implying in uncertainty between safe and unsafe solutions, as well as between escaping solutions that evolve to different phase space regions.

  7. Molecular dynamics investigation of the grain boundary migration hysteresis of nanocrystalline Ni under cyclic shear loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Xinhua; Peng, Di

    2017-02-01

    The deformation behavior and grain boundary (GB) response of nanocrystalline Ni under cyclic shear loading are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The GB migration hysteresis phenomenon, in which the GB migration displacement lags behind the change in nominal shear strain, is observed in the symmetric tilt GBs for the first time. The elementary structure transformation occurring at the two end segments of the observed GB during GB migration produces a disordered and irreversible state, while the transformation in the middle segment is reversible. Both dislocation retraction and nucleation occur during unloading. Relatively large cyclic strain amplitudes lead to disordered GB segments of greater length, such that the residual GB migration displacement increases with increasing cyclic amplitude. GB migration hysteresis vanishes after the GB becomes immobile owing to a cyclic shear induced transition to a disordered state along its entire length.

  8. Dynamics of the wall thermal boundary layer at the initial stage of the nucleate boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, A. A.; Safarov, A. S.; Khan, P. V.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study of the water nucleate boiling on the surface of the cylinder heater. We investigated the initial stage of formation of the thermal boundary layer with rise and departure of bubbles with the departure diameter of 50 μm. To build the field temperature at the moment prior to the start of boiling, we used a numerical model implemented in the COMSOL multiphysics software. The experimental data on bubbles dynamics was compared to the numerical calculation of the temperature, and the relationship between the temperature growth rate, the bubble departure diameter and the Jacob number was established. The outcome results demonstrated that the non-transient heat influences the departure diameter and we need to employ the modified Jacob number to build predictive models.

  9. Atomic structures and oxygen dynamics of CeO2 grain boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Sugiyama, Issei; Hojo, Hajime; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Material performance is significantly governed by grain boundaries (GBs), a typical crystal defects inside, which often exhibit unique properties due to the structural and chemical inhomogeneity. Here, it is reported direct atomic scale evidence that oxygen vacancies formed in the GBs can modify the local surface oxygen dynamics in CeO2, a key material for fuel cells. The atomic structures and oxygen vacancy concentrations in individual GBs are obtained by electron microscopy and theoretical calculations at atomic scale. Meanwhile, local GB oxygen reduction reactivity is measured by electrochemical strain microscopy. By combining these techniques, it is demonstrated that the GB electrochemical activities are affected by the oxygen vacancy concentrations, which is, on the other hand, determined by the local structural distortions at the GB core region. These results provide critical understanding of GB properties down to atomic scale, and new perspectives on the development strategies of high performance electrochemical devices for solid oxide fuel cells. PMID:26838958

  10. Assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Models for Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, James R.; Oberkampf, William L.; Wolf, Richard T.; Orkwis, Paul D.; Turner, Mark G.; Babinsky, Holger

    2011-01-01

    A workshop on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction of shock boundary-layer interactions (SBLIs) was held at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. As part of the workshop numerous CFD analysts submitted solutions to four experimentally measured SBLIs. This paper describes the assessment of the CFD predictions. The assessment includes an uncertainty analysis of the experimental data, the definition of an error metric and the application of that metric to the CFD solutions. The CFD solutions provided very similar levels of error and in general it was difficult to discern clear trends in the data. For the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods the choice of turbulence model appeared to be the largest factor in solution accuracy. Large-eddy simulation methods produced error levels similar to RANS methods but provided superior predictions of normal stresses.

  11. Boundary driven Kawasaki process with long-range interaction: dynamical large deviations and steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourragui, Mustapha; Orlandi, Enza

    2013-01-01

    A particle system with a single locally-conserved field (density) in a bounded interval with different densities maintained at the two endpoints of the interval is under study here. The particles interact in the bulk through a long-range potential parametrized by β⩾0 and evolve according to an exclusion rule. It is shown that the empirical particle density under the diffusive scaling solves a quasilinear integro-differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The associated dynamical large deviation principle is proved. Furthermore, when β is small enough, it is also demonstrated that the empirical particle density obeys a law of large numbers with respect to the stationary measures (hydrostatic). The macroscopic particle density solves a non-local, stationary, transport equation.

  12. Dynamics of boundary layer electrons in laser driven wakefields (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min

    2017-05-01

    The dynamics of electrons forming the boundary layer of a highly nonlinear laser wakefield is investigated using computational simulations. It is shown that when the driver pulse intensity increases or the focal spot size decreases, a significant amount of electrons initially pushed by the laser pulse can detach from the bubble structure at its tail, middle, or front and form particular classes of waves locally with high densities, referred to as the tail wave, lateral wave, and bow wave. Simulation results show that the tail and bow waves correspond to real electron trajectories, while the lateral wave does not. The detached electrons can be ejected transversely, containing considerable energy, and reducing the efficiency of the laser wakefield accelerator. Some of the transversely emitted electrons may obtain MeV level energy. These electrons can be used for wake evolution diagnosis and producing high frequency radiation.

  13. First-principles and molecular dynamics studies of twin boundaries in hcp zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.R.; Ye, Y.Y.; Ho, K.M.; Chan, C.T.; Yoo, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and first-principles techniques to study the structure and energies of twin boundaries in hcp zirconium. The empirical many-body potential of Zr is used to test the stability of various possible twin structures, but the final relaxed positions are accurately determined using fully self-consistent ab initio energy and Hellman-Feynman force calculations. This combination of techniques is powerful, as it provides a stringent test of our empirical potential, while producing reliable results for Zr that do not depend upon any empirical parameters. This paper summarizes our work to date on the compression twins, which demonstrates the importance of supporting empirical modeling with more accurate calculations. We also present new results on the empirical modeling of the tension twins of Zr.

  14. Numerical investigations of solute transport in bimodal porous media under dynamic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface adjacent to the atmosphere is decisive to prevent groundwater pollution and conserve groundwater quality, to develop successful remediation strategies and to understand nutrient cycling. In nature, due to erratic precipitation-evaporation patterns, soil moisture content and related hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone are not only variable in space but also in time. Flow directions and flow paths locally change between precipitation and evaporation periods. This makes the identification and description of solute transport processes in the vadose zone a complex problem. Recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a) focused on the investigation of upward transport of solutes during evaporation in heterogeneous soil columns, where heterogeneity was introduced by a sharp vertical material interface between two types of sand. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both (lateral) directions was observed at different depths of the investigated soil columns. Following recent approaches, we conduct two-dimensional numerical simulations in a similar setup which is composed of two sands with a sharp vertical material interface. The investigation is broadened from the sole evaporation to combined precipitation-evaporation cycles in order to quantify transport processes resulting from the combined effects of heterogeneous soil structure and dynamic flow conditions. Simulations are performed with a coupled finite volume and random walk particle tracking algorithm (Ippisch et al., 2006; Bechtold et al., 2011b). By comparing scenarios with cyclic boundary conditions and stationary counterparts with the same net flow rate, we found that duration and intensity of precipitation and evaporation periods potentially have an influence on lateral redistribution of solutes and thus leaching rates. Whether or not dynamic boundary conditions lead to significant deviations in the transport

  15. The dynamics of the plasmasphere boundary layer as determined by ground magnetometers, satellite observations, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zesta, E.; Boudouridis, A.; Yizengaw, E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Carranza-fulmer, T. L.; Moldwin, M.; Mann, I. R.; Chi, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The plasmasphere boundary layer (PBL) separates the cold and dense plasmaspheric plasma from the more tenuous and hot plasma sheet plasma and organizes the spatial distribution of ULF and VLF waves that can contribute to acceleration or loss processes of radiation belt particles through wave-particle interactions. The PBL has been traditionally determined by in situ observations and can be given by empirical models. Recent work has shown that a mid-latitude chain of well-spaced ground magnetometers can also determine the PBL location. Spectral properties, like the cross-phase reversal in the standard field-line resonance (FLR) determination between two stations closely aligned in latitude, have been shown to indicate the presence of a sharp PBL. We merge data from many ground magnetometer pairs from the SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array), McMAC (Mid continent Magnetoseismic Chain), and CARISMA (Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity) chains to provide the best available spatial coverage in L values spanning the plasmasphere and PBL, for a range of dynamic states (L=1.6 to greater than 5). The PBL location is identified as the L value of the station pair for which a reverse phase difference is observed in the standard FLR determination. We compare the FLR determined PBL with the trough boundary determined by GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) analysis and with model PBL. Initial results demonstrate that the PBL as identified by the reverse phase differences is in general agreement with TEC identifications and reasonable agreement with models. Reverse Phase Differences are regularly observed at the L range of 2.7 to 3.7 and are highly correlated with Dst and Kp, as determined by daily correlations. We further examine the more detailed time sequence of the PBL dynamics by focusing on key periods around storms preceded by quiet periods, and by using the full L range of the ground magnetometer pairs.

  16. The Structure and Dynamics of Coherent Vortices in the Eyewall Boundary Layer of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, D. P.; Bryan, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    The boundary layer within the eyewall of intense tropical cyclones has been shown to be both highly turbulent and to contain coherent small-scale (of order 1 km) vortices. Dropsonde observations have indicated that extreme updrafts of 10-25 m/s can occur in the lowest 2 km, sometimes as low as a few hundred meters above the surface. These updrafts are often collocated with or found very nearby to local extrema in horizontal wind speed, which sometimes exceed 100 m/s. Here, the CM1 model is used to simulate intense tropical cyclones in an idealized framework, with horizontal grid spacing as fine as ~30 meters. At this grid spacing, the scales of the vortices are well resolved. By examining individual features and compositing over many updrafts, we find that there is a consistent structure and relationship between vorticity, vertical velocity, and near-surface windspeeds. We quantitatively show that buoyancy is not responsible for the acceleration of strong boundary layer updrafts. Instead, the updrafts are forced by dynamical pressure gradients associated with strong gradients in the velocity fields. It is currently unknown whether dropsonde observations represent quasi-vertical profiles through the features, or if instead the sondes are horizontally advected through the features. Using simulated dropsonde trajectories, we show that sondes are likely to be horizontally advected through features, and therefore apparent vertical variability in observed kinematic and thermodynamic profiles may actually be primarily in the horizontal. In observations, extreme updrafts are almost exclusively found in Category 4 and 5 hurricanes. We conduct simulations at varying intensity to investigate whether or not similar features exist in weaker storms. Finally, we have developed an objective algorithm that allows us to track individual updrafts/vortices in time, and we use this to investigate the evolution and lifecycle of these features and to gain further insight into their

  17. Ecotourism: The Santa Elena Rainforest Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearing, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes an ecotourism project in which the community of Santa Elena, Costa Rica, are developing a rainforest reserve on government land leased permanently to the local high school. Discusses the impact of the project on the community's economy and environment. (Contains 30 references.) (MDH)

  18. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  19. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone.

  20. Hysteresis in the Central African Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Stephan Alexander; Elias Bednar, Johannes; Gautam, Sishir; Petritsch, Richard; Schier, Franziska; Stanzl, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Past climate change caused severe disturbances of the Central African rainforest belt, with forest fragmentation and re-expansion due to drier and wetter climate conditions. Besides climate, human induced forest degradation affected biodiversity, structure and carbon storage of Congo basin rainforests. Information on climatically stable, mature rainforest, unaffected by human induced disturbances, provides means of assessing the impact of forest degradation and may serve as benchmarks of carbon carrying capacity over regions with similar site and climate conditions. BioGeoChemical (BGC) ecosystem models explicitly consider the impacts of site and climate conditions and may assess benchmark levels over regions devoid of undisturbed conditions. We will present a BGC-model validation for the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest (WCLRF) using field data from a recently confirmed forest refuge, show model - data comparisons for disturbed und undisturbed forests under different site and climate conditions as well as for sites with repeated assessment of biodiversity and standing biomass during recovery from intensive exploitation. We will present climatic thresholds for WCLRF stability, analyse the relationship between resilience, standing C-stocks and change in climate and finally provide evidence of hysteresis.

  1. African rainforests: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on ‘African rainforests: past, present and future’ of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  2. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  3. Ecotourism: The Santa Elena Rainforest Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearing, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes an ecotourism project in which the community of Santa Elena, Costa Rica, are developing a rainforest reserve on government land leased permanently to the local high school. Discusses the impact of the project on the community's economy and environment. (Contains 30 references.) (MDH)

  4. Experimental investigation of dynamical coupling between turbulent transport and parallel flows in the JET plasma-boundary region.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, C; Gonçalves, B; Silva, C; Pedrosa, M A; Erents, K; Hron, M; Matthews, G F

    2003-08-08

    The dynamical coupling between turbulent transport and parallel flows has been investigated in the plasma boundary region of the Joint European Torus tokamak. Experimental results show that there is a dynamical relationship between transport and parallel flows. As the size of transport events increases, parallel flows also increase. These results show that turbulent transport can drive parallel flows in the plasma boundary of fusion plasmas. This new type of measurement is an important element to unravel the overall picture connecting radial transport and flows in fusion plasmas.

  5. A physical approach to the numerical treatment of boundaries in gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two types of boundaries are considered: rigid walls, and artificial (open) boundaries which were arbitrarily drawn somewhere across a wider flow field. A set of partial differential equations (typically, the Euler equations) has an infinite number of solutions, each one defined by a set of initial and boundary conditions. The initial conditions remaining the same, any change in the boundary conditions will produce a new solution. To pose the problem well, a necessary and sufficient number of boundary conditions are prescribed.

  6. Hydrography and bottom boundary layer dynamics: Influence on inner shelf sediment mobility, Long Bay, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal

  7. Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, E. N.; Bergamaschi, P.; Karstens, U.; Krol, M.; Segers, A.; Schmidt, M.; Levin, I.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Fisher, R. E.; Kazan, V.; Klein Baltink, H.; Lowry, D.; Manca, G.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Moncrieff, J.; Pal, S.; Ramonet, M.; Scheeren, H. A.; Williams, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We evaluate the capability of the global atmospheric transport model TM5 to simulate the boundary layer dynamics and associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using radon (222Rn). Focusing on the European scale, we compare the boundary layer height (BLH) in the TM5 model with observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admnistration (NOAA) Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) and also with ceilometer and lidar (light detection and ranging) BLH retrievals at two stations. Furthermore, we compare TM5 simulations of 222Rn activity concentrations, using a novel, process-based 222Rn flux map over Europe (Karstens et al., 2015), with harmonised 222Rn measurements at 10 stations. The TM5 model reproduces relatively well the daytime BLH (within 10-20 % for most of the stations), except for coastal sites, for which differences are usually larger due to model representation errors. During night, however, TM5 overestimates the shallow nocturnal BLHs, especially for the very low observed BLHs (< 100 m) during summer. The 222Rn activity concentration simulations based on the new 222Rn flux map show significant improvements especially regarding the average seasonal variability, compared to simulations using constant 222Rn fluxes. Nevertheless, the (relative) differences between simulated and observed daytime minimum 222Rn activity concentrations are larger for several stations (on the order of 50 %) than the (relative) differences between simulated and observed BLH at noon. Although the nocturnal BLH is often higher in the model than observed, simulated 222Rn nighttime maxima are actually larger at several continental stations. This counterintuitive behaviour points to potential deficiencies of TM5 to correctly simulate the vertical gradients within the nocturnal boundary layer, limitations of the 222Rn flux map, or issues related to the definition of the nocturnal BLH. At several stations the simulated decrease of 222Rn activity

  8. Boundary-layer turbulence modeling and vorticity dynamics: I. A kangaroo-process mixing model of boundary-layer turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; van den Brink, A. Maassen

    A nonlocal turbulence transport theory is presented by means of a novel analysis of the Reynolds stress, inter alia involving the construct of a sample path space and a stochastic hypothesis. An analytical sampling rate model (satisfying exchange) and a nonlinear scaling relation (mapping the path space onto the boundary layer) lead to an integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities, which represents fully-developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type stochastic process. The underlying near-wall behavior (i.e. for y +→0) of fluctuating velocities fully agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ, with ɛ→∞ in the diffusion limit. For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ≈0.58. The significance of ɛ as a turbulence Cantor set dimension (in the logarithmic profile region, i.e. for y +→∞) is discussed.

  9. A hierarchical dislocation-grain boundary interaction model based on 3D discrete dislocation dynamics and molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhuang, Zhuo; You, XiaoChuan

    2011-04-01

    We develop a new hierarchical dislocation-grain boundary (GB) interaction model to predict the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline metals at micro and submicro scales by coupling 3D Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) simulation with the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. At the microscales, the DDD simulations are responsible for capturing the evolution of dislocation structures; at the nanoscales, the MD simulations are responsible for obtaining the GB energy and ISF energy which are then transferred hierarchically to the DDD level. In the present model, four kinds of dislocation-GB interactions, i.e. transmission, absorption, re-emission and reflection, are all considered. By this methodology, the compression of a Cu micro-sized bi-crystal pillar is studied. We investigate the characteristic mechanical behavior of the bi-crystal compared with that of the single-crystal. Moreover, the comparison between the present penetrable model of GB and the conventional impenetrable model also shows the accuracy and efficiency of the present model.

  10. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer with application to wind farm dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggy, Scott B.

    With the recent push for renewable energy sources, wind energy has emerged as a candidate to replace some of the power produced by traditional fossil fuels. Recent studies, however, have indicated that wind farms may have a direct effect on local meteorology by transporting water vapor away from the Earth's surface. Such turbulent transport could result in an increased drying of soil, and, in turn, negatively affect the productivity of land in the wind farm's immediate vicinity. This numerical study will analyze four scenarios with the goal of understanding turbulence transport in the wake of a turbine: the neutrally-stratified boundary layer with system rotation, the unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, and wind turbine simulations of these previous two cases. For this work, the Ekman layer is used as an approximation of the atmospheric boundary layer and the governing equations are solved using a fully-parallelized direct numerical simulation (DNS). The in-depth studies of the neutrally and unstably-stratified boundary layers without introducing wind farm effects will act to provide a concrete background for the final study concerning turbulent transport due to turbine wakes. Although neutral stratification rarely occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer, it is useful to study the turbulent Ekman layer under such conditions as it provides a limiting case when unstable or stable stratification are weak. In this work, a thorough analysis was completed including turbulent statistics, velocity and pressure autocorrelations, and a calculation of the full turbulent energy budget. The unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer was studied under two levels of heating: moderate and vigorous. Under moderate stratification, both buoyancy and shearing contribute significantly to the turbulent dynamics. As the level of stratification increases, the role of shearing is shown to diminish and is confined to the near-wall region only. A recent, multi

  11. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Rudolf, M.; Bozem, H.; Eerdekens, G.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Klüpfel, T.; Königstedt, R.; Parchatka, U.; Schiller, C. L.; Stickler, A.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-08-01

    Direct measurements of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest were made for the first time during the GABRIEL campaign in October 2005, deploying the custom-built HORUS instrument (HydrOxyl Radical measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy), adapted to fly in a Learjet wingpod. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were expected to strongly reduce the OH and HO2 mixing ratios as the air is transported from the ocean over the forest. However, surprisingly high mixing ratios of both OH and HO2 were encountered in the boundary layer over the rainforest. The HORUS instrumentation and calibration methods are described in detail and the measurement results obtained are discussed. The extensive dataset collected during GABRIEL, including measurements of many other trace gases and photolysis frequencies, has been used to quantify the main sources and sinks of OH. Comparison of these measurement-derived formation and loss rates of OH indicates strong previously overlooked recycling of OH in the boundary layer over the tropical rainforest, occurring in chorus with isoprene emission.

  12. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Rudolf, M.; Bozem, H.; Eerdekens, G.; Fischer, H.; Klüpfel, T.; Gurk, C.; Königstedt, R.; Parchatka, U.; Schiller, C. L.; Stickler, A.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-04-01

    Direct measurements of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest were made for the first time during the GABRIEL campaign in October 2005, deploying the custom-built HORUS instrument (HydrOxyl Radical measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy), adapted to fly in a Learjet wingpod. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were expected to strongly reduce the OH and HO2 mixing ratios as the air is transported from the ocean over the forest. However, surprisingly high mixing ratios of both OH and HO2 were encountered in the boundary layer over the rainforest. The HORUS instrumentation and calibration methods are described in detail and the measurement results obtained are discussed. The extensive dataset collected during GABRIEL, including measurements of many other trace gases and photolysis frequencies, has been used to quantify the main sources and sinks of OH. Comparison of these measurement-derived formation and loss rates of OH indicates strong previously overlooked recycling of OH in the boundary layer over the tropical rainforest, occurring in chorus with isoprene emission.

  13. Strongly coupled dynamics of fluids and rigid-body systems with the immersed boundary projection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2015-08-01

    A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.

  14. Dynamics above a dense equatorial rain forest from the surface boundary layer to the free atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyra, R.; Druilhet, A.; Benech, B.; Biona, C. Bouka

    1992-08-01

    During the Dynamique et Chimie de l'Atmosphère en Forêt Equatoriale (DECAFE) campaign, dynamical and thermodynamical measurements were made at Impfondo (1°37'N, 18°04'W), over the dense rain forest of northern Congo during the dry season (February 1988). During the measurement period the experimental site was located south of the intertropical convergence zone ground track which manages the dynamics of the large scale. Above the experimental site, the atmospheric low layers are supplied by monsoon air coming from the Guinean gulf; the upper layers (>1500 m) are supplied by warm and dry air (trade winds) coming from the northern desert region and the savanna. Our experimental approach consists of analyzing the heat and moisture content in the low troposphere from vertical soundings made by a tethered balloon (0-400 m) and an aircraft (0-4000 m). The analysis of the evolution of the observed planetary boundary layer (PBL) is made with a mixed layer one-dimensional model which is forced to represent correctly the observed PBL height growth. The simulated and observed budgets of the heat and moisture in the PBL are balanced by adding dry air to the simulated PBL in the afternoon. This drying out can be maintained only by high levels of entrainment flux at the PBL top. An entrainment velocity of 3 cm s-1 enables the balancing of the moisture budget. This entrainment velocity seems compatible with physicochemical transfers as those of methane and ozone.

  15. How quickly, how deeply, and how strongly can dynamical outer boundary conditions impact Van Allen radiation belt morphology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian R.; Ozeke, Louis G.

    2016-06-01

    Here we examine the speed, strength, and depth of the coupling between dynamical variations of ultrarelativistic electron flux at the outer boundary and that in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Using ULF wave radial diffusion as an exemplar, we show how changing boundary conditions can completely change belt morphology even under conditions of identical wave power. In the case of ULF wave radial diffusion, the temporal dynamics of a new source population or a sink of electron flux at the outer plasma sheet boundary can generate a completely opposite response which reaches deep into the belt under identical ULF wave conditions. Very significantly, here we show that such coupling can occur on timescales much faster than previously thought. We show that even on timescales ~1 h, changes in the outer boundary electron population can dramatically alter the radiation belt flux in the heart of the belt. Importantly, these flux changes can at times occur on timescales much faster than the L shell revisit time obtained from elliptically orbiting satellites such as the Van Allen Probes. We underline the importance of such boundary condition effects when seeking to identify the physical processes which explain the dominant behavior of the Van Allen belts. Overall, we argue in general that the importance of temporal changes in the boundary conditions is sometimes overlooked in comparison to the pursuit of (ever) increasingly accurate estimates of wave power and other wave properties used in empirical representations of wave transport and diffusion rates.

  16. Soft-spring wall based non-periodic boundary conditions for non-equilibrium molecular dynamics of dense fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatage, Dhairyashil; Tomar, Gaurav Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2015-03-28

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations require imposition of non-periodic boundary conditions (NPBCs) that seamlessly account for the effect of the truncated bulk region on the simulated MD region. Standard implementation of specular boundary conditions in such simulations results in spurious density and force fluctuations near the domain boundary and is therefore inappropriate for coupled atomistic-continuum calculations. In this work, we present a novel NPBC model that relies on boundary atoms attached to a simple cubic lattice with soft springs to account for interactions from particles which would have been present in an untruncated full domain treatment. We show that the proposed model suppresses the unphysical fluctuations in the density to less than 1% of the mean while simultaneously eliminating spurious oscillations in both mean and boundary forces. The model allows for an effective coupling of atomistic and continuum solvers as demonstrated through multiscale simulation of boundary driven singular flow in a cavity. The geometric flexibility of the model enables straightforward extension to nonplanar complex domains without any adverse effects on dynamic properties such as the diffusion coefficient.

  17. Role of the boundary layer dynamics effects on an extreme air pollution event in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, J.-C.; Haeffelin, M.; Badosa, J.; Elias, T.; Favez, O.; Petit, J. E.; Meleux, F.; Sciare, J.; Crenn, V.; Bonne, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    The physical and chemical aerosol properties are explored here based on ground-based observations in the Paris region to better understand the role of clouds, radiative fluxes and dynamics on aerosol loading during a heavy regional air pollution that occurred in March 2014 over North-Western Europe. This event is primarily characterized by a fine particle mass (PM2.5) increase from 10 to more than 120 μg m-3 and a simultaneous decrease of the horizontal visibility from 40 to 1 km, mainly due to significant formation of ammonium nitrate particles. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm increased steadily from about 0.06 on March 6 to more than 0.9 five days later. The scattering of the solar radiation by polluted particles induced, at the peak of the heavy pollution event, an instantaneous shortwave flux decrease of about 300 W m-2 for direct irradiance and an increase of about 150 W m-2 for diffuse irradiance (only scattering). The mean surface aerosol effect efficiency (effect per unit optical depth) is of about -80 W m-2 with a mean aerosol direct radiative effect of -23 W m-2. The dynamical and radiative processes that can be responsible for the diurnal cycle of PM2.5 in terms of amplitude and timing are investigated. A comparative analysis is performed for 4 consecutive days (between March 11 and 14), showing that the PM2.5 diurnal cycle can be modulated in time and amplitude by local processes such as the boundary layer depth development (ranging from 100 m to 1350 m), surface relative humidity (100%-35%), thermal structure (10 °C-16 °C for day/night amplitude), dynamics (wind speed ranging from 4 m s-1 to 1.5 m s-1) and turbulence (turbulent kinetic energy reaching 2 m2 s-2) near the surface and wind shear along the vertical. Finally, modeled and measured surface PM2.5 loadings are also compared here, notably illustrating the need of accurate boundary layer depth data for efficient air quality forecasts.

  18. Unsteady flow simulations about moving boundary configurations using dynamic domain decomposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Guan-Wei

    A computational method is developed to solve the coupled governing equations of an unsteady flowfield and those of rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF). This method is capable of simulating the unsteady flowfields around multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help us to understand are the unsteady aerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of such a flowfield. By hybridizing two dynamic domain decomposition techniques, the grid generation task is simplified, the computer memory requirement is reduced, and the governing equations of the rigid-body dynamics are simplified with certain assumptions. Three dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on each of the subdomains by a fully-vectorized, finite-volume, upwind-biased, and approximately-factored method. These equations are solved on the composite meshes of hybrid subdomain grids that can move with respect to each other. Hence, the present method combines the advantages of an efficient, geometrically conservative, minimally and automatically dissipative algorithm with the advantages and flexibility of the domain decomposition techniques. Several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. This solution compares very well with the analytic solution of the isentropic equations. It is concluded, that as a minimum measure, the connectivity of nonconservative overlapped scheme needs to be second-order accurate for spatial and temporal discretizations, as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to below unity, if affordable, for flows with high flow gradients. The method is further scrutinized by simulating the flow past a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, and the flow past a sinusoidally pitching and

  19. Atmospheric boundary layer dynamics in the Grenoble valley during strongly stable episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staquet, C.; Largeron, Y.; Chollet, J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer in the Grenoble valley under strongly stable and polluted conditions. Numerical modeling is used for this purpose, along with available ground temperature measurements. Though the Grenoble valley is the most populated area in the Alps and is subjected to serious pollution episodes in winter, no such study had been conducted previously. We first analyzed ground temperature data within the valley at altitudes ranging between 220 m (valley bottom) and 1730 m during 5 months of winter 2006-2007. These data were provided by Meteo-France et by Air Rhône-Alpes, the air quality agency of Région Rhône-Alpes. Our purpose was to detect strongly stable episodes, these being defined by the episode-averaged vertical gradient of the absolute temperature being larger than the winter average during at least three days. Five episodes were selected from this criterion. We also analyzed air quality data recorded by Air Rhône-Alpes during the same winter to detect strongly polluted events for PM10 and found that the five episodes were also strongly polluted ones. To perform a more detailed analysis of these five episodes, we used the numerical code Meso-NH developed by Météo-France and the Laboratory of Aérology in Toulouse and simulated the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer during each episode. Four nested domains were used, the horizontal resolution of the innermost (and smallest) domain, containing the Grenoble valley, being 333 m; from comparison with the ground temperature data, we found that the vertical resolution above ground level had to be as low as 4 meters. As expected, the boundary layer dynamics in the numerical simulation for each episode was found to be decoupled from the (anticyclonic, weak) synoptic flow, consistent with the value of the Froude number associated with the inversion layer. These dynamics are controlled by thermal (mostly katabatic) winds flowing from the higher altitude

  20. Large-Scale Dynamics of the Magnetospheric Boundary: Comparisons between Global MHD Simulation Results and ISTP Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Lepping, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the large-scale dynamics of the magnetospheric boundary is an important step towards achieving the ISTP mission's broad objective of assessing the global transport of plasma and energy through the geospace environment. Our approach is based on three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere- ionosphere system, and consists of using interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma parameters measured by solar wind monitors upstream of the bow shock as input to the simulations for predicting the large-scale dynamics of the magnetospheric boundary. The validity of these predictions is tested by comparing local data streams with time series measured by downstream spacecraft crossing the magnetospheric boundary. In this paper, we review results from several case studies which confirm that our MHD model reproduces very well the large-scale motion of the magnetospheric boundary. The first case illustrates the complexity of the magnetic field topology that can occur at the dayside magnetospheric boundary for periods of northward IMF with strong Bx and By components. The second comparison reviewed combines dynamic and topological aspects in an investigation of the evolution of the distant tail at 200 R(sub E) from the Earth.

  1. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I Nengah S; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion

    PubMed Central

    Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M.; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I. Nengah S.; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M.; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. PMID:27114577

  3. Response of an old-growth tropical rainforest to transient high temperature and drought.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos E; Kellner, James R; Clark, David B; Clark, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    Tropical rainforests have experienced episodes of severe heat and drought in recent decades, and climate models project a warmer and potentially drier tropical climate over this century. However, likely responses of tropical rainforests are poorly understood due to a lack of frequent long-term measurements of forest structure and dynamics. We analyzed a 12-year record (1999-2010) of 47 817 annual measurements of canopy height to characterize the response of an old-growth Neotropical rainforest to the severe heat and drought associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño. Well-drained soils on slopes and plateaus experienced a threefold increase in the fraction of the landscape in gaps (≤2 m) and a reduction in the fraction in high canopy (>15 m) causing distributions of canopy height to depart from equilibrium for a period of 2-3 years. In contrast, forests on low-lying alluvial terraces remained in equilibrium and were nearly half as likely to experience upper canopy (>15 m) disturbance over the 12 years of observation. Variation in forest response across topographic positions suggests that tropical rainforests are more sensitive to moisture deficits than high temperature and that topography likely structures landscape-level variation in the severity of drought impacts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessing tropical rainforest growth traits: Data - Model fusion in the Congo basin and beyond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, S.

    2016-12-01

    Virgin forest ecosystems resemble the key reference level for natural tree growth dynamics. The mosaic cycle concept describes such dynamics as local disequilibria driven by patch level succession cycles of breakdown, regeneration, juvenescence and old growth. These cycles, however, may involve different traits of light demanding and shade tolerant species assemblies. In this work a data model fusion concept will be introduced to assess the differences in growth dynamics of the mosaic cycle of the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest ecosystem. Field data from 34 forest patches located in an ice age forest refuge, recently pinpointed to the ground and still devoid of direct human impact up to today - resemble the data base. A 3D error assessment procedure versus BGC model simulations for the 34 patches revealed two different growth dynamics, consistent with observed growth traits of pioneer and late succession species assemblies of the Western Congolian Lowland rainforest. An application of the same procedure to Central American Pacific rainforests confirms the strength of the 3D error field data model fusion concept to assess different growth traits of the mosaic cycle of natural forest dynamics.

  5. The Ndynamics package—Numerical analysis of dynamical systems and the fractal dimension of boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.; de Melo, N.; Skea, J. E. F.

    2012-09-01

    A set of Maple routines is presented, fully compatible with the new releases of Maple (14 and higher). The package deals with the numerical evolution of dynamical systems and provide flexible plotting of the results. The package also brings an initial conditions generator, a numerical solver manager, and a focusing set of routines that allow for better analysis of the graphical display of the results. The novelty that the package presents an optional C interface is maintained. This allows for fast numerical integration, even for the totally inexperienced Maple user, without any C expertise being required. Finally, the package provides the routines to calculate the fractal dimension of boundaries (via box counting). New version program summary Program Title: Ndynamics Catalogue identifier: %Leave blank, supplied by Elsevier. Licensing provisions: no. Programming language: Maple, C. Computer: Intel(R) Core(TM) i3 CPU M330 @ 2.13 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 3.0 GB Keywords: Dynamical systems, Box counting, Fractal dimension, Symbolic computation, Differential equations, Maple. Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADKH_v1_0. Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 119 (1999) 256. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem Computation and plotting of numerical solutions of dynamical systems and the determination of the fractal dimension of the boundaries. Solution method The default method of integration is a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme, but any method of integration present on the Maple system is available via an argument when calling the routine. A box counting [1] method is used to calculate the fractal dimension [2] of the boundaries. Reasons for the new version The Ndynamics package met a demand of our research community for a flexible and friendly environment for analyzing dynamical systems. All the user has to do is create his/her own Maple session, with the system to

  6. Evaluating Basins of Attraction in Non-Linear Dynamical Systems Using AN Improved Recursive Boundary Enhancement (rbe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    An improvement to the computational algorithm known as Recursive boundary enhancement (RBE) is described. This updated algorithm produces global stability phase space diagrams in periodically forced differential systems. These equations being derived from the dynamics of engineering structures with non-linear responses. The algorithm uses a process of boundary grid refinement to produce a greatly enhanced procedure which is accurate and less computationally expensive than the standardgrid of starts(GOS) method. The algorithm focuses on the boundaries of the catchment basins which need the most attention. This concentration on the boundaries cannot be made in ana priorimanner as the boundaries are initially unknown. While the algorithm is proceeding concepts of parent cells, child cells and cell division are used to determine the location of the boundaries. The role of cell neighbourhood comparison is modified, in the improved algorithm, to provide a handle to control accuracy and computational speed. The necessity for recursion in the algorithm is discussed. The procedure is valid for both non-fractal and fractal boundaries. A comparison of the old and new RBE algorithms and other methods such as GOS, SCM and ICM mapping methods are made to evaluate computational efficiency and accuracy.

  7. Interaction of run-in edge dislocations with twist grain boundaries in Al-a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Naveen Kumar, N.; Samal, M. K.; Chavan, V. M.; Patel, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    Grain boundaries play an important role in outlining the mechanical properties of crystalline materials. They act as sites for absorption/nucleation of dislocations, which are the main carriers of plastic deformation. In view of this, the interactions between edge dislocations and twist grain boundaries-dislocation pileup, dislocation absorption and dislocation emission were explored by performing molecular dynamics simulations in face-centered cubic Al using embedded atom method. The ?1 1 0? twist grain boundaries with various misorientation angles were selected for this purpose. It was found that the misorientation angle of boundary and stress anomalies arising from repeated dislocation absorption at the grain boundaries are the important parameters in determining the ability of the boundary to emit dislocations. Complex network of dislocations results in later stages of deformation, which may have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the material. The peculiarities of dislocation nucleation, their emission from twist grain boundaries and the ramifications of this study towards development of higher length scale material models are discussed.

  8. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Dynamic Molecular Phase Boundary with Ultrahigh Vacuum Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Chiang, Naihao; Madison, Lindsey R; Pozzi, Eric A; Wasielewski, Michael R; Seideman, Tamar; Ratner, Mark A; Hersam, Mark C; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2016-06-08

    Nanoscale chemical imaging of a dynamic molecular phase boundary has broad implications for a range of problems in catalysis, surface science, and molecular electronics. While scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is commonly used to study molecular phase boundaries, its information content can be severely compromised by surface diffusion, irregular packing, or three-dimensional adsorbate geometry. Here, we demonstrate the simultaneous chemical and structural analysis of N-N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,7-(4'-t-butylphenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PPDI) molecules by UHV tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Both condensed and diffusing domains of PPDI coexist on Ag(100) at room temperature. Through comparison with time-dependent density functional theory simulations, we unravel the orientation of PPDI molecules at the dynamic molecular domain boundary with unprecedented ∼4 nm spatial resolution.

  9. Simulating carbon, water and energy fluxes of a rainforest and an oil palm plantation using the Community Land Model (CLM4.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yuanchao; Bernoux, Martial; Roupsard, Olivier; Panferov, Oleg; Le Maire, Guerric; Tölle, Merja; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation driven by the expansion of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations has become the major source of GHG emission in Indonesia. Changes of land surface properties (e.g. vegetation composition, soil property, surface albedo) associated with rainforest to oil palm conversion might alter the patterns of land-atmosphere energy, water and carbon cycles and therefore affect local or regional climate. Land surface modeling has been widely used to characterize the two-way interactions between climate and human disturbances on land surface. The Community Land Model (CLM) is a third-generation land model that simulates a wide range of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. This project utilizes the land-cover/land-use change (LCLUC) capability of the latest CLM versions 4/4.5 to characterize quantitatively how anthropogenic land surface dynamics in Indonesia affect land-atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes. Before simulating land use changes, the first objective is to parameterize and validate the CLM model at local rainforest and oil palm plantation sites through separate point simulations. This entails creation and parameterization of a new plant functional type (PFT) for oil palm, as well as sensitivity analysis and adaptation of model parameters for the rainforest PFTs. CLM modelled fluxes for the selected sites are to be compared with field observations from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers (e.g. a rainforest site in Bariri, Sulawesi; an oil palm site in Jambi, Sumatra). After validation, the project will proceed to parameterize land-use transformation system using remote sensing data and to simulate the impacts of historical LUCs on carbon, water and energy fluxes. Last but not least, the effects of future LUCs in Indonesia on the fluxes and carbon sequestration capacity will be investigated through scenario study. Historical land cover changes, especially oil palm coverage, are retrieved from Landsat or MODIS archival

  10. Interactions between coherent twin boundaries and phase transition of iron under dynamic loading and unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Xueyang; Zhu, Wenjun

    2017-09-01

    Phase transitions and deformation twins are constantly reported in many BCC metals under high pressure, whose interactions are of fundamental importance to understand the strengthening mechanism of these metals under extreme conditions. However, the interactions between twins and phase transition in BCC metals remain largely unexplored. In this work, interactions between coherent twin boundaries and α ↔ ɛ phase transition of iron are investigated using both non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and the nudged elastic band method. Mechanisms of both twin-assisted phase transition and reverse phase transition are studied, and orientation relationships between BCC and HCP phases are found to be ⟨"separators="|11 1 ¯ ⟩ B C C||⟨"separators="|1 ¯2 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ H C P and ⟨"separators="|1 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ B C C||⟨"separators="|0001 ⟩ H C P for both cases. The twin boundary corresponds to {"separators="|10 1 ¯ 0 } H C P after the phase transition. It is amazing that the reverse transition seems to be able to "memorize" and recover the initial BCC twins. The memory would be partly lost when plastic slips take place in the HCP phase before the reverse transition. In the recovered initial BCC twins, three major twin spacings are observed, which are well explained in terms of energy barriers of transition from the HCP phase to the BCC twin. Besides, the variant selection rule of the twin assisted phase transition is also discussed. The results of present work could be expected to give some clues for producing ultra-fine grain structures in materials exhibiting martensitic phase transition.

  11. Internal Dynamics and Boundary Forcing Characteristics Associated with Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.- M.; Kim, K.-M.; Yang, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a description of the internal dynamics and boundary forcing characteristics of two major components of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), i.e., the South Asian (SAM) and the Southeast-East Asian monsoon (SEAM). The description is based on a new monsoon-climate paradigm in which the variability of ASM is considered as the outcome of the interplay of a "fast" and an "intermediate" monsoon subsystem, under the influenced of the "slow" varying external forcings. Two sets of regional monsoon indices derived from dynamically consistent rainfall and wind data are used in this study. For SAM, the internal dynamics is represented by that of a "classical" monsoon system where the anomalous circulation is governed by Rossby-wave dynamics, i.e., generation of anomalous vorticity induced by an off-equatorial heat source is balanced by planetary vorticity advection. On the other hand, the internal dynamics of SEAM is characterized by a "hybrid" monsoon system featuring multi-cellular meridional circulation over the East Asian section, extending from the deep tropics to midlatitudes. These meridional-cells link tropical heating to extratropical circulation system via the East Asian jetstream, and are responsible for the characteristic occurrences of zonally oriented anomalous rainfall patterns over East Asian and the subtropical western Pacific. In the extratropical regions, the major upper level vorticity balance is by anomalous vorticity advection and generation by the anomalous divergent circulation. A consequence of this is that compared to SAM, the SEAM is associated with stronger teleconnection patterns to regions outside the ASM. A strong SAM is linked to basin-scale sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuation with significant signal in the equatorial eastern Pacific. During the boreal spring SST warming in the Arabian Sea and the subtropical western Pacific may lead to a strong SAM. For SEAM, interannual variability is tied to SSTA over the Sea of

  12. Well-posedness and asymptotic behavior of Timoshenko beam system with dynamic boundary dissipative feedback of fractional derivative type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaissa, Abbes; Benazzouz, Sohbi

    2017-08-01

    We consider the Timoshenko beam system with two dynamic control boundary conditions of fractional derivative type. We show that the system is not uniformly stable by a spectrum method and we establish the polynomial stability using the semigroup theory of linear operators and a result obtained by Borichev and Tomilov.

  13. Transport of chemical tracers from the boundary layer to stratosphere associated with the dynamics of the Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Laura L.; Honomichl, Shawn B.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Abalos, Marta; Randel, William J.; Bergman, John W.; Bian, Jianchun

    2016-12-01

    Chemical transport associated with the dynamics of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) system is investigated using model output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model run in specified dynamics mode. The 3-D day-to-day behavior of modeled carbon monoxide is analyzed together with dynamical fields and transport boundaries to identify preferred locations of uplifting from the boundary layer, the role of subseasonal-scale dynamics in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), and the relationship of ASM transport and the stratospheric residual circulation. The model simulation of CO shows the intraseasonal east-west oscillation of the anticyclone may play an essential role in transporting convectively pumped boundary layer pollutants in the UTLS. A statistical analysis of 11 year CO also shows that the southern flank of the Tibetan plateau is a preferred location for boundary layer tracers to be lofted to the tropopause region. The vertical structure of a model tracer (E90) further shows that the rapid ASM vertical transport is only effective up to the tropopause level (around 400 K). The efficiency of continued vertical transport into the deep stratosphere is limited by the slow ascent associated with the zonal-mean residual circulation in the lower stratosphere during northern summer. Quasi-isentropic transport near the 400 K potential temperature level is likely the most effective process for ASM anticyclone air to enter the stratosphere.

  14. Effects of grain size and boundary structure on the dynamic tensile response of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, J. P.; Dennis-Koller, D.; Cerreta, E. K.; Patterson, B. M.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Hansen, B. L.; Tonks, D.; Lebensohn, R. A.

    2011-08-01

    Plate impact experiments have been carried out to examine the influence of grain boundary characteristics on the dynamic tensile response of Cu samples with grain sizes of 30, 60, 100, and 200 μm. The peak compressive stress is ˜1.50 GPa for all experiments, low enough to cause an early stage of incipient spall damage that is correlated to the surrounding microstructure in metallographic analysis. The experimental configuration used in this work permits real-time measurements of the sample free surface velocity histories, soft-recovery, and postimpact examination of the damaged microstructure. The resulting tensile damage in the recovered samples is examined using optical and electron microscopy along with micro x-ray tomography. The free surface velocity measurements are used to calculate spall strength values and show no significant effect of the grain size. However, differences are observed in the free surface velocity behavior after the pull-back minima, when reacceleration occurs. The magnitude of the spall peak and its acceleration rate are dependent upon the grain size. The quantitative, postimpact, metallographic analyses of recovered samples show that for the materials with grain sizes larger than 30 μm, the void volume fraction and the average void size increase with increasing grain size. In the 30 and 200 μm samples, void coalescence is observed to dominate the void growth behavior, whereas in 60 and 100 μm samples, void growth is dominated by the growth of isolated voids. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) observations show that voids preferentially nucleate and grow at grain boundaries with high angle misorientation. However, special boundaries corresponding to Σl (low angle, < 5 °) and Σ3 (˜60 ° <111> misorientation) types are more resistant to void formation. Finally, micro x-ray tomography results show three dimensional (3D) views of the damage fields consistent with the two dimensional (2D) surface observations. Based on these

  15. Monitoring dynamics of an active plate boundary: Peceneaga-Camena Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2010-05-01

    Peceneaga-Camena Fault (PCF) is one of the well-known regional faults on the Romanian territory, separating the Central Dobrogea from the North Dobrogea structures. Despite its first mentioning more than hundred years ago, some aspects related to its track, nature and dynamics are still debated. After the first geological models assuming it as a reverse fault, or the overthrust plan along which the Upper Proterozoic Green Schist series of Central Dobrogea overthrusted the North Dobrogea Paleozoic structures, PCF started to be considered more as a strike-slip fault. First geophysical evidence (the international DSS line Calarasi-Galati) revealed a 10 km step along it at the both Conrad and Moho levels, thus advocating for its trans-crustal feature. Later on, the re-interpretation of the data provided by Calixto experiment clearly showed in depth extension of the contact down to more than 150 km. This way it becomes clear the lithospheric nature of PCF, as a plate boundary between Moesian Microplate and East European Plate. Concerning the PCF nature and dynamics, several authors have been previously considered the fault as an active trans-current contact along which its southern flank would be pushed towards NW, thus generating the recent Pleistocene folds in the SE bending zone of East Carpathians. The Baspunar experiment was designed and accomplished in order to bring direct evidence on the active character of the PCF. Geomagnetic investigations conducted under the umbrella of a joint project between the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy and the Institute of Geophysics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences have revealed the presence of an additional local geomagnetic field, due to the inductive currents circulating along the fault plane, which associates well with its assumed active character. A geodetic experiment, during which two Leica TC &TCR total stations were installed and monitored the distance between the PCF flanks, has brought direct

  16. Vertical Wellbore Flow Monitoring for Assessing Spatial and Temporal Flow Relationships with a Dynamic River Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Darrell R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2010-10-01

    A useful tool for identifying the temporal and spatial ambient wellbore flow relationships near a dynamic river boundary is to continuously monitor ambient vertical wellbore flow with an electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF). This is important because the presence of the wellbore can result in significant mixing or exchange of groundwater vertically across the aquifer. Mixing or exchanging groundwater within the well-screen section can have significant impacts on the distribution of contaminants within the aquifer and adverse effects on the representativeness of groundwater samples collected from the monitoring well. EBF monitoring data collected from long, fully screened wells at Hanford’s 300-Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, located ~260 to 290 m from the Columbia River, demonstrate that ambient vertical wellbore flow exhibits both a positive (direct) and inverse temporal relationship with periodic river-stage fluctuations over short distances. The ambient flow monitoring wells fully penetrate a highly transmissive unconfined aquifer that consists of unconsolidated coarse sediments of the Hanford formation. The spatial distribution of ambient vertical wellbore flows across the IFRC’s ~2,200 m2 well-field size indicates two general regions of inverse ambient wellbore flow behavior. The western region of the IFRC site is characterized by ambient vertical wellbore flows that are positively related to river-stage fluctuations. In contrast, the eastern region of the site exhibits ambient wellbore flows that are inversely related to river-stage fluctuations. The cause of this opposite relationship between ambient wellbore flows and river-stage changes is not completely understood; however, the positive relationships appear to be associated with high-energy Hanford formation flood deposits. These flood deposits have a well-defined northwest-southeast trend and are believed to coincide with a local paleochannel. This local paleochannel bisects

  17. Simulation of dynamic behavior of surfactants on a hydrophobic surface using periodic-shell boundary molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Minami, Daiki; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption and aggregation behaviors of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on a hydrophobic graphite surface were examined using a novel molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with the periodic-shell boundary condition (PSBC). Differences in the adsorption behavior of SDS and CTAB molecules were clearly shown on the hydrophobic surface. Unexpectedly, the SDS molecules approached the graphite surface with their hydrophilic head groups. This unexpected approach mode was thought to be due to the aqueous layer on the graphite surface. The hydrophobic moiety of SDS molecules repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed on the graphite surface. In addition, SDS molecules kept moving on the graphite surface; thus, they did not form a stable adsorption layer. In contrast to SDS, the hydrophobic moiety of CTAB molecules approached the graphite surface at the primary step of adsorption. The hydrophobic moieties of CTAB molecules came close to each other, whereas the hydrophilic groups separated from one another. This result suggests that the CTAB molecules form molecular assemblies with a curved structure. The simulation results were consistent with the experimental observations. A clear difference between the adsorption behavior of SDS and CTAB molecules was revealed by MD simulations with PSBC.

  18. Molecular dynamics study on the effect of boundary heating rate on the phase change characteristics of thin film liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim Morshed, A. K. M. Monjur Rabbi, Kazi Fazle Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-12

    In this study, theoretical investigation of thin film liquid phase change phenomena under different boundary heating rates has been conducted with the help of molecular dynamics simulation. To do this, the case of argon boiling over a platinum surface has been considered. The study has been conducted to get a better understanding of the nano-scale physics of evaporation/boiling for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of boundary heating rate. The simulation domain consisted of liquid and vapor argon atoms placed over a platinum wall. Initially the whole system was brought to an equilibrium state at 90 K with the help of equilibrium molecular dynamics and then the temperature of the bottom wall was increased to a higher temperature (250 K/130 K) over a finite heating period. Depending on the heating period, the boundary heating rate has been varied in the range of 1600×10{sup 9} K/s to 8×10{sup 9} K/s. The variations of argon region temperature, pressure, net evaporation number with respect to time under different boundary heating rates have been determined and discussed. The heat fluxes normal to platinum wall for different cases were also calculated and compared with theoretical upper limit of maximum possible heat transfer to elucidate the effect of boundary heating rate.

  19. Evaluating the impact of built environment characteristics on urban boundary layer dynamics using an advanced stochastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiyun; Wang, Zhi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Urban land-atmosphere interactions can be captured by numerical modeling framework with coupled land surface and atmospheric processes, while the model performance depends largely on accurate input parameters. In this study, we use an advanced stochastic approach to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of a coupled numerical framework for urban land-atmosphere interactions. It is found that the development of urban boundary layer is highly sensitive to surface characteristics of built terrains. Changes of both urban land use and geometry impose significant impact on the overlying urban boundary layer dynamics through modification on bottom boundary conditions, i.e., by altering surface energy partitioning and surface aerodynamic resistance, respectively. Hydrothermal properties of conventional and green roofs have different impacts on atmospheric dynamics due to different surface energy partitioning mechanisms. Urban geometry (represented by the canyon aspect ratio), however, has a significant nonlinear impact on boundary layer structure and temperature. Besides, managing rooftop roughness provides an alternative option to change the boundary layer thermal state through modification of the vertical turbulent transport. The sensitivity analysis deepens our insight into the fundamental physics of urban land-atmosphere interactions and provides useful guidance for urban planning under challenges of changing climate and continuous global urbanization.

  20. Molecular dynamics study on the effect of boundary heating rate on the phase change characteristics of thin film liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Morshed, A. K. M. Monjur; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, theoretical investigation of thin film liquid phase change phenomena under different boundary heating rates has been conducted with the help of molecular dynamics simulation. To do this, the case of argon boiling over a platinum surface has been considered. The study has been conducted to get a better understanding of the nano-scale physics of evaporation/boiling for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of boundary heating rate. The simulation domain consisted of liquid and vapor argon atoms placed over a platinum wall. Initially the whole system was brought to an equilibrium state at 90K with the help of equilibrium molecular dynamics and then the temperature of the bottom wall was increased to a higher temperature (250K/130K) over a finite heating period. Depending on the heating period, the boundary heating rate has been varied in the range of 1600×109 K/s to 8×109 K/s. The variations of argon region temperature, pressure, net evaporation number with respect to time under different boundary heating rates have been determined and discussed. The heat fluxes normal to platinum wall for different cases were also calculated and compared with theoretical upper limit of maximum possible heat transfer to elucidate the effect of boundary heating rate.

  1. Testing a dynamic global vegetation model for pre-industrial and Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handiani, Dian N.; Rachmayani, Rima; Paul, André; Dupont, Lydie M.

    2010-05-01

    Achieving better comparison between dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) with pollen or plant data is important for the climate-vegetation modeling community. Our study tried to find a scheme that can be applied consistently to compare DGVMs with pollen data sets. We tested two models, the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics (TRIFFID) and the Community Land Model's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM), which we both ran for pre-industrial boundary conditions. In addition, we ran the TRIFFID model using boundary conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~19,000- 23,000 years before present). For comparisons, we used the modern vegetation of the BIOME4 model and the reconstruction for the year 18000 after pollen data from the BIOME6000 (Version 4.2) project. Differences in the number of PFTs in each DGVMs lead to different results of the biome distribution even if models and data qualitatively agree. In the CLM-DGVM pre-industrial run, northern South America is covered by savanna or desert biome, which is associated with more growing degree days and lower rates of precipitation. Meanwhile, the TRIFFID model simulated a tropical forest in northern South America and a desert biome in Australia, probably because of higher values of growing degree days and different precipitation rates, which is lower in South America and higher in Australia. The climate parameters from both models show a similar pattern as in the BIOME4 model, but the values are higher in the DGVMs. Biome distributions of the pre-industrial simulation show similarities and differences between dynamic vegetation modeling and data reconstructions. Both models reveal a fair agreement simulating savanna and desert biomes around the Sahel, tropical forest in western Africa, boreal forest in eastern North America and in Siberia, and tundra in northern Canada. Some discrepancies appear in South America and Africa, where pollen data indicate a combination of

  2. Effects of land use on surface–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko; Misztal, Pawel; Di Marco, Chiara; Skiba, Ute; Ryder, James; Helfter, Carole; Cape, J. Neil; Owen, Sue; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin W.; Coyle, Mhairi; Phillips, Gavin; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; MacKenzie, Rob; Muller, Jennifer; Siong, Jambery; Dari-Salisburgo, Cesare; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Giammaria, Franco; Pyle, John A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of land–atmosphere fluxes of sensible and latent heat, momentum, CO2, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO, NO2, N2O and O3 over a 30 m high rainforest canopy and a 12 m high oil palm plantation in the same region of Sabah in Borneo between April and July 2008. The daytime maximum CO2 flux to the two canopies differs by approximately a factor of 2, 1200 mg C m−2 h−1 for the oil palm and 700 mg C m−2 h−1 for the rainforest, with the oil palm plantation showing a substantially greater quantum efficiency. Total VOC emissions are also larger over the oil palm than over the rainforest by a factor of 3. Emissions of isoprene from the oil palm canopy represented 80 per cent of the VOC emissions and exceeded those over the rainforest in similar light and temperature conditions by on average a factor of 5. Substantial emissions of estragole (1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene) from the oil palm plantation were detected and no trace of this VOC was detected in or above the rainforest. Deposition velocities for O3 to the rainforest were a factor of 2 larger than over oil palm. Emissions of nitrous oxide were larger from the soils of the oil palm plantation than from the soils of the rainforest by approximately 25 per cent. It is clear from the measurements that the large change in the species composition generated by replacing rainforest with oil palm leads to profound changes in the net exchange of most of the trace gases measured, and thus on the chemical composition of the boundary layer over these surfaces. PMID:22006962

  3. Effects of land use on surface-atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko; Misztal, Pawel; Di Marco, Chiara; Skiba, Ute; Ryder, James; Helfter, Carole; Cape, J Neil; Owen, Sue; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin W; Coyle, Mhairi; Phillips, Gavin; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; MacKenzie, Rob; Muller, Jennifer; Siong, Jambery; Dari-Salisburgo, Cesare; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Giammaria, Franco; Pyle, John A; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2011-11-27

    This paper reports measurements of land-atmosphere fluxes of sensible and latent heat, momentum, CO(2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO, NO(2), N(2)O and O(3) over a 30 m high rainforest canopy and a 12 m high oil palm plantation in the same region of Sabah in Borneo between April and July 2008. The daytime maximum CO(2) flux to the two canopies differs by approximately a factor of 2, 1200 mg C m(-2) h(-1) for the oil palm and 700 mg C m(-2) h(-1) for the rainforest, with the oil palm plantation showing a substantially greater quantum efficiency. Total VOC emissions are also larger over the oil palm than over the rainforest by a factor of 3. Emissions of isoprene from the oil palm canopy represented 80 per cent of the VOC emissions and exceeded those over the rainforest in similar light and temperature conditions by on average a factor of 5. Substantial emissions of estragole (1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene) from the oil palm plantation were detected and no trace of this VOC was detected in or above the rainforest. Deposition velocities for O(3) to the rainforest were a factor of 2 larger than over oil palm. Emissions of nitrous oxide were larger from the soils of the oil palm plantation than from the soils of the rainforest by approximately 25 per cent. It is clear from the measurements that the large change in the species composition generated by replacing rainforest with oil palm leads to profound changes in the net exchange of most of the trace gases measured, and thus on the chemical composition of the boundary layer over these surfaces.

  4. Tracer diffusion in a polymer gel: simulations of static and dynamic 3D networks using spherical boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamerlin, Natasha; Elvingson, Christer

    2016-11-30

    We have investigated an alternative to the standard periodic boundary conditions for simulating the diffusion of tracer particles in a polymer gel by performing Brownian dynamics simulations using spherical boundary conditions. The gel network is constructed by randomly distributing tetravalent cross-linking nodes and connecting nearest pairs. The final gel structure is characterised by the radial distribution functions, chain lengths and end-to-end distances, and the pore size distribution. We have looked at the diffusion of tracer particles with a wide range of sizes, diffusing in both static and dynamic networks of two different volume fractions. It is quantitatively shown that the dynamical effect of the network becomes more important in facilitating the diffusional transport for larger particle sizes, and that one obtains a finite diffusion also for particle sizes well above the maximum in the pore size distribution.

  5. Impacts of warming on tropical lowland rainforests.

    PubMed

    Corlett, Richard T

    2011-11-01

    Before the end of this century, tropical rainforests will be subject to climatic conditions that have not existed anywhere on Earth for millions of years. These forests are the most species-rich ecosystems in the world and play a crucial role in regulating carbon and water feedbacks in the global climate system; therefore, it is important that the probable impacts of anthropogenic climate change are understood. However, the recent literature shows a striking range of views on the vulnerability of tropical rainforests, from least to most concern among major ecosystems. This review, which focuses on the impact of rising temperatures, examines the evidence for and against high vulnerability, identifies key research needs for resolving current differences and suggests ways of mitigating or adapting to potential impacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microscopic Symmetry Imposed by Rotational Symmetry Boundary Conditions in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Post, Carol Beth

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viral capsids, as well as other macromolecular assemblies, have icosahedral structure or structures with other rotational symmetries. This symmetry can be exploited during molecular dynamics (MD) to model in effect the full viral capsid using only a subset of primary atoms plus copies of image atoms generated from rotational symmetry boundary conditions (RSBC). A pure rotational symmetry operation results in both primary and image atoms at short range, and within nonbonded interaction distance of each other, so that nonbonded interactions can not be specified by the minimum image convention and explicit treatment of image atoms is required. As such an unavoidable consequence of RSBC is that the enumeration of nonbonded interactions in regions surrounding certain rotational axes must include both a primary atom and its copied image atom, thereby imposing microscopic symmetry for some forces. We examined the possibility of artifacts arising from this imposed microscopic symmetry of RSBC using two simulation systems: a water shell and human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) capsid with explicit water. The primary unit was a pentamer of the icosahedron, which has the advantage of direct comparison of icosahedrally equivalent spatial regions, for example regions near a 2-fold symmetry axis with imposed symmetry and a 2-fold axis without imposed symmetry. Analysis of structural and dynamic properties of water molecules and protein atoms found similar behavior near symmetry axes with imposed symmetry and where the minimum image convention fails compared with that in other regions in the simulation system, even though an excluded volume effect was detected for water molecules near the axes with imposed symmetry. These results validate the use of RSBC for icosahedral viral capsids or other rotationally symmetric systems. PMID:22096451

  7. A numerical study of boundary-layer dynamics in a mountain valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koračin, Darko; Enger, Leif

    1994-05-01

    The characteristics of dynamics and thermodynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer in a part of the Colorado River Valley, centered around Lake Mohave, have been investigated by analysis of measurements conducted during a field program in late spring and early summer of 1986 and a series of numerical simulations by a three-dimensional second-moment turbulence-closure model. The model was validated against measurements described in a companion article (Enger et al., 1993). According to airsonde measurements performed on eight nights, the depth of the surface inversion was around 200 m with an average temperature gradient of about 30 K km-1. Analysis of acoustic sounder data collected during one month revealed significant diurnal variations of U and V wind-speed components related to slope and valley flows, respectively. Some of the dynamics properties have been explained by the simulation results. It has been shown that the appearance of supergeostrophic southerly valley flow is associated with the westerly component of the geostrophic flow. Since a westerly component of the geostrophic wind is quite common for this area in summer, this effect also explains the frequently observed southerly valley flow in summer. Elevated minima of the measured wind speed around valley ridges appear to be related to the interaction of conservation of momentum in the X and Y directions. The critical direction of the geostrophic wind relevant for reversal of up-valley flow to down-valley flow has also been studied. The critical direction is about 300° for one of the measurement sites and, depending on the angle between valley axis and south-north direction, the critical direction is expected to vary by about 15 20°. The scale analysis of the simulated equations of motion and turbulence kinetic energy emphasizes the strong impact of meandering of the flow due to actual topographic complexity.

  8. Guidance to Design Grain Boundary Mobility Experiments with Molecular Dynamics and Phase-Field Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; S.B. Biner; Paul C Millett; Xianming Bai

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative phase-field modeling can play an important role in designing experiments to measure the grain boundary (GB) mobility. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to determine the GB mobility using Cu bicrystals. Two grain configurations are considered: a shrinking circular grain and a half loop grain. The results obtained from the half loop configuration approaches asymptotically to that obtained from the circular configuration with increasing half loop width. We then verify the phase- field model by directly comparing to the MD simulation results, obtaining excellent agreement. Next, this phase-field model is used to predict the behavior in a common experimental setup that utilizes a half loop grain configuration in a bicrystal to measure the GB mobility. With a 3D simulation, we identify the two critical times within the experiments to reach an accurate value of the GB mobility. We use a series of 2D simulations to investigate the impact of the notch angle on these two critical times and we identify an angle of 60? as an optimal value. We also show that if the notch does not have a sharp tip, it may immobilize the GB migration indefinitely.

  9. Estimates of dynamic parameters and boundaries of habitable zones of selected stars of the Pulkovo program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakht, N. A.; Romanenko, L. G.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Vasilkova, O. O.

    2016-01-01

    A list of selected binary stars is presented that have been observed for several decades using a 26-inch refractor at the Pulkovo Observatory. These stars are at a distance from 3.5 to 25 pc from the Sun. They belong to spectral classes F, G, K, and M. Their masses range from 0.3 to 1.5 solar masses. We have analyzed them as possible parent stars for exoplanets taking into account the physical characteristics of these stars. In view of dynamic parameters and orbital elements that we have obtained by Pulkovo observations, ephemerides of positions for the coming years are calculated. The boundaries of the habitable zones around these stars are calculated. The astrometric signal that depends on the gravitational influence of hypothetical planets is estimated. Space telescopes for astrometric observations with microsecond accuracy can be used to detect Earth-like planets near the closest stars of this program. This paper presents an overview of astrometric programs of searches for exoplanets.

  10. Influence of imperfect end boundary condition on the nonlocal dynamics of CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Reza; Lotfan, Saeed; Sadeghi, Morteza H.

    2017-03-01

    Imperfections that unavoidably occur during the fabrication process of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a significant influence on the vibration behavior of CNTs. Among these imperfections, the boundary condition defect is studied in this investigation based on the nonlocal elasticity theory. To this end, a mathematical model of the non-ideal end condition in a cantilever CNT is developed by a strongly non-linear spring to study its effect on the vibration behavior. The weak form equation of motion is derived via Hamilton's principle and solved based on Rayleigh-Ritz approach. Once the frequency response function (FRF) of the CNT is simulated, it is found that the defect parameter injects noise to the FRF in the range of lower frequencies and as a result the small scale effect on the FRF remains undisturbed in high frequency ranges. Besides, in this work a process is introduced to estimate the nonlocal and defect parameters for establishing the mathematical model of the CNT based on FRF, which can be competitive because of its lower instrumentation and data analysis costs. The estimation process relies on the resonance frequencies and the magnitude of noise in the frequency response function of the CNT. The results show that the constructed dynamic response of the system based on estimated parameters is in good agreement with the original response of the CNT.

  11. Analysis of Helium Cluster Dynamics near Grain Boundaries of Plasma-Exposed Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lin; Hammond, Karl; Wirth, Brian; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    We report results of a systematic atomic-scale analysis of the kinetics of small mobile helium clusters near a model symmetric tilt grain boundary (GB) in tungsten (W). The small mobile helium clusters migrate toward the GB region by Fickian diffusion and drift due to an elastic interaction force that drives GB segregation. As the clusters migrate toward the GB, trap mutation (TM) reactions are activated at rates higher than those away from the GB and are the dominant kinetic processes for 4-member and larger mobile helium clusters. Each TM reaction produces a W interstitial atom on the GB, in the form of an extended interstitial configuration, and an immobile helium-vacancy complex with the W vacancy located at a short distance from the GB. These reactions are identified and characterized in detail based on analysis of a large number of molecular-dynamics trajectories. The mobility of the extended W interstitial on the GB depends on the location of the helium-vacancy complex. The identified cluster reactions are responsible for important structural, morphological, and compositional features in plasma-exposed tungsten.

  12. Molecular kinetic theory of boundary slip on textured surfaces by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, LiYa; Wang, FengChao; Yang, FuQian; Wu, HengAn

    2014-11-01

    A theoretical model extended from the Frenkel-Eyring molecular kinetic theory (MKT) was applied to describe the boundary slip on textured surfaces. The concept of the equivalent depth of potential well was adopted to characterize the solid-liquid interactions on the textured surfaces. The slip behaviors on both chemically and topographically textured surfaces were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The extended MKT slip model is validated by our MD simulations under various situations, by constructing different complex surfaces and varying the surface wettability as well as the shear stress exerted on the liquid. This slip model can provide more comprehensive understanding of the liquid flow on atomic scale by considering the influence of the solid-liquid interactions and the applied shear stress on the nano-flow. Moreover, the slip velocity shear-rate dependence can be predicted using this slip model, since the nonlinear increase of the slip velocity under high shear stress can be approximated by a hyperbolic sine function.

  13. Thermal boundary conductance enhancement using experimentally achievable nanostructured interfaces - analytical study combined with molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eungkyu; Zhang, Teng; Hu, Ming; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-06-22

    Interfacial thermal resistance presents great challenges to the thermal management of modern electronics. In this work, we perform an analytical study to enhance the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of nanostructured interfaces with square-shape pillar arrays, extendable to the characteristic lengths that can be fabricated in practice. As a representative system, we investigate a SiC substrate with the square-shape pillar array combined with epitaxial GaN as the nanostructured interface. By applying a first-order ray tracing method and molecular dynamics simulations to analyze phonon incidence and transmission at the nanostructured interface, we systematically study the impact of the characteristic dimensions of the pillar array on the TBC. Based on the multi-scale analysis we provide a general guideline to optimize the nanostructured interfaces to achieve higher TBC, demonstrating that the optimized TBC value of the nanostructured SiC/GaN interfaces can be 42% higher than that of the planar SiC/GaN interfaces without nanostructures. The model used and results obtained in this study will guide the further experimental realization of nanostructured interfaces for better thermal management in microelectronics.

  14. Molecular dynamics study on the grain boundary dislocation source in nanocrystalline copper under tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Kiet; Pei, Linqing; Zhao, Xing; Cheng, Kuiyu

    2015-03-01

    Grain boundary (GB) is the interface between different oriented crystals of the same material, and it can have a significant effect on the many properties of materials. When the average or entire range of grain size is reduced to less than 100 nm, the conventional plastic deformation mechanisms dominated by dislocation processes become difficult and GB mediated deformation mechanisms become increasingly important. One of the mechanisms that can play a profound role in the strength and plasticity of metallic polycrystalline materials is the heterogeneous nucleation and emission of dislocations from GB. In this study, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations to study the dislocation nucleation from copper bicrystal with a number of <1 1 0> tilt GBs that covered a wide range of misorientation angles (θ). We will show from this analysis that the mechanic behavior of GBs and the energy barrier of dislocation nucleation from GBs are closely related to the lattice crystallographic orientation, GB energy, and the intrinsic GB structures. An atomistic analysis of the nucleation mechanisms provided details of this nucleation and emission process that can help us to better understand the dislocation source in GB.

  15. The dynamics of the tundra-taiga boundary: an overview and suggested coordinated and integrated approach to research.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Crawford, Robert M M; Eronen, Matti; Hofgaard, Annika; Payette, Serge; Rees, W Gareth; Skre, Oddvar; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Vlassova, Tatiana K; Werkman, Ben R

    2002-08-01

    The tundra-taiga boundary stretches for more than 13,400 km around the Northern Hemisphere and is probably the Earth's greatest vegetation transition. The trees that define the boundary have been sensitive to climate changes in the past and models of future vegetation distribution suggest a rapid and dramatic invasion of the tundra by the taiga. Such changes would generate both positive and negative feedbacks to the climate system and the balance could result in a net warming effect. However, the boundary is becoming increasingly affected by human activities that remove trees and degrade forest-tundra into tundra-like areas. Because of the vastness and remoteness of the tundra-taiga boundary, and of methodological problems such as problematic definitions and lack of standardized methods to record the location and characteristics of the ecotone, a project group has been established under the auspices of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). This paper summarizes the initial output of the group and focuses on our uncertainties in understanding the current processes at the tundra-taiga boundary and the conflicts between model predictions of changes in the location of the boundary and contrasting recently observed changes due to human activities. Finally, we present recommendations for a coordinated international approach to the problem and invite the international community to join us in reducing the uncertainties about the dynamics of the ecotone and their consequences.

  16. The Green's matrix and the boundary integral equations for analysis of time-harmonic dynamics of elastic helical springs.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Sergey V

    2011-03-01

    Helical springs serve as vibration isolators in virtually any suspension system. Various exact and approximate methods may be employed to determine the eigenfrequencies of vibrations of these structural elements and their dynamic transfer functions. The method of boundary integral equations is a meaningful alternative to obtain exact solutions of problems of the time-harmonic dynamics of elastic springs in the framework of Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. In this paper, the derivations of the Green's matrix, of the Somigliana's identities, and of the boundary integral equations are presented. The vibrational power transmission in an infinitely long spring is analyzed by means of the Green's matrix. The eigenfrequencies and the dynamic transfer functions are found by solving the boundary integral equations. In the course of analysis, the essential features and advantages of the method of boundary integral equations are highlighted. The reported analytical results may be used to study the time-harmonic motion in any wave guide governed by a system of linear differential equations in a single spatial coordinate along its axis.

  17. Understanding changes of stomatal conductance under different atmospheric humidity levels for different tropical rainforest species in Biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornito, A. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of climate change is one of the biggest questions that scientists across the globe ask today. With understanding climate change comes the need to understand the ecological systems and how their biological and chemical processes contribute to climate change. As ocean ecosystems, rainforests are very productive systems and are responsible for most of the world's carbon budget. To maintain cooler conditions, tropical forests mitigate warming through evapotranspiration. The purpose of this project was to measure short-term plasticity by looking at stomatal conductance levels of different tropical rainforest species of plants in the rainforest, savannah, and desert habitats in the Biosphere 2 facility in Oracle, Arizona. It is known that stomatal conductance is affected by CO2, H2O, and light availability. It has been observed that temperature levels may not affect stomatal conductance because of the variability associated with it. Results indicated that there is a potential trend amongst these rainforest species when placed in different humidity percentage areas. By understanding stomatal conductance in response to humidity, we can better understand how productive rainforest systems are when humidity levels decrease, which may potentially occur as Earth undergoes global climate change.

  18. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Late Holocene rainforest disturbance in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Ledru, M -P.

    2001-06-01

    Palm swamp forest sediments collected in French Guiana provide new data about late Holocene rainforest. Two cores were collected in 'Les Nouragues' ecological station (4 degrees 05'N, 52 degrees 40'W). The lithology shows two different types of sediment, organic peat in the upper part and oxidized clay with low organic content and lacking pollen in the lower part, both separated by a gravel horizon. Radiocarbon dates show that this gravel horizon could have been deposited between 4500 and 3000yrBP. Pollen analysis carried out on the organic sediments record rainforest disturbances between ca 1520-1380 and 1060-860cal yrBP suggested by the presence of the pioneer tree species Cecropia together with other shade intolerant genera. Cecropia is recorded for a period that lasts between 660 and 320 years. This abnormal duration for presence of a pioneer species in rainforest is explained by brief and repeated changes in the composition of the canopy asssociated to perturbations of the palm swamp.

  20. Bubble dynamics in a compressible liquid in contact with a rigid boundary

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianxi; Liu, Wenke; Zhang, A. M.; Sui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A bubble initiated near a rigid boundary may be almost in contact with the boundary because of its expansion and migration to the boundary, where a thin layer of water forms between the bubble and the boundary thereafter. This phenomenon is modelled using the weakly compressible theory coupled with the boundary integral method. The wall effects are modelled using the imaging method. The numerical instabilities caused by the near contact of the bubble surface with the boundary are handled by removing a thin layer of water between them and joining the bubble surface with its image to the boundary. Our computations correlate well with experiments for both the first and second cycles of oscillation. The time history of the energy of a bubble system follows a step function, reducing rapidly and significantly because of emission of shock waves at inception of a bubble and at the end of collapse but remaining approximately constant for the rest of the time. The bubble starts being in near contact with the boundary during the first cycle of oscillation when the dimensionless stand-off distance γ = s/Rm < 1, where s is the distance of the initial bubble centre from the boundary and Rm is the maximum bubble radius. This leads to (i) the direct impact of a high-speed liquid jet on the boundary once it penetrates through the bubble, (ii) the direct contact of the bubble at high temperature and high pressure with the boundary, and (iii) the direct impingement of shock waves on the boundary once emitted. These phenomena have clear potential to damage the boundary, which are believed to be part of the mechanisms of cavitation damage. PMID:26442148

  1. Bubble dynamics in a compressible liquid in contact with a rigid boundary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianxi; Liu, Wenke; Zhang, A M; Sui, Yi

    2015-10-06

    A bubble initiated near a rigid boundary may be almost in contact with the boundary because of its expansion and migration to the boundary, where a thin layer of water forms between the bubble and the boundary thereafter. This phenomenon is modelled using the weakly compressible theory coupled with the boundary integral method. The wall effects are modelled using the imaging method. The numerical instabilities caused by the near contact of the bubble surface with the boundary are handled by removing a thin layer of water between them and joining the bubble surface with its image to the boundary. Our computations correlate well with experiments for both the first and second cycles of oscillation. The time history of the energy of a bubble system follows a step function, reducing rapidly and significantly because of emission of shock waves at inception of a bubble and at the end of collapse but remaining approximately constant for the rest of the time. The bubble starts being in near contact with the boundary during the first cycle of oscillation when the dimensionless stand-off distance γ = s/R m < 1, where s is the distance of the initial bubble centre from the boundary and R m is the maximum bubble radius. This leads to (i) the direct impact of a high-speed liquid jet on the boundary once it penetrates through the bubble, (ii) the direct contact of the bubble at high temperature and high pressure with the boundary, and (iii) the direct impingement of shock waves on the boundary once emitted. These phenomena have clear potential to damage the boundary, which are believed to be part of the mechanisms of cavitation damage.

  2. Mapping Deforestation and Land Use in Amazon Rainforest Using SAR-C Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Soares, Joao Vianei; Alves, Diogenes Salas

    1996-01-01

    Land use changes and deforestation in tropical rainforests are among the major factors affecting the overall function of the global environment. To routinely assess the spatial extend and temporal dynamics of these changes has become an important challenge in several scientific disciplines such as climate and environmental studies. In this paper, the feasibility of using polarimetric spaceborne SAR data in mapping land cover types in the Amazon is studied.

  3. Mapping Deforestation and Land Use in Amazon Rainforest Using SAR-C Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Soares, Joao Vianei; Alves, Diogenes Salas

    1996-01-01

    Land use changes and deforestation in tropical rainforests are among the major factors affecting the overall function of the global environment. To routinely assess the spatial extend and temporal dynamics of these changes has become an important challenge in several scientific disciplines such as climate and environmental studies. In this paper, the feasibility of using polarimetric spaceborne SAR data in mapping land cover types in the Amazon is studied.

  4. The shrinking rainforest, and the need for accurate data a satellite radar approach to quantifying Indonesia's palm oil obsession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trischan, John

    Rapid deforestation has been occurring in Southeast Asia for majority of the last quarter century. This is due in large by the expansion of oil palm plantations. These plantations fill the need globally for the palm oil they provide. On the other hand, they are removing some of the last remaining primary rainforests on the planet. The issue concerning the ongoing demise of rainforests in the region involves the availability of data in order to monitor the expansion of palm, at the cost of rainforest. Providing a simplified approach to mapping oil palm plantations in hopes of spreading palm analysis regionally in an effort to obtain a better grasp on the land use dynamics. Using spatial filtering techniques, the complexity of radar data are simplified in order to use for palm detection.

  5. The Structure and Dynamics of Coherent Vortices in the Eyewall Boundary Layer of Tropical Cyclones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel; Bryan, George

    2014-05-01

    The boundary layer within the eyewall of intense tropical cyclones has been shown to be both highly turbulent and to contain coherent small-scale (of order 1 km) vortices. Dropsonde observations have indicated that extreme updrafts of 10-25 m/s can occur in the lowest 2 km, sometimes as low as a few hundred meters above the sea surface. These updrafts are often collocated with or found very nearby to local extrema in horizontal wind speed, which sometimes exceed 100 m/s. A previous numerical study of Hurricane Isabel investigated updrafts that appeared to be analogous to those seen in the dropsondes, and it was shown that these updrafts were associated with coherent vortices, were confined to low-levels, and were not forced by buoyancy. A significant limitation of this previous work is that the vortices/updrafts were only marginally resolved. Here, the CM1 model is used to simulate intense tropical cyclones in an idealized framework, with horizontal grid spacing as fine as ~30 meters. At this grid spacing, the scales of the vortices (~500-1500 m) are clearly well resolved. By examining individual features and compositing over many updrafts, we find that there is a consistent structure and relationship between vorticity, vertical velocity, and near surface windspeeds. We quantitatively show that buoyancy is not responsible for the acceleration of strong boundary layer updrafts. Instead, the updrafts are forced by dynamical pressure gradients associated with strong gradients in the velocity fields. It is currently unknown whether dropsonde observations represent quasi-vertical profiles through the features, or if instead the sondes are horizontally advected through the features. Simulated dropsonde trajectories are used to answer this question, and to aid in the interpretation of the observed kinematic and thermodynamic profiles. In observations, these extreme updrafts are almost exclusively found in Category 4 and 5 hurricanes. We conduct simulations at varying

  6. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Interaction of Hydrogen Impurity with Twist Boundaries in Ni and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletaev, G. M.; Medvedeva, E. S.; Zorya, I. V.; Novoselova, D. V.; Starostenkov, M. D.

    2017-06-01

    Using MD computer simulations, the interaction of hydrogen impurity with the (100) and (111) twist boundaries in Ni and Pd is investigated. It is shown that twist boundaries can act as hydrogen traps, though less efficient compared to vacancies and edge dislocations. According to the data obtained, the energy of hydrogen bonding with the twist boundaries is not higher than 0.1 eV for both metals under study.

  7. Strengthening effects of various grain boundaries with nano-spacing as barriers of dislocation motion from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, FuPing

    2017-03-01

    Strengthening in metals is traditionally achieved through the controlled creation of various grain boundaries (GBs), such as low-angle GBs, high-angle GBs, and twin boundaries (TBs). In the present study, a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with spherical nanoindentation and carefully designed model were conducted to investigate and compare the strengthening effects of various GBs with nano-spacing as barriers of dislocation motion. Simulation results showed that high-angle twist GBs and TBs are similar barriers and low-angle twist GBs are less effective in obstructing dislocation motion. Corresponding atomistic mechanisms were also given. At a certain indentation depth, dislocation transmission and dislocation nucleation from the other side of boundaries were observed for low-angle twist GBs, whereas dislocations were completely blocked by high-angle twist GBs and TBs at the same indentation depth. The current findings should provide insights for comprehensive understanding of the strengthening effects of various GBs at nanoscale.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics of Two Western Boundary Currents Colliding at a Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Yuan, D.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamics and hysteresis of two western boundary currents of Munk thickness LM encounter near a gap is studied using a 1.5 layer reduced-gravity quasi-geostrophic ocean model. When the gap (of width 2a) is narrow, γ≤7.3 (where γ= (a/LM), neither of the flow can penetrate into the western basin due to the viscous force. When 7.3<γ<9.0, both flows penetrate into the western basin for small transport, and choke at the gap for large transport. When 9.0≤γ≤9.6, two WBC flows penetrate for small transport and choke for large transport, and become periodic eddy-shedding for even larger transport, multiple steady states exist and hysteresis behavior show up. When γ>9.6, there is no choke state, and multiple states and hysteresis exist between penetrating states and periodic eddy-shedding states. A Hopf bifurcation emerges when the two flows transit from steady penetrating or choke state to periodic eddy-shedding state, and is found to be sensitive to the magnitude of γ and the baroclinic deformation radius. It occurs at lower Reynolds numbers for larger γ or deformation radius. Multiple steady states and hysteresis exist between some certain range parameters. Through vorticity term analysis, we found the time-dependent relative vorticity term varies remarkably and triggers the WBCs to alternately shed eddy into the western basin. The hysteresis is derived from the difference magnitude of the nonlinear inertial between the two different initial states.

  9. Exact results for a fully asymmetric exclusion process with sequential dynamics and open boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brankov, Jordan; Pesheva, Nina; Valkov, Nikola

    2000-03-01

    An exact and rigorous calculation of the current and density profile in the steady state of the one-dimensional fully asymmetric simple-exclusion process with open boundaries and forward-ordered sequential dynamics is presented. The method is based on a matrix product representation of the steady-state probability distribution. The main idea is to choose a suitable representation in which the scalar products describing the current and local density profile for a chain of arbitrary finite size depend only on the elements in a finite number of rows and columns. This makes possible the use of a truncated finite-dimensional representation of the matrices and vectors involved. After performing the calculations, we lift the truncation by letting its dimensionality go to infinity. In this limit the results become exact for any size of the chain. By rescaling one of the infinite-dimensional matrix representations found in the work of Derrida et al. [J. Phys. A 26, 1493 (1993)] for their algebra, we obtain a symmetric ``propagator'' matrix. Its truncated version is diagonalized by orthogonal transformation for easy calculation of the relevant scalar products. An interpretation of the phase transitions between the different phases is given in terms of eigenvalue splitting from a bounded quasicontinuous spectrum. A precise description of the local density profiles is given for all values of the parameters. It is shown that the leading-order asymptotic form of the position-dependent terms in the local density changes within the low- and high-density phases, signaling the presence of a higher-order transition.

  10. A self-consistent boundary element, parametric dislocation dynamics formulation of plastic flow in finite volumes

    SciTech Connect

    El-Awady, J.; Biner, S.; Ghoniem, N.

    2007-11-07

    We present a self-consistent formulation of 3-D parametric dislocation dynamics (PDD) with the boundary element method (BEM) to describe dislocation motion, and hence microscopic plastic flow in finite volumes. We develop quantitative measures of the accuracy and convergence of the method by considering a comparison with known analytical solutions. It is shown that the method displays absolute convergence with increasing the number of quadrature points on the dislocation loop and the surface mesh density. The error in the image force on a screw dislocation approaching a free surface is shown to increase as the dislocation approaches the surface, but is nevertheless controllable. For example, at a distance of one lattice parameter from the surface, the relative error is less than 5% for a surface mesh with an element size of 1000 x 2000 (in units of lattice parameter), and 64 quadrature points. The Eshelby twist angle in a finite-length cylinder containing a coaxial screw dislocation is also used to benchmark the method. Finally, large scale 3-D simulation results of single slip behavior in cylindrical microcrystals are presented. Plastic flow characteristics and the stress-strain behavior of cylindrical microcrystals under compression are shown to be in agreement with experimental observations. It is shown that the mean length of dislocations trapped at the surface is the dominant factor in determining the size effects on hardening of single crystals. The influence of surface image fields on the flow stress is finally explored. It is shown that the flow stress is reduced by as much as 20% for small single crystals of size less than 0.15 {micro}m.

  11. Variational boundary conditions for molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline solids at finite temperature: Treatment of the thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiantao; E, Weinan

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for finding efficient boundary conditions for molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline solids. These boundary conditions effectively eliminate phonon reflection at the boundary and at the same time allow the thermal energy from the bath to be introduced to the system. Our starting point is the Mori-Zwanzig formalism [R. Zwanzig, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 1173 (1960); in Systems Far from Equilibrium, edited by L. Garrido (Interscience, New York, 1980); H. Mori, Prog. Theor. Phys. 33, 423 (1965)] for eliminating the thermal bath, but we take the crucial next step that goes beyond this formalism in order to obtain memory kernels that decay faster. An equivalent variational formulation allows us to find the optimal approximate boundary conditions, after specifying the spatial-temporal domain of dependence for the positions of the boundary atoms. Application to a one-dimensional chain, a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones system, and a three-dimensional model of α -iron with embedded atom potential is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  12. Use of a dynamic subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation of the planetary boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Cederwall, R.T.; Street, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is very sensitive to the subgrid-scale (SGS) model used when the strength of SGS motions begins to approach that of the resolved motions. This can typically occur near the ground and in strongly stable or sheared conditions. The underlying algebraic relations of Germano and least-squares local evaluation of dynamic parameters used in many dynamic SGS models require that the flow field be adequately resolved. This requirement is met throughout most of the PBL, but difficulty arises near the ground under non-convective conditions where energy-containing eddies are resolved, constrained in size due to the presence of a solid boundary. Adding grid resolution near the ground is an obvious approach, which is tried in this study. A more computationally efficient alternative is to include a parameterization that achieves a better match between the LES fields and similarity in the surface layer.

  13. Human impacts flatten rainforest-savanna gradient and reduce adaptive diversity in a rainforest bird.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Adam H; Buermann, Wolfgang; Mitchard, Edward T A; Defries, Ruth S; Smith, Thomas B

    2010-09-30

    Ecological gradients have long been recognized as important regions for diversification and speciation. However, little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences or conservation implications of human activities that fundamentally change the environmental features of such gradients. Here we show that recent deforestation in West Africa has homogenized the rainforest-savanna gradient, causing a loss of adaptive phenotypic diversity in a common rainforest bird, the little greenbul (Andropadus virens). Previously, this species was shown to exhibit morphological and song divergence along this gradient in Central Africa. Using satellite-based estimates of forest cover, recent morphological data, and historical data from museum specimens collected prior to widespread deforestation, we show that the gradient has become shallower in West Africa and that A. virens populations there have lost morphological variation in traits important to fitness. In contrast, we find no loss of morphological variation in Central Africa where there has been less deforestation and gradients have remained more intact. While rainforest deforestation is a leading cause of species extinction, the potential of deforestation to flatten gradients and inhibit rainforest diversification has not been previously recognized. More deforestation will likely lead to further flattening of the gradient and loss of diversity, and may limit the ability of species to persist under future environmental conditions.

  14. Human Impacts Flatten Rainforest-Savanna Gradient and Reduce Adaptive Diversity in a Rainforest Bird

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Adam H.; Buermann, Wolfgang; Mitchard, Edward T. A.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological gradients have long been recognized as important regions for diversification and speciation. However, little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences or conservation implications of human activities that fundamentally change the environmental features of such gradients. Here we show that recent deforestation in West Africa has homogenized the rainforest-savanna gradient, causing a loss of adaptive phenotypic diversity in a common rainforest bird, the little greenbul (Andropadus virens). Previously, this species was shown to exhibit morphological and song divergence along this gradient in Central Africa. Using satellite-based estimates of forest cover, recent morphological data, and historical data from museum specimens collected prior to widespread deforestation, we show that the gradient has become shallower in West Africa and that A. virens populations there have lost morphological variation in traits important to fitness. In contrast, we find no loss of morphological variation in Central Africa where there has been less deforestation and gradients have remained more intact. While rainforest deforestation is a leading cause of species extinction, the potential of deforestation to flatten gradients and inhibit rainforest diversification has not been previously recognized. More deforestation will likely lead to further flattening of the gradient and loss of diversity, and may limit the ability of species to persist under future environmental conditions. PMID:20941360

  15. Polycyclic selection system for the tropical rainforests of northern Australia

    Treesearch

    Glen T. Dale; Grahame B. Applegate

    1992-01-01

    The polycyclic selection logging system developed and practiced for many years in the tropical rainforests of north Queensland has been successful in integrating timber production with the protection of conservation values. The system has been used by the Queensland Forest Service to manage north Queensland rainforests. The Queensland system has considerable potential...

  16. Large-eddy Simulation of Stratocumulus-topped Atmospheric Boundary Layers with Dynamic Subgrid-scale Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senocak, Inane

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the dynamic procedure in LES of stratocumulus topped atmospheric boundary layer and assess the relative importance of subgrid-scale modeling, cloud microphysics and radiation modeling on the predictions. The simulations will also be used to gain insight into the processes leading to cloud top entrainment instability and cloud breakup. In this report we document the governing equations, numerical schemes and physical models that are employed in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCEM3D). We also present the subgrid-scale dynamic procedures that have been implemented in the GCEM3D code for the purpose of the present study.

  17. Prospective dynamic balance control during the swing phase of walking: stability boundaries and time-to-contact analysis.

    PubMed

    Remelius, J G; Hamill, J; van Emmerik, R E A

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the prospective control of the swing phase in young healthy adults while walking at preferred speed over unobstructed ground and during obstacle clearance. Three aspects of swing were examined: (1) the relation of the body Center of Mass (CoM) to the stability boundaries at the base of support; (2) a dynamic time-to-contact analysis of the CoM and swing foot to these boundaries; and (3) the role of head movements in the prospective control of gait and field of view assessment. The time-to-contact analysis of CoM and swing foot showed less stable swing dynamics in the trail foot compared to the lead foot in the approach to the unstable equilibrium, with the CoM leading the swing foot and crossing the anterior stability boundary before the swing foot. Compensations in temporal coupling occurred in the trail limb during the late swing phase. Time-to-contact analysis of head movement showed stronger prospective control of the lead foot, while fixation of the field of view occurred earlier in swing and was closer to the body in the obstacle condition compared to unobstructed walking. The dynamic time-to-contact analysis offers a new approach to assessing the unstable swing phase of walking in different populations.

  18. Dynamical effects on the core-mantle boundary from depth-dependent thermodynamical properties of the lower mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shuxia; Yuen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A common assumption in modeling dynamical processes in the lower mantle is that both the thermal expansivity and thermal conductivity are reasonably constant. Recent work from seismic equation of state leads to substantially higher values for the thermal conductivity and much lower thermal expansivity values in the deep mantle. The dynamical consequences of incorporating depth-dependent thermodynamic properties on the thermal-mechanical state of the lower mantle are examined with the spherical-shell mean-field equations. It is found that the thermal structure of the seismically resolved anomalous zone at the base of the mantle is strongly influenced by these variable properties and, in particular, that the convective distortion of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is reduced with the decreasing thermal expansivity. Such a reduction of the dynamically induced topography from pure thermal convection would suggest that some other dynamical mechanism must be operating at the CMB.

  19. Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Zimmermann, Fee; Biek, Roman; Kuehl, Hjalmar; Nowak, Kathrin; Mundry, Roger; Agbor, Anthony; Angedakin, Samuel; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Blankenburg, Anja; Brazolla, Gregory; Corogenes, Katherine; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Deschner, Tobias; Dieguez, Paula; Dierks, Karsten; Düx, Ariane; Dupke, Susann; Eshuis, Henk; Formenty, Pierre; Yuh, Yisa Ginath; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Gogarten, Jan F.; Granjon, Anne-Céline; McGraw, Scott; Grunow, Roland; Hart, John; Jones, Sorrel; Junker, Jessica; Kiang, John; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leendertz, Siv Aina; Léguillon, Floraine; Leinert, Vera; Löhrich, Therese; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Meier, Amelia; Merkel, Kevin; Metzger, Sonja; Murai, Mizuki; Niedorf, Svenja; de Nys, Hélène; Sachse, Andreas; van Schijndel, Joost; Thiesen, Ulla; Ton, Els; Wu, Doris; Wieler, Lothar H.; Boesch, Christophe; Klee, Silke R.; Wittig, Roman M.; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2017-08-01

    Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts. We predict that this pathogen will accelerate the decline and possibly result in the extirpation of local chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) populations. We present the epidemiology of a cryptic pathogen and show that its presence has important implications for conservation.

  20. Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Zimmermann, Fee; Biek, Roman; Kuehl, Hjalmar; Nowak, Kathrin; Mundry, Roger; Agbor, Anthony; Angedakin, Samuel; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Blankenburg, Anja; Brazolla, Gregory; Corogenes, Katherine; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Deschner, Tobias; Dieguez, Paula; Dierks, Karsten; Düx, Ariane; Dupke, Susann; Eshuis, Henk; Formenty, Pierre; Yuh, Yisa Ginath; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Gogarten, Jan F; Granjon, Anne-Céline; McGraw, Scott; Grunow, Roland; Hart, John; Jones, Sorrel; Junker, Jessica; Kiang, John; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leendertz, Siv Aina; Léguillon, Floraine; Leinert, Vera; Löhrich, Therese; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Meier, Amelia; Merkel, Kevin; Metzger, Sonja; Murai, Mizuki; Niedorf, Svenja; De Nys, Hélène; Sachse, Andreas; van Schijndel, Joost; Thiesen, Ulla; Ton, Els; Wu, Doris; Wieler, Lothar H; Boesch, Christophe; Klee, Silke R; Wittig, Roman M; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2017-08-02

    Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts. We predict that this pathogen will accelerate the decline and possibly result in the extirpation of local chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) populations. We present the epidemiology of a cryptic pathogen and show that its presence has important implications for conservation.

  1. Dynamics of ordering in highly degenerate models with anisotropic grain-boundary potential: Effects of temperature and vortex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1989-11-01

    Monte Carlo computer-simulation techniques are used to elucidate the equilibrium phase behavior as well as the late-stage ordering dynamics of some two-dimensional models with ground-state ordering of a high degeneracy Q. The models are Q-state Potts models with anisotropic grain-boundary potential on triangular lattices-essentially clock models, except that the potential is not a cosine, but a sine function of the angle between neighboring grain orientations. For not too small Q, these models display two thermally driven phase transitions, one which takes the system from a low-temperature Potts-ordered phase to an intermediate phase which lacks conventional long-range order, and another transition which takes the system to the high-temperature disordered phase. The linear nature of the sine potential used makes it a marginal case in the sense that it favors neither hard domain boundaries, like the standard Potts models do, nor a wetting of the boundaries, as the standard clock models do. Thermal fluctuations nevertheless cause wetting to occur for not too small temperatures. Specifically, we have studied models with Q=12 and 48. The models are quenched from infinity to zero as well as finite temperatures within the two low-temperature phases. The order parameter is a nonconserved quantity during these quenches. The nonequilibrium ordering process subsequent to the quench is studied as a function of time by calculating the interfacial energy, ΔE, associated with the entire grain-boundary network. The time evolution of this quantity is shown to obey the growth law, ΔE(t)~t-n, over an extended time range at late times. It is found that the zero-temperature dynamics is characterized by a special exponent value which for the Q=48 model is n~=0.25 in accordance with earlier work. However, for quenches to finite temperatures in the Potts-ordered phase there is a distinct crossover to the classical Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn exponent value, n=(1/2, for both values of Q. This

  2. Numerical modeling of the 3D dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles using the boundary integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Calvisi, Michael L.

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. While various models have been developed to describe the spherical oscillations of contrast agents, the treatment of nonspherical behavior has received less attention. However, the nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in therapeutic applications, for example, enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces, and causing tissue ablation. In this paper, a model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is described. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. The numerical model agrees well with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for encapsulated spherical bubbles. Numerical analyses of the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The oscillation amplitude and period decrease significantly due to the coating. A bubble jet forms when the amplitude of ultrasound is sufficiently large, as occurs for bubbles without a coating; however, the threshold amplitude required to incite jetting increases due to the coating. When a UCA is near a rigid boundary subject to acoustic forcing, the jet is directed towards the wall if the acoustic wave propagates perpendicular to the boundary. When the acoustic wave propagates parallel to the rigid boundary, the jet direction has components both along the wave direction and towards the boundary that depend mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance of the bubble from the boundary. In all cases, the jet

  3. Recently evolved diversity and convergent radiations of rainforest mahoganies (Meliaceae) shed new light on the origins of rainforest hyperdiversity.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Erik J M; Clarkson, James J; Pennington, Terence D; Chatrou, Lars W

    2015-07-01

    Tropical rainforest hyperdiversity is often suggested to have evolved over a long time-span (the 'museum' model), but there is also evidence for recent rainforest radiations. The mahoganies (Meliaceae) are a prominent plant group in lowland tropical rainforests world-wide but also occur in all other tropical ecosystems. We investigated whether rainforest diversity in Meliaceae has accumulated over a long time or has more recently evolved. We inferred the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the family to date, reconstructed ancestral states for habitat and deciduousness, estimated diversification rates and modeled potential shifts in macro-evolutionary processes using a recently developed Bayesian method. The ancestral Meliaceae is reconstructed as a deciduous species that inhabited seasonal habitats. Rainforest clades have diversified from the Late Oligocene or Early Miocene onwards. Two contemporaneous Amazonian clades have converged on similar ecologies and high speciation rates. Most species-level diversity of Meliaceae in rainforest is recent. Other studies have found steady accumulation of lineages, but the large majority of plant species diversity in rainforests is recent, suggesting (episodic) species turnover. Rainforest hyperdiversity may best be explained by recent radiations from a large stock of higher level taxa. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Dynamics, thermodynamics, radiation, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the understanding of marine boundary clouds by using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites, so that they can be better represented in global climate models (GCMs). Marine boundary clouds are observed regularly over the tropical and subtropical oceans. They are an important element of the Earth’s climate system because they have substantial impact on the radiation budget together with the boundary layer moisture, and energy transports. These clouds also have an impact on large-scale precipitation features like the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Because these clouds occur at temporal and spatial scales much smaller than those relevant to GCMs, their effects and the associated processes need to be parameterized in GCM simulations aimed at predicting future climate and energy needs. Specifically, this project’s objectives were to (1) characterize the surface turbulent fluxes, boundary layer thermodynamics, radiation field, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers; (2) explore the similarities and differences in cloudiness and boundary layer conditions observed in the tropical and trade-wind regions; and (3) understand similarities and differences by using a simple bulk boundary layer model. In addition to working toward achieving the project’s three objectives, we also worked on understanding the role played by different forcing mechanisms in maintaining turbulence within cloud-topped boundary layers We focused our research on stratocumulus clouds during the first phase of the project, and cumulus clouds during the rest of the project. Below is a brief description of manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals that describe results from our analyses.

  5. Dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer during the 1980 total solar eclipse

    SciTech Connect

    SethuRaman, S

    1981-01-01

    An atmospheric boundary layer experiment was conducted at Raichur, India to study the variations in the surface shear stress, heat flux and the meteorological processes that take place during a total solar eclipse. Interesting results were observed regarding the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Changes in atmospheric stability from unstable to stable to unstable were observed during different phases of the eclipse. Downward propagation of negative heat flux associated with decreasing scales of convective eddies was also observed during the eclipse.

  6. An Experimental Study of the Dynamics of an Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    41 3.4 Data-Rduction Procedure . . . . . . 42 v p 4 EXPERIENTAL RESULTS .................. 43 4.1 General Considerations ... *..*.... . 44...fruitful. The following recommendations are addressed to the unsteady tur- bulent boundary layer research community at large: 0 Unsteady, turbulent...34 private communication , submit- ted to Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1983. Tellonis, D. P. [1977], "Unsteady Boundary Layers, Separated and At- tached," AGARD

  7. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    Expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia has been a land use transformation trend leading to losses of natural forest cover in the region. Besides impact on ecosystem carbon stocks, this conversion influences the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soil driven by microbial activity, which has been insufficiently studied. Aimed to understand how land use change affects the soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we measured surface gas fluxes, gas concentration gradient, and 13C signature in CH4 and soil organic matter in profiles in a transect in Xishuangbanna, including a rainforest site and three rubber plantation sites with age gradient. Gas fluxes were measured by static chamber method and open chamber respiration system. Soil gases were sampled from installed gas samplers at 5, 10, 30, and 75cm depth at representative time in dry and rainy season. The soil CO2 flux was comparable in rainforest and old rubber plantations, while young rubber plantation had the lowest rate. Total carbon content in the surface soil well explained the difference of soil CO2 flux between sites. All sites were CH4 sinks in dry season and uptake decreased in the order of rainforest, old rubber plantations and young rubber plantation. From dry season to rainy season, CH4 consumption decreased with increasing CH4 concentration in the soil profile at all depths. The enrichment of methane by 13CH4 shifted towards to lowerδ13C, being the evidence of enhanced CH4 production process while net surface methane flux reflected the consumption in wet condition. Increment of CH4 concentration in the profile from dry to rainy season was higher in old rubber plantation compared to rainforest, while the shifting of δ13CH4 was larger in rainforest than rubber sites. Turnover rates of soil CO2 and CH4 suggested that the 0-5 cm surface soil was the most active layer for gaseous carbon exchange. δ13C in soil organic matter and soil moisture increased from rainforest, young rubber plantation to old

  8. Characterising primary productivity measurements across a dynamic western boundary current region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jason D.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2015-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of primary production (PP) in a changing ocean is a major research challenge. Thousands of estimates of marine PP exist globally, but there remain significant gaps in data availability, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In situ PP estimates are generally single-point measurements and therefore we rely on satellite models of PP in order to scale up over time and space. To reduce the uncertainty around the model output, these models need to be assessed against in situ measurements before use. This study examined the vertically-integrated productivity in four water-masses associated with the East Australian Current (EAC), the major western boundary current (WBC) of the South Pacific. We calculated vertically integrated PP from shipboard 14C PP estimates and then compared them to estimates from four commonly used satellite models (ESQRT, VGPM, VGPM-Eppley, VGPM-Kameda) to assess their utility for this region. Vertical profiles of the water-column show each water-mass had distinct temperature-salinity signatures. The depth of the fluorescence-maximum (fmax) increased from onshore (river plume) to offshore (EAC) as light penetration increased. Depth integrated PP was highest in river plumes (792±181 mg C m-2 d-1) followed by the EAC (534±116 mg C m-2 d-1), continental shelf (140±47 mg C m-2 d-1) and cyclonic eddy waters (121±4 mg C m-2 d-1). Surface carbon assimilation efficiency was greatest in the EAC (301±145 mg C (mg Chl-a)-1 d-1) compared to other water masses. All satellite primary production models tested underestimated EAC PP and overestimated continental shelf PP. The ESQRT model had the highest skill and lowest bias of the tested models, providing the best first-order estimates of PP on the continental shelf, including at a coastal time-series station, Port Hacking, which showed considerable inter-annual variability (155-2957 mg C m-2 d-1). This work provides the first estimates of depth integrated PP associated with the

  9. Structure of marine atmospheric boundary layer under contrasting conditions of tropospheric dynamics, convection and cloudiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, M.; Rajeev, Kunjukrishnapillai

    Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) processes play a pivotal role in the exchange of energy and minor constituents between the surface and free-troposphere. Temporal variations of the marine ABL (MABL) are mainly controlled by large-scale circulation and surface conditions. Diurnal variation of mixing height over the oceanic regions is significantly smaller than that over the continental regions. This study investigates the MABL characteristics under contrasting conditions of large-scale circulation, sea surface temperature (SST), convection and cloudiness based on the altitude profiles of atmospheric thermo-dynamic variables observed using balloon-borne GPS Radiosondes launched during three ship based campaigns in the tropical Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These observations were carried out during July-November period and the ship tracks transacted through the ITCZ, regions of deep convection and the descending limb of Hadley cell. The prevailing cloud conditions corresponding to the time of radiosonde observations were obtained using collocated data from geostationary satellite Kalpana-1-VHRR, which were used to classify the data into highly cloudy and clear sky categories. The mixing height at the descending limb of the Hadley cell typically extends up to an altitude of ˜1200 m, which is capped by a region of thin cloud that is sandwiched between the top of MABL and the strong trade wind inversion at ˜2 km altitude. The moist static energy in the surface layer at the deep convective regions is significantly larger than that at the descending limb of Hadley cell. Notwithstanding this, the mixing height in the deep convective cases is rather shallow, though significantly humid. Remarkably, the MABL over these deep convective regions are generally capped by a relatively cloud-free altitude band marked by a distinct inversion in virtual potential temperature, which is followed by a deep convective cloud layer in the altitude band of ˜2-13 km

  10. Wind Shear Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of the Daytime Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas, Armin; Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), in which the positive buoyancy flux at the surface creates convective instability and generates turbulence, has been a subject of extensive research during the last century. However, fewer studies have considered wind shear in detail and most of them are single-case studies. So most of the available theories and parameterizations have not been sufficiently tested over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Moreover, since previous numerical studies were mostly carried out by large eddy simulation, a complete understanding of the physics of the problem is still missing due to the lack of information about the small-scale dynamics. Specifically, despite the consensus in the community that wind shear enhances the entrainment process, the amount of enhancement is still matter of contention. In order to investigate the effects of wind shear on the structure and dynamics of the ABL in detail, direct numerical simulations are used in this study. Shear is prescribed by a height-constant velocity in the troposphere and the simulation runs until a fully turbulent, quasi-equilibrium regime is observed. Despite the simplification of neglecting the Coriolis force, our configuration reproduces the main features observed in the previous studies, which had taken the Coriolis force into account. As a novelty compared to previous single-case studies, we introduce a dimensionless parameter that allows us to study systematically any combination of surface buoyancy flux, buoyancy stratification, and wind shear; We refer to this dimensionless number as shear number. Seven simulations with shear numbers ranging from 0 (no wind) to 20 (moderate wind) are conducted; this range of shear numbers corresponds to wind strength from 0 to 15 m/s in the free troposphere for typical midday atmospheric conditions. In general, we find that shear effects are negligibly small when the shear number is below 10, and for larger values the effects remain

  11. Classical molecular dynamics investigation of microstructure evolution and grain boundary diffusion in nano-polycrystalline UO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2013-07-01

    The High Burnup Structure (HBS) observed at pellet periphery in conventional Light Water Reactor nuclear fuels and around spots presenting high plutonium content in mixed (U, Pu) oxide fuel - MOX fuel - consists of a restructuration of the original grains into smaller ones. The process is often postulated to occur because of the accumulation of irradiation damage and the retention of fission products in the matrix. The computing power nowadays available enables for simulating larger systems at the atomic scale up to the point that nano-polycrystalline material can now be investigated by empirical potential molecular dynamics. Simulations of nano-polycrystalline UO2 structures have been carried out at various temperatures to investigate atom mobility close to grain boundaries. The variation of Arrhénius parameters for the diffusion coefficient of oxygen, uranium and xenon as a function of the distance from a grain boundary was studied, leading to the distinction of three zones: the grain boundary layers (up to 1 nm depth) presenting enhanced diffusion, an intermediate zone (1 to roughly 2 nm depth) with intermediate diffusion values and the bulk of the grains. The following Arrhénius relations for grain boundary diffusion were derived:

  12. Molecular dynamics study on evaporation and reflection of monatomic molecules to construct kinetic boundary condition in vapor-liquid equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Hori, Kazumasa; Kon, Misaki; Sasaki, Kiyofumi; Watanabe, Masao

    2016-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, the present study investigates the precise characteristics of evaporating and reflecting monatomic molecules (argon) composing a kinetic boundary condition (KBC) in a vapor-liquid equilibria. We counted the evaporating and reflecting molecules utilizing two boundaries (vapor and liquid boundaries) proposed by the previous studies (Meland et al. in Phys Fluids 16:223-243, 2004; Gu et al. in Fluid Phase Equilib 297:77-89, 2010). In the present study, we improved the method using the two boundaries incorporating the concept of the spontaneously evaporating molecular mass flux. The present method allows us to count the evaporating and reflecting molecules easily, to investigate the detail motion of the evaporating and reflecting molecules, and also to evaluate the velocity distribution function of the KBC at the vapor-liquid interface, appropriately. From the results, we confirm that the evaporating and reflecting molecules in the normal direction to the interface have slightly faster and significantly slower average velocities than that of the Maxwell distribution at the liquid temperature, respectively. Also, the stall time of the reflecting molecules at the interphase that is the region in the vicinity of the vapor-liquid interface is much shorter than those of the evaporating molecules. Furthermore, we discuss our method for constructing the KBC that incorporates condensation and evaporation coefficients. Based on these results, we suggest that the proposed method is appropriate for investigating KBC in various nonequilibrium states or multi-component systems.

  13. Solid-liquid phase changes at the boundaries between magma oceans and solid mantle: implications for mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolrão, Daniela; Tackley, Paul J.; Labrosse, Stephane; Morison, Adrien

    2017-04-01

    The idea of an early Earth largely molten specially due to a Moon-forming giant impact, core formation, radiogenic and tidal heating, as well as an early atmosphere, is well accepted nowadays. This silicate molten part at the surface of the Earth is known as surface magma ocean. Several studies also suggest a second magma ocean, located below the solid mantle, known as the basal magma ocean. Understanding how these magma oceans above and/or below the solid mantle interacted with it is crucial to perceive the dynamical evolution of the mantle across time. The convection is facilitated when the critical Rayleigh number is reduced. This happens when it is considered a melting/freezing front at the horizontal boundaries between magma oceans and solid mantle, i.e., considering permeable boundaries. With the aim of understanding how this melting/freezing interface evolve, we use dynamical evolution models with StagYY code, with the implementation of permeable boundaries between magma oceans and solid mantle. This work shows and interprets the first results obtained after this implementation.

  14. Renewable resource development in the Ecuadorian rainforest

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, W.C.; Skaggs, M.M. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning and execution of a multi-million dollar, heavy oil renewable resource development project in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador. The project work is authorized under a risk service contract with PETROECUADOR and employs new technology in order to minimize environmental and cultural impacts on the environment and the inhabitants of the areas. During the peak of the project, over 3,000 workers were employed and managed in the rainforest under special guidelines, in order to avoid damages to the environment. The project guidelines are spelled out in a model Environmental Management Plan (EMP) which employs innovative well pad, road and pipeline construction and platform drilling methods to limit deforestation. Reforestation methods are reviewed; scientific baseline and archaeological pre and post construction methods were followed, and methods to control colonization pressures are executed as a part of the EMP described in this paper. In addition, the EMP covers methods used to minimize the disruption of the indigenous population of the area including medical, educational and other programs employed to reduce disease among the indigenous population of the area. Conventional aspects of the EMP include spill control techniques for remote areas of the rainforest, solid waste recycling programs, drilling and construction waste management, landfarming methods, pipeline construction and underground river crossing methods. All of these methods are employed to minimize the environmental and cultural impact of the project on the environment and its inhabitants.

  15. Dynamics and propulsion of a rotating flexible helical rod near a no-slip rigid boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawed, Mohammad; Karimi, Hussain; Reis, Pedro

    We study the effect of a no-slip rigid boundary on the locomotion of uni-flagellar bacteria in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number conditions, through a combination of computer simulations and experiments. In our analogue model experiments, we exploit the prominence of geometry in this class of problems to rescale the original micron-scale system onto the desktop-scale. We manufacture elastomeric filaments with fully customizable geometric and material properties, and rotate them in a glycerin bath at a finite distance away from a rigid boundary. The experimental results are compared against numerical simulations that combine the Discrete Elastic Rods method in conjunction with Lighthill Slender Body Theory. The no-slip boundary condition on the wall is implemented by the method of images. We first show that the filament buckles above a critical rotation frequency due to fluid loading, and then quantify the dependence of this critical threshold on the distance from the boundary. Excellent agreement is found between experiments and simulations, with no fitting parameters. Moreover, we find that the generated propulsion force is strongly affected by the presence of a nearby boundary.

  16. Modeling electron dynamics coupled to continuum states in finite volumes with absorbing boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Rubio, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Absorbing boundaries are frequently employed in real-time propagation of the Schrödinger equation to remove spurious reflections and efficiently emulate outgoing boundary conditions. These conditions are a fundamental ingredient for the calculation of observables involving infinitely extended continuum states in finite volumes. In the literature, several boundary absorbers have been proposed. They mostly fall into three main families: mask function absorbers, complex absorbing potentials, and exterior complex-scaled potentials. To date none of the proposed absorbers is perfect, and all present a certain degree of reflections. Characterization of such reflections is thus a critical task with strong implications for time-dependent simulations of atoms and molecules. We introduce a method to evaluate the reflection properties of a given absorber and present a comparison of selected samples for each family of absorbers. Further, we discuss the connections between members of each family and show how the same reflection curves can be obtained with very different absorption schemes.

  17. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, S. M.; Oetjen, H.; Mahajan, A. S.; Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P. M.; Heard, D. E.; Jones, C. E.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2012-07-01

    Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP) and multi-axis (MAX) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques above the rainforest canopy in Borneo during two campaigns in spring and summer 2008, as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. The results were compared with concurrent measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH), isoprene (C5H8) (which was the dominant organic species emitted in this forest environment), and various meteorological parameters. Formaldehyde was observed at a maximum concentration of 4.5 ppb and glyoxal at a maximum of 1.6 ppb, significantly higher than previous measurements in rural locations. A 1-D chemistry model was then used to assess the diurnal evolution of formaldehyde and glyoxal throughout the boundary layer. The results, which compare well with the LP-DOAS and MAX-DOAS observations, suggest that the majority of the glyoxal and formaldehyde is confined to the first 500 m of the boundary layer, and that the measured ratio of these species is reproduced using currently accepted product yields for the oxidation of isoprene by OH. An important conclusion is that the measured levels of glyoxal are consistent with the surprisingly high concentrations of OH measured in this environment.

  18. DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, S. M.; Oetjen, H.; Mahajan, A. S.; Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P. M.; Heard, D. E.; Jones, C. E.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2012-02-01

    Tropical rainforests act as a huge contributor to the global emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Measurements of their oxidation products, such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), provide useful indicators of fast photochemistry occurring in the lower troposphere. However, measurements of these species in tropical forest locations are extremely limited. To redress this, HCHO and CHOCHO were measured using the long-path (LP) and multi-axis (MAX) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques above the rainforest canopy in Borneo during two campaigns in spring and summer 2008, as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. The results were compared with concurrent measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH), isoprene (C5H8) (which was the dominant organic species emitted in this forest environment), and various meteorological parameters. Formaldehyde was observed at a maximum concentration of 4.5 ppb and glyoxal at a maximum of 1.6 ppb, significantly higher than previous measurements in rural locations. A 1-D chemistry model was then used to assess the diurnal evolution of formaldehyde and glyoxal throughout the boundary layer. The results, which compare well with the LP-DOAS and MAX-DOAS observations, suggest that the majority of the glyoxal and formaldehyde is confined to the first 500 m of the boundary layer, and that the measured ratio of these species is reproduced using currently accepted product yields for the oxidation of isoprene by OH. An important conclusion is that the measured levels of glyoxal are consistent with the surprisingly high concentrations of OH measured in this environment.

  19. Dynamically Driven Roll Circulations in an Inversion-Capped Boundary Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    boundary layer rolls from KonTur aircraft observations. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., L8, 237-254. Brummer B ., S. Bakan and H. Hinzpeter, 1985: KonTur...DTIC FILE Copy PENNSTATE DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY 00 NDYNAMICALLY DRIVEN ROLL CIRCULATIONS IN AN INVERSION-CAPPED BOUNDARY LAYER C / 5 b y Robert V...1.0 N%.wMedred DTIC EECTE -4ON1iŕ OCT 2& 41J Master of Science August 1989 I Anirr.-m’l or p) b . r ’.90 1’ ’ August 1990 Thesis/Dissertation

  20. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand plate-boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plate, with a transition from subduction of Pacific oceanic lithosphere beneath North Island, to oblique continental collision in South Island. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone up to 250 km wide, with displacements on individual faults up to 100s of kilometres. Active deformation must be driven by a combination of plate-boundary forces and internal buoyancy forces. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses, together with simple Airy isostasy, to determine regional crustal and mantle structure. Integration of the vertical normal stress to the base of the deforming layer yields the buoyancy stress. Horizontal gradients of this can be compared with horizontal gradients of strain rate, using the method of England & Molnar (1997), in the context of a simple thin sheet model of deformation. Thus, if deformation is that of a Newtonian fluid, then appropriate combinations of the horizontal gradients of vorticity and dilatation are related to gradients of buoyancy stress by the fluid viscosity. However, the short term geodetic deformation is strongly biased by elastic strain accumulation related to locking on the plate interface, and cannot be used to determine the plate-boundary velocity field averaged over many seismic cycles (see Lamb & Smith 2013). Therefore, I derive here a velocity field for the plate-boundary zone, which is representative of deformation over tens of thousands of years. This is based on an inversion of fault slip, strain rate azimuth and paleomagnetic data, in the context of the short term relative plate motions, solved in a network of triangles spanning the plate-boundary, using the method of Lamb (2000). A comparison of gradients of buoyancy stress with the appropriate combinations of gradients of vorticity and dilatation shows that deformation in

  1. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests.

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Robyn J; Johnson, Kirk R

    2004-01-01

    Extant neotropical rainforest biomes are characterized by a high diversity and abundance of angiosperm trees and vines, high proportions of entire-margined leaves, high proportions of large leaves (larger than 4500 mm2), high abundance of drip tips and a suite of characteristic dominant families: Sapotaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae and Palmae (Arecaceae). Our aim is to define parameters of extant rainforests that will allow their recognition in the fossil record of South America and to evaluate all known South American plant fossil assemblages for first evidence and continued presence of those parameters. We ask when did these critical rainforest characters arise? When did vegetative parameters reach the level of abundance that we see in neotropical forests? Also, when do specific lineages become common in neotropical forests? Our review indicates that evidence of neotropical rainforest is exceedingly rare and equivocal before the Palaeocene. Even in the Palaeocene, the only evidence for tropical rainforest in South America is the appearance of moderately high pollen diversity. By contrast, North American sites provide evidence that rainforest leaf physiognomy was established early in the Palaeocene. By the Eocene in South America, several lines of evidence suggest that neotropical rainforests were diverse, physiognomically recognizable as rainforest and taxonomically allied to modern neotropical rainforests. A mismatch of evidence regarding the age of origin between sites of palaeobotanical high diversity and sites of predicted tropical climates should be reconciled with intensified collecting efforts in South America. We identify several lines of promising research that will help to coalesce previously disparate approaches to the origin, longevity and maintenance of high diversity floras of South America. PMID:15519975

  2. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Robyn J; Johnson, Kirk R

    2004-10-29

    Extant neotropical rainforest biomes are characterized by a high diversity and abundance of angiosperm trees and vines, high proportions of entire-margined leaves, high proportions of large leaves (larger than 4500 mm2), high abundance of drip tips and a suite of characteristic dominant families: Sapotaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae and Palmae (Arecaceae). Our aim is to define parameters of extant rainforests that will allow their recognition in the fossil record of South America and to evaluate all known South American plant fossil assemblages for first evidence and continued presence of those parameters. We ask when did these critical rainforest characters arise? When did vegetative parameters reach the level of abundance that we see in neotropical forests? Also, when do specific lineages become common in neotropical forests? Our review indicates that evidence of neotropical rainforest is exceedingly rare and equivocal before the Palaeocene. Even in the Palaeocene, the only evidence for tropical rainforest in South America is the appearance of moderately high pollen diversity. By contrast, North American sites provide evidence that rainforest leaf physiognomy was established early in the Palaeocene. By the Eocene in South America, several lines of evidence suggest that neotropical rainforests were diverse, physiognomically recognizable as rainforest and taxonomically allied to modern neotropical rainforests. A mismatch of evidence regarding the age of origin between sites of palaeobotanical high diversity and sites of predicted tropical climates should be reconciled with intensified collecting efforts in South America. We identify several lines of promising research that will help to coalesce previously disparate approaches to the origin, longevity and maintenance of high diversity floras of South America.

  3. Predictability of time averages. I - Dynamical predictability of monthly means. II - The influence of the boundary forcings. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.

    1984-01-01

    The physical basis for the dynamic prediction of monthly means in weather parameters is examined in two papers. In the first paper, an attempt is made to determine the theoretical upper limit of dynamical predictability of monthly means for prescribed nonfluctuating external forcings. In the second paper, the physical mechanisms through which changes in the boundary forcings of SST, soil moisture, albedo, and snow influence atmospheric circulation are discussed. On the basis of both studies, the essential requirements for establishing the physical basis for dynamical prediction of monthly means are to show that: (1) fluctuations of monthly means are larger than can be expected due to sampling of day-to-day weather changes; (2) there are low frequency planetary scale components of circulation which remain predictable beyond the limits of synoptic scale predictability; and (3) the influences of the slowly varying boundary conditions of SST, soil moisture, snow, sea ice are large enough to produce significant and detectable changes in the monthly mean circulations. Observational and numerical evidence which support these requirements are presented.

  4. A comparison of estimation methods for computational fluid dynamics outflow boundary conditions using patient-specific carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Joon; Uemiya, Nahoko; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations can provide important hemodynamic insights for investigating the effectiveness of carotid artery stenting, but its accuracy is dependent on the boundary conditions such as the outflow pressure, which is difficult to obtain by measurements. Many computational fluid dynamics simulations assume that the outflow pressure is constant (P = 0), but this method is likely to produce different results compared to clinical measurements. We have developed an alternative estimation method called the minimum energy loss method based on the concept of energy loss minimization at flow bifurcation. This new method has been tested on computational fluid dynamics simulation of two patients treated with carotid artery stenting, and its flow ratio at internal carotid artery and wall shear stress distribution was compared with the constant zero outlet pressure method. Three different procedure stages (prestent, poststent, and follow-up) were analyzed. The internal carotid artery flow ratio using the minimum energy loss method generally matched well with ultrasound measurements, but the internal carotid artery flow ratio based on zero outlet pressure method showed a large difference. Wall shear stress distributions varied between methods in response to the change in internal carotid artery flow rate. This study demonstrates the importance of accurate outlet boundary condition for assessing the long-term efficacy of carotid artery stenting and the risk of restenosis in treated patients.

  5. Dynamic boundary layer based neural network quasi-sliding mode control for soft touching down on asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Shan, Zebiao; Li, Yuanchun

    2017-04-01

    Pinpoint landing is a critical step in some asteroid exploring missions. This paper is concerned with the descent trajectory control for soft touching down on a small irregularly-shaped asteroid. A dynamic boundary layer based neural network quasi-sliding mode control law is proposed to track a desired descending path. The asteroid's gravitational acceleration acting on the spacecraft is described by the polyhedron method. Considering the presence of input constraint and unmodeled acceleration, the dynamic equation of relative motion is presented first. The desired descending path is planned using cubic polynomial method, and a collision detection algorithm is designed. To perform trajectory tracking, a neural network sliding mode control law is given first, where the sliding mode control is used to ensure the convergence of system states. Two radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) are respectively used as an approximator for the unmodeled term and a compensator for the difference between the actual control input with magnitude constraint and nominal control. To improve the chattering induced by the traditional sliding mode control and guarantee the reachability of the system, a specific saturation function with dynamic boundary layer is proposed to replace the sign function in the preceding control law. Through the Lyapunov approach, the reachability condition of the control system is given. The improved control law can guarantee the system state move within a gradually shrinking quasi-sliding mode band. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  6. Predictability of time averages. I - Dynamical predictability of monthly means. II - The influence of the boundary forcings. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.

    1984-01-01

    The physical basis for the dynamic prediction of monthly means in weather parameters is examined in two papers. In the first paper, an attempt is made to determine the theoretical upper limit of dynamical predictability of monthly means for prescribed nonfluctuating external forcings. In the second paper, the physical mechanisms through which changes in the boundary forcings of SST, soil moisture, albedo, and snow influence atmospheric circulation are discussed. On the basis of both studies, the essential requirements for establishing the physical basis for dynamical prediction of monthly means are to show that: (1) fluctuations of monthly means are larger than can be expected due to sampling of day-to-day weather changes; (2) there are low frequency planetary scale components of circulation which remain predictable beyond the limits of synoptic scale predictability; and (3) the influences of the slowly varying boundary conditions of SST, soil moisture, snow, sea ice are large enough to produce significant and detectable changes in the monthly mean circulations. Observational and numerical evidence which support these requirements are presented.

  7. Dynamics of a bubbly turbulent boundary layer along a surface piercing flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliseda, Alberto; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2003-11-01

    The behaviour of a bubble-laden turbulent boundary layer has been studied experimentally in an open channel water flow with Reynolds number up to 10^6. A poly-dispersed bubble cloud with mean diameter around 200 μ m is injected at the leading edge of a vertical, surface piercing flat plate. The high void fraction bubble layer rises along the plate, developing a Kelvin Helmholtz type instability due to the vertical shear. As a result of this instability, streamwise vorticity is generated that combines with the vertical vorticity associated with the boundary layer, tilting the vortex lines. Bubbles are, for the most part, confined to the boundary layer and accumulate as they interact with the turbulent structures present in this type of flows. The flow at the junction between the flat plate and the free surface is also studied in the presence of bubbles. An streamwise submerged vortex is observed, in agreement with previous studies of single phase junction flows. Vorticity originated by the bouyancy-driven instability of the bubbly layer is convected away from the plate when it reaches the surface, and reconects with the streamwise vortex. Thus, the vortex gains strength and starts to accumulate bubbles stripped from the boundary layer, becoming a dominant feature of the flow.

  8. Virtual effect, boundary layer dynamics, and the size of convective self-aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.

    2016-12-01

    Convective self-aggregation refers to a phenomenon that atmospheres spontaneously develop into a moist convecting patch and a dry non-convecting patch. This phenomenon is simulated in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and is considered as an essential element for tropical cyclones and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Here we present a boundary-layer theory for the horizontal scale L of 2D (x, z) convective self-aggregation by considering both the momentum and energy constraints for steady circulations. This theory interprets L as the distance over which the radiation-driven vertical mass flux balances the pressure-induced horizontal mass flux within the boundary layer. The length scale L is therefore determined by the ratio between the horizontal pressure difference within the boundary layer and the radiative cooling rate at the top of the boundary layer. The horizontal pressure difference arises mainly due to the virtual effect—water vapor is lighter than the dry air. This theory explains the CRM results across a wide range of sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Our results may help explain the size of tropical mesoscale convective systems.

  9. Does Diversity Matter In Modeling? Testing A New Version Of The FORMIX3 Growth Model For Madagascar Rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Fischer, R.; Shugart, H. H.; Huth, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ecological forecasting has become an essential tool used by ecologists to understand the dynamics of growth and disturbance response in threatened ecosystems such as the rainforests of Madagascar. In the species rich tropics, forest conservation is often eclipsed by anthropogenic factors, resulting in a heightened need for accurate assessment of biomass before these ecosystems disappear. The objective of this study was to test a new Madagascar rainforest specific version of the FORMIX3 growth model (Huth and Ditzer, 2000; Huth et al 1998) to assess how accurately biomass can be simulated in high biodiversity forests using a method of functional type aggregation in an individual-based model framework. Rainforest survey data collected over three growing seasons, including 265 tree species, was aggregated into 12 plant functional types based on size and light requirements. Findings indicated that the forest study site compared best when the simulated forest reached mature successional status. Multiple level comparisons between model simulation data and survey plot data found that though some features, such as the dominance of canopy emergent species and relative absence of small woody treelets are captured by the model, other forest attributes were not well reflected. Overall, the ability to accurately simulate the Madagascar rainforest was slightly diminished by the aggregation of tree species into size and light requirement functional type groupings.

  10. Culture or climate? The relative influences of past processes on the composition of the lowland Congo rainforest.

    PubMed

    Brncic, Terry M; Willis, Katherine J; Harris, David J; Washington, Richard

    2007-02-28

    This paper presents the results from a palaeoecological study to establish the impact of prehistoric human activity and climate change on the vegetation and soils of the Goualougo area of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). This is a region that is known from previous work (through evidence of pottery, furnaces and charcoal layers beneath the present day rainforest vegetation) to have had prehistoric settlement dating back to at least 2000 calibrated years before present. In addition, there is climatic evidence to suggest that significant variations in precipitation have occurred in central Africa over the last few millennia. Presently, the region is covered in uninhabited moist semi-evergreen rainforest. Key research questions addressed in this paper include the extent to which the present-day composition of rainforest in this region is as a result of processes of the past (climate change and/or human activity), and the resilience of the rainforest to these perturbations. Statistical analyses of pollen, microscopic charcoal and geochemical data are used to determine the relationship over time between vegetation dynamics and climate change, anthropogenic burning and metal smelting. Significant changes in forest composition are linked to burning and climate change but not metallurgy. The strongest influence on the present day composition appears to be related to the increased anthropogenic burning that started approximately 1000 years ago. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their implications for the present and future management of this globally important forested region.

  11. Seismic interrogation of two highly dynamical earth boundaries: The 410-km discontinuity low-velocity layer and the inner-outer core boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasbinsek, John J.

    Bayesian statistical analysis of forward modeling results. My results demonstrate that beneath the western U.S. pervasive and thick (24-32 km) low-velocity layers exist atop the 410 with 5-8% shear velocity reductions. These seismic constraints are interpreted as manifesting a ubiquitous occurrence of melt layers as predicted by the TZWF model. Extrapolation of upper-mantle melt-velocity scaling relationships suggests a 2.4-4% melt porosity in the 410 km discontinuity melt layers. In Chapter 2, comparison of our melt-layer constraints from the RISTRA seismic array with high resolution tomographic velocity images that extend to 600 km depth suggests that the 410 km melt layer may be shedding wet blobs or melt-volumes, via Rayleigh-Taylor-like instabilities, into the upper mantle that ultimately impact at the base of the lithosphere. Seismic characterization of the ICB seismic structure is difficult. First and foremost, due to their small reflection amplitude, P-waves reflecting from the inner-core boundary (PKiKP) are rarely visually identified in seismograms. In fact, my findings show that the peak ground velocity amplitude of a PKiKP arrival from a Guatamalan earthquake recorded by the EarthScope transportable array is only about 18 nm/sec. Yet, the PKiKP phase is a fundamental observable that provides important constraints on the density contrast at the inner-core boundary. Furthermore, this ICB density contrast explicitly determines the dominant power available (Pg = Deltarho ICB·2·1011 W) to drive magneto-hydrodynamic convection in the fluid core, thus powering the geodynamo. In Chapter 3, I analyze 323 EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations for PKiKP arrivals and estimate the density contrast at the inner-core boundary beneath northern Mexico as 0.77 g/cm3, consistent with previous studies and sufficient to drive the geodynamo. Two regions of enhanced reflectivity are found via visually picked waveforms which may be related to ICB dynamics. Analysis of the

  12. Vibrational properties of a Σ5( 3 1 0 )[ 0 0 1 ] NiO grain boundary: a local analysis by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakasidis, Theodoros E.

    2002-08-01

    Using molecular dynamics and a rigid ion potential we studied the vibrational properties of a Σ5(3 1 0)[0 0 1] tilt grain boundary in NiO. We calculated the local density of states and the mean square displacement (MSD) of the cation and ion sublattice for a wide temperature range. We examined their behaviour in the directions parallel and normal to the boundary as a function from the grain boundary plane. We found that the local phonon density of states of the sites of the boundary are altered with comparison to the bulk presenting in general a shift towards lower frequencies in the direction normal to the boundary and toward higher frequencies in the direction parallel to the grain boundary. This anisotropy, which is conformed by the results of the MSDs, is maintained up to high temperatures. We have also observed that the increase of temperature leads to the gradual loosening of the binding of atoms.

  13. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Effiom, Edu O.; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G.; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers—both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)—were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  14. Dynamics of formation of low-angle tilt boundaries in metals and alloys at high loading rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutkin, M. Yu.; Rzhavtsev, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    A computer model has been developed in which the process of formation of low-angle tilt boundaries and fragmentation of initial subgrains during shock loading of metals and alloys is clearly demonstrated by the of two-dimensional discrete dislocation-disclination dynamics method. The formation and evolution of such grains proceeds under the action of an external stress and the stress field of grain boundary disclinations distributed on the subgrain boundaries. With the D16 aluminum alloy as an example, three cases of fragmented structures formed in accordance with the initial configuration of the disclination ensemble have been considered for a dipole, quadrupole, and arbitrary octupole of wedge disclinations. It has been shown that, in all these cases, the formation of a stable fragmented structure requires a stress of ~0.5 GPa and time of 10 ns. The main results of computer simulation (the finite form of a fragmented structure, typical level of applied stress, and small fragmentation time) agree well with known experimental results on shock compression of the D16 aluminum alloy.

  15. Inertia-Controlled Twinning in Ni-Mn-Ga Actuators: A Discrete Twin-Boundary Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, Eilon; Riccardi, Leonardo; Shilo, Doron

    2017-07-01

    A discrete twin-boundary modeling approach is applied for simulating the dynamic magnetomechanical response of a Ni-Mn-Ga actuator over a wide frequency range. The model is based on experimentally measured kinetic relation of individual twin boundaries and takes into account inertial forces due to acceleration of the actuator's mass. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental measurements performed on a specially designed Ni-Mn-Ga linear spring-mass actuator. In addition, the simulation reveals several new effects that have not been considered before and can be applied to the design of improved actuators. It is identified that the demagnetization effect plays a role of an "effective spring" and results in a resonance-type response. The effects of the actuator's mass and the twin-boundary density on the resonance response and the actuator performance are explored numerically. In particular, it is shown that mass-inertia poses an inherent upper limit over the actuator's bandwidth, which is approximately constant and equals to about 200 Hz.

  16. Microstructural Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper through the Addition of Antimony Dopants at Grain Boundaries: Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Rahul K.; Saxena, Ashok; Spearot, Douglas; Hartwig, Ted; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Kenik, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Experiments and simulations show that the microstructural stability of nanocrystalline Cu can be improved by adding impurity atoms, such as Sb, which migrate to the grain boundaries. Cu100-xSbx alloys are cast in three compositions (Cu-0.0, 0.2 and 0.5 at.%Sb) and subsequently processed into nanocrystalline form by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). The presence of Sb atoms at the grain boundaries increases the recrystallization temperature to 400 C compared to 200 C for pure nanocrystalline Cu, which was verified by measurements of microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, grain size using TEM, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using a wider range of Sb compositions (0.0 to 1.0 at.%Sb) to study the underlying mechanisms associated with stability. MD simulations show that Sb atoms reduce excess grain boundary energy and that 0.2 and 0.5 at.%Sb is enough to stabilize the nanocrystalline Cu microstructure.

  17. Adaptive numerical algorithms to simulate the dynamical Casimir effect in a closed cavity with different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Paula I.; Soba, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    We present an alternative numerical approach to compute the number of particles created inside a cavity due to time-dependent boundary conditions. The physical model consists of a rectangular cavity, where a wall always remains still while the other wall of the cavity presents a smooth movement in one direction. The method relies on the setting of the boundary conditions (Dirichlet and Neumann) and the following resolution of the corresponding equations of modes. By a further comparison between the ground state before and after the movement of the cavity wall, we finally compute the number of particles created. To demonstrate the method, we investigate the creation of particle production in vibrating cavities, confirming previously known results in the appropriate limits. Within this approach, the dynamical Casimir effect can be investigated, making it possible to study a variety of scenarios where no analytical results are known. Of special interest is, of course, the realistic case of the electromagnetic field in a three-dimensional cavity, with transverse electric (TE)-mode and transverse magnetic (TM)-mode photon production. Furthermore, with our approach we are able to calculate numerically the particle creation in a tuneable resonant superconducting cavity by the use of the generalized Robin boundary condition. We compare the numerical results with analytical predictions as well as a different numerical approach. Its extension to three dimensions is also straightforward.

  18. Real-time control of the boundary layer disturbance induced by a dynamic isolated roughness element using plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bade, Kyle; Naguib, Ahmed; Hanson, Ronald; Lavoie, Philippe; Belson, Brandt; Rowley, Clarence

    2013-11-01

    It is well established that bypass boundary layer transition is initiated by the formation and growth of unsteady streaks. Motivated by the delay/prevention of transition, this study examines the ability to sense unsteady streaks in a Blasius boundary layer and to attenuate their transient growth. The unsteady streaks are introduced into the boundary layer using an isolated roughness element that is dynamically actuated from flush with the wall to a specified height; resulting in a time varying disturbance. A real-time, closed-loop, feedforward-feedback control system is designed to apply an appropriate voltage to a plasma actuator in order to reduce the roughness induced disturbance. The control system inputs come from two in-wall hot-wire shear stress sensors located within a high-speed streak disturbance, one upstream and one downstream of the plasma actuator. The controller is shown to effectively drive the shear stress at the feedback sensor toward the Blasius level. The flow state is later examined over a cross-flow plane above the feedback sensor to assess the effectiveness of the control in reducing the total disturbance energy. In addition, the effects of the control parameters on the controller's effectiveness and robustness are investigated. NSF Grant: CMMI 0932546.

  19. Dynamics of the phase transition boundary in the presence of nucleation and growth of crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.

    2017-08-01

    Nucleation and growth of crystals in a moving metastable layer of phase transition is analyzed theoretically. The integro-differential equations for the density distribution function and system metastability are solved analytically on the basis of a previously developed approach (Alexandrov and Malygin 2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 455101) in cases of the kinetic and diffusionally controlled regimes of crystal growth. The Weber-Volmer-Frenkel-Zel’dovich and Meirs nucleation kinetics are considered. It is shown that the phase transition boundary propagates with time as α\\sqrt{t}+\\varepsilon Z_1(t) , where Z_1(t)=β t7/2 and Z_1(t)=β t2 in cases of kinetic and diffusionally controlled growth regimes. The growth rate constants α and β as well as parameter ɛ are found analytically. The phase transition boundary in the presence of particle nucleation and growth moves slower than in cases without nucleation.

  20. Stokesian dynamics of pill-shaped Janus particles with stick and slip boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2013-04-01

    We study the forces and torques experienced by pill-shaped Janus particles of different aspect ratios where half of the surface obeys the no-slip boundary condition and the other half obeys the Navier slip condition of varying slip lengths. Using a recently developed boundary integral formulation whereby the traditional singular behavior of this approach is removed analytically, we quantify the strength of the forces and torques experienced by such particles in a uniform flow field in the Stokes regime. Depending on the aspect ratio and the slip length, the force transverse to the flow direction can change sign. This is a novel property unique to the Janus nature of the particles.

  1. Simulating drought impacts on energy balance in an Amazonian rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Costa, M. H.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Powell, T.; Harper, A. B.; Levine, N. M.; Rowland, L.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Benezoli, V. H.; Meir, P.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Brando, P. M.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Williams, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The studies of the interaction between vegetation and climate change in the Amazon Basin indicate that up to half of the region's forests may be displaced by savanna vegetation by the end of the century. Additional analyses suggest that complex interactions among land use, fire-frequency, and episodic drought are driving an even more rapid process of the forest impoverishment and displacement referred here as "savannization". But it is not clear whether surface/ecosystem models are suitable to analyze extreme events like a drought. Long-term simulations of throughfall exclusion experiments has provided unique insights into the energy dynamics of Amazonian rainforests during drought conditions. In this study, we evaluate how well six surface/ecosystem models quantify the energy dynamics from two Amazonian throughfall exclusion experiments. All models were run for the Tapajós and Caxiuanã sites with one control plot using normal precipitation (i.e. do not impose a drought) and then the drought manipulation was imposed for several drought treatments (10 to 90% rainfall exclusion). The sap flow, net radiation (Rn), sensible (H), latent (LE) and ground (G) heat flux are used to analyze if the models are able to capture the dynamics of water stress and what the implications for the energy dynamics are. With respect to the model validation, when we compare the sap flow observed and transpiration simulated, models are more accurate to simulate control plots than drought treatments (50% rainfall exclusion). The results show that the models overestimate the sap flow data during the drought conditions, but they were able to capture the changes in the main energy balance components for different drought treatments. The Rn and LE decreased and H increased with more intensity of drought. The models sensitivity analysis indicate that models are more sensitive to drought when rainfall is excluded for more than 60% and when this reduction occurs during the dry season.

  2. Rainforest metropolis casts 1,000-km defaunation shadow.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; Barlow, Jos; Pompeu, Paulo S; de Almeida Rocha, Mayana; Parry, Luke

    2017-08-08

    Tropical rainforest regions are urbanizing rapidly, yet the role of emerging metropolises in driving wildlife overharvesting in forests and inland waters is unknown. We present evidence of a large defaunation shadow around a rainforest metropolis. Using interviews with 392 rural fishers, we show that fishing has severely depleted a large-bodied keystone fish species, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), with an impact extending over 1,000 km from the rainforest city of Manaus (population 2.1 million). There was strong evidence of defaunation within this area, including a 50% reduction in body size and catch rate (catch per unit effort). Our findings link these declines to city-based boats that provide rural fishers with reliable access to fish buyers and ice and likely impact rural fisher livelihoods and flooded forest biodiversity. This empirical evidence that urban markets can defaunate deep into rainforest wilderness has implications for other urbanizing socioecological systems.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics of the Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Pacific Bluefin Tuna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-18

    subtracted from the cube using a Boolean operation. The same meshing procedure was employed on the surface of the cube and the meshed interface between the...advanced propulsion mechanism (or both). The issue of whether the boundary layer on a tuna swimming at typical speeds (1 to 2 body lengths/sec) is laminar...compute the approximate lateral location at which transition to turbulence occurs on the tuna for various swimming speeds, and to determine the maximum

  4. Influence of boundary-layer dynamics on pollen dispersion and viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Viner, Brian J.; Westgate, Mark E.

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns that GM traits can accidentally cross into conventional crops or wild relatives through the transport of wind-borne pollen. In order to evaluate this risk it is necessary to account both for dispersion of the pollen grains and environmental influences on pollen viability. The Lagrangian approach is suited to this problem because it allows tracking the environmental temperature and moisture that pollen grains experience as they travel. Taking advantage of this capability we have combined a high-resolution version of the WRF meteorological model with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to predict maize pollen dispersion and viability. WRF is used to obtain fields of wind, turbulence kinetic energy, temperature, and humidity which are then used as input to the Lagrangian dispersion model. The dispersion model in turn predicts transport of a statistical sample of a pollen cloud from source plants to receptors. We also use the three-dimensional temperature and moisture fields from WRF to diagnose changes in moisture content of the pollen grains and consequent loss of viability. Results show that turbulent motions in the convective boundary layer counteract the large terminal velocity of maize pollen grains and lift them to heights of several hundred meters, so that they can be transported long distances before settling to the ground. We also found that pollen lifted into the upper part of the boundary layer remains more viable than has been inferred using surface observations of temperature and humidity. This is attributed to the thermal and moisture structure that typifies the daytime atmospheric boundary layer, producing an environment of low vapor pressure deficit in the upper boundary layer which helps maintain pollen viability.

  5. Boundary layers at a dynamic interface: Air-sea exchange of heat and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-04-01

    Exchange of mass or heat across a turbulent liquid-gas interface is a problem of critical interest, especially in air-sea transfer of natural and anthropogenic gases involved in the study of climate. The goal in this research area is to determine the gas flux from air to sea or vice versa. For sparingly soluble nonreactive gases, this is controlled by liquid phase turbulent velocity fluctuations that act on the thin species concentration boundary layer on the liquid side of the interface. If the fluctuations in surface-normal velocity w' and gas concentration c' are known, then it is possible to determine the turbulent contribution to the gas flux. However, there is no suitable fundamental direct approach in the general case where neither w' nor c' can be easily measured. A new approach is presented to deduce key aspects about the near-surface turbulent motions from measurements that can be taken by an infrared (IR) camera. An equation is derived with inputs being the surface temperature and heat flux, and a solution method developed for the surface-normal strain experienced over time by boundary layers at the interface. Because the thermal and concentration boundary layers experience the same near-surface fluid motions, the solution for the surface-normal strain determines the gas flux or gas transfer velocity. Examples illustrate the approach in the cases of complete surface renewal, partial surface renewal, and insolation. The prospects for use of the approach in flows characterized by sheared interfaces or rapid boundary layer straining are explored.

  6. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo. PMID:24926191

  7. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-05-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo.

  8. Dynamic deformation of volcanic ejecta from the Toba caldera: possible relevance to Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, N.L.; Officer, C.B.; Chesner, C.A.; Rose, W.I.

    1986-05-01

    Plagioclase and biotite phenocrysts in ignimbrites erupted from the Toba caldera, Sumatra, show microstructures and textures indicative of shock stress levels higher than 10 GPa. Strong dynamic deformation has resulted in intense kinking in biotite and, with increasing shock intensity, the development of plagioclase of planar features, shock mosaicism, incipient recrystallization, and possible partial melting. Microstructures in quartz indicative of strong shock deformation are rare, however, and many shock lamellae, if formed, may have healed during post-shock residence in the hot ignimbrite; they might be preserved in ash falls. Peak shock stresses from explosive silicic volcanism and other endogenous processes may be high and if so would obviate the need for extraterrestrial impacts to produce all dynamically deformed structures, possibly including shock features observed near the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. 38 references, 3 figures.

  9. Interface boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization and spin wave dynamics in a ferromagnetic layer with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kostylev, M.

    2014-06-21

    In this work, we derive the interface exchange boundary conditions for the classical linear dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnetic layers with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI). We show that IDMI leads to pinning of dynamic magnetization at the interface. An unusual peculiarity of the IDMI-based pinning is that its scales as the spin-wave wave number. We incorporate these boundary conditions into an existing numerical model for the dynamics of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in ferromagnetic films. IDMI affects the dispersion and the frequency non-reciprocity of the travelling Damon-Eshbach spin wave. For a broad range of film thicknesses L and wave numbers, the results of the numerical simulations of the spin wave dispersion are in a good agreement with a simple analytical expression, which shows that the contribution of IDMI to the dispersion scales as 1/L, similarly to the effect of other types of interfacial anisotropy. Suggestions to experimentalists how to detect the presence of IDMI in a spin wave experiment are given.

  10. Interface boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization and spin wave dynamics in a ferromagnetic layer with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostylev, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we derive the interface exchange boundary conditions for the classical linear dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnetic layers with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI). We show that IDMI leads to pinning of dynamic magnetization at the interface. An unusual peculiarity of the IDMI-based pinning is that its scales as the spin-wave wave number. We incorporate these boundary conditions into an existing numerical model for the dynamics of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in ferromagnetic films. IDMI affects the dispersion and the frequency non-reciprocity of the travelling Damon-Eshbach spin wave. For a broad range of film thicknesses L and wave numbers, the results of the numerical simulations of the spin wave dispersion are in a good agreement with a simple analytical expression, which shows that the contribution of IDMI to the dispersion scales as 1/L, similarly to the effect of other types of interfacial anisotropy. Suggestions to experimentalists how to detect the presence of IDMI in a spin wave experiment are given.

  11. Towards Understanding the Mechanism of Receptivity and Bypass Dynamics in Laminar Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasseigne, D. G.; Criminale, W. O.; Joslin, R. D.; Jackson, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Three problems concerning laminar-turbulent transition are addressed by solving a series of initial value problems. The first problem is the calculation of resonance within the continuous spectrum of the Blasius boundary layer. The second is calculation of the growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves that are a direct result of disturbances that only lie outside of the boundary layer. And, the third problem is the calculation of non-parallel effects. Together, these problems represent a unified approach to the study of freestream disturbance effects that could lead to transition. Solutions to the temporal, initial-value problem with an inhomogeneous forcing term imposed upon the flow is sought. By solving a series of problems, it is shown that: A transient disturbance lying completely outside of the boundary layer can lead to the growth of an unstable Tollmien-Schlichting wave. A resonance with the continuous spectrum leads to strong amplification that may provide a mechanism for bypass transition once nonlinear effects are considered. A disturbance with a very weak unstable Tollmien-Schlichting wave can lead to a much stronger Tollmien-Schlichting wave downstream, if the original disturbance has a significant portion of its energy in the continuum modes.

  12. Lidar Applications in Atmospheric Dynamics: Measurements of Wind, Moisture and Boundary Layer Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoz, Belay; Whiteman, David; Gentry, Bruce; Schwemmer, Geary; Evans, Keith; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Comer, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A large array of state-of-the-art ground-based and airborne remote and in-situ sensors were deployed during the International H2O Project (THOP), a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States from 13 May to 30 June 2002. These instruments provided extensive measurements of water vapor mixing ratio in order to better understand the influence of its variability on convection and on the skill of quantitative precipitation prediction (Weckwerth et all, 2004). Among the instrument deployed were ground based lidars from NASA/GSFC that included the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the Goddard Laboratory for Observing Winds (GLOW), and the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE). A brief description of the three lidars is given below. This study presents ground-based measurements of wind, boundary layer structure and water vapor mixing ratio measurements observed by three co-located lidars during MOP at the MOP ground profiling site in the Oklahoma Panhandle (hereafter referred as Homestead). This presentation will focus on the evolution and variability of moisture and wind in the boundary layer when frontal and/or convergence boundaries (e.g. bores, dry lines, thunderstorm outflows etc) were observed.

  13. Boundary condition identification for a grid model by experimental and numerical dynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Qiang; Devitis, John; Mazzotti, Matteo; Bartoli, Ivan; Moon, Franklin; Sjoblom, Kurt; Aktan, Emin

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing need to characterize unknown foundations and assess substructures in existing bridges. It is becoming an important issue for the serviceability and safety of bridges as well as for the possibility of partial reuse of existing infrastructures. Within this broader contest, this paper investigates the possibility of identifying, locating and quantifying changes of boundary conditions, by leveraging a simply supported grid structure with a composite deck. Multi-reference impact tests are operated for the grid model and modification of one supporting bearing is done by replacing a steel cylindrical roller with a roller of compliant material. Impact based modal analysis provide global modal parameters such as damped natural frequencies, mode shapes and flexibility matrix that are used as indicators of boundary condition changes. An updating process combining a hybrid optimization algorithm and the finite element software suit ABAQUS is presented in this paper. The updated ABAQUS model of the grid that simulates the supporting bearing with springs is used to detect and quantify the change of the boundary conditions.

  14. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for gas dynamics: Theory, boundary conditions, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Frapolli, N; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V

    2016-06-01

    We present in detail the recently introduced entropic lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows [N. Frapolli et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 061301(R) (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.061301]. The model is capable of simulating a wide range of laminar and turbulent flows, from thermal and weakly compressible flows to transonic and supersonic flows. The theory behind the construction of the model is laid out and its thermohydrodynamic limit is discussed. Based on this theory and the hydrodynamic limit thereof, we also construct the boundary conditions necessary for the simulation of solid walls. We present the inlet and outlet boundary conditions as well as no-slip and free-slip boundary conditions. Details necessary for the implementation of the compressible lattice Boltzmann model are also reported. Finally, simulations of compressible flows are presented, including two-dimensional supersonic and transonic flows around a diamond and a NACA airfoil, the simulation of the Schardin problem, and the three-dimensional simulation of the supersonic flow around a conical geometry.

  15. Case study of the diurnal variability of chemically active species with respect to boundary layer dynamics during DOMINO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stratum, B. J. H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; van den Dries, K.; van Laar, T. W.; Martinez, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Diesch, J.-M.; Drewnick, F.; Fischer, H.; Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Harder, H.; Regelin, E.; Sinha, V.; Adame, J. A.; Sörgel, M.; Sander, R.; Bozem, H.; Song, W.; Williams, J.; Yassaa, N.

    2012-06-01

    We study the interactions between atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and atmospheric chemistry using a mixed-layer model coupled to chemical reaction schemes. Guided by both atmospheric and chemical measurements obtained during the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms in relation to Nitrogen Oxides) campaign (2008), numerical experiments are performed to study the role of ABL dynamics and the accuracy of chemical schemes with different complexity: the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4) and a reduced mechanism of this chemical system. Both schemes produce satisfactory results, indicating that the reduced scheme is capable of reproducing the O3-NOx-VOC-HOx diurnal cycle during conditions characterized by a low NOx regime and small O3 tendencies (less than 1 ppb per hour). By focusing on the budget equations of chemical species in the mixed-layer model, we show that for species like O3, NO and NO2, the influence of entrainment and boundary layer growth is of the same order as chemical production/loss. This indicates that an accurate representation of ABL processes is crucial in understanding the diel cycle of chemical species. By comparing the time scales of chemical reactive species with the mixing time scale of turbulence, we propose a classification based on the Damköhler number to further determine the importance of dynamics on chemistry during field campaigns. Our findings advocate an integrated approach, simultaneously solving the ABL dynamics and chemical reactions, in order to obtain a better understanding of chemical pathways and processes and the interpretation of the results obtained during measurement campaigns.

  16. Implications for mantle dynamics based on isotropic and anisotropic velocity variations above the core-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, Sanne; Lekic, Vedran

    2017-04-01

    the core-mantle boundary. It is still unclear if these represent anomalies that float, sink, or rise. Recent studies of anisotropy in the lowermost mantle seem to correlate with anisotropy being present in the anomalously fast regions, this can give an additional constraining on the dynamics and/or composition in these regions.

  17. On the nonlinear dynamics of a saline boundary layer formed by throughflow near the surface of a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, G. J. M.; Schuttelaars, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    We consider gravitational instability of saline boundary layers, observed at the subsurface of salt lakes. This boundary layer is the result of the convective transport induced by the evaporation at the horizontal surface of a confined porous medium. When this upward transport is balanced by salt dispersion, a steady state boundary layer is formed. However, this boundary layer can be unstable when perturbed. This results in complex groundwater motion and density fields. The aim of this paper is to investigate the existence of finite amplitude solutions describing these resulting patterns (both the number of solutions and their structure), their stability, and their dependency on the system Rayleigh and Péclet numbers. For this purpose we construct a low-dimensional dynamical system (a reduced model) by projecting the nonlinear model equations onto a relatively small set of eigenfunctions of the problem linearized at criticality. The Galerkin projection approach is complicated by the fact that the problem under consideration is non-self-adjoint due to the existing evaporation. This implies that the eigenfunctions do not form an orthogonal set and therefore the adjoint eigenfunctions are used for the projection. The reduced model is constructed in such a way that it is capable of providing solutions in the strongly nonlinear regime as well. Convergence of these solutions towards the fully nonlinear model results is shown by means of direct numerical simulations. Further, the reduced model seems to partly capture the complex nonlinear behavior as seen in Hele-Shaw experiments by Wooding et al. [R.A. Wooding, S.W. Tyler, I. White, P.A. Anderson, Convection in groundwater below an evaporating salt lake: 2. evolution of fingers or plumes, Water Resour. Res. 33 (6) (1997) 1219-1228]. The physical transition mechanism that explains the occurrence of some observed bifurcation types is presented as well.

  18. The strength of large-scale plate boundaries: Constraints from the dynamics of the Philippine Sea plate since ~5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, G.

    2012-12-01

    Friction controls most of the strength of tectonic plate boundaries, and thus the force mutually exchanged between plates. Estimates of the plate-boundary friction-coefficient are therefore of paramount importance to our understanding of the lithosphere torque balance. However, several lines of evidence indicate that the friction-coefficient of plate margins is significantly lower than is measured in laboratory experiments performed on fractured rocks. This poses a significant limit to extrapolation from the laboratory scale to the large-scale of Earth's lithosphere. The record of past and present-day plate motions represents an efficient probe into the torque balance of plate tectonics, because plate-motions readjust virtually instantaneously to temporal changes in driving and resisting forces. Here I derive inferences on the strength of large-scale plate boundaries by focusing on the convergence of the fast-moving Philippine Sea plate towards Eurasia, since subduction initiation ~5 Myr ago. Because at the present-day the Philippine slab reaches depths shallower than the 410-km transition zone in the upper mantle, its weight is unlikely to provide sufficient driving force to shear the trailing plate over the viscous mantle at the observed rates. Using global models of the coupled mantle/lithosphere system, I argue that frictional coupling with the Pacific and Eurasia plates is the main driver for the dynamics of the Philippine Sea plate. This allows me to infer that the friction-coefficient of large-scale plate boundaries is in range 0.01 to 0.07, and that the amount of sediments entering plate margins efficiently modulates the friction-coefficient, contributing significantly to its lateral variations. Importantly, I corroborate my conclusions by focusing on the present-day vertical deformation of the Philippine Sea/Eurasia margin, evident from observed trench-parallel gravity anomalies.

  19. Hybrid smoothed dissipative particle dynamics and immersed boundary method for simulation of red blood cells in flows.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Peng, Lina; Shi, Huixin

    2017-06-01

    In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. The smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a particle-based method, is one of the easy and flexible methods to model such complex structure fluids. It couples the best features of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), with parameters having specific physical meaning (coming from SPH discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations), combined with thermal fluctuations in a mesoscale simulation, in a similar manner to the DPD. On the other hand, the immersed boundary method (IBM), a preferred method for handling fluid-structure interaction problems, has also been widely used to handle the fluid-RBC interaction in RBC simulations. In this paper, we aim to couple SDPD and IBM together to carry out the simulations of RBCs in complex flow problems. First, we develop the SDPD-IBM model in details, including the SDPD model for the evolving fluid flow, the RBC model for calculating RBC deformation force, the IBM for treating fluid-RBC interaction, and the solid boundary treatment model as well. We then conduct the verification and validation of the combined SDPD-IBM method. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the SDPD-IBM method by simulating the flows of RBCs in rectangular, cylinder, curved, bifurcated, and constricted tubes, respectively.

  20. Nonuniform Moving Boundary Method for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Intrathecal Cerebrospinal Flow Distribution in a Cynomolgus Monkey.

    PubMed

    Khani, Mohammadreza; Xing, Tao; Gibbs, Christina; Oshinski, John N; Stewart, Gregory R; Zeller, Jillynne R; Martin, Bryn A

    2017-08-01

    A detailed quantification and understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics may improve detection and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and help optimize CSF system-based delivery of CNS therapeutics. This study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that utilizes a nonuniform moving boundary approach to accurately reproduce the nonuniform distribution of CSF flow along the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS) of a single cynomolgus monkey. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol was developed and applied to quantify subject-specific CSF space geometry and flow and define the CFD domain and boundary conditions. An algorithm was implemented to reproduce the axial distribution of unsteady CSF flow by nonuniform deformation of the dura surface. Results showed that maximum difference between the MRI measurements and CFD simulation of CSF flow rates was <3.6%. CSF flow along the entire spine was laminar with a peak Reynolds number of ∼150 and average Womersley number of ∼5.4. Maximum CSF flow rate was present at the C4-C5 vertebral level. Deformation of the dura ranged up to a maximum of 134 μm. Geometric analysis indicated that total spinal CSF space volume was ∼8.7 ml. Average hydraulic diameter, wetted perimeter, and SAS area were 2.9 mm, 37.3 mm and 27.24 mm2, respectively. CSF pulse wave velocity (PWV) along the spine was quantified to be 1.2 m/s.

  1. Hybrid smoothed dissipative particle dynamics and immersed boundary method for simulation of red blood cells in flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Peng, Lina; Shi, Huixin

    2017-06-01

    In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. The smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a particle-based method, is one of the easy and flexible methods to model such complex structure fluids. It couples the best features of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), with parameters having specific physical meaning (coming from SPH discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations), combined with thermal fluctuations in a mesoscale simulation, in a similar manner to the DPD. On the other hand, the immersed boundary method (IBM), a preferred method for handling fluid-structure interaction problems, has also been widely used to handle the fluid-RBC interaction in RBC simulations. In this paper, we aim to couple SDPD and IBM together to carry out the simulations of RBCs in complex flow problems. First, we develop the SDPD-IBM model in details, including the SDPD model for the evolving fluid flow, the RBC model for calculating RBC deformation force, the IBM for treating fluid-RBC interaction, and the solid boundary treatment model as well. We then conduct the verification and validation of the combined SDPD-IBM method. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the SDPD-IBM method by simulating the flows of RBCs in rectangular, cylinder, curved, bifurcated, and constricted tubes, respectively.

  2. Dynamically- and chemically-induced grain boundary migration in quartz: microstructures, crystallographic fabrics, and trace element contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachlas, Will; Thomas, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Grain boundary migration (GBM) is a common mechanism by which quartz recrystallizes in the Earth. In the most basic sense, GBM occurs as atoms exchange structural positions across a planar defect. Reconstitution of grains via GBM imparts a new crystallographic orientation, but its effect on the geochemistry of recrystallized grains remains uncertain and depends on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the moving grain boundary. Two of the dominant driving forces for GBM are lattice strain energy, controlled by the applied stress field, and chemical potential energy, controlled by differences in mineral stability. We present observations from static and dynamic recrystallization experiments showing evidence for GBM in response to both of these driving forces. In static recrystallization experiments, quartz recrystallized in response to local variations in trace-level Ti concentrations, whereas in dynamic recrystallization experiments, quartz recrystallized during dislocation creep in response to the imposed differential stress. Each case produced recrystallized quartz exhibiting diagnostic microstructures, crystallographic fabrics, and trace element contents that can be used to infer the mechanisms of quartz recrystallization and the pressure-temperature conditions at which recrystallization occurred.

  3. Quantifying local rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions into a nested regional-local flood modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez, María.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jeronimo

    2017-04-01

    Inflow discharge and outflow stage estimates for hydraulic flood models are generally derived from river gauge data. Uncertainties in the measured inflow data and the neglect of rainfall-runoff contributions to the modeled domain downstream of the gauging locations can have a significant impact on these estimated "whole reach" inflows and consequently on flood predictions. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood model is proposed. The methodology is applied to the July 2007 floods of the River Severn in UK. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated applying a nonparametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations. Measured rainfall downstream from these locations is used as input to a series of subcatchment regional hydrological model to quantify additional local inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these contributions and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Accurate prediction of the flood peak was obtained with the proposed method, which was only possible by resolving the additional complexity of the extreme rainfall contributions over the modeled area. The findings highlight the importance of estimating boundary condition uncertainty and local rainfall contributions for accurate prediction of river flows and inundation at regional scales.

  4. Quantifying How Climate Affects Vegetation in the Amazon Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K.; Kodali, A.; Szubert, M.; Ganguly, S.; Bongard, J.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon droughts in 2005 and 2010 have raised serious concern about the future of the rainforest. Amazon forests are crucial because of their role as the largest carbon sink in the world which would effect the global warming phenomena with decreased photosynthesis activity. Especially, after a decline in plant growth in 1.68 million km2 forest area during the once-in-a-century severe drought in 2010, it is of primary importance to understand the relationship between different climatic variables and vegetation. In an earlier study, we have shown that non-linear models are better at capturing the relation dynamics of vegetation and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, compared to linear models. In this research, we learn precise models between vegetation and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) for normal conditions in the Amazon region using genetic programming based symbolic regression. This is done by removing high elevation and drought affected areas and also considering the slope of the region as one of the important factors while building the model. The model learned reveals new and interesting ways historical and current climate variables affect the vegetation at any location. MAIAC data has been used as a vegetation surrogate in our study. For temperature and precipitation, we have used TRMM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature data sets while learning the non-linear regression model. However, to generalize the model to make it independent of the data source, we perform transfer learning where we regress a regularized least squares to learn the parameters of the non-linear model using other data sources such as the precipitation and temperature from the Climatic Research Center (CRU). This new model is very similar in structure and performance compared to the original learned model and verifies the same claims about the nature of dependency between these climate variables and the vegetation in the Amazon region. As a result of this

  5. Dynamic Multiscale Boundary Conditions for 4D CT Images of Healthy and Emphysematous Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Carson, James P.; Thomas, Mathew; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2013-06-14

    Changes in the shape of the lung during breathing determine the movement of airways and alveoli, and thus impact airflow dynamics. Modeling airflow dynamics in health and disease is a key goal for predictive multiscale models of respiration. Past efforts to model changes in lung shape during breathing have measured shape at multiple breath-holds. However, breath-holds do not capture hysteretic differences between inspiration and expiration resulting from the additional energy required for inspiration. Alternatively, imaging dynamically – without breath-holds – allows measurement of hysteretic differences. In this study, we acquire multiple micro-CT images per breath (4DCT) in live rats, and from these images we develop, for the first time, dynamic volume maps. These maps show changes in local volume across the entire lung throughout the breathing cycle and accurately predict the global pressure-volume (PV) hysteresis.

  6. Effects of lateral boundaries on traveling-wave dynamics in binary fluid convection

    SciTech Connect

    Aegerter, C. M.; Surko, C. M.

    2001-04-01

    The global dynamics of traveling-wave patterns in convection in a mixture of ethanol in water is studied in different cell geometries: circular, rectangular, and stadium-shaped cells. The dynamics in these cells differ greatly, changing from a globally rotating state in the circular cell, to one large domain of locally parallel traveling waves in the rectangular cell, to a continually chaotic state in the stadium cell. In all three cases, the patterns can be described in terms of the phase of the complex order parameter. Disorder in the patterns is quantified in terms of topological defects in the phase field. While the numbers, net charge, and dynamics of defects differ greatly in the patterns in the three cells, the local dynamics of the defects, as measured by the defect-defect correlation functions, are similar.

  7. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to investigate e.g. groundwater contamination, nutrient uptake by plant roots and to implement remediation strategies. Beside field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. Atmospheric forcings, such as erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles, subject the shallow subsurface to local and temporal variations in water content and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing porous media. Those variations in material properties can cause flow paths to differ between upward and downward flow periods. Thereby, the unsaturated subsurface presents a highly complicated, dynamic system. Following an extensive systematical numerical investigation of flow and transport through bimodal, unsaturated porous media under dynamic boundary conditions (Cremer et al., 2016), we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell where we introduce structural heterogeneity in the form sharp material interfaces between different porous media. In all experiments, a constant pressure head is implemented at the lower boundary, while cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases are applied at the soil surface. As a reference case a stationary infiltration with a rate corresponding to the cycle-averaged infiltration rate is applied. By initial application of dye tracers, solute transport within the domain is visualized such that transport paths and redistribution processes can be observed in a qualitative manner. Solute leaching is quantified at the bottom outlet, where breakthrough curves are obtained via spectroscopy. Liquid and vapor flow in and out of the domain is obtained from multiple balances. Thereby, the interplay of material structural heterogeneity and alternating flow (transport) directions and flow (transport) paths is investigated. Results show lateral

  8. The magnitude and dynamics of interocular suppression affected by monocular boundary contour and conflicting local features

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yong R.; He, Zijiang J.; Ooi, Teng Leng

    2010-01-01

    A monocular boundary contour (MBC) rivalry stimulus has two half-images, a homogeneous grating and the same homogeneous grating with an additional disc region. The outline/frame of the MBC disc is created by relative phase-shift, or orientation difference. We found the increment contrast threshold and reaction time to detect a monocular Gabor probe elevated on the homogeneous half-image pedestal. The interocular suppression begins as early as 80 msec upon stimulus onset. Moreover, the suppression magnitude is larger when the MBC disc is defined by orientation difference rather than phase-shift, revealing the suppression caused by competing local features in addition to MBC. PMID:20624411

  9. Evaporation boundary conditions for the R13 equations of rarefied gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struchtrup, Henning; Beckmann, Alexander; Rana, Anirudh Singh; Frezzotti, Aldo

    2017-09-01

    The regularized 13 moment (R13) equations are a macroscopic model for the description of rarefied gas flows in the transition regime. The equations have been shown to give meaningful results for Knudsen numbers up to about 0.5. Here, their range of applicability is extended by deriving and testing boundary conditions for evaporating and condensing interfaces. The macroscopic interface conditions are derived from the microscopic interface conditions of kinetic theory. Tests include evaporation into a half-space and evaporation/condensation of a vapor between two liquid surfaces of different temperatures. Comparison indicates that overall the R13 equations agree better with microscopic solutions than classical hydrodynamics.

  10. Pseudo-organ boundary conditions applied to a computational fluid dynamics model of the human aorta.

    PubMed

    Yull Park, Joong; Young Park, Chan; Mo Hwang, Chang; Sun, Kyung; Goo Min, Byoung

    2007-08-01

    In three-dimensional numerical studies of the aorta, it is difficult to apply proper boundary conditions at the end of each major aortic branch because of interactions between blood and organs. Organs and body parts were assumed to be likened to cylindrically shaped porous media, so-called pseudo-organs, and treated in the computational domain as forms of hemodynamic resistance. Permeability functions were determined from two-dimensional axisymmetric computations of each aortic branch and these functions were then used in an unsteady three-dimensional simulation of the complete aorta. Substantially accurate cardiac output (5.91 L/min) and blood distributions to the major branches were predicted.

  11. Transient spatio-temporal dynamics of a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Wang, Lin; Watmough, James

    2016-12-01

    In many existing predator-prey or plant-herbivore models, the numerical response is assumed to be proportional to the functional response. In this paper, without such an assumption, we consider a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions. Besides stability of spatially homogeneous steady states, we also derive conditions for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation and steady-state bifurcation and provide geometrical methods to locate the bifurcation values. We numerically explore the complex transient spatio-temporal behaviours induced by these bifurcations. A large variety of different types of transient behaviours including oscillations in one or both of space and time are observed.

  12. The turbulent bottom boundary layer and its influence on local dynamics over the continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Richard D.; Leblond, Paul H.; Crawford, William R.

    1988-11-01

    We report on measurements of the structure of the bottom boundary layer on the continental shelf off Vancouver Island. A time series of vertical profiles obtained with the microstructure profiler FLY II revealed large temporal variations in the dissipation rate and in the density structure. The near-bottom current structure was simultaneously measured at fixed heights with conventional current meters. The data reveal the association between the predominantly diurnal tide and the variations in the structure of the bottom boundary layer. A clear distinction appears between the turbulent bottom boundary layer (8-40 m deep in a total water depth of 138 m) and the well-mixed layer (20-40 m deep). The two layers vary independently, with horizontal advection dominating the fluctuations in the thickness of the well-mixed layer while local dissipation is more closely related to the thickness of the turbulent layer. Variations in the density structure of the bottom layer are related to the strength and direction of the vertical shear and to the regional distribution of isopycnals. Current veering is commonly concentrated above the well-mixed layer. The evolution of the characteristics of the bottom layers is followed through a tidal cycle and related to local dissipation and other variables. Microstructure measurements from six locations over the southern portion of the Vancouver Island continental shelf are used to estimate the influence of turbulent energy dissipation on regional-scale flows. That fraction of the dissipation taking place in the bottom boundary layer is attributed to barotropic tidal flows, while that occurring above it is associated with nearly geostrophic baroclinic flows. Results give a lower limit of ˜ 1070 km for the length scale of shelf wave decay, in good agreement with current models; the estimates of tidal friction based on our dissipation measurements are however much lower than required by astronomical observations. An estimate of 230 h is

  13. Non-steady dynamics of atmospheric turbulence interaction with wind turbine loadings through blade-boundary-layer-resolved CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh

    Modern commercial megawatt-scale wind turbines occupy the lower 15-20% of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). The current trend of increasing wind turbine diameter and hub height increases the interaction of the wind turbines with the upper ASL which contains spatio-temporal velocity variations over a wide range of length and time scales. Our interest is the interaction of the wind turbine with the energetic integral-scale eddies, since these cause the largest temporal variations in blade loadings. The rotation of a wind turbine blade through the ABL causes fluctuations in the local velocity magnitude and angle of attack at different sections along the blade. The blade boundary layer responds to these fluctuations and in turn causes temporal transients in local sectional loads and integrated blade and shaft bending moments. While the integral scales of the atmospheric boundary layer are ˜ O(10--100m) in the horizontal with advection time scales of order tens of seconds, the viscous surface layer of the blade boundary layer is ˜ O(10 -- 100 mum) with time scales of order milliseconds. Thus, the response of wind turbine blade loadings to atmospheric turbulence is the result of the interaction between two turbulence dynamical systems at extremely disparate ranges of length and time scales. A deeper understanding of this interaction can impact future approaches to improve the reliability of wind turbines in wind farms, and can underlie future improvements. My thesis centers on the development of a computational framework to simulate the interaction between the atmospheric and wind turbine blade turbulence dynamical systems using a two step one-way coupled approach. Pseudo-spectral large eddy simulation (LES) is used to generate a true (equilibrium) atmospheric boundary layer over a flat land with specified surface roughness and heating consistent with the stability state of the daytime lower troposphere. Using the data from the

  14. Structure and dynamics of turbulent boundary layer flow over healthy and algae-covered corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocking, Jonathan B.; Rippe, John P.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2016-09-01

    Fine-scale velocity measurements over healthy and algae-covered corals were collected in situ to characterize combined wave-current boundary layer flow and the effects of algal canopies on turbulence hydrodynamics. Data were collected using acoustic Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. Flow over healthy corals is well described by traditional wall-bounded shear layers, distinguished by a logarithmic velocity profile, a local balance of turbulence production and dissipation, and high levels of bed shear stress. Healthy corals exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity in boundary layer flow structure resulting from variations in large-scale coral topography. By contrast, the turbulence structure of algae-covered corals is best represented by a plane mixing layer, with a sharp inflection point in mean velocity at the canopy top, a large imbalance of turbulence production and dissipation, and strongly damped flow and shear stresses within the canopy. The presence of an algal canopy increases turbulent kinetic energy within the roughness sublayer by ~2.5 times compared to healthy corals while simultaneously reducing bed shear stress by nearly an order of magnitude. Reduced bed shear at the coral surface and within-canopy turbulent stresses imply reduced mass transfer of necessary metabolites (e.g., oxygen, nutrients), leading to negative impacts on coral health.

  15. Flowfield dynamics in blunt fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolling, David S.; Brusniak, Leon

    1994-01-01

    Fluctuating wall pressure measurements have been made on centerline upstream of a blunt fin in a Mach 5 turbulent boundary layer. By examining the ensemble averaged wall pressure distributions for different separation shock foot positions, it has been shown that local fluctuating wall pressure measurements are due to a distinct pressure distribution, Rho(sub i), which undergoes a stretching and flattening effect as its upstream boundary translates aperiodically between the upstream influence and separation lines. The locations of the maxima and minima in the wall pressure standard deviation can be accurately predicted using this distribution, providing quantitative confirmation of the model. This model also explains the observed cross-correlations and ensemble average measurements within the interaction. Using the Rho(sub i) model, wall pressure signals from under the separated flow region were used to reproduce the position-time history of the separation shock foot. Further, the negative time delay peak in the cross-correlation between the predicted and actual shock foot histories suggests that the separated region fluctuations precede shock foot motion. The unsteady behavior of the primary horseshoe vortex and its relation to the unsteady separation shock are described.

  16. Dynamics Evolution Investigation of Mack Mode Instability in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer by Bicoherence Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian; Jiang, Nan

    2012-07-01

    The instability of a hypersonic boundary layer on a cone is investigated by bicoherence spectrum analysis. The experiment is conducted at Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The time series signals of instantaneous fluctuating surface-thermal-flux are measured by Pt-thin-film thermocouple temperature sensors mounted at 28 stations on the cone surface along streamwise direction to investigate the development of the unstable disturbances. The bicoherence spectrum analysis based on wavelet transform is employed to investigate the nonlinear interactions of the instability of Mack modes in hypersonic laminar boundary layer transition. The results show that wavelet bicoherence is a powerful tool in studying the unstable mode nonlinear interaction of hypersonic laminar-turbulent transition. The first mode instability gives rise to frequency shifts to higher unstable modes at the early stage of hypersonic laminar-turbulent transition. The modulations subsequently lead to the second mode instability occurrence. The second mode instability governs the last stage of instability and final breakdown to turbulence with multi-scale disturbances growth.

  17. Flowfield dynamics in blunt fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolling, David S.; Brusniak, Leon

    1994-01-01

    Fluctuating wall pressure measurements have been made on centerline upstream of a blunt fin in a Mach 5 turbulent boundary layer. By examining the ensemble averaged wall pressure distributions for different separation shock foot positions, it has been shown that local fluctuating wall pressure measurements are due to a distinct pressure distribution, Rho(sub i), which undergoes a stretching and flattening effect as its upstream boundary translates aperiodically between the upstream influence and separation lines. The locations of the maxima and minima in the wall pressure standard deviation can be accurately predicted using this distribution, providing quantitative confirmation of the model. This model also explains the observed cross-correlations and ensemble average measurements within the interaction. Using the Rho(sub i) model, wall pressure signals from under the separated flow region were used to reproduce the position-time history of the separation shock foot. Further, the negative time delay peak in the cross-correlation between the predicted and actual shock foot histories suggests that the separated region fluctuations precede shock foot motion. The unsteady behavior of the primary horseshoe vortex and its relation to the unsteady separation shock are described.

  18. Flowfield dynamics in blunt fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brusniak, L.; Dolling, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Fluctuating wall pressure measurements were made on centerline upstream of a blunt fin in a Much 5 turbulent boundary layer. By examining the ensemble average wall pressure distributions for different fixed shock foot positions, it was shown that local fluctuating wall pressure measurements are due to a distinct pressure distribution, P(i), which undergoes a stretching and flattening effect as its upstream boundary translates aperiodically between the upstream influence and separation lines. The locations of the maxima and minima in the centerline wall standard deviation distribution can be accurately predicted using this distribution, providing quantitative confirmation of the model. This model also explains the observed cross-correlations and ensemble average measurements within the interaction. Using the P(i) model, wall pressure signals from under the separated flow region were able to reproduce the position-time history of the separation shock foot. The negative time delay peak in the cross-correlation between the predicted and actual shock foot histories shows that the separated region fluctuations precede shock foot motion.

  19. Dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high and the marine boundary layer clouds in boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Wenhong; Deng, Yi; Yang, Song; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Huang, Lei; Liu, W. Timothy

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH), marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds, and the local sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the North Atlantic in boreal summer for 1984-2009 using NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset, various cloud data, and the Hadley Centre sea surface temperature. On interannual timescales, the summer mean subtropical MBL clouds to the southeast of the NASH is actively coupled with the NASH and local SSTs: a stronger (weaker) NASH is often accompanied with an increase (a decrease) of MBL clouds and abnormally cooler (warmer) SSTs along the southeast flank of the NASH. To understand the physical processes between the NASH and the MBL clouds, the authors conduct a data diagnostic analysis and implement a numerical modeling investigation using an idealized anomalous atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Results suggest that significant northeasterly anomalies in the southeast flank of the NASH associated with an intensified NASH tend to induce stronger cold advection and coastal upwelling in the MBL cloud region, reducing the boundary surface temperature. Meanwhile, warm advection associated with the easterly anomalies from the African continent leads to warming over the MBL cloud region at 700 hPa. Such warming and the surface cooling increase the atmospheric static stability, favoring growth of the MBL clouds. The anomalous diabatic cooling associated with the growth of the MBL clouds dynamically excites an anomalous anticyclone to its north and contributes to strengthening of the NASH circulation in its southeast flank. The dynamical and thermodynamical couplings and their associated variations in the NASH, MBL clouds, and SSTs constitute an important aspect of the summer climate variability over the North Atlantic.

  20. Dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high and the marine boundary layer clouds in boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Wenhong; Deng, Yi; Yang, Song

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH), marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds, and the local sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the North Atlantic in boreal summer for 1984‒2009. On interannual timescales, the summer mean subtropical MBL clouds to the southeast of the NASH is actively coupled with the NASH and local SSTs: a stronger (weaker) NASH is often accompanied with an increase (a decrease) of MBL clouds and abnormally cooler (warmer) SSTs along the southeast flank of the NASH. To understand the physical processes between the NASH and the MBL clouds, the authors conduct a data diagnostic analysis and a numerical modeling investigation using an idealized anomalous atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Results suggest that significant northeasterly anomalies in the southeast flank of the NASH associated with an intensified NASH tend to induce stronger cold advection and coastal upwelling in the MBL cloud region, reducing the boundary surface temperature. Meanwhile, warm advection associated with the easterly anomalies from the African continent leads to warming over the MBL cloud region at 700 hPa. Such warming and the surface cooling increase the atmospheric static stability, favoring growth of the MBL clouds. The anomalous diabatic cooling associated with the growth of the MBL clouds dynamically excites an anomalous anticyclone to its north and contributes to strengthening of the NASH circulation in its southeast flank. The dynamical and thermodynamical couplings and their associated variations in the NASH, MBL clouds, and SSTs constitute an important aspect of the summer climate variability over the North Atlantic.

  1. Crustal dynamics project: The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1990-01-01

    The focus of the research was in two broad areas: (1) the nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation and stress along major seismic zones, and (2) the nature of long-wavelength oceanic geoid anomalies in terms of lateral variations in upper mantle temperature and composition. The principal findings are described in the appendices.

  2. Combustion Dynamic Characteristics Identification in a 9-point LDI Combustor Under Choked Outlet Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Zhuohui J.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2017-01-01

    Combustion dynamics data were collected at the NASA Glenn Research Center's CE-5 flame tube test facility under combustor outlet choked conditions. Two 9-point Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection (SV-LDI) configurations were tested in a rectangular cuboid combustor geometry. Combustion dynamic data were measured at different engine operational conditions up to inlet air pressure and temperature of 24.13 bar and 828 K, respectively. In this study, the effects of acoustic cavity resonance, precessing vortex core (PVC), and non-uniform thermal expansion on the dynamic noise spectrum are identified by comparing the dynamic data that collected at various combustor inlet conditions along with combustor geometric calculations. The results show that the acoustic cavity resonance noises were seen in the counter-rotating pilot configuration but not in the co-rotating pilot configuration. Dynamic pressure noise band at around 0.9 kHz was only detected at the P'41 location (9.8 cm after fuel injector face) but not at the P'42 location (29 cm after the fuel injector face); the amplitude of this noise band depended on the thermal expansion ratio (T4/T3). The noise band at around 1.8 kHz was found to depend on the inlet air pressure or the air density inside the combustor. The PVC frequency was not observed in these two configurations.

  3. Note: Local thermal conductivities from boundary driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bresme, F.; Armstrong, J.

    2014-01-07

    We report non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transport in models of molecular fluids. We show that the “local” thermal conductivities obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations agree within numerical accuracy with equilibrium Green-Kubo computations. Our results support the local equilibrium hypothesis for transport properties. We show how to use the local dependence of the thermal gradients to quantify the thermal conductivity of molecular fluids for a wide range of thermodynamic states using a single simulation.

  4. Large Amplitude Plasma Waves Near the Comet C-G Diamagnetic Cavity Boundary: What Are They and What is the Role for Cometary Plasma Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Falkowski, Barbara; Goetz, Charlotte; Henri, Pierre; Vallieres, Xavier; Hajra, Rajkumar; Volwerk, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Large amplitude plasma waves detected adjacent to and just outside the comet diamagnetic cavity boundary at comet 67P have been studied using the combined magnetic field, thermal electron and neutral particle measurements. The boundary waves appear to be steepened shocks. However the nature of the shocks appears to be different for inbound passes and for outbound passes. These differences will be illustrated in detail and the possible role that the shocks/waves play in cometary plasma dynamics will be discussed.

  5. Fluid-dynamic computations on a connection machine - Preliminary timings and complex boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oran, Elaine S.; Boris, Jay P.; Brown, Eugene F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion and application of the explicit, time-dependent, fourth-order, phase-accurate, variable-grid flux-corrected transport module, LCPFCT, to the Connection Machine, a fine-grained SIMD parallel processor. Models developed are as similar to the production Cray codes as possible and include a variety of different realistic boundary conditions. Timing comparisons show that a 16K-processor Connection Machine allows computations at speeds up to a factor of seven faster than obtained on a Cray YMP for a functionally equivalent optimized, three-dimensional code. Test calculations of a two-dimensional exploding shock and a three-dimensional helically perturbed jet are described and discussed briefly.

  6. Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on the dynamic and static properties of a strongly anisotropic ferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelikov, G. A.; Fridman, Yu. A.

    2013-07-15

    The spectra of coupled magnetoelastic waves in a semi-infinite strongly anisotropic easy-plane ferromagnet with a rigidly fixed face are analyzed for two variants of fixation (in the basal plane and perpendicularly to it). The phase states of the system are determined. Differences in the phase diagrams and elementary excitation spectra depending on the choice of the sample fixation plane are considered. When rotational invariance is taken into account, the nonreciprocity effect for the velocities of sound in a crystal appears. It is shown that the velocity of sound in the sample considerably depends on the symmetry of the imposed mechanical boundary conditions. The phase diagrams of the system under investigation are presented.

  7. Modelling of hydrogen thermal desorption spectrum in nonlinear dynamical boundary-value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostikova, E. K.; Zaika, Yu V.

    2016-11-01

    One of the technological challenges for hydrogen materials science (including the ITER project) is the currently active search for structural materials with various potential applications that will have predetermined limits of hydrogen permeability. One of the experimental methods is thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). A hydrogen-saturated sample is degassed under vacuum and monotone heating. The desorption flux is measured by mass spectrometer to determine the character of interactions of hydrogen isotopes with the solid. We are interested in such transfer parameters as the coefficients of diffusion, dissolution, desorption. The paper presents a distributed boundary-value problem of thermal desorption and a numerical method for TDS spectrum simulation, where only integration of a nonlinear system of low order (compared with, e.g., the method of lines) ordinary differential equations (ODE) is required. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 15-01-00744).

  8. Role of Dynamic Nucleation at Moving Boundaries in Phase and Microstructure Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karma, Alain; Trivedi, Rohit

    1999-01-01

    Solidification microstructures that form under steady-state growth conditions (cells, dendrites, regular eutectics, etc.) are reasonably well understood in comparison to other, more complex microstructures, which form under intrinsically non-steady-state growth conditions due to the competition between the nucleation and growth of several phases. Some important practical examples in this latter class include microstructures forming in peritectic systems in highly undercooled droplets, and in strip cast stainless steels. Prediction of phase and microstructure selection in these systems has been traditionally based on (1) heterogeneous nucleation on a static interface, and (2) comparing the relative growth rate of different phase/microstructures under steady-state growth conditions. The formation of new phases, however, occurs via nucleation on, or ahead of, a moving boundary. In addition, the actual selection process is controlled by a complex interaction between the nucleation process and the growth competition between the nuclei and the pre-existing phase under non-steady-state conditions. As a result, it is often difficult to predict which microstructure will form and which phases will be selected under prescribed processing conditions. This research addresses this critical role of nucleation at moving boundaries in the selection of phases and solidification microstructures through quantitative experiments and numerical modeling in peritectic systems. In order to create a well characterized system in which to study this problem, we focus on the directional solidification of hypo- and hyper-peritectic alloys in the two-phase region, imposing a large enough ratio of temperature gradient/growth rate (G/V(sub p)) to suppress the morphological instability of both the parent (alpha) and peritectic (Beta) phases, i.e. each phase alone would grow as a planar front. Our combined experimental and theoretical results show that, already in this simplified case, the growth

  9. Boundary layer dynamics in a small shallow valley near the Alps (ScaleX campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeman, Matthias; Adler, Bianca; Banerjee, Tirtha; Brugger, Peter; De Roo, Frederik; Emeis, Stefan; Matthias, Mauder; Schäfer, Klaus; Wolf, Benjamin; Schmid, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Mountainous terrain presents a challenge for the experimental determination of exchange processes. The Alps modulate synoptic flow and introduce circulation systems that reach into the forelands. In addition, the Prealpine landscape is heterogeneous itself, dominated by patches of forestry on the slopes and agriculture on flat areas. That combined complexity is manifest in atmospheric circulations at multiple scales. We investigated the diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer with focus on the connection between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations at the regional to local scale. The experiment is part of an ongoing, multi-disciplinary study on scale dependencies in the distribution of energy and matter (ScaleX) at the TERENO Prealpine observatory in Germany. We observed vertical profiles of wind speed and air temperature up to 1000 m above ground during June and July 2015 in a small shallow Prealpine valley in Bavaria, Germany. Wind vectors and temperature were observed using ground-based optical, acoustic and radiometric remote sensing techniques. Spatial patterns in wind speed and direction were determined using eddy covariance systems, 3D Doppler LIDAR and acoustic sounding (RASS). Three Doppler LIDAR units were configured to form a virtual tower at the beam intersect. Temperature profiles were observed using radio-acoustic sounding (RASS) and a microwave radiometer (HATPRO). The temporal and spatial resolutions of the resulting vertical profiles were between 1-15 min and between 3-100 m, respectively. The observed variability in wind vectors and stability shows evidence of the link between flow phenomena at micro- to mesoscale and local biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes. We present first results and discuss the predictability of the impact of local and regional (alpine) landscape features on flow and structures in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  10. Boundary layer dynamics in a small shallow valley near the Alps (ScaleX campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauder, M.; Zeeman, M. J.; Adler, B.; Banerjee, T.; Brugger, P.; De Roo, F.; Emeis, S.; Schäfer, K.; Schmid, H. P. E.; Wolf, B.

    2015-12-01

    Mountainous terrain presents a challenge for the experimental determination of exchange processes. The Alps modulate synoptic flow and introduce circulation systems that reach into the forelands. In addition, the Prealpine landscape is heterogeneous itself, dominated by patches of forestry on the slopes and agriculture on flat areas. That combined complexity is manifest in atmospheric circulations at multiple scales. We investigated the diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer with focus on the connection between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations at the regional to local scale. The experiment is part of an ongoing, multi-disciplinary study on scale dependencies in the distribution of energy and matter (ScaleX) at the TERENO Prealpine observatory in Germany. We observed vertical profiles of wind speed and air temperature up to 1000 m above ground during June and July 2015 in a small shallow Prealpine valley in Bavaria, Germany. Wind vectors and temperature were observed using ground-based optical, acoustic and radiometric remote sensing techniques. Spatial patterns in wind speed and direction were determined using eddy covariance systems, 3D Doppler LIDAR and acoustic sounding (RASS). Three Doppler LIDAR units were configured to form a virtual tower at the beam intersect. Temperature profiles were observed using radio-acoustic sounding (RASS) and a microwave radiometer (HATPRO). The temporal and spatial resolutions of the resulting vertical profiles were between 1-15 min and between 3-100 m, respectively. The observed variability in wind vectors and stability shows evidence of the link between flow phenomena at micro- to mesoscale and local biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes. We present first results and discuss the predictability of the impact of local and regional (alpine) landscape features on flow and structures in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  11. Dynamical Model Simulation of the Morning Boundary Layer Development in Deep Mountain Valleys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, David C.; McKee, Thomas B.

    1983-03-01

    A dry, two-dimensional version of the Colorado State University Multi-dimensional Cloud/Mesoscale Model was used to study the cross-valley evolution of the wind and temperature structures in an idealized east-west oriented mountain valley. Two simulations were performed, one in which the valley was heated symmetrically and a second in which a mid-latitude heating distribution was imposed. Both runs were initiated identically with a stable layer filling the valley to ridgetop and a neutral layer above the ridge. A specified sinusoidal surface potential temperature flux function approximating the diurnal cycle forced the model at the lower boundary.The results of the two simulations were remarkably similar. The model realistically reproduced the gross features found in actual valleys in both structure and timing. The simulated inversions were destroyed three and one-half hours after sunrise as a result of a neutral layer growing up from the surface meeting a descending inversion top. Slope winds with speeds of 3-5 m s1 developed over both sidewalls two and one-half hours after sunrise. Both cases revealed the development of strongly stable pockets of air over the sidewalls which form when cold air advected upslope loses its buoyancy at higher elevations. These stable pockets temporarily block the slope flow and force transient cross-valley circulations to form which act to destabilize the valley boundary layer. Cross-valley mixing and gravity waves rapidly redistribute heat across the valley to prevent large potential temperature gradients from forming. As a result, oven large differences in heating rates between opposing sidewalls do not result in significant cross-valley potential temperature differences. Organized cross-valley circulations and eddy motions enhance lateral mixing in the stable layer as well.

  12. Crossing the Boundaries within Computational Chemistry: From Molecular Dynamics to Cheminformatics and back.

    PubMed

    Riniker, Sereina

    2014-09-01

    The research in the group for computational chemistry at the ETH Zurich focuses on the development of methods and software for classical molecular dynamics simulations and cheminformatics, and their application to biological and chemical questions. Here, important advances and challenges in these subfields of computational chemistry are reviewed and potential opportunities for cross-fertilization are outlined.

  13. Hydraulic Strategies and Response to El Niño Drought in Amazon Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R. S.; Brum, M., Jr.; Prohaska, N.; Albert, L.; Taylor, T.; Fatichi, S.; Agee, E.; Saleska, S. R.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; Dye, D. G.; Wiedemann, K. T.

    2016-12-01

    Variability of tree-scale carbon and water uptake strategies is increasingly recognized to be of paramount importance for understanding the limits of drought resilience of tropical rainforests. Here, we present evidence of such variations using a set of ecohydrologic data collected through the DOE "GoAmazon" project, with a specific emphasis on the response of a seasonal rainforest in eastern Amazonia to the strong 2015 El Niño drought. Data from 50 sapflow sensors are combined with high-frequency observations on stem and leaf water potential as well as precision dendrometry. The emerging behavior shows a spectrum of successfully co-existing hydraulic strategies, ranging from tight control against xylem failure to a near lack of regulation of the water flux through the stomata, implying the existence of other mechanisms to deal with extreme tissue dehydration. These strategies also exhibit coupling with tree growth patterns and dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates, with the latter type of trees allocating more carbon to growth and less to internal reserves, while the opposite is true for the former tree type. The results suggest a new approach for integrating hydraulic traits and carbon-cycle dynamics, and a strategy for mapping traits to function in the next generation of predictive models of ecosystem dynamics.

  14. Diffusion behavior of helium in titanium and the effect of grain boundaries revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui-Jun, Cheng; Bao-Qin, Fu; Qing, Hou; Xiao-Song, Zhou; Jun, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The microstructures of titanium (Ti), an attractive tritium (T) storage material, will affect the evolution process of the retained helium (He). Understanding the diffusion behavior of He at the atomic scale is crucial for the mechanism of material degradation. The novel diffusion behavior of He has been reported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the bulk hcp-Ti system and the system with grain boundary (GB). It is observed that the diffusion of He in the bulk hcp-Ti is significantly anisotropic (the diffusion coefficient of the [0001] direction is higher than that of the basal plane), as represented by the different migration energies. Different from convention, the GB accelerates the diffusion of He in one direction but not in the other. It is observed that a twin boundary (TB) can serve as an effective trapped region for He. The TB accelerates diffusion of He in the direction perpendicular to the twinning direction (TD), while it decelerates the diffusion in the TD. This finding is attributable to the change of diffusion path caused by the distortion of the local favorable site for He and the change of its number in the TB region. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51501119), the Scientific Research Starting Foundation for Younger Teachers of Sichuan University, China (Grant No. 2015SCU11058), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant No. 2013GB109002), and the Cooperative Research Project “Research of Diffusion Behaviour of He in Grain Boundary of HCP-Titanium”, China.

  15. A molecular dynamics study on thin film liquid boiling characteristics under rapid linear boundary heating: Effect of liquid film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Tamim, Saiful Islam; Faisal, A. H. M.; Mukut, K. M.; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim

    2017-06-01

    This study is a molecular dynamics investigation of phase change phenomena i.e. boiling of thin liquid films subjected to rapid linear heating at the boundary. The purpose of this study is to understand the phase change heat transfer phenomena at nano scale level. In the simulation, a thin film of liquid argon over a platinum surface has been considered. The simulation domain herein is a three-phase system consisting of liquid and vapor argon atoms placed over a platinum wall. Initially the whole system is brought to an equilibrium state at 90 K and then the temperature of the bottom wall is increased to a higher temperature (250K) within a finite time interval. Four different liquid argon film thicknesses have been considered (3 nm, 4 nm, 5 nm and 6 nm) in this study. The boundary heating rate (40×109 K/s) is kept constant in all these cases. Variation in system temperature, pressure, net evaporation number, spatial number density of the argon region with time for different film thickness have been demonstrated and analyzed. The present study indicates that the pattern of phase transition may be significantly different (i.e. evaporation or explosive boiling) depending on the liquid film thickness. Among the four cases considered in the present study, explosive boiling has been observed only for the liquid films of 5nm and 6nm thickness, while for the other cases, evaporation take place.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of cyclist aerodynamics: performance of different turbulence-modelling and boundary-layer modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2010-08-26

    This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports.

  17. An Observational Case Study on the Influence of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Dynamics on New Particle Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platis, Andreas; Altstädter, Barbara; Wehner, Birgit; Wildmann, Norman; Lampert, Astrid; Hermann, Markus; Birmili, Wolfram; Bange, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the influence of atmospheric boundary-layer development on new particle formation (NPF) during the morning transition. Continuous in-situ measurements of vertical profiles of temperature, humidity and aerosol number concentrations were quasi-continously measured near Melpitz, Germany, by unmanned aerial systems to investigate the potential connection between NPF and boundary-layer dynamics in the context of turbulence, temperature and humidity fluctuations. On 3 April 2014 high number concentrations of nucleation mode particles up to 6.0 × 10^4 cm^{-3} were observed in an inversion layer located about 450 m above ground level. The inversion layer exhibited a spatial temperature structure parameter C_T^2 15 times higher and a spatial humidity structure parameter C_q^2 5 times higher than in the remaining part of the vertical profile. The study provides hints that the inversion layer is responsible for creating favorable thermodynamic conditions for a NPF event. In addition, this layer showed a strong anti-correlation of humidity and temperature fluctuations. Using estimates of the turbulent mixing and dissipation rates, it is concluded that the downward transport of particles by convective mixing was also the reason of the sudden increase of nucleation mode particles measured on ground. This work supports the hypothesis that many of the NPF events that are frequently observed near the ground may, in fact, originate at elevated altitude, with newly formed particles subsequently being mixed down to the ground.

  18. A molecular dynamics study of tilt grain boundary resistance to slip and heat transfer in nanocrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Chen, Youping; Xiong, Liming; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr

    2014-12-28

    We present a molecular dynamics study of grain boundary (GB) resistance to dislocation-mediated slip transfer and phonon-mediated heat transfer in nanocrystalline silicon bicrystal. Three most stable 〈110〉 tilt GBs in silicon are investigated. Under mechanical loading, the nucleation and growth of hexagonal-shaped shuffle dislocation loops are reproduced. The resistances of different GBs to slip transfer are quantified through their constitutive responses. Results show that the Σ3 coherent twin boundary (CTB) in silicon exhibits significantly higher resistance to dislocation motion than the Σ9 GB in glide symmetry and the Σ19 GB in mirror symmetry. The distinct GB strengths are explained by the atomistic details of the dislocation-GB interaction. Under thermal loading, based on a thermostat-induced heat pulse model, the resistances of the GBs to transient heat conduction in ballistic-diffusive regime are characterized. In contrast to the trend found in the dislocation-GB interaction in bicrystal models with different GBs, the resistances of the same three GBs to heat transfer are strikingly different. The strongest dislocation barrier Σ3 CTB is almost transparent to heat conduction, while the dislocation-permeable Σ9 and Σ19 GBs exhibit larger resistance to heat transfer. In addition, simulation results suggest that the GB thermal resistance not only depends on the GB energy but also on the detailed atomic structure along the GBs.

  19. Thermal adaptation generates a diversity of thermal limits in a rainforest ant community.

    PubMed

    Kaspari, Michael; Clay, Natalie A; Lucas, Jane; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Kay, Adam

    2015-03-01

    The Thermal Adaptation Hypothesis posits that the warmer, aseasonal tropics generates populations with higher and narrower thermal limits. It has largely been tested among populations across latitudes. However, considerable thermal heterogeneity exists within ecosystems: across 31 trees in a Panama rainforest, surfaces exposed to sun were 8 °C warmer and varied more in temperature than surfaces in the litter below. Tiny ectotherms are confined to surfaces and are variously submerged in these superheated boundary layer environments. We quantified the surface CTmin and CTmax s (surface temperatures at which individuals grew torpid and lost motor control, respectively) of 88 ant species from this forest; they ranged in average mass from 0.01 to 57 mg. Larger ants had broader thermal tolerances. Then, for 26 of these species we again tested body CTmax s using a thermal dry bath to eliminate boundary layer effects: body size correlations observed previously disappeared. In both experiments, consistent with Thermal Adaptation, CTmax s of canopy ants averaged 3.5-5 °C higher than populations that nested in the shade of the understory. We impaled thermocouples in taxidermy mounts to further quantify the factors shaping operative temperatures for four ant species representing the top third (1-30 mg) of the size distribution. Extrapolations suggest the smallest 2/3rds of species reach thermal equilibrium in <10s. Moreover, the large ants that walk above the convective superheated surface air also showed more net heating by solar radiation, with operative temperatures up to 4 °C higher than surrounding air. The thermal environments of this Panama rainforest generate a range of CTmax subsuming 74% of those previously recorded for ant populations worldwide. The Thermal Adaptation Hypothesis can be a powerful tool in predicting diversity of thermal limits within communities. Boundary layer temperatures are likely key to predicting the future of Earth's tiny terrestrial

  20. Boundary conditions in the vicinity of a dynamic contact line: experimental investigation of viscous drops sliding down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Daerr, A; Andreotti, B; Limat, L

    2005-01-21

    To probe the microscopic balance of forces close to a moving contact line, the boundary conditions around viscous drops sliding down an inclined plane are investigated. At first, the variation of the contact angle as a function of the scale of analysis is discussed. The dynamic contact angle is measured at a scale of 6 mum all around sliding drops for different volumes and speeds. We show that it depends only on the capillary number based on the local liquid velocity, measured by particle tracking. This velocity turns out to be normal to the contact line everywhere. It indirectly proves that, in comparison with the divergence involved in the normal direction, the viscous stress is not balanced by intermolecular forces in the direction tangential to the contact line, so that any motion in this last direction gets damped.

  1. Characterization of Boundary Layer Dynamics and Cloudiness Using an X-band Network During MC3E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, K. W.; Collis, S. M.; Chandra, A.; Borque, P.; Giangrande, S.; Kollias, P.

    2011-12-01

    Air motions within the boundary layer (BL) play an import role in convective initiation of shallow cumulus clouds. Yet there are few measurements that characterize the spatial and temporal scales of these motions. Recently, a network of scanning X-band radars have been deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement's Southern Great Plains site, which are sensitive enough to observe large cloud droplets and insects in addition to precipitating hydrometeors. Given the very fine spatial resolution of these radars within the BL, fine clear air structures can be resolved. In order to characterize BL dynamics (e.g. convergence lines), clear air motions were retrieved using a variational technique on radial velocities measured by the X-band network. This study looks at the evolution of BL air motions from clear sky conditions to convective initiation of shallow cumulus clouds during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E).

  2. Dynamics of the End-Face Boundary Layer and Hydraulic Resistance of a Vortex Chamber with a Side Swirler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrakhmanov, R. Kh.; Lukashov, V. V.; Makarov, M. S.; Naumkin, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    The results of experimental and numerical investigations of the effect exerted by air flow rate and flow twist angle on the dynamics of an end-face boundary layer in a diaphragmed vortex chamber with a multislit lateral swirler are presented. Data on the hydraulic resistance of the chamber have been obtained. It is shown that gas injection through the slits of the lateral swirler leads to the formation of flow in the chamber of the same structure as that formed as a result of the injection uniformly distributed over the side wall with a smaller twist angle if the static pressure losses in the chamber in both cases are equal. Generalization of the dependence of the hydraulic resistance of the chamber on the effective flow twist angle is obtained for the investigated range of Reynolds numbers.

  3. [Dynamics of colonies of the speckled ground squirrel (Spermophilus suslicus Guld., 1770) on the northern boundary of the habitat].

    PubMed

    Shilova, S A; Neronov, V V; Shekarova, O N; Savinetskaia, L E

    2010-01-01

    Results of studies in 1999-2009 of the dynamics of five isolated colonies of the speckled ground squirrel (Spermophilus suslicus) at the northern boundary of the habitat of this species (Zaraiskii area, Moscow oblast) are given. An abrupt decrease in the number of this species in colonies was established, as was a multifold decrease (up to 70-90%) in suitable habitats due to the plowing of meadows and build-up of the area. The fragmentation of the optimum habitat of ground squirrels reached a stage where colonies can no longer exist as a stable autonomous system. The process of their extinction unfolds quickly: the number of animals in some colonies decreased five-six times over the last ten years. To preserve this species, it is necessary to create areas of steppefied meadows with regulated agricultural use.

  4. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby J; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Holm, Jennifer; Jardine, Angela B; Fontes, Clarissa G; Zorzanelli, Raquel F; Meyers, Kimberly T; de Souza, Vinicius Fernadez; Garcia, Sabrina; Gimenez, Bruno O; Piva, Luani R de O; Higuchi, Niro; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Manzi, Antônio O

    2015-09-15

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C₅ and C₆ GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C₆ GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress.

  5. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Holm, Jennifer; Jardine, Angela B.; Fontes, Clarissa G.; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Meyers, Kimberly T.; de Souza, Vinicius Fernadez; Garcia, Sabrina; Gimenez, Bruno O.; de O. Piva, Luani R.; Higuchi, Niro; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Manzi, Antônio O.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C5 and C6 GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C6 GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress. PMID:27135346

  6. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  7. Linking mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and surface processes in the active plate boundary zones of eastern New Guinea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Moucha, R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Hoke, G. D.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Braun, J.; Rowley, D. B.; Insel, N.; Abers, G. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Eastern New Guinea lies within the rapidly obliquely converging Australian (AUS)- Pacific (PAC) plate boundary zone and is characterized by transient plate boundaries, rapidly rotating microplates and a globally significant geoid high. As the AUS plate moved northward in the Cenozoic, its leading edge has been a zone of subduction and arc accretion. The variety of tectonic settings in this region permits assessment of the complex interplay among mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and surface processes. Importantly, the timescale of tectonic events (e.g., subduction, (U)HP exhumation, seafloor spreading) are within the valid bounds of mantle convection models. A record of changes in bathymetry and topography are preserved in high standing mountain belts, exhumed extensional gneiss domes and core complexes, uplifted coral terraces, and marine sedimentary basins. Global seismic tomography models indicate accumulation of subducted slabs beneath eastern New Guinea at the bottom of the upper mantle (i.e., <660km depth). Some of the deeply subducted material may indeed be buoyant subducted AUS continental margin (to depths of ~250-300 km), as well as subducted continental material that has reached the point of no return (i.e., > 250-300 km). Preliminary global-scale backward advected mantle convection models, driven by density inferred from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography models, exhibit large-scale flow associated with these subducted slab remnants and predict the timing and magnitude (up to 1500 m) of dynamic topography change (both subsidence and uplift) since the Oligocene. In this talk we will explore the effects of large-scale background mantle flow and plate tectonics on the evolution of topography and bathymetry in eastern New Guinea, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain basin subsidence and surface uplift in the region.

  8. Asymptotic Dynamics of Self-driven Vehicles in a Closed Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Lun; Huang, Chia-Ling

    2011-08-01

    We study the asymptotic dynamics of self-driven vehicles in a loop using a car-following model with the consideration of volume exclusions. In particular, we derive the dynamical steady states for the single-cluster case and obtain the corresponding fundamental diagrams, exhibiting two branches representative of entering and leaving the jam, respectively. By simulations we find that the speed average over all vehicles eventually reaches the same value, regardless of final clustering states. The autocorrelation functions for overall speed average and single-vehicle speed are studied, each revealing a unique time scale. We also discuss the role of noises in vehicular accelerations. Based on our observations we give trial definitions about the degree of chaoticity for general self-driven many-body systems.

  9. The Mesoscale Organization, Dynamics, and Evolution of the Marine Planetary Boundary Layer during Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Bernard A., Jr.

    Satellite imagery along with aircraft data collected off the east coast of the U.S. and over the Bering Sea are used to study the evolution of organized mesoscale convection with fetch during cold air outbreaks. Comparisons between satellite photos of cloud formations during cold air outbreaks and results from Rayleigh -Benard laboratory experiments show a number of similarities. Satellite photos in general show three distinct regions offshore where particular mesoscale convective regimes dominate, while Rayleigh-Benard studies show a transition to different convective forms as the Rayleigh number is increased. Features associated with the increase of cloud stress spacing with fetch are suggestive of mechanisms which cause roll wavelengths to increase as the Rayleigh number is increased in Rayleigh -Benard studies. Off the east coast, rolls present upstream of the coastline were weakened just offshore but still provided a linearizing tendency to the dominant convective forms which were thermal plume-like structures with horizontal scales of 1.5 z(,i). Further offshore, two dimensional linear rolls with wavelengths of 4 z(,i) were dominant. The strengths of individual rolls were found to vary in the crosswind direction, such that the circulations of some rolls did not reach the top of the boundary layer. Aircraft data from over the Bering Sea show a different situation in that cloud streets present at the ice edge, although broadening with distance downstream, still maintain their two dimensional nature. The aircraft data both near the ice edge and further downstream, show organized roll circulations on scales in addition to those seen in the satellite photos. Calculation of an atmospheric Rayleigh number using a value of the eddy viscosity obtained from the aircraft data resulted in the placement of broad bounds on values of the atmospheric Rayleigh number for different convective regimes. Comparison of aircraft observations of boundary layer growth with fetch

  10. Dynamic sorting of lipids and proteins in membrane tubes with a moving phase boundary

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Michael; Tian, Aiwei; Esposito, Cinzia; Baumgart, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Cellular organelle membranes maintain their integrity, global shape, and composition despite vigorous exchange among compartments of lipids and proteins during trafficking and signaling. Organelle homeostasis involves dynamic molecular sorting mechanisms that are far from being understood. In contrast, equilibrium thermodynamics of membrane mixing and sorting, particularly the phase behavior of binary and ternary model membrane mixtures and its coupling to membrane mechanics, is relatively well characterized. Elucidating the continuous turnover of live cell membranes, however, calls for experimental and theoretical membrane models enabling manipulation and investigation of directional mass transport. Here we introduce the phenomenon of curvature-induced domain nucleation and growth in membrane mixtures with fluid phase coexistence. Membrane domains were consistently observed to nucleate precisely at the junction between a strongly curved cylindrical (tube) membrane and a pipette-aspirated giant unilamellar vesicle. This experimental geometry mimics intracellular sorting compartments, because they often show tubular-vesicular membrane regions. Nucleated domains at tube necks were observed to present diffusion barriers to the transport of lipids and proteins. We find that curvature-nucleated domains grow with characteristic parabolic time dependence that is strongly curvature-dependent. We derive an analytical model that reflects the observed growth dynamics. Numerically calculated membrane shapes furthermore allow us to elucidate mechanical details underlying curvature-dependent directed lipid transport. Our observations suggest a novel dynamic membrane sorting principle that may contribute to intracellular protein and lipid sorting and trafficking. PMID:20368457

  11. A railway track dynamics model based on modal substructuring and a cyclic boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, Luis; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a technique for modelling the coupled dynamics of a railway vehicle and the track. The method is especially useful for simulating the dynamics of high speed trains running on nonlinear tracks. The main hypothesis is a cyclic system: an infinite track on which there is an infinite set of identical vehicles spaced at a regular interval of distance. Thus the main problems of the finite-length track models (e.g. the waves that reflect at the end of the track and interact with the vehicle; and the time interval of integration must be shorter than the track length divided by the velocity) are avoided. The flexibility of the method can be observed from the case studies presented in the present work: a vehicle passing over a hanging sleeper, and the vehicle-track dynamics for different ballast compaction cases. The results show the influence of the hanging sleeper gap on the wheel-rail contact forces, and the bending moment at the sleeper for different ballast compaction cases.

  12. Main-chain metallopolymers at the static-dynamic boundary based on nickelocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Rebecca A.; Russell, Andrew D.; Hayward, Dominic W.; Whittell, George R.; Lawrence, Paul G.; Gates, Paul J.; Green, Jennifer C.; Manners, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Interactions between metal ions and ligands in metal-containing polymers involve two bonding extremes: persistent covalent bonding, in which the polymers are essentially static in nature, or labile coordination bonding, which leads to dynamic supramolecular materials. Main-chain polymetallocenes based on ferrocene and cobaltocene fall into the former category because of the presence of strong metal-cyclopentadienyl bonds. Herein, we describe a main-chain polynickelocene—formed by ring-opening polymerization of a moderately strained [3]nickelocenophane monomer—that can be switched between static and dynamic states because of the relatively weak nickel-cyclopentadienyl ligand interactions. This is illustrated by the observation that, at a low concentration or at an elevated temperature in a coordinating or polar solvent, depolymerization of the polynickelocene occurs. A study of this dynamic polymer-monomer equilibrium by 1H NMR spectroscopy allowed the determination of the associated thermodynamic parameters. Microrheology data, however, indicated that under similar conditions the polynickelocene is considered to be static on the shorter rheological timescale.

  13. Approaching a flat boundary with a block copolymer coated emulsion drop: late stage drainage dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew

    Understanding the dynamics of the formation and drainage of the thin fluid film that becomes trapped by a deformable droplet as it approaches another object is crucial to the advancement of many industrial and biomedical applications. Adding amphiphilic diblock copolymers, which are becoming more commonly used in drug delivery and oil recovery, only add to the complexity. Despite their increased use, little is known about how long polymer chains fill an emulsion drop's interface or how the molecules influence hydrodynamic processes. We study the drainage dynamics of a thin water film trapped between mica and a diblock copolymer saturated oil droplet. Specifically, we examine several different polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) molecules self-assembled at a toluene-water interface using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Our experiments reveal that the molecular details of the polymer chains deeply influence the drainage times, indicating that they are not acting as a 'simple' surfactant. The presence of the chains creates a much slower dynamic as fluid is forced to drain through an effective polymer brush, the brush itself determined by chain packing at the interface. We present a simple model which accounts for the basic physics of the interface.

  14. A test of alternative models of diversification in tropical rainforests: Ecological gradients vs. rainforest refugia

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christopher J.; Smith, Thomas B.; Larison, Brenda; Moritz, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of mitochondrial and morphological divergence in eight populations of a widespread leaf-litter skink is used to determine the relative importance of geographic isolation and natural selection in generating phenotypic diversity in the Wet Tropics Rainforest region of Australia. The populations occur in two geographically isolated regions, and within each region, in two different habitats (closed rainforest and tall open forest) that span a well characterized ecological gradient. Morphological differences among ancient geographic isolates (separated for several million years, judging by their mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence) were slight, but morphological and life history differences among habitats were large and occurred despite moderate to high levels of mitochondrial gene flow. A field experiment identified avian predation as one potential agent of natural selection. These results indicate that natural selection operating across ecological gradients can be more important than geographic isolation in similar habitats in generating phenotypic diversity. In addition, our results indicate that selection is sufficiently strong to overcome the homogenizing effects of gene flow, a necessary first step toward speciation in continuously distributed populations. Because ecological gradients may be a source of evolutionary novelty, and perhaps new species, their conservation warrants greater attention. This is particularly true in tropical regions, where most reserves do not include ecological gradients and transitional habitats. PMID:10570165

  15. On the dynamics of a tandem of asynchronous flapping wings: Lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the flight performance of a tandem of symmetric flapping wings immersed in a viscous fluid is investigated. A harmonic motion is imposed to the wings which can travel only in the vertical direction. Specifically, the attention focuses on the role of the initial phase difference. The fluid domain is modeled through the lattice Boltzmann method. In order to account for the presence of the wings immersed in the lattice fluid background, the immersed boundary method is adopted. Once fluid forces acting upon the wings are computed, their position is updated by solving the equation of solid motion by the time discontinuous Galerkin method according to a strategy already validated by the author. A wide numerical campaign is carried out by varying the initial phase difference. Moreover, scenarios accounting for the presence of a lateral wind gust are shown. The flight conditions and performance are discussed for a wide set of configurations and compared with an in-sync configuration, showing that the wind gust reduces the performance in certain scenarios.

  16. Vortex dynamics of a fluid near a boundary with a circular cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, E. A.; Izrailsky, Yu. G.; Koshel, K. V.

    2014-07-01

    The motion of a point vortex along a rectilinear boundary with a circle cavity, which models the coastline of a bay, and associated fluid particle advection are studied within a model of barotropic inviscid fluid. Using an analytical expression for the complex potential through which the velocity field is determined, we show that fluid particles start moving irregularly when the vortex is passing the cavity due to the nonstationarity of the velocity field generated by the vortex. Some of the fluid particles which were initially inside the vortex atmosphere leave it due to the irregularity and remain within the cavity vicinity. Depending on the initial position of the vortex and a parameter that determines the cavity size, the fraction of these fluid particles can differ significantly from fluid particles initially uniformly distributed within the vortex atmosphere. The escape of fluid particles from the vortex atmosphere is shown to be most efficient in the case of a relatively closed cavity under the condition that the initial vortex atmosphere area should be significantly smaller than the cavity area.

  17. Aerosol dynamics in the equatorial Pacific Marine boundary layer: Microphysics, diurnal cycles and entertainment

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A D; Litchy, M; Li, Z

    1996-04-01

    During July-August of 1994 the authors measured the size resolved physiochemical properties of aerosol particles at Christmas Island in the equatorial Pacific. In spite of rapid diurnal conversion of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) the authors found no evidence for new particle production in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and more than 95% of all particles were consistently larger than 0.02{mu}m diameter, indicating an aged aerosol number (size-distribution) was bimodal with peaks near 0.05{mu}m and 0.2{mu}m particle diameter (D{sub p}) and had a cloud-processed intermode minimum at about 0.09{mu}m that varied in phase with diurnal changes in ozone concentration. This suggests that the number distribution for condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation (CCN) was maintained by a quasiequilibrium between entrainment (estimated to be 0.6{+-}0.2 cm s{sup {minus}1}) from sources aloft and processes in the MBL. This implies a replenishment timescale for nuclei of about 2 and 4 days for this region. The stability of the distribution and the 0.09{mu}m cloud processed minima suggests trade winds cumulus supersaturations near 0.35% and updrafts near 1 m s{sup {minus}1}. 17 refs., 4 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Boundary dynamics and the statistical mechanics of the 2 + 1-dimensional black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, Máximo; Brotz, Thorsten; Ortiz, Miguel E.

    1999-04-01

    We calculate the density of states of the 2 + 1-dimensional BTZ black hole in the micro-and grand-canonical ensembles. Our starting point is the relation between 2 + 1-dimensional quantum gravity and quantised Chern-Simons theory. In the micro-canonical ensemble, we find the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy by relating a Kac-Moody algebra of global gauge charges to a Virasoro algebra with a classical central charge via a twisted Sugawara construction. This construction is valid at all values of the black hole radius. At infinity it gives the asymptotic isometries of the black hole, and at the horizon it gives an explicit form for a set of deformations of the horizon whose algebra is the same Virasoro algebra. In the grand-canonical ensemble we define the partition function by using a surface term at infinity that is compatible with fixing the temperature and angular velocity of the black hole. We then compute the partition function directly in a boundary Wess-Zumino-Witten theory, and find that we obtain the correct result only after we include a source term at the horizon that induces a non-trivial spin-structure on the WZW partition function.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of bedload transport using a local, dynamic boundary condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeeckle, M.W.; Nelson, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Temporally and spatially averaged models of bedload transport are inadequate to describe the highly variable nature of particle motion at low transport stages. The primary sources of this variability are the resisting forces to downstream motion resulting from the geometrical relation (pocket friction angle) of a bed grain to the grains that it rests upon, variability of the near-bed turbulent velocity field and the local modification of this velocity field by upstream, protruding grains. A model of bedload transport is presented that captures these sources of variability by directly integrating the equations of motion of each particle of a simulated mixed grain-size sediment bed. Experimental data from the velocity field downstream and below the tops of upstream, protruding grains are presented. From these data, an empirical relation for the velocity modification resulting from upstream grains is provided to the bedload model. The temporal variability of near-bed turbulence is provided by a measured near-bed time series of velocity over a gravel bed. The distribution of pocket friction angles results as a consequence of directly calculating the initiation and cessation of motion of each particle as a result of the combination of fluid forcing and interaction with other particles. Calculations of bedload flux in a uniform boundary and simulated pocket friction angles agree favourably with previous studies.

  20. Integrating canopy and large-scale effects in the convective boundary-layer dynamics during the CHATS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapkalijevski, Metodija M.; Ouwersloot, Huug G.; Moene, Arnold F.; Vilà-Guerau de Arrellano, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    By characterizing the dynamics of a convective boundary layer above a relatively sparse and uniform orchard canopy, we investigated the impact of the roughness-sublayer (RSL) representation on the predicted diurnal variability of surface fluxes and state variables. Our approach combined numerical experiments, using an atmospheric mixed-layer model including a land-surface-vegetation representation, and measurements from the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) field experiment near Dixon, California. The RSL is parameterized using an additional factor in the standard Monin-Obukhov similarity theory flux-profile relationships that takes into account the canopy influence on the atmospheric flow. We selected a representative case characterized by southerly wind conditions to ensure well-developed RSL over the orchard canopy. We then investigated the sensitivity of the diurnal variability of the boundary-layer dynamics to the changes in the RSL key scales, the canopy adjustment length scale, Lc, and the β = u*/|U| ratio at the top of the canopy due to their stability and dependence on canopy structure. We found that the inclusion of the RSL parameterization resulted in improved prediction of the diurnal evolution of the near-surface mean quantities (e.g. up to 50 % for the wind velocity) and transfer (drag) coefficients. We found relatively insignificant effects on the modelled surface fluxes (e.g. up to 5 % for the friction velocity, while 3 % for the sensible and latent heat), which is due to the compensating effect between the mean gradients and the drag coefficients, both of which are largely affected by the RSL parameterization. When varying Lc (from 10 to 20 m) and β (from 0.25 to 0.4 m), based on observational evidence, the predicted friction velocity is found to vary by up to 25 % and the modelled surface-energy fluxes (sensible heat, SH, and latent heat of evaporation, LE) vary up to 2 and 9 %. Consequently, the boundary-layer height varies up to

  1. Influence of boundary layer dynamics and isoprene chemistry on the organic aerosol budget in a tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, R. H. H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ganzeveld, L. N.; Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Pugh, T. A. M.

    2013-08-01

    We study the organic aerosol (OA) budget in a tropical forest by analyzing a case that is representative for the OP3 campaign at Borneo. A model is designed that combines the essential dynamical and chemical processes that drive the diurnal evolution of reactants in the atmospheric boundary layer (BL). In this way, the model simultaneously represents the effects and interactions of various dynamical and chemical factors on the OA budget. The model is able to reproduce the observed diurnal dynamics of the BL, including the evolution of most chemical species involved in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. A budget analysis of the contributions of the dynamic and chemical processes reveals the significance of the entrainment process in the diurnal evolution of SOA. Further, we perform a series of sensitivity analyses to determine the effect of meteorological forcings and isoprene chemical pathways on the OA budget. Subsidence and advection of cool air have opposing effects on the OA concentration, although both suppress BL growth. Recycling of the OH radical in the oxidation of isoprene may affect the amount of SOA that is formed, but must be understood better before its impact can be definitely determined. SOA formation from isoprene is calculated for both the low- and high-NOx pathway, with the latter dominating the isoprene peroxy radical chemistry. Finally, we study the significance of SOA formation through the reactive uptake of isoprene epoxydiols on acidic sulfate aerosol. Despite the incorporation of these new pathways, the OA concentration is systematically underestimated by about a factor of 2.

  2. Including local rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions into a 2-D regional-local flood modelling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2016-04-01

    Flood inundation models require appropriate boundary conditions to be specified at the limits of the domain, which commonly consist of upstream flow rate and downstream water level. These data are usually acquired from gauging stations on the river network where measured water levels are converted to discharge via a rating curve. Derived streamflow estimates are therefore subject to uncertainties in this rating curve, including extrapolating beyond the maximum observed ratings magnitude. In addition, the limited number of gauges in reach-scale studies often requires flow to be routed from the nearest upstream gauge to the boundary of the model domain. This introduces additional uncertainty, derived not only from the flow routing method used, but also from the additional lateral rainfall-runoff contributions downstream of the gauging point. Although generally assumed to have a minor impact on discharge in fluvial flood modeling, this local hydrological input may become important in a sparse gauge network or in events with significant local rainfall. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and the local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood inundation model is proposed. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated by applying a non-parametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations, while measured rainfall downstream from these locations is cascaded into a hydrological model to quantify additional inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these inputs and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Improvements in model performance when incorporating these processes are quantified using observed

  3. Singularities in Axisymmetric Free Boundaries for ElectroHydroDynamic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Mariana Smit Vega; Vărvărucă, Eugen; Weiss, Georg S.

    2016-11-01

    We consider singularities in the ElectroHydroDynamic equations. In a regime where we are allowed to neglect surface tension, and assuming that the free surface is given by an injective curve and that either the fluid velocity or the electric field satisfies a certain non-degeneracy condition, we prove that either the fluid region or the gas region is asymptotically a cusp. Our proofs depend on a combination of monotonicity formulas and a non-vanishing result by Caffarelli and Friedman. As a by-product of our analysis we also obtain a special solution with convex conical air-phase which we believe to be new.

  4. Universal short-time dynamics: Boundary functional renormalization group for a temperature quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiocchetta, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Diehl, Sebastian; Marino, Jamir

    2016-11-01

    We present a method to calculate short-time nonequilibrium universal exponents within the functional-renormalization-group scheme. As an example, we consider the classical critical dynamics of the relaxational model A after a quench of the temperature of the system and calculate the initial-slip exponent which characterizes the nonequilibrium universal short-time behavior of both the order parameter and correlation functions. The value of this exponent is found to be consistent with the result of a perturbative dimensional expansion and of Monte Carlo simulations in three spatial dimensions.

  5. Effect of solid boundaries on swimming dynamics of microorganisms in a viscoelastic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Li, G. -J.; Karimi, A.

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the effect of solid boundaries on the swimming behavior of a motile microorganism in viscoelastic media. Understanding the swimmer-wall hydrodynamic interactions is crucial to elucidate the adhesion of bacterial cells to nearby substrates which is precursor to the formation of the microbial biofilms. The microorganism is simulated using a squirmer model that captures the major swimming mechanisms of potential, extensile, and contractile types of swimmers, while neglecting the biological complexities. A Giesekus constitutive equation is utilized to describe both viscoelasticity and shear-thinning behavior of the background fluid. We found that the viscoelasticity strongly affects the near-wall motion of a squirmer by generating an opposing polymeric torque which impedes the rotation of the swimmer away from the wall. In particular, the time a neutral squirmer spends at the close proximity of the wall is shown to increase with polymer relaxation time and reaches a maximum at Weissenberg number of unity. The shear-thinning effect is found to