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Sample records for rakai district uganda

  1. Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services: Breaking Resistance to Access and Utilization among the Youths in Rakai District of Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebudde, Stephen; Nangendo, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary counseling and testing is important in controlling the spread of HIV, especially among adolescents. The aim is to describe the perceptions of adolescents of the best options to providing voluntary counseling and testing services to them in Rakai District Uganda. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among male and female…

  2. Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services: Breaking Resistance to Access and Utilization among the Youths in Rakai District of Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebudde, Stephen; Nangendo, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary counseling and testing is important in controlling the spread of HIV, especially among adolescents. The aim is to describe the perceptions of adolescents of the best options to providing voluntary counseling and testing services to them in Rakai District Uganda. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among male and female…

  3. Widows' and orphans' property disputes: the impact of AIDS in Rakai District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Roys, C

    1995-11-01

    The 1991 census identified 44,000 orphans in the Rakai District of Uganda. The Child Social Care Project (CSCP) in the district helps ensure that orphaned children under 18 years who have lost one or both parents to AIDS receive the property rights to which they are entitled. The property rights of widows are also championed by the CSCP. The project has enjoyed considerable success in settling individual disputes. The CSCP has also had some success in enabling communities to deal appropriately with the conflicts without recourse to experts. The author notes that while it is important to promote the empowerment of women, the phrase is so overused that it is in danger of becoming meaningless. That said, a vital aspect of empowerment is economic independence. The CSCP helps women claim the right to own property, land, and housing, as well as to care for their children in the attempt to give them some degree of economic control over their destiny and that of their children. The paper discusses widows' and orphans' property disputes in sections on wills, customary law, and statutory law. The CSCP is described followed by a case study and consideration of gender and legal reform.

  4. Barriers to use of antiretroviral drugs in Rakai district of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kunihira, N R; Nuwaha, F; Mayanja, R; Peterson, S

    2010-06-01

    About 75% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) who need antiretroviral therapy have no access to these drugs in low-income countries. To investigate the barriers to use of ART in Rakai district of Uganda. We interviewed 38 key informants and 384 PHAs. Data was collected on: education/mobilization for ART, sources of information for ART, beliefs regarding ART, social support, use of alternative medicine, stigma/discrimination towards PHAs, distance to ART centres, transport costs to ART centres, waiting time, and on suggestions as how to improve the use of ART. The major barriers mentioned regarding use of ART included: inadequate mobilization, long waiting time at ART treatment centres, high cost of transport to reach ART centres, stigma/discrimination towards PHAs and inadequate number of health workers to attend to PHAs. Access to antiretroviral therapy could be ameliorated by: improving community education using innovative approaches such as through music, dance and videos, increasing the number of providers who are able to provide ART as through engagement of non health professionals in ART care, bringing ART nearer to where people live and instituting measures aimed at reducing stigma/discrimination such as through involvement of PHAs in demystisfying HIV/AIDS.

  5. AIDS and agricultural production. Report of a land utilization survey, Masaka and Rakai districts of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S S; Bulirwa, E; Kisseka, E

    1993-07-01

    Increased AIDS mortality and other preexisting conditions have contributed to agricultural productivity declines in the districts of Masaka and Rakai in Uganda. These two districts were the most fertile in Uganda and also had the highest HIV seroprevalence rates in Africa. 66% of study households experienced land use decline to some extent over the past 5 years. The 11% decline in poultry production and 32% decline in cattle production was reportedly due to poor management and loss of grazing land from overpopulation and larger scale farms. The most frequently reported reasons for crop reductions were death and sickness; these was estimated as affecting 8% of families with children under 5 years in the study area. Morbidity and mortality as a reason for the decline was reported two times as much as poverty and decline in international coffee prices. Other reasons for loss of productivity were food shortages and insecurity, loss of income, and reduced ability to respond to educational and medical needs. Cassava is replacing the culturally preferred matooke banana as a crop that is more disease-, pest-, and drought resistant. The banana weevil has been a recent problem. Marginal farming systems have been the most affected by declines in land use and livestock production, but fertile areas have not been spared the impact from AIDS and adult mortality. Poverty has decreased the use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers in the districts. Policy has had an impact on agricultural practices: population growth and inheritance have added to loss of individual land holdings and contributed to fallow periods and infertility. Appropriate land management practices have not been adequately promoted in the agricultural extension service. Civil wars and the drop in coffee prices have reduced the number of farm laborers. Common grazing land has been turned over to large commercial ranches. Government should maintain research and monitoring of declines in food and cash crop

  6. Prevalence of Sexual Experience and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse among Adolescents, Rakai District, Uganda, 1994–2011

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John S.; Song, Xiaoyu; Holden, Inge K.; Wunder, Kristin; Zhong, Xiaobo; Wei, Ying; Mathur, Sanyukta; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Serwadda, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. Methods Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15–19 year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience and potential risk factors for sexual experience (n=21,742 person-round observations) using logistic regression. We then identified factors associated with initiation of sex between survey rounds, using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR, n=5126 person-year observations). Results Sexual experience was more common among adolescent women than men. The prevalence of sexual experience rose for most age-gender groups after 1994 and then declined after 2002. Factors associated with higher prevalence of sexual experience (without adjustment for other factors) included age, not enrolled in school, orphanhood, lower socioeconomic status, and drinking alcohol in the past 30 days; similar factors were associated with initiation of sex. Factors independently associated with initiation of sex included older age, non-enrollment in school (IRR=1.7 for women and 1.8 for men), alcohol use (IRR=1.3 for women and men), and being a double orphan among men (IRR=1.2). Sexual experience began to decline around 2000, while increases in school enrollment began as early as 1994 and declines in orphanhood occurred after 2004 (as ART became available). Conclusions Sexual experience among youth in Rakai was associated with social factors particularly school enrollment. Changes in these social factors also appear to influence change over time in sexual experience. PMID:26499857

  7. "They don't care what happens to us." The situation of double orphans heading households in Rakai District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dalen, Nina; Nakitende, Ann Jacqueline; Musisi, Seggane

    2009-01-01

    Background This article is based on information collected about the situation of double orphans who are heading households in Rakai District, Uganda. The information will be used as justification and guidance for planning actions to improve the situation of these and similar children. This research is thus the first step in an Action Research approach leading to specific interventions. The aim of this article is to describe the situation of these orphaned children, with an emphasis on the psychosocial challenges they face. Methods The study involved interviews, focus group discussions, observations and narratives. Forty-three heads of sibling-headed households participated. Information derived from informal discussions with local leaders is also included. The responses were analyzed using a modified version of Giorgi's psychological phenomenological method as described by Malterud [1]. Results Factors such as lack of material resources, including food and clothes, limited possibilities to attend school on a regular basis, vast responsibilities and reduced possibilities for social interaction all contribute to causing worries and challenges for the child heads of households. Most of the children claimed that they were stigmatized and, to a great extent, ignored and excluded from their community. The Local Council Secretary ("Chairman") seemed to be the person in the community most responsible and helpful, but some chairmen seemed not to care at all. The children requested counseling for themselves as well as for community members because they experienced lack of understanding from other children and from adult community members. Conclusion The children experienced their situation as a huge and complex problem for themselves as well as for people in their villages. However, the situation might improve if actions focused on practical and psychological issues as well as on sensitization about the children's situation could be initiated. In addition to the fact that

  8. Medical male circumcision coverage in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangrong; Kigozi, Godfrey; Ssekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Chang, Larry W; Latkin, Carl; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald H

    2017-03-13

    We assessed medical male circumcision (MMC) scale-up in Rakai, Uganda using population-based surveys during 2007-2014. MMC coverage increased from 28.5 to 52.0%. Coverage was initially lower in 15-19-year-olds but increased in 2014, was higher in married men and in trading communities, and lowest in the sexually inactive. Coverage did not vary by self-perceived risk of HIV or HIV serostatus. Increasing generalized coverage suggested that MMC became normative, but coverage falls short of WHO/Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 80% targets, indicating the need for demand generation.

  9. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  10. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A.; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies. PMID:28835911

  11. Epidemic O'Nyong-Nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic studies in Bbaale village, Rakai District.

    PubMed

    Lutwama, J J; Kayondo, J; Savage, H M; Burkot, T R; Miller, B R

    1999-07-01

    Entomologic studies were conducted between January 27 and February 2, 1997, in Bbaale village in southcentral Uganda during an o'nyong-nyong (ONN) virus epidemic, which began in mid 1996 and continued into 1997. The objectives were to confirm the role of anophelines in ONN virus transmission and to examine other mosquito species as epidemic vectors of ONN virus. Of 10,050 mosquitoes collected using light traps and pyrethrum knockdown sprays, Anopheles (Cellia) funestus Giles was presumed to be the principal vector because it was the most abundant mosquito species from which a strain of ONN virus was isolated. This virus was isolated for the first time from a culicine species, Mansonia (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald. Bwamba virus and Nyando virus were also isolated from An. funestus.

  12. Hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive medication utilisation among HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sander, Laura D; Newell, Kevin; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Mondo, George; Reynolds, Steven

    2015-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypertension, elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among HIV-positive individuals in rural Rakai District, Uganda. We assessed 426 HIV-positive individuals in Rakai, Uganda from 2007 to 2010. Prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure assessed by clinical measurement was compared to clinician-recorded hypertension in case report forms. Multiple logistic regression and z-tests were used to examine the association of hypertension and elevated blood pressure with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), CD4 cell count and antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. For individuals on antihypertensives, medication utilisation was reviewed. The prevalence of hypertension (two elevated blood pressure readings at different time points) was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.4-10.6%), and that of elevated blood pressure (one elevated blood pressure reading) was 26.3% (95% CI: 22.1-30.5%). Age ≥50 years and higher BMI were positively associated with elevated blood pressure. ART use, time on ART and CD4 cell count were not associated with hypertension. Eighty-three percent of subjects diagnosed with hypertension were on antihypertensive medications, most commonly beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers. Hypertension is common among HIV-positive individuals in rural Uganda. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Intimate partner violence as a predictor of marital disruption in rural Rakai, Uganda: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jennifer A; Charvat, Blake; Thoma, Marie E; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Nalugoda, Fred; Ssekasanvu, Joseph; Kigozi, Grace; Serwadda, David; Kagaayi, Joseph; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald H

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and union disruption (divorce or separation) in the rural Ugandan setting of Rakai District. We analyzed longitudinal data collected from April 1999 to June 2006, from 6834 women (15-49 years) living in 50 communities in Rakai. Participants were either officially married, traditionally married or in a consensual union during one or more surveys and completed at least one follow-up survey. The primary outcome was union disruption through divorce or separation from the primary sexual partner. Past year IPV ranged from 6.49 % (severe physical abuse) to 31.99 % (emotional abuse). Severe physical IPV was significantly associated with divorce/separation, after adjusting for other covariates (aOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.01-3.22). Another predictor of union disruption was a woman having two or more sexual partners in the past year (aOR = 8.42, 95 % CI 5.97-11.89). Factors protecting against divorce/separation included an increasing number of co-resident biological children and longer duration of union. IPV, particularly severe physical abuse, is an important risk factor for union disruption. Marital counseling, health education and interventions should address the role of IPV on the wellbeing of women and the stability of couples in Uganda.

  14. Family structure effects on early sexual debut among adolescent girls in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the association between household family structure and early sexual debut among adolescent girls, ages 15-19, in rural Rakai District, Uganda. Early sexual debut is associated with detrimental physical, emotional and social outcomes, including increased risk of HIV. However, research on the family's role on adolescents' sexual risk behaviors in sub-Sahara Africa has been minimal and rarely takes into account the varying family structures within which African adolescents develop. Using six rounds of survey data (2001-2008) from the Rakai Community Cohort Study, unmarried adolescent girls (n=1940) aged 15-17 at their baseline survey, were followed until age 19. Parametric survival models showed that compared to adolescent girls living with both biological parents, girls who headed their own household and girls living with step-fathers, grandparents, siblings, or other relatives had significantly higher hazards of early sexual debut before age 16. Adolescent girls were significantly more likely to debut sexually if neither parent resided in the household, either due to death or other reasons. In addition, absence of the living biological father from the home was associated with higher risk of sexual debut, regardless of the biological mother's presence in the home. Our study's findings suggest that family structure is important to adolescent girls' sexual behavior. There is need for research to understand the underlying processes, interactions and dynamics of both low and high risk family structures in order to devise and strategically target interventions targeted for specific types of family structures. PMID:25317199

  15. Mobility among youth in Rakai, Uganda: Trends, characteristics, and associations with behavioural risk factors for HIV.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Ashley C; Edelstein, Zoe R; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David M; Santelli, John S

    2015-08-27

    Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999 to 2011 (N = 112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003 to 2008 (N = 18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV-risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV-risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions.

  16. Mobility among youth in Rakai, Uganda: Trends, characteristics, and associations with behavioural risk factors for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Ashley C.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.; Santelli, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999-2011 (N=112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003-2008 (N=18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions. PMID:26313708

  17. Penile Microbiota and Female Partner Bacterial Vaginosis in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, Bruce A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Ravel, Jacques; Prodger, Jessica L.; Serwadda, David; Kigozi, Godfrey; Galiwango, Ronald M.; Nalugoda, Fred; Keim, Paul; Wawer, Maria J.; Price, Lance B.; Gray, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal bacterial imbalance associated with risk for HIV and poor gynecologic and obstetric outcomes. Male circumcision reduces BV-associated bacteria on the penis and decreases BV in female partners, but the link between penile microbiota and female partner BV is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that having a female partner with BV increases BV-associated bacteria in uncircumcised men. We characterized penile microbiota composition and density (i.e., the quantity of bacteria per swab) by broad-coverage 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 165 uncircumcised men from Rakai, Uganda. Associations between penile community state types (CSTs) and female partner’s Nugent score were assessed. We found seven distinct penile CSTs of increasing density (CST1 to 7). CST1 to 3 and CST4 to 7 were the two major CST groups. CST4 to 7 had higher prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria, such as Mobiluncus and Dialister, than CST1 to 3. Men with CST4 to 7 were significantly more likely to have a female partner with a high Nugent score (P = 0.03). Men with two or more extramarital partners were significantly more likely to have CST4 to 7 than men with only marital partners (CST4 to 7 prevalence ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 2.92). Female partner Nugent BV is significantly associated with penile microbiota. Our data support the exchange of BV-associated bacteria through intercourse, which may explain BV recurrence and persistence. PMID:26081632

  18. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-27

    hepatotoxicity: a case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements . World J Gastroenterol 14: 6999–7004. 5. Teschke R, Fuchs J, Bahre...Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda Brandon J. Auerbach1,2*, Steven J. Reynolds3,4, Mohammed...Background: Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known

  19. Telecommunications and health Care: an HIV/AIDS warmline for communication and consultation in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry William; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Galiwango, Ronald; Mulamba, Jeremiah; Ludigo, James; Ruwangula, Andrew; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Bollinger, Robert C; Reynolds, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    Hotlines and warmlines have been successfully used in the developed world to provide clinical advice; however, reports on their replicability in resource-limited settings are limited. A warmline was established in Rakai, Uganda, to support an antiretroviral therapy program. Over a 17-month period, a database was kept of who called, why they called, and the result of the call. A program evaluation was also administered to clinical staff. A total of 1303 calls (3.5 calls per weekday) were logged. The warmline was used mostly by field staff and peripherally based peer health workers. Calls addressed important clinical issues, including the need for urgent care, medication side effects, and follow-up needs. Most clinical staff felt that the warmline made their jobs easier and improved the health of patients. An HIV/AIDS warmline leveraged the skills of a limited workforce to provide increased access to HIV/AIDS care, advice, and education.

  20. HIV type 1 genetic variation in foreskin and blood from subjects in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Galiwango, Ronald M; Lamers, Susanna L; Redd, Andrew D; Manucci, Jordyn; Tobian, Aaron A R; Sewankambo, Nelson; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Serwadda, David; Boaz, Iga; Nalugoda, Fred; Sullivan, David J; Kong, Xiangrong; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The foreskin contains a subset of dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that may be targets for initial HIV infection in female-to-male sexual transmission of HIV-1. We present analyses comparing HIV-1 sequences isolated from foreskin DNA and serum RNA in 12 heterosexual men enrolled in an adult male circumcision trial performed in Rakai, Uganda. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated three topologies: (1) little divergence between foreskin and serum, (2) multiple genetic bottlenecks occurring in both foreskin and serum, and (3) complete separation of foreskin and serum populations. The latter tree topology provided evidence that foreskin may serve as a reservoir for distinct HIV-1 strains. Distance and recombination analysis also demonstrated that viral genotypes in the foreskin might segregate independently from the circulating pool of viruses.

  1. HIV Type 1 Genetic Variation in Foreskin and Blood from Subjects in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Galiwango, Ronald M.; Lamers, Susanna L.; Redd, Andrew D.; Manucci, Jordyn; Tobian, Aaron A.R.; Sewankambo, Nelson; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Serwadda, David; Boaz, Iga; Nalugoda, Fred; Sullivan, David J.; Kong, Xiangrong; Wawer, Maria J.; Gray, Ronald H.; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The foreskin contains a subset of dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that may be targets for initial HIV infection in female-to-male sexual transmission of HIV-1. We present analyses comparing HIV-1 sequences isolated from foreskin DNA and serum RNA in 12 heterosexual men enrolled in an adult male circumcision trial performed in Rakai, Uganda. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated three topologies: (1) little divergence between foreskin and serum, (2) multiple genetic bottlenecks occurring in both foreskin and serum, and (3) complete separation of foreskin and serum populations. The latter tree topology provided evidence that foreskin may serve as a reservoir for distinct HIV-1 strains. Distance and recombination analysis also demonstrated that viral genotypes in the foreskin might segregate independently from the circulating pool of viruses. PMID:21902587

  2. Telecommunications and Health Care: An HIV/AIDS Warmline for Communication and Consultation in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Larry William; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Galiwango, Ronald; Mulamba, Jeremiah; Ludigo, James; Ruwangula, Andrew; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Reynolds, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Hotlines and warmlines have been successfully used in the developed world to provide clinical advice; however, reports on their replicability in resource-limited settings are limited. A warmline was established in Rakai, Uganda, to support an antiretroviral therapy program. Over a 17-month period, a database was kept of who called, why they called, and the result of the call. A program evaluation was also administered to clinical staff. A total of 1303 calls (3.5 calls per weekday) were logged. The warmline was used mostly by field staff and peripherally based peer health workers. Calls addressed important clinical issues, including the need for urgent care, medication side effects, and follow-up needs. Most clinical staff felt that the warmline made their jobs easier and improved the health of patients. An HIV/AIDS warmline leveraged the skills of a limited workforce to provide increased access to HIV/AIDS care, advice, and education. PMID:18441254

  3. Intimate partner violence and communication of HIV diagnosis in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kairania, Robert; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Wagman, Jennifer; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Musoke, Richard; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Semanda, John; Sembatya, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who communicate their HIV diagnosis to sexual partners may be at increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). The authors examined past year self-reported IPV associated with communication of HIV diagnosis and other factors, in a sample of 679 sexually active; HIV-positive individuals age 18 to 49, who received HIV results and posttest counselling 12 months or more prior to the survey in Rakai, Uganda, using log-binomial multivariable regression. The rates of verbal and physical abuse among married individuals were significantly higher compared to unmarried persons, respectively. Physical abuse was significantly higher among women compared to men. IPV was not significantly associated with communication of HIV diagnosis. Interventions to prevent IPV among married HIV-positive individuals particularly women, at the community level, are needed.

  4. Sexual Coercion among Adolescent Women in Rakai, Uganda: Does Family Structure Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred K.; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on adolescent girls’ vulnerability to sexual coercion in sub-Saharan Africa have focused mainly on individual and partner risk factors, rarely investigating the role the family might play in their vulnerability. This study examined whether household family structure and parental vital status were associated with adolescent girls’ risk of sexual coercion in Rakai, Uganda. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk of sexual coercion in the prior twelve months among 1985 unmarried and married adolescent girls aged 15–19 who were participants in the Rakai Community Cohort Study between 2001 and 2008. Among sexually active girls, 11% reported coercion in a given past year. Unexpectedly, living with a single mother was protective against experiencing coercion. 4.1% of never-married girls living with single mothers reported coercion, compared to 7.8% of girls living with biological fathers (adjRR 2.24; 95% CI: 0.98–5.08) and 20% of girls living in step-father households (adjRR 4.73; 95% CI: 1.78–12.53). Ever-married girls whose mothers alone were deceased were more likely to report coercion than those with both parents alive (adjRR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.08–2.30). Protecting adolescent girls from sexual coercion requires prevention approaches which incorporate the family, with particular emphasis on including the men that affect young girls’ sexual development into prevention efforts. Understanding the family dynamics underlying the risk and protective effects of a given household structure might highlight new ways in which to prevent sexual coercion. PMID:23295373

  5. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected and uninfected patients in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Deanna; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakasujja, Noeline; Robertson, Kevin; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Sacktor, Ned

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and functional impairment associated with peripheral neuropathy in a prospective cohort of adults in rural Uganda. Eight hundred participants (400 HIV- and 400 antiretroviral-naive HIV+) in the Rakai Community Cohort Study underwent detailed neurologic evaluations including assessment of neuropathy symptoms, functional measures (Patient Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Karnofsky Performance Status scores), and neurologic evaluation by a trained medical officer. Neuropathy was defined as ≥1 subjective symptom and ≥1 sign of neuropathy on examination. Neuropathy risk factors were assessed using log binomial regression. Fifty-three percent of participants were men, with a mean (SD) age of 35 (8) years. Neuropathy was present in 13% of the cohort and was more common in HIV+ vs HIV- participants (19% vs 7%, p < 0.001). Older age (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), female sex (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04-2.15), HIV infection (RR 2.82, 95% CI 1.86-4.28), tobacco use (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.02-2.48), and prior neurotoxic medication use (RR 2.08, 95% CI 1.07-4.05) were significant predictors of neuropathy in the overall cohort. Only older age was associated with neuropathy risk in the HIV+ (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and HIV- (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10) cohorts. Neuropathy was associated with impaired functional status on multiple measures across all participant groups. Peripheral neuropathy is relatively common and associated with impaired functional status among adults in rural Uganda. Older age, female sex, and HIV infection significantly increase the risk of neuropathy. Neuropathy may be an underrecognized but important condition in rural Uganda and warrants further study. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Community understandings of and responses to gender equality and empowerment in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.

  7. Trends in the Marginal Cost of Male Circumcision in Rural Rakai Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Yira N; Bishai, David; Nantongo, Agnes; Kakembo, Rebecca; Kobusinge, Sarah; Kacker, Seema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald

    2016-12-15

    Male circumcision (MC) is an effective intervention to reduce HIV acquisition in men in Africa. We conducted a cost analysis using longitudinal data on expenditures on services and community mobilization to estimate the marginal cost of MC over time and understand cost drivers during scale-up. We used a time series with monthly records from 2008 to 2013, for a total of 72 monthly observations, from the Rakai MC Program in Uganda. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the marginal cost of an MC procedure. The marginal cost per MC in a mobile camp was $23 (P < 0.01) and in static facilities was $35 (P < 0.1). Major cost drivers included supplies in mobile camps with increasing numbers of surgeries, savings due to task shifting from physicians to clinical officers, and increased efficiency as personnel became more experienced. As scale-up continues, marginal costs may increase because of mobilization needed for less motivated late adopters, but improved efficiency could contain costs.

  8. Determinants of fertility desire among married or cohabiting individuals in Rakai, Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Matovu, Joseph K B; Makumbi, Fredrick; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Serwadda, David

    2017-01-10

    Recent trends in fertility rates indicate declines in total fertility rate (TFR) in some sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries such as Uganda continue to have a persistently high TFR partly attributed to strong preferences for large family sizes. We explored the factors that influence fertility desire among married or cohabiting individuals in Rakai, a rural district in southwestern Uganda. This cross-sectional study of fertility desire (desire to have another child) was nested in a cluster-randomized demand-creation intervention trial for the promotion of couples' HIV counseling and testing uptake among married or cohabiting individuals that was conducted in Rakai district between March 1 and April 30, 2015. A total of 1490 married or cohabiting individuals, resident in three study regions with differing background HIV prevalence, were enrolled into the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic, behavioral and fertility-related characteristics. We used a modified Poisson regression model to generate prevalence ratio (PR) as a measure of association for factors that were independently associated with fertility desire. We adjusted for clustering at community level and used STATA version 14.0 for all analyses. Overall, fertility desire was high (63.1%, n = 940); higher in men (69.9%, n = 489) than women (57.1%, n = 451). More than three-quarters (78.8%, n = 1174) had 3+ biological children while slightly more than two-thirds (68.5%, n = 1020) reported an ideal family size of 5+ children. Only 30% (n = 452) reported that they had attained their desired family size. After adjusting for potential and suspected confounders, the factors that were negatively associated with fertility desire were: age 30-39 (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.86) and 40+ years (aPR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.71); having six or more biological children (aPR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.97); being HIV-positive (aPR = 0

  9. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p = 0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p = 0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p = 0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p = 0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda

  10. Behavioral, Biological, and Demographic Risk and Protective Factors for New HIV Infections among Youth, Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wei, Ying; Zhang, Wenfei; Orr, Mark G.; Higgins, Jenny A.; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of HIV infection is considerable among youth, although data on risk factors for new (incident) infections is limited. We examined incidence of HIV infection and risk and protective factors among youth in rural Uganda, including the role of gender and social transitions. Methods Participants were sexually experienced youth (15–24 years-old) enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study,1999–2008 (n=6741). Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident HIV infection. Results HIV incidence was greater among young women than young men (14.1 vs. 8.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively); this gender disparity was greater among teens (14.9 vs. 3.6). Beyond behavioral (multiple partners and concurrency) and biological factors (sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms), social transitions such as marriage and staying in school influenced HIV risk. In multivariate analyses among women, HIV incidence was associated with living in a trading village [adjusted IRR (aIRR) = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.11], being a student (aIRR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.72), current marriage (aIRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.81), former marriage (aIRR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.96), having multiple partners, and sexually transmitted infection symptoms. Among men, new infections were associated with former marriage (aIRR = 5.57; 95% CI: 2.51 to 12.36), genital ulceration (aIRR = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.97 to 6.41), and alcohol use (aIRR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.77). Conclusions During the third decade of the HIV epidemic in Uganda, HIV incidence remains considerable among youth, with young women particularly at risk. The risk for new infections was strongly shaped by social transitions such as leaving school, entrance into marriage, and marital dissolution; the impact of marriage was different for young men than women. PMID:23535293

  11. The Safety of Adult Male Circumcision in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Men in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David; Makumbi, Frederick; Watya, Stephen; Nalugoda, Fred; Kiwanuka, Noah; Moulton, Lawrence H; Chen, Michael Z; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Bacon, Melanie C; Ridzon, Renee; Opendi, Pius; Sempijja, Victor; Settuba, Absolom; Buwembo, Denis; Kiggundu, Valerian; Anyokorit, Margaret; Nkale, James; Kighoma, Nehemia; Charvat, Blake

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to compare rates of adverse events (AEs) related to male circumcision (MC) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men in order to provide guidance for MC programs that may provide services to HIV-infected and uninfected men. Methods and Findings A total of 2,326 HIV-negative and 420 HIV-positive men (World Health Organization [WHO] stage I or II and CD4 counts > 350 cells/mm3) were circumcised in two separate but procedurally identical trials of MC for HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection prevention in rural Rakai, Uganda. Participants were followed at 1–2 d and 5–9 d, and at 4–6 wk, to assess surgery-related AEs, wound healing, and resumption of intercourse. AE risks and wound healing were compared in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. Adjusted odds ratios (AdjORs) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for baseline characteristics and postoperative resumption of sex. At enrollment, HIV-positive men were older, more likely to be married, reported more sexual partners, less condom use, and higher rates of sexually transmitted disease symptoms than HIV-negative men. Risks of moderate or severe AEs were 3.1/100 and 3.5/100 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively (AdjOR 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–1.74). Infections were the most common AEs (2.6/100 in HIV-positive versus 3.0/100 in HIV-negative men). Risks of other complications were similar in the two groups. The proportion with completed healing by 6 wk postsurgery was 92.7% in HIV-positive men and 95.8% in HIV-negative men (p = 0.007). AEs were more common in men who resumed intercourse before wound healing compared to those who waited (AdjOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05–2.33). Conclusions Overall, the safety of MC was comparable in asymptomatic HIV-positive and HIV-negative men, although healing was somewhat slower among the HIV infected. All men should be strongly counseled to refrain from intercourse until full wound

  12. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic: an observational epidemiologic study of agrarian, trading, and fishing communities in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Larry W; Grabowski, Mary K; Ssekubugu, Robert; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nantume, Betty; Lessler, Justin; Moore, Sean M; Quinn, Thomas C; Reynolds, Steven J; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Understanding the extent to which HIV burden differs across communities and the drivers of local disparities is critical for an effective and targeted HIV response. We assessed community-level variations in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and treatment and prevention service uptake in Rakai, Uganda. Methods The Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) is an open, population-based cohort surveying persons aged 15–49 in 40 communities. Participants are HIV tested and interviewed to obtain sociodemographic, behavioral, and health information. RCCS data from August 2011 to May 2013 were used to classify communities as agrarian (n=27), trading (n=9), or lakeside fishing sites (n=4). HIV prevalence was mapped using Bayesian methods, and variability across and within community classifications was characterized. Differences in HIV risk factors and uptake of antiretroviral therapy and male circumcision between community types were assessed. Findings 17,119 individuals were included; 9215 (54%) were female. 9931 participants resided in agrarian, 3318 in trading, and 3870 in fishing communities. There was large variation in HIV prevalence, ranging from 9% to 43% across communities. Fishing communities had a higher median HIV prevalence (41%, range: 37–43%) compared to trading (17%, range: 11–22%) and agrarian communities (14%, range: 9–26%); ART and male circumcision coverage were significantly lower in fishing communities. Self-reported risk behaviors were significantly higher in men compared to women and in fishing communities compared to other community types. Interpretation There is substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and service uptake across communities within one region of Uganda. These findings underscore the need for local surveillance and have important implications for the design of targeted HIV responses. In particular, the extremely high HIV burden and risk behaviors, and low use of combination HIV prevention in fishing

  13. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in agrarian, trading, and fishing communities in Rakai, Uganda: an observational epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Grabowski, Mary K; Ssekubugu, Robert; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nantume, Betty; Lessler, Justin; Moore, Sean M; Quinn, Thomas C; Reynolds, Steven J; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the extent to which HIV burden differs across communities and the drivers of local disparities is crucial for an effective and targeted HIV response. We assessed community-level variations in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and treatment and prevention service uptake in Rakai, Uganda. The Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) is an open, population-based cohort of people aged 15-49 years in 40 communities. Participants are HIV tested and interviewed to obtain sociodemographic, behavioural, and health information. RCCS data from Aug 10, 2011, to May 30, 2013, were used to classify communities as agrarian (n=27), trading (n=9), or lakeside fishing sites (n=4). We mapped HIV prevalence with Bayesian methods, and characterised variability across and within community classifications. We also assessed differences in HIV risk factors and uptake of antiretroviral therapy and male circumcision between community types. 17 119 individuals were included, 9215 (54%) of whom were female. 9931 participants resided in agrarian, 3318 in trading, and 3870 in fishing communities. Median HIV prevalence was higher in fishing communities (42%, range 38-43) than in trading (17%, 11-21) and agrarian communities (14%, 9-26). Antiretroviral therapy use was significantly lower in both men and women in fishing communities than in trading (age-adjusted prevalence risk ratio in men 0·64, 95% CI 0·44-0·97; women 0·53, 0·42-0·66) and agrarian communities (men 0·55, 0·42-0·72; women 0·65, 0·54-0·79), as was circumcision coverage among men (vs trading 0·48, 0·42-0·55; vs agrarian 0·64, 0·56-0·72). Self-reported risk behaviours were significantly higher in men than in women and in fishing communities than in other community types. Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and service uptake in Rakai, Uganda, emphasises the need for local surveillance and the design of targeted HIV responses. High HIV burden, risk behaviours, and low use of combination

  14. Impact of availability and use of ART/PMTCT services on fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Lindsay E.; Makumbi, Frederick E.; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess fertility desires by availability and use of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai, Uganda. Design Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Methods Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai was defined in three periods: 1) Pre-ART/PMTCT (<2005), 2) ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-06), and 3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by chi-square. “Modified” Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRR were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. Results 4,227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout (adjusted PRR: 1.08, CI: 1.04-1.13) and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, CI: 1.08-1.14) compared to pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and non-users in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, CI: 0.62-1.14) and one year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, CI: 0.83-1.94). Conclusion Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women. PMID:25835605

  15. Use of HIV-related services and modern contraception among women of reproductive age, Rakai Uganda.

    PubMed

    Makumbi, Fredrick; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Kagayi, Joseph; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Settuba, Absalom; Serwada, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald

    2010-12-01

    Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and HIV care (HIVC) can be an opportunity for reproductive health messages and services integration. The objective of this study is to assess the association between uptake of HIV-related services and use of modern contraception among reproductive-age women. Data are derived from community cohort data, where HIV+ respondents were referred to the Rakai Health Sciences program's HIVC clinic. Use of modern contraceptive and VCT receipt were by self-report. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk ratios (RRR) of contraception use by HIVC and VCT. Receipt of VCT was significantly associated with higher use of condoms for FP, adj.RRR 1.78 (1.07, 2.95), and other modern contraceptives, adj.RRR = 1.56(1.15, 2.11). Increasing level of HIVC was associated with decreasing level of unmet need for contraception. Use of condoms for family planning is common among HIV-related services attendees. Utilization of other modern contraceptive methods needs to be increased.

  16. Trends and Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Concordance Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive and -Negative Heterosexual Couples in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mary K; Gravitt, Patti E; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kong, Xiangrong; Nalugoda, Fred; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2017-03-01

    Limited data are available on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative or HIV-positive couples followed longitudinally. Genital HPV was assessed in 725 concordant HIV-negative couples and 209 HIV-positive couples enrolled in a male circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda, using the Roche Linear Array assay, which detects 37 HPV genotypes. Human papillomavirus prevalence and determinants of genotype-specific concordance were assessed at annual visits. Cumulative detection of HPV genotypes over 2 years was also assessed. At enrollment, HPV infection was detected in 54% of HIV-negative women, 56% of HIV-negative men, and 93% of HIV-positive men and women. For HIV-negative couples, genotypic concordance was 30% at baseline (n = 219/725) and declined significantly with age (adjusted prevelance risk ratio [adjPRR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28-0.93 comparing women aged >40 years to those aged 15-19 years) and male circumcision (adjPRR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.47-0.77) and increased among couples with recent intercourse (adjPRR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.04-1.53). These associations were not seen in HIV-positive couples. Among couples with HPV results at all visits, ≥1 of the same genotypes were detected in both partners in 60% of HIV-negative couples and 96% of HIV-positive couples over 2 years. Human papillomavirus genotype-specific concordance is more common in HIV-positive couples, and irrespective of HIV status, the majority of couples exhibit HPV concordance over 2 years.

  17. Multilingual Cultural Resources in Child-Headed Families in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual cultural…

  18. Designing and usage of a low-cost penile model for male medical circumcision skills training in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, Godfrey; Nkale, James; Wawer, Maria; Anyokorit, Margaret; Watya, Stephen; Nalugoda, Fred; Kagaayi, Joseph; Kiwanuka, Noah; Mwinike, Joshua; Kighoma, Nehemiah; Nalwoga, Grace K; Nakigozi, Gertrude F; Katwalo, Henry; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H

    2011-06-01

    To describe the designing and usage of a locally made low-cost penile model used for male medical circumcision (MMC) skills training. The Rakai MMC training team has experienced a number of challenges during conduct of MMC skills training, one of which was the lack of a model to use for MMC skills training. To address this challenge, the Rakai MMC skills training team has designed and developed a low-cost penile model for use in MMC skills training. The model has been successfully used to demonstrate external penile anatomy, to describe the biological mechanisms through which male circumcision (MC) prevents HIV acquisition, and for demonstration and practice of the MMC procedures. With an initial cost of only $10 and a recurrent cost of $5, this is a cost-efficient and useful penile model that provides a simulation of normal penile anatomy for use in MC training in resource-limited settings. It has also been used as a visual aid in preoperative education of patients before receiving male circumcision. The model can be improved and scaled up to develop cheaper commercial penile models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of changes in risk behaviors during 3 years of posttrial follow-up of male circumcision trial participants uncircumcised at trial closure in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangrong; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Musoke, Richard; Kagaayi, Joseph; Latkin, Carl; Ssekubugu, Robert; Lutalo, Tom; Nantume, Betty; Boaz, Iga; Wawer, Maria; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald

    2012-11-15

    Risk compensation associated with male circumcision has been a concern for male circumcision scale-up programs. Using posttrial data collected during 2007-2011 on 2,137 male circumcision trial participants who were uncircumcised at trial closure in Rakai, Uganda, the authors evaluated their sexual behavioral changes during approximately 3 years' follow-up after trial closure. Eighty-one percent of the men self-selected for male circumcision during the period, and their sociodemographic and risk profiles were comparable to those of men remaining uncircumcised. Linear models for marginal probabilities of repeated outcomes estimate that 3.3% (P < 0.0001) of the male circumcision acceptors reduced their engagement in nonmarital relations, whereas there was no significant change among men remaining uncircumcised. Significant decreases in condom use occurred in both male circumcision acceptors (-9.2% with all partners and -7.0% with nonmarital partners) and nonacceptors (-12.4% and -13.5%, respectively), and these were predominantly among younger men. However, the magnitudes of decrease in condom use were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Additionally, significant decreases in sex-related alcohol consumption were observed in both groups (-7.8% in male circumcision acceptors and -6.1% in nonacceptors), mainly among older men. In summary, there was no evidence of risk compensation associated with male circumcision among this cohort of men during 3 years of posttrial follow-up.

  20. Assessment of Changes in Risk Behaviors During 3 Years of Posttrial Follow-up of Male Circumcision Trial Participants Uncircumcised at Trial Closure in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangrong; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Musoke, Richard; Kagaayi, Joseph; Latkin, Carl; Ssekubugu, Robert; Lutalo, Tom; Nantume, Betty; Boaz, Iga; Wawer, Maria; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Risk compensation associated with male circumcision has been a concern for male circumcision scale-up programs. Using posttrial data collected during 2007–2011 on 2,137 male circumcision trial participants who were uncircumcised at trial closure in Rakai, Uganda, the authors evaluated their sexual behavioral changes during approximately 3 years' follow-up after trial closure. Eighty-one percent of the men self-selected for male circumcision during the period, and their sociodemographic and risk profiles were comparable to those of men remaining uncircumcised. Linear models for marginal probabilities of repeated outcomes estimate that 3.3% (P < 0.0001) of the male circumcision acceptors reduced their engagement in nonmarital relations, whereas there was no significant change among men remaining uncircumcised. Significant decreases in condom use occurred in both male circumcision acceptors (−9.2% with all partners and −7.0% with nonmarital partners) and nonacceptors (−12.4% and −13.5%, respectively), and these were predominantly among younger men. However, the magnitudes of decrease in condom use were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Additionally, significant decreases in sex-related alcohol consumption were observed in both groups (−7.8% in male circumcision acceptors and −6.1% in nonacceptors), mainly among older men. In summary, there was no evidence of risk compensation associated with male circumcision among this cohort of men during 3 years of posttrial follow-up. PMID:23097257

  1. Chemokine Levels in the Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate with HIV-1 Acquisition and Are Reduced by Male Circumcision in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ronald H.; Shannon, Brett; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Kong, Xiangrong; Grabowski, Kate; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J.; Liu, Cindy M.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Coronal sulcus cytokine levels were compared between men who acquired HIV and controls who remained seronegative. Cytokines were also compared within men before and after circumcision, and correlated with CD4 T cells subsets in foreskin tissue. HIV acquisition was associated with detectable coronal sulcus Interleukin-8 (IL-8 aOR 2.26, 95%CI 1.04–6.40) and Monokine Induced by γ-interferon (MIG aOR 2.72, 95%CI 1.15–8.06) at the visit prior to seroconversion, and the odds of seroconversion increased with detection of multiple cytokines. Coronal sulcus chemokine levels were not correlated with those in the vagina of a man’s female sex partner. The detection of IL-8 in swabs was significantly reduced 6 months after circumcision (PRR 0.59, 95%CI 0.44–0.87), and continued to decline for at least two years (PRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.16–0.54). Finally, prepuce IL-8 correlated with increased HIV target cell density in foreskin tissues, including highly susceptible CD4 T cells subsets, as well as with tissue neutrophil density. Together, these data suggest that penile inflammation increases HIV susceptibility and is reduced by circumcision. PMID:27898732

  2. Chemokine Levels in the Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate with HIV-1 Acquisition and Are Reduced by Male Circumcision in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Prodger, Jessica L; Gray, Ronald H; Shannon, Brett; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Kong, Xiangrong; Grabowski, Kate; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J; Reynolds, Steven J; Liu, Cindy M; Tobian, Aaron A R; Kaul, Rupert

    2016-11-01

    Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Coronal sulcus cytokine levels were compared between men who acquired HIV and controls who remained seronegative. Cytokines were also compared within men before and after circumcision, and correlated with CD4 T cells subsets in foreskin tissue. HIV acquisition was associated with detectable coronal sulcus Interleukin-8 (IL-8 aOR 2.26, 95%CI 1.04-6.40) and Monokine Induced by γ-interferon (MIG aOR 2.72, 95%CI 1.15-8.06) at the visit prior to seroconversion, and the odds of seroconversion increased with detection of multiple cytokines. Coronal sulcus chemokine levels were not correlated with those in the vagina of a man's female sex partner. The detection of IL-8 in swabs was significantly reduced 6 months after circumcision (PRR 0.59, 95%CI 0.44-0.87), and continued to decline for at least two years (PRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.16-0.54). Finally, prepuce IL-8 correlated with increased HIV target cell density in foreskin tissues, including highly susceptible CD4 T cells subsets, as well as with tissue neutrophil density. Together, these data suggest that penile inflammation increases HIV susceptibility and is reduced by circumcision.

  3. Use of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) for both pregnancy and HIV prevention among young adults in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Gregor, Laura; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S

    2014-10-01

    Although understudied in the context of AIDS, use of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) with or in place of other prevention methods affects exposure to both pregnancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We used mixed methods to assess use of withdrawal among 15-24-year-olds in a rural Ugandan setting with considerable HIV prevalence. We measured withdrawal reporting among (i) sexually active 15-24-year-olds enrolled in a quantitative community survey (n = 6,722) and (ii) in-depth qualitative interview participants systematically selected from the latest round of the community survey (N = 60). Respondents were asked about family planning and HIV prevention practices, including a direct question about withdrawal in the in-depth interviews. The main outcome measures were reports of current use of withdrawal on the quantitative survey (general question about family planning methods) and reports of current or recent use withdrawal in qualitative interviews (specific question about withdrawal). Qualitative interviews also probed for factors associated with withdrawal use. Although less than 1% of quantitative survey participants spontaneously named withdrawal as their current family planning method, 48% of qualitative interview respondents reported current or lifetime use of withdrawal. Withdrawal was often used as a pleasurable alternative to condoms, when condoms were not available, and/or as a "placeholder" method before obtaining injectable contraception. A few respondents described using withdrawal to reduce HIV risk. Qualitative findings revealed widespread withdrawal use among young adults in Rakai, mainly as a condom alternative. Thus, withdrawal may shape exposure to both pregnancy and HIV. Future behavioral surveys should assess withdrawal practices directly--and separately from other contraceptives and HIV prevention methods. Further clinical research should further document withdrawal's association with HIV risk. © 2013 International Society for

  4. Effectiveness of an integrated intimate partner violence and HIV prevention intervention in Rakai, Uganda: analysis of an intervention in an existing cluster randomised cohort.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jennifer A; Gray, Ronald H; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Thoma, Marie; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Ssekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Serwadda, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with HIV infection. We aimed to assess whether provision of a combination of IPV prevention and HIV services would reduce IPV and HIV incidence in individuals enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), Rakai, Uganda. We used pre-existing clusters of communities randomised as part of a previous family planning trial in this cohort. Four intervention group clusters from the previous trial were provided standard of care HIV services plus a community-level mobilisation intervention to change attitudes, social norms, and behaviours related to IPV, and a screening and brief intervention to promote safe HIV disclosure and risk reduction in women seeking HIV counselling and testing services (the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone [SHARE] Project). Seven control group clusters (including two intervention groups from the original trial) received only standard of care HIV services. Investigators for the RCCS did a baseline survey between February, 2005, and June, 2006, and two follow-up surveys between August, 2006, and April, 2008, and June, 2008, and December, 2009. Our primary endpoints were self-reported experience and perpetration of past year IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) and laboratory-based diagnosis of HIV incidence in the study population. We used Poisson multivariable regression to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (aPRR) of IPV, and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) of HIV acquisition. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02050763. Between Feb 15, 2005, and June 30, 2006, we enrolled 11 448 individuals aged 15-49 years. 5337 individuals (in four intervention clusters) were allocated into the SHARE plus HIV services group and 6111 individuals (in seven control clusters) were allocated into the HIV services only group. Compared with control groups, individuals in the SHARE intervention groups had fewer self-reports of past-year physical IPV (346 [16%] of 2127

  5. Importance of Relationship Context in HIV Transmission: Results From a Qualitative Case-Control Study in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sanyukta; Eckel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Sekamwa, Richard; Namatovu, Josephine; Ddaaki, William; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Namakula, Sylvia; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from life history interviews with 60 young adults from southern Uganda. Using a novel qualitative case-control design, we compared newly HIV-positive cases with HIV-negative controls matched on age, gender, marital status, and place of residence. Relationship context was the most salient theme differentiating cases from controls. Compared with HIV-negative respondents, recent seroconverters described relationships marked by poorer communication, greater suspicion and mistrust, and larger and more transitory sexual networks. Results highlight the importance of dyadic approaches to HIV and possibly of couple-based interventions. Using HIV-matched pairs allowed additional understanding of the factors influencing transmission. This hybrid methodological approach holds promise for future studies of sexual health. PMID:24524490

  6. Experiences of Sexual Coercion among Adolescent Women: Qualitative Findings from Rakai District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagman, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Waszak Geary, Cindy; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ron; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    Limited data from low-income countries are available on the continuum of coercive experiences, the contexts in which they occur, and how adolescent women perceive and respond to coercion. This article presents results from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with pregnant and never pregnant sexually active female adolescents, aged 15…

  7. Experiences of Sexual Coercion among Adolescent Women: Qualitative Findings from Rakai District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagman, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Waszak Geary, Cindy; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ron; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    Limited data from low-income countries are available on the continuum of coercive experiences, the contexts in which they occur, and how adolescent women perceive and respond to coercion. This article presents results from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with pregnant and never pregnant sexually active female adolescents, aged 15…

  8. Development of a district mental healthcare plan in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, Fred N; Kizza, Dorothy; Nakku, Juliet; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nakiganda, Blandina; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is needed for the integration of mental health into primary care advocated by the national health sector strategic investment plan in Uganda. To describe the processes of developing a district mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in rural Uganda that facilitates integration of mental health into primary care. Mixed methods using a situational analysis, qualitative studies, theory of change workshops and partial piloting of the plan at two levels informed the MHCP. A MHCP was developed with packages of care to facilitate integration at the organisational, facility and community levels of the district health system, including a specified human resource mix. The partial embedding period supports its practical application. Key barriers to scaling up the plan were identified. A real-world plan for the district was developed with involvement of stakeholders. Pilot testing demonstrated its feasibility and implications for future scaling up. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  9. Development of a district mental healthcare plan in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kigozi, Fred N.; Kizza, Dorothy; Nakku, Juliet; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nakiganda, Blandina; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence is needed for the integration of mental health into primary care advocated by the national health sector strategic investment plan in Uganda. Aims To describe the processes of developing a district mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in rural Uganda that facilitates integration of mental health into primary care. Method Mixed methods using a situational analysis, qualitative studies, theory of change workshops and partial piloting of the plan at two levels informed the MHCP. Results A MHCP was developed with packages of care to facilitate integration at the organisational, facility and community levels of the district health system, including a specified human resource mix. The partial embedding period supports its practical application. Key barriers to scaling up the plan were identified. Conclusions A real-world plan for the district was developed with involvement of stakeholders. Pilot testing demonstrated its feasibility and implications for future scaling up. PMID:26447171

  10. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning in Bushenyi District in Uganda: Educational Leaders' and Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujuni, John Bosco

    2015-01-01

    In 2003-2007, the government of Uganda through the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), under the umbrella of UPHOLD and in Partnership with USAID, introduced cooperative learning as a "student-centered teaching approach" in some selected districts and schools in Uganda. This dissertation explored the current state and practice of…

  11. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning in Bushenyi District in Uganda: Educational Leaders' and Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujuni, John Bosco

    2015-01-01

    In 2003-2007, the government of Uganda through the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), under the umbrella of UPHOLD and in Partnership with USAID, introduced cooperative learning as a "student-centered teaching approach" in some selected districts and schools in Uganda. This dissertation explored the current state and practice of…

  12. African swine fever among slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muwonge, Adrian; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Kankya, Clovice; Biffa, Demelash; Oura, Chris; Skjerve, Eystein; Oloya, James

    2012-10-01

    Owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and O. moubata ticks), African swine fever (ASF) is believed to be an endemic disease in Uganda. There have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in Uganda. This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of ASF based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the Mubende district of Uganda. The study was based on visits to 22 slaughterhouses where individual pigs were randomly selected for a detailed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections. Sera were also collected for laboratory analysis. A total of 997 pigs (53.7% male and 46.3% female) were examined for lesions suggestive of ASF and sero-positivity of sera for ASF antibodies. The sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were further confirmed with an immunoblot assay. The results showed that 3.8% (38/997) of the pigs examined had clinical signs and post-mortem lesions suggestive of ASF. Two of 997 (0.2%) sera analysed were positive for ASF antibodies. Of the sub-counties investigated, Bagezza (12%) and Kiyuni (11%) had the highest prevalence of lesions suggestive of ASF based on ante- and post-mortem examination results, while Mubende town council (1.7%) had the lowest. This study found a low number of pigs (3.8%) with lesions suggestive of ASF at slaughter and an even lower number of pigs (0.2%) that were seropositive at slaughter, however a significantly higher number of pigs were slaughtered during the outbreak as a strategy for farmers to avoid losses associated with mortality.

  13. AIDS lays waste to Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bond, C

    1986-07-01

    In Uganda, people are dying every day of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), known as "Slim." In the Rakai district, as may as 2500 people may have died of Slim in the past 4 years, around 1% of Rakai population. There is no chance that people with Slim in Rakai are suffering from malnourishment, and the disease's link with AIDS was established last year when blood tests from patients gave a positive reaction to the HTLV3 test for AIDS. Rakai's trade links with neighboring countries appear to have joined it to Africa's AIDS belt, which cuts across Zaire, Zambia, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda. Experts now say that 100 people in every 100,000 are AIDS victims in this zone compared to 80-90 people per 100,000 in New York and San Francisco, where AIDS has hit homosexuals particularly hard. Yet, in Africa homosexuality is rare, and AIDS is heterosexually transmitted, putting any sexually active man or woman in these East and Central African countries at high risk of catching the disease. Nurses in the Mulago Hospital in the Ugandan capital of Kampala say that AIDS patients rarely stay longer than 6 weeks. Only the symptoms of AIDS can be treated. After that, medical care is more or less irrelevant as there is no cure for the disease itself. From the point of view of research, doctors try to keep track of people who give a positive result to the AIDS test. Some patients develop AIDS symptoms and then appear to recover though doctors assume that they may become ill again. Not all people in Europe and America who carry the AIDS virus develop the disease, but it is too soon to tell whether they will live to old age or develop it at some later stage, maybe after several years. In Rakai, residents told about women whose husbands had died of Slim a few years ago but who themselves were alive and well. Rakai harbors the worst of Uganda's AIDS epidemic, but the disease is increasing at an alarming rate elsewhere in the country. Since the civil war ended at Easter

  14. “Men are always scared to test with their partners … it is like taking them to the Police”: Motivations for and barriers to couples’ HIV counselling and testing in Rakai, Uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Matovu, Joseph KB; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Nakubulwa, Rosette; Sekamwa, Richard; Masika, Annet; Todd, Jim; Serwadda, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Uptake of couples’ HIV counselling and testing (couples’ HCT) can positively influence sexual risk behaviours and improve linkage to HIV care among HIV-positive couples. However, less than 30% of married couples have ever tested for HIV together with their partners. We explored the motivations for and barriers to couples’ HCT among married couples in Rakai, Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted among married individuals and selected key informants between August and October 2013. Married individuals were categorized by prior HCT status as: 1) both partners never tested; 2) only one or both partners ever tested separately; and 3) both partners ever tested together. Data were collected on the motivations for and barriers to couples’ HCT, decision-making processes from tested couples and suggestions for improving couples’ HCT uptake. Eighteen focus group discussions with married individuals, nine key informant interviews with selected key informants and six in-depth interviews with married individuals that had ever tested together were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Nvivo (version 9), following a thematic framework approach. Results Motivations for couples’ HCT included the need to know each other's HIV status, to get a treatment companion or seek HIV treatment together – if one or both partners were HIV-positive – and to reduce mistrust between partners. Barriers to couples’ HCT included fears of the negative consequences associated with couples’ HCT (e.g. fear of marital dissolution), mistrust between partners and conflicting work schedules. Couples’ HCT was negotiated through a process that started off with one of the partners testing alone initially and then convincing the other partner to test together. Suggestions for improving couples’ HCT uptake included the need for couple- and male-partner-specific sensitization, and the use of

  15. Notes from the Field: Rift Valley Fever Response - Kabale District, Uganda, March 2016.

    PubMed

    de St Maurice, Annabelle; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Purpura, Lawrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Tumusiime, Alex; Balinandi, Stephen; Kayondo, Jackson; Mulei, Sophia; Namutebi, Anne Marion; Tusiime, Patrick; Wiersma, Steven; Nichol, Stuart; Rollin, Pierre; Klena, John; Knust, Barbara; Shoemaker, Trevor

    2016-11-04

    On March 9, 2016, a male butcher from Kabale District, Uganda, aged 45 years, reported to the Kabale Regional Referral Hospital with fever, fatigue, and headache associated with black tarry stools and bleeding from the nose. One day later, a student aged 16 years from a different sub-county in Kabale District developed similar symptoms and was admitted to the same hospital. The student also had a history of contact with livestock. Blood specimens collected from both patients were sent for testing for Marburg virus disease, Ebola virus disease, Rift Valley fever (RVF), and Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic fever at the Uganda Virus Research Institute, as part of the viral hemorrhagic fevers surveillance program. The Uganda Virus Research Institute serves as the national viral hemorrhagic fever reference laboratory and hosts the national surveillance program for viral hemorrhagic fevers, in collaboration with the CDC Viral Special Pathogens Branch and the Uganda Ministry of Health.

  16. HIV self-testing values and preferences among sex workers, fishermen, and mainland community members in Rakai, Uganda: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Virginia M; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William; Payne, Caitlin; Hutchinson, Naadiya; Wawer, Maria J; Nalugoda, Fred; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2017-01-01

    HIV self-testing may encourage greater uptake of testing, particularly among key populations and other high-risk groups, but local community perceptions will influence test uptake and use. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with healthcare providers and community members in high-risk fishing communities (including sex workers and fishermen) and lower-risk mainland communities in rural Uganda to evaluate values and preferences around HIV self-testing. While most participants were unfamiliar with HIV self-testing, they cited a range of potential benefits, including privacy, convenience, and ability to test before sex. Concerns focused on the absence of a health professional, risks of careless kit disposal and limited linkage to care. Participants also discussed issues of kit distribution strategies and cost, among others. Ultimately, most participants concluded that benefits outweighed risks. Our findings suggest a potential role for HIV self-testing across populations in these settings, particularly among these key populations. Program implementers will need to consider how to balance HIV self-testing accessibility with necessary professional support.

  17. HIV self-testing values and preferences among sex workers, fishermen, and mainland community members in Rakai, Uganda: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William; Payne, Caitlin; Hutchinson, Naadiya; Wawer, Maria J.; Nalugoda, Fred; Kennedy, Caitlin E.

    2017-01-01

    HIV self-testing may encourage greater uptake of testing, particularly among key populations and other high-risk groups, but local community perceptions will influence test uptake and use. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with healthcare providers and community members in high-risk fishing communities (including sex workers and fishermen) and lower-risk mainland communities in rural Uganda to evaluate values and preferences around HIV self-testing. While most participants were unfamiliar with HIV self-testing, they cited a range of potential benefits, including privacy, convenience, and ability to test before sex. Concerns focused on the absence of a health professional, risks of careless kit disposal and limited linkage to care. Participants also discussed issues of kit distribution strategies and cost, among others. Ultimately, most participants concluded that benefits outweighed risks. Our findings suggest a potential role for HIV self-testing across populations in these settings, particularly among these key populations. Program implementers will need to consider how to balance HIV self-testing accessibility with necessary professional support. PMID:28813527

  18. Risk Denial and Socio-Economic Factors Related to High HIV Transmission in a Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Lubega, Muhamadi; Nakyaanjo, Neema; Nansubuga, Sumaya; Hiire, Edgar; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kennedy, Caitylin; Reynolds, Steven James

    2015-01-01

    In Kasensero fishing community, home of the first recorded case of HIV in Uganda, HIV transmission is still very high with an incidence of 4.3 and 3.1 per 100 person-years in women and men, respectively, and an HIV prevalence of 44%, reaching up to 74% among female sex workers. We explored drivers for the high HIV transmission at Kasensero from the perspective of fishermen and other community members to inform future policy and preventive interventions. 20 in-depth interviews including both HIV positive and HIV negative respondents, and 12 focus-group discussions involving a total of 92 respondents from the Kasensero fishing community were conducted during April-September 2014. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes. The socio-economic risk factors for high HIV transmission in Kasensero fishing community cited were multiple and cross-cutting and categorized into the following themes: power of money, risk denial, environmental triggers and a predisposing lifestyle and alcoholism and drug abuse. Others were: peer pressure, poor housing and the search for financial support for both the men and women which made them vulnerable to HIV exposure and or risk behavior. There is a need for context specific combination prevention interventions in Kasensero that includes the fisher folk and other influential community leaders. Such groups could be empowered with the knowledge and social mobilization skills to fight the negative and risky behaviors, perceptions, beliefs, misconceptions and submission attitudes to fate that exposes the community to high HIV transmission. There is also need for government/partners to ensure effective policy implementation, life jackets for all fishermen, improve the poor housing at the community so as to reduce overcrowding and other housing related predispositions to high HIV rates at the community. Work place AIDS-competence teams have been successfully used to address high HIV transmission in similar settings.

  19. Risk Denial and Socio-Economic Factors Related to High HIV Transmission in a Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lubega, Muhamadi; Nakyaanjo, Neema; Nansubuga, Sumaya; Hiire, Edgar; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kennedy, Caitylin; Reynolds, Steven James

    2015-01-01

    Background In Kasensero fishing community, home of the first recorded case of HIV in Uganda, HIV transmission is still very high with an incidence of 4.3 and 3.1 per 100 person-years in women and men, respectively, and an HIV prevalence of 44%, reaching up to 74% among female sex workers. We explored drivers for the high HIV transmission at Kasensero from the perspective of fishermen and other community members to inform future policy and preventive interventions. Methods 20 in-depth interviews including both HIV positive and HIV negative respondents, and 12 focus-group discussions involving a total of 92 respondents from the Kasensero fishing community were conducted during April-September 2014. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes. Results The socio-economic risk factors for high HIV transmission in Kasensero fishing community cited were multiple and cross-cutting and categorized into the following themes: power of money, risk denial, environmental triggers and a predisposing lifestyle and alcoholism and drug abuse. Others were: peer pressure, poor housing and the search for financial support for both the men and women which made them vulnerable to HIV exposure and or risk behavior. Conclusions There is a need for context specific combination prevention interventions in Kasensero that includes the fisher folk and other influential community leaders. Such groups could be empowered with the knowledge and social mobilization skills to fight the negative and risky behaviors, perceptions, beliefs, misconceptions and submission attitudes to fate that exposes the community to high HIV transmission. There is also need for government/partners to ensure effective policy implementation, life jackets for all fishermen, improve the poor housing at the community so as to reduce overcrowding and other housing related predispositions to high HIV rates at the community. Work place AIDS-competence teams have been successfully used to address high HIV

  20. Risk Factors for Podoconiosis: Kamwenge District, Western Uganda, September 2015.

    PubMed

    Kihembo, Christine; Masiira, Ben; Lali, William Z; Matwale, Gabriel K; Matovu, Joseph K B; Kaharuza, Frank; Ario, Alex R; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Makumbi, Issa; Musenero, Monica; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Nanyunja, Miriam

    2017-06-01

    AbstractPodoconiosis, a noninfectious elephantiasis, is a disabling neglected tropical disease. In August 2015, an elephantiasis case-cluster was reported in Kamwenge District, western Uganda. We investigated to identify the disease's nature and risk factors. We defined a suspected podoconiosis case as onset in a Kamwenge resident of bilateral asymmetrical lower limb swelling lasting ≥ 1 month, plus ≥ 1 of the following associated symptoms: skin itching, burning sensation, plantar edema, lymph ooze, prominent skin markings, rigid toes, or mossy papillomata. A probable case was a suspected case with negative microfilaria antigen immunochromatographic card test (ruling out filarial elephantiasis). We conducted active case-finding. In a case-control investigation, we tested the hypothesis that the disease was caused by prolonged foot skin exposure to irritant soils, using 40 probable case-persons and 80 asymptomatic village control-persons, individually matched by age and sex. We collected soil samples to characterize irritants. We identified 52 suspected (including 40 probable) cases with onset from 1980 to 2015. Prevalence rates increased with age; annual incidence (by reported onset of disease) was stable over time at 2.9/100,000. We found that 93% (37/40) of cases and 68% (54/80) of controls never wore shoes at work (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORMH] = 7.7; 95% [confidence interval] CI = 2.0-30); 80% (32/40) of cases and 49% (39/80) of controls never wore shoes at home (ORMH = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.8-15); and 70% (27/39) of cases and 44% (35/79) of controls washed feet at day end (versus immediately after work) (OR = 11; 95% CI = 2.1-56). Soil samples were characterized as rich black-red volcanic clays. In conclusion, this reported elephantiasis is podoconiosis associated with prolonged foot exposure to volcanic soil. We recommended foot hygiene and universal use of protective shoes.

  1. Assessment of Leadership Training of Head Teachers and Secondary School Performance in Mubende District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Kayiwa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between leadership training of head teachers and school performance in secondary schools in Mubende district, Uganda. Descriptive-correlational research design was used. Six schools out of 32 were selected and the sample size of head teachers, teachers and students leaders was 287 out of…

  2. Planning the Location of Schools: Ankole District, Uganda. Case Studies -- 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, W. T. S.

    Ankole District, Uganda, is typical of many developing areas of Africa, characterized by rapid population change (a result of both growth and redistribution), inadequate school provision, and severe financial constraints. The study relates the present patterns and organization of elementary and secondary level educational provision to the existing…

  3. Enablers and barriers to evidence based planning in the district health system in Uganda; perceptions of district health managers.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Dorcus Kiwanuka; Ayebare, Florence; Waiswa, Peter; Peterson, Stefan Swartling; Tumushabe, Elly K; Fredriksson, Mio

    2017-02-02

    The District Health System was endorsed as the key strategy to achieve 'Health for all' during the WHO organized inter-regional meeting in Harare in 1987. Many expectations were put upon the district health system, including planning. Although planning should be evidence based to prioritize activities, in Uganda it has been described as occurring more by chance than by choice. The role of planning is entrusted to the district health managers with support from the Ministry of Health and other stakeholders, but there is limited knowledge on the district health manager's capacity to carry out evidence-based planning. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers and enablers to evidence-based planning at the district level. This qualitative study collected data through key informant interviews with district managers from two purposefully selected districts in Uganda that have been implementing evidence-based planning. A deductive process of thematic analysis was used to classify responses within themes. There were considerable differences between the districts in regard to the barriers and enablers for evidence-based planning. Variations could be attributed to specific contextual and environmental differences such as human resource levels, date of establishment of the district, funding and the sociopolitical environment. The perceived lack of local decision space coupled with the perception that the politicians had all the power while having limited knowledge on evidence-based planning was considered an important barrier. There is a need to review the mandate of the district managers to make decisions in the planning process and the range of decision space available within the district health system. Given the important role elected officials play in a decentralized system a concerted effort should be made to increase their knowledge on evidence-based planning and the district health system as a whole.

  4. Around Uganda.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    The UK is donating US$800,000 to Uganda to reduce the death rate in the western region; the number of cases of malaria there has soared because of unusually severe rains. The health ministry is recommending self-medication with drugs purchased from licensed drug shops and pharmacies (there have been cases of fake or substandard chloroquine tablets and injectable solutions). Cholera is a problem in most of the country, but patients seem reluctant to go to the hospital, even though adequate supplies of drugs are available. Because of the Rift Valley Fever outbreak in Kenya, the health ministry is monitoring movements of people in the border area and conducting a mass screening for the disease. The Mulago National Referral Hospital is receiving US$35 million to improve wards and utilities and to build a new drug quality control laboratory. A training hospital which will provide palliative care for patients with AIDS has opened recently; it is a collaborative project with Mildmay Hospital in the UK. During its regional scientific conference in Masaka, members of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa and Central Africa offered free services to patients in Masaka and Rakai districts. According to the Minister of State for Gender and Community Development, fewer Ugandan women are being circumcised; the rate has dropped by 56% since 1990, due to the efforts of government and women's groups. However, other forms of violence against women remain a problem; the Family Protection Unit of the Ugandan police list 400 reported cases of wife beating, 150 cases of rape, and 250 cases of "defilement of school girls." Police intend to work with teachers to decrease the rising rate of sexual crimes in school. Police also say 90% of street children sniff solvents.

  5. Serological and molecular investigation for brucellosis in swine in selected districts of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Erume, Joseph; Roesel, Kristina; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Mboowa, Gerald; Kungu, Joseph M; Akol, Joyce; Pezo, Danilo; El-Adawy, Hosny; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy; Neubauer, Heinrich; Grace, Delia

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a notifiable zoonotic disease affecting livestock, humans, and wildlife in Uganda. Pigs can be infected with human pathogenic Brucella suis biovars 1 and 3 and can be a significant source of brucellosis for humans. Uganda has a rapidly growing pig population, and the pork consumption per capita is the highest in East Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Ugandan pigs. A cross-sectional serosurvey of pigs was conducted in three of the major pig-keeping districts in Uganda (Masaka (n = 381 samples), Mukono (n = 398), and Kamuli (n = 414)). In addition, pigs originating from these districts were sampled in the major pig abattoir in Kampala (n = 472). In total, 1665 serum samples were investigated by serological and molecular tests. Only three putative brucellosis-positive samples were detected serologically using indirect ELISA. These sera were found negative for Brucella antibodies by CFT; however, two had antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica as determined by SAT. Presence of antibodies against Yersiniae was confirmed by Y. enterocolitica antibody-specific ELISA. The two Yersiniae ELISA-positive samples were brucellosis negative using real-time PCR. We tested additional 142 sera from the 1665 samples with real-time PCR. All tested negative. Under this type of production system, we expect a maximum B. suis prevalence of less than 1 % at 95 % confidence level, and therefore, the risk of acquiring brucellosis from the pigs or their products is negligible. However, pigs may harbor the zoonotic Y. enterocolitica. This is the first study to investigate the occurrence of brucellosis in pigs in Uganda and the first study to report Y. enterocolitica antibodies in swine in Uganda.

  6. STUDIES ON THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF MOSQUITOES OF MPIGI DISTRICT, CENTRAL UGANDA.

    PubMed

    Mayanja, Martin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Crabtree, Mary B; Ssenfuka, Fred; Muwawu, Teddy; Lutwama, Julius J

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of arboviral disease outbreaks and planning for appropriate control interventions require knowledge of the mosquito vectors involved. Although mosquito surveys have been conducted in different regions of Uganda since the mid 30's such studies have not been carried out in Mpigi District. In October 2011, we conducted mosquito collections in Mpigi district to determine species composition and relative abundance of the different species. The survey was conducted in four villages, Njeru, Ddela, Kiwumu and Nsumbain Kammengo sub-county, Mpigi district, Uganda. CDC light traps baited with dry ice (carbon dioxide) were used to capture adult mosquitoes. A total of 54,878 mosquitoes comprising 46 species from eight genera were collected. The dominant species at all sites was Coquilletidia (Coquilletidia) fuscopennata Theobald (n=38,059, 69%), followed by Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) metallica Theobald (n=4,265, 7.8%). The number of species collected varied from 17 in the genus Culex to 1 in the genus Lutzia. Of the 46 species identified, arboviruses had previously been isolated from 28 (60.9%) suggesting a high potential for arboviral transmission and/or maintenance in Mpigi District.

  7. Uganda.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading

  8. The topic is the Relevance of wetland economic valuation in Uganda Acase study of Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District-Central Uganda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namulema, Mary Jude

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relevance of economic valuation of wetlands in Uganda. A case study was done on Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District in Central Uganda using a semi-structured survey. Three objectives were examined i.e.: (i) To identify wetland ecosystem services in Uganda (ii) To identify the economic valuation methods appropriate for wetlands in Uganda (iii) To value clean water obtained from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland. The wetland ecosystem services were identified as provisioning, regulating, habitat, cultural and amenities services. The community had knowledge about 17 out of the 22 services as given by TEEB (2010). The economic valuation methods identified were, market price, efficiency price, travel cost, contingent valuation, hedonic pricing, and production function and benefit transfer methods. These were appropriate for valuation of wetlands in Uganda but only three methods i.e. market price, contingent valuation and productivity methods have been applied by researchers in Uganda so far. The economic value of clean water from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the nearby community was established by using the market price of clean water the National water and Sewerage Corporation charges for the water in Uganda to obtain the low value and the market price of water from the survey was used to obtain the high value. The estimated economic value of clean water service for a household ranges from UGX. 612174 to 4054733 (US 168.0-1095.0). The estimated economic value of clean water service from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the entire community ranges from UGX. 2,732,133,000.0 to 18,096,274,000.0 (US 775,228.0-4,885,994.0).

  9. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-03-01

    Available data in Uganda indicate a resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality countrywide. This study assessed the burden of malaria, treatment and prevention practices in order initiate a policy debate on the scaling-up of current interventions. A triangulation of methods using a cross-sectional survey and key informant interviews was used to assess self-reported malaria at a household level in Mukono District, Uganda. A total of 5583 households were surveyed, and a high proportion (2897, 51.9%) reported a person with malaria two weeks prior to the survey. Only 546 households (9.8%) owned and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental factors, but more especially with household ownership of ITNs. These results will contribute to the current debate on identifying new approaches for scaling-up prevention interventions and effective case management, as well as selection of priority interventions for malaria control in Uganda.

  10. Uganda.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Uganda's population increased from 4.7 million in 1950 to 15.5 million in 1985, representing a present growth rate of 3.5%. The government realizes that rapid population growth has created underemployment and unemployment, but does not view the issue as critical to present development. Death rates have declined rapidly but birth rates have remained high, largely due to poverty, early marriage by females, illiteracy, and women's low educational status. The government has recently developed an official policy to decrease population growth and is now working with the Family Planning Association of Uganda to 1) lower the population growth rate from 3% to 2.6% and 2) increase the population's physical, mental, and social quality. Current life expectancy is now 52 years, and infant mortality is 94/1000. Health care has deteriorated in recent years as hospitals have closed and medical personnel have left the country. Government priorities include maternal and child health care, diarrhoeal control, and environmental sanitation. The fertility rate is projected to fall from the current 6.9 rate to 6.3 by the year 2000. Government fertility reduction plans include 1) merging family planning and maternal and child health services, 2) sex education in schools, 3) population education, 4) maternity and paternity benefits, and 5) raising the legal marriage age. Abortion for contraception purposes is illegal; sterilization is legal. 1) Refugee repatriation to Sudan, 2) Indo-Pakistani expulsion (1972), and 3) mass flight in the 1970s have affected Uganda's recent development. The government encourages skilled Ugandans living abroad to return home. Urban growth has increased from 8% in 1979 to 14% in 1985; to slow rural to urban migration, the government plans to encourage and educate people to remain on the land, encourage the development of specific areas, repair and maintain urban areas, and improve land access and resettlement opportunities.

  11. Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not. PMID:22943789

  12. Plants used to manage type II diabetes mellitus in selected districts of central Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssenyange, Comfort Were; Namulindwa, Angella; Oyik, Bruno; Ssebuliba, Jude

    2015-06-01

    Chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus are increasing in incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. African traditional medicine is part and parcel of the health care system in Uganda. Majority of the indigenous population will have visited a traditional health care practioner or self-administered herbal medicines before seeking conventional health care. However, documentation of the various medicinal plants is still lacking, necessitating a well-organized information search for such knowledge through research. Such information can lay a firm and clear foundation for scientific investigation of the purported therapeutic benefits of the said plants. The objective of this study was to collect names of medicinal plants used to manage diabetes mellitus type II in selected districts of central Uganda. In this ethnobotanical survey, names, of plants used to manage diabetes mellitus type II as well as the methods of preparation, routes of administration and the plant parts used in the districts of Mukono, Kampala, Wakiso and Masaka in the central region of Uganda were documented using a researcher administered questionnaire. Participants were recruited using a snow ball approach in which one individual directed us to another. Informant consensus was determined for each of the plants mentioned. A total of 18 names of medicinal plants were recorded of which Aloe vera var, Solanum indicum and Vernonia amygydalina were the most commonly mentioned plants and thus had the highest informant consensus. Leaves were the main parts that were used to prepare the herbal medicine while water as the solvent used in all the preparations. In all the cases, only the oral route was used for administration of the medicines. Documentation of medicinal plants used to manage diabetes can further improve on the formalization process of the Ugandan traditional medicine system as well as lay a basis for further scientific investigation with emphasis on the plants whose informant consensus is high.

  13. Ethnopharmacological practices by livestock farmers in Uganda: Survey experiences from Mpigi and Gulu districts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is continued reliance on conventional veterinary drugs including anthelmintics, to some of which resistance has developed. Loss of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) from societies affects the opportunities for utilization of ethnopharmacological practices unless properly documented. This study was conducted to identify common traditional practices using medicinal plants against helminthosis and other livestock diseases in Mpigi and Gulu districts of Uganda. Methods Seven focus group discussions with ten farmers per group plus 18 key informant interviews were held in each district from August to November 2011. Ranking was used to quantify disease burdens and to identify priority livestock and breeds. Samples of each plant were submitted to Makerere University herbarium for identification and documentation. The local name, relative availability and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status were recorded. Results Seventy six farmers in Mpigi and 74 in Gulu were interviewed. Theileriosis and helminthosis were the most common disease conditions in cattle and goats, respectively. Forty plant species within 34 genera from 22 botanical families were identified, with 20 of these used against helminthosis. Other plants treated wounds and ecto-parasites, theileriosis, retained placenta and bovine ephemeral fever. Non-plant practices (7) and plants cited were used in combination depending on availability. Males older than 40 years had most ethnopharmacological knowledge. Most plants (75%, n = 40) were common, but 10 were rare. IUCN status was not evaluated for 95% of these plants. Conventional and traditional drug use in Gulu and Mpigi districts was different (χ2 = 24; p < 0.001). The scientific, English, Luganda and Acholi names of all plants and their availability within the communities are documented herein. Conclusion This is the first detailed livestock-related ethnopharmacological study in Gulu district. Farmers in

  14. False Teeth Still a Public Health Problem among Children in Kanungu District--South Western Uganda 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Sebudde

    2006-01-01

    False teeth among children are a Public Health problem which has not received adequate attention in Uganda. This study was therefore developed as a community-based descriptive cross-sectional carried out in Kanungu District using qualitative methods of data collection among caregivers of children, Community Owned Resource Persons and Service…

  15. False Teeth Still a Public Health Problem among Children in Kanungu District--South Western Uganda 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Sebudde

    2006-01-01

    False teeth among children are a Public Health problem which has not received adequate attention in Uganda. This study was therefore developed as a community-based descriptive cross-sectional carried out in Kanungu District using qualitative methods of data collection among caregivers of children, Community Owned Resource Persons and Service…

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with dental caries among children and adults in selected districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kutesa, Annet; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nkamba, Moses; Muwazi, Louis; Okullo, Isaac; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries among adults and children in seven districts of Uganda. Participants aged 11-13 (n=1230) and 35-44 years (n=648) were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of Gulu, Soroti, Jinja, Masaka, Kabale, Kabarole and Hoima districts. They were examined by 4 trained and calibrated dentists for dental caries using Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth index as described by World Health Organisation. Overall mean DMFT score was 0.73 for children and 4.71 for adults. Generally, there was a higher mean DMFT score in the rural (2.19) compared to urban areas (1.97). In all the districts, except Hoima, there was a higher mean DMFT score of children in rural compared to urban. In adults, similar trend was mainly registered in Masaka, Hoima and Gulu districts. Most participants (79.9%, n=1309) occasionally ate sugared snacks. Overall, 95% (n=1795) of the participants cleaned their teeth with plastic tooth brushes (71.7%) and chewing sticks (8.3%). Although the severity of dental caries was low, the disease was widespread in the study population. A high proportion of participants reported consumption of sugared snacks and drinks, which calls for oral health education.

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in growing pigs in Kabale District in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Sofie; Poulsen, Idahella H; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Roepstorff, Allan; Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2011-03-01

    During the last 30 years, pig production in Uganda and neighbouring counties has increased markedly. Pigs are mainly kept as a source of income for small-scale farmers; however, the pig production is subject to several constraints, one of them being worm infections. A study was carried out in rural communities in Kabale District in the South Western part of Uganda in September and October 2007 in order to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pigs based on coprological examination. Fifty-six households were randomly selected and visited. Housing system and deworming history were recorded. Faeces was sampled from rectum of one to five pigs (age, 3-12 months) per household. A total of 106 pigs were examined coprologically of which 91% excreted nematode eggs. The following prevalences of nematode eggs were recorded: strongyles (89%), Ascaris suum (40%), Trichuris suis (17%) and spiruroid eggs (48%). On household level, rearing pigs on slatted floors in pens significantly reduced the faecal egg excretion of strongyle eggs with almost 80% (p=0.010) and a significant interaction between floor type and anthelmintic treatment was found for spiruroids (p=0.037). Fifteen T. suis egg positive pigs were selected for post-mortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The post-mortem examinations revealed that 93% pigs were infected with Oesophagostomum spp. (worm burden, min-max 10-2,180), 73% with A. suum (1-36), 67% with T. suis (6-58), and 20% with Hyostrongylus rubidus (worms not quantified). In general, nematode infections were widespread and polyparasitism common in pigs in Uganda. However, worm burdens were moderate which may be related to recent deworming or to the practice of rearing pigs on slatted floors in wooden elevated pens.

  18. Using photovoice to examine community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Ndejjo, Rawlance; George, Asha

    2015-05-01

    Uganda continues to have poor maternal health indicators including a high maternal mortality ratio. This paper explores community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research approach, over a five-month period, ten young community members aged 18-29 years took photographs and analysed them, developing an understanding of the emerging issues and engaging in community dialogue on them. From the study, known health systems problems including inadequate transport, long distance to health facilities, long waiting times at facilities and poor quality of care were confirmed, but other aspects that needed to be addressed were also established. These included key gender-related determinants of maternal health, such as domestic violence, low contraceptive use and early teenage pregnancy, as well as problems of unclean water, poor sanitation and women's lack of income. Community members appreciated learning about the research findings precisely hence designing and implementing appropriate solutions to the problems identified because they could see photographs from their own local area. Photovoice's strength is in generating evidence by community members in ways that articulate their perspectives, support local action and allow direct communication with stakeholders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Implementation of a comprehensive AIDS education programme for schools in Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, J; Harrison, S; Kengeya-Kayondo, J; Kanyesigye, E; Musoke, S; Whitworth, J

    1999-10-01

    As part of a large IEC (Information, Education and Communication)/STD intervention trial, a 19-lesson, comprehensive school-based AIDS education programme was implemented and evaluated in 50 primary and 16 secondary schools in 12 parishes of Masaka District, Uganda. A series of three teacher-training and evaluation workshops spread over a year was held in each parish, between which teachers implemented the programme in the classroom. One hundred and forty-eight teachers were trained and about 3,500 students were subsequently exposed to the programme. Both teachers and students responded positively, which suggests that this type of programme has much to offer young people who attend school. However, some problems were encountered: language, programme content, community resistance to teaching about condoms, and several practical issues. Proposed solutions include flexibility with the English language policy, alternative approaches to role play activities, targeting influential individuals with information about the need for young people to learn about safer sex, and a parallel community-based IEC programme to facilitate community acceptance of the need for the programme. In addition, implementation may be incomplete unless comprehensive AIDS education is fully incorporated into the curriculum, and properly examined. These findings are placed in the context of other life skills/AIDS education programmes being introduced both in Uganda and elsewhere in Africa.

  20. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  1. Implementation of tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Mukono and Wakiso districts, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Buregyeya, Esther; Nuwaha, Fred; Verver, Suzanne; Criel, Bart; Colebunders, Robert; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Kalyango, Joan N; Katamba, Achilles; Mitchell, Ellen Mh

    2013-08-01

    Tuberculosis infection control (TBIC) is rarely implemented in the health facilities in resource limited settings. Understanding the reasons for low level of implementation is critical. The study aim was to assess TBIC practices and barriers to implementation in two districts in Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 51 health facilities in districts of Mukono and Wakiso. The study included: a facility survey, observations of practices and eight focus group discussions with health workers. Quantitative: Only 16 facilities (31%) had a TBIC plan. Five facilities (10%) were screening patients for cough. Two facilities (4%) reported providing masks to patients with cough. Ventilation in the waiting areas was inadequate for TBIC in 43% (22/51) of the facilities. No facility possessed N95 particulate respirators. Qualitative: Barriers that hamper implementation of TBIC elicited included: under-staffing, lack of space for patient separation, lack of funds to purchase masks, and health workers not appreciating the importance of TBIC. TBIC measures were not implemented in health facilities in the two Ugandan districts where the survey was done. Health system factors like lack of staff, space and funds are barriers to implement TBIC. Effective implementation of TBIC measures occurs when the fundamental health system building blocks--governance and stewardship, financing, infrastructure, procurement and supply chain management are in place and functioning appropriately.

  2. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo

    2013-06-01

    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  3. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5%) of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0%) parishes and 32/212 (15.1%) villages (clusters), were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization) while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies) included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54) and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14). Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community sensitization by empowered

  4. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mbalibulha, Yona; Muwanguzi, Enoch; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Natukunda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%); A: 190 (26.%); B: 152 (21%); and AB: 28 (4%). A total of 28 (3.86%) pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1%) of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8%) were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and

  5. Assessing Progress in Implementing Uganda's Nutrition Action Plan: District-Level Insights.

    PubMed

    Agaba, Edgar; Pomeroy-Stevens, Amanda; Ghosh, Shibani; Griffiths, Jeffrey K

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP) established 2016 maternal and child nutrition targets. However, there is a lack of routine district-level data collection to assess UNAP implementation. To use Nutrition Innovation Lab (NIL) data to inform policy makers on the progress of UNAP-related indicators. The NIL collected serial household-level survey data (n = 3600) in 6 districts, including 2 UNAP implementation districts, in 2012 and 2014. Questionnaires focused on food security, nutrition, and health, among others, and included specific indicators relevant to UNAP's targets. In 2012, outcomes in Kisoro and Lira districts were below national average for some UNAP key indicators, including dietary diversity and anemia prevalence, but above average for others (exclusive breastfeeding and underweight among women and children). The prevalence of child stunting was higher than national averages in Kisoro but below national averages in Lira. In 2014, anemia among women and children decreased significantly. Kisoro also saw improvements in several other UNAP target indicators including underweight, breastfeeding, and stunting. Although the study showed improvements in key UNAP indicators, there is a need to invest in appropriate methods to gauge its progress because the NIL was not designed to assess UNAP. Since the quality of implementation of complex multisectoral programs can differ widely across different contexts, it is critical that effective monitoring of progress be part of such programs. National endorsement of nutrition plans doesn't in itself result in desired outcomes, hence, the allocation of scarce resources has to be based on rigorous evidence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Rates of switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy and impact of delayed switching on immunologic, virologic, and mortality outcomes among HIV-infected adults with virologic failure in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssempijja, Victor; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Chang, Larry; Gray, Ron; Wawer, Maria; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Kasule, Jingo; Serwadda, David; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Hoog, Anja Van't; Reynolds, Steven James

    2017-08-22

    Switch from first to second-line ART is recommended by WHO for patients with virologic failure. Delays in switching may contribute to accumulated drug resistance, advanced immunosuppression, increased morbidity and mortality. The 3rd 90' of UNAIDS 90:90:90 targets 90% viral suppression for persons on ART. We evaluated the rate of switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the impact of delayed switching on immunologic, virologic, and mortality outcomes in the Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP) Clinical Cohort Study which started providing ART in 2004 and implemented 6 monthly routine virologic monitoring beginning in 2005. Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults on first-line ART who had two consecutive viral loads (VLs) >1000 copies/ml after 6 months on ART between June 2004 and June 2011 was studied for switching to second-line ART. Immunologic decline after virologic failure was defined as decrease in CD4 count of ≥50 cells/ul and virologic increase was defined as increase of 0.5 log 10 copies/ml. Competing risk models were used to summarize rates of switching to second-line ART while cox proportional hazard marginal structural models were used to assess the risk of virologic increase or immunologic decline associated with delay to switch first line ART failing patients. The cumulative incidence of switching at 6, 12, and 24 months following virologic failure were 30.2%, 44.6%, and 65.0%, respectively. The switching rate was increased with higher VL at the time of virologic failure; compared to those with VLs ≤ 5000 copies/ml, patients with VLs = 5001-10,000 copies/ml had an aHR = 1.81 (95% CI = 0.9-3.6), and patients with VLs > 10,000 copies/ml had an aHR = 3.38 (95%CI = 1.9-6.2). The switching rate was also increased with CD4 < 100 cells/ul at ART initiation, compared to those with CD4 ≥ 100 cells/ul (aHR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.5-3.6). Mortality in patients not switched to second-line ART was 11

  7. Impact of pesticide use by smallholder farmers on water quality in the Wakiso District, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltramare, Christelle; Weiss, Frederik T.; Atuhaire, Aggrey; Staudacher, Philipp; Niwagaba, Charles; Stamm, Christian

    2017-04-01

    As in many tropical countries, farmers of the Wakiso District rely on heavy use of pesticides to protect crops and animals. This may impair human and environmental health due to poor application techniques, misuse of pesticide bins or diffuse pesticide losses from the treated fields during intense tropical rainstorms. The extent of pollution in different environmental compartments however, are generally only poorly documented. The same holds true for quantitative data on the relevance of different transport pathways of pesticides into the environment. Part of the limited knowledge is caused by the demanding sampling and analytical techniques that are necessary to obtain robust data on the actual pollution status. Especially in surface waters, pesticide concentration may vary rapidly in time such that grab samples may yield a very incomplete picture. This incompleteness was often enhanced because of limited analytical windows that covered only a small fraction of the pesticides actually used. In this presentation, we describe an approach to overcome these limitations to a large extent by using three different passive sampling devices and two broad analytical techniques (GC-MS/MS, LC HR-MS) that allow the quantification of about 260 different pesticides. We will present how these approaches are implemented in the catchment area of the Wakiso District in Uganda. This area is intensively used by smallholder farmers who grow a large set of different crops. Diffuse losses are expected to occur mainly during the two rainy seasons (March to May and September to November). Accordingly, the study will focus on this situation.

  8. Prevalence of tuberculous lesion in cattle slaughtered in Mubende district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nalapa, Daniel Pakasi; Muwonge, Adrian; Kankya, Clovice; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gross pathology suggestive of bovine tuberculosis (TB-like lesions) and evaluate animal's characteristics associated with the risk of having bovine TB-like lesions among cattle slaughtered in Mubende district in the Uganda cattle corridor. We conducted a cross sectional study in which 1,576 slaughtered cattle in Mubende district municipal abattoir underwent post-mortem inspection between August 2013 and January 2014. The presence of bovine TB-like lesions in addition to the animal's sex, age, breed, and sub-county of origin prior to slaughter were recorded. Associations between the presence of bovine TB-like lesions and animal's age, sex, breed, and sub-county of origin prior to slaughter were initially analysed using a univariable approach with the chi-square test, and subsequently with a multivariable logistic regression model to assess the combined impact of these animal characteristics with the risk of having a bovine TB-like lesion. Additionally, and as a secondary objective, tissue samples were collected from all carcases that had a bovine TB-like lesion and were processed using standard Mycobacterium culture and identification methods. The culture and acid fast positive samples were tested using Capilia TB-neo® assay to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Of 1,576 carcasses inspected, 9.7% (153/1,576) had bovine TB-like lesions from which Mycobacterium spp and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex (MTC) were isolated in 13 (8.4%) and 12 (7.8%) respectively. Bovine TB-like lesions were more likely to be found in females (OR = 1.49, OR 95% CI: 1.06-2.13) and in older cattle (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.64-3.7). When compared to Ankole cattle, Cross breed (OR = 6.5, OR 95% CI: 3.37-12.7) and Zebu cattle (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.78-3.72) had higher odds of having bovine TB-like lesions. Animals from Kasanda (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.52-4.17) were more likely to have bovine TB-like lesions

  9. Assessment of partogram use during labour in Rujumbura Health Sub District, Rukungiri District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ogwang, Simon; Karyabakabo, Zepher; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2009-08-01

    A partogram is a universal tool for monitoring labour. It is used for labour management in Rujumbura HSD, Rukungiri District. However, the District Health Officer reported only 30% use of a partogram. The study intended to find out why the low use, and suggest strategies in scaling up. To establish extent of use of a partogram, health facility and health workers' factors that affected its use during labour plus the relationship between foetal Apgar score and its use. A cross-sectional study involving observations, record reviews and interviewing of staff in 8 health facilities (4 Public and 4 Private Not For Profit) in Rujumbura HSD in Rukungiri district was conducted from May 23(rd) to 27(th) June 2008. It employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The partogram was used in 69.9% of deliveries. The partographs that fulfilled the standard monitoring of foetal heart rate were only 2%. There were few trained health workers and lack of guidelines on partogram use. A good Apgar score was associated with standard foetal monitoring and was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was poor use of partograms during labour mainly affected by health input factors. We recommended training of health workers on partogram use, provision of guidelines and adequate resources.

  10. Prevalence and spatial distribution of Theileria parva in cattle under crop-livestock farming systems in Tororo District, Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) present a major economic burden to communities across East Africa. Farmers in East Africa must use acaracides to target ticks and prevent transmission of tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theileriosis; the major causes of cattle mortality and morbidity. The costs of controlling East Coast Fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva, in Uganda are significant and measures taken to control ticks, to be cost-effective, should take into account the burden of disease. The aim of the present work was to estimate the burden presented by T. parva and its spatial distribution in a crop-livestock production system in Eastern Uganda. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of T. parva in Tororo District, Uganda. Blood samples were taken from all cattle (n: 2,658) in 22 randomly selected villages across Tororo District from September to December 2011. Samples were analysed by PCR and T. parva prevalence and spatial distribution determined. Results The overall prevalence of T. parva was found to be 5.3%. Herd level prevalence ranged from 0% to 21% with majority of the infections located in the North, North-Eastern and South-Eastern parts of Tororo District. No statistically significant differences in risk of infection were found between age classes, sex and cattle breed. Conclusions T. parva infection is widely distributed in Tororo District, Uganda. The prevalence and distribution of T. parva is most likely determined by spatial distribution of R. appendiculatus, restricted grazing of calves and preferential tick control targeting draft animals. PMID:24589227

  11. Prevalence and spatial distribution of Theileria parva in cattle under crop-livestock farming systems in Tororo District, Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Picozzi, Kim; Hatendorf, Jan; Thrusfield, Michael; Welburn, Susan Christina; Kabasa, John David; Waiswa, Charles

    2014-03-03

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) present a major economic burden to communities across East Africa. Farmers in East Africa must use acaracides to target ticks and prevent transmission of tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theileriosis; the major causes of cattle mortality and morbidity. The costs of controlling East Coast Fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva, in Uganda are significant and measures taken to control ticks, to be cost-effective, should take into account the burden of disease. The aim of the present work was to estimate the burden presented by T. parva and its spatial distribution in a crop-livestock production system in Eastern Uganda. A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of T. parva in Tororo District, Uganda. Blood samples were taken from all cattle (n: 2,658) in 22 randomly selected villages across Tororo District from September to December 2011. Samples were analysed by PCR and T. parva prevalence and spatial distribution determined. The overall prevalence of T. parva was found to be 5.3%. Herd level prevalence ranged from 0% to 21% with majority of the infections located in the North, North-Eastern and South-Eastern parts of Tororo District. No statistically significant differences in risk of infection were found between age classes, sex and cattle breed. T. parva infection is widely distributed in Tororo District, Uganda. The prevalence and distribution of T. parva is most likely determined by spatial distribution of R. appendiculatus, restricted grazing of calves and preferential tick control targeting draft animals.

  12. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended. PMID:26090048

  13. Lymphatic filariasis in Uganda: baseline investigations in Lira, Soroti and Katakwi districts.

    PubMed

    Onapa, A W; Simonsen, P E; Pedersen, E M; Okello, D O

    2001-01-01

    Baseline epidemiological investigations on lymphatic filariasis were conducted for the first time in Uganda in 3 communities in the districts of Lira (Alebtong area), Soroti (Lwala area) and Katakwi (Obalanga area), located to the north of Lake Kyoga at an altitude of 1000-1100 m above sea level. Individuals from the communities were examined, in April-August 1998, for Wuchereria bancrofti specific circulating antigen (by ICT card test), microfilaraemia (by counting chamber and stained blood-smear techniques) and chronic clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Endophilic mosquitoes were sampled and dissected for filarial larvae. Prevalences of circulating filarial antigen positivity were 29%, 18% and 30% in the Alebtong, Lwala and Obalanga communities, respectively. Microfilaria (mf) prevalences were 18%, 9% and 21%, and geometric mean mf intensities among mf-positive individuals were 306, 171 and 402 mf/mL blood, in the same communities. Examination of stained blood smears revealed mf of both W. bancrofti and Mansonella perstans, but more than 80% of mf-positive individuals harboured the first of these parasites. Prevalences of hydrocoele in adult (> or = 20 years) males were 28%, 7% and 17%, and prevalences of limb elephantiasis in adults were 9%, 4% and 4%, in the Alebtong, Lwala and Obalanga communities, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly An. gambiae s.s.) and An. funestus were common in all 3 communities, and showed W. bancrofti infectivity rates of 1.1-1.7% and 1.3-2.9%, respectively. It is concluded that lymphatic filariasis is highly endemic in these high-altitude areas of Uganda, with An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus being the main vectors.

  14. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K.; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K.; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Design Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. Results All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. Conclusions In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting

  15. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Background Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Design Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. Results All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. Conclusions In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting

  16. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting priority interventions for child survival.

  17. Domestic violence in rural Uganda: evidence from a community-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Michael A.; Lutalo, Tom; Zhao, Feng; Nalugoda, Fred; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kiwanuka, Noah; Wagman, Jennifer; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Although domestic violence is an increasing public health concern in developing countries, evidence from representative, community-based studies is limited. In a survey of 5109 women of reproductive age in the Rakai District of Uganda, 30% of women had experienced physical threats or physical abuse from their current partner--20% during the year before the survey. Three of five women who reported recent physical threats or abuse reported three or more specific acts of violence during the preceding year, and just under a half reported injuries as a result. Analysis of risk factors highlights the pivotal roles of the male partner's alcohol consumption and his perceived human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk in increasing the risk of male against female domestic violence. Most respondents--70% of men and 90% of women--viewed beating of the wife or female partner as justifiable in some circumstances, posing a central challenge to preventing violence in such settings. PMID:12640477

  18. Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation. PMID:21241484

  19. Health seeking behaviour and challenges in utilising health facilities in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Boynton, Petra; Butler, Ceri; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2014-12-01

    The health seeking behaviour of a community determines how they use health services. Utilisation of health facilities can be influenced by the cost of services, distance to health facilities, cultural beliefs, level of education and health facility inadequacies such as stock-out of drugs. To assess the health seeking practices and challenges in utilising health facilities in a rural community in Wakiso district, Uganda. The study was a cross sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire to collect quantitative data among 234 participants. The sample size was obtained using the formula by Leslie Kish. While 89% of the participants were aware that mobile clinics existed in their community, only 28% had received such services in the past month. The majority of participants (84%) did not know whether community health workers existed in their community. The participants' health seeking behaviour the last time they were sick was associated with age (p = 0.028) and occupation (p = 0.009). The most significant challenges in utilising health services were regular stock-out of drugs, high cost of services and long distance to health facilities. There is potential to increase access to health care in rural areas by increasing the frequency of mobile clinic services and strengthening the community health worker strategy.

  20. User fees, health staff incentives, and service utilization in Kabarole District, Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, W.; Kamugisha, J.; Jacobs, P.; Burnham, G.; Rubaale, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of user fees on the utilization of health services in a community-based cost-sharing scheme in Kabarole District, western Uganda. METHODS: Of the 38 government health units that had introduced user-fee financing schemes, 11 were included in the study. Outpatient utilization was assessed as the median number of visits per month before and after cost sharing began. FINDINGS: After the introduction of cost sharing, overall utilization of general outpatient services, assessed by combining the data from all the participating units, dropped by 21.3%. Utilization increased, however, in facilities located in remote areas, while it decreased in those located in urban or semi-urban areas. The increased utilization in remote facilities was considered to be largely attributable to health workers' incentive payments derived from cost-sharing revenues. CONCLUSIONS: Incentive payments led the health workers to offer improved services. Other factors may also have been influential, such as an improved drug supply to health facilities and increased public identification with community projects in remote areas. PMID:11731810

  1. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwander, Stephan; Okello, Clement D.; Freers, Juergen; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Corry, Melody; Meng, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100 µg/m3 in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%–55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health. PMID:24693293

  2. Availability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Services in Secondary Schools in Kabarole District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Namuddu, Jane; Waiswa, Peter; Nsangi, Betty; Iriso, Robert; Matovu, Joseph; Maganda, Albert; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%), drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%), peer education clubs (15%), workshops and seminars on HIV (8%), sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%), guidance and counseling (6%), talking compounds- (5%), abstinence talks (6%), keeping students busy in sports (4%), straight talk (4%). Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school. PMID:28299142

  3. Experiences of using a participatory action research approach to strengthen district local capacity in Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tetui, Moses; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-08-01

    To achieve a sustained improvement in health outcomes, the way health interventions are designed and implemented is critical. A participatory action research approach is applauded for building local capacity such as health management. Thereby increasing the chances of sustaining health interventions. This study explored stakeholder experiences of using PAR to implement an intervention meant to strengthen the local district capacity. This was a qualitative study featuring 18 informant interviews and a focus group discussion. Respondents included politicians, administrators, health managers and external researchers in three rural districts of eastern Uganda where PAR was used. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore stakeholders' experiences. 'Being awakened' emerged as an overarching category capturing stakeholder experiences of using PAR. This was described in four interrelated and sequential categories, which included: stakeholder involvement, being invigorated, the risk of wide stakeholder engagement and balancing the risk of wide stakeholder engagement. In terms of involvement, the stakeholders felt engaged, a sense of ownership, felt valued and responsible during the implementation of the project. Being invigorated meant being awakened, inspired and supported. On the other hand, risks such as conflict, stress and uncertainty were reported, and finally these risks were balanced through tolerance, risk-awareness and collaboration. The PAR approach was desirable because it created opportunities for building local capacity and enhancing continuity of interventions. Stakeholders were awakened by the approach, as it made them more responsive to systems challenges and possible local solutions. Nonetheless, the use of PAR should be considered in full knowledge of the undesirable and complex experiences, such as uncertainty, conflict and stress. This will enable adequate preparation and management of stakeholder expectations to maximize the benefits of the

  4. Availability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Services in Secondary Schools in Kabarole District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Namuddu, Jane; Waiswa, Peter; Nsangi, Betty; Iriso, Robert; Matovu, Joseph; Maganda, Albert; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%), drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%), peer education clubs (15%), workshops and seminars on HIV (8%), sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%), guidance and counseling (6%), talking compounds- (5%), abstinence talks (6%), keeping students busy in sports (4%), straight talk (4%). Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.

  5. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  6. Newborn Care Practices among Adolescent Mothers in Hoima District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Waiswa, Peter; Kawooya, Vincent; Nalwadda, Christine K.; Okuga, Monica; Nabiwemba, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent childbearing remains a major challenge to improving neonatal mortality especially in Sub Saharan countries which are still struggling with high neonatal mortality rates. We explored essential newborn care practices and associated factors among adolescent mothers in Western Uganda. Methods Data were collected among 410 adolescent mothers with children aged one to six months in Hoima district. Three composite variables (appropriate neonatal breastfeeding, cord care and thermal protection) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors independently associated with practice of essential newborn care. Results Appropriate newborn feeding, optimal thermal protection and dry cord care were practiced by 60.5%, 67.2% and 31% of adolescent mothers respectively. Independent predictors’ of cord care were: knowledge of cord care (AOR 5.34, 95% CI (1.51–18.84) and having delivered twins (AOR 0.04, 95% CI (0.01–0.22). The only predictor of thermal care was knowledge (AOR 25.15, 95% CI (7.01–90.20). Staying in a hospital for more than one day postpartum (AOR 2.45, 95%CI (1.23–4.86), knowledge of the correct time of breastfeeding initiation (AOR 14.71, 95% CI (5.20–41.58), predicted appropriate neonatal feeding, whereas; adolescent mothers who had had a caesarean delivery (AOR 0.19, 95% CI (I 0.04–0.96) and a male caretaker in the postnatal period (AOR 0.18, 95% CI (0.07–0.49) were less likely to practice the recommended newborn feeding. Conclusion Sub optimal essential newborn care practice was noted especially suboptimal cord care. Adolescent mothers should be a focus of strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health. PMID:27855186

  7. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Vanja; Tirados, Inaki; Esterhuizen, Johan; Mangwiro, Clement T N; Torr, Stephen J; Lehane, Michael J; Smith, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT), including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2). The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets) in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early engagements with communities and carefully designed sensitization campaigns that reach all

  8. Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. Methods AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. Results The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Conclusion Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures. PMID:23467840

  9. Responding to abuse: Children's experiences of child protection in a central district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Child, Jennifer Christine; Naker, Dipak; Horton, Jennifer; Walakira, Eddy Joshua; Devries, Karen M

    2014-10-01

    Part of a comprehensive response to violence against children involves child protection systems, but there are few data available on such systems in low-income countries. This study describes the characteristics and help seeking behavior of children referred to local child protection services and the quality of the first-line response in one district in Uganda. Participants included 3,706 children from 42 primary schools who participated in a baseline survey on violence as part of the Good Schools Study (NCT01678846, clinicaltrial.gov). Children who disclosed violence were referred according to predefined criteria based on the type, severity, and timeframe of their experiences. Children were followed up to 4 months after the study ended. First-line responses by receiving agencies were classified into 3 categories: plan for action only, some action taken, and no plan and no action taken. Appropriateness of responses was based on which agency responded, timeliness of the response, quality of the documentation, and final status of the case. From the baseline survey, 529 children (14%) were referred. Girls were more likely to be referred and to meet the criteria for a serious case (9% girls, 4% boys). In total, 104 referrals (20%) had some kind of concrete action taken, but only 20 (3.8%) cases met all criteria for having received an adequate response. Nearly half (43%) of referred children had ever sought help by disclosing their experiences of violence prior to the baseline survey. In our study areas, the first-line response to children's reports of abuse was poor even though some referral structures are in place.

  10. Community Acceptance of Tsetse Control Baits: A Qualitative Study in Arua District, North West Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Vanja; Tirados, Inaki; Esterhuizen, Johan; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Torr, Stephen J.; Lehane, Michael J.; Smith, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT), including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets) in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. Conclusions/Significance Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and “ghosts from the river” which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early engagements with

  11. Community knowledge of and attitudes toward epilepsy in rural and urban Mukono district, Uganda: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Kakooza, Angelina; Kayima, James; Kaddumukasa, Martin N; Ddumba, Edward; Mugenyi, Levi; Furlan, Anthony; Lhatoo, Samden; Sajatovic, Martha; Katabira, Elly

    2016-01-01

    The lack of adequate knowledge poses a barrier in the provision of appropriate treatment and care of patients with epilepsy within the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of and attitude towards epilepsy and its treatment by community dwellers in Uganda. A cross sectional population survey was conducted in urban and rural Mukono district, central Uganda. Adult respondents through multistage stratified sampling were interviewed about selected aspects of epilepsy knowledge, attitudes, and perception using a pretested structured questionnaire. Ninety-one percent of the study respondents had heard or read about epilepsy or knew someone who had epilepsy and had seen someone having a seizure. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents did not know the cause of epilepsy, while 29% cited genetic causes. About seventeen percent of the subjects believed that epilepsy is contagious. Only 5.6% (21/377) of the respondents would take a patient with epilepsy to hospital for treatment. Adults in Mukono are very acquainted with epilepsy but have many erroneous beliefs about the condition. Negative attitudes are pervasive within communities in Uganda. The national epilepsy awareness programs need to clarify the purported modes of transmission of epilepsy, available treatment options, and care offered during epileptic seizures during community sensitizations in our settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions, attitude and use of family planning services in post conflict Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Otim, George; Aporomon, Juliet Faith; Amone, Richard; Okello, Stephen Acellam; Odongkara, Beatrice; Komakech, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Northern Uganda was severely affected by two decades of civil war that led to the displacement and encampment of an estimated 1.6 million inhabitants. The objective of this study was to assess community perspectives, attitude and factors that influence use of family planning (FP) services in post conflict Gulu district. We conducted a cross sectional study using multistage sampling technique. All three counties in the district were purposely selected. Two sub-counties per county and four parishes per sub-county were randomly selected. A total of 24 parishes (clusters) and 21 adult heads of households per cluster were randomly selected and interviewed. In total, 500 adults 117 males (23.4 %) and 383 females (76.6 %) were interviewed. We conducted 8 focus group discussions and 6 key informant interviews with family planning managers and service providers. Quantitative data were entered in EPI data and analyzed using STATA version 12. Qualitative data were analyzed manually using thematic content analysis. Contraceptive prevalence rate was 47.5 %. Communities perceive FP as acceptable, beneficial and geographically, temporally and financially accessible. Factors associated with FP use included age 26-35 years (AOR 1.92, 95 % CI 1.18-3.10, p = 0.008), and 36-45 years (AOR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.21-4.25, p = 0.010), rural residence (AOR = 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24-0.71, p = 0.001), cohabitation (AOR = 2.77, 95 % CI 1.15-6.65, p = 0.023), and being a farmer (AOR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35-0.97, p = 0.037). The main reason for non-use of family planning was fear of side effects 88.2 %. The main source of FP services was government health facilities 94.2 %. Use of family planning is relatively high and communities view FP services as acceptable, beneficial and accessible. Family planning use is mainly determined by age, residence, occupation and marital status. Fear of side effects is the main impediment to FP use. There is need to increase awareness and

  13. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA.

    PubMed

    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.

  14. A comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis and league table rankings as methods for analysis and presentation of district health system performance data in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tashobya, Christine K; Dubourg, Dominique; Ssengooba, Freddie; Speybroeck, Niko; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2016-03-01

    In 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced the district league table for district health system performance assessment. The league table presents district performance against a number of input, process and output indicators and a composite index to rank districts. This study explores the use of hierarchical cluster analysis for analysing and presenting district health systems performance data and compares this approach with the use of the league table in Uganda. Ministry of Health and district plans and reports, and published documents were used to provide information on the development and utilization of the Uganda district league table. Quantitative data were accessed from the Ministry of Health databases. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 and hierarchical cluster analysis, utilizing Wards' method was used. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the basis of seven clusters determined for each year from 2003 to 2010, ranging from a cluster of good through moderate-to-poor performers. The characteristics and membership of clusters varied from year to year and were determined by the identity and magnitude of performance of the individual variables. Criticisms of the league table include: perceived unfairness, as it did not take into consideration district peculiarities; and being oversummarized and not adequately informative. Clustering organizes the many data points into clusters of similar entities according to an agreed set of indicators and can provide the beginning point for identifying factors behind the observed performance of districts. Although league table ranking emphasize summation and external control, clustering has the potential to encourage a formative, learning approach. More research is required to shed more light on factors behind observed performance of the different clusters. Other countries especially low-income countries that share many similarities with Uganda can learn from these experiences. © The Author 2015

  15. Gendered Distances: A Methodological Inquiry into Spatial Analysis as an Instrument for Assessing Gender Equality in Access to Secondary Schools in Mukono District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawro, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on how accessibility to secondary schools in the Mukono District of Uganda is related to the sex and gender of the student and the distance that separates the student's home from the school they attend. This research is a methodological inquiry exploring the use of spatial analysis, specifically how cognitive and metric…

  16. Gendered Distances: A Methodological Inquiry into Spatial Analysis as an Instrument for Assessing Gender Equality in Access to Secondary Schools in Mukono District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawro, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on how accessibility to secondary schools in the Mukono District of Uganda is related to the sex and gender of the student and the distance that separates the student's home from the school they attend. This research is a methodological inquiry exploring the use of spatial analysis, specifically how cognitive and metric…

  17. A process evaluation of performance-based incentives for village health workers in Kisoro district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Designing effective incentive systems for village health workers (VHWs) represents a longstanding policy issue with substantial impact on the success and sustainability of VHW programs. Using performance-based incentives (PBI) for VHWs is an approach that has been proposed and implemented in some programs, but has not received adequate review and evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. We conducted a process evaluation examining the use of PBI for VHWs in Kisoro, Uganda. In this system, VHWs are paid based on 20 indicators, divided among routine follow-up visits, health education activities, new patient identifications, sanitation coverage, and uptake of priority health services. Methods Surveys of VHWs (n = 30) and program supervisors (n = 7) were conducted to assess acceptability and feasibility. Interviews were conducted with all 8 program supervisors and with 6 purposively selected VHWs to gain a deeper understanding of their views on the PBI system. Program budget records were used to assess the costs of the program. Detailed payment records were used to assess the fairness of the PBI system with respect to VHWs’ gender, education level, and village location. Results In surveys and interviews, supervisors expressed high satisfaction with the PBI system, though some supervisors expressed concerns about possible negative effects from the variation in payments between VHWs and the uncertainty of reward for effort. VHWs perceived the system as generally fair, and preferred it to the previous payment system, but expressed a desire to be paid more. The annual program cost was $516 per VHW, with each VHW covering an average of 115 households. VHWs covering more households tended to earn more. There was some evidence that female gender was associated with higher earnings. Education level and proximity to the district hospital did not appear to be associated with earnings under the PBI system. Conclusions In a one-year pilot of PBI within a

  18. A process evaluation of performance-based incentives for village health workers in Kisoro district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Miller, James S; Musominali, Sam; Baganizi, Michael; Paccione, Gerald A

    2014-04-08

    Designing effective incentive systems for village health workers (VHWs) represents a longstanding policy issue with substantial impact on the success and sustainability of VHW programs. Using performance-based incentives (PBI) for VHWs is an approach that has been proposed and implemented in some programs, but has not received adequate review and evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. We conducted a process evaluation examining the use of PBI for VHWs in Kisoro, Uganda. In this system, VHWs are paid based on 20 indicators, divided among routine follow-up visits, health education activities, new patient identifications, sanitation coverage, and uptake of priority health services. Surveys of VHWs (n = 30) and program supervisors (n = 7) were conducted to assess acceptability and feasibility. Interviews were conducted with all 8 program supervisors and with 6 purposively selected VHWs to gain a deeper understanding of their views on the PBI system. Program budget records were used to assess the costs of the program. Detailed payment records were used to assess the fairness of the PBI system with respect to VHWs' gender, education level, and village location. In surveys and interviews, supervisors expressed high satisfaction with the PBI system, though some supervisors expressed concerns about possible negative effects from the variation in payments between VHWs and the uncertainty of reward for effort. VHWs perceived the system as generally fair, and preferred it to the previous payment system, but expressed a desire to be paid more. The annual program cost was $516 per VHW, with each VHW covering an average of 115 households. VHWs covering more households tended to earn more. There was some evidence that female gender was associated with higher earnings. Education level and proximity to the district hospital did not appear to be associated with earnings under the PBI system. In a one-year pilot of PBI within a small VHW program, both VHWs and supervisors found

  19. Integrating refugee and host health services in West Nile districts, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Orach, Christopher Garimoi; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Refugees are a common feature in Africa and Uganda is no exception. However, Uganda does not have the resources to provide health care to all its own citizens, let alone to refugees. Refugee health services are therefore usually set up and provided separately by international organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). However, such services often end up being the only available or reliable services in a particular location for both host and refugee populations. Yet the host populations are often denied access to these services because, in theory, other services are being provided by their government. The case study in the West Nile region of Uganda describes how host and refugee services were integrated in an attempt to address the concerns of inequity of access to care for host populations, when reasonably good health services were available to nearby refugee populations. The paper identifies and discusses the challenges encountered and those remaining.

  20. District Health Officer Perceptions of PEPFAR’s Influence on the Health System in Uganda, 2005-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Nathaniel; Hagopian, Amy; Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Barnhart, Scott; Pfeiffer, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vertically oriented global health initiatives (GHIs) addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), have successfully contributed to reducing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. However, there is still debate about whether these disease-specific programs have improved or harmed health systems overall, especially with respect to non-HIV health needs. Methods: As part of a larger evaluation of PEPFAR’s effects on the health system between 2005-2011, we collected qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews with District Health Officers (DHOs) from all 112 districts in Uganda. We asked DHOs to share their perceptions about the ways in which HIV programs (largely PEPFAR in the Ugandan context) had helped and harmed the health system. We then identified key themes among their responses using qualitative content analysis. Results: Ugandan DHOs said PEPFAR had generally helped the health system by improving training, integrating HIV and non-HIV care, and directly providing resources. To a lesser extent, DHOs said PEPFAR caused the health system to focus too narrowly on HIV/AIDS, increased workload for already overburdened staff, and encouraged doctors to leave public sector jobs for higher-paid positions with HIV/AIDS programs. Conclusion: Health system leaders in Uganda at the district level were appreciative of resources aimed at HIV they could often apply for broader purposes. As HIV infection becomes a chronic disease requiring strong health systems to manage sustained patient care over time, Uganda’s weak health systems will require broad infrastructure improvements inconsistent with narrow vertical health programming.

  1. Perinatal mental health care in a rural African district, Uganda: a qualitative study of barriers, facilitators and needs.

    PubMed

    Nakku, Juliet E M; Okello, Elialilia S; Kizza, Dorothy; Honikman, Simone; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred

    2016-07-22

    Perinatal mental illness is a common and important public health problem, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators, as well as perceptions about the feasibility and acceptability of plans to deliver perinatal mental health care in primary care settings in a low income, rural district in Uganda. Six focus group discussions comprising separate groups of pregnant and postpartum women and village health teams as well as eight key informant interviews were conducted in the local language using a topic guide. Transcribed data were translated into English, analyzed, and coded. Key themes were identified using a thematic analysis approach. Participants perceived that there was an important unmet need for perinatal mental health care in the district. There was evidence of significant gaps in knowledge about mental health problems as well as negative attitudes amongst mothers and health care providers towards sufferers. Poverty and inability to afford transport to services, poor partner support and stigma were thought to add to the difficulties of perinatal women accessing care. There was an awareness of the need for interventions to respond to this neglected public health problem and a willingness of both community- and facility-based health care providers to provide care for mothers with mental health problems if equipped to do so by adequate training. This study highlights the acceptability and relevance of perinatal mental health care in a rural, low-income country community. It also underscores some of the key barriers and potential facilitators to delivery of such care in primary care settings. The results of this study have implications for mental health service planning and development for perinatal populations in Uganda and will be useful in informing the development of integrated maternal mental health care in this rural district and in similar settings in other low and middle income countries.

  2. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family

  3. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health.

  4. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Gething, Peter W; Picozzi, Kim; Fèvre, Eric M; Kakembo, Abbas S L; Welburn, Susan C

    2009-12-15

    The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in 4 districts of north-eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of African children are having to grow up under harsh and adverse psychosocial conditions but it’s not fully understood how this negative psychosocial environment is affecting their mental health. This paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in a community sample derived from four disadvantaged districts in north-eastern Uganda. Methods 1587 children were assessed using a structured instrument administered by trained psychiatric nurses to collect data on psychiatric disorders (DSM IV criteria), adverse psychosocial factors and socio-demographic factors. Results The point prevalence of depressive disorder syndromes (DDS) in this study was 8.6% (95% CI 7.2%–10.1%) with a point prevalence for major depressive episode of 7.6% (95% CI 6.3%–9.0%) and dysthymia of 2.1% (95% CI 1.5%–3.0%). At multiple logistic regression, the factors that were independently significantly associated with DDS were: district (representing ecological factors), nature of living arrangements, domestic violence and psychiatric co-morbidities/psychiatric problems of emotional distress (assessed by the SDQ), suicidality and marginally, anxiety disorder syndromes, eating disorder syndromes, motor disorder syndromes and behavioral and developmental disorder syndromes (the later being protective against depression). Conclusion Disadvantaged north-eastern Uganda had a high prevalence of childhood depressive disorders. Ecological factors, markers of the quality of the child-principal caregiver relationship (nature of living arrangements and domestic violence) and the presence of psychiatric co-morbidities/psychiatric problems were the important independent determinants of childhood depression in this study. PMID:23561039

  6. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems.

  7. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-06-01

    Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers' incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing.

  8. Predictors of primary health care pharmaceutical expenditure by districts in Uganda and implications for budget setting and allocation.

    PubMed

    Mujasi, Paschal N; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2015-08-20

    There is need for the Uganda Ministry of Health to understand predictors of primary health care pharmaceutical expenditure among districts in order to guide budget setting and to improve efficiency in allocation of the set budget among districts. Cross sectional, retrospective observational study using secondary data. The value of pharmaceuticals procured by primary health care facilities in 87 randomly selected districts for the Financial Year 2011/2012 was collected. Various specifications of the dependent variable (pharmaceutical expenditure) were used: total pharmaceutical expenditure, Per capita district pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical expenditure per district health facility and pharmaceutical expenditure per outpatient department visit. Andersen's behaviour model of health services utilisation was used as conceptual framework to identify independent variables likely to influence health care utilisation and hence pharmaceutical expenditure. Econometric analysis was conducted to estimate parameters of various regression models. All models were significant overall (P < 0.01), with explanatory power ranging from 51 to 82%. The log linear model for total pharmaceutical expenditure explained about 80% of the observed variation in total pharmaceutical expenditure (Adjusted R(2) = 0.797) and contained the following variables: Immunisation coverage, Total outpatient department attendance, Urbanisation, Total number of government health facilities and total number of Health Centre IIs. The model based on Per capita Pharmaceutical expenditure explained about 50% of the observed variation in per capita pharmaceutical expenditure (Adjusted R(2) = 0.513) and was more balanced with the following variables: Outpatient per capita attendance, percentage of rural population below poverty line 2005, Male Literacy rate, Whether a district is characterised by MOH as difficult to reach or not and the Human poverty index. The log-linear model based on total

  9. Correlates of depression among caregivers of children affected by HIV/AIDS in Uganda: findings from the Suubi-Maka family study.

    PubMed

    Kagotho, Njeri; Ssewamala, Fred M

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the baseline (wave 1) data from a four-year (2008-2012) longitudinal study called the Suubi-Maka family economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant # RMH081763A). Specifically, using baseline data from the Suubi-Maka study, this article provides a contextualized understanding of depression levels among caregivers for AIDS-orphaned children in two rural communities heavily affected by AIDS in Uganda: Rakai and Masaka districts. Using baseline data collected from caregivers of children orphaned by AIDS (N=297) the study examines the factors that influence reported depression levels of caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children in rural communities of Uganda. We specifically use ordinary least squares regression methods. In the analysis we control for several demographic factors, including age, gender, assets, social support, and caregiving status. We find that caregivers' reported economic status and social support system are highly correlated with caregivers' reported depression scores. Specifically, caregivers with cash savings and a strong family support system reported better depression scores. These findings have implications for community development practice and programming. Specifically, the study highlights a need for family economic empowerment programs and, strengthened family support among caregivers for AIDS-orphaned children, especially those caregivers with reported poor mental health functioning.

  10. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398

  11. Using burden of disease/cost-effectiveness as an instrument for district health planning: experiences from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, Anders; Okuonzi, Sam Agatre; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Hagström, Bo

    2004-12-01

    The burden of disease/cost-effectiveness analysis (BoD/CE) was introduced as a method for detailed planning and budgeting in 13 districts of Uganda. This endeavor can be seen as a "natural experiment", attempting to pursue policy implementation by means of a heavy focus on rationalistic/technical arguments as a main supportive factor. However, modern theory of policy implementation, e.g. the new institutionalism postulate that the implementation process is far from a passive diffusion process which only would need support by technical rationality, and that the result of the implementation process often is very different from prior expectations and depend on a number of factors in the so called translation process. The aim of this paper was to study the outcome of the mentioned "natural experiment" and, if the outcome diverted from the intended ones (which we hypothesized), to analyze some of the reasons for this by using the theoretical framework of new institutionalism. District budgets as well as actual expenditures before and after the introduction of the BoD and CE methods were analyzed. District health officials were interviewed to obtain their views and experiences of the method. Our study of budget allocations and actual expenditures revealed an increasing discrepancy from the pattern shown in the BoD/CE analysis. The district officials were positive about the methods but stated that it had to be used together with other methods. However, we found that the seemingly pure focus of BoD/CE, i.e. technical efficiency of budget allocations at the district level, collided with issues of accountability. The final budgets, and even more, the actual expenditures can be seen as the outcome of negotiation processes where other rationalities have considered, that is the translation process. This implies that the "technical" issue of efficiency has to become better understood and integrated in the notion of an accountable health care system at the district level. It is

  12. Capacity of Health Facilities to Manage Hypertension in Mukono and Buikwe Districts in Uganda: Challenges and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.; Mukose, Aggrey; Van geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic diseases is increasing in both low- and middle-income countries. However, healthcare systems in low-income countries are inadequately equipped to deal with the growing disease burden, which requires chronic care for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of health facilities to manage hypertension in two districts in Uganda. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted between June and October 2012, we surveyed 126 health facilities (6 hospitals, 4 Health Center IV (HCIV), 23 Health Center III (HCIII), 41 Health Center II (HCII) and 52 private clinics/dispensaries) in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. We assessed records, conducted structured interviews with heads of facilities, and administered questionnaires to 271 health workers. The study assessed service provision for hypertension, availability of supplies such as medicines, guidelines and equipment, in-service training for hypertension, knowledge of hypertension management, challenges and recommendations. Results Of the 126 health facilities, 92.9% reported managing (diagnosing/treating) patients with hypertension, and most (80.2%) were run by non-medical doctors or non-physician health workers (NPHW). Less than half (46%) of the facilities had guidelines for managing hypertension. A 10th of the facilities lacked functioning blood pressure devices and 28% did not have stethoscopes. No facilities ever calibrated their BP devices except one. About a half of the facilities had anti-hypertensive medicines in stock; mainly thiazide diuretics (46%), beta blockers (56%) and calcium channel blockers (48.4%). Alpha blockers, mixed alpha & beta blockers and angiotensin II receptor antagonists were only stocked by private clinics/dispensaries. Most HCIIs lacked anti-hypertensive medicines, including the first line thiazide diuretics. Significant knowledge gaps in classification of patients as hypertensive were noted among respondents. All health workers (except 5

  13. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and retention in care for adolescents living with HIV from 10 districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette; Elyanu, Peter; Asire, Barbara; Katureebe, Cordelia; Lukabwe, Ivan; Namusoke, Eleanor; Musinguzi, Joshua; Atuyambe, Lynn; Tumwesigye, Nathan

    2015-11-14

    Adolescents have gained increased attention because they are the only age group where HIV related mortality is going up. We set out to describe the level and factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the 1 year retention in care among adolescents in 10 representative districts in Uganda. In addition, we explored the barriers and facilitators of adherence to ART among adolescents. The study involved 30 health facilities from 10 representative districts in Uganda. We employed both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods in convergent design. The former involved Focus group discussions with adolescents living with HIV, Key informant interviews with various stakeholders and in depth interviews with adolescents. The quantitative involved using retrospective records review to extract the last recorded adherence level from all adolescents who were active in HIV care. Factors associated with adherence were extracted from the ART cards. For the 1 year retention in care, we searched the hospital records of all adolescents in the 30 facilities who had started ART 1 year before the study to find out how many were still in care. Out of 1824 adolescents who were active on ART, 90.4 % (N = 1588) had ≥95 % adherence recorded on their ART cards at their last clinic visit. Only location in rural health facilities was independently associated with poor adherence to ART (P = 0.008, OR 2.64 [1.28 5.43]). Of the 156 adolescents who started ART, 90 % (N = 141) were still active in care 1 year later. Stigma, discrimination and disclosure issues were the most outstanding of all barriers to adherence. Other barriers included poverty, fatigue, side effects, pill burden, depression among others. Facilitators of adherence mainly included peer support groups, counseling, supportive health care workers, short waiting time and provision of food and transport. Adherence to ART was good among adolescents. Being in rural areas was associated with

  14. Capacity of Health Facilities to Manage Hypertension in Mukono and Buikwe Districts in Uganda: Challenges and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Mukose, Aggrey; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases is increasing in both low- and middle-income countries. However, healthcare systems in low-income countries are inadequately equipped to deal with the growing disease burden, which requires chronic care for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of health facilities to manage hypertension in two districts in Uganda. In a cross-sectional study conducted between June and October 2012, we surveyed 126 health facilities (6 hospitals, 4 Health Center IV (HCIV), 23 Health Center III (HCIII), 41 Health Center II (HCII) and 52 private clinics/dispensaries) in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. We assessed records, conducted structured interviews with heads of facilities, and administered questionnaires to 271 health workers. The study assessed service provision for hypertension, availability of supplies such as medicines, guidelines and equipment, in-service training for hypertension, knowledge of hypertension management, challenges and recommendations. Of the 126 health facilities, 92.9% reported managing (diagnosing/treating) patients with hypertension, and most (80.2%) were run by non-medical doctors or non-physician health workers (NPHW). Less than half (46%) of the facilities had guidelines for managing hypertension. A 10th of the facilities lacked functioning blood pressure devices and 28% did not have stethoscopes. No facilities ever calibrated their BP devices except one. About a half of the facilities had anti-hypertensive medicines in stock; mainly thiazide diuretics (46%), beta blockers (56%) and calcium channel blockers (48.4%). Alpha blockers, mixed alpha & beta blockers and angiotensin II receptor antagonists were only stocked by private clinics/dispensaries. Most HCIIs lacked anti-hypertensive medicines, including the first line thiazide diuretics. Significant knowledge gaps in classification of patients as hypertensive were noted among respondents. All health workers (except 5, 1.9%) indicated that they

  15. Prevalence, pattern and perceptions of cleft lip and cleft palate among children born in two hospitals in Kisoro District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies that affect the oro-facial region. The aim of the study was to determine the period prevalence, pattern and perceptions of cleft lip and cleft palate in children born between 2005 and 2010 in two hospitals in Kisoro District, Uganda. Methods The study involved a retrospective review of medical records of mothers who delivered live babies between January 2005 and December 2010 in Kisoro Hospital and St. Francis Hospital, Mutolere in Kisoro District. Key informant interviews of mothers (n = 20) of the children with cleft lip and/or clip palate and selected medical staff (n = 24) of the two hospitals were carried out. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Over the 6 year period, 25,985 mothers delivered live babies in Kisoro Hospital (n = 13,199) and St. Francis Hospital, Mutolere (n = 12,786) with 20 babies having oro-facial clefts. The overall period prevalence of the clefts was 0.77/1,000 live births. Sixty percent (n = 12) of children had combined cleft lip and palate and the same proportion had clefts on the left side of the face. More boys were affected than girls: 13 versus 7. About 45% of mothers were hurt on realizing that they had delivered a child with an oro-facial cleft. Forty percent of mothers indicated that a child with oro-facial cleft was regarded as an outcast. About 91.7% (n = 22) of the medical staff reported that these children were not accepted in their communities. Surgical intervention and psychosocial support were the management modalities advocated for by most respondents. Conclusion/recommendations The period prevalence of combined cleft lip and palate in two hospitals in Kisoro District was comparable to some findings elsewhere. Cleft lip and cleft palate are a medical and psychosocial problem in Kisoro District that calls for sensitization and counseling of the families and communities of the affected children

  16. Supporting youth and community capacity through photovoice: Reflections on participatory research on maternal health in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; George, Asha S

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the experiences of using photovoice to examine maternal health in Wakiso district, Uganda. The project involved 10 youth aged 18-29 years old, who were diverse in education, occupation, and marital status and identified by community leaders with researchers. By taking photos and sharing images and experiences in monthly meetings over five months, youth reported becoming more knowledgeable. They realised that they had common experiences but also reflected on and reinterpreted their circumstances. While they acquired self-confidence and enhanced their communication skills, they also initially faced community resistance regarding consent and lack of trust in their motives. Ethical practice in photovoice goes beyond institutional approval and individual consent. It includes extensively discussing the project with community members and building relationships with them. In certain instances, photos needed not to identify community members, or not be taken at all. Through these relationships and with improved capacity, youth engaged in individual instances of health education and advocacy, as well as spurred further local action through community dialogues. Researchers supporting photovoice must be open to learning alongside participants, flexible regarding study focus and processes, sustain interest and manage logistics, all while being reflective about the balance of power in such partnerships.

  17. Community awareness about risk factors, presentation and prevention and obstetric fistula in Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that is devastating for women in developing countries. The cardinal cause of obstetric fistula is prolonged obstructed labour and delay in seeking emergency obstetric care. Awareness about obstetric fistula is still low in developing countries. The objective was to assess the awareness about risk factors of obstetric fistulae in rural communities of Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Eastern Uganda. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussion for males and females aged 18-49 years, to explore and gain deeper understanding of their awareness of existence, causes, clinical presentation and preventive measures for obstetric fistula. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. Results The majority of the women and a few men were aware about obstetric fistula, though many had misconceptions regarding its causes, clinical presentation and prevention. Some wrongly attributed fistula to misuse of family planning, having sex during the menstruation period, curses by relatives, sexually transmitted infections, rape and gender-based violence. However, others attributed the fistula to delays to access medical care, induced abortions, conception at an early age, utilization of traditional birth attendants at delivery, and some complications that could occur during surgical operations for difficult deliveries. Conclusion Most of the community members interviewed were aware of the risk factors of obstetric fistula. Some respondents, predominantly men, had misconceptions/myths about risk factors of obstetric fistula as being caused by having sex during menstrual periods, poor usage of family planning, being a curse. PMID:24321441

  18. A demonstration of mobile phone deployment to support the treatment of acutely ill children under five in Bushenyi district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kabakyenga, Jerome; Barigye, Celestine; Brenner, Jennifer; Maling, Samuel; Buchner, Denise; Nettle-Aquirre, Alberto; Singhal, Nalini; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Tumusiime, David; Finch, Janet; MacLeod, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    Benefits of mobile phone deployment for children <5 in low-resource settings remain unproven. The target population of the current demonstration study in Bushenyi District, Uganda, presented with acute fever, pneumonia, or diarrhoea and were treated by community health workers (CHWs) providing integrated community case management (iCCM). An observational study was conducted in five parishes (47 villages) served by CHWs well versed in iCCM with supplemental training in mobile phone use. Impact was assessed by quantitative measures and qualitative evaluation through household surveys, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. CHWs in targeted sites improved child healthcare through mobile phone use coupled with iCCM. Of acutely ill children, 92.6% were correctly managed. Significant improvements in clinical outcomes compared to those obtained by CHWs with enhanced iCCM training alone were unproven in this limited demonstration. Nonetheless, qualitative evaluation showed gains in treatment planning, supply management, and logistical efficiency. Provider confidence and communications were enhanced as was ease and accuracy of record keeping. Mobile phones appear synergistic with iCCM to bolster basic supportive care for acutely ill children provided by CHWs. The full impact of expanded mobile phone deployment warrants further evaluation prior to scaling up in low-resource settings.

  19. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine

    2015-06-11

    Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended.

  20. Community awareness about risk factors, presentation and prevention and obstetric fistula in Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kasamba, Nassar; Kaye, Dan K; Mbalinda, Scovia N

    2013-12-10

    Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that is devastating for women in developing countries. The cardinal cause of obstetric fistula is prolonged obstructed labour and delay in seeking emergency obstetric care. Awareness about obstetric fistula is still low in developing countries. The objective was to assess the awareness about risk factors of obstetric fistulae in rural communities of Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Eastern Uganda. A qualitative study using focus group discussion for males and females aged 18-49 years, to explore and gain deeper understanding of their awareness of existence, causes, clinical presentation and preventive measures for obstetric fistula. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. The majority of the women and a few men were aware about obstetric fistula, though many had misconceptions regarding its causes, clinical presentation and prevention. Some wrongly attributed fistula to misuse of family planning, having sex during the menstruation period, curses by relatives, sexually transmitted infections, rape and gender-based violence. However, others attributed the fistula to delays to access medical care, induced abortions, conception at an early age, utilization of traditional birth attendants at delivery, and some complications that could occur during surgical operations for difficult deliveries. Most of the community members interviewed were aware of the risk factors of obstetric fistula. Some respondents, predominantly men, had misconceptions/myths about risk factors of obstetric fistula as being caused by having sex during menstrual periods, poor usage of family planning, being a curse.

  1. THE GENERATION, USE AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE FOR KAMPALA DISTRICT, UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Ssempebwa, John C.; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Waste Crankcase Oil (WCO), the oil that is removed from motor engines during an oil change, is frequently discarded into the environment, resulting in pollution of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In some developing countries, this common hazardous material is not properly managed. In Uganda little is known about its generation, utilization, and disposal. These factors were investigated using in-depth interviews of a sample of mechanics from 379 motor repair garages and 109 fuel stations in the Kampala district. Most garages (94%) and fuel stations (96%) in the study area offered oil-changing services. On average, each garage produced 62 litres, and each fuel station produced 134 litres of WCO per week. In garages 35% was sold, 16% poured on the ground, 18% taken by vehicle owners and 31% given away for free. At fuel stations, 49% was picked by private collectors, 27% sold, 4% poured on the ground, 2% burnt, 13% taken by vehicle owners, and 6% given away for free. Uses of WCO included coating roofing timber and fencing posts, use in timber cutting, marking play grounds, and pest control in animals. Its disposal involved burning, and pouring in the environment. Lack of policy and information for proper handling of WCO contributed to the poor management of WCO exhibited. PMID:18513868

  2. The generation, use and disposal of waste crankcase oil in developing countries: a case for Kampala district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssempebwa, John C; Carpenter, David O

    2009-01-30

    Waste crankcase oil (WCO), the oil that is removed from motor engines during an oil change, is frequently discarded into the environment, resulting in pollution of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In some developing countries, this common hazardous material is not properly managed. In Uganda little is known about its generation, utilization, and disposal. These factors were investigated using in-depth interviews of a sample of mechanics from 379 motor repair garages and 109 fuel stations in the Kampala district. Most garages (94%) and fuel stations (96%) in the study area offered oil-changing services. On average, each garage produced 62 l, and each fuel station produced 134 l of WCO per week. In garages 35% was sold, 16% poured on the ground, 18% taken by vehicle owners and 31% given away for free. At fuel stations, 49% was picked by private collectors, 27% sold, 4% poured on the ground, 2% burnt, 13% taken by vehicle owners, and 6% given away for free. Uses of WCO included coating roofing timber and fencing posts, use in timber cutting, marking play grounds, and pest control in animals. Its disposal involved burning, and pouring in the environment. Lack of policy and information for proper handling of WCO contributed to the poor management of WCO exhibited.

  3. A qualitative study on barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery services in Moroto and Napak districts, Uganda: implications for programming.

    PubMed

    Wilunda, Calistus; Quaglio, Gianluca; Putoto, Giovanni; Lochoro, Peter; Dall'Oglio, Giovanni; Manenti, Fabio; Atzori, Andrea; Lochiam, Rose Miligan; Takahashi, Risa; Mukundwa, Aline; Oyerinde, Koyejo

    2014-08-04

    Skilled attendance at delivery is critical in prevention of maternal deaths. However, many women in low- and middle-income countries still deliver without skilled assistance. This study was carried out to identify perceived barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery in two districts in Karamoja, Uganda. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) with 887 participants (459 women and 428 men) in 20 villages in Moroto and Napak districts. Data were analysed using deductive content analysis. Notes taken during PRA session were edited, triangulated and coded according to recurring issues. Additionally, participants used matrix ranking to express their perceived relative significance of the barriers identified. The main barriers to utilisation of maternal health services were perceived to be: insecurity, poverty, socio-cultural factors, long distances to health facilities, lack of food at home and at health facilities, lack of supplies, drugs and basic infrastructure at health facilities, poor quality of care at health facilities, lack of participation in planning for health services and the ready availability of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Factors related to economic and physical inaccessibility and lack of infrastructure, drugs and supplies at health facilities were highly ranked barriers to utilisation of institutional delivery. A comprehensive approach to increasing the utilisation of maternal health care services in Karamoja is needed. This should tackle both demand and supply side barriers using a multi-sectorial approach since the main barriers are outside the scope of the health sector. TBAs are still active in Karamoja and their role and influence on maternal health in this region cannot be ignored. A model for collaboration between skilled health workers and TBAs in order to increase institutional deliveries is needed.

  4. Risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along the Uganda-Kenya border.

    PubMed

    Nantima, Noelina; Ocaido, Michael; Ouma, Emily; Davies, Jocelyn; Dione, Michel; Okoth, Edward; Mugisha, Anthony; Bishop, Richard

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along Kenya-Uganda border. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 642 randomly selected pig households in the study area. The study showed that the major risk factors that influenced ASF occurrence were purchase of pigs in the previous year (p < 0.000) and feeding of pigs with swill (p < 0.024). By employing cluster analysis, three clusters of pig production types were identified based on production characteristics that were found to differ significantly between districts. The most vulnerable cluster to ASF was households with the highest reported number of ASF outbreaks and composed of those that practiced free range at least some of the time. The majority of the households in this cluster were from Busia district in Uganda. On the other hand, the least vulnerable cluster to ASF composed of households that had the least number of pig purchases, minimal swill feeding, and less treatment for internal and external parasites. The largest proportion of households in this cluster was from Busia district Kenya. The study recommended the need to sensitize farmers to adopt proper biosecurity practices such as total confinement of pigs, treatment of swill, isolation of newly purchased pigs for at least 2 weeks, and provision of incentives for farmers to report suspected outbreaks to authorities and rapid confirmation of outbreaks.

  5. Enhancing knowledge and awareness of biosecurity practices for control of African swine fever among smallholder pig farmers in four districts along the Kenya-Uganda border.

    PubMed

    Nantima, Noelina; Davies, Jocelyn; Dione, Michel; Ocaido, Michael; Okoth, Edward; Mugisha, Anthony; Bishop, Richard

    2016-04-01

    A study was undertaken along the Kenya-Uganda border in four districts of Tororo and Busia (Uganda) and Busia and Teso (Kenya) to understand smallholder farmers' knowledge, practices and awareness of biosecurity measures. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 645 randomly selected pig households in the study area. In addition, focus group discussions were carried out in 12 villages involving 248 people using a standardized list of questions. The outcome suggested that there was a very low level of awareness of biosecurity practices amongst smallholder farmers. We conclude that adoption of specific biosecurity practices by smallholder farmers is feasible but requires institutional support. There is a clear requirement for government authorities to sensitize farmers using approaches that allow active participation of farmers in the design, planning and implementation of biosecurity practices to enable enhanced adoption.

  6. Land slide disaster in eastern Uganda: rapid assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene situation in Bulucheke camp, Bududa district.

    PubMed

    Atuyambe, Lynn M; Ediau, Michael; Orach, Christopher G; Musenero, Monica; Bazeyo, William

    2011-05-14

    On 1st March 2010, a major landslide occurred on Mt. Elgon in Eastern Uganda. This was triggered by heavy rains that lasted over three months. The landslide buried three villages in Bududa district, killing over 400 and displacing an estimate of 5,000 people. A comprehensive assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene was urgently needed to inform interventions by the Ministries of Health, and Relief, Disaster Preparedness and Refugees, Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected two weeks after the disaster. Quantitative interviews involved 397 heads of households and qualitative methods comprised of 27 Key Informant interviews, four focus group discussions and observations. The survey quantified water safety (collection, treatment, storage) and hygiene practices. This was supplemented and triangulated with qualitative data that focused on community perceptions and beliefs regarding water and sanitation needs and practices. Quantitative data was entered in Epi-Info Version 3.2.2 software and then exported to SPSS Version 12 for analysis. Summary statistics and proportions were generated and bi-variable analysis performed for selected variables. Associations were assessed using odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Qualitative results showed that there were strong traditional beliefs governing water use and human excreta disposal. The use of river Manafwa water for household consumption was observed to potentially lead to disease outbreaks. Water from this river was reported tastier and the community culturally saw no need to boil drinking water. Latrines were few (23 for 5000 people), shallow, dirty (70% reported flies, 60% fecal littering), not separated by sex and had limited privacy and no light at night. This affected their use. Males were 3 times more likely to wash hands with soap after latrine use than females (OR = 3.584, 95%CI: 1

  7. Land slide disaster in eastern Uganda: rapid assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene situation in Bulucheke camp, Bududa district

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background On 1st March 2010, a major landslide occurred on Mt. Elgon in Eastern Uganda. This was triggered by heavy rains that lasted over three months. The landslide buried three villages in Bududa district, killing over 400 and displacing an estimate of 5,000 people. A comprehensive assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene was urgently needed to inform interventions by the Ministries of Health, and Relief, Disaster Preparedness and Refugees, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected two weeks after the disaster. Quantitative interviews involved 397 heads of households and qualitative methods comprised of 27 Key Informant interviews, four focus group discussions and observations. The survey quantified water safety (collection, treatment, storage) and hygiene practices. This was supplemented and triangulated with qualitative data that focused on community perceptions and beliefs regarding water and sanitation needs and practices. Quantitative data was entered in Epi-Info Version 3.2.2 software and then exported to SPSS Version 12 for analysis. Summary statistics and proportions were generated and bi-variable analysis performed for selected variables. Associations were assessed using odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Results Qualitative results showed that there were strong traditional beliefs governing water use and human excreta disposal. The use of river Manafwa water for household consumption was observed to potentially lead to disease outbreaks. Water from this river was reported tastier and the community culturally saw no need to boil drinking water. Latrines were few (23 for 5000 people), shallow, dirty (70% reported flies, 60% fecal littering), not separated by sex and had limited privacy and no light at night. This affected their use. Males were 3 times more likely to wash hands with soap after latrine use than females (OR = 3

  8. District-level surgery in Uganda: Indications, interventions and perioperative mortality.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Jenny; Kadobera, Daniel; Forsberg, Birger C; Mulowooza, Jude; Wladis, Andreas; Nordin, Pär

    2015-07-01

    The world's poorest 2 billion people, benefit from no more than about 3.5% of the world's operative procedures. The burden of surgical disease is greatest in Africa, where operations could save many lives. Previous facility-based studies have described operative procedure caseloads, but prospective studies investigating interventions, indications and perioperative mortality rates (POMR), are rare. A prospective, questionnaire-based collection of data on all major and minor operative procedures was undertaken at 2 hospitals in rural Uganda covering 4 and 3 months in 2011, respectively. Data included patient characteristics, indications for the interventions performed, and outcome after surgery. We recorded 2,790 operative procedures on 2,701 patients. The rate of major operative procedures per 100,000 population per year was 225. Patients undergoing major operative procedures (n = 1,051) were mostly women (n = 923; 88%) because most interventions were performed owing to pregnancy-related complications (n = 747; 67%) or gynecologic conditions (n = 114; 10%). General operative interventions registered included herniorrhaphy (n = 103; 9%), exploratory laparotomy (n = 60; 5%), and appendectomy (n = 31; 3%). The POMR for major operative procedures was 1% (n = 14) and was greatest after exploratory laparotomy (13%; n = 8) and caesarean delivery (1%; n = 4). Most deaths (n = 16) were a result of sepsis (n = 10-11) or hemorrhage (n = 3-5). The volume of surgery was low relative to the size of the catchment population. The POMR was high. Exploratory laparotomy and caesarean section were identified as high-risk procedures. Increased availability of blood, improved perioperative monitoring, and early intervention could be part of a solution to reduce the POMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. No difference in sexual behavior of adolescent girls following Human Papilloma Virus vaccination: a case study two districts in Uganda; Nakasongola and Luwero.

    PubMed

    Aujo, Judith Caroline; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Kiguli, Sarah; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-02-12

    Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) before sexual debut has been recommended by WHO as a primary prevention strategy against cervical cancer. In Uganda, vaccination against HPV started as a demonstration project among young girls in Nakasongola; and Ibanda districts. Studies have suggested that vaccination against HPV could result in risky sexual behavior and increase the risk of early sexual debut.This study was done to compare the sexual behavior of HPV vaccinated and non vaccinated adolescent girls in two neighboring districts in Uganda; and to assess whether HPV vaccination had any influence on sexual behavior of vaccinated adolescent girls. This was an unmatched comparative study, which used both qualitative and quantitative study methods. It was carried out among 400 primary school girls aged 12 to 15 years in the districts of Nakasongola (vaccinated) and Luwero (non vaccinated). Quantitative data was collected using a questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The main outcome measure was the number of sexually active girls in each group. Of the 400 girls, 8 volunteered information that they were sexually active, 5(2.5%) from Luwero (non vaccinated) and 3 (1.5%) from Nakasongola (vaccinated), but there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. HPV vaccination was not significantly associated with being sexually active. There was no significant difference in sexual behavior between vaccinated and non vaccinated girls.

  10. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98). Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication channels

  11. Economic evaluation of typhoid vaccination in a prolonged typhoid outbreak setting: the case of Kasese district in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; Walters, Maroya Spalding; Wefula, Edward; Date, Kashmira A; Swerdlow, David L; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Mintz, Eric

    2015-04-21

    Vaccination has been increasingly promoted to help control epidemic and endemic typhoid fever in high-incidence areas. Despite growing recognition that typhoid incidence in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa is similar to high-incidence areas of Asia, no large-scale typhoid vaccination campaigns have been conducted there. We performed an economic evaluation of a hypothetical one-time, fixed-post typhoid vaccination campaign in Kasese, a rural district in Uganda where a large, multi-year outbreak of typhoid fever has been reported. We used medical cost and epidemiological data retrieved on-site and campaign costs from previous fixed-post vaccination campaigns in Kasese to account for costs from a public sector health care delivery perspective. We calculated program costs and averted disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and medical costs as a result of vaccination, to calculate the cost of the intervention per DALY and case averted. Over the 3 years of projected vaccine efficacy, a one-time vaccination campaign was estimated to avert 1768 (90%CI: 684-4431) typhoid fever cases per year and a total of 3868 (90%CI: 1353-9807) DALYs over the duration of the immunity conferred by the vaccine. The cost of the intervention per DALY averted was US$ 484 (90%CI: 18-1292) and per case averted US$ 341 (90%CI: 13-883). We estimated the vaccination campaign in this setting to be highly cost-effective, according to WHO's cost-effective guidelines. Results may be applicable to other African settings with similar high disease incidence estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nuwaha, Fred; Musinguzi, Geofrey

    2013-11-04

    Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of alternative medicine for hypertension, advice about uptake of life style intervention for hypertension control such as reduction of salt intake and about their attitude towards use of alternative medicine. Proportions of people who used alternative medicine and adopt life style interventions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Predictors of using alternative medicine were identified using logistic binary regression analysis. More than a half 144 (56.2%) had ever used alternative medicine whereas more than one in four 74 (28.6%) were currently using alternative medicine alone or in combination with modern medicine (50%). People who were using alternative medicine alone (29.7% CI 17.5-45.9) were less likely to have received advice on reduction of salt intake compared to those using modern medicine alone or in combination with traditional medicine (56.6%, CI 47.7-65.0). The only independent predictor for using alternative medicine was agreeing that alternative medicine is effective for treatment of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6; 95% CI 1.40-4.82). The use of alternative medicine was common among patients with hypertension and usage was underpinned by the belief that alternative medicine is effective. As patients with hypertension use alternative medicine and modern medicine concurrently, there is need for open communication between health workers and patients regarding use of alternative medicine.

  13. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. Methods In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of alternative medicine for hypertension, advice about uptake of life style intervention for hypertension control such as reduction of salt intake and about their attitude towards use of alternative medicine. Proportions of people who used alternative medicine and adopt life style interventions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Predictors of using alternative medicine were identified using logistic binary regression analysis. Results More than a half 144 (56.2%) had ever used alternative medicine whereas more than one in four 74 (28.6%) were currently using alternative medicine alone or in combination with modern medicine (50%). People who were using alternative medicine alone (29.7% CI 17.5-45.9) were less likely to have received advice on reduction of salt intake compared to those using modern medicine alone or in combination with traditional medicine (56.6%, CI 47.7-65.0). The only independent predictor for using alternative medicine was agreeing that alternative medicine is effective for treatment of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6; 95% CI 1.40-4.82). Conclusion The use of alternative medicine was common among patients with hypertension and usage was underpinned by the belief that alternative medicine is effective. As patients with hypertension use alternative medicine and modern medicine concurrently, there is need for open communication between health workers and patients regarding use of alternative medicine. PMID:24180548

  14. Promising Perceptions, Divergent Practices and Barriers to Integrated Malaria Prevention in Wakiso District, Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Results Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 –0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 – 2.98). Conclusion Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods

  15. Adolescent and adult first time mothers' health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. In order to get a better understanding of adolescent mothers'needs we compared health seeking practices of first time adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August, 2007 in Wakiso district. A total of 762 women (442 adolescents and 320 adult) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios with their 95% CI for antenatal and postnatal health care seeking, stigmatisation and violence experienced from parents comparing adolescents to adult first time mothers. STATA V.8 was used for data analysis. Results Adolescent mothers were significantly more disadvantaged in terms of health care seeking for reproductive health services and faced more challenges during pregnancy and early motherhood compared to adult mothers. Adolescent mothers were more likely to have dropped out of school due to pregnancy (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 2.40–5.44), less likely to earn a salary (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.24–0.76), and more likely to attend antenatal care visits less than four times compared to adult mothers (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.07). Adolescents were also more likely to experience violence from parents (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.39–3.08) and to be stigmatized by the community (CI = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.09–2.59). In early motherhood, adolescent mothers were less likely to seek for second and third vaccine doses for their infants [Polio2 (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98), Polio3 (OR = 0.70: 95% CI: 0.51–0.95), DPT2 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96), DPT3 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50–0.92)] compared to adult mothers. These results are compelling and call for urgent adolescent focused interventions. Conclusion Adolescents showed poorer health care seeking behaviour for themselves and their children, and experienced increased community

  16. Biting patterns and seasonality of anopheles gambiae sensu lato and anopheles funestus mosquitoes in Kamuli District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the biting patterns and seasonal abundances of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Methods Hourly indoor and outdoor catches of human biting mosquitoes were sampled from 19.00 to 07.00 hours for four consecutive nights each month using bed net traps in forty-eight houses randomly selected from Bugabula county where insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) had been used for at least five years and Budiope county where ITNs had not been used. The indoor and outdoor human-biting fractions, time of biting of the anophelines and climatic data were recorded from January to December 2010. Data were analysed using Multi-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-wallis rank sum test and Pearson correlation. The number of mosquitoes caught biting humans and resting indoors, the indoor and outdoor human biting densities and biting rates during different hours of the night, and mosquito abundances for a twelve-month sampling period in both zones are reported. Results Approximately four times more Anopheles mosquitoes were caught biting humans in Budiope County than in the Bugabula zone, with An. gambiae s. l. catches exceeding those of An. funestus. In both zones, peak night biting occurred between 23.00 and 05.00 hours. The majority of bites occurred between 03.00 and 06.00 hours for both Anopheles gambiae s. l. and funestus group. Outdoor biting densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. exceeded the indoor biting densities throughout the night in both zones, while the indoor and outdoor human biting densities of An. funestus group were apparently equal. The outdoor and indoor human biting rates were similar in both zones. In Bugabula county, the abundance of An. gambiae s.l. was rainfall-dependent, while the An. funestus group could thrive with or without rain fall. In Budiope county, both An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes thrived all year round regardless of the amount of rainfall. Conclusion Considering the

  17. Lost in transition: HIV prevalence and correlates of infection among young people living in post-emergency phase transit camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Atim, Stella; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about HIV infection and the related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) following two decades of war in northern Uganda. The objective of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among young people living in post-conflict transition in Gulu District, northern Uganda. In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted in two of Gulu District's sub-counties with 384 purposively selected transit camp residents aged 15 to 29 years. Biological specimens were collected for rapid HIV testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent determinants of HIV infection. HIV prevalence was alarmingly high at 12.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 16.5%). The strongest determinant of HIV infection among young people was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.88; 95% CI: 1.70-18.06). Residing in Awach sub-county (AOR, 2.93; 95% CI: 1.28-6.68), experiencing STI symptoms in the previous 12 months (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.43-6.17), and practicing dry sex (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI: 1.04-5.13) were other key determinants of HIV infection. Study findings contribute to filling an important gap in epidemiological evidence and are useful for planning public health interventions in northern Uganda that effectively target young people in post-conflict transition and support them in the resettlement process. Findings serve to recommend reaching beyond traditional prevention programming in a way more effectively beneficial to young people in post-conflict settings by developing population-specific responses sensitive to local contexts and sufficient to address the underlying causes of the complex risk factors influencing the spread of HIV.

  18. A prolonged, community-wide cholera outbreak associated with drinking water contaminated by sewage in Kasese District, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kwesiga, Benon; Pande, Gerald; Ario, Alex Riolexus; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Matovu, Joseph K B; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2017-07-18

    In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample. We reviewed medical records to find cases. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures among confirmed case-persons and asymptomatic controls, matched by village and age-group. We conducted environmental assessments. We tested water samples from the most affected area for total coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. We identified 183 suspected cases including 61 confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01; serotype Inaba, with onset between February and July 2015. 2 case-persons died of cholera. The outbreak occurred in 80 villages and affected all age groups; the highest attack rate occurred in the 5-14 year age group (4.1/10,000). The outbreak started in Bwera Sub-County bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and spread eastward through sustained community transmission. The first case-persons were involved in cross-border trading. The case-control study, which involved 49 confirmed cases and 201 controls, showed that 94% (46/49) of case-persons compared with 79% (160/201) of control-persons drank water without boiling or treatment (ORM-H=4.8, 95% CI: 1.3-18). Water collected from the two main sources, i.e., public pipes (consumed by 39% of case-persons and 38% of control-persons) or streams (consumed by 29% of case-persons and 24% control-persons) had high coliform counts, a marker of faecal contamination. Environmental assessment revealed evidence of open defecation along the streams. No food items were significantly associated with

  19. Predictors of couple HIV counseling and testing among adult residents of Bukomero sub-county, Kiboga district, rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhindo, Richard; Nakalega, Annet; Nankumbi, Joyce

    2015-11-24

    Studies have shown that couple HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) increased rates of sero-status disclosure and adoption of safer sexual behaviors with better linkage to treatment and care. However, current evidence suggests that new HIV infections are occurring among heterosexual couples in stable relationships where the majority of the individuals are not aware of their partner's serostatus. This study examined the predictors of CHCT uptake among married or cohabiting couples of Bukomero sub-county Kiboga district in Uganda. This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted among 323 individuals who were either married or cohabiting, aged 18-49 years. Participants were enrolled from randomly selected households in Bukomero sub-county. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographics, self-rating on awareness of CHCT benefits, couple discussion about HIV testing and CHCT practices. Couples were compared between those who had reported to have tested as a couple and those who had not. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine the adjusted odds ratio [aOR] and 95 % confidence intervals [CI] for CHCT uptake and the other independent variables. Of the participants 288 (89.2 %) reported to have ever taken an HIV test only 99 (34.4 %) did so as a couple. The predictors of testing for HIV as a couple were discussing CHCT with the partner (adjusted odds ratio 4.95[aOR], 95 % confidence interval [CI]:1.99-12.98; p < 0.001), awareness of CHCT benefits (aOR 3.23; 95 % CI 1.78-5.87; p < 0.001) and having time to test as a couple (aOR 2.61; 95 % CI 1.22-5.61; p < 0.05). Uptake of HIV counseling and testing among couples was low. Discussing CHCT with partner, awareness of CHCT benefits, and availability of time to test as a couple were predictive of CHCT uptake. Thus CHCT campaigns should emphasize communication and discussion of HIV counseling and testing among partners.

  20. Health Seeking Behaviours among Caretakers of Children with Nodding Syndrome in Pader District - Northern Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Atim, Pamela; Ochola, Emmanuel; Ssendagire, Stephen; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2016-01-01

    Background Nodding syndrome is a neurological disorder which had affected about 3000 children with over 170 deaths in northern Uganda by 2012. With limited data on health seeking, the study aimed to assess the health seeking behavior and associated factors among caretakers of children with nodding syndrome in Pader district. Methods A mixed methods cross sectional study was conducted in July 2013 among 249 caretakers of children with nodding syndrome in three sub-counties of Pader. Respondents were consecutively interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Eleven key informants were additionally interviewed. We determined the associations of various factors with health care seeking and obtained adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression model. Quantitative data was analysed using Stata version 12 while qualitative data was analysed manually and quotes reported. Results Most caretakers, 78.3% (195/249) sought care first from a health facility, 12.9% (32/249) visited traditional healers and 8.8% (22/249) self-medicated. Of those who sought care from a health facility, 50% sought care after a month. Factors associated with improved care seeking included: Time taken to reach care 1–3 hours; adjusted odds ratio = 6.4 (95% CI = 2.96–14.03), time spent in care above five years; adjusted odds ratio = 12.0 (95% CI: 1.24–117.73) and changed care seeking place; adjusted odds ratio = 17.2 (95% CI: 3.64–81.67). Conclusion/ Recommendation Caretakers sought care from multiple places. One in five caretakers still sought care outside a formal health facility. Many respondents who sought care first from health facilities went late, at least one month after symptoms onset. Factors associated with health seeking included distance, duration in treatment and not having changing care provider. There is need for massive sensitization of community to enhance prompt care seeking. More research is needed to elucidate the cause, thus finding the

  1. Socio-demographic factors related to periodontal status and tooth loss of pregnant women in Mbale district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Margaret; Engebretsen, Ingunn MS; Okullo, Isaac; Tumwine, James K; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the socio-behavioral distribution of periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnancy emanating from sub Saharan Africa is sparse. This study examined periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnant Ugandan women and assessed the relationship with socio-demographics factors, parity, dental care and oral hygiene. Methods Mothers were participants of a multicentre cluster-randomized behavioral intervention study (PROMISE-EBF Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding Promotion in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa). In Uganda, these were pregnant women resident in Mbale district, recruited into the PROMISE EBF study between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 886 women were eligible to participate of whom information became available for 877 (participation rate 98.9%, mean age 25.6) women who participated in the recruitment interview and 713 (mean age 25.5) women who got a clinical oral examination. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results The prevalence of tooth loss was 35.7%, 0.6% presented with pockets shallow pockets (4–5 mm), whereas 3.3% and 63.4% displayed bleeding and calculus, respectively. A total of 32.7% were without any sign of periodontal disease. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, women from larger households and those presenting with microbial plaque were respectively, 3.4, 1.4 and 2.5 times more likely to have CPI score >0. Rural (OR = 0.9), nulliparous (OR = 0.4) and women who never visited a dentist (OR = 0.04) were less likely, whereas women from larger households (OR = 1.5) were more likely to have lost at least one tooth. Conclusion The results revealed moderate prevalence of bleeding and tooth loss, high prevalence of calculus, low frequency of pockets 4–5 mm. Disparity in pregnant women's oral health related to parity suggests that education of maternity care providers concerning oral health in pregnancy is

  2. Socio-demographic factors related to periodontal status and tooth loss of pregnant women in Mbale district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wandera, Margaret; Engebretsen, Ingunn M S; Okullo, Isaac; Tumwine, James K; Astrøm, Anne N

    2009-07-18

    Information on the socio-behavioral distribution of periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnancy emanating from sub Saharan Africa is sparse. This study examined periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnant Ugandan women and assessed the relationship with socio-demographics factors, parity, dental care and oral hygiene. Mothers were participants of a multicentre cluster-randomized behavioral intervention study (PROMISE-EBF Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding Promotion in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa). In Uganda, these were pregnant women resident in Mbale district, recruited into the PROMISE EBF study between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 886 women were eligible to participate of whom information became available for 877 (participation rate 98.9%, mean age 25.6) women who participated in the recruitment interview and 713 (mean age 25.5) women who got a clinical oral examination. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). The prevalence of tooth loss was 35.7%, 0.6% presented with pockets shallow pockets (4-5 mm), whereas 3.3% and 63.4% displayed bleeding and calculus, respectively. A total of 32.7% were without any sign of periodontal disease. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, women from larger households and those presenting with microbial plaque were respectively, 3.4, 1.4 and 2.5 times more likely to have CPI score >0. Rural (OR = 0.9), nulliparous (OR = 0.4) and women who never visited a dentist (OR = 0.04) were less likely, whereas women from larger households (OR = 1.5) were more likely to have lost at least one tooth. The results revealed moderate prevalence of bleeding and tooth loss, high prevalence of calculus, low frequency of pockets 4-5 mm. Disparity in pregnant women's oral health related to parity suggests that education of maternity care providers concerning oral health in pregnancy is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT

  3. Masculinity, social context and HIV testing: an ethnographic study of men in Busia district, rural eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Siu, Godfrey E; Wight, Daniel; Seeley, Janet A

    2014-01-13

    Uptake of HIV testing by men remains low in high prevalence settings in many parts of Africa. By focusing on masculinity, this study explores the social context and relations that shape men's access to HIV testing in Mam-Kiror, Busia district, rural eastern Uganda. From 2009-2010 in-depth interviews were undertaken with 26 men: nine being treated for HIV, eight who had tested but dropped out of treatment, six not tested but who suspected HIV infection and three with other health problems unrelated to HIV. These data were complemented by participant observation. Thematic analysis was undertaken. There were two main categories of masculinity in Mam-Kiror, one based on 'reputation' and the other on 'respectability', although some of their ideals overlapped. The different forms of masculine esteem led to different motives for HIV testing. Men positioned HIV testing as a social process understood within the social context and relationships men engaged in rather than an entirely self-determined enterprise. Wives' inferior power meant that they had less influence on men's testing compared to friends and work colleagues who discussed frankly HIV risk and testing. Couple testing exposed men's extra-marital relationships, threatening masculine esteem. The fear to undermine opportunities for sex in the context of competition for partners was a barrier to testing by men. The construction of men as resilient meant that they delayed to admit to problems and seek testing. However, the respectable masculine ideal to fulfil responsibilities and obligations to family was a strong motivator to seeking an HIV test and treatment by men. The two main forms of masculine ideals prevailing in Mam-Kiror in Busia led men to have different motives for HIV testing. Reputational masculinity was largely inconsistent with the requirements of couple testing, community outreach testing and the organisation of testing services, discouraging men from testing. Conversely, concern to perform one

  4. Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015.

    PubMed

    Oguttu, David W; Okullo, A; Bwire, G; Nsubuga, P; Ario, A R

    2017-10-10

    On 12 October 2015, a cholera outbreak involving 65 cases and two deaths was reported in a fishing village in Hoima District, Western Uganda. Despite initial response by the local health department, the outbreak persisted. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and mode of transmission, and recommend evidence-led interventions to control and prevent cholera outbreaks in this area. We defined a suspected case as the onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 October to 2 November 2015 in a resident of Kaiso Village. A confirmed case was a suspected case who had Vibrio cholerae isolated from stool. We found cases by record review and active community case finding. We performed descriptive epidemiologic analysis for hypothesis generation. In an unmatched case-control study, we compared exposure histories of 61 cases and 126 controls randomly selected among asymptomatic village residents. We also conducted an environmental assessment and obtained meteorological data from a weather station. We identified 122 suspected cases, of which six were culture-confirmed, 47 were confirmed positive with a rapid diagnostic test and two died. The two deceased cases had onset of the disease on 2 October and 10 October, respectively. Heavy rainfall occurred on 7-11 October; a point-source outbreak occurred on 12-15 October, followed by continuous community transmission for two weeks. Village residents usually collected drinking water from three lakeshore points - A, B and C: 9.8% (6/61) of case-persons and 31% (39/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point A, 21% (13/61) of case-persons and 37% (46/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point B (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.64-5.3), and 69% (42/61) of case-persons and 33% (41/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point C (OR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.5-17) for water collection. All case-persons (61/61) and 93% (117/126) of control-persons reportedly never treated/boiled drinking water (OR

  5. Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs) with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression) and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion Traditional healers shoulder a large burden of care of patients

  6. Experiences of households using integrated malaria prevention in two rural communities in Wakiso district, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Karani, George; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Okui, Peter; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2016-06-07

    The integrated approach to malaria prevention which advocates use of several methods in a holistic manner is being explored to complement existing strategies. A pilot project that promoted integrated malaria prevention established 40 demonstration households using the approach. As part of impact evaluation of the project 2 years after implementation, the experiences of these households using integrated malaria prevention were assessed. A qualitative cross-sectional survey was carried out in Wakiso district, Uganda which involved 40 in-depth interviews among households implementing integrated malaria prevention. The study assessed practices on malaria prevention, benefits and challenges of using integrated malaria prevention, preference of malaria prevention methods, and impact of the demonstration households on the community. Thematic analysis was employed using Atlas ti software. The households continued to use many of the malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including sleeping under long-lasting insecticidal nets, screening in windows and ventilators, removing mosquito breeding sites, and closing of doors early in the evenings. The major benefits reported from using integrated malaria prevention were reduction in mosquito populations in their houses and less occurrence of malaria particularly among children. Although several community members learnt about and admired various malaria prevention methods from the demonstration households especially screening in windows and ventilators, the majority could not afford to implement some of them due to lack of resources. The main challenge established in using integrated malaria prevention was the much time required to implement the several methods some of which had to be done regularly such as early closing of windows. In addition, complacency had led to some households not utilizing a number of methods in the integrated approach because of using others. Use of the integrated approach to malaria

  7. Masculinity, social context and HIV testing: an ethnographic study of men in Busia district, rural eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uptake of HIV testing by men remains low in high prevalence settings in many parts of Africa. By focusing on masculinity, this study explores the social context and relations that shape men’s access to HIV testing in Mam-Kiror, Busia district, rural eastern Uganda. Methods From 2009–2010 in-depth interviews were undertaken with 26 men: nine being treated for HIV, eight who had tested but dropped out of treatment, six not tested but who suspected HIV infection and three with other health problems unrelated to HIV. These data were complemented by participant observation. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Results There were two main categories of masculinity in Mam-Kiror, one based on ‘reputation’ and the other on ‘respectability’, although some of their ideals overlapped. The different forms of masculine esteem led to different motives for HIV testing. Men positioned HIV testing as a social process understood within the social context and relationships men engaged in rather than an entirely self-determined enterprise. Wives’ inferior power meant that they had less influence on men’s testing compared to friends and work colleagues who discussed frankly HIV risk and testing. Couple testing exposed men’s extra-marital relationships, threatening masculine esteem. The fear to undermine opportunities for sex in the context of competition for partners was a barrier to testing by men. The construction of men as resilient meant that they delayed to admit to problems and seek testing. However, the respectable masculine ideal to fulfil responsibilities and obligations to family was a strong motivator to seeking an HIV test and treatment by men. Conclusion The two main forms of masculine ideals prevailing in Mam-Kiror in Busia led men to have different motives for HIV testing. Reputational masculinity was largely inconsistent with the requirements of couple testing, community outreach testing and the organisation of testing services, discouraging men

  8. Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, Ayobami D; Jeffery, Caroline; Crossland, Nadine; Valadez, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the proportion of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) attending school in 89 districts of Uganda from 2011 - 2013 and investigates the factors influencing OVC access to education among this population. This study used secondary survey data from OVCs aged 5 - 17 years, collected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in 87 Ugandan districts over a 3-year period (2011 - 2013). Estimates of OVC school attendance were determined for the yearly time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors influencing OVC access to education. 19,354 children aged 5-17 were included in the analysis. We estimated that 79.1% (95% CI: 78.5% - 79.7%) of OVCs attended school during the 3-year period. Logistic regression revealed the odds of attending school were lower among OVCs from Western (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79 - 0.99) and Northern (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.56 - 0.73) regions compared to the Central region. Female OVCs had a significantly higher odds of attending school (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.17) compared to their male counterparts. When adjusting for all variables simultaneously, we found the odds of school attendance reduced by 12% between 2011 and 2012 among all OVCs (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81 - 0.97). Our findings reinforce the need to provide continuing support to OVC in Uganda, ensuring they have the opportunity to attain an education. The data indicate important regional and gender variation that needs to be considered for support strategies and in social policy. The results suggest the need for greater local empowerment to address the needs of OVCs. We recommend further research to understand why OVC access to education and attendance varies between regions and improvement of district level mapping of OVC access to education, and further study to understand the particular factors impacting the lower school attendance of male OVCs.

  9. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  10. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  11. Contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods in a district of southeastern Uganda endemic for bovine parasitic diseases: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Okello, Walter O; Muhanguzi, Dennis; MacLeod, Ewan T; Welburn, Susan C; Waiswa, Charles; Shaw, Alexandra P

    2015-11-05

    A study was conducted in Tororo District in eastern Uganda to assess the socio-economic contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods. The aim of the study was to empirically quantify the economic value of draft cattle thus contributing to understanding the impact of endemic parasitic diseases of cattle on livestock productivity and subsequently household income, labor and food security. A total of 205 draft cattle keeping households (n = 205) were randomly selected and structured household questionnaires were administered, focusing on work oxen use, productivity, inputs and outputs. The data obtained was analyzed using standard statistical methods and used to calculate the gross margin from the draft cattle enterprise. Secondary data were obtained from focus group discussions and key informant interviews and these were analyzed using Bayesian methods. The study showed that, apart from being labor saving, the use of animal traction is highly profitable with the gross margin per year from the use of draft cattle amounting to 245 United States dollars per work oxen owning household. The cash obtained from hiring out draft animals was equivalent to nearly a quarter of the average local household's monetary receipts. It also revealed that endemic bovine parasitic diseases such as trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases reduced draft cattle output by 20.9 % and potential household income from the use of draft oxen by 32.2 %. The presence of endemic cattle diseases in rural Uganda is adversely affecting the productivity of draft cattle, which in turn affects household income, labor and ultimately food security. This study highlights the contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods, thus increasing the expected impact of cost-effective control strategies of endemic production limiting livestock diseases in Uganda.

  12. Application of social network analysis in the assessment of organization infrastructure for service delivery: a three district case study from post-conflict northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Kawooya, Vincent; Namakula, Justine; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-06-16

    In post-conflict settings, service coverage indices are unlikely to be sustained if health systems are built on weak and unstable inter-organization networks-here referred to as infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-organization infrastructure that supports the provision of selected health services in the reconstruction phase after conflict in northern Uganda. Applied social network analysis was used to establish the structure, size and function among organizations supporting the provision of (1) HIV treatment, (2) maternal delivery services and (3) workforce strengthening. Overall, 87 organizations were identified from 48 respondent organizations in the three post-conflict districts in northern Uganda. A two-stage snowball approach was used starting with service provider organizations in each district. Data included a list of organizations and their key attributes related to the provision of each service for the year 2012-13. The findings show that inter-organization networks are mostly focused on HIV treatment and least for workforce strengthening. The networks for HIV treatment and maternal services were about 3-4 times denser relative to the network for workforce strengthening. The network for HIV treatment accounted for 69-81% of the aggregated network in Gulu and Kitgum districts. In contrast, the network for workforce strengthening contributed the least (6% and 10%) in these two districts. Likewise, the networks supporting a young district (Amuru) was under invested with few organizations and sparse connections. Overall, organizations exhibited a broad range of functional roles in supporting HIV treatment compared to other services in the study. Basic information about the inter-organization setup (infrastructure)-can contribute to knowledge for building organization networks in more equitable ways. More connected organizations can be leveraged for faster communication and resource flow to boost the delivery of health services

  13. Involvement and performance of women in community-directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Rukungiri District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella

    2002-09-01

    The present study aimed: (1) to assess and improve the level of women's involvement in a strategy to control onchocerciasis by community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in three parishes of Rukungiri District, Uganda; (2) to measure the performance of female community-directed health workers (CDHWs) in comparison with males; and (3) to identify culturally acceptable means of enhancing women's involvement in community-directed healthcare. Health education sessions were used to instruct community members to select female CDHWs in Masya Parish and to stress their potential importance in Karangara Parish; this subject was not raised in Mukono Parish. In all, 403 mature women who were randomly selected from the three parishes were interviewed as to their: (1) knowledge of the classes of people not eligible to take ivermectin; (2) knowledge and beliefs about the benefits of ivermectin; (3) participation in decision-making; and (4) attitudes on the performance of female CDHWs. For analysis, the respondees were divided into: (1) those who had or had not taken ivermectin treatment during the previous year; and (2) those who had or had not attended health education sessions. During the period when face-to-face interviews with women in randomly selected households were being carried out, participatory evaluation meetings (PEMs) were conducted in selected communities from the same parishes in order to reach a consensus on issues which could not easily be included in individual face-to-face interviews. Participant observations were also made regarding: how communities selected their CDHWs; how the CDHWs organised the distribution exercise and treated community members; and how the CDHWs kept records in order to understand issues which were deliberately hidden from the researchers during face-to-face interviews and PEMs. Significantly, the women who had been treated or health educated in Masya Parish were: (1) more knowledgeable on the groups which were not supposed to

  14. Spatial and temporal risk factors for the early detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness patients in Tororo and Busia districts, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Odiit, M; Coleman, P G; McDermott, J J; Fèvre, E M; Welburn, S C; Woolhouse, M E J

    2004-10-01

    We have carried out a study of risk factors for early detection of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness. Records of sleeping sickness patients from 1987 to 2001 from Tororo and Busia districts in Uganda were reviewed for their village of origin and clinical stage (early or late). All villages that reported sleeping sickness and fixed post-diagnostic sleeping sickness health units in Tororo and Busia districts were geo-referenced. The spatial distribution of early and late stage patient detection by health units was analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Of 1316 sleeping sickness patients admitted at the Livestock Health Research Institute and Busolwe hospitals and Lumino health centre from Tororo and Busia districts, 471 (35.8%) were early stage, 825 (62.7%) were late stage, while 20 (1.5%) were not staged. Five hundred and eighty-five (44.5%) came from within a 10 km radius of the reporting health units. After multivariate analysis, the proportion of early stage patients detected was found to be significantly associated with patients originating from within a 10 km radius of the health unit (P < 0.01), with adults (>19 years) (P < 0.01), and with annual parish incidence (P < 0.01). Application of GIS and the early to late stages ratio are an informative and powerful means of determining efficiency of surveillance of sleeping sickness.

  15. Iron and zinc content of selected foods in the diet of schoolchildren in Kumi district, east of Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake. Methods The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis. Results Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc. Conclusions The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination. PMID:21827701

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder seven years after the conflict in three districts in northern Uganda (The Wayo-Nero Study).

    PubMed

    Mugisha, James; Muyinda, Herbert; Wandiembe, Peter; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2015-07-24

    Research on the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is still limited in low income countries yet PTSD can be a public health problem in post conflict areas. In order to respond to the burden of PSTD in northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife for over two decades, we need accurate data on its (PTSD) prevalence and the associated risk factors to facilitate public mental health planning. This study employed a cross-sectional study design and data collection was undertaken in three districts in northern Uganda: Gulu, Amuru and Nwoya. Respondents were aged 18 years and above and were randomly selected at community level. A total of 2400 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in the three study districts. In this study, multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze the associations of socio-demographic factors, trauma related variables and the outcome of PTSD. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the study population was 11.8 % (95 % CI: 10.5 %, 13.1 %) with a prevalence of 10.9 % (95 % CI: 9.3 %, 12.5 %) among female respondents and 13.4 % (95 % CI: 11.2 %, 15.7 %) among male respondents. Quite a number of factors were strongly associated with PTSD. Overall, a respondent had experienced 9 negative life events. In a multivariate logistic regression, the factors that were strongly associated with PTSD were: exposure to war trauma events, childhood trauma, negative life events, negative copying style and food insecurity. The findings also indicate no association between sex, age and PTSD. The prevalence rate of PTSD in the study communities is unacceptably high. Quite a number of factors were associated with PTSD. Effective public mental health services are needed that combine treatment (medical) psychological and social welfare programs especially at community level to address the high burden of PTSD. Longitudinal studies are also recommended to continuously assess the trends in PTSD in

  17. The Impact of a Comprehensive Microfinance Intervention on Depression Levels of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Uganda. *

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Waldfogel, Jane; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    Purpose By adversely affecting family functioning and stability, poverty constitutes an important risk factor for children’s poor mental health functioning. This study examines the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, designed to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among AIDS-orphaned youth. Methods Children from 15 comparable primary schools in Rakai District of Uganda, one of those hardest hit by HIVAIDS in the country, were randomly assigned to control (n=148) or treatment (n=138) conditions. Children in the treatment condition received a comprehensive microfinance intervention comprising of matched savings accounts, financial management workshops, and mentorship. This was in addition to traditional services provided for all school-going orphaned adolescents (counseling and school supplies). Data were collected at wave 1 (baseline), wave 2 (10-months postintervention), and wave 3 (20-months post-intervention). We used multilevel growth models to examine the trajectory of depression in treatment and control conditions, measured using Children’s Depression Inventory (Kovacs). Results Children in the treatment group exhibited a significant decrease in depression whereas their control group counterparts showed no change in depression. Conclusion The findings indicate that over and above traditional psychosocial approaches used to address mental health functioning among orphaned children in sub-Saharan Africa, incorporating poverty alleviation-focused approaches, such as this comprehensive microfinance intervention, has the potential to improve psychosocial functioning of these children. PMID:22443837

  18. The impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention on depression levels of AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Neilands, Torsten B; Waldfogel, Jane; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2012-04-01

    By adversely affecting family functioning and stability, poverty constitutes an important risk factor for children's poor mental health functioning. This study examines the impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention, designed to reduce the risk of poverty, on depression among AIDS-orphaned youth. Children from 15 comparable primary schools in Rakai District of Uganda, one of those hardest hit by HIV/AIDS in the country, were randomly assigned to control (n = 148) or treatment (n = 138) conditions. Children in the treatment condition received a comprehensive microfinance intervention comprising matched savings accounts, financial management workshops, and mentorship. This was in addition to traditional services provided for all school-going orphaned adolescents (counseling and school supplies). Data were collected at wave 1 (baseline), wave 2 (10 months after intervention), and wave 3 (20 months after intervention). We used multilevel growth models to examine the trajectory of depression in treatment and control conditions, measured using Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs). Children in the treatment group exhibited a significant decrease in depression, whereas their control group counterparts showed no change in depression. The findings indicate that over and above traditional psychosocial approaches used to address mental health functioning among orphaned children in sub-Saharan Africa, incorporating poverty alleviation-focused approaches, such as this comprehensive microfinance intervention, has the potential to improve psychosocial functioning of these children. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES): a complex district-level management intervention to improve child survival in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waiswa, Peter; O'Connell, Thomas; Bagenda, Danstan; Mullachery, Pricila; Mpanga, Flavia; Henriksson, Dorcus Kiwanuka; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Ssegujja, Eric; Mbonye, Anthony K; Peterson, Stefan Swartling

    2016-03-11

    become active partners in service delivery, coverage of child survival interventions will increase. Lessons learned on strengthening district-level managerial capacities and mechanisms for community monitoring may have implications, not only in Uganda but also in other similar settings, especially with regard to accelerating effective coverage of key child survival interventions using locally available resources. ISRCTN15705788 , Date of registration; 24 July 2015.

  20. Perceptions on the right to adequate food after a major landslide disaster: a cross-sectional survey of two districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rukundo, Peter M; Iversen, Per O; Andreassen, Bård A; Oshaug, Arne; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga

    2015-04-25

    Despite the instruments on the right to adequate food adopted by the United Nations, there exists limited information on how this right is perceived. Following a major 2010 landslide disaster in the Bududa district of Eastern Uganda and the resettlement of some affected households into the Kiryandongo district in Western Uganda, we surveyed both districts to explore perceptions about the right to adequate food among households with different experiences; disaster-affected and controls. We deployed qualitative and quantitative techniques to a cross-sectional survey. The index respondent was the head of each randomly selected household from the landslide affected communities and controls from a bordering sub-county. Data was collected by interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Structured entries were tested statistically to report associations using Pearson's Chi-square at the 95% CI. Information from FGDs was transcribed, coded, sequenced and patterned. Findings from both techniques were triangulated to facilitate interpretations. Analysis included 1,078 interview entries and 12 FGDs. Significant differences between the affected and control households (P < 0.05) were observed with: age; education level; religious affiliation; existence of assets that complement food source; and having received relief food. Analysis between groups showed differences in responses on: whether everyone has a right to adequate food; who was supposed to supply relief food; whether relief food was adequate; and preferred choice on the means to ensure the right to adequate food. FGDs emphasized that access to land was the most important means to food and income. Affected households desired remedial interventions especially alternative land for livelihood. Despite the provision of adequate relief food being a state's obligation, there was no opportunity to exercise choice and preference. Comprehension and awareness of accountability and transparency issues was also low. Though a

  1. Use of postpartum health services in rural Uganda: knowledge, attitudes, and barriers.

    PubMed

    Nabukera, Sarah K; Witte, Kim; Muchunguzi, Charles; Bajunirwe, Francis; Batwala, Vincent K; Mulogo, Edgar M; Farr, Celeste; Barry, Souleymane; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and barriers to use of postpartum care service among rural communities in Uganda. Study was a part of a larger reproductive health evaluation project, and was cross-sectional in nature utilizing qualitative research methods using the narrative inquiry. Two matched rural communities were used in this study; Semuto in Luwero district, and Lwamaggwa in Rakai district. Fifty key informants who were purposefully selected from each study site were interviewed. They included community leaders, political leaders, health care providers, women leaders and community members. One-on-one interviews were conducted with key community informants using an interview guide. The purpose of the interview was explained to each participant, and written informed consent was obtained before the start of the interview. Respondents were allowed to express their views, opinions and observations on several health issues including postpartum health care services. There was a low level of knowledge about postpartum care services among the respondents of the two communities. There was lack of awareness about postpartum care and it's benefits. The main barriers to use of services were; misconceptions regarding the importance of postpartum care, distance to health facilities, poverty, and health system factors notably; poor facilities, lack of essential drugs, and poor attitudes of health workers. In the effort to improve reproductive health care services, there is an urgent need to improve postpartum services, and make them more accessible and user friendly. The training of providers at all levels is essential, in addition to educating families on the importance of postpartum care services.

  2. Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony; Clarke, Sian; Cundill, Bonnie; Magnussen, Pascal; Yeung, Shunmay

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many parts of Africa, the majority of the population seek treatment for malaria in drug shops as their first point of care; however, parasitological diagnosis is not usually offered in these outlets. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria have attracted interest in recent years as a tool to improve malaria diagnosis, since they have proved accurate and easy to perform with minimal training. Although RDTs could feasibly be performed by drug shop vendors, it is not known how much customers would be willing to pay for an RDT if offered in these settings. We conducted a contingent valuation survey among drug shop customers in Mukono District, Uganda. Exit interviews were undertaken with customers aged 15 years and above after leaving a drug shop having purchased an antimalarial and/or paracetamol. The bidding game technique was used to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an RDT and a course of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with and without RDT confirmation. Factors associated with WTP were investigated using linear regression. The geometric mean WTP for an RDT was US$0.53, US$1.82 for a course of ACT and US$2.05 for a course of ACT after a positive RDT. Factors strongly associated with a higher WTP for these commodities included having a higher socio-economic status, no fever/malaria in the household in the past 2 weeks and if a malaria diagnosis had been obtained from a qualified health worker prior to visiting the drug shop. The findings further suggest that the WTP for an RDT and a course of ACT among drug shop customers is considerably lower than prevailing and estimated end-user prices for these commodities. Increasing the uptake of ACTs in drug shops and restricting the sale of ACTs to parasitologically confirmed malaria will therefore require additional measures. PMID:22589226

  3. A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis in the transhumant and agro-pastoral cattle herds in the border areas of Katakwi and Moroto districts, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Inangolet, F O; Demelash, B; Oloya, J; Opuda-Asibo, J; Skjerve, E

    2008-10-01

    A study to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the transhumant and agro-pastoral cattle herds in the border areas of Katakwi and Moroto districts in Uganda was carried out from July 2006 to January 2007 using comparative intradermal tuberculin test containing bovine and avian PPDs. A total of 1470 animals, 612 (41.6%) males and 858 (58.4%) females, 883 (60%) young, 555 (37.8%) adult and 32 (2.2%) old animals were included. The study involved a cross-sectional multistage sampling technique with random selection of individual animals from a herd. The results revealed a 1.3% overall prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in the study area, with a marked variation between sub-counties. The highest recorded prevalence was 6.0% in Kapujan, while no cases were recorded in Ongogonja, Magoro and Katakwi sub-counties. Distinctly different patterns in the avian-bovine reactions were also found in different sub-counties. A multivariate logistic regression showed more positive reactions (OR = 6.3; 95%CI (1.4-26.34) in females than males. BTB prevalence did not differ significantly between cattle maintained in pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems. The study demonstrated a relatively low prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in local zebu cattle reared under traditional husbandry systems in Uganda, suggesting low infectiousness of the disease under such mode of production. The risk associated with the consumption of raw milk among the pastoral communities and that, the pooling of milk together from different animals is a common practice, warrants more investigation into the zoonotic transmission of tuberculosis within these communities.

  4. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-cassette assay as a survey tool for Schistosoma mansoni in different transmission settings within Bugiri District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Adriko, M; Standley, C J; Tinkitina, B; Tukahebwa, E M; Fenwick, A; Fleming, F M; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Stothard, J R; Kabatereine, N B

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of schistosomiasis at the point-of-care (POC) is a growing topic in neglected tropical disease research. There is a need for diagnostic tests which are affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free and delivered to those who need it, and POC is an important tool for disease mapping and guiding mass deworming. The aim of present study was to evaluate the relative diagnostic performance of two urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) cassette assays, one commercially available and the other in experimental production, against results obtained using the standard Kato-Katz faecal smear method (six thick smears from three consecutive days), as a 'gold-standard', for Schistosoma mansoni infection in different transmission settings in Uganda. Our study was conducted among 500 school children randomly selected across 5 schools within Bugiri district, adjacent to Lake Victoria in Uganda. Considering results from the 469 pupils who provided three stool samples for the six Kato-Katz smears, 293 (76%) children had no infection, 109 (23%) were in the light intensity category, while 42 (9%) and 25 (5%) were in the moderate and heavy intensity categories respectively. Following performance analysis of CCA tests in terms of sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, overall performance of the commercially available CCA test was more informative than single Kato-Katz faecal smear microscopy, the current operational field standard for disease mapping. The current CCA assay is therefore a satisfactory method for surveillance of S. mansoni in an area where disease endemicity is declining due to control interventions. With the recent resolution on schistosomiasis elimination by the 65th World Health Assembly, the urine POC CCA test is an attractive tool to augment and perhaps replace the Kato-Katz sampling within ongoing control programmes.

  5. Lost in Transition: HIV Prevalence and Correlates of Infection among Young People Living in Post-Emergency Phase Transit Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T.; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Atim, Stella; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about HIV infection and the related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) following two decades of war in northern Uganda. The objective of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among young people living in post-conflict transition in Gulu District, northern Uganda. Methods In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted in two of Gulu District’s sub-counties with 384 purposively selected transit camp residents aged 15 to 29 years. Biological specimens were collected for rapid HIV testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent determinants of HIV infection. Results HIV prevalence was alarmingly high at 12.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 16.5%). The strongest determinant of HIV infection among young people was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.88; 95% CI: 1.70–18.06). Residing in Awach sub-county (AOR, 2.93; 95% CI: 1.28–6.68), experiencing STI symptoms in the previous 12 months (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.43–6.17), and practicing dry sex (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI: 1.04–5.13) were other key determinants of HIV infection. Conclusions Study findings contribute to filling an important gap in epidemiological evidence and are useful for planning public health interventions in northern Uganda that effectively target young people in post-conflict transition and support them in the resettlement process. Findings serve to recommend reaching beyond traditional prevention programming in a way more effectively beneficial to young people in post-conflict settings by developing population-specific responses sensitive to local contexts and sufficient to address the underlying causes of the complex risk factors influencing the spread of HIV. PMID:24587034

  6. The role of viral introductions in sustaining community-based HIV epidemics in rural Uganda: evidence from spatial clustering, phylogenetics, and egocentric transmission models.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mary K; Lessler, Justin; Redd, Andrew D; Kagaayi, Joseph; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Nelson, Martha I; Cummings, Derek A T; Bwanika, John Baptiste; Mueller, Amy C; Reynolds, Steven J; Munshaw, Supriya; Ray, Stuart C; Lutalo, Tom; Manucci, Jordyn; Tobian, Aaron A R; Chang, Larry W; Beyrer, Chris; Jennings, Jacky M; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H

    2014-03-01

    It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities--home to two-thirds of the African population--is driven by intra-community sexual networks versus viral introductions from outside of communities. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of HIV transmission in rural Rakai District, Uganda, using data from a cohort of 14,594 individuals within 46 communities. We applied spatial clustering statistics, viral phylogenetics, and probabilistic transmission models to quantify the relative contribution of viral introductions into communities versus community- and household-based transmission to HIV incidence. Individuals living in households with HIV-incident (n = 189) or HIV-prevalent (n = 1,597) persons were 3.2 (95% CI: 2.7-3.7) times more likely to be HIV infected themselves compared to the population in general, but spatial clustering outside of households was relatively weak and was confined to distances <500 m. Phylogenetic analyses of gag and env genes suggest that chains of transmission frequently cross community boundaries. A total of 95 phylogenetic clusters were identified, of which 44% (42/95) were two individuals sharing a household. Among the remaining clusters, 72% (38/53) crossed community boundaries. Using the locations of self-reported sexual partners, we estimate that 39% (95% CI: 34%-42%) of new viral transmissions occur within stable household partnerships, and that among those infected by extra-household sexual partners, 62% (95% CI: 55%-70%) are infected by sexual partners from outside their community. These results rely on the representativeness of the sample and the quality of self-reported partnership data and may not reflect HIV transmission patterns outside of Rakai. Our findings suggest that HIV introductions into communities are common and account for a significant proportion of new

  7. The Role of Viral Introductions in Sustaining Community-Based HIV Epidemics in Rural Uganda: Evidence from Spatial Clustering, Phylogenetics, and Egocentric Transmission Models

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Mary K.; Lessler, Justin; Redd, Andrew D.; Kagaayi, Joseph; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Nelson, Martha I.; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Bwanika, John Baptiste; Mueller, Amy C.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Munshaw, Supriya; Ray, Stuart C.; Lutalo, Tom; Manucci, Jordyn; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Chang, Larry W.; Beyrer, Chris; Jennings, Jacky M.; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gray, Ronald H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities—home to two-thirds of the African population—is driven by intra-community sexual networks versus viral introductions from outside of communities. Methods and Findings We analyzed the spatial dynamics of HIV transmission in rural Rakai District, Uganda, using data from a cohort of 14,594 individuals within 46 communities. We applied spatial clustering statistics, viral phylogenetics, and probabilistic transmission models to quantify the relative contribution of viral introductions into communities versus community- and household-based transmission to HIV incidence. Individuals living in households with HIV-incident (n = 189) or HIV-prevalent (n = 1,597) persons were 3.2 (95% CI: 2.7–3.7) times more likely to be HIV infected themselves compared to the population in general, but spatial clustering outside of households was relatively weak and was confined to distances <500 m. Phylogenetic analyses of gag and env genes suggest that chains of transmission frequently cross community boundaries. A total of 95 phylogenetic clusters were identified, of which 44% (42/95) were two individuals sharing a household. Among the remaining clusters, 72% (38/53) crossed community boundaries. Using the locations of self-reported sexual partners, we estimate that 39% (95% CI: 34%–42%) of new viral transmissions occur within stable household partnerships, and that among those infected by extra-household sexual partners, 62% (95% CI: 55%–70%) are infected by sexual partners from outside their community. These results rely on the representativeness of the sample and the quality of self-reported partnership data and may not reflect HIV transmission patterns outside of Rakai. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HIV introductions into communities are

  8. Menstrual hygiene management amongst schoolgirls in the Rukungiri district of Uganda and the impact on their education: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Boosey, Robyn; Prestwich, Georgina; Deave, Toity

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of studies have found that girls in low-income settings miss or struggle at school during menstruation if they are unable to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively. This study explores the menstrual hygiene practices and knowledge of girls at rural government primary schools in the Rukungiri district in Uganda and assesses the extent to which poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) affects their education. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was completed by schoolgirls in six government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district. Focus groups were held with girls from each school and semi-structured interviews were conducted with headteachers and female teachers from the participating schools. A toilet assessment was also conducted in each school. Results One hundred and forty schoolgirls completed the questionnaire. The girls reported a lack of access to adequate resources, facilities and accurate information to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively at school. They reported that, as a result, during menstruation they often struggle at school or miss school. Eighty-six girls (61.7%) reported missing school each month for menstrual-related reasons (mean 1.64, range 0-10, SD. 1.84). Conclusion It is common for girls who attend government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district to miss school or struggle in lessons during menstruation because they do not have access to the resources, facilities, or information they need to manage for effective MHM. This is likely to have detrimental effects on their education and future prospects. A large-scale study is needed to explore the extent of this issue. PMID:25852796

  9. Determinants of Clinician Knowledge on Aging and HIV/AIDS: A Survey of Practitioners and Policy Makers in Kampala District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Obuku, Ekwaro A.; Parikh, Sujal M.; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Kakande, Nelson I.; Mafigiri, David K.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Kityo, Cissy M.; Mugyenyi, Peter N.; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The HIV/AIDS epidemic has evolved with an increasing burden in older adults. We assessed for knowledge about aging and HIV/AIDS, among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 301 clinicians complemented by 9 key-informant interviews between May and October 2011. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression for potential determinants of clinician knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults, estimating their adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Stata 11.2 software. Results Two-hundred and sixty-two questionnaires (87.7%) were returned. Respondents had a median age of 30 years (IQR 27–34) and 57.8% were general medical doctors. The mean knowledge score was 49% (range 8.8%–79.4%). Questions related to co-morbidities in HIV/AIDS (non-AIDS related cancers and systemic diseases) and chronic antiretroviral treatment toxicities (metabolic disorders) accounted for significantly lower scores (mean, 41.7%, 95% CI: 39.3%–44%) compared to HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention (mean, 65.7%, 95% CI: 63.7%–67.7%). Determinants of clinician knowledge in the multivariable analysis included (category, aOR, 95% CI): clinician age (30–39 years; 3.28∶1.65–9.75), number of persons with HIV/AIDS seen in the past year (less than 50; 0.34∶0.14–0.86) and clinical profession (clinical nurse practitioner; 0.31∶0.11–0.83). Having diploma level education had a marginal association with lower knowledge about HIV and aging (p = 0.09). Conclusion Our study identified gaps and determinants of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. Clinicians in low and middle income countries could benefit from targeted training in chronic care for older adults with HIV/AIDS and long-term complications of antiretroviral treatment. PMID:23468905

  10. Factors affecting adherence to national malaria treatment guidelines in management of malaria among public healthcare workers in Kamuli District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bawate, Charles; Callender-Carter, Sylvia T; Nsajju, Ben; Bwayo, Denis

    2016-02-24

    Malaria remains a major public health threat accounting for 30.4 % of disease morbidity in outpatient clinic visits across all age groups in Uganda. Consequently, malaria control remains a major public health priority in endemic countries such as Uganda. Experiences from other countries in Africa that revised their malaria case management suggest that health workers adherence may be problematic. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used and collected information on health system, health workers and patients. Using log-binomial regression model, adjusted prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) and their associated 95 % confidence intervals were determined in line with adherence to new treatment guidelines of parasitological diagnosis and prompt treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). Nine health centres, 24 health workers and 240 patient consultations were evaluated. Overall adherence to national malaria treatment guidelines (NMTG) was 50.6 % (122/241). It was significantly high at HC III [115 (53 %)] than at HC IV (29 %) [PRR = 0.28 (95 % CI 0.148 0.52), p = 0.000]. Compared to the nursing aide, the adherence level was 1.57 times higher among enrolled nurses (p = 0.004) and 1.68 times higher among nursing officers, p = 0.238, with statistical significance among the former. No attendance of facility malaria-specific continuing medical education (CME) sessions [PRR = 1.9 (95 % CI 1.29 2.78), p = 0.001] and no display of malaria treatment job aides in consultation rooms [PRR = 0.64 (95 % CI 0.4 1.03), p = 0.07] was associated with increased adherence to guidelines with the former showing a statistical significance and the association of the latter borderline statistical significance. The adherence was higher when the laboratory was functional [PRR = 0.47 (95 % CI 0.35 0.63)] when the laboratory was functional in previous 6 months. Age of health worker, duration of employment, supervision, educational level, and age of patient were found not associated with

  11. Lessons learned from engaging men in sexual and reproductive health as clients, partners and advocates of change in the Hoima district of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Erin; Pascoe, Laura; Shand, Tim; Richmond, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a three-year intervention project conducted in the Hoima district of Uganda, which sought to engage men in sexual and reproductive health as clients, equal partners and advocates of change. Structured surveys with 164 self-reported heterosexual men aged 18–54 years were used to assess knowledge and attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health. Data from these were analysed using Stata and SPSS. Additionally, five focus groups were conducted with the female partners and male beneficiaries of the project and with project peer educators. Four interviews were conducted with project staff and male beneficiaries. Data from these and the focus groups were analysed using a thematic approach. Following the intervention, a significantly greater number of men accessed, and supported their partners in accessing sexual health services services, had gained sexual and reproductive health awareness, reported sharing domestic duties and contraceptive decision-making, and displayed a decreased tolerance for domestic violence. It was more difficult to assess men's involvement and behaviours as advocates of change, which sheds light on the complexities of a gender transformative project and the importance of evaluating such projects from both men's and their partners' perspectives and at different levels of the male involvement model in sexual and reproductive health. PMID:25953243

  12. How seasonality and weather affect perinatal health: Comparing the experiences of indigenous and non-indigenous mothers in Kanungu District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    MacVicar, Sarah; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Harper, Sherilee; Steele, Vivienne; Lwasa, Shuaib; Bambaiha, Didacus Namanya; Twesigomwe, Sabastien; Asaasira, Grace; Ross, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    Maternal and newborn health disparities and the health impacts of climate change present grand challenges for global health equity, and there remain knowledge gaps in our understanding of how these challenges intersect. This study examines the pathways through which mothers are affected by seasonal and meteorological factors in sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Kanungu District (Uganda), in particular. We conducted a community-based study consisting of focus group discussions with mothers and interviews with health care workers in Kanungu District. Using a priori and a posteriori coding, we found a diversity of perspectives on the impacts of seasonal and weather exposures, with reporting of more food available in the rainy season. The rainy season was also identified as the period in which women performed physical labour for longer time periods, while work conditions in the dry season were reported to be more difficult due to heat. The causal pathways through which weather and seasonality may be affecting size at birth as reported by Kanungu mothers were consistent with those most frequently reported in the literature elsewhere, including maternal energy balance (nutritional intake and physical exertion output) and seasonal illness. While both Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers described similar pathways, however, the severity of these experiences differed. Non-Indigenous mothers frequently relied on livestock assets or opportunities for less taxing physical work than Indigenous women, who had fewer options when facing food shortages or transport costs. Findings point to specific entry points for intervention including increased nutritional support in dry season periods of food scarcity, increased diversification of wage labour opportunities, and increased access to contraception. Interventions should be particularly targeted towards Indigenous mothers as they face greater food insecurity, may have fewer sources of income, and face greater overall deprivation

  13. Shifts in geographic distribution and antimicrobial resistance during a prolonged typhoid fever outbreak--Bundibugyo and Kasese Districts, Uganda, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Walters, Maroya Spalding; Routh, Janell; Mikoleit, Matthew; Kadivane, Samuel; Ouma, Caroline; Mubiru, Denis; Mbusa, Ben; Murangi, Amos; Ejoku, Emmanuel; Rwantangle, Absalom; Kule, Uziah; Lule, John; Garrett, Nancy; Halpin, Jessica; Maxwell, Nikki; Kagirita, Atek; Mulabya, Fred; Makumbi, Issa; Freeman, Molly; Joyce, Kevin; Hill, Vince; Downing, Robert; Mintz, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP). In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for a high IP rate began in 2008. We report that this outbreak continued through 2011, when it spread to the neighboring district of Bundibugyo. A suspected typhoid fever case was defined as IP or symptoms of fever, abdominal pain, and ≥1 of the following: gastrointestinal disruptions, body weakness, joint pain, headache, clinically suspected IP, or non-responsiveness to antimalarial medications. Cases were identified retrospectively via medical record reviews and prospectively through laboratory-enhanced case finding. Among Kasese residents, 709 cases were identified from August 1, 2009-December 31, 2011; of these, 149 were identified during the prospective period beginning November 1, 2011. Among Bundibugyo residents, 333 cases were identified from January 1-December 31, 2011, including 128 cases identified during the prospective period beginning October 28, 2011. IP was reported for 507 (82%) and 59 (20%) of Kasese and Bundibugyo cases, respectively. Blood and stool cultures performed for 154 patients during the prospective period yielded isolates from 24 (16%) patients. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern combinations, including one observed in a Kasese isolate in 2009, were shared among Kasese and Bundibugyo isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed for 18 isolates; among these 15 (83%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR), compared to 5% of 2009 isolates. Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that during a prolonged outbreak, typhoid spread from Kasese to Bundibugyo. MDR strains became prevalent. Lasting interventions, such as typhoid vaccination and improvements in drinking water infrastructure

  14. Shifts in Geographic Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance during a Prolonged Typhoid Fever Outbreak — Bundibugyo and Kasese Districts, Uganda, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Maroya Spalding; Routh, Janell; Mikoleit, Matthew; Kadivane, Samuel; Ouma, Caroline; Mubiru, Denis; Mbusa, Ben; Murangi, Amos; Ejoku, Emmanuel; Rwantangle, Absalom; Kule, Uziah; Lule, John; Garrett, Nancy; Halpin, Jessica; Maxwell, Nikki; Kagirita, Atek; Mulabya, Fred; Makumbi, Issa; Freeman, Molly; Joyce, Kevin; Hill, Vince; Downing, Robert; Mintz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP). In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for a high IP rate began in 2008. We report that this outbreak continued through 2011, when it spread to the neighboring district of Bundibugyo. Methodology/Principal Findings A suspected typhoid fever case was defined as IP or symptoms of fever, abdominal pain, and ≥1 of the following: gastrointestinal disruptions, body weakness, joint pain, headache, clinically suspected IP, or non-responsiveness to antimalarial medications. Cases were identified retrospectively via medical record reviews and prospectively through laboratory-enhanced case finding. Among Kasese residents, 709 cases were identified from August 1, 2009–December 31, 2011; of these, 149 were identified during the prospective period beginning November 1, 2011. Among Bundibugyo residents, 333 cases were identified from January 1–December 31, 2011, including 128 cases identified during the prospective period beginning October 28, 2011. IP was reported for 507 (82%) and 59 (20%) of Kasese and Bundibugyo cases, respectively. Blood and stool cultures performed for 154 patients during the prospective period yielded isolates from 24 (16%) patients. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern combinations, including one observed in a Kasese isolate in 2009, were shared among Kasese and Bundibugyo isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed for 18 isolates; among these 15 (83%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR), compared to 5% of 2009 isolates. Conclusions/Significance Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that during a prolonged outbreak, typhoid spread from Kasese to Bundibugyo. MDR strains became prevalent. Lasting interventions, such

  15. Gaps and gains from engaging districts stakeholders for community-based health professions education in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Okello, Elialilia S; Nankumbi, Joyce; Ruzaaza, Gad Ndaruhutse; Bakengesa, Evelyn; Gumikiriza, Joy; Arubaku, Wilfred; Acio, Christine; Samantha, Mary; Matte, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Community-based education research and service (COBERS) is a brand of community-based education that has been adopted by the Medical Education and Service for All Ugandans consortium. The COBERS programme is aimed at equipping students in health professional education with the knowledge, attitudes and skills required to provide appropriate health care services. For sustainability purposes, the health professional training institutions have made efforts to involve various stakeholders in the implementation of the programme. However, the actual engagement process and outcome of such efforts have not been documented. This paper documents gaps and gains made in engaging district stakeholders for community-based education. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions and document review were used to collect data. Atlas.ti, computer software for qualitative data was used to aid analysis. The analysis revealed that the adopted engagement model has registered some gains including increased awareness among district leaders about potential opportunities offered by COBERS such as boosting of human resources at health facilities, opportunities for professional development for health care workers at health facilities, and establishment of linkages between prospective employees and employers. However, the engagement model left some gaps in terms of knowledge, awareness and ownership of the programme among some sections of stakeholders. The apparent information gap about the programme among district stakeholders, especially the political leadership, may hinder concerted partnership. The findings highlight the need for health professional education institutions to broaden the scope of actively engaged stakeholders with the district level.

  16. Knowledge and attitudes towards use of long acting reversible contraceptives among women of reproductive age in Lubaga division, Kampala district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Anguzu, Ronald; Tweheyo, Raymond; Sekandi, Juliet N; Zalwango, Vivian; Muhumuza, Christine; Tusiime, Suzan; Serwadda, David

    2014-03-17

    Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. Her high fertility is mainly attributed to the high unmet need for family planning. Use of Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) is low (13%) in Uganda yet they are the most cost-effective contraceptives. This study aimed to assess the reproductive aged women's knowledge, attitudes, and factors associated with use of LARC. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 565 women (15-49 years) attending private and public health facilities in Lubaga division, Kampala district. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and factors associated with use of LARC; Intra-Uterine Devices, Implants and Injectables. The outcome variable was current use of LARC. A generalized linear regression model was run in STATA version12.0. Prevalence Risk Ratios for associations between current LARC use and independent factors were obtained and regarded significant at 95% CI with p < 0.05. Mean age (SD) and current use of LARC was 26.34 (5.35) and 31.7% respectively. Factors associated with current use of LARC were; previous use adj.PRR 2.89; (95% CI 2.29, 3.81), knowledge of implant administration site adj.PRR 1.83; (95% CI 1.17, 2.87), and perception that; male partner decisions positively influence their contraceptive choices adj.PRR 1.49; (95% CI 1.18, 1.88). Contrary, perception that LARC should be used by married women was negatively associated with use of LARC adj.PRR 0.63; (95% CI 0.44, 0.90). Knowledge about site of administration, previous use of LARC and women's attitude that male partners' choice influence their contraceptive decisions were positively associated with current use of LARC. Contrary, the attitude that LARC was for married women was negatively associated with its use. This study suggests a need to strengthen client education about LARC to dispel possible myths and to consider integrating male partner's decision making in

  17. Use of mobile phone consultations during home visits by Community Health Workers for maternal and newborn care: community experiences from Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mangwi Ayiasi, Richard; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Kiguli, Juliet; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2015-06-18

    Home visits by Community Health Workers [In Uganda Community Health Workers are given the collective term of Village Health Teams (VHTs). Hereafter referred to as VHTs] is recommended to improve maternal and newborn care. We investigated perceived maternal and newborn benefits of home visits made by VHTs, combined with mobile phone consultations with professional health workers for advice. A qualitative study was conducted in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda, in December-2013 to March-2014. Study participants were drawn from the intervention arm of a randomised community-intervention trial. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 prenatal and 16 postnatal women who were visited by VHTs; 5 group discussions and 16 key informant interviews were held with VHTs and 10 Key Informant Interviews with professional health workers. Data were analysed using latent content analysis techniques. Majority women and VHTs contend that the intervention improved access to maternal and newborn information; reduced costs of accessing care and facilitated referral. Women, VHTs and professional health workers acknowledged that the intervention induced attitudinal change among women and VHTs towards adapting recommended maternal and newborn care practices. Mobile phone consultations between VHTs and professional health workers were considered to reinforce VHT knowledge on maternal newborn care and boosted the social status of VHTs in community. A minority of VHTs perceived the implementation of recommended maternal and newborn care practices as difficult. Some professional health workers did not approve of the transfer of promotional maternal and newborn responsibility to VHTs. For a range of reasons, a number of professional health workers were not always available on phone or at the health centre to address VHT concerns. Results suggest that home visits made by VHTs for maternal and newborn care are reasonably well accepted. Our study highlights potential benefits of

  18. Management and Outcomes of Acute Surgical Patients at a District Hospital in Uganda with Non-physician Emergency Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Caleb; Periyanayagam, Usha; Dreifuss, Brad; Wangoda, Robert; Luyimbaazi, Julius; Bisanzo, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Acute surgical care services in rural Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from human resource and systemic constraints. Developing emergency care systems and task sharing aspects of acute surgical care addresses many of these issues. This paper investigates the degree to which specialized non-physicians practicing in a dedicated Emergency Department contribute to the effective and efficient management of acute surgical patients. This is a retrospective review of an electronic quality assurance database of patients presenting to an Emergency Department in rural Uganda staffed by non-physician clinicians trained in emergency care. Relevant de-identified clinical data on patients admitted directly to the operating theater from 2011 to 2014 were analyzed in Microsoft Excel. Overall, 112 Emergency Department patients were included in the analysis and 96% received some form of laboratory testing, imaging, medication, or procedure in the ED, prior to surgery. 72% of surgical patients referred by ED received preoperative antibiotics, and preoperative fluid resuscitation was initiated in 65%. Disposition to operating theater was accomplished within 3 h of presentation for 73% of patients. 79% were successfully followed up to assess outcomes at 72 h. 92% of those with successful follow-up reported improvement in their clinical condition. The confirmed mortality rate was 5%. Specialized non-physician clinicians practicing in a dedicated Emergency Department can perform resuscitation, bedside imaging and laboratory studies to aid in diagnosis of acute surgical patients and arrange transfer to an operating theater in an efficient fashion. This model has the potential to sustainably address structural and human resources problems inherent to Sub-Saharan Africa's current acute surgical care model and will benefit from further study and expansion.

  19. "The Cango Lyec Project - Healing the Elephant": HIV related vulnerabilities of post-conflict affected populations aged 13-49 years living in three Mid-Northern Uganda districts.

    PubMed

    Malamba, Samuel S; Muyinda, Herbert; Spittal, Patricia M; Ekwaru, John P; Kiwanuka, Noah; Ogwang, Martin D; Odong, Patrick; Kitandwe, Paul K; Katamba, Achilles; Jongbloed, Kate; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kinyanda, Eugene; Blair, Alden; Schechter, Martin T

    2016-11-21

    The protracted war between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda (1996-2006) resulted in widespread atrocities, destruction of health infrastructure and services, weakening the social and economic fabric of the affected populations, internal displacement and death. Despite grave concerns that increased spread of HIV/AIDS may be devastating to post conflict Northern Uganda, empirical epidemiological data describing the legacy of the war on HIV infection are scarce. The 'Cango Lyec' Project is an open cohort study involving conflict-affected populations living in three districts of Gulu, Nwoya and Amuru in mid-northern Uganda. Between November 2011 and July 2012, 8 study communities randomly selected out of 32, were mapped and house-to-house census conducted to enumerate the entire community population. Consenting participants aged 13-49 years were enrolled and interviewer-administered data were collected on trauma, depression and socio-demographic-behavioural characteristics, in the local Luo language. Venous blood was taken for HIV and syphilis serology. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with HIV prevalence at baseline. A total of 2954 participants were eligible, of whom 2449 were enrolled. Among 2388 participants with known HIV status, HIV prevalence was 12.2% (95%CI: 10.8-13.8), higher in females (14.6%) than males (8.5%, p < 0.001), higher in Gulu (15.2%) than Nwoya (11.6%, p < 0.001) and Amuru (7.5%, p = 0.006) districts. In this post-conflict period, HIV infection was significantly associated with war trauma experiences (Adj. OR = 2.50; 95%CI: 1.31-4.79), the psychiatric problems of PTSD (Adj. OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.06-1.96), Major Depressive Disorder (Adj. OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.28-2.80) and suicidal ideation (Adj. OR = 1.87; 95%CI: 1.34-2.61). Other HIV related vulnerabilities included older age, being married, separated, divorced or widowed, residing in an

  20. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women's perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Jennings, Larissa; Reid, Alice; Nalwadda, Gorette; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2014-03-05

    Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partner's use of family planning methods. This study examines men and women's perceptions regarding obstacles to men's support and uptake of modern contraceptives. A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 15-54 and women aged 15-49 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and women's perceptions regarding barriers to men's involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Five themes were identified as rationale for men's limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a woman's domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that women's use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter men's meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning initiatives should address barriers to men's supportive

  1. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cleeve, Amanda; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Mbona Tumwesigye, Nazarius; Atuhairwe, Susan; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians. Methods This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1) was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14–28 days following treatment. Analysis of women’s overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT 01844024. Results From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician). 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904) of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01844024 PMID:26872219

  2. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women’s perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partner’s use of family planning methods. This study examines men and women’s perceptions regarding obstacles to men’s support and uptake of modern contraceptives. Methods A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 15–54 and women aged 15–49 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and women’s perceptions regarding barriers to men’s involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Results Five themes were identified as rationale for men’s limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a woman’s domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that women’s use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter men’s meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Conclusion Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning

  3. Risk factors and practices contributing to newborn sepsis in a rural district of Eastern Uganda, August 2013: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    John, Bua; David, Mukanga; Mathias, Lwanga; Elizabeth, Nabiwemba

    2015-08-09

    In Uganda, newborn deaths constituted over 38% of all infant deaths in 2010. Despite different mitigation interventions over years, the newborn mortality rate is high at 27/1,000 and newborn sepsis contributes to 31% of that mortality. Therefore, improved strategies that contribute to reduction of newborn sepsis need to be developed and implemented. Understanding the context relevant risk factors that determine and practices contributing to newborn sepsis will inform this process. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kidera Health Centre in Kidera Sub County, Buyende district between January and August 2013. A total of 174 mothers of sick newborns and 8 health workers were interviewed. Main outcome was newborn sepsis confirmed by blood culture. Independent variables included; mothers' demographics characteristics, maternal care history and newborn care practices. The odds ratios were used to measure associations and Chi square or Fisher's exact tests to test the associations. 95% confidence intervals and P values for the odds ratios were determined. Logistic regression was conducted to identify predictor factors for newborn sepsis. 21.8% (38/174) of newborns had laboratory confirmed sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest aetiological agent. Mothers not screened and treated for infections during antenatal (OR = 3.37; 95% CI 1.23-9.22) plus inability of sick newborns to breast feed (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 1.54-9.75) were factors associated with increased likelihood of having laboratory confirmed sepsis. Women not receiving health education during antenatal about care seeking (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.07-4.61) and newborn danger signs (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.08-4.71) was associated with laboratory confirmed newborn sepsis. The supply of antibiotics and sundries was inadequate to sufficiently control sepsis within health facility. Lack of antenatal care or access to it at health facilities was likely to later result in more sick newborns with sepsis. Poor breastfeeding by

  4. Herpes Simples Virus Type 2 Shedding From Male Circumcision Wounds in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Mary K.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H.; Armour, Benjamin; Manucci, Jordyn; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D.; Nalugoda, Fred; Patel, Eshan U.; Wawer, Maria J.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of HSV-2 from male circumcision (MC) wounds. Preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile HSV-2 shedding. Prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Detectable penile HSV-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before MC, compared with 12.9% (22 of 170) at 1 week (PRR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74–2.38) and 14.8% (23 of 155) at 2 weeks (PRR, 1.50; 95% CI, .86–2.62) after MC. HSV-2 shedding was lower among men with healed MC wounds (adjusted PRR, 0.62; 95% CI, .35–1.08). Men undergoing MC should be counseled on sexual abstinence and condom use. PMID:25943201

  5. Male circumcision and Mycoplasma genitalium infection in female partners: a randomised trial in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tobian, Aaron A R; Gaydos, Charlotte; Gray, Ronald H; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Nicole; Grabowski, Mary K; Musoke, Richard; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Nalugoda, Fred; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C

    2014-03-01

    Previous randomised trial data have demonstrated that male circumcision reduces Mycoplasma genitalium prevalence in men. We assessed whether male circumcision also reduces M genitalium infection in female partners of circumcised men. HIV-negative men were enrolled and randomised to either male circumcision or control. Female partners of male trial participants from the intervention (n=437) and control (n=394) arms provided interview information and self-collected vaginal swabs that were tested for M genitalium by APTIMA transcription-mediated amplification-based assay. Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) and 95% CI of M genitalium prevalence in intervention versus control group were estimated using Poisson regression. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. An as-treated analysis was conducted to account for study-group crossovers. Male and female partner enrolment sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were similar between study arms. Female M genitalium prevalence at year 2 was 3.2% (14/437) in the intervention arm and 3.6% (14/394) in the control arm (PRR=0.90, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.89, p=0.78). In an as-treated analysis, the prevalence of M genitalium was 3.4% in female partners of circumcised men and 3.3% in female partners of uncircumcised men (PRR=1.01, 95% CI 0.48 to 2.12, p=0.97). Contrary to findings in men, male circumcision did not affect M genitalium infection in female partners.

  6. Effect of agro-ecological zone and grazing system on incidence of East Coast Fever in calves in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rubaire-Akiiki, Christopher M; Okello-Onen, Joseph; Musunga, David; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Vaarst, Mettee; Okello, David; Opolot, Charles; Bisagaya, A; Okori, C; Bisagati, C; Ongyera, S; Mwayi, M T

    2006-08-17

    Between May 2002 and February 2003 a longitudinal survey was carried out in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda to determine the influence of agro-ecological zones (AEZ) and grazing systems on tick infestation patterns and incidence of East Coast Fever (ECF) in bovine calves. The study area was stratified into AEZ (lowland, midland and upland) and grazing systems {zero grazing (ZG), restricted-outdoor grazing (ROG) and communal grazing (CG)}, whose strata had previously been shown to influence the prevalence of ECF, babesiosis and anaplasmosis. One hundred and eighty-five smallholder dairy farms with a total of 198 calves of both sexes, between the ages of 1 day and 6 weeks, were purposively selected from the AEZ-grazing system strata. Nine dynamic cohorts (11-51 calves in each) of these calves were examined and sampled monthly. Ticks infesting the calves were counted from one side of the animal body and categorized into the different species, sex and feeding status. Sera were collected at recruitment and monthly thereafter and antibodies against Theileria parva, T. mutans, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale were measured using ELISA. Tick challenge (total and specific) varied with AEZ and grazing system. The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the lowland zone compared to the upland zone (hazard ratio (HR)=2.59; 95% CI: 1.00-6.34). The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the CG system than the ZG system (HR=10.00; 95% CI: 3.61-27.92). The incidence risk for sero-conversion, over the 10 months study period, was 62, 16 and 9% in the lowland, midland and upland zones, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the calves in lowland-CG stratum sero-converted by the age of 6 months, while 56 and 8% did so in the lowland-ROG and the lowland-ZG stratum, respectively. The results of this study show the need to consider farm circumstances and the variation in ECF risk, both spatially and temporally when designing control strategies

  7. Cost analysis of options for management of African Animal Trypanosomiasis using interventions targeted at cattle in Tororo District; south-eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Okello, Walter O; Kabasa, John D; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan C; Shaw, Alexandra P M

    2015-07-22

    Tsetse-transmitted African trypanosomes cause both nagana (African animal Trypanosomiasis-AAT) and sleeping sickness (human African Trypanosomiasis - HAT) across Sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control and chemotherapy are the contemporary methods of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in this region. In most African countries, including Uganda, veterinary services have been decentralised and privatised. As a result, livestock keepers meet the costs of most of these services. To be sustainable, AAT control programs need to tailor tsetse control to the inelastic budgets of resource-poor small scale farmers. To guide the process of tsetse and AAT control toolkit selection, that now, more than ever before, needs to optimise resources, the costs of different tsetse and trypanosomiasis control options need to be determined. A detailed costing of the restricted application protocol (RAP) for African trypanosomiasis control in Tororo District was undertaken between June 2012 and December 2013. A full cost calculation approach was used; including all overheads, delivery costs, depreciation and netting out transfer payments to calculate the economic (societal) cost of the intervention. Calculations were undertaken in Microsoft Excel without incorporating probabilistic elements. The cost of delivering RAP to the project was US$ 6.89 per animal per year while that of 4 doses of a curative trypanocide per animal per year was US$ 5.69. However, effective tsetse control does not require the application of RAP to all animals. Protecting cattle from trypanosome infections by spraying 25%, 50% or 75% of all cattle in a village costs US$ 1.72, 3.45 and 5.17 per animal per year respectively. Alternatively, a year of a single dose of curative or prophylactic trypanocide treatment plus 50% RAP would cost US$ 4.87 and US$ 5.23 per animal per year. Pyrethroid insecticides and trypanocides cost 22.4 and 39.1% of the cost of RAP and chemotherapy respectively. Cost analyses of low cost tsetse

  8. Communication between HIV-infected children and their caregivers about HIV medicines: a cross-sectional study in Jinja district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kajubi, Phoebe; Whyte, Susan; Muhumuza, Simon; Kyaddondo, David; Katahoire, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children with HIV depends on open communication with them about their health and medicines. Guidelines assign responsibility for communication to children's home caregivers. Other research suggests that communication is poor and knowledge about ART is low among children on treatment in low-income countries. This study sought to describe communication about medicine for HIV in quantitative terms from the perspectives of both children and caregivers. Thereafter, it established the factors associated with this communication and with children's knowledge about their HIV medicines. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 394 children with HIV on treatment and their caregivers at nine health facilities in Jinja District, Uganda. We assessed reported frequency and content of communication regarding their medicines as well as knowledge of what the medicines were for. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with communication patterns and children's knowledge of HIV medicines. Although 79.6% of the caregivers reported that they explained to the children about the medicines, only half (50.8%) of the children said they knew that they were taking medicines for HIV. Older children aged 15-17 years were less likely to communicate with a caregiver about the HIV medicines in the preceding month (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7, p=0.002). Children aged 11-14 years (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.8-13.7, p<0.001) and 15-17 years (OR 12.6, 95% CI 4.6-34.3, p<0.001) were more likely to know they were taking medicines for HIV compared to the younger ones. The least common reported topic of discussion between children and caregivers was "what the medicines are for" while "the time to take medicines" was by far the most mentioned by children. Communication about, and knowledge of, HIV medicines among children with HIV is low. Young age (less than 15 years) was associated with more frequent communication

  9. Combined Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Uganda: Design of the SHARE Intervention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wagman, Jennifer A.; King, Elizabeth J.; Namatovu, Fredinah; Kiwanuka, Deus; Kairania, Robert; Ssemanda, John Baptist; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.; Gray, Ronald; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a bidirectional relationship with HIV infection. Researchers from Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), an HIV research and services organization in rural Uganda, conducted a combination IPV and HIV prevention intervention called the Safe Homes And Respect for Everyone (SHARE) Project between 2005–2009. SHARE was associated with significant declines in physical and sexual IPV and overall HIV incidence and its model could be adopted as a promising practice in other settings. In this paper we describe how SHARE’s IPV-prevention strategies were integrated into RHSP’s existing HIV programming and provide recommendations for replication of the approach. PMID:26086189

  10. “I Spent a Full Month Bleeding, I Thought I Was Going to Die…” A Qualitative Study of Experiences of Women Using Modern Contraception in Wakiso District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kibira, Simon P. S.; Muhumuza, Christine; Bukenya, Justine N.; Atuyambe, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is high unmet need for family planning (FP) in Uganda as well as high contraceptive discontinuation rates. These contribute to the high fertility rates that in part are due to unplanned pregnancies. There are gaps in knowledge about experiences that couples go through while using contraceptives in their lives. This study explored women’s experiences during the course of their contraceptive use. Methods We conducted a qualitative study involving 30 women who had used modern contraception for at least one year in Wakiso district, central Uganda. We used in-depth interviews to obtain their personal accounts. Index women were approached through health officers at four health centres in the district. All ethical approvals and informed consent were obtained. We used conventional content analysis; identifying codes through open coding, on which basis categories were developed and grouped into overarching themes. Results Women’s accounts were summarised in the following themes: negative experiences with modern contraceptive use, motivation to continue using FP in spite of these negative experiences, the role of influential people, and discontinuation of use. Negative accounts dominated the experiences of most women but they expressed strong desire to continue using modern contraception even amidst all challenges. Health workers emerged as the most influential people that played a vital role in women’s decisions. Conclusion Varied negative experiences with modern contraception and misperceptions exist amidst a determination to continue use. Partner engagement, health service strengthening to improve side effects management and health worker skills, and engaging older women that have successfully used contraception as community champions, are potential strategies to support women’s contraceptive decisions. PMID:26524603

  11. Factors Associated with Incomplete Reporting of HIV and AIDS by Uganda's Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akankunda, Denis B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the last 20 years, Uganda has piloted and implemented various management information systems (MIS) for better surveillance of HIV/AIDS. With support from the United States Government, Uganda introduced the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) in 2012. However, districts have yet to fully adapt to this system given a…

  12. Barriers and facilitators in the provision of post-abortion care at district level in central Uganda - a qualitative study focusing on task sharing between physicians and midwives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mandira; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kiggundu, Charles; Namugenyi, Rebecka; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2014-01-21

    Abortion is restricted in Uganda, and poor access to contraceptive methods result in unwanted pregnancies. This leaves women no other choice than unsafe abortion, thus placing a great burden on the Ugandan health system and making unsafe abortion one of the major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. The existing sexual and reproductive health policy in Uganda supports the sharing of tasks in post-abortion care. This task sharing is taking place as a pragmatic response to the increased workload. This study aims to explore physicians' and midwives' perception of post-abortion care with regard to professional competences, methods, contraceptive counselling and task shifting/sharing in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews (n = 27) with health care providers of post-abortion care were conducted in seven health facilities in the Central Region of Uganda. The data were organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Post-abortion care was perceived as necessary, albeit controversial and sometimes difficult to provide. Together with poor conditions post-abortion care provoked frustration especially among midwives. Task sharing was generally taking place and midwives were identified as the main providers, although they would rarely have the proper training in post-abortion care. Additionally, midwives were sometimes forced to provide services outside their defined task area, due to the absence of doctors. Different uterine evacuation skills were recognized although few providers knew of misoprostol as a method for post-abortion care. An overall need for further training in post-abortion care was identified. Task sharing is taking place, but providers lack the relevant skills for the provision of quality care. For post-abortion care to improve, task sharing needs to be scaled up and in-service training for both doctors and midwives needs to be provided. Post-abortion care should further be included in the educational curricula of

  13. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  14. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression after home HIV testing and counselling in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and Mbarara district, Uganda: a prospective, observational intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Barnabas, Ruanne V.; van Rooyen, Heidi; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Murnane, Pamela M.; Baeten, Jared M.; Humphries, Hilton; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Joseph, Philip; Krows, Meighan; Hughes, James P; Celum, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly decreases HIV-associated morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission through HIV viral load suppression. In high HIV prevalence settings, outreach strategies are needed to find asymptomatic HIV positive persons, link them to HIV care and ART, and achieve viral suppression. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study in two rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and Mbabara district, Uganda. The intervention included home HIV testing and counseling (HTC), point-of-care CD4 count testing for HIV positive persons, referral to care, and one month then quarterly lay counselor follow-up visits. The outcomes at 12 months were linkage to care, and ART initiation and viral suppression among HIV positive persons eligible for ART (CD4≤350 cells/μL). Findings 3,393 adults were tested for HIV (96% coverage), of whom 635 (19%) were HIV positive. At baseline, 36% of HIV positive persons were newly identified (64% were previously known to be HIV positive) and 40% were taking ART. By month 12, 619 (97%) of HIV positive persons visited an HIV clinic, and of 123 ART eligible participants, 94 (76%) initiated ART by 12 months. Of the 77 participants on ART by month 9, 59 (77%) achieved viral suppression by month 12. Among all HIV positive persons, the proportion with viral suppression (<1,000 copies/mL) increased from 50% to 65% (p=<0.001) at 12 months. Interpretation Community-based HTC in rural South Africa and Uganda achieved high testing coverage and linkage to care. Among those eligible for ART, a high proportion initiated ART and achieved viral suppression, indicating high adherence. Implementation of this HTC approach by existing community health workers in Africa should be evaluated to determine effectiveness and costs. PMID:25601912

  15. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration.

  16. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Methods Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. Results 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Conclusion Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration. PMID:27642461

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Not much is known about the risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) in HIV/AIDS in the African socio-cultural context. Therefore a study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors of MDD in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 618 respondents attending two HIV clinics in Uganda. Results Prevalence of MDD was 8.1%. Factors associated with MDD at univariate analysis only were female gender, family history of mental illness, negative coping style, alcohol dependency disorder, food insecurity and stress; not associated with MDD were social support, neurocognitive impairment, CD4 counts and BMI. Factors independently associated with MDD were psychosocial impairment, adverse life events, post traumatic stress disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and life-time attempted suicide. Conclusion Psychological and social factors were the main risk factors of MDD among ambulatory HIV positive persons with no evidence for the role of the neurotoxic effects of HIV. Treatment approaches for MDD in this patient group should be modeled on those used among non-HIV groups. PMID:22208452

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Hoskins, Susan; Nakku, Juliet; Nawaz, Saira; Patel, Vikram

    2011-12-30

    Not much is known about the risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) in HIV/AIDS in the African socio-cultural context. Therefore a study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors of MDD in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban Uganda. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 618 respondents attending two HIV clinics in Uganda. Prevalence of MDD was 8.1%. Factors associated with MDD at univariate analysis only were female gender, family history of mental illness, negative coping style, alcohol dependency disorder, food insecurity and stress; not associated with MDD were social support, neurocognitive impairment, CD4 counts and BMI. Factors independently associated with MDD were psychosocial impairment, adverse life events, post traumatic stress disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and life-time attempted suicide. Psychological and social factors were the main risk factors of MDD among ambulatory HIV positive persons with no evidence for the role of the neurotoxic effects of HIV. Treatment approaches for MDD in this patient group should be modeled on those used among non-HIV groups.

  19. Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga district eastern Uganda, a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Muhamadi, Lubega; Ibrahim, Musenze; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Peterson, Stefan; Reynolds, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Iganga district was launched in 2010 as part of the Uganda national strategy to prevent new HIV infections with a target of having 129,896 eligible males circumcised by 2012, only 35,000 (27%) of the anticipated target had been circumcised by mid 2012. There was paucity of information on why uptake of VMMC was low in this setting where HIV awareness is presumably high. This study sought to understand motivators for uptake of VMMC from the perspective of the clients themselves in order to advocate for feasible approaches to expanding uptake of VMMC in Iganga district and similar settings. In Iganga district, we conducted seven key informant interviews with staff who work in the VMMC clinics and twenty in-depth interviews with clients who had accepted and undergone VMMC. Ten focus-group discussions including a total of 112 participants were also conducted with clients who had undergone VMMC. Motivators for uptake of VMMC in the perspective of the circumcised clients and the health care staff included: perceived medical benefit to those circumcised such as protection against acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, peer/partner influence, sexual satisfaction and safety and cost to access the service. Since perceived medical benefit was a motivator for seeking VMMC, it can be used to strengthen campaigns for increasing uptake of VMMC. Peer influence could also be used in advocacy campaigns for VMMC expansion, especially using peers who have already undergone VMMC. There is need to ensure that safety and cost to access the service is affordable especially to rural poor as it was mentioned as a motivator for seeking VMMC.

  20. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Naddumba, E K

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 2000 lives are lost in Uganda annually through road traffic accidents. In Kampala, they account for 39% of all injuries, primarily in males aged 16-44 years. They are a result of rapid motorization and urbanization in a country with a poor economy. Uganda's population is an estimated 28 million with a growth rate of 3.4% per year. Motorcycles and omnibuses, the main taxi vehicles, are the primary contributors to the accidents. Poor roads and drivers compound the situation. Twenty-three orthopaedic surgeons (one for every 1,300,000 people) provide specialist services that are available only at three regional hospitals and the National Referral Hospital in Kampala. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are managed nonoperatively by 200 orthopaedic officers distributed at the district, regional and national referral hospitals. Because of the poor economy, 9% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Patients with musculoskeletal injuries in Uganda frequently fail to receive immediate care due to inadequate resources and most are treated by traditional bonesetters. Neglected injuries typically result in poor outcomes. Possible solutions include a public health approach for prevention of road traffic injuries, training of adequate human resources, and infrastructure development.

  1. Uganda study found that death reduced HIV prevalence; did the public take home the wrong message?

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2005-02-25

    Uganda has had a remarkable decline in HIV prevalence, and the question of what caused this decline is controversial. An intensive study of the Rakai region of Uganda from 1994 - 2003 found that much of the decreased prevalence resulted from death of people with HIV. But the incidence of new HIV infections was low throughout this study and did not change greatly, suggesting that the real cause of the success was a large reduction in new infections before the study began. The early data presented at the February 2005 Retroviruses conference also showed increasing use of condoms, and some backsliding on reducing the number of sexual partners. But neither change was big enough to greatly affect the incidence of new infections, at least in the aggregate data across the 50 villages studied. In summary, the big reduction in HIV prevalence occurred because of changes that happened before this study, not those measured within it. Therefore the new information does not contradict reduction in the number of sexual partners as a major cause of Uganda's success.

  2. It could be viral but you don't know, you have not diagnosed it: health worker challenges in managing non-malaria paediatric fevers in the low transmission area of Mbarara District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Emily White; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Mayora, Chrispus; Awor, Phyllis; Peterson, Stefan Swartling; Wamani, Henry; Hildenwall, Helena

    2016-04-11

    In 2012, Uganda initiated nationwide deployment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as recommended by national guidelines. Yet growing concerns about RDT non-compliance in various settings have spurred calls to deploy RDT as part of enhanced support packages. An understanding of how health workers currently manage non-malaria fevers, particularly for children, and challenges faced in this work should also inform efforts. A qualitative study was conducted in the low transmission area of Mbarara District (Uganda). In-depth interviews with 20 health workers at lower level clinics focused on RDT perceptions, strategies to differentiate non-malaria paediatric fevers, influences on clinical decisions, desires for additional diagnostics, and any challenges in this work. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with caregivers of children under 5 years of age in facility catchment areas to elucidate their RDT perceptions, understandings of non-malaria paediatric fevers and treatment preferences. Data were extracted into meaning units to inform codes and themes in order to describe response patterns using a latent content analysis approach. Differential diagnosis strategies included studying fever patterns, taking histories, assessing symptoms, and analysing other factors such as a child's age or home environment. If no alternative cause was found, malaria treatment was reportedly often prescribed despite a negative result. Other reasons for malaria over-treatment stemmed from RDT perceptions, system constraints and provider-client interactions. RDT perceptions included mistrust driven largely by expectations of false negative results due to low parasite/antigen loads, previous anti-malarial treatment or test detection of only one species. System constraints included poor referral systems, working alone without opportunity to confer on difficult cases, and lacking skills and/or tools for differential diagnosis. Provider-client interactions included reported

  3. A large outbreak of typhoid fever associated with a high rate of intestinal perforation in Kasese District, Uganda, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Neil, Karen P; Sodha, Samir V; Lukwago, Luswa; O-Tipo, Shikanga; Mikoleit, Matthew; Simington, Sherricka D; Mukobi, Peter; Balinandi, Stephen; Majalija, Samuel; Ayers, Joseph; Kagirita, Atek; Wefula, Edward; Asiimwe, Frank; Kweyamba, Vianney; Talkington, Deborah; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Adem, Patricia; Batten, Brigid C; Zaki, Sherif R; Mintz, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) causes an estimated 22 million typhoid fever cases and 216 000 deaths annually worldwide. In Africa, the lack of laboratory diagnostic capacity limits the ability to recognize endemic typhoid fever and to detect outbreaks. We report a large laboratory-confirmed outbreak of typhoid fever in Uganda with a high proportion of intestinal perforations (IPs). A suspected case of typhoid fever was defined as fever and abdominal pain in a person with either vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, headache, weakness, arthralgia, poor response to antimalarial medications, or IP. From March 4, 2009 to April 17, 2009, specimens for blood and stool cultures and serology were collected from suspected cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on Salmonella Typhi isolates. Surgical specimens from patients with IP were examined. A community survey was conducted to characterize the extent of the outbreak. From December 27, 2007 to July 30, 2009, 577 cases, 289 hospitalizations, 249 IPs, and 47 deaths from typhoid fever occurred; Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 27 (33%) of 81 patients. Isolates demonstrated multiple PFGE patterns and uniform susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Surgical specimens from 30 patients were consistent with typhoid fever. Estimated typhoid fever incidence in the community survey was 8092 cases per 100 000 persons. This typhoid fever outbreak was detected because of an elevated number of IPs. Underreporting of milder illnesses and delayed and inadequate antimicrobial treatment contributed to the high perforation rate. Enhancing laboratory capacity for detection is critical to improving typhoid fever control.

  4. Evidence-based monitoring and evaluation of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention among Christian and Muslim youth in Wakiso district in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kagimu, M; Kaye, S; Ainomugisha, D; Lutalo, I; Walakira, Y; Guwatudde, D; Rwabukwali, C

    2012-06-01

    The Islamic Medical Association of Uganda, has been implementing the faith-based approach to HIV prevention without baseline data on expected positive outcomes. To establish evidence-based baseline data on expected positive outcomes of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention. A cross-sectional study of 15-24 year-old youths was analyzed for significant associations between HIV infections, risky behaviors, and religiosity HIV prevalence was 3.6% among Christians and 2.4% among Muslims. Abstaining from sex among teenagers was at 54% for Christians and 58% for Muslims. Being faithful in marriage among males was at 41% for Christians and 34% for Muslims and among females it was 65% for Christians and 69% for Muslims. Praying privately was associated with lower HIV infections and was observed among 60% of Christians. Sujda, the hyperpigmented marker of regular prayers on the forehead of Muslims was associated with lower HIV infections and observed in 42% of them. Ever drank alcohol was associated with higher HIV prevalence and observed in 52% of Christians and 17% of Muslims. Male circumcision rates were 15% for Christians and 98% for Muslims. A sero-behavioral-religiosity survey can provide evidence-based data for monitoring and evaluation of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention.

  5. District health planning at a time of transition: a critical review and lessons learnt from the implementation of regional planning in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Curtale, Filippo; Musila, Timothy; Opigo, Jimmy; Nantamu, Dyogo; Ezati, Isaac Alidria

    2016-05-01

    A quarter of a century after the Harare Declaration on Strengthening District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care (1987) was conceived, district health teams (DHTs) are facing a markedly changed situation. Rapid population growth, urbanization, a rapidly developing private sector, and the increasing role of vertical programs and global initiatives have marginalized the planning process and weakened the entire district health system (DHS). The Ugandan Ministry of Health (MoH) responded to these challenges by beginning a review of district planning: a key action point of the Harare Declaration. The first step was a critical review of relevant literature, then central and district health staff were engaged with to provide their input in developing the new strategy. Through a field experiment started in 2012-13, and still underway, the MoH is developing an innovative regional approach to health planning, which aims to encompass the complexity of the new context of health care provision and coordinate all new actors (private health providers, projects and local government staff from other sectors) operating in the health sector. A strategic revision of the planning process represents an opportunity to develop an appropriate 'Theory of Change', intended as a broader approach of thinking about the entire DHS and the relative role and functions of the DHT. Leadership and stewardship capacities of MoH staff, at central and peripheral level, must be strengthened and supported to achieve the expected changes and results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: Stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2014-01-01

    Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care

  7. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  8. Information and Communication for Rural Innovation and Development: Context, Quality and Priorities in Southeast Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sseguya, Haroon; Mazur, Robert; Abbott, Eric; Matsiko, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the status and priorities for agricultural information generation, dissemination and utilization in the context of agricultural innovation systems in southeast Uganda. Design/Methodology/Approach: Group discussions were conducted with six communities in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. The focus was on information sources and…

  9. Assessing Community Understanding of Local Environmental Issues in Two Areas of Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrie, Gina M.; Bettinger, Tammie L.; Kuhar, Christopher W.; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Apell, Peter; Kasoma, Panta

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many conservation education projects working in Uganda, there is currently little evaluation of educational initiatives in the communities. A survey was developed to better understand the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of people in 2 districts of Uganda. The main environmental problem listed by the respondents…

  10. Information and Communication for Rural Innovation and Development: Context, Quality and Priorities in Southeast Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sseguya, Haroon; Mazur, Robert; Abbott, Eric; Matsiko, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the status and priorities for agricultural information generation, dissemination and utilization in the context of agricultural innovation systems in southeast Uganda. Design/Methodology/Approach: Group discussions were conducted with six communities in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. The focus was on information sources and…

  11. Assessing Community Understanding of Local Environmental Issues in Two Areas of Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrie, Gina M.; Bettinger, Tammie L.; Kuhar, Christopher W.; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Apell, Peter; Kasoma, Panta

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many conservation education projects working in Uganda, there is currently little evaluation of educational initiatives in the communities. A survey was developed to better understand the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of people in 2 districts of Uganda. The main environmental problem listed by the respondents…

  12. Costs Of Using “Tiny Targets” to Control Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a Vector of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness in Arua District of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alexandra P. M.; Tirados, Inaki; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Esterhuizen, Johan; Lehane, Michael J.; Torr, Stephen J.; Kovacic, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the relative effectiveness of tsetse control methods, their costs need to be analysed alongside their impact on tsetse populations. Very little has been published on the costs of methods specifically targeting human African trypanosomiasis Methodology/Principal Findings In northern Uganda, a 250 km2 field trial was undertaken using small (0.5 X 0.25 m) insecticide-treated targets (“tiny targets”). Detailed cost recording accompanied every phase of the work. Costs were calculated for this operation as if managed by the Ugandan vector control services: removing purely research components of the work and applying local salaries. This calculation assumed that all resources are fully used, with no spare capacity. The full cost of the operation was assessed at USD 85.4 per km2, of which USD 55.7 or 65.2% were field costs, made up of three component activities (target deployment: 34.5%, trap monitoring: 10.6% and target maintenance: 20.1%). The remaining USD 29.7 or 34.8% of the costs were for preliminary studies and administration (tsetse surveys: 6.0%, sensitisation of local populations: 18.6% and office support: 10.2%). Targets accounted for only 12.9% of the total cost, other important cost components were labour (24.1%) and transport (34.6%). Discussion Comparison with the updated cost of historical HAT vector control projects and recent estimates indicates that this work represents a major reduction in cost levels. This is attributed not just to the low unit cost of tiny targets but also to the organisation of delivery, using local labour with bicycles or motorcycles. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken, investigating key prices and assumptions. It is believed that these costs are generalizable to other HAT foci, although in more remote areas, with denser vegetation and fewer people, costs would increase, as would be the case for other tsetse control techniques. PMID:25811956

  13. Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Female Adolescents in Rural Uganda: The effects of family structure and school attendance

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda; and to determine if the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by adolescents’ school attendance status. Methods The sample consisted of 2,337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Results Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but was significantly associated with outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women. PMID:25415632

  14. Multiple sexual partnerships among female adolescents in rural Uganda: the effects of family structure and school attendance.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda. In addition, the study assessed whether the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by the school attendance status of the adolescents. The sample consisted of 2337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period of 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic and poisson regressions were used. Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but it was significantly associated with the outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. The findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women.

  15. Introduction of mobile phones for use by volunteer community health workers in support of integrated community case management in Bushenyi District, Uganda: development and implementation process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    competence to initiate a community trial was established through performance monitoring. Conclusion Local information/communication consultants, working in concert with a university based department of pediatrics, can design and implement a robust mobile phone based system that may be anticipated to contribute to efficient delivery of iCCM by trained volunteer CHWs in rural settings in Uganda. PMID:25079241

  16. Introduction of mobile phones for use by volunteer community health workers in support of integrated community case management in Bushenyi District, Uganda: development and implementation process.

    PubMed

    Tumusiime, David Katuruba; Agaba, Gad; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Finch, Jan; Kabakyenga, Jerome; MacLeod, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    established through performance monitoring. Local information/communication consultants, working in concert with a university based department of pediatrics, can design and implement a robust mobile phone based system that may be anticipated to contribute to efficient delivery of iCCM by trained volunteer CHWs in rural settings in Uganda.

  17. Determinants of patients' choice of provider in accessing brucellosis care among pastoral communities adjacent to lake Mburo National Park in Kiruhura District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kansiime, Catherine; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Asiimwe, Benon B; Rwego, Innocent B; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide with symptoms similar to other febrile syndromes such as malaria and typhoid fever. It is often easily misdiagnosed, resulting in underreporting and misdirected treatments. Understanding of the factors that influence brucellosis care seeking is essential in enhancing its effective management. Our study sought to determine the factors associated with choice of provider in accessing care for brucellosis among pastoral communities in Uganda. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 245 randomly selected respondents previously diagnosed and treated for brucellosis, two months before the study. They were enrolled from three sub-counties neighboring Lake Mburo National Park between December 2012 to April 2013. Data on socio-demographics, availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of health services were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to determine association between independent and outcome variables using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with p-value≤0.05 considered statistically significant. Of the 245 respondents, 127(51.8%) sought health care at government facilities and the rest at private. Respondents who were less likely to choose a government facility were either single (OR: 0.50, CI: 0.26-0.97), had general weakness (OR: 0.09, CI: 0.01-0.72) or whom family took a decision (OR: 0.52, CI: 0.28-0.97). At multivariable analysis, choice of government facility was influenced by primary education (aOR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97), having six to ten household members (aOR:3.71, CI:1.84-7.49), family advice (aOR:0.64, CI: 0.23-0.91), distance ≥10 kms (aOR:0.44, CI: 0.21-0.92), high costs at private clinics (aOR:0.01, CI:0.02-0.15) and no diagnosis at government facility (aOR:0.11, CI:0.01-0.97). Females were more likely to seek health care at government facilities, while those with tertiary education were less likely, after the first provider. Females and

  18. Adherence of community caretakers of children to pre-packaged antimalarial medicines (HOMAPAK) among internally displaced people in Gulu district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Ojok, Naptalis; Opwonya, John; Meek, Sylvia; Collins, Andrew

    2006-05-15

    In 2002, home-based management of fever (HBMF) was introduced in Uganda, to improve access to prompt, effective antimalarial treatment of all fevers in children under 5 years. Implementation is through community drug distributors (CDDs) who distribute pre-packaged chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (HOMAPAK) free of charge to caretakers of febrile children. Adherence of caretakers to this regimen has not been studied. A questionnaire-based survey combined with inspection of blister packaging was conducted to investigate caretakers' adherence to HOMAPAK. The population surveyed consisted of internally displaced people (IDPs) from eight camps. A total of 241 caretakers were interviewed. 95.0% (CI: 93.3% - 98.4%) of their children had received the correct dose for their age and 52.3% of caretakers had retained the blister pack. Assuming correct self-reporting, the overall adherence was 96.3% (CI: 93.9% - 98.7%). The nine caretakers who had not adhered had done so because the child had improved, had vomited, did not like the taste of the tablets, or because they forgot to administer the treatment. For 85.5% of cases treatment had been sought within 24 hours. Blister packaging was considered useful by virtually all respondents, mainly because it kept the drugs clean and dry. Information provided on, and inside, the package was of limited use, because most respondents were illiterate. However, CDDs had often told caretakers how to administer the treatment. For 39.4% of respondents consultation with the CDD was their reported first action when their child has fever and 52.7% stated that they consult her/him if the child does not get better. In IDP camps, the HBMF strategy forms an important component of medical care for young children. In case of febrile illness, most caretakers obtain prompt and adequate antimalarial treatment, and adhere to it. A large proportion of malaria episodes are thus likely to be treated before complications can arise. Implementation in

  19. Adherence of community caretakers of children to pre-packaged antimalarial medicines (HOMAPAK®) among internally displaced people in Gulu district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Ojok, Naptalis; Opwonya, John; Meek, Sylvia; Collins, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Background In 2002, home-based management of fever (HBMF) was introduced in Uganda, to improve access to prompt, effective antimalarial treatment of all fevers in children under 5 years. Implementation is through community drug distributors (CDDs) who distribute pre-packaged chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (HOMAPAK®) free of charge to caretakers of febrile children. Adherence of caretakers to this regimen has not been studied. Methods A questionnaire-based survey combined with inspection of blister packaging was conducted to investigate caretakers' adherence to HOMAPAK®. The population surveyed consisted of internally displaced people (IDPs) from eight camps. Results A total of 241 caretakers were interviewed. 95.0% (CI: 93.3% – 98.4%) of their children had received the correct dose for their age and 52.3% of caretakers had retained the blister pack. Assuming correct self-reporting, the overall adherence was 96.3% (CI: 93.9% – 98.7%). The nine caretakers who had not adhered had done so because the child had improved, had vomited, did not like the taste of the tablets, or because they forgot to administer the treatment. For 85.5% of cases treatment had been sought within 24 hours. Blister packaging was considered useful by virtually all respondents, mainly because it kept the drugs clean and dry. Information provided on, and inside, the package was of limited use, because most respondents were illiterate. However, CDDs had often told caretakers how to administer the treatment. For 39.4% of respondents consultation with the CDD was their reported first action when their child has fever and 52.7% stated that they consult her/him if the child does not get better. Conclusion In IDP camps, the HBMF strategy forms an important component of medical care for young children. In case of febrile illness, most caretakers obtain prompt and adequate antimalarial treatment, and adhere to it. A large proportion of malaria episodes are thus likely to be treated

  20. Determinants of Patients' Choice of Provider in Accessing Brucellosis Care among Pastoral Communities Adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park in Kiruhura District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kansiime, Catherine; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide with symptoms similar to other febrile syndromes such as malaria and typhoid fever. It is often easily misdiagnosed, resulting in underreporting and misdirected treatments. Understanding of the factors that influence brucellosis care seeking is essential in enhancing its effective management. Our study sought to determine the factors associated with choice of provider in accessing care for brucellosis among pastoral communities in Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey involving 245 randomly selected respondents previously diagnosed and treated for brucellosis, two months before the study. They were enrolled from three sub-counties neighboring Lake Mburo National Park between December 2012 to April 2013. Data on socio-demographics, availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of health services were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to determine association between independent and outcome variables using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with p-value≤0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Of the 245 respondents, 127(51.8%) sought health care at government facilities and the rest at private. Respondents who were less likely to choose a government facility were either single (OR: 0.50, CI: 0.26–0.97), had general weakness (OR: 0.09, CI: 0.01–0.72) or whom family took a decision (OR: 0.52, CI: 0.28–0.97). At multivariable analysis, choice of government facility was influenced by primary education (aOR: 0.46, CI: 0.22–0.97), having six to ten household members (aOR:3.71, CI:1.84–7.49), family advice (aOR:0.64, CI: 0.23–0.91), distance ≥10 kms (aOR:0.44, CI: 0.21–0.92), high costs at private clinics (aOR:0.01, CI:0.02–0.15) and no diagnosis at government facility (aOR:0.11, CI:0.01–0.97). Females were more likely to seek health care at government facilities, while those with tertiary education were less

  1. Cost analyses of peer health worker and mHealth support interventions for improving AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Serwada, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Bollinger, Robert C; Reynolds, Steven J; Holtgrave, David

    2013-01-01

    A cost analysis study calculates resources needed to deliver an intervention and can provide useful information on affordability for service providers and policy-makers. We conducted cost analyses of both a peer health worker (PHW) and a mHealth (mobile phone) support intervention. Excluding supervisory staffing costs, total yearly costs for the PHW intervention was $8475, resulting in a yearly cost per patient of $8.74, per virologic failure averted cost of $189, and per patient lost to follow-up averted cost of $1025. Including supervisory staffing costs increased total yearly costs to $14,991. Yearly costs of the mHealth intervention were an additional $1046, resulting in a yearly cost per patient of $2.35. In a threshold analysis, the PHW intervention was found to be cost saving if it was able to avert 1.50 patients per year from switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy. Other AIDS care programs may find these intervention costs affordable.

  2. Bubonic and pneumonic plague - Uganda, 2006.

    PubMed

    2009-07-24

    Plague is a life-threatening fleaborne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The most common clinical form is bubonic plague, which is characterized by high fever and regional lymphadenitis. Without treatment, infection can spread from lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in pneumonic plague and the potential for person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. In November 2006, the Uganda Ministry of Health received reports of an increase in bubonic plague cases and a possible outbreak of pneumonic plague among residents in the Arua and Nebbi districts. In response, the Uganda Ministry of Health and CDC conducted a joint investigation in the two districts during November 28-December 30, 2006. Overall, 127 clinical plague cases were identified, along with evidence of a focal pneumonic outbreak in Nebbi District. Median age of the patients was 14 years (range: 2 weeks-65 years); 65 (51%) were female. Twenty-eight (22%) of the 127 patients died. Among the 102 patients with documented symptoms, 90 (88%) had bubonic plague, and 12 (12%) had pneumonic plague. The results of this investigation underscore the need to 1) continue efforts to educate residents of rural Uganda regarding the source, signs, and symptoms of plague and the life-saving importance of seeking treatment; 2) strengthen plague surveillance and diagnostic capabilities; and 3) improve emergency response and vector-control capacity, especially in remote regions of the country.

  3. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  4. Barriers and facilitators in the provision of post-abortion care at district level in central Uganda – a qualitative study focusing on task sharing between physicians and midwives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abortion is restricted in Uganda, and poor access to contraceptive methods result in unwanted pregnancies. This leaves women no other choice than unsafe abortion, thus placing a great burden on the Ugandan health system and making unsafe abortion one of the major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. The existing sexual and reproductive health policy in Uganda supports the sharing of tasks in post-abortion care. This task sharing is taking place as a pragmatic response to the increased workload. This study aims to explore physicians’ and midwives’ perception of post-abortion care with regard to professional competences, methods, contraceptive counselling and task shifting/sharing in post-abortion care. Methods In-depth interviews (n = 27) with health care providers of post-abortion care were conducted in seven health facilities in the Central Region of Uganda. The data were organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Results Post-abortion care was perceived as necessary, albeit controversial and sometimes difficult to provide. Together with poor conditions post-abortion care provoked frustration especially among midwives. Task sharing was generally taking place and midwives were identified as the main providers, although they would rarely have the proper training in post-abortion care. Additionally, midwives were sometimes forced to provide services outside their defined task area, due to the absence of doctors. Different uterine evacuation skills were recognized although few providers knew of misoprostol as a method for post-abortion care. An overall need for further training in post-abortion care was identified. Conclusions Task sharing is taking place, but providers lack the relevant skills for the provision of quality care. For post-abortion care to improve, task sharing needs to be scaled up and in-service training for both doctors and midwives needs to be provided. Post-abortion care should further be

  5. Funds of Knowledge in Child-Headed Households: A Ugandan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Kakuru, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research on orphan and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa has focused on their risks and vulnerabilities. This article describes the "funds of knowledge" (Moll and Greenberg, 1990) and means of acquiring new knowledge of children living in child-headed households in Uganda's Rakai District. Using ethnographic methods,…

  6. Funds of Knowledge in Child-Headed Households: A Ugandan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Kakuru, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research on orphan and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa has focused on their risks and vulnerabilities. This article describes the "funds of knowledge" (Moll and Greenberg, 1990) and means of acquiring new knowledge of children living in child-headed households in Uganda's Rakai District. Using ethnographic methods,…

  7. Prevalence of African swine fever virus in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atuhaire, David Kalenzi; Afayoa, Mathias; Ochwo, Sylvester; Mwesigwa, Savannah; Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy

    2013-12-26

    African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people's livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease. The major aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in apparently healthy slaughter pigs at Wambizi slaughterhouse in Kampala city, Uganda. We also estimated the presence of ASFV antibodies and circulating viral antigens in pigs from selected districts of Uganda during targeted surveillance. We analysed 540 and 181 blood samples collected from slaughter pigs and pigs from targeted surveillance districts respectively. The prevalence of ASFV in slaughter pigs was 52.96% (95% CI, 48.75-57.14) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.06-14.45) by ELISA and PCR respectively. In surveillance districts, the proportion of ASFV positive pigs was 53.59% (95% CI, 46.33-60.71) and 0.55% (95% CI, 0.1-3.06) by ELISA and PCR respectively. The study has found out a high seroprevalence of ASFV antibodies in apparently healthy slaughter pigs and also a high proportion of ASFV antibody seropositive pigs in surveyed districts in Uganda indicating exposure to ASFV. However, there was a lower prevalence of ASFV infection implying that there could be low virulent strains of ASFV circulating in domestic pigs in Uganda which requires further investigation.

  8. English Teaching Profile: Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Uganda provides an overview of the role of English in society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (preprimary, elementary, secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher education). The review outlines the…

  9. Paediatric surgery in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sekabira, John

    2015-02-01

    The Hugh Greenwood Lecture acknowledges the extremely generous support from Mr Greenwood that has enabled the BAPS to establish funds to advance paediatric surgical training in developing countries. In this Inaugural Lecture, Dr. Sekabira, the first Hugh Greenwood Fellow, describes the influence that this has had on his career and reviews the state of paediatric surgery in Uganda.

  10. Laramie in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    No matter how disturbing, it is common to hear "that's so gay" or "you're such a fag" echoing through the halls of a high school, but when the high school is an international school in Uganda, those words have a newfound potency. As an American teacher working abroad, the author often struggled over her responsibility for the…

  11. Laramie in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    No matter how disturbing, it is common to hear "that's so gay" or "you're such a fag" echoing through the halls of a high school, but when the high school is an international school in Uganda, those words have a newfound potency. As an American teacher working abroad, the author often struggled over her responsibility for the…

  12. Introducing quality management into primary health care services in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Omaswa, F.; Burnham, G.; Baingana, G.; Mwebesa, H.; Morrow, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, a national quality assurance programme was established in Uganda to strengthen district-level management of primary health care services. Within 18 months both objective and subjective improvements in the quality of services had been observed. In the examples documented here, there was a major reduction in maternal mortality among pregnant women referred to Jinja District Hospital, a reduction in waiting times and increased patient satisfaction at Masaka District Hospital, and a marked reduction in reported cases of measles in Arua District. Beyond these quantitative improvements, increased morale of district health team members, improved satisfaction among patients, and greater involvement of local government in the decisions of district health committees have been observed. At the central level, the increased coordination of activities has led to new guidelines for financial management and the procurement of supplies. District quality management workshops followed up by regular support visits from the Ministry of Health headquarters have led to a greater understanding by central staff of the issues faced at the district level. The quality assurance programme has also fostered improved coordination among national disease-control programmes. Difficulties encountered at the central level have included delays in carrying out district support visits and the failure to provide appropriate support. At the district level, some health teams tackled problems over which they had little control or which were overly complex; others lacked the management capacity for problem solving. PMID:9185368

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella viruses identified in Uganda, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Namuwulya, Prossy; Abernathy, Emily; Bukenya, Henry; Bwogi, Josephine; Tushabe, Phionah; Birungi, Molly; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Alibu, Vincent P; Kayondo, Jonathan K; Rivailler, Pierre; Icenogle, Joseph; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas

    2014-12-01

    Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes.

  14. Proportion of Deaths and Clinical Features in Bundibugyo Ebola Virus Infection, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Farnon, Eileen C.; Wamala, Joseph; Okware, Sam; Cannon, Deborah L.; Reed, Zachary; Towner, Jonathan S.; Tappero, Jordan W.; Lutwama, Julius; Downing, Robert; Nichol, Stuart T.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2010-01-01

    The first known Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak caused by Bundibugyo Ebola virus occurred in Bundibugyo District, Uganda, in 2007. Fifty-six cases of EHF were laboratory confirmed. Although signs and symptoms were largely nonspecific and similar to those of EHF outbreaks caused by Zaire and Sudan Ebola viruses, proportion of deaths among those infected was lower (≈40%). PMID:21122234

  15. Uganda's successful Guinea Worm Eradication Program.

    PubMed

    Rwakimari, John B; Hopkins, Donald R; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2006-07-01

    Having begun its national Guinea Worm Eradication Program (UGWEP) in 1991 (1991 population, 16.6 million) with the third-highest number of cases reported by any endemic country, and ranked as the second-highest endemic country in the world in 1993, by 2004, Uganda celebrated its first full calendar year with no indigenous cases of the disease. Systematic interventions began in 1992 and were gradually intensified until the final indigenous case occurred in July 2003. The favorable concentration of most cases in relatively few northern districts of the country was partly offset by chronic insecurity in much of the endemic area and by repeated importations of cases from neighboring Sudan. Strong support and dedicated leadership by government officials and external partners were keys to this program's dramatic success. This program cost approximately US dollar 5.6 million.

  16. Environmental Systems and Local Actors: Decentralizing Environmental Policy in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterveer, Peter; van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  17. Environmental systems and local actors: decentralizing environmental policy in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Oosterveer, Peter; Van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  18. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-29

    Mohamud Rage, stated that “we are sending a message to Uganda and Burundi , if they do not take out their AMISOM troops from Somalia, blasts will...Religions: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 42%, Muslim 12%, Indigenous beliefs 4%. Language: English (official) GDP (purchasing power parity—PPP): $42.1...billion (2008) GDP per capita (PPP): $1,300.00 (2009) Source: CIA, The World Factbook, 2010. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North

  19. Country case report Uganda.

    PubMed

    Amandua, Jacinto; Bakeera, Solome Kiribakka; Mpeka, Betty A; Sund, Birgitta

    2003-01-01

    Health status indicators for Uganda are poor partly because of the repercussions of the historical conflicts. Poverty among the population is high. According to the Burden of Disease study done in 1995, over 75% of the life years lost due to premature death were due to ten preventable diseases. Government of Uganda, in collaboration with the Development Partners, has evolved a number of strategies to address priority concerns in the Health Sector. In 1999 a 10-year National Health Policy (NHP) was adopted together with the development of a five year Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP) to guide the implementation of the NHP. The NHP and the HSSP guide the current structure of the health services in the country, including the hospital services. However the focus in the reform process has been on primary health care but the hospitals have not been given sufficient attention. This country report concludes that the resources available for the health services in the country are very limited and the biggest challenge is to get the most out of these scanty resources. A further challenge identified is the need also to bring the hospitals in the mainstreamed health reform process. There is need for the hospitals to re-orientate themselves and strengthen the promotive and preventive services in addition to curative, rehabilitative and palliatives services. Finally, there is the need to improve access to hospital services as well as the standard of the hospital service.

  20. Longitudinal changes in vaginal microbiota composition assessed by Gram-stain among never sexually active pre- and postmenarcheal adolescents in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Marie E.; Gray, Ronald H.; Kiwanuka, Noah; Aluma, Simon; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Sewankambo, Nelson; Wawer, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To describe changes in vaginal microbiota and pH over time among never sexually active adolescents at different menarcheal stages. Design A cohort of 49 sexually inexperienced Ugandan adolescents provided weekly self-collected vaginal swabs and behavioral/health information for up to two years. Menarcheal stage was classified as: not experiencing menarche during follow-up (premenarcheal, n=9), achieving menarche during follow-up (perimenarcheal, n=20), and being postmenarcheal (n=20) at enrollment. Vaginal microbiota were characterized as morphotypes of large Gram-positive rods, small Gram-negative or variable rods, and curved Gram-negative rods based on Nugent Gram-stain criteria. Baseline measures were compared using nonparametric tests. Mean changes (β) in morphotypes and pH over time were estimated using longitudinal mixed-effects models. Results The baseline median (IQR: interquartile range) Nugent score was 8 (7-8) in premenarcheal, 4.5 (1-8) in perimenarcheal, and 1 (0-3) in postmenarcheal girls (p=0.001). For each respective menarcheal stage, the median counts of (IQR) Gram-positive rods were 0 (0-0), 10 (0-30), and 30 (18-30) (p=0.002) and Gram-negative or variable rods were 30 (30-30), 16 (0.5-30), and 0.5 (0-2.5) (p=0.002) at enrollment. Counts of Gram-positive rods increased (β = 0.259, 95% CI: 0.156, 0.362) and Gram-negative or variable rods decreased (β = -0.201, 95% CI:-0.298,-0.103) significantly over time in premenarcheal girls, but not in other groups. Vaginal pH declined significantly in peri- and postmenarcheal girls only. Conclusion Vaginal microbiota composition varied by menarcheal stage at enrollment. Over time, significant changes in vaginal morphotypes occurred in premenarcheal girls, suggesting this may be an important period of transition. PMID:20709584

  1. The short-term variability of bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Nugent Gram stain criteria among sexually active women in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Marie E; Gray, Ronald H; Kiwanuka, Noah; Aluma, Simon; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Sewankambo, Nelson; Wawer, Maria J

    2011-02-01

    Studies evaluating clinical and behavioral factors related to short-term fluctuations in vaginal microbiota are limited. We sought to describe changes in vaginal microbiota evaluated by Gram stain and assess factors associated with progression to and resolution of bacterial vaginosis (BV) at weekly intervals. A cohort of 255 sexually experienced, postmenarcheal women provided self-collected vaginal swabs to assess vaginal microbiota by Nugent score criteria at weekly visits for up to 2 years contributing 16,757 sequential observations. Absolute differences in Nugent scores (0-10) and transition probabilities of vaginal microbiota states classified by Nugent score into normal (0-3), intermediate (4-6), and BV (7-10) between visits were estimated. Allowing each woman to serve as her own control, weekly time-varying factors associated with progression from normal microbiota to BV and resolution of BV to normal microbiota were estimated using conditional logistic regression. The distribution of absolute difference in Nugent scores was fairly symmetric with a mode of 0 (no change) and a standard deviation of 2.64. Transition probabilities showed weekly persistence, was highest for normal (76.1%) and BV (73.6%) states; whereas, intermediate states had similar probabilities of progression (36.6%), resolution (36.0%), and persistence (27.4%). Weekly fluctuation between normal and BV states was associated with menstrual cycle phase, recency of sex, treatment for vaginal symptoms, pregnancy, and prior Nugent score. Weekly changes in vaginal microbiota were common in this population. Clinical and behavioral characteristics were associated with vaginal microbiota transitioning, which may be used to inform future studies and clinical management of BV.

  2. Mission of the month: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Snead, B

    1988-04-01

    US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Uganda has been interrupted several times due to Uganda's turbulent history since independence. Mission Director Richard Podol explains that because USAID is not a major donor to Uganda, an effort is made to maximize effectiveness by being cautious about how agency money is spent. USAID looks for critical gaps that are not being filled by other donor programs yet are essential to the development of Uganda at present and in the future. 1 such area is export promotion. Another area is macroeconomic reform. Agricultural rehabilitation is a major factor in the mission's strategy to restore Uganda prosperity. USAID has a package of interrelated projects that work to increase agricultural production and improve processing and marketing, all supported by appropriate economic policies. In 1983, USAID began to fund the Manpower for Agriculture Development (MFAD) Project to assist the MInistry of Agriculture and Makerere University in strengthening their agricultural research and training capabilities. Also designed to increase food production is USAID's 6-year and $20 million Cooperative Agriculture and Agribusiness Support project. IN the health sector, USAID's Family Health Initiatives project works cooperatively with US and international organizations in supporting the MInistry of Health and Ugandan private organizations in their efforts to implement family planning policies and programs. The missions' oral rehydration project is being implemented throughout Uganda to reduce child mortality and severe cases of childhood illness caused by diarrheal diseases. The US in 1986 made pledges toward the budget for UGanda's Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program. Podol maintains that while there has been significant economic and political progress, the primary issue continues to be political, i.e,, can full peace be restored to Uganda.

  3. Hepatitis E as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda.

  4. Hepatitis E as a Cause of Acute Jaundice Syndrome in Northern Uganda, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D.; Teshale, Eyasu H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7–24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  5. Socio-Economic and Cultural Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis at the Kenya – Uganda Transboundary

    PubMed Central

    Rutto, Jane Jemeli; Osano, Odipo; Thuranira, Elias Gitonga; Kurgat, Richard Kiptum; Odenyo, Victor Agab Omondi

    2013-01-01

    Background Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r.) infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. Results Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7%) applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a larger extent than

  6. A descriptive analysis of the institutional frameworks for disaster management in Uganda: structures, functions and gaps.

    PubMed

    Mayega, R W; Wafula, M R; Woboya, V; Musenero, M; Omale, A; Orach, G C; Kiguli, J; Kabagambe, G; Bazeyo, W

    2013-06-01

    There is insufficient documentation of the institutional frameworks for disaster management and resilience at different levels in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe the institutional framework for disaster management in Uganda, and to identify actionable gaps at the different levels. This was part of a multi-country assessment in which 6 countries in Eastern Africa developed and applied a common tool. The assessment was qualitative in nature employing a mixed methods approach including review of documents, interviews with key informants from agencies involved in disaster management in Uganda, group discussions with stakeholder and synthesis meetings of the assessment team. The Office of the Prime Minister is the lead agency for disaster management, but management of disasters of a technical nature is devolved to line ministries (e.g. epidemics by the Health Ministry and Epizootics by the Agriculture Ministry). A new policy spells out disaster management structures at national, district, sub-county, and village levels. Key challenges included coordination, more focus on prevention than risk reduction, differences in capacity between sectors and inadequate inter-sectoral collaboration. The new policy and structures have not yet been rolled out to districts and sub-district levels, and districts lack a line item budget for disaster capacity building. The institutional framework for disaster management in Uganda needs to be strengthened at all levels through initiation of the relevant structures, training, and resource allocation so that they develop disaster management plans.

  7. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.

  8. The Effect of Land Tenure System on Women's Knowledge-Base and Resource Management in Manjiya County, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagoda, Alice Merab

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the status of women in relationship to land ownership, the resources they are exposed to and management practices, consequently its effect on the environment of Manjiya County, Mbale District in (now Manafwa since 2008) Uganda. It was found out that low levels of education limit women's abilities of creativity and…

  9. The Impact of the School-Based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) Program on Conflict-Affected Children in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention…

  10. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  11. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  12. The Effect of Land Tenure System on Women's Knowledge-Base and Resource Management in Manjiya County, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagoda, Alice Merab

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the status of women in relationship to land ownership, the resources they are exposed to and management practices, consequently its effect on the environment of Manjiya County, Mbale District in (now Manafwa since 2008) Uganda. It was found out that low levels of education limit women's abilities of creativity and…

  13. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-09

    resulted in the abduction of over 20,000 children . In 2006-2008, the government of Uganda and the LRA were engaged in an effort to resolve the...10 Anti- Homosexual Resolution...the world’s worst humanitarian crises, where civilians, particularly children , are the most affected, according to the United Nations and numerous

  14. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-30

    parent or guardian, the victim is disabled, and the accused is a serial offender. • Any individual who promotes homosexuality will face five years...in the abduction of over 20,000 children . In 2006-2008, the government of Uganda and the LRA were engaged in an effort to resolve the conflict...9 Anti- Homosexual Resolution

  15. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-06

    homosexual act with someone who is under 18 years old could face the death penalty, if the offender is infected with HIV, the offender is a parent or...resulted in the abduction of over 20,000 children . In 2006-2008, the government of Uganda and the LRA were engaged in an effort to resolve the conflict...9 Anti- Homosexual Resolution

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of aflatoxin exposure in two cohorts in south-western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Su; Nkurunziza, Peter; Muwanika, Richard; Qian, Guoqing; Tang, Lili; Song, Xiao; Xue, Kathy; Nkwata, Allan; Ssempebwa, John; Lutalo, Tom; Asiki, Gershim; Serwadda, David; Seeley, Janet; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Nalugoda, Fred; Newton, Robert; William, Jonathan H; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are a group of mycotoxins. AF exposure causes acute and chronic adverse health effects such as aflatoxicosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in human populations, especially in the developing world. In this study, AF exposure was evaluated using archived serum samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative participants from two cohort studies in south-western Uganda. AFB1-lysine (AFB-Lys) adduct levels were determined via HPLC fluorescence in a total of 713 serum samples from the General Population Cohort (GPC), covering eight time periods between 1989 and 2010. Overall, 90% (642/713) of the samples were positive for AFB-Lys and the median level was 1.58 pg mg(-1) albumin (range = 0.40-168 pg mg(-1) albumin). AFB-Lys adduct levels were also measured in a total of 374 serum samples from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), across four time periods between 1999 and 2003. The averaged detection rate was 92.5% (346/374) and the median level was 1.18 pg mg(-1) albumin (range = 0.40-122.5 pg mg(-1) albumin). In the GPC study there were no statistically significant differences between demographic parameters, such as age, sex and level of education, and levels of serum AFB-Lys adduct. In the RCCS study, longitudinal analysis using generalised estimating equations revealed significant differences between the adduct levels and residential areas (p = 0.05) and occupations (p = 0.02). This study indicates that AF exposure in people in two populations in south-western Uganda is persistent and has not significantly changed over time. Data from one study, but not the other, indicated that agriculture workers and rural area residents had more AF exposure than those non-agricultural workers and non-rural area residents. These results suggest the need for further study of AF-induced human adverse health effects, especially the predominant diseases in the region.

  17. Multidistrict Outbreak of Marburg Virus Disease-Uganda, 2012.

    PubMed

    Knust, Barbara; Schafer, Ilana J; Wamala, Joseph; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Okot, Charles; Shoemaker, Trevor; Dodd, Kimberly; Gibbons, Aridth; Balinandi, Stephen; Tumusiime, Alex; Campbell, Shelley; Newman, Edmund; Lasry, Estrella; DeClerck, Hilde; Boum, Yap; Makumbi, Issa; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E

    2015-10-01

    In October 2012, a cluster of illnesses and deaths was reported in Uganda and was confirmed to be an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Patients meeting the case criteria were interviewed using a standard investigation form, and blood specimens were tested for evidence of acute or recent Marburg virus infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total count of confirmed and probable MVD cases was 26, of which 15 (58%) were fatal. Four of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases (27%) were fatal. Case patients were located in 4 different districts in Uganda, although all chains of transmission originated in Ibanda District, and the earliest case detected had an onset in July 2012. No zoonotic exposures were identified. Symptoms significantly associated with being a MVD case included hiccups, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. Contact with a case patient and attending a funeral were also significantly associated with being a case. Average RT-PCR cycle threshold values for fatal cases during the acute phase of illness were significantly lower than those for nonfatal cases. Following the institution of contact tracing, active case surveillance, care of patients with isolation precautions, community mobilization, and rapid diagnostic testing, the outbreak was successfully contained 14 days after its initial detection.

  18. POVERTY, LIFE EVENTS AND THE RISK FOR DEPRESSION IN UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the determinants of major depression in sub-Saharan Africa is important for planning effective intervention strategies. Objective To investigate the social and life-event determinants of major depressive disorder in the African socio-cultural context of rural Uganda. Methods A cross-section survey was carried out in 14 districts in Uganda from 1st June 2003-30th October 2004. 4660 randomly selected respondents (15 years and above) were interviewed. The primary outcome was the presence of major depressive disorder as assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25). Results The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 29.3% (95% confidence interval, 28.0%-30.6%). Factors independently associated with depression in both genders included: the ecological factor, district; age (increase with each age category after 35 years); indices of poverty and deprivation (no formal education, having no employment, broken family, and socio-economic classes III-V). Only a few adverse life events, notably those suggestive of a disrupted family background (death of a father in females and death of a mother in males) were associated with increased risk. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors operating at both ecological and the individual level are the strongest independent determinants of depression. Adverse life events were less strongly associated with depression in this sample. PMID:19916062

  19. Poverty, life events and the risk for depression in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Woodburn, Patrick; Tugumisirize, Joshua; Kagugube, Johnson; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Patel, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of major depression in sub-Saharan Africa is important for planning effective intervention strategies. To investigate the social and life-event determinants of major depressive disorder in the African sociocultural context of rural Uganda. A cross-section survey was carried out in 14 districts in Uganda from 1 June 2003 to 30 October 2004. 4,660 randomly selected respondents (15 years and above) were interviewed. The primary outcome was the presence of 'probable major depressive disorder' (PMDD) as assessed by the Hopkins symptom checklist. The prevalence of PMDD was 29.3% (95% confidence interval, 28.0-30.6%). Factors independently associated with depression in both genders included: the ecological factor, district; age (increase with each age category after 35 years); indices of poverty and deprivation (no formal education, having no employment, broken family, and socioeconomic classes III-V). Only a few adverse life events, notably those suggestive of a disrupted family background (death of a father in females and death of a mother in males) were associated with increased risk. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, operating at both ecological and the individual level are the strongest independent determinants of depression. Adverse life events were less strongly associated with depression in this sample.

  20. Financial risks associated with healthcare consumption in Jinja, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ruhweza, M; Baine, S O; Onama, V; Basaza, V; Pariyo, G

    2009-10-01

    Financial access to promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative healthcare by every one remains a challenge globally. The requirement to make direct payments at the time of consuming health services is one of the reasons why it persists. In this paper, we present findings on the financial risks households bear as a result of healthcare consumption in one district in Uganda. Using simple random sampling, we selected 384 household heads in 3 health sub districts. A structured questionnaire was to conduct the survey. Focus group discussions and Key Informant interviews were also conducted. Up to 77% (297/384) of households reported making direct payments for healthcare when a household member fell ill, 45% (174/384) did so each time a household member fell ill. Payment for healthcare was associated with employment of the household head in the informal sector (OR 1.6, 95% 1.2-2.1), presence of children OR 1.5, 95% 1.3-1.9 or someone with chronic illness OR 3, 95% 1.5-6 respectively and history of hospitalization (OR 3, 95% 1.7-6.5). A high burden of healthcare needs, disproportionately affect children and women among households in Jinja. Direct payments for healthcare still occur in spite of the abolishment of user fees at public health facilities and tax based financing of health services in Uganda.

  1. IUDs in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Saxton, G A; Pike, M C

    1967-01-01

    Dr G.A. Saxton of the department of preventive and social medicine, Makerere University College Medical School, Kampala, Uganda, and Dr M.C. Pike, of the Medical Research Council statistical research unit, carried out an investigation into the use of IUDs in a multiracial group in Kampala. A full report of their findings will shortly be published, but in the meantime they have supplied the Bulletin with a survey of their work: Between November 1963 and September 1966, approximately 1500 women attended the Uganda Family Planning Association clinic in Kampala, seeking birth control advice. After various contraceptive methods had been described to them, 1000 of these women chose the IUD. Of these, 921 had an IUD fitted. The experience of these women was reviewed at the end of 1966, and using the actuarial life-table method of analysis on the data obtained, we found that : 1. The total retention of the IUDs was depressingly poor and very much the same in all racial groups--approximately 63% of women still having a device (not necessarily the first one) in situ 12 months after the first insertion. 2. There was a steady and marked increase in the total retention of the IUDs with higher parity (and older) women. 3. Lippes loop D was clearly superior to Lippes loop C in terms of total retention (56% as compared to 20% of first loops in situ at 12 months). This superiority was accounted for almost solely by a higher expulsion rate with Lippes loop C. 4. The most significant medical observation in this small study was that for any given IUD the rate of expulsion of the first device did not fall with the length of time since insertion. In this type of study the number of women at risk rapidly diminishes with time after insertion, so that at first sight one gets the false impression that the expulsion rate is hishest in the first month or two. Similarly, the rate of removal of first devices is only somewhat less constant, tending to increase after about a year--this increase

  2. Uganda rainfall variability and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes large-scale controls on Uganda's rainfall. Unlike past work, here, a May-October season is used because of the year-round nature of agricultural production, vegetation sensitivity to rainfall, and disease transmission. The Uganda rainfall record exhibits steady oscillations of ˜3 and 6 years over 1950-2013. Correlation maps at two-season lead time resolve the subtropical ridge over global oceans as an important feature. Multi-variate environmental predictors include Dec-May south Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, east African upper zonal wind, and South Atlantic wind streamfunction, providing a 33% fit to May-Oct rainfall time series. Composite analysis indicates that cool-phase El Niño Southern Oscillation supports increased May-Oct Uganda rainfall via a zonal overturning lower westerly/upper easterly atmospheric circulation. Sea temperature anomalies are positive in the east Atlantic and negative in the west Indian Ocean in respect of wet seasons. The northern Hadley Cell plays a role in limiting the northward march of the equatorial trough from May to October. An analysis of early season floods found that moist inflow from the west Indian Ocean converges over Uganda, generating diurnal thunderstorm clusters that drift southwestward producing high runoff.

  3. Knowledge gaps, attitude and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Okwi, A L; Byarugaba, W; Ndugwa, C M; Parkes, A; Ocaido, M; Tumwine, J K

    2009-09-01

    The management of sickle cell disease (SCD) has remained insurmountable in developing countries such as Uganda, because most communities are not aware of it. To determine knowledge gaps, attitudes and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda. Cross sectional descriptive study. The districts of Sironko and Mbale in Eastern Uganda and Mbarara and Ntungamo in Western Uganda. Households, students and health workers. Household respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western (p < 0.001), with the majority reporting that they had seen more people with SCD in their communities than those from the West (p < 0.001). Fewer (< 1.9%) believed SCD was due to witch craft. Eight per cent of household respondents in Eastern believed it was a curse from God compared to 2% in the West. Less than 18% of the household respondents knew they could have children with SCD and (< 52%) of health workers knew SCD screening methods. Fewer (< 14%) of the health workers had participated in screening. Less than 20% of the respondents knew their sickle cell status. Respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western. Minority of the respondents knew their SCD status and few health staff knew how to screen it. There is need to sensitise communities and policy makers about prevention, screening and treatment of SCD.

  4. Integrating mental health into primary health care: local initiatives from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ovuga, Emilio; Boardman, Jed; Wasserman, Danuta

    2007-02-01

    Uganda has passed through political and bloody civil strife stretching over 40 years. Since 1987 the HIV/AIDS pandemic has compounded the problems of the country. The present paper describes some initiatives to develop mental health services in one district of the country. A bottom-up approach in the district resulted in the formation of a community-led mental health program with strong support from two self-help groups, district political leaders and district representatives in parliament. Primary health care providers at all levels of health care in the district were trained in order to make services accessible to the rural population. Further plans based on initial exploratory discussions aim to involve the education department, the welfare and probation office, prisons and police, the military, church and cultural leaders and traditional healers. These initiatives show that it is possible to empower communities to participate in the development of mental health programs in a low-income country.

  5. Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Gilbert M.; Pariyo, George; Galiwango, Edward; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of ending cost sharing on use of outpatient services and how this was perceived by health workers and members of a health unit management committee. METHODS: From 10 districts across Uganda, 78 health facilities were selected. Attendance at these facilities was assessed for eight months before and 12 months after cost sharing ended. The data represented 1 966 522 outpatient visits. Perceptions about the impact of ending cost sharing were obtained from the 73 health workers and 78 members of the health unit management committee who were available. FINDINGS: With the end of cost sharing, the mean monthly number of new visits increased by 17 928 (53.3%), but among children aged <5 years the increase was 3611 (27.3%). Mean monthly reattendances increased by 2838 (81.3%) among children aged <5 years and 1889 (24.3%) among all people. Attendances for immunizations, antenatal clinics, and family planning all increased, despite these services having always been free. Health workers reported a decline in morale, and many health unit management committees no longer met regularly. CONCLUSION: Use of all services increased - even those that had never before been subject to fees. The loss of some autonomy by the health facility and diminished community governance of health facilities may have long term negative effects. PMID:15112007

  6. Frequent Detection of HPV before and after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV/HSV-2 Co-Infected Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Newell, Kevin; Quinn, Thomas C.; Serwadda, David; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kiggundu, Valerian; Gray, Ronald H.; Reynolds, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Most data on HPV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) come from high-resource countries with infrequent sampling for HPV pre- and post-ART initiation. Therefore, we examined the frequency of cervical HPV DNA detection among HIV/HSV-2 co-infected women followed monthly for 6 months both before and after initiation of ART in Rakai, Uganda. Methods Linear Array was used to detect 37 HPV genotypes in self-collected cervicovaginal swabs from 96 women who initiated ART. Random-effects log-binomial regression was used to compare the prevalence of HPV detection in the pre- and post-ART periods and determine other potential risk factors, including CD4 counts and HIV viral load. Results Nearly all women had detectable HPV in the 6 months preceding ART initiation (92%) and the cumulative prevalence remained high following initiation of therapy (90%). We found no effect of ART on monthly HPV DNA detection (prevalence ratio: 1.0; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.08), regardless of immune reconstitution or HIV viral suppression. Older age and higher pre-ART CD4 counts were associated with a significantly lower risk of HPV DNA detection. Conclusions ART did not impact HPV detection within 6 months of therapy initiation, highlighting the importance of continued and consistent screening, even after ART-initiation and immune reconstitution. PMID:23383171

  7. Frequent detection of HPV before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV/HSV-2 co-infected women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rositch, Anne F; Gravitt, Patti E; Tobian, Aaron A R; Newell, Kevin; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kiggundu, Valerian; Gray, Ronald H; Reynolds, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Most data on HPV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) come from high-resource countries with infrequent sampling for HPV pre- and post-ART initiation. Therefore, we examined the frequency of cervical HPV DNA detection among HIV/HSV-2 co-infected women followed monthly for 6 months both before and after initiation of ART in Rakai, Uganda. Linear Array was used to detect 37 HPV genotypes in self-collected cervicovaginal swabs from 96 women who initiated ART. Random-effects log-binomial regression was used to compare the prevalence of HPV detection in the pre- and post-ART periods and determine other potential risk factors, including CD4 counts and HIV viral load. Nearly all women had detectable HPV in the 6 months preceding ART initiation (92%) and the cumulative prevalence remained high following initiation of therapy (90%). We found no effect of ART on monthly HPV DNA detection (prevalence ratio: 1.0; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.08), regardless of immune reconstitution or HIV viral suppression. Older age and higher pre-ART CD4 counts were associated with a significantly lower risk of HPV DNA detection. ART did not impact HPV detection within 6 months of therapy initiation, highlighting the importance of continued and consistent screening, even after ART-initiation and immune reconstitution.

  8. The impact of a modular HIV/AIDS palliative care education programme in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Downing, Julia; Kawuma, Esther

    2008-11-01

    Over 1 million people are living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda and there is a need for the provision of comprehensive palliative care. There is minimal literature with regard to the provision of palliative care in Uganda and there is no evaluation literature on the quality of palliative care education programmes. The aim of the study was to conduct an evaluation of a modular HIV/AIDS palliative care education programme undertaken in rural Uganda by the Mildmay Centre. The evaluation was based on a case study design where the researcher worked alongside the training team. It was undertaken in Rukungiri district and participants on the programme were drawn from four different health facilities within the district. The evaluation took place between January 2004 and December 2005 and multiple sources of data were used. Forty interviews and twenty focus group discussions were held, the work of the mobile training team was observed, documents reviewed and a research diary maintained by the researcher. A perceived and reported impact was seen at the patient and community level, participant level, health facility and district levels. An increase in access to care by people living with HIV/AIDS was seen as stigma was reduced and the attitudes of health workers towards people living with HIV/AIDS improved. Strengths and weaknesses of the programme were identified along with recommendations for future programmes.

  9. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-19

    resulted in the abduction of over 20,000 children . In 2006-2007, the government of Uganda and the LRA were engaged in an effort to resolve the... homosexuality . President Museveni reportedly has expressed his opposition to the bill. Members of Congress, the Obama Administration, and others in the...international community have condemned the bill. The draft bill states: • Any person who engages in homosexuality is liable to a fine not exceeding 500

  10. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-29

    parent or guardian, the victim is disabled, and the accused is a serial offender. • Any individual who promotes homosexuality will face five years...and resulted in the abduction of over 20,000 children . In 2006-2007, the government of Uganda and the LRA have been actively engaged in an effort...it a crime to engage in, promote, or fail to report homosexuality . President Museveni reportedly has expressed his opposition to the bill. Members

  11. Nodding Syndrome, Western Uganda, 1994

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George

    2015-01-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case–control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208

  12. Towards understanding governance issues in integration of mental health into primary health care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mugisha, James; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kigozi, Fred N

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing burden of mental illness in low income countries. The situation is further worsened by the high poverty levels in these countries, resulting in difficult choices for their health sectors as regards to responding to the burden of mental health problems. In Uganda, integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) has been adopted as the most vital strategy for ensuring mental health service delivery to the general population. To identify governance related factors that promote/or hinder integration of mental health into PHC in Uganda. A qualitative research design was adopted at national and district level. A total of 18 Key informant interviews were conducted at both levels. Content thematic analysis was the main method of data analysis. There were positive gains in working on relevant laws and policies. However, both the mental health law and policy are still in draft form. There is also increased responsiveness/participation of key stakeholders; especially at national level in the planning and budgeting for mental health services. This however seems to be a challenge at both district and community level. In terms of efficiency, human resources, finances, medicines and technologies constitute a major drawback to the integration of mental health into PHC. Ethics, oversight, information and monitoring functions though reported to be in place, become weaker at the district level than at national level due to limited finances, human resources gaps and limited technical capacity. Other governance related issues are also reported in this study. There is some progress especially in the legal and policy arena to support integration of mental health into PHC in Uganda. However, adequate resources are still required to facilitate the effective functioning of all governance pillars that make integration of mental health into PHC feasible in Uganda.

  13. Quantifying the pediatric surgical need in Uganda: results of a nationwide cross-sectional, household survey.

    PubMed

    Butler, Elissa K; Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Brammell, Alexa; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo; de Andrade, Luciano; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Ssennono, Vincent F; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M; Smith, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of pediatric surgical conditions in low- and middle-income countries. Many children never seek medical care, thus the true prevalence of surgical conditions in children in Uganda is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of surgical conditions in children in Uganda. Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 4248 individuals in 2315 households in 105 randomly selected clusters throughout Uganda. Children aged 0-18 were included if randomly selected from the household; for those who could not answer for themselves, parents served as surrogates. Of 2176 children surveyed, 160 (7.4 %) reported a currently untreated surgical condition. Lifetime prevalence of surgical conditions was 14.0 % (305/2176). The predominant cause of surgical conditions was trauma (48.4 %), followed by wounds (19.7 %), acquired deformities (16.2 %), and burns (12.5 %). Of 90 pediatric household deaths, 31.1 % were associated with a surgically treatable proximate cause of death (28/90 deaths). Although some trauma-related surgical burden among children can be adequately addressed at district hospitals, the need for diagnostics, human resources, and curative services for more severe trauma cases, congenital deformities, and masses outweighs the current capacity of hospitals and trained pediatric surgeons in Uganda.

  14. Experiences of Parents with the Reading to Learn Approach: A Randomised Control Trial Initiative to Improve Literacy and Numeracy in Kenya and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Oketch, Moses; Ngware, Moses W.; Mutisya, Maurice; Musyoka, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Parental involvement in their children's schooling is in recognition that establishing the context in which a child attends school is important. Reading to Learn (RtL)was implemented in two districts of Kwale and Kinango in Kenya and of Amolatar and Dokolo in Uganda. This paper looks at parental involvement and their experiences with RtL. Data are…

  15. Pupil, Teacher, and School Factors That Influence Student Achievement on the Primary Leaving Examination in Uganda: Measure Development and Multilevel Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochwo, Pius

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the multilevel factors that influence mathematics and English performance on the Primary Leaving Examinations (PLEs) among primary seven pupils (i.e., equivalent to the United States [U.S.] 7th graders) in Uganda. Existing student state test data from the Wakiso District were obtained. In addition, a newly created Teacher…

  16. Poor parenting: teenagers' views on adolescent pregnancies in eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sekiwunga, Richard; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2009-12-01

    In Uganda teenage pregnancy is considered a problem for moral and social, as well as health, reasons. This qualitative stud,y in Busia District focused on the views of teenagers themselves as expressed in 9 focus group discussions with girls and boys. Their perspectives were contrasted with those of community leaders and mothers of adolescents. The young people blamed teenage pregnancy on failures of the parental generation. They asserted that parents and guardians were both too lenient and too harsh, that they failed to provide for their daughters' needs, and that they pressured them into early marriages instead of giving priority to education. Although poverty and family breakdown were recognized as underlying structural causes of parental failure, the teenagers experienced these factors in their everyday lives as problems with their parents and guardians. The teenagers expressed the 'enlightened' view that adolescent pregnancy was undesireable, even though many girls have few alternatives to marriage and childbearing.

  17. Determinants of child mortality in south-west Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vella, V; Tomkins, A; Nidku, J; Marshall, T

    1992-01-01

    Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables were taken from 4320 children in a baseline survey carried out in March-April 1988 in the district of Mbarara, south-west Uganda. After 12 months a follow-up survey assessed the mortality of the children during the preceding year. Lack of ownership of cattle, recent arrival in the village, using candles for lighting, being of birth order higher than 5 and having a father with less than 8 years of schooling were significantly associated with child mortality. The addition of mid-upper arm circumference significantly improved the logistic model of socioeconomic variables and mortality and did not diminish the predictive power of socioeconomic variables in relation to increased mortality. This suggests that nutritional status and specific socioeconomic factors are both, independently, important predictors of child mortality.

  18. Women for women's health: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Andrews, C M

    1996-01-01

    The primary health care model targets social, political, and economic environments as key determinants of health for populations, as well as for individuals. If nursing in Uganda is to make a difference in health care outcomes and in the health of all Ugandans, nurses must look broadly at situations and be educated to practice primary health care nursing. After 14 years of civil war, Uganda is finally experiencing a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation: the whole infrastructure is undergoing a face-lift. Ugandan nurses recognize that their educational preparation has stagnated for many years and that it was not only the political unrest in their country that put them behind professionally. They realize that, given the new directions set by the government, they must become prepared to implement primary health care. They are demanding a university education so they may take their place alongside other health care providers prepared at the university level. Some of the most convincing arguments for a university program for nurses came from doctors at the university who spoke about the need to raise the standards of nursing practice, the quality of teachers, and the morale of practitioners. One nurse said: "If we lose hope for a BScN program, I think all the nurses will quit and we won't have any new students going into the profession." This program is designed to improve the health and well-being of all Ugandans, especially the most vulnerable groups of women and children in rural areas, through strengthening and expanding health services by targeting the educational preparation of nurses. Health planners in Uganda envision the professional nurse as key to the implementation of the national health policy of primary health care. University-educated nurses should be able to assess problems, make clinically sound decisions, and act appropriately within the scope of nursing practice. They should be able to interact and consult collegially with other health care

  19. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  20. Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-03-01

    The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed.

  1. Schistosoma bovis in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A

    2004-09-01

    During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.

  2. World Bank credits Uganda with $50m. -- emphasis on communities, NGOs and health.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1984, the World Bank financed 11 AIDS/STD projects in Africa, most of which tended to cost comparatively small amounts. It increased the amount of its AIDS/STD loans considerably in 1993 and 1994 ($75 million in Zimbabwe and $50 million in Uganda). The Ugandan government, Germany, Sweden, and the UK are also funding the AIDS/STD project. Since the money is from the Bank's International Development Association, Uganda does not need to pay any interest on the loan. About 1.5 million people in Uganda are HIV positive. The number of AIDS patients continues to rise. The AIDS project in Uganda focuses on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, mitigation of the personal impact of the epidemic, and institutional development. Prevention of sexual transmission activities are: promotion of safer sex behavior, condoms, and STD care-seeking behavior and effective STD care. Support for community-based and home-based health care and social support for people with AIDS, training staff about and providing drugs for opportunistic infections, protective supplies for public and private district health facilities, and diagnosis and case management of tuberculosis comprise mitigation of the personal impact of AIDS activities. Institutional development efforts include strengthening the district level's capacity to plan, coordinate, implement, monitor, and evaluate integrated AIDS-related activities, and the national level's capacity to provide adequate technical support on health issues linked to AIDS. Three key policies of the project are decentralization, community mobilization, and encouragement of nongovernmental organizations to work with communities and to complement government efforts. A large scale AIDS/STD mass media program is planned. Project goals are: 50% of the population knowing at least 2 actual ways to protect themselves from HIV. 50% of the population using condoms, and 70% of people seeking STD care receiving appropriate STD case management.

  3. The neonatal mortality and its determinants in rural communities of Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kananura, Rornald M; Tetui, Moses; Mutebi, Aloysius; Bua, John N; Waiswa, Peter; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2016-02-16

    In Uganda, neonatal mortality rate (NMR) remains high at 27 deaths per 1000 live births. There is paucity of data on factors associated with NMR in rural communities in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine NMR as well as factors associated with neonatal mortality in the rural communities of three districts from eastern Uganda. Data from a baseline survey of a maternal and newborn intervention in the districts of Pallisa, Kibuku and Kamuli, Eastern Uganda was analyzed. A total of 2237 women who had delivered in the last 12 months irrespective of birth outcome were interviewed in the survey. The primary outcome for this paper was neonatal mortality. The risk ratio (RR) was used to determine the factors associated with neonatal mortality using log-binomial model. The neonatal mortality was found to be 34 per 1000 live births (95% CI = 27.1-42.8); Kamuli 31.9, Pallisa 36.5 and Kibuku 30.8. Factors associated with increased neonatal deaths were parity of 5+ (adj. RR =2.53, 95% CI =1.14-5.65) relative to parity of 4 and below, newborn low birth weight (adj. RR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.47-6.56) and presence of newborn danger signs (adj. RR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.04-5.62). Factors associated with lower risk of neonatal death were, home visits by community health workers' (CHW) (adj. RR =0.13, 95% CI = 0.02-0.91), and attendance of at least 4 antenatal visits (adj. RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.43-0.98). Neonatal mortality in rural communities is higher than the national average. The use of CHW's to mobilize and sensitize households on appropriate maternal and newborn care practices could play a key role in reducing neonatal mortality.

  4. Rapid reduction of maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia through the saving mothers, giving life initiative: results of year 1 evaluation.

    PubMed

    Serbanescu, Florina; Goldberg, Howard I; Danel, Isabella; Wuhib, Tadesse; Marum, Lawrence; Obiero, Walter; McAuley, James; Aceng, Jane; Chomba, Ewlyn; Stupp, Paul W; Conlon, Claudia Morrissey

    2017-01-19

    Achieving maternal mortality reduction as a development goal remains a major challenge in most low-resource countries. Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) is a multi-partner initiative designed to reduce maternal mortality rapidly in high mortality settings through community and facility evidence-based interventions and district-wide health systems strengthening that could reduce delays to appropriate obstetric care. An evaluation employing multiple studies and data collection methods was used to compare baseline maternal outcomes to those during Year 1 in SMGL pilot districts in Uganda and Zambia. Studies include health facility assessments, pregnancy outcome monitoring, enhanced maternal mortality detection in facilities, and population-based investigation of community maternal deaths. Population-based evaluation used standard approaches and comparable indicators to measure outcome and impact, and to allow comparison of the SMGL implementation in unique country contexts. The evaluation found a 30% reduction in the population-based maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda during Year 1, from 452 to 316 per 100,000 live births. The MMR in health facilities declined by 35% in each country (from 534 to 345 in Uganda and from 310 to 202 in Zambia). The institutional delivery rate increased by 62% in Uganda and 35% in Zambia. The number of facilities providing emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) rose from 10 to 25 in Uganda and from 7 to 11 in Zambia. Partial EmONC care became available in many more low and mid-level facilities. Cesarean section rates for all births increased by 23% in Uganda and 15% in Zambia. The proportion of women with childbirth complications delivered in EmONC facilities rose by 25% in Uganda and 23% in Zambia. Facility case fatality rates fell from 2.6 to 2.0% in Uganda and 3.1 to 2.0% in Zambia. Maternal mortality ratios fell significantly in one year in Uganda and Zambia following the introduction of the SMGL model. This model employed

  5. Adults Return to Mathematics: A Proposed Project in Uganda by the Uganda Mathematical Society (UMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaahwa, Janet

    This paper provides information on a project by the Uganda Mathematical Society (UMS) that aims to popularize mathematics in Uganda. UMS believes that if parents learn mathematics (primary and secondary), they will be able to help their children themselves instead of hiring others to coach their children as is the practice today. Another way to…

  6. Evaluation Of A Maternal Health Program In Uganda And Zambia Finds Mixed Results On Quality Of Care And Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Atuyambe, Lynn; Greeson, Dana; Grépin, Karen Ann; Kibira, Simon P S; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Rabkin, Miriam; Sacks, Emma; Simbaya, Joseph; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a multidonor program designed to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia. We used a quasi-random research design to evaluate its effects on provider obstetric knowledge, clinical confidence, and job satisfaction, and on patients' receipt of services, perceived quality, and satisfaction. Study participants were 1,267 health workers and 2,488 female patients. Providers' knowledge was significantly higher in Ugandan and Zambian intervention districts than in comparison districts, and in Uganda there were similar positive differences for providers' clinical confidence and job satisfaction. Patients in Ugandan intervention facilities were more likely to give high ratings for equipment availability, providers' knowledge and communication skills, and care quality, among other factors, than patients in comparison facilities. There were fewer differences between Zambian intervention and comparison facilities. Country differences likely reflect differing intensity of program implementation and the more favorable geography of intervention districts in Uganda than in Zambia. National investments in the health system and provider training and the identification of intervention components most associated with improved performance will be required for scaling up and sustaining the program.

  7. Earth Science Education in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barifaijo, E.

    1999-05-01

    Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.

  8. Another condom uproar in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, D

    1991-11-01

    A campaign to promote safe sex through the use of condoms has sparked a heated controversy in Uganda, as influential religious leaders have come out in opposition to a practice which they fear will lead to sexual promiscuity. The campaign, backed by the Ugandan government, is designed to halt the rapidly spreading AIDS epidemic. With 20,000 AIDS cases as of June 1991, Uganda leads all African countries in the number of reported cases. Additionally, it is estimated that some 7 million of the country's 17 million inhabitants are HIV-positive. This alarming situation forced President Yoweri Museveni to reverse his stance and come out in favor of the condom campaign. The campaign is being launched by the Ugandan pharmaceutical firm Armtrades Ltd with financial and technical support from USAID and the Ugandan government. The condom campaign, however, has aroused strong opposition from the religious community. Angered by advertisements advising Ugandans to "love carefully" by wearing condoms, Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Wamala urged his followers in August to reject condoms, calling then an insult to the dignity of man. Following Wamala's lead, other top churchmen came out in opposition to the condom campaign at a recent AIDS prevention leadership conference. One of the clergymen present at the conference told Health Minister James Makumbi that the condom campaign will make young people indulge in uncontrolled sexual immorality. Moslem clerics have also stated their opposition to condoms, fearing sexual promiscuity. But the religious community itself has come under criticism for their opposition to condoms. Stressing that lives are at stake, the popular weekly Topic recently cautioned churchmen that this is not the time to engage in academic and moralistic debates.

  9. Postemergency health services for refugee and host populations in Uganda, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Orach, Christopher Garimoi; De Brouwere, Vincent

    Since 1990, Uganda has hosted an estimated 200?000 refugees in postemergency settlements interspersed within host communities. We investigated the extent to which obstetric needs were met in the refugee and host populations during 1999-2002. Between September and December, 2000, we retrospectively collected data from 1999 and 2000 on major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications from all five hospitals in Arua, Adjumani, and Moyo districts, Uganda. The same data were collected prospectively for 2001. We did community-based maternal mortality surveys on refugee and host populations in Adjumani district in 2002. Rates of major obstetric interventions were significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in the same rural areas as refugees (1.01% [95% CI 0.77-1.25] vs 0.45% [0.38-0.52]; p<0.0001). Rates of major obstetric interventions were also significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in rural areas without refugees (1.01% [0.77-1.25] vs 0.40% [0.36-0.44]; p<0.0001). Maternal mortality was 2.5 times higher in the host population than in refugees in the Adjumani district (322 per 100000 births [247-396] vs 130 [81-179]. Refugees had better access to health services than did the rural host population in the northern Ugandan communities that we surveyed.

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (P<0.05) with obesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  11. Hurdles and opportunities for newborn care in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, Romano N; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Kiguli, Juliet; Balyeku, Andrew; Nsabagasani, Xavier; Peterson, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    A set of evidence-based delivery and neonatal practices have the potential to reduce neonatal mortality substantially. However, resistance to the acceptance and adoption of these practices may still be a problem and challenge in the rural community in Uganda. To explore the acceptability and feasibility of the newborn care practices at household and family level in the rural communities in different regions of Uganda with regards to birth asphyxia, thermo-protection and cord care. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used. Participants were purposively selected from rural communities in three districts. Six in-depth interviews targeting traditional birth attendants and nine focus group discussions composed of 10-15 participants among post childbirth mothers, elderly caregivers and partners or fathers of recently delivered mothers were conducted. All the mothers involved has had normal vaginal deliveries in the rural community with unskilled birth attendants. Latent content analysis was used. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: 'Barriers to change' and 'Windows of opportunities'. Some of the recommended newborn practices were deemed to conflict with traditional and cultural practices. Promotion of delayed bathing as a thermo-protection measure, dry cord care were unlikely to be accepted and spiritual beliefs were attached to use of local herbs for bathing or smearing of the baby's skin. However, several aspects of thermo-protection of the newborn, breast feeding, taking newborns for immunisation were in agreement with biomedical recommendations, and positive aspects of newborn care were noticed with the traditional birth attendants. Some of the evidence based practices may be accepted after modification. Behaviour change communication messages need to address the community norms in the country. The involvement of other newborn caregivers than the mother at the household and the community early during pregnancy may

  12. Rapidly building global health security capacity--Uganda demonstration project, 2013.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Jeff N; Tappero, Jordan W; Downing, Robert; Shoemaker, Trevor; Behumbiize, Prosper; Aceng, Jane; Makumbi, Issa; Dahlke, Melissa; Jarrar, Bassam; Lozano, Briana; Kasozi, Sam; Austin, Mark; Phillippe, Dru; Watson, Ian D; Evans, Tom J; Stotish, Timothy; Dowell, Scott F; Iademarco, Michael F; Ransom, Raymond; Balajee, Arunmozhi; Becknell, Kristi; Beauvais, Dennis; Wuhib, Tadesse

    2014-01-31

    Increasingly, the need to strengthen global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats around the globe is being recognized. CDC, in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO), has committed to building capacity by assisting member states with strengthening their national capacity for integrated disease surveillance and response as required by International Health Regulations (IHR). CDC and other U.S. agencies have reinforced their pledge through creation of global health security (GHS) demonstration projects. One such project was conducted during March-September 2013, when the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH) and CDC implemented upgrades in three areas: 1) strengthening the public health laboratory system by increasing the capacity of diagnostic and specimen referral networks, 2) enhancing the existing communications and information systems for outbreak response, and 3) developing a public health emergency operations center (EOC) (Figure 1). The GHS demonstration project outcomes included development of an outbreak response module that allowed reporting of suspected cases of illness caused by priority pathogens via short messaging service (SMS; i.e., text messaging) to the Uganda District Health Information System (DHIS-2) and expansion of the biologic specimen transport and laboratory reporting system supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Other enhancements included strengthening laboratory management, establishing and equipping the EOC, and evaluating these enhancements during an outbreak exercise. In 6 months, the project demonstrated that targeted enhancements resulted in substantial improvements to the ability of Uganda's public health system to detect and respond to health threats.

  13. Declining maternal mortality ratio in Uganda: priority interventions to achieve the Millennium Development Goal.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Mutabazi, M G; Asimwe, J B; Sentumbwe, O; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Orinda, V

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a survey to determine availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and to provide data for advocating for improved maternal and newborn health in Uganda. The survey, covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities, assessed availability of EmOC signal functions, documented maternal deaths and the related causes. Three levels of health facilities were covered. Few health units had running water; electricity or a functional operating theater. Yet having these items had a protective effect on maternal deaths as follows: theater (OR 0.56, P<0.0001); electricity (OR 0.39, P<0.0001); laboratory (OR 0.71, P<0.0001) and staffing levels (midwives) OR 0.20, P<0.0001. The availability of midwives had the highest protective effect on maternal deaths, reducing the case fatality rate by 80%. Further, most (97.2%) health facilities expected to offer basic EmOC, were not doing so. This is the likely explanation for the high health facility-based maternal death rate of 671/100,000 live births in Uganda. Addressing health system issues, especially human resources, and increasingaccess to EmOC could reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and enable the country to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG).

  14. Lack of effective communication between communities and hospitals in Uganda: a qualitative exploration of missing links

    PubMed Central

    Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Walker, Damien; Mutebi, Aloysius; Pariyo, George

    2009-01-01

    Background Community members are stakeholders in hospitals and have a right to participate in the improvement of quality of services rendered to them. Their views are important because they reflect the perspectives of the general public. This study explored how communities that live around hospitals pass on their views to and receive feedback from the hospitals' management and administration. Methods The study was conducted in eight hospitals and the communities around them. Four of the hospitals were from three districts from eastern Uganda and another four from two districts from western Uganda. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with medical superintendents of the hospitals. A member from each of three hospital management boards was also interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with health workers from the hospitals. Another eight FGDs (four with men and four with women) were conducted with communities within a five km radius around the hospitals. Four of the FGDs (two with men and two with women) were done in western Uganda and the other four in eastern Uganda. The focus of the KIIs and FGDs was exploring how hospitals communicated with the communities around them. Analysis was by manifest content analysis. Results Whereas health unit management committees were supposed to have community representatives, the representatives never received views from the community nor gave them any feed back from the hospitals. Messages through the mass media like radio were seen to be non specific for action. Views sent through suggestion boxes were seen as individual needs rather than community concerns. Some community members perceived they would be harassed if they complained and had reached a state of resignation preferring instead to endure the problems quietly. Conclusion There is still lack of effective communication between the communities and the hospitals that serve them in Uganda. This deprives the communities of the right to

  15. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nalugwa, A; Olsen, A; Tukahebwa, M E; Nuwaha, F

    2015-02-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short interviews with a standardized pre-tested questionnaire prepared in the local language (Lusoga) were administered to each caregiver to identify risk factors associated with S. mansoni infection. An overall S. mansoni prevalence of 39.3% (95% CI: 38.0-41.1%) was estimated out of the 3058 stool samples examined. The geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni among the infected children was 273 (95% CI: 241-305) eggs per gram of faeces. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased linearly with age (P<0.0001) and were highest in the age group 49-60 months. Majority (61%) of the children, especially in the age group 12-24 months (84.2%; 95% CI: 75.6-90.1%), were lightly infected. Short interviews with caregivers revealed that preschool children, 1-5 years old, get exposed to S. mansoni infested waters through bathing, playing or swimming. It is important that the Uganda national control programme for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly

  16. Helicobacter pylori among patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tsongo, Lawrence; Nakavuma, Jessica; Mugasa, Claire; Kamalha, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To meet key millennium development goals, the rural population needs to be reached for health assessment and service delivery. Gastroduodenal ulcer disease is a common ailment affecting the health of people in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Bwera Hospital in Kasese district of western Uganda, to establish the prevalence and predisposing factors of Helicobacter pylori among gastroduodenal ulcer disease patients. Methods A sample of 174 patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease was purposively obtained. Using two laboratory test methods, the prevalence of H. pylori among these patients was determined. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. Finally, the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic rapid test (IRT) were compared. Results We established the prevalence of H. pylori as 29.9% (52/174) by ELISA and 37.4% (65/174) by IRT. Cigarette smoking, poor sanitation, and lack of formal education were the significant predisposing factors with p-values <0.05. The two tests gave identical results in 87.9% of the patients. Discussion The prevalence of H. pylori by IRT and ELISA test methods was similar to what has been reported elsewhere in developed countries; but was lower than previously reported in developing countries including Uganda. The previous studies in Uganda were carried out in the urban population and on young children; and some used antibody-detection methods only, therefore leading to different prevalence as a result of difference in study population and methods. PMID:26560860

  17. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta

    2016-06-20

    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution. © Lipsky et al.

  18. Expert knowledge sourcing for public health surveillance: national tsetse mapping in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Garton, Kelly

    2013-08-01

    In much of sub-Saharan Africa, availability of standardized and reliable public health data is poor or negligible. Despite continued calls for the prioritization of improved health datasets in poor regions, public health surveillance remains a significant global health challenge. Alternate approaches to surveillance and collection of public health data have thus garnered increasing interest, though there remains relatively limited research evaluating these approaches for public health. Herein, we present a case study applying and evaluating the use of expert knowledge sources for public health dataset development, using the case of vector distributions of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. Specific objectives include: 1) Review the use of expert knowledge sourcing methods for public health surveillance, 2) Review current knowledge on tsetse vector distributions of public health importance in Uganda and the methods used for tsetse mapping in Africa; 3) Quantify confidence of the presence or absence of tsetse flies in Uganda based on expert informant reports, and 4) Assess the reliability and potential utility of expert knowledge sourcing as an alternative or complimentary method for public health surveillance in general and tsetse mapping in particular. Information on tsetse presence or absence, and associated confidence, was collected through interviews with District Entomologist and Veterinary Officers to develop a database of tsetse distributions for 952 sub-counties in Uganda. Results show high consistency with existing maps, indicating potential reliability of modeling approaches, though failing to provide evidence for successful tsetse control in past decades. Expert-sourcing methods provide a novel, low-cost and rapid complimentary approach for triangulating data from prediction modeling where field-based validation is not feasible. Data quality is dependent, however, on the level of expertise and documentation to support confidence levels for

  19. Helicobacter pylori among patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tsongo, Lawrence; Nakavuma, Jessica; Mugasa, Claire; Kamalha, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    To meet key millennium development goals, the rural population needs to be reached for health assessment and service delivery. Gastroduodenal ulcer disease is a common ailment affecting the health of people in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Bwera Hospital in Kasese district of western Uganda, to establish the prevalence and predisposing factors of Helicobacter pylori among gastroduodenal ulcer disease patients. A sample of 174 patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease was purposively obtained. Using two laboratory test methods, the prevalence of H. pylori among these patients was determined. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. Finally, the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic rapid test (IRT) were compared. We established the prevalence of H. pylori as 29.9% (52/174) by ELISA and 37.4% (65/174) by IRT. Cigarette smoking, poor sanitation, and lack of formal education were the significant predisposing factors with p-values <0.05. The two tests gave identical results in 87.9% of the patients. The prevalence of H. pylori by IRT and ELISA test methods was similar to what has been reported elsewhere in developed countries; but was lower than previously reported in developing countries including Uganda. The previous studies in Uganda were carried out in the urban population and on young children; and some used antibody-detection methods only, therefore leading to different prevalence as a result of difference in study population and methods.

  20. Factors associated with skilled attendance at delivery in Uganda: results from a national health facility survey.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Asimwe, John Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Uganda has high maternal mortality ratio of 435/100,000 live births. In order to address this, Uganda has developed a strategy and has prioritized skilled attendance at delivery as a key intervention. A survey covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities was conducted to determine availability and access to essential maternity care and health system factors related to maternal health. The survey specifically assessed availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the state of health infrastructure and availability of basic drugs and supplies. A total of 194,029 deliveries were recorded in the year preceding the survey. Majority, 117,761 (60.7%) occurred in hospitals, while 76,268 (39.3%) occurred in health centers. The following factors were associated with increased deliveries at health facilities; running water, (RR 1.5, P < .001); electricity, (RR 1.4, P < .001) and accommodation for staff, (RR 1.2, P < .002). Health units providing basic EmOC had the highest chances of attracting women to deliver there, (RR 4.0, P < .001) as well as those providing comprehensive EmOC, (RR 3.1, P < .001). Furthermore, the majority of health facilities expected to offer basic EmOC, 349 (97.2%) were not offering the service. This is the likely explanation for the high health facility-based maternal ratio of 671/100,000 live births in Uganda. Improving availability and quality of care especially EmOC; and ensuring that health units have electricity, running water and accommodation for staff could increase skilled attendance at delivery and help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) target on maternal health in Uganda.

  1. Ebola a reality of modern Public Health; need for Surveillance, Preparedness and Response Training for Health Workers and other multidisciplinary teams: a case for Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bazeyo, William; Bagonza, James; Halage, Ali; Okure, Gildo; Mugagga, Malimbo; Musoke, Robert; Tumwebaze, Mathias; Tusiime, Suzan; Ssendagire, Steven; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Pande, Steven; Aanyu, Christine; Etajak, Samuel; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction West Africa is experiencing the largest ever reported Ebola outbreak. Over 20,000 people have been infected of which about 9000 have died. It is possible that lack of community understanding of the epidemic and lack of institutional memory and inexperienced health workers could have led to the rapid spread of the disease. In this paper, we share Uganda's experiences on how the capacity of health workers and other multidisciplinary teams can be improved in preparing and responding to Ebola outbreaks. Methods Makerere University School of Public Health in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET), trained health care workers and other multidisciplinary teams from six border districts of Uganda so as to increase their alertness and response capabilities towards Ebola. We used participatory training methods to impart knowledge and skills and guided participants to develop district epidemic response plans. Communities were sensitized about Ebola through mass media, IEC materials, and infection control and prevention materials were distributed in districts. Results We trained 210 health workers and 120 other multidisciplinary team members on Ebola surveillance, preparedness and response. Evaluation results demonstrated a gain in knowledge and skills. Communities were sensitized about Ebola and Districts received person protective equipments and items for infection prevention. Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were also developed. Conclusion Training of multidisciplinary teams improves the country's preparedness, alertness and response capabilities in controlling Ebola. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw lessons from the Uganda experience to contain the outbreak. PMID:26301008

  2. A climate trend analysis of Uganda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies observed changes in rainfall and temperature in Uganda, based on an analysis of a quality-controlled, long time series of station observations throughout Uganda. Extending recent trends forward, it also provides a current and near-future context for understanding the actual nature of climate change impacts in the country, and a basis for identifying climate adaptations that may protect and improve the country's food security.

  3. Strengthening health facilities for maternal and newborn care: experiences from rural eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Namazzi, Gertrude; Waiswa, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Nakibuuka, Victoria K.; Namutamba, Sarah; Najjemba, Maria; Namusaabi, Ruth; Tagoola, Abner; Nakate, Grace; Ajeani, Judith; Peterson, Stefan; Byaruhanga, Romano N.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. Objective This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. Design This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST), aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Results Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase) in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC) unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with less than 40% of

  4. Strengthening health facilities for maternal and newborn care: experiences from rural eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Namazzi, Gertrude; Waiswa, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Nakibuuka, Victoria K; Namutamba, Sarah; Najjemba, Maria; Namusaabi, Ruth; Tagoola, Abner; Nakate, Grace; Ajeani, Judith; Peterson, Stefan; Byaruhanga, Romano N

    2015-01-01

    Background In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. Objective This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. Design This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST), aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Results Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase) in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC) unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with less than 40% of

  5. Strengthening health facilities for maternal and newborn care: experiences from rural eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Namazzi, Gertrude; Waiswa, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Nakibuuka, Victoria K; Namutamba, Sarah; Najjemba, Maria; Namusaabi, Ruth; Tagoola, Abner; Nakate, Grace; Ajeani, Judith; Peterson, Stefan; Byaruhanga, Romano N

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST), aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase) in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC) unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with less than 40% of health facilities reporting no stock

  6. Social marketing of pre-packaged treatment for men with urethral discharge (Clear Seven) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, B; Kambugu, F S K; Whitworth, J A G; Ochwo, M; Pool, R; Lwanga, A; Tifft, S; Lule, J; Cutler, J R

    2003-03-01

    We implemented social marketing of pre-packaged treatment for men with urethral discharge (Clear Seven) in Uganda, and studied its feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness as a possible means to treat STDs and thereby prevent HIV. Clear Seven was distributed at private health care outlets in three rural districts and two divisions of the capital. Comparisons were made with a pre-intervention period in the same sites plus one additional rural district. There were almost universally positive attitudes to Clear Seven. Cure rate (84% versus 47%), treatment compliance (93% versus 87%), and condom use during treatment (36% versus 18%) were significantly higher among Clear Seven users (n=422) than controls (n=405). Partner referral was similar but fewer Clear Seven partners were symptomatic when seeking treatment. Distribution of socially marketed pre-packaged treatment for male urethritis should be expanded in sub-Saharan Africa. Consideration should be given to developing similar kits for women.

  7. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergency obstetric care as the priority intervention to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Asimwe, J B; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Orinda, V

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) to provide baseline data for monitoring provision of obstetric care services in Uganda. The survey, covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities, assessed availability of EmOC signal functions. Following this, performance improvement process was implemented in 20 district hospitals to scale-up EmOC services. A maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 671/100,000 live births was recorded. Hemorrhage, 42.2%, was the leading direct cause of maternal deaths, and malaria accounted for 65.5% of the indirect causes. Among the obstetric complications, abortion accounted for 38.9% of direct and malaria 87.4% of indirect causes. Removal of retained products (OR 3.3, P<0.002), assisted vaginal delivery (OR 3.3, P<0.001) and blood transfusion (OR 13.7, P<0.001) were the missing signal functions contributing to maternal deaths. Most health facilities expected to offer basic EmOC, 349 (97.2%) were not offering them. Using the performance improvement process, availability of EmOC in the 20 hospitals improved significantly. An integrated programming approach aiming at increasing access to EmOC, malaria treatment and prevention services could reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

  9. Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brar, Sukhdeep; Farley, Sara E.; Hawkins, Robert; Wagner, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set…

  10. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  11. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  12. Institutional Efficiency in Selected Universities in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amina, Nakimuli; Turyahebwa, Abanis

    2015-01-01

    Universities are accountable This study looked into Institutional Efficiency in selected Universities in Central Uganda. The study was guided by the following objectives; Determine the level of institutional efficiency of the universities in terms of educational efficiency; research efficiency and community service efficiency. The study employed…

  13. Injury patterns in rural and urban Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kobusingye, O; Guwatudde, D; Lett, R

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To describe and contrast injury patterns in rural and urban Uganda. Settings—One rural and one urban community in Uganda. Methods—Community health workers interviewed adult respondents in households selected by multistage sampling, using a standardized questionnaire. Results—In the rural setting, 1673 households, with 7427 persons, were surveyed. Injuries had an annual mortality rate of 92/100 000 persons, and disabilities a prevalence proportion of 0.7%. In the urban setting 2322 households, with 10 982 people, were surveyed. Injuries had an annual mortality rate of 217/100 000, and injury disabilities a prevalence proportion of 2.8%. The total incidence of fatal, disabling, and recovered injuries was 116/1000/year. Leading causes of death were drowning in the rural setting, and road traffic in the city. Conclusion—Injuries are a substantial burden in Uganda, with much higher rates than those in most Western countries. The urban population is at a higher risk than the rural population, and the patterns of injury differ. Interventions to control injuries should be a priority in Uganda. PMID:11289535

  14. Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brar, Sukhdeep; Farley, Sara E.; Hawkins, Robert; Wagner, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set…

  15. Seroprevalence of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Nathan C; Sarosi, George A; Meya, David B; Bohjanen, Paul R; Richer, Sarah M; Swartzentruber, Samantha; Halupnick, Ryan; Jarrett, Deidre; Wheat, L Joseph; Boulware, David R

    2016-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported nearly worldwide. A 1970 study found 3.8% skin test sensitivity to Histoplasma capsulatum in Uganda but no systemic study of histoplasmosis exposure has occurred since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study investigated the seroprevalence of H. capsulatum and sought previously undetected cases of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine specimens were obtained from HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis. Specimens were tested for H. capsulatum IgG and IgM by enzyme immune assay and Histoplasma antigen. 147 of the 257 subjects who were enrolled had cryptococcal meningitis. Overall, 1.3% (2/151) of subjects were serum Histoplasma IgG positive, and zero of 151 were IgM positive. Antigen was not detected in any serum (n = 57), urine (n = 37, or CSF (n = 63) samples. Both subjects with serum Histoplasma IgG positivity had cryptococcal meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum IgG was detected at low levels in persons with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Histoplasmosis is not widespread in Uganda but microfoci do exist. There appears to be no cross-reactivity between Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma antigen testing, and cryptococcosis appears to be at most, a rare cause of positive Histoplasma IgG.

  16. Incidence of clubfoot in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Richard G; Lule, Joseph Konde; Waiswa, Gonzaga; Naddumba, Edward K; Pirani, Shafique

    2010-01-01

    While the congenital clubfoot deformity is a common deformity recorded in Uganda, the incidence of the condition had never been accurately determined. The objective of this study was to measure the overall incidence of congenital clubfoot deformity in a representative sample of births. A study of all babies born with foot anomalies took place from March 2006 to October 2007. The study was based at 8 Regional Hospitals with active maternity units and a functioning clubfoot clinic. All babies with foot deformities at birth at any of eight centres as detected by the delivery room staff were referred to the respective centre's clubfoot clinic. The children were examined by clubfoot clinic orthopedic officers who diagnosed the specific deformity. Children referred to the clinic from any source and born at the maternity unit were included in the study. The denominator was all live births at the centre during the study period. The total number of live births during the study period was 110,336. The maternity units of the centres identified 290 infants with a foot deformity. One hundred and thirty infants born during the study period were diagnosed in the clubfoot clinic as having a congenital clubfoot deformity. The proportion of infants with a clubfoot deformity was 1.2 per 1000 births over the 20-month period. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1. The rate of clubfoot deformities in the newborn can be used to estimate the numbers of children who should be treated and to estimate resource needs for the identification and management of this treatable congenital malformation. By comparing the number of those treated with the expected number of cases, the numbers of children with neglected clubfoot can be calculated.

  17. Strategies of Coping with Effective Teaching and Learning in Large Classes in Secondary Schools in Kampala District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiwu, Denis

    2009-01-01

    This study examines strategies of coping with teaching and learning in large classes in secondary schools in Kampala district. With the rapid technological, economic and social growth being realized in Uganda, demand for education is increasing every other day. Education is an investment needed for rapid social change. The need for education, as a…

  18. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation.

  19. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  20. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  1. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M.; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6–8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4–3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large

  2. Neonatal age and point of careTSH testing in the monitoring of iodine deficiency disorders: findings from western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ehrenkranz, Joel; Fualal, Jane; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Clarke, Ian; Alder, Stephen

    2011-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem throughout Africa. Although salt for human consumption is said to contain adequate amounts of iodine in Uganda, iodine intake may not be optimal. We undertook a field study to assess the adequacy of iodine nutrition in western Uganda using on-site measurement methods of neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for monitoring the degree of iodine deficiency during pregnancy. The study design consisted of a prevalence study using the percentage of newborns between the ages of 3 and 7 days with TSH >5 mIU/L, measured with a point-of-care immunochromatographic TSH assay, as a surrogate marker of iodine deficiency. Five districts in western Uganda were selected for study on the basis of a past history of iodine deficiency. One thousand seventy-eight newborns from the five districts were sequentially enrolled in each separate district and tested between July 2007 and January 2008. The prevalence of TSH levels >5 mlU/L ranged from 20% to 32%. Neonates tested on or before the age of 3 days were more likely to have a TSH level >5 mlU/L than those tested beyond the age of three days (28.2% vs. 18.7%, p < 0.001). Assessing neonatal TSH levels in developing countries with a TSH assay method suitable for field use can be successfully used to screen for congenital hypothyroidism and to indirectly assess a population's iodine status. Based on the percentage of neonates with TSH values >5 mIU/L, presumptive iodine deficiency persists in western Uganda. This finding suggests that continued monitoring of iodine nutrition in the area surrounding the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda and Congo is needed. Due to the progressive fall in the percent of TSH values >5 mIU/L from day three to day five of life, we conclude that TSH measurement earlier than day five of life in newborns at risk for iodine deficiency may be misleading. Guidelines for the use of neonatal TSH

  3. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food producers in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Wamala, S; Baryamutuma, R; Kabwama, E; Loewenson, R

    2013-09-01

    Globalization-related measures to liberalize trade and stimulate export production were applied in Uganda in the late 1980s, including in the coffee production sector, to revitalize agricultural production, increase incomes to farmers and improve rural food security. To explore the different effects of such measures on the health and dietary outcomes of female coffee and food small holder farmers in Uganda. We gathered evidence through a cross-sectional comparative interview survey of 190 female coffee producers and 191 female food producers in Ntungamo district. The study mostly employed quantitative methods of data collection, targeting the sampled households. We also utilized qualitative data; collected three months after the household survey data had been collected and their analysis had been accomplished. Using qualitative interviews based on an unstructured interview guide, extra qualitative information was collected from key informants at national, district and community levels. This was among other underlying principles to avoid relying on snapshot information earlier collected at household level in order to draw valid and compelling conclusions from the study. We used indicators of production, income, access to food and dietary patterns, women's health and health care. Of the two groups selected from the same area, female coffee producers represented a higher level of integration into liberalised export markets. Document review suggests that, although Uganda's economy grew in the period, the household economic and social gains after the liberalization measures may have been less than expected. In the survey carried out, both food and coffee producers were similarly poor, involved in small-scale production, and of a similar age and education level. Coffee producers had greater land and livestock ownership, greater access to inputs and higher levels of income and used a wider variety of markets than food producers, but they had to work longer hours to obtain

  4. Between a rock and a hard place: stigma and the desire to have children among people living with HIV in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher G; Earnest, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigma, among other factors, has been shown to have an impact on the desire to have children among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Our objective was to explore the experiences of HIV-related stigma among PLHIV in post-conflict northern Uganda, a region of high HIV prevalence, high infant and child mortality and low contraception use, and to describe how stigma affected the desires of PLHIV to have children in the future. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda. The interviews, conducted in Luo, the local language, were audio recorded, transcribed and then translated into English. Thematic data analysis was undertaken using NVivo8 and was underpinned by the “Conceptual Model of HIV/AIDS Stigma”. Results HIV-related stigma continues to affect the quality of life of PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda, and also influences PLHIV's desire to have children. PLHIV in northern Uganda continue to experience stigma in various forms, including internal stigma and verbal abuse from community members. While many PLHIV desire to have children and are strongly influenced by several factors including societal and cultural obligations, stigma and discrimination also affect this desire. Several dimensions of stigma, such as types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma), stigmatizing behaviours (abusing and desertion) and agents of stigmatization (families, communities and health systems), either directly, or indirectly, enhanced or reduced PLHIV's desire to have more children. Conclusion The social-cultural context within which PLHIV continue to desire to have children must be better understood by all health professionals who hope to improve the quality of PLHIV's lives. By delineating the stigma process, the paper proposes interventions for reducing stigmatization of PLHIV in northern Uganda in order to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for PLHIV and their children

  5. Between a rock and a hard place: stigma and the desire to have children among people living with HIV in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher G; Earnest, Jaya

    2012-05-31

    HIV-related stigma, among other factors, has been shown to have an impact on the desire to have children among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Our objective was to explore the experiences of HIV-related stigma among PLHIV in post-conflict northern Uganda, a region of high HIV prevalence, high infant and child mortality and low contraception use, and to describe how stigma affected the desires of PLHIV to have children in the future. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda. The interviews, conducted in Luo, the local language, were audio recorded, transcribed and then translated into English. Thematic data analysis was undertaken using NVivo8 and was underpinned by the "Conceptual Model of HIV/AIDS Stigma". HIV-related stigma continues to affect the quality of life of PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda, and also influences PLHIV's desire to have children. PLHIV in northern Uganda continue to experience stigma in various forms, including internal stigma and verbal abuse from community members. While many PLHIV desire to have children and are strongly influenced by several factors including societal and cultural obligations, stigma and discrimination also affect this desire. Several dimensions of stigma, such as types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma), stigmatizing behaviours (abusing and desertion) and agents of stigmatization (families, communities and health systems), either directly, or indirectly, enhanced or reduced PLHIV's desire to have more children. The social-cultural context within which PLHIV continue to desire to have children must be better understood by all health professionals who hope to improve the quality of PLHIV's lives. By delineating the stigma process, the paper proposes interventions for reducing stigmatization of PLHIV in northern Uganda in order to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for PLHIV and their children.

  6. Nutritional status and food consumption patterns of young children living in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bridge, A; Kipp, W; Raine, K; Konde-Lule, J

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to compare the nutritional status and food consumption patterns of children under five years. Quantitative, exploratory, cross sectional study. Kabarole district, western Uganda. Kabarole district is a rural district with subsistence farming as the main income. Two hundred and five children between 12 and 72 months of age living in AIDS affected homes versus children living in non-AIDS affected homes were examined. Fifty-five percent of all children were stunted and 20.5% were underweight. There was no difference in the prevalence of malnutrition between children living in AIDS affected homes versus non-AIDS affected homes. Only children between 12-35 months suffered from a daily deficit in caloric intake. The older children consumed the basic recommended daily intake (RDI) for protein, fat, iron and vitamin A. Due to frequent disease episodes and limitations in the estimations of individual total energy expenditure, the results are likely underestimations of the children's true nutritional requirements. The type of foods given to children in AIDS affected homes and controls were quite similar. Young children in Kabarole district suffer from severe chronic malnutrition rates, but rates and feeding patterns are not different in AIDS affected versus non AIDS affected homes.

  7. Mind the Gap: House Structure and the Risk of Malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wanzirah, Humphrey; Tusting, Lucy S.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Katureebe, Agaba; Maxwell, Kilama; Rek, John; Bottomley, Christian; Staedke, Sarah G.; Kamya, Moses; Dorsey, Grant; Lindsay, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Good house construction may reduce the risk of malaria by limiting the entry of mosquito vectors. We assessed how house design may affect mosquito house entry and malaria risk in Uganda. Methods 100 households were enrolled in each of three sub-counties: Walukuba, Jinja district; Kihihi, Kanungu district; and Nagongera, Tororo district. CDC light trap collections of mosquitoes were done monthly in all homes. All children aged six months to ten years (n = 878) were followed prospectively for a total of 24 months to measure parasite prevalence every three months and malaria incidence. Homes were classified as modern (cement, wood or metal walls; and tiled or metal roof; and closed eaves) or traditional (all other homes). Results A total of 113,618 female Anopheles were collected over 6,765 nights. 6,816 routine blood smears were taken of which 1,061 (15.6%) were malaria parasite positive. 2,582 episodes of uncomplicated malaria were diagnosed after 1,569 person years of follow-up, giving an overall incidence of 1.6 episodes per person year at risk. The human biting rate was lower in modern homes than in traditional homes (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.64, p<0.001). The odds of malaria infection were lower in modern homes across all the sub-counties (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95%CI 0.30–0.65, p<0.001), while malaria incidence was lower in modern homes in Kihihi (adjusted IRR 0.61, 95%CI 0.40–0.91, p = 0.02) but not in Walukuba or Nagongera. Conclusions House design is likely to explain some of the heterogeneity of malaria transmission in Uganda and represents a promising target for future interventions, even in highly endemic areas. PMID:25635688

  8. Community health insurance amidst abolition of user fees in Uganda: the view from policy makers and health service managers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper investigates knowledge of Community Health Insurance (CHI) and the perception of its relevance by key policy makers and health service managers in Uganda. Community Health Insurance schemes currently operate in the private-not-for-profit sector, in settings where church-based facilities function. They operate in a wider policy environment where user fees in the public sector have been abolished. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the second half of 2007 with District Health Officers (DHOs) and senior staff of the Ministry of Health (MOH). The qualitative data collected were analyzed using the framework method, facilitated by EZ-Text software. Results There is poor knowledge and understanding of CHI activities by staff of the MOH headquarters and DHOs. However, a comparison of responses reveals a relatively high level of awareness of CHI principles among DHOs compared to that of MOH staff. All the DHOs in the districts with schemes had a good understanding of CHI principles compared to DHOs in districts without schemes. Out-of-pocket expenditure remains an important feature of health care financing in Uganda despite blanket abolition of user fees in government facilities. Conclusion CHI is perceived as a relevant policy option and potential source of funds for health care. It is also considered a means of raising the quality of health care in both public and private health units. To assess whether it is also feasible to introduce CHI in the public sector, there is an urgent need to investigate the willingness and readiness of stakeholders, in particular high level political authorities, to follow this new path. The current ambiguity and contradictions in the health financing policy of the Uganda MOH need to be addressed and clarified. PMID:20132539

  9. HIV Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Teachers in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Bazeyo, William; Tanga, Erasmus Otolok

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34) compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97). Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59). Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58). Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote individual

  10. Uganda nursing research agenda: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Spies, L A; Gray, J; Opollo, J; Mbalinda, S

    2015-06-01

    Use a Delphi Methodology to identify nursing research priorities in Uganda. Identifying nursing research priorities, empowering researchers, and encouraging relevant studies can advance attaining global health goals. The Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union identified the need to establish a nursing research agenda. Nurse leaders have a priority of increasing the influence of nurses in practice and policy. This study was conducted as a preliminary step in a long-term strategy to build nurses' capacity in nursing research. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. The 45 study participants were nurses in practice, nurse faculty and members of the Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union. In the initial round, the participants wrote their responses during face-to-face meetings and the follow-up rounds were completed via email. Maternal and child morbidity and HIV/AIDS were identified as research priorities. Nurses also identified nursing practice, education and policy as key areas that nursing research could impact. Demographic characteristics such as length of time in nursing were not collected. Additionally, first round participants completed a pencil-paper survey and the follow-up rounds were done by email. Nurse Leaders in Uganda identified areas where research efforts could have the most impact and were most relevant to nursing practice. Health policy decisions have historically been made without nursing input. Nursing research can provide evidence to inform policy and, ultimately, improve population health. The focus of nursing research in priority areas can be used to guide nursing contribution in policy discussions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Factors which predict violence victimization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violence is a major public health issue, globally and on the African continent. This paper looks at Uganda and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the study results for violence prevention programs. Methods The study includes the responses of 2 399 Ugandans collected in 2011 by the Fifth Round of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 259 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the last year. Results Logistical regression analysis identified six factors that predict physical violence in Uganda. In order, these included being the victim of a property crime, age, gender, fear of crime in the home, poverty, and residential crowding. The surprising findings relate to what may be called target hardening, especially for those likely to be re-victimized. Respondents did tend to be re-victimized, with about 61 percent of violence victims also property crime victims. Fear of crime in home was another predictor of violence victimization, and many of these respondents had been crime victims. Conclusion These findings imply that target hardening should be the basis to begin to implement violence prevention programs in Uganda. The suggestion is crime prevention personnel/ law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimization and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:25918575

  12. Media and mental health in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, F; Ssebunnya, J; Kizza, D; Ndyanabangi, S

    2010-05-01

    The media is largely regarded as an important stakeholder in health service delivery, with a great influence on public attitudes. However, little is known about its interest in mental health and the guiding factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues. This article describes the importance accorded to mental health by the media and the factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with representatives from six prominent media houses as part of the situational analysis of the mental health system in Uganda. Data was analyzed using Nvivo 7 qualitative data analysis software. The media was found to be interested and actively involved in health initiatives, but with little attention devoted to mental health. Coverage and interest in mental health was noted to be mainly dependent on the individual journalists' interests, and mostly for personal reasons. Low interest was largely attributed to mental health being perceived as a non-priority area, and the fact that mental illness is not a major contributor to mortality. Media coverage and reporting is guided by prioritization of the Health Department. The media in Uganda is an important stakeholder in the health care system with a key role of advocacy, publicity and mass education. Media houses however are less interested in mental health as evidenced by low coverage of mental health issues. This calls for advocacy and sensitization as a way of persuading media for more involvement in mental health initiatives.

  13. Alcohol, Substance Use and Psychosocial Competence of Adolescents in Selected Secondary Schools in Uganda: A Cross Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Catherine; Okello, Elialilia S.; Muhwezi, Wilson; Akello, Grace; Ovuga, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Aims 1) To determine the nature and extent of alcohol and substance use and 2) To describe the relationship between alcohol use and psychosocial competence among secondary school youths in Northern and Central Uganda. Study Design This was a cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study Departments of Mental Health, Gulu University (Northern Uganda) and Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (Central Uganda) between September 2011 and April 2012. Methodology Four (4) and eight (8) secondary schools located in the rural and urban areas of Gulu and Kampala districts respectively were randomly selected to participate in the survey. A total of 3,200 students aged 12 to 24 years were recruited by proportionate multistage sampling. Data was collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about nature and frequency of alcohol and substance use. A pre-tested self-administered survey questionnaire with scales to measure components of psychosocial competence (PSC) was administered. Data was entered in Epidata, and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Psychosocial competence was classified as high or low depending on the responses in the sub-scales of decision making, self efficacy, empathy, emotional awareness, coping with stress and emotions, and accurate self-assessment and self-confidence. Results A total of 2,902 questionnaires comprising of 2,502, (86.2%) from Kampala district and 400 (13.8%)) from Gulu district were analyzed. Male to female ratio was 1:1 with an age range of 12 to 24 years and a mean of 16.5. About 70.1% had ever used alcohol and substances. Only 39.1% used substances regularly. The commonest substance used was alcohol (23.3%), followed by kuber (10.8%), khat (10.5%), aviation fuel (10.1%), cannabis (9.2%) and cigarettes (5.9%). Respondents from the Gulu district were twice more likely to use all substances. Users and regular users from the North Northern Uganda had lower

  14. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  15. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  16. Ownership in the Education Reform Process in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Liz; Rwanyange, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    The education sector in Uganda is considered to be a leading example of the implementation of new aid practices. This article explores the concept of ownership in the education sector in Uganda. It questions whether too great a preoccupation with world timescales, review deadlines, quantitative targets and the need for accountability to donors can…

  17. The challenge to restoring basic health care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Okello, D O; Lubanga, R; Guwatudde, D; Sebina-Zziwa, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a health facility survey conducted in Uganda between June 1992 and December 1993. The survey covered both government and non-government organisation (NGO) facilities from 10 districts in the five regions of the country. The main objective of the survey was to assess resource use, costs and financing of health facilities. The survey found differences between resource levels of NGOs and government facilities. Government facilities were inadequately maintained, and mostly in a state of disrepair. The user fee scheme that had been recently introduced in some government units to meet running costs was not only inadequate, but was not being used to meet the needs of consumers. In addition, most available resources, including human resources, were concentrated in hospitals. As a result, there was heavy demand for hospital services and less use of services in the lower level facilities. And furthermore, staff in government facilities were paid much less than staff working for NGOs, who not only got better pay but also in-kind forms of rewards, which made them better motivated to work. The number of qualified staff, particularly for primary health care, was grossly inadequate, and most of the work in local facilities was being done by unqualified employees, such as ward maids and dressers. In order to alleviate some of the problems identified, particularly in government facilities, there is a need to explore ways in which more can be done with the available resources to improve the efficiency of health services. The user charge system could be effective in improving the resource base of the health facilities, but it must result in visible improvement in the quality of services for consumers to be willing to pay. Collection methods should be standardised, and expenditures supervised. As part of the government's decentralisation programme, districts should be given the power to recruit and fire personnel. Once this authority is in place, the

  18. Newborn survival in Uganda: a decade of change and future implications.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Sentongo, Miriam; Mukasa, Gelasius K; Byaruhanga, Romano; Sentumbwe-Mugisa, Olive; Waiswa, Peter; Naamala Sengendo, Hanifah; Aliganyira, Patrick; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Lawn, Joy E; Kerber, Kate

    2012-07-01

    Each year in Uganda 141 000 children die before reaching their fifth birthday; 26% of these children die in their first month of life. In a setting of persistently high fertility rates, a crisis in human resources for health and a recent history of civil unrest, Uganda has prioritized Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 for child and maternal survival. As part of a multi-country analysis we examined change for newborn survival over the past decade through mortality and health system coverage indicators as well as national and donor funding for health, and policy and programme change. Between 2000 and 2010 Uganda's neonatal mortality rate reduced by 2.2% per year, which is greater than the regional average rate of decline but slower than national reductions in maternal mortality and under-five mortality after the neonatal period. While existing population-based data are insufficient to measure national changes in coverage and quality of services, national attention for maternal and child health has been clear and authorized from the highest levels. Attention and policy change for newborn health is comparatively recent. This recognized gap has led to a specific focus on newborn health through a national Newborn Steering Committee, which has been given a mandate from the Ministry of Health to advise on newborn survival issues since 2006. This multi-disciplinary and inter-agency network of stakeholders has been able to preside over a number of important policy changes at the level of facility care, education and training, community-based service delivery through Village Health Teams and changes to essential drugs and commodities. The committee's comprehensive reach has enabled rapid policy change and increased attention to newborn survival in a relatively short space of time. Translating this favourable policy environment into district-level implementation and high quality services is now the priority.

  19. Determinants of malaria diagnostic uptake in the retail sector: qualitative analysis from focus groups in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Cox, Alex; Dickens, William; Maloney, Kathleen; Lam, Felix; Fink, Günther

    2015-02-21

    In Uganda, as in most other malaria-endemic countries, presumptive treatment for malaria based on symptoms without a diagnostic blood test is still very common. While diagnostic testing in public sector facilities is increasing, many people in Uganda who suspect malaria visit private sector outlets to purchase medications. Increasing the availability and uptake of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria in private outlets could help increase diagnostic testing for malaria but raises questions about the patient demand for and valuation of testing that are less critical for public sector introduction. In preparation for a behaviour change campaign to encourage and sustain the demand for RDTs in drug shops, eight focus group discussions with a total of 84 community members were conducted in six districts across Uganda's Eastern Region in November-December 2011. Focus groups explored incentives and barriers to seeking diagnosis for malaria, how people react to test results and why, and what can be done to increase the willingness to pay for RDTs. Overall, participants were very familiar with malaria diagnostic testing and understood its importance, yet when faced with limited financial resources, patients preferred to spend their money on medication and sought testing only when presumptive treatment proved ineffective. While side effects did seem to be a concern, participants did not mention other potential costs of taking unnecessary or ineffective medications, such as money wasted on excess drugs or delays in resolution of symptoms. Very few individuals were familiar with RDTs. In order to boost demand, these results suggest that private sector RDTs will have to be made convenient and affordable and that targeted behaviour change campaigns should strive to increase the perceived value of diagnosis.

  20. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale-up family planning services and sensitization

  1. Paediatric surgery and anaesthesia in south-western Uganda: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Obua, Apunyo D; Mouton, Falan; Ttendo, Steven; Wilson, Iain H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study paediatric surgery rates in south-western Uganda, compare them to rates in England, and determine if existing surgical facilities and workforce meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Methods To obtain information on surgical facilities and workforce, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of all hospitals performing major surgery in 14 districts of south-western Uganda in 2007–2008. Using theatre logbook data, we determined the surgical rates, types of surgery performed and in-theatre surgical outcomes. Findings Of 72 hospitals surveyed, 29 were performing major surgery. None met WHO standards for essential surgery. There were 0.7 accredited surgeons per 100 000 population and no paediatric surgeons. Most anaesthetists were not physicians (accredited anaesthetist per 100 000 population: 1.1). The annual surgical rate for children aged ≤ 14 years was 180 operations per 100 000 population; most were emergency procedures. The annual surgical rate for patients of all ages was 652 operations per 100 000 population, with a median of 422 per operating theatre (range: 60–3497) and of 226 per surgeon (range: 60–1748). Mission or nongovernmental organization (NGO) hospitals, which had 44% of the hospital beds in the region, performed 3039 (55%) of the paediatric operations. Externally funded surgeons performed 80% of the 140 cleft lip and palate operations. Four in-theatre deaths occurred in children ≤ 14 years old (in-theatre mortality: 7.7 deaths per 10 000 operations). Conclusion Access to all surgery, including paediatric surgery, is poor in south-western Uganda and investment in basic health-care facilities and surgical workforce and training is urgently needed. Mission and NGO hospitals make a valuable contribution to elective surgery, and externally funded surgeons make an important contribution to specialist surgery. In-theatre mortality was lower than reported for similar settings. PMID:21124714

  2. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Results Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Conclusion Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale

  3. Malaria diagnosis and mapping with m-Health and geographic information systems (GIS): evidence from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Alberto; Moro Visconti, Roberto; Marconi, Michele

    2016-10-24

    Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1) malaria affects the largest number of people; (2) the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact. About 75% of the population affected by Plasmodium falciparum malaria have scarce access to healthcare facilities. The introduction of m-Health technologies should be based on the 2G protocol, as 3G mobile network coverage is still limited. The western border and the central-Southeast are the regions where m-Health could reach the largest percentage of the remote population. Six districts (Arua, Apac, Lira, Kamuli, Iganga, and Mubende) could have the largest benefit because they account for about 28% of the remote population affected by falciparum malaria with access to the 2G mobile network. The application of m-Health technologies could improve access to medical services for distant populations. Affordable remote malaria diagnosis could help to decongest health facilities, reducing costs and contagion. The combination of m-Health and GIS could provide real-time and geo-localized data transmission, improving anti-malarial strategies in Uganda. Scalability to other countries and diseases looks promising.

  4. The UNDP spends $2m. on grass-roots income-generation in Uganda.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A $2 million UNDP project designed to provide assistance to those suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is having problems finding its target population in Uganda. Staff cannot rely on many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), so money is being directly channeled to villages via local leaders, who weed out the undeserving. Internationally, most funds are directed at prevention, education, and prediction of the social and economic impacts of the epidemic. However, the impact at the national, local, and family levels has gone unaddressed. The approach has been charitable, rather than sustainable. The aims of the project are as follows: 1) establishment of income generation programs for orphans, widows, low income survivors, and communities with large numbers of patients with AIDS; and 2) establishment of skills and resources in local groups to implement and manage the projects. 90 microprojects are currently funded in 20 of 39 Ugandan districts. Funds are channelled through the HIV/AIDS Grassroots Initiative Support Fund. The steering committee includes representatives of the Uganda AIDS Commission and the Ministry of Planning and Economic Development. In an effort to rehabilitate prostitutes in Kampala, $6000 was loaned to 21 women and 15 orphans to buy cooking and sewing equipment. Other income generation programs include carpentry and agricultural projects and piggeries. The project time has been extended by 18 months and funds have increased from $700,000 to $2,000,000.

  5. Persistent high fertility in Uganda: young people recount obstacles and enabling factors to use of contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High fertility among young people aged 15-24 years is a public health concern in Uganda. Unwanted pregnancy, unsafe induced abortions and associated high morbidity and mortality among young women may be attributed to low contraceptive use. This study aims at exploring reasons for low contraceptive use among young people. Methods In 16 focus group discussions, the views of young people about obstacles and enabling factors to contraceptive use in Mityana and Mubende districts, Uganda were explored. The groups were homogeneously composed by married and unmarried men and women, between the ages of 15-24. The data obtained was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Young men and women described multiple obstacles to contraceptive use. The obstacles were categorized as misconceptions and fears related to contraception, gender power relations, socio-cultural expectations and contradictions, short term planning, and health service barriers. Additionally, young people recounted several enabling factors that included female strategies to overcome obstacles, changing perceptions to contraceptive use, and changing attitude towards a small family size. Conclusions Our findings suggest changing perceptions and behavior shift towards contraceptive use and a small family size although obstacles still exist. Personalized strategies to young women and men are needed to motivate and assist young people plan their future families, adopt and sustain use of contraceptives. Reducing obstacles and reinforcing enabling factors through education, culturally sensitive behavior change strategies have the potential to enhance contraceptives use. Alternative models of contraceptive service delivery to young people are proposed. PMID:20813069

  6. Aflatoxin levels in common foods of South Western Uganda: a risk factor to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kitya, D; Bbosa, G S; Mulogo, E

    2010-07-01

    Prolonged exposure to aflatoxins by humans and animals leads to adverse effects to the various body systems of affected individuals including death. Studies have linked aflatoxins to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Uganda, HCC is observed to be on increase in communities of South-Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted in five districts of the region and 90 various food samples were collected for total aflatoxin determination. They included ground nuts, cassava, millet, sorghum flour and eshabwe sauce. The aflatoxin levels were determined using Vicam aflatest method. The results were compared with acceptable European Union aflatoxin levels. Aflatoxin levels in the food samples ranged from 0 to 55 ppb with a mean total aflatoxin level of 15.7 +/- 4.9 ppb. Eshabwe sauce had the highest mean total aflatoxin levels (18.6 +/- 2.4 ppb). Traditional methods of food processing in this study were found to be contributing risk factor of food contamination and hence the observed increased HCC cases and mortalities in the region.

  7. Stakeholder's perceptions of help-seeking behaviour among people with mental health problems in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required. PMID:21314989

  8. Strengthening the Tuberculosis Specimen Referral Network in Uganda: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Joloba, Moses; Mwangi, Christina; Alexander, Heather; Nadunga, Diana; Bwanga, Freddie; Modi, Nelson; Downing, Robert; Nabasirye, Agnes; Adatu, Francis E; Shrivastava, Ritu; Gadde, Renuka; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-04-15

    Diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment rely on access to rapid and reliable drug-susceptibility testing. Efficient specimen transport systems and appropriate training on specimen referral contribute to optimal and timely access to tuberculosis diagnostic services. With support and technical assistance from a public-private partnership (PPP) between Becton Dickinson and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Uganda National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and National TB and Leprosy Program redesigned the tuberculosis specimen transport network and trained healthcare workers with the goal of improving multidrug-resistant tuberculosis detection. Between 2008 and 2011, the PPP mapped 93% of health facilities and trained 724 healthcare and postal staff members covering 72% of districts. Strengthening the tuberculosis specimen referral system increased referrals from presumptive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases by >10-fold, with 94% of specimens reaching the NTRL within the established target transport time. This study demonstrates the potential of PPP collaborations with ministries of health to positively influence patient care by strengthening laboratory systems through increased access to drug-susceptibility testing in Uganda. Ongoing efforts to integrate specimen transport networks will maximize resources and improve patient management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Aspirations for quality health care in Uganda: How do we get there?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite significant investments and reforms, health care remains poor for many in Africa. To design an intervention to improve access and quality of health care at health facilities in eastern Uganda, we aimed to understand local priorities for qualities in health care, and factors that enable or prevent these qualities from being enacted. Methods In 2009 to 2010, we carried out 69 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with 65 health workers at 17 health facilities, and 10 focus group discussions with 113 community members in Tororo District, Uganda. Results Health-care workers and seekers valued technical, interpersonal and resource qualities in their aspirations for health care. However, such qualities were frequently not enacted, and our analysis suggests that meeting aspirations required social and financial resources to negotiate various power structures. Conclusions We argue that achieving aspirations for qualities valued in health care will require a genuine reorientation of focus by health workers and their managers toward patients, through renewed respect and support for these providers as professionals. PMID:23521859

  10. Risk factors for mortality in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Assess mortality risk factors including age, sex, and disaster type, in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda and to compare time period, cause, location, and receipt of medical care among landslide and flood fatalities. A stratified cluster survey was conducted of 802 affected households in community and camp locations. Flood and landslide affected populations in the East Uganda the districts of Baduda and Butaleja. Adult household members in 802 households were surveyed regarding household member deaths in the floods and landslides areas. The primary outcome measure was the odds of death associated with age, sex, and disaster type (flood or landslide). The secondary outcome measure was the odds of event (landslide or flood) among fatalities associated with sex, age, time period of death, and cause of death. The odds of death were significantly higher in landslide affected populations than in flood affected populations (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.20-4.25, p < 0.001). Time period of death (p = 0.016), type of death (p < 0.001), death after seeking medical care (p = 0.033), month of death (p < 0.001), and cause of death (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased odds of death due to landslides as compared to floods. More deaths occurred due to landslides than floods, and landslide deaths were more immediate, with a majority occurring on the day of the event. Females and younger age groups faced a greater risk of death from the landslide than the flood.

  11. Medicinal plants used to induce labour during childbirth in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kamatenesi-Mugisha, Maud; Oryem-Origa, Hannington

    2007-01-03

    Traditional medicine usage in rural Ugandan population for day-to-day health care needs is close to 90%. Women and children form the bulk of the people reliant on herbal medicine. This study was undertaken to document how ethnomedical folklore aids childbirth in rural western Uganda by conducting field surveys, discussions and interviews with the resource users (mothers) and health providers (traditional birth attendants). Health surveys revealed that over 80% of childbirths are conducted at home by using herbal remedies in Bushenyi district. Seventy-five plants have been recorded for usage in inducing labour and some of these plants may be oxytocic. The dilemma lies in the toxicity levels and the unspecified dosages that may threaten the life of the unborn baby and the mother. The high population growth rate, high total fertility rate coupled with high maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda calls for rethinking in gendered health provision policies and programmes for which herbal medicine integration in health care systems seems viable.

  12. Strengthening the Tuberculosis Specimen Referral Network in Uganda: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Joloba, Moses; Mwangi, Christina; Alexander, Heather; Nadunga, Diana; Bwanga, Freddie; Modi, Nelson; Downing, Robert; Nabasirye, Agnes; Adatu, Francis E.; Shrivastava, Ritu; Gadde, Renuka; Nkengasong, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment rely on access to rapid and reliable drug-susceptibility testing. Efficient specimen transport systems and appropriate training on specimen referral contribute to optimal and timely access to tuberculosis diagnostic services. Methods. With support and technical assistance from a public-private partnership (PPP) between Becton Dickinson and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Uganda National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and National TB and Leprosy Program redesigned the tuberculosis specimen transport network and trained healthcare workers with the goal of improving multidrug-resistant tuberculosis detection. Results. Between 2008 and 2011, the PPP mapped 93% of health facilities and trained 724 healthcare and postal staff members covering 72% of districts. Strengthening the tuberculosis specimen referral system increased referrals from presumptive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases by >10-fold, with 94% of specimens reaching the NTRL within the established target transport time. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the potential of PPP collaborations with ministries of health to positively influence patient care by strengthening laboratory systems through increased access to drug-susceptibility testing in Uganda. Ongoing efforts to integrate specimen transport networks will maximize resources and improve patient management. PMID:27025697

  13. Pathways and costs of care for patients with tuberculosis symptoms in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Shete, P B; Haguma, P; Miller, C R; Ochom, E; Ayakaka, I; Davis, J L; Dowdy, D W; Hopewell, P; Katamba, A; Cattamanchi, A

    2015-08-01

    Six district-level government health centers in rural Uganda and the surrounding communities. To determine pathways to care and associated costs for patients with chronic cough referred for tuberculosis (TB) evaluation in Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional study, surveying 64 patients presenting with chronic cough and undergoing first-time sputum evaluation at government clinics. We also surveyed a random sample of 114 individuals with chronic cough in surrounding communities. We collected information on previous health visits for the cough as well as costs associated with the current visit. Eighty per cent of clinic patients had previously sought care for their cough, with a median of three previous visits (range 0-32, interquartile range [IQR] 2-5). Most (n = 203, 88%) visits were to a health facility that did not provide TB microscopy services, and the majority occurred in the private sector. The cost of seeking care for the current visit alone represented 28.8% (IQR 9.1-109.5) of the patients' median monthly household income. Most patients seek health care for chronic cough, but do so first in the private sector. Engagement of the private sector and streamlining TB diagnostic evaluation are critical for improving case detection and meeting global TB elimination targets.

  14. 'Better medicines for children' within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness framework: a qualitative inquiry in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Ogwal-Okeng, Japer; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Mbonye, Anthony; Muyinda, Herbert; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses is the main approach for treating children in more than 100 low income countries worldwide. In 2007, the World Health Assembly urged countries to integrate 'better medicines for children' into their essential medicines lists and treatment guidelines. WHO regularly provides generic algorithms for IMCI and publishes the Model Essential Medicines List with child-friendly medicines based on new evidence for member countries to adopt. However, the status of 'better medicines for children' within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses approach in Uganda has not been studied. Qualitative interviews were conducted with: two officials from the ministry of health; two district health officials and, 22 health workers from public health facilities. Interview transcripts were manually analyzed for manifest and latent content. Child-appropriate dosage formulations were not included in the package for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and ministry officials attributed this to resource constraints and lack of initial guidance from the World Health Organization. Underfunding reportedly undercut efforts to: orient health workers; do support supervision and update treatment guidelines to reflect 'better medicines for children'. Health workers reported difficulties in administering tablets and capsules to under-five children and that's why they preferred liquid oral dosage formulations, suppositories and injections. The IMCI strategy in Uganda was not revised to reflect child-appropriate dosage formulations - a missed opportunity for improving the quality of management of childhood illnesses. Funding was an obstacle to the integration of child-appropriate dosage formulations. Ministry of health should prioritize funding for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and revising the Essential Medicines and Health Supplies List of Uganda, the Uganda Clinical Guidelines and, the Treatment Charts for the

  15. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda.

  16. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  17. A sector-wide approach to emergency obstetric care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Orinda, V; Kakande, H; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Mbonye, A K

    2005-12-01

    To establish a baseline for the availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC, and to help develop an operational strategy based on the findings. A needs assessment of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) was carried out in 197 health facilities in 19 out of 56 districts in Uganda, covering 38% of the total population. There were a large number of missing signal functions at health facilities and an urgent need to improve the availability of EmOC. By using the data from the assessment, it was possible to influence national policy through the health sector-wide approach (SWAp) and place EmOC high on the national agenda. A national strategy and roll out plan to strengthen EmOC is now in place.

  18. Malaria eradication and economic outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Barofsky, Jeremy; Anekwe, Tobenna D; Chase, Claire

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of a 1959-1960 malaria eradication campaign in southwestern Uganda. The effort constitutes a rare, large-scale, and well-documented attempt to eliminate malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and produced an immediate disease reduction. We use this quasi-experimental health shock to identify long-term changes in educational and economic outcomes. Comparing the treatment district to a similar synthetic control, we find malaria eradication raised educational attainment by about a half year for both males and females, increased primary school completion among females and generated an almost 40% rise in the likelihood of male wage employment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  20. Coping Strategies for Landslide and Flood Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Mt. Elgon Region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Osuret, Jimmy; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Mayega, Roy William; Ssentongo, Julius; Tumuhamye, Nathan; Mongo Bua, Grace; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bazeyo, William

    2016-07-11

    The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt. Elgon region in eastern Uganda. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. We explored both coping strategies and underlying causes of vulnerability. Data were analysed using latent content analysis; through identifying codes from which basis categories were generated and grouped into themes. The positive coping strategies used to deal with landslides and floods included adoption of good farming methods, support from government and other partners, livelihood diversification and using indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting and preparedness. Relocation was identified as unsustainable because people often returned back to high risk areas. The key underlying causes of vulnerability were; poverty, population pressure making people move to high risk areas, unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness and, cultural beliefs affecting people's ability to cope. This study revealed that deep rooted links to poverty, culture and unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness were responsible for failure to overcome the effects to landslides and floods in disaster prone communities of Uganda. However, good farming practices and support from the government and implementation partners were shown to be effective

  1. Has the HIV/AIDS epidemic changed sexual behaviour of high risk groups in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Ntozi, James P M; Najjumba, Innocent Mulindwa; Ahimbisibwe, Fred; Ayiga, Natal; Odwee, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    Uganda, was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to reverse its HIV/AIDS epidemic. Long distance drivers, prostitutes and barmaids have been identified as the groups that engage in risky sex, which promotes HIV transmission in Uganda and other countries across the continent. This paper investigates whether and why there were changes of sexual behaviour and practices among five risky groups in Uganda as a consequence of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The paper is based on data generated from a survey on 'resistance to sexual behaviour change in the African AIDS epidemic', which was conducted in the districts of Kabale, Kampala and Lira in 1999. For purposes of this paper, only data from the focus group discussions with high-risk groups have been analysed. These include commercial sex workers, street children, long haul truck drivers, bar maids and adolescents in three towns of Uganda (Kabale, Kampala, Lira). Results indicate that despite the HIV/AIDS epidemic, these groups had only changed their sexual behaviour a little, and they reported to be continuing with multiple sexual partners for a variety of reasons. The adolescents and street children were under peer pressure and a lot of sexual urge; commercial sex workers and bar maids attributed their risky behaviour to the need to survive due to the existing poverty; and the truck drivers reflected on the need for female company to reduce their stress while on the long lonely travels across Africa. Nevertheless, they are all aware and perceive people with multiple sexual partners as being highly vulnerable to contracting HIV and they all reported to have adopted condom use as an HIV preventive strategy. They also observed that married people were at a high risk of contracting HIV due to non-use of condoms in marital relationships and unfaithfulness of spouses. CONCLUSIONS Females engage in high-risk sexual relations as a means of economic survival, and perceive their acts as a strategy to improve their socio-economic well

  2. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  3. Coping Strategies for Landslide and Flood Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Mt. Elgon Region, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Osuret, Jimmy; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Mayega, Roy William; Ssentongo, Julius; Tumuhamye, Nathan; Mongo Bua, Grace; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bazeyo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt. Elgon region in eastern Uganda. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. We explored both coping strategies and underlying causes of vulnerability. Data were analysed using latent content analysis; through identifying codes from which basis categories were generated and grouped into themes. Results: The positive coping strategies used to deal with landslides and floods included adoption of good farming methods, support from government and other partners, livelihood diversification and using indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting and preparedness. Relocation was identified as unsustainable because people often returned back to high risk areas. The key underlying causes of vulnerability were; poverty, population pressure making people move to high risk areas, unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness and, cultural beliefs affecting people’s ability to cope. Conclusion: This study revealed that deep rooted links to poverty, culture and unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness were responsible for failure to overcome the effects to landslides and floods in disaster prone communities of Uganda. However, good farming practices and support from the government and

  4. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-06-20

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article--number two in the series--describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  5. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article – number two in the series – describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM. PMID:18570658

  6. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  7. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  8. Mens' attitudes about abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Jagwe-Wadda, Gabriel; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2011-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Uganda except to save the life of the woman. Nevertheless, the practice is quite common: about 300,000 induced abortions occur annually among Ugandan women aged 15-49 (Singh et al., 2005) and a large proportion of these women require treatment for post-abortion complications. In the male-dominant culture of Uganda, where men control most of the financial resources, men play a critical part in determining whether women receive a safe abortion, or appropriate treatment if they experience abortion complications. This study examines men's roles in determining women's access to a safer abortion and post-abortion care. It draws on in-depth interviews carried out in 2003 with 61 women aged 18-60 and 21 men aged 20-50 from Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda. Respondents' descriptions of men's involvement in women's abortion care agreed that men's stated attitudes about abortion often prevented women from involving them in either the abortion or post-abortion care. Most men believe that if a woman is having an abortion, it must be because she is pregnant with another man's child, although this does not correspond with women's reasons for having an abortion--a critical disjuncture revealed by the data between men's perceptions of, and women's realities regarding, reasons for seeking an abortion. If the woman does experience post-abortion complications, the prevailing attitude among men in the sample was that they cannot support a woman in such a situation seeking care because if it had been his child, she would not have had a covert abortion. Since money is critical to accessing appropriate care, without men's support, women seeking an abortion may not be able to access safer abortion options and if they experience complications, they may delay care-seeking or may not obtain care at all. Barriers to involving men in abortion decision-making endanger women's health and possibly their lives.

  9. Injury in Kampala, Uganda: 6 years later.

    PubMed

    Demyttenaere, Sebastian V; Nansamba, Catherine; Nganwa, Alice; Mutto, Milton; Lett, Ronald; Razek, Tarek

    2009-10-01

    Trauma remains a tremendous cause of morbidity and mortality in most countries. The objective of our study was to describe injury from trauma at the major referral hospital in Uganda over a 1-year period. Trauma registry forms have been completed for all trauma patients seen between August 2004 and July 2005 at the casualty department of Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. We also obtained 2-week follow-up data, and we compared these data with 1998 data from the same institution. In all, 3778 patients were entered into the database, with complete data available for 93.5% of patients. Patients had a mean age of 26 (standard deviation [SD] 12) years, and 75% of patients were male. The mean Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) was 9.1 (SD 1). We classified injuries as mild (82%; KTS 9-10), moderate (14%; KTS 7-8) and severe (4%; KTS Uganda. When comparing data from 1998 and 2005, the spectrum of injury remained similar, but mortality decreased from 7.2% to 2.7%.

  10. Health managers' views on the status of national and decentralized health systems for child and adolescent mental health in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Akol, Angela; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Skylstad, Vilde; Nalugya, Joyce; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James

    2015-01-01

    Robust health systems are required for the promotion of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). In low and middle income countries such as Uganda neuropsychiatric illness in childhood and adolescence represent 15-30 % of all loss in disability-adjusted life years. In spite of this burden, service systems in these countries are weak. The objective of our assessment was to explore strengths and weaknesses of CAMH systems at national and district level in Uganda from a management perspective. Seven key informant interviews were conducted during July to October 2014 in Kampala and Mbale district, Eastern Uganda representing the national and district level, respectively. The key informants selected were all public officials responsible for supervision of CAMH services at the two levels. The interview guide included the following CAMH domains based on the WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS): policy and legislation, financing, service delivery, health workforce, medicines and health information management. Inductive thematic analysis was applied in which the text in data transcripts was reduced to thematic codes. Patterns were then identified in the relations among the codes. Eleven themes emerged from the six domains of enquiry in the WHO-AIMS. A CAMH policy has been drafted to complement the national mental health policy, however district managers did not know about it. All managers at the district level cited inadequate national mental health policies. The existing laws were considered sufficient for the promotion of CAMH, however CAMH financing and services were noted by all as inadequate. CAMH services were noted to be absent at lower health centers and lacked integration with other health sector services. Insufficient CAMH workforce was widely reported, and was noted to affect medicines availability. Lastly, unlike national level managers, lower level managers considered the health management information system as being insufficient

  11. The milk delivery chain and presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bulk milk in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kim Toeroek; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Ståhl, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence of informal milk delivery chains on the risk of human exposure to Brucella spp. through milk consumption in two regions of Uganda (Gulu and Soroti Districts). The work involved describing milk delivery chains, investigating brucellosis awareness amongst milk deliverers and determining the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in cattle milk on delivery to primary collection points (boiling points and dairies). Milk samples (n = 331) were collected from deliverers at primary collection points and from street vendors at point of sale and analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). A written questionnaire was used to collect data from deliverers (n = 279) on their milk delivery chains and their brucellosis awareness. The most common delivery points in Gulu District were small dairies and in Soroti District boiling points. The presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in milk samples was higher in Soroti (40 %) than in Gulu (11 %) (P < 0.0001). There are possible public health risk consequences of this finding as 42 % of deliverers in Soroti District reported drinking raw milk, compared with 15 % in Gulu District (P < 0.0001). Awareness of brucellosis was low, with 70 % of all milk deliverers reporting not having heard of the disease or the bacterium. Application of quality controls for milk (colour and odour) along the delivery chain varied depending upon supply and demand. This study provides evidence of the diversity of informal milk markets in low-income countries and of the potential public health risks of consuming unpasteurised milk. These results can be useful to those planning interventions to reduce brucellosis.

  12. Risk factors for injuries in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-08-01

    The frequency of occurrence of natural disasters has increased over the past several decades, which necessitates a better understanding of human vulnerability, particularly in low-resource settings. This paper assesses risk factors for injury in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda, and compares the effects of location, injury type, and severity. A stratified cluster survey of the disaster-affected populations was conducted five months after onset of the disasters. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to sample 800 households, including 400 affected by floods in Butaleja District and 400 affected by landslides in Bududa District. Flood- and landslide-affected populations were surveyed in July 2010 using a stratified cluster design. The odds of injury were 65% higher in the flood-affected groups than the landslide-affected groups in a logistic regression (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52; P < .001). The injury rate was greater in individuals under 42 years of age, and location of injury was a contributing factor. More people were injured in the flood-affected population as compared with the landslide-affected population, and injuries were more severe. This study illustrates differences between populations injured by flood and landslide disasters that occurred simultaneously in Eastern Uganda in 2010. In areas where landslides are prone to occur due to massive rainfalls or floods, preventative measures, such as early warning systems and evacuation, are more likely to increase the likelihood of people surviving, while for areas with massive floods, immediate and effective medical attention can save lives and improve injury outcomes.

  13. Seasonal variation of food security among the Batwa of Kanungu, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Kaitlin; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lwasa, Shuaib; Namanya, Didacus B; Ford, James; Twebaze, Fortunate; Clark, Sierra; Donnelly, Blánaid; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the burden of food insecurity (FI) globally, particularly among populations that depend on subsistence agriculture. The impacts of climate change will have disproportionate effects on populations with higher existing vulnerability. Indigenous people consistently experience higher levels of FI than their non-Indigenous counterparts and are more likely to be dependent upon land-based resources. The present study aimed to understand the sensitivity of the food system of an Indigenous African population, the Batwa of Kanungu District, Uganda, to seasonal variation. A concurrent, mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) design was used. Six cross-sectional retrospective surveys, conducted between January 2013 and April 2014, provided quantitative data to examine the seasonal variation of self-reported household FI. This was complemented by qualitative data from focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews collected between June and August 2014. Ten rural Indigenous communities in Kanungu District, Uganda. FI data were collected from 130 Indigenous Batwa Pygmy households. Qualitative methods involved Batwa community members, local key informants, health workers and governmental representatives. The dry season was associated with increased FI among the Batwa in the quantitative surveys and in the qualitative interviews. During the dry season, the majority of Batwa households reported greater difficulty in acquiring sufficient quantities and quality of food. However, the qualitative data indicated that the effect of seasonal variation on FI was modified by employment, wealth and community location. These findings highlight the role social factors play in mediating seasonal impacts on FI and support calls to treat climate associations with health outcomes as non-stationary and mediated by social sensitivity.

  14. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Tabuti, John R S; Obua, Celestino; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Lanyero, Hindam; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Bbosa, Godfrey S; Lubega, Aloysius; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Ryan, Mairin; Waako, Paul J; Merry, Concepta

    2010-07-06

    In Uganda, there are over one million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS recognition, control and treatment in Sembabule, Kamuli, Kabale and Gulu districts in Uganda. In this study, 25 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The TMPs could recognize important signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections. The majority of practitioners treated patients who were already receiving allopathic medicines including antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) prescribed by allopathic practitioners. There were 103 species of medicinal plants identified in this survey. Priority plants identified include Aloe spp., Erythrina abyssinica, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Psorospermum febrifugum, Mangifera indica and Warburgia salutaris. There was low consensus among TMPs on the plants used. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used except in Gulu where mono-preparations were common. Plant parts frequently used were leaves (33%), stem bark (23%) and root bark (18%). About 80% of preparations were administered orally in variable doses over varied time periods. The TMP had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Numerous medicinal plants for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients were identified in the four districts surveyed and the role of these plants in the management of opportunistic infections warrants further investigation as these plants may have a role in Uganda's public health approach to HIV/AIDS control. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  15. Emergence of a dhfr mutation conferring high-level drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum populations from southwest Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Caroline; Pearce, Richard; Pota, Hirva; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Rwakimari, John; Naidoo, Inbarani; Tibenderana, James; Roper, Cally

    2008-06-01

    The S108N, C59R, and N51I mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum gene that encodes dihydrofolate reductase, dhfr, confer resistance to pyrimethamine and are common in Africa. However, the I164L mutation, which confers high-level resistance, is rarely seen. We found a 14% prevalence of the I164L mutation among a sample of 51 patients with malaria in Kabale District in southwest Uganda in 2005 and a 4% prevalence among 72 patients with malaria in the neighboring district of Rukungiri during the same year. Surveillance at 6 sites across Uganda during 2002-2004 reported a single case of infection involving an I164L mutant, also in the southwest, suggesting that this is a regional hot spot. The spatial clustering and increasing prevalence of the I164L mutation is indicative of local transmission of the mutant. Targeted surveillance is needed to confirm the extent of the spread of the I164L mutation and to monitor the impact of I164L on the efficacy of antifolates for intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women and/or infants with falciparum malaria.

  16. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N; Muwanika, Vincent B; Okurut, Anna Rose Ademun; Siegismund, Hans R; Alexandersen, Soren

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001-2008. An assessment of perceived FMD occurrence, risk factors and the associated characteristics was made based on semi-structured questionnaires administered to the DVOs. During this period, a total of 311 FMD outbreaks were reported in 56 (70%) out of Uganda's 80 districts. The number of reported FMD outbreaks changed over time and by geographical regions. Occurrence of FMD was significantly associated with the dry season months (p = 0.0346), the time when animals movements are more frequent. The average number of FMD outbreaks was higher for some sub-counties adjacent to national parks than for other sub-counties, whilst proximity to international border only seemed to play a role at the southern border. DVOs believed that the major risk factor for FMD outbreaks was animal movements (odds ratio OR 50.8, confidence interval CI 17.8-144.6) and that most outbreaks were caused by introduction of sick animals.

  17. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  18. Uganda: condoms provoke an AIDS storm.

    PubMed

    Tebere, R

    1991-03-01

    An advertisement in the Uganda weekly Topic printed in 1990 is the center of the controversy over whether promoting condom use to prevent AIDS is really promoting immorality and promiscuity. The ad states: "The bible may save your soul but this condom will save you life." Critics have called the ad blasphemy for showing a condom package alongside the Bible; claimed the condom fools people into thinking they are safe from AIDS; and blamed the practice of supplying condoms for the moral decadence that is destroying the country. In contrast the national AIDS Control Program (ACP) believes that supplying university students, who may be the group at highest risk, with condoms, is wise because they at lest know how to use them properly. A spokesman for the ACP said that the condom is one of the limited options that exist to fight the life-threatening epidemic. Present Museven changed his views to November 1990 from a policy of encouraging abstinence and monogamy, to promoting condoms. This change in government policy coincided with the report of 17,422 cases of AIDS, and the estimate that 1.3 million people in Uganda are infected with HIV.

  19. Necropsy incidence of emphysema in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Aled W.; Madda, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Jones, A. W. and Madda, P. J. (1974).Thorax, 29, 195-198. Necropsy incidence of emphysema in Uganda. The incidence and types of pulmonary emphysema and the degree of dust pigmentation of the lungs were investigated in a series of 183 necropsies in Uganda. Emphysema was present in 43 (23·5%) lungs. Panlobular or centrilobular emphysema was found in 17 cases, an overall incidence of 9·3% (10·4% of the 135 males and 6·3% of the 48 females). It was generally of mild degree and the mean lung involvement, as assessed by a point counting method, was 9·2% in the 17 cases described above. Panlobular and centrilobular emphysema occurred in the older age groups; 13 of the 17 cases were 50 years old or more. The remaining 26 cases consisted of irregular (scar) emphysema which occurred in trace amounts (less than 1%). Dust pigmentation was present in all 17 cases of emphysematous lungs and was generally more severe than in the non-emphysematous lungs. The incidence of emphysema in this predominantly rural population is low and is similar to that found in Ibadan, Nigeria. PMID:4831525

  20. Stakeholder analysis for a maternal and newborn health project in Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Namazzi, Gertrude; N, Kiwanuka Suzanne; Peter, Waiswa; John, Bua; Olico, Okui; A, Allen Katharine; A, Hyder Adnan; Elizabeth, Ekirapa Kiracho

    2013-03-04

    Based on the realization that Uganda is not on track to achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, Makerere University School of Public Health in collaboration with other partners proposed to conduct two community based maternal/newborn care interventions aimed at increasing access to health facility care through transport vouchers and use of community health workers to promote ideal family care practices. Prior to the implementation, a stakeholder analysis was undertaken to assess and map stakeholders' interests, influence/power and position in relation to the interventions; their views regarding the success and sustainability; and how this research can influence policy formulation in the country. A stakeholder analysis was carried out in March 2011 at national level and in four districts of Eastern Uganda where the proposed interventions would be conducted. At the national level, four key informant interviews were conducted with the ministry of health representative, Member of Parliament, and development partners. District health team members were interviewed and also engaged in a workshop; and at community level, twelve focus group discussions were conducted among women, men and motorcycle transporters. This analysis revealed that district and community level stakeholders were high level supporters of the proposed interventions but not drivers. At community level the mothers, their spouses and transporters were of low influence due to the limited funds they possessed. National level and district stakeholders believed that the intervention is costly and cannot be affordably scaled up. They advised the study team to mobilize and sensitize the communities to contribute financially from the start in order to enhance sustainability beyond the study period. Stakeholders believed that the proposed interventions will influence policy through modeling on how to improve the quality of maternal/newborn health services, male involvement, and improved accessibility of

  1. Stakeholder analysis for a maternal and newborn health project in Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on the realization that Uganda is not on track to achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, Makerere University School of Public Health in collaboration with other partners proposed to conduct two community based maternal/newborn care interventions aimed at increasing access to health facility care through transport vouchers and use of community health workers to promote ideal family care practices. Prior to the implementation, a stakeholder analysis was undertaken to assess and map stakeholders’ interests, influence/power and position in relation to the interventions; their views regarding the success and sustainability; and how this research can influence policy formulation in the country. Methods A stakeholder analysis was carried out in March 2011 at national level and in four districts of Eastern Uganda where the proposed interventions would be conducted. At the national level, four key informant interviews were conducted with the ministry of health representative, Member of Parliament, and development partners. District health team members were interviewed and also engaged in a workshop; and at community level, twelve focus group discussions were conducted among women, men and motorcycle transporters. Results This analysis revealed that district and community level stakeholders were high level supporters of the proposed interventions but not drivers. At community level the mothers, their spouses and transporters were of low influence due to the limited funds they possessed. National level and district stakeholders believed that the intervention is costly and cannot be affordably scaled up. They advised the study team to mobilize and sensitize the communities to contribute financially from the start in order to enhance sustainability beyond the study period. Stakeholders believed that the proposed interventions will influence policy through modeling on how to improve the quality of maternal/newborn health services, male involvement

  2. Expanded Quality Management Using Information Power (EQUIP): protocol for a quasi-experimental study to improve maternal and newborn health in Tanzania and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal and newborn mortality remain unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa. Tanzania and Uganda are committed to reduce maternal and newborn mortality, but progress has been limited and many essential interventions are unavailable in primary and referral facilities. Quality management has the potential to overcome low implementation levels by assisting teams of health workers and others finding local solutions to problems in delivering quality care and the underutilization of health services by the community. Existing evidence of the effect of quality management on health worker performance in these contexts has important limitations, and the feasibility of expanding quality management to the community level is unknown. We aim to assess quality management at the district, facility, and community levels, supported by information from high-quality, continuous surveys, and report effects of the quality management intervention on the utilization and quality of services in Tanzania and Uganda. Methods In Uganda and Tanzania, the Expanded Quality Management Using Information Power (EQUIP) intervention is implemented in one intervention district and evaluated using a plausibility design with one non-randomly selected comparison district. The quality management approach is based on the collaborative model for improvement, in which groups of quality improvement teams test new implementation strategies (change ideas) and periodically meet to share results and identify the best strategies. The teams use locally-generated community and health facility data to monitor improvements. In addition, data from continuous health facility and household surveys are used to guide prioritization and decision making by quality improvement teams as well as for evaluation of the intervention. These data include input, process, output, coverage, implementation practice, and client satisfaction indicators in both intervention and comparison districts. Thus, intervention districts

  3. The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST): an effectiveness study on improving newborn health and survival in rural Uganda through a community-based intervention linked to health facilities - study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reducing neonatal-related deaths is one of the major bottlenecks to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Studies in Asia and South America have shown that neonatal mortality can be reduced through community-based interventions, but these have not been adapted to scalable intervention packages for sub-Saharan Africa where the culture, health system and policy environment is different. In Uganda, health outcomes are poor for both mothers and newborn babies. Policy opportunities for neonatal health include the new national Health Sector Strategic Plan, which now prioritizes newborn health including use of a community model through Village Health Teams (VHT). The aim of the present study is to adapt, develop and cost an integrated maternal-newborn care package that links community and facility care, and to evaluate its effect on maternal and neonatal practices in order to inform policy and scale-up in Uganda. Methods/Design Through formative research around evidence-based practices, and dialogue with policy and technical advisers, we constructed a home-based neonatal care package implemented by the responsible VHT member, effectively a Community Health Worker (CHW). This CHW was trained to identify pregnant women and make five home visits - two before and three just after birth - so that linkages will be made to facility care and targeted messages for home-care and care-seeking delivered. The project is improving care in health units to provide standardized care for the mother and the newborn in both intervention and comparison areas. The study is taking place in a new Demographic Surveillance Site in two rural districts, Iganga and Mayuge, in Uganda. It is a two-arm cluster randomized controlled design with 31 intervention and 32 control areas (villages). The comparison parishes receive the standard care already being provided by the district, but to the intervention villages are added a system for CHWs to visit the mother five times in her home during

  4. The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST): an effectiveness study on improving newborn health and survival in rural Uganda through a community-based intervention linked to health facilities - study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waiswa, Peter; Peterson, Stefan S; Namazzi, Gertrude; Ekirapa, Elizabeth Kiracho; Naikoba, Sarah; Byaruhanga, Romano; Kiguli, Juliet; Kallander, Karin; Tagoola, Abner; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Pariyo, George

    2012-11-15

    Reducing neonatal-related deaths is one of the major bottlenecks to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Studies in Asia and South America have shown that neonatal mortality can be reduced through community-based interventions, but these have not been adapted to scalable intervention packages for sub-Saharan Africa where the culture, health system and policy environment is different. In Uganda, health outcomes are poor for both mothers and newborn babies. Policy opportunities for neonatal health include the new national Health Sector Strategic Plan, which now prioritizes newborn health including use of a community model through Village Health Teams (VHT). The aim of the present study is to adapt, develop and cost an integrated maternal-newborn care package that links community and facility care, and to evaluate its effect on maternal and neonatal practices in order to inform policy and scale-up in Uganda. Through formative research around evidence-based practices, and dialogue with policy and technical advisers, we constructed a home-based neonatal care package implemented by the responsible VHT member, effectively a Community Health Worker (CHW). This CHW was trained to identify pregnant women and make five home visits - two before and three just after birth - so that linkages will be made to facility care and targeted messages for home-care and care-seeking delivered. The project is improving care in health units to provide standardized care for the mother and the newborn in both intervention and comparison areas.The study is taking place in a new Demographic Surveillance Site in two rural districts, Iganga and Mayuge, in Uganda. It is a two-arm cluster randomized controlled design with 31 intervention and 32 control areas (villages). The comparison parishes receive the standard care already being provided by the district, but to the intervention villages are added a system for CHWs to visit the mother five times in her home during pregnancy and the neonatal

  5. Effect of support supervision on maternal and newborn health services and practices in Rural Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kisakye, Angela N; Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bua, John; Akulume, Martha; Namazzi, Gertrude; Namusoke Kiwanuka, Suzanne

    2017-08-01

    Support supervision is one of the strategies used to check the quality of services provided at health facilities. From 2013 to 2015, Makerere University School of Public Health strengthened support supervision in the district of Kibuku, Kamuli and Pallisa in Eastern Uganda to improve the quality of maternal and newborn services. This article assesses quality improvements in maternal and newborn care services and practices during this period. District management teams were trained for two days on how to conduct the supportive supervision. Teams were then allocated particular facilities, which they consistently visited every quarter. During each visit, teams scored the performance of each facility based on checklists; feedback and corrective actions were implemented. Support supervision focused on maternal health services, newborn care services, human resources, laboratory services, availability of Information, education and communication materials and infrastructure. Support supervision reports and checklists from a total of 28 health facilities, each with at least three support supervision visits, were analyzed for this study and 20 key-informant interviews conducted. There was noticeable improvement in maternal and newborn services. For instance, across the first, second and third quarters, availability of parenteral oxytocin increased from 57% to 75% and then to 82%. Removal of retained products increased from 14% to 50% to 54%, respectively. There was perceived improvement in the use of standards and guidelines for emergency obstetric care and quality of care provided. Qualitatively, three themes were identified that promote the success of supportive supervision: changes in the support supervision style, changes in the adherence to clinical standards and guidelines, and multi-stakeholder engagement. Support supervision helped district health managers to identify and address maternal and newborn service-delivery gaps. However, issues beyond the jurisdiction of

  6. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    PubMed

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n = 192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control.

  7. Cost and cost-effectiveness of nationwide school-based helminth control in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    BROOKER, SIMON; KABATEREINE, NARCIS B; FLEMING, FIONA; DEVLIN, NANCY

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of cost and cost-effectiveness are typically based on a limited number of small-scale studies with no investigation of the existence of economies to scale or intra-country variation in cost and cost-effectiveness. This information gap hinders the efficient allocation of health care resources and the ability to generalize estimates to other settings. The current study investigates the intra-country variation in the cost and cost-effectiveness of nationwide school-based treatment of helminth (worm) infection in Uganda. Programme cost data were collected through semi-structured interviews with districts officials and from accounting records in six of the 23 intervention districts. Both financial and economic costs were assessed. Costs were estimated on the basis of cost in US$ per schoolchild treated and an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (cost in US$ per case of anaemia averted) was used to evaluate programme cost-effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effect of discount rate and drug price. The overall economic cost per child treated in the six districts was US$ 0.54 and the cost-effectiveness was US$ 3.19 per case of anaemia averted. Analysis indicated that estimates of both cost and cost-effectiveness differ markedly with the total number of children which received treatment, indicating economies of scale. There was also substantial variation between districts in the cost per individual treated (US$ 0.41-0.91) and cost per anaemia case averted (US$ 1.70-9.51). Independent variables were shown to be statistically associated with both sets of estimates. This study highlights the potential bias in transferring data across settings without understanding the nature of observed variations. PMID:18024966

  8. Uganda women shy away from the pill.

    PubMed

    Sekatawa, E K

    1993-01-01

    According to the 1988/89 Demographic and Health Survey of Uganda (UDHS), over 80% of women of reproductive age were acquainted with how to obtain family planning methods. 33% of married women wanted to postpone childbearing, and 19% wanted no more children at all. In spite of this, the survey also showed that only 2.7% were currently using a modern method of contraception, and 7% had ever tried one. Most of these women were aged 20-40 years, and they were married with 4 or more children, lived in urban areas, and had at least primary school education. One of the barriers was poor information about modern methods such as injectables, IUDs, vasectomy, and spermicides. They knew only about pills and female sterilization. In addition, 40% of married women stated that their husbands disapproved of family planning (FP), and the medical community had not promoted FP as an alternative to pregnancy complications. The Family Planning Association of Uganda (FPAU) has recruited 33% of all FP acceptors, and government services another 42%. FPAU has only 17 clinics, and staff strength would have to be expanded to 150 providers, instead of the existing 40 service providers, to meet the demand. The poor, rural population is hard to reach. 76% of public health staff was located in urban areas serving only 11% of the total population. Most trained nurses and midwives have not been deployed to maternal-child health and FP delivery points. The side effects of contraceptives are also often exaggerated, leading to discontinuation with a current drop-out rate of 30%. Training for service providers requires practice: 15 IUDs have to be inserted before being certified competent in the procedure. In Kampala, there are an average of 250 IUD acceptors a month, thus training is compromised with fewer insertions. The lack of equipment is another hindrance, and students have to be taught using models.

  9. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  10. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  11. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  12. Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Methods: Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Results: Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36

  13. Assessment of core capacities for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) – Uganda, 2009

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda is currently implementing the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) within the context of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). The IHR(2005) require countries to assess the ability of their national structures, capacities, and resources to meet the minimum requirements for surveillance and response. This report describes the results of the assessment undertaken in Uganda. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional assessment using the protocol developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The data collection tools were adapted locally and administered to a convenience sample of HR(2005) stakeholders, and frequency analyses were performed. Results Ugandan national laws relevant to the IHR(2005) existed, but they did not adequately support the full implementation of the IHR(2005). Correspondingly, there was a designated IHR National Focal Point (NFP), but surveillance activities and operational communications were limited to the health sector. All the districts (13/13) had designated disease surveillance offices, most had IDSR technical guidelines (92%, or 12/13), and all (13/13) had case definitions for infectious and zoonotic diseases surveillance. Surveillance guidelines were available at 57% (35/61) of the health facilities, while case definitions were available at 66% (40/61) of the health facilities. The priority diseases list, surveillance guidelines, case definitions and reporting tools were based on the IDSR strategy and hence lacked information on the IHR(2005). The rapid response teams at national and district levels lacked food safety, chemical and radio-nuclear experts. Similarly, there were no guidelines on the outbreak response to food, chemical and radio-nuclear hazards. Comprehensive preparedness plans incorporating IHR(2005) were lacking at national and district levels. A national laboratory policy existed and the strategic plan was being drafted. However, there were critical gaps hampering the

  14. Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John

    2014-11-13

    Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36%, followed by clinics (33%) and CHWs (31

  15. Determining Food Insecurity: An Application of the Rasch Model with Household Survey Data in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nabugoomu, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The inexplicable nature of food insecurity in parts of Uganda and worldwide necessitated an investigation into the nature, extent, and differentials of household food security. The main objective of this study was to examine the food security dynamics and model household food insecurity. The Rasch modelling approach was employed on a dataset from a sample of 1175 (Tororo = 577; Busia = 598) randomly selected households in the year 2010. All households provided responses to the food security questions and none was omitted from the analysis. At 5 percent level of significance the analysis indicated that Tororo district average food security assessment (0.137 ± 0.181) was lower than that for Busia district (0.768 ± 0.177). All the mean square fit statistics were in the range of 0.5 to 1.5, and none of them showed any signs of distortion, degradation, or less productivity for measurement. This confirmed that items used in this study were very productive for measurement of food security in the study area. The study recommends further analysis where item responses are ordered polytomous rather than the dichotomous item response functions used. Furthermore, consideration should be given to fit models that allow for different latent distributions for households with children and those without children and possibly other subgroups of respondents. PMID:26904617

  16. California's Districts of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any…

  17. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don

    2011-08-01

    Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in

  18. Violence against primary school children with disabilities in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Devries, Karen M; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Zuurmond, Maria; Parkes, Jenny; Child, Jennifer C; Walakira, Eddy J; Naker, Dipak

    2014-09-29

    150 million children live with disabilities globally, and a recent systematic review found 3 to 4 times the levels of violence versus non-disabled children in high income countries. However, almost nothing is known about violence against disabled children in lower income countries. We aim to explore the prevalence, patterns and risk factors for physical, sexual and emotional violence among disabled children attending primary school in Luwero District, Uganda. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the baseline survey of the Good Schools Study. 3706 children and young adolescents aged 11-14 were randomly sampled from 42 primary schools. Descriptive statistics were computed and logistic regression models fitted. 8.8% of boys and 7.6% of girls reported a disability. Levels of violence against both disabled and non-disabled children were extremely high. Disabled girls report slightly more physical (99.1% vs 94.6%, p = 0.010) and considerably more sexual violence (23.6% vs 12.3%, p = 0.002) than non-disabled girls; for disabled and non-disabled boys, levels are not statistically different. The school environment is one of the main venues at which violence is occurring, but patterns differ by sex. Risk factors for violence are similar between disabled and non-disabled students. In Uganda, disabled girls are at particular risk of violence, notably sexual violence. Schools may be a promising venue for intervention delivery. Further research on the epidemiology and prevention of violence against disabled and non-disabled children in low income countries is urgently needed.

  19. Parasite-based malaria diagnosis: Are Health Systems in Uganda equipped enough to implement the policy?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria case management is a key strategy for malaria control. Effective coverage of parasite-based malaria diagnosis (PMD) remains limited in malaria endemic countries. This study assessed the health system's capacity to absorb PMD at primary health care facilities in Uganda. Methods In a cross sectional survey, using multi-stage cluster sampling, lower level health facilities (LLHF) in 11 districts in Uganda were assessed for 1) tools, 2) skills, 3) staff and infrastructure, and 4) structures, systems and roles necessary for the implementing of PMD. Results Tools for PMD (microscopy and/or RDTs) were available at 30 (24%) of the 125 LLHF. All LLHF had patient registers and 15% had functional in-patient facilities. Three months’ long stock-out periods were reported for oral and parenteral quinine at 39% and 47% of LLHF respectively. Out of 131 health workers interviewed, 86 (66%) were nursing assistants; 56 (43%) had received on-job training on malaria case management and 47 (36%) had adequate knowledge in malaria case management. Overall, only 18% (131/730) Ministry of Health approved staff positions were filled by qualified personnel and 12% were recruited or transferred within six months preceding the survey. Of 186 patients that received referrals from LLHF, 130(70%) had received pre-referral anti-malarial drugs, none received pre-referral rectal artesunate and 35% had been referred due to poor response to antimalarial drugs. Conclusion Primary health care facilities had inadequate human and infrastructural capacity to effectively implement universal parasite-based malaria diagnosis. The priority capacity building needs identified were: 1) recruitment and retention of qualified staff, 2) comprehensive training of health workers in fever management, 3) malaria diagnosis quality control systems and 4) strengthening of supply chain, stock management and referral systems. PMID:22920954

  20. Home-based HIV counseling and testing: Client experiences and perceptions in Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Though prevention and treatment depend on individuals knowing their HIV status, the uptake of testing remains low in Sub-Saharan Africa. One initiative to encourage HIV testing involves delivering services at home. However, doubts have been cast about the ability of Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing (HBHCT) to adhere to ethical practices including consent, confidentiality, and access to HIV care post-test. This study explored client experiences in relation these ethical issues. Methods We conducted 395 individual interviews in Kumi district, Uganda, where teams providing HBHCT had visited 6–12 months prior to the interviews. Semi-structured questionnaires elicited information on clients’ experiences, from initial community mobilization up to receipt of results and access to HIV services post-test. Results We found that 95% of our respondents had ever tested (average for Uganda was 38%). Among those who were approached by HBHCT providers, 98% were informed of their right to decline HIV testing. Most respondents were counseled individually, but 69% of the married/cohabiting were counseled as couples. The majority of respondents (94%) were satisfied with the information given to them and the interaction with the HBHCT providers. Most respondents considered their own homes as more private than health facilities. Twelve respondents reported that they tested positive, 11 were referred for follow-up care, seven actually went for care, and only 5 knew their CD4 counts. All HIV infected individuals who were married or cohabiting had disclosed their status to their partners. Conclusion These findings show a very high uptake of HIV testing and satisfaction with HBHCT, a large proportion of married respondents tested as couples, and high disclosure rates. HBHCT can play a major role in expanding access to testing and overcoming disclosure challenges. However, access to HIV services post-test may require attention. PMID:23146071

  1. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Vonasek, Bryan J.; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E.; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J.; Sethi, Ajay K.; Conway, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents’ understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers’ knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018–1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were “fearful of side effects” and “ignorance/disinterest/laziness” (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers’ demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates. PMID:26918890

  2. Parasite-based malaria diagnosis: are health systems in Uganda equipped enough to implement the policy?

    PubMed

    Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Achan, Jane; Nakanjako, Damalie; Mpeka, Betty; Mawejje, Henry; Mugizi, Rukaaka; Kalyango, Joan N; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Talisuna, Ambrose; Jean-Pierre, Van geertruyden

    2012-08-24

    Malaria case management is a key strategy for malaria control. Effective coverage of parasite-based malaria diagnosis (PMD) remains limited in malaria endemic countries. This study assessed the health system's capacity to absorb PMD at primary health care facilities in Uganda. In a cross sectional survey, using multi-stage cluster sampling, lower level health facilities (LLHF) in 11 districts in Uganda were assessed for 1) tools, 2) skills, 3) staff and infrastructure, and 4) structures, systems and roles necessary for the implementing of PMD. Tools for PMD (microscopy and/or RDTs) were available at 30 (24%) of the 125 LLHF. All LLHF had patient registers and 15% had functional in-patient facilities. Three months' long stock-out periods were reported for oral and parenteral quinine at 39% and 47% of LLHF respectively. Out of 131 health workers interviewed, 86 (66%) were nursing assistants; 56 (43%) had received on-job training on malaria case management and 47 (36%) had adequate knowledge in malaria case management. Overall, only 18% (131/730) Ministry of Health approved staff positions were filled by qualified personnel and 12% were recruited or transferred within six months preceding the survey. Of 186 patients that received referrals from LLHF, 130(70%) had received pre-referral anti-malarial drugs, none received pre-referral rectal artesunate and 35% had been referred due to poor response to antimalarial drugs. Primary health care facilities had inadequate human and infrastructural capacity to effectively implement universal parasite-based malaria diagnosis. The priority capacity building needs identified were: 1) recruitment and retention of qualified staff, 2) comprehensive training of health workers in fever management, 3) malaria diagnosis quality control systems and 4) strengthening of supply chain, stock management and referral systems.

  3. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    PubMed

    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates.

  4. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  5. Pregnant women's experiences of routine counselling and testing for HIV in Eastern Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rujumba, Joseph; Neema, Stella; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Heggenhougen, Harald K

    2013-05-24

    Routine HIV counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Understanding how women experience this mode of HIV testing is important to generate ideas on how to strengthen the PMTCT programme. We explored pregnant HIV positive and negative women's experiences of routine counselling and testing in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda and formulated suggestions for improving service delivery. This was a qualitative study conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Eastern Uganda between January and May 2010. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 30 pregnant women (15 HIV positive and 15 HIV negative) attending an antenatal clinic, six key informant interviews with health workers providing antenatal care and observations. Data were analyzed using a content thematic approach. Prior to attending their current ANC visit, most women knew that the hospital provided HIV counselling and testing services as part of antenatal care (ANC). HIV testing was perceived as compulsory for all women attending ANC at the hospital but beneficial, for mothers, especially those who test HIV positive and their unborn babies. Most HIV positive women were satisfied with the immediate counselling they received from health workers, but identified the need to provide follow up counselling and support after the test, as areas for improvement. However, most HIV negative women mentioned that they were given inadequate attention during post-test counselling. This left them with unanswered questions and, for some, doubts about the negative test results. In this setting, routine HIV counselling and testing services are known and acceptable to mothers. There is need to strengthen post-test and follow up counselling for both HIV positive and negative women in order to maximize opportunities for primary and post exposure HIV prevention

  6. Perceptions about human rights, sexual and reproductive health services by internally displaced persons in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Orach, C G; Musoba, N; Byamukama, N; Mutambi, R; Aporomon, J F; Luyombo, A; Rostedt, A

    2009-10-01

    About 1.6 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) from northern Uganda have been living in encampments since the late 1980s. In conflict settings such as northern Uganda women are disproportionately affected compared to men. This study explores women and men IDPs' perceptions of their access to information about rights, access to health services and gender-based violence. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Kitgum and Pader districts, northern Uganda. We interviewed a total of 1,383 respondents comprising 968 (70%) adults and 415 (30%) adolescents; 60% were females and 40% males, randomly selected from 35 of 67 (52.2%) IDP camps. We held 27 key informant interviews and 52 focus group discussions. Data were entered in EPI data version 3.02 and analysed using SPSS version 12.00 statistical packages. Most (67.5%) of the respondents (68.9% males and 66.6% females) have heard about the notion of human rights. The main sources of information were UN/NGOs 23.7% and radios 23.0%. The right to health (18.8%), freedom of association (16.8%) and the right to education (15.7%) were most known. Although most respondents, 87.3% (88.9% males compared to 85.6% females mentioned preference for delivery in a health unit, main constraints to women's access to health care include lack of money 34.9% males and 37.9% females; lack of information 25.3% males and 23.2% females; and lack of decision power 17.7% males and 17.3% females. Most people (72.7%) (Women: 77.3%; men: 68.5%) perceive gender based violence (GBV) as common in the settings. The main GBV management interventions include treatment of physical injuries 33.9%; testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections 22.4% and counselling 18.9%. Most IDPs are aware about human rights issues mainly through humanitarian agencies and the media. Although geographic accessibility to health services is high, lack of finances, information and decision power hinder women's access to health care services. Duty bearers

  7. Expanding HIV testing and linkage to care in southwestern Uganda with community health extension workers

    PubMed Central

    Asiimwe, Stephen; Ross, Jennifer M.; Arinaitwe, Anthony; Tumusiime, Obed; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Roberts, D. Allen; O’Malley, Gabrielle; Barnabas, Ruanne V.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Achieving the UNAIDS goals of 90–90-90 will require more than doubling the number of people accessing HIV care in Uganda. Community-based programmes for entry into HIV care are effective strategies to expand access to HIV care, but few programmes have been evaluated with a particular focus on scale-up. Methods: Integrated Community Based Initiatives, a Uganda-based non-governmental organization, designed and implemented a programme of community-based HIV counselling and testing and facilitated linkage to care utilizing community health extension workers (CHEWs) in rural Sheema District, Uganda. CHEWs performed programme activities during 1 October 2015 through 31 March 2016. Outcomes for this evaluation were (1) the number of people tested for HIV, and (2) the proportion of those testing positive who were seen at an ART clinic within three months of their positive test, and (3) the cost of the programme per person newly diagnosed with HIV. Microcosting methods were used to calculate the programme costs. Program scalability factors were evaluated using a published framework. Results: Sixty-two CHEWs attended a five-day training that introduced the biology of HIV, the conduct of confidential HIV testing, HIV prevention messages, and linkage, referral, and reporting requirements. CHEWs received a $30 monthly stipend and a field testing kit that included a bicycle, field bag, umbrella, gumboots, reporting booklet, pens, and HIV testing materials. Trained CHEWs tested 43,696 persons for HIV infection during the six-month programme period. Nine-hundred seventy-four participants (2.2%) were identified as HIV positive, and 623 participants (64%) were linked to HIV care. An estimated 69% of adult residents received testing as part of this campaign. The programme cost $3.02 per person test, $135.70 per positive person identified, and $212.15 per HIV-positive person linked to care. Conclusions: Lay community health extension workers (CHEWs) can be

  8. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: understanding the dynamics of neonatal mortality in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Of the three million newborns that die each year, Uganda ranks fifth highest in neonatal mortality rates, with 43,000 neonatal deaths each year. Despite child survival and safe motherhood programmes towards reducing child mortality, insufficient attention has been given to this critical first month of life. There is urgent need to innovatively employ alternative solutions that take into account the intricate complexities of neonatal health and the health systems. In this paper, we set out to empirically contribute to understanding the causes of the stagnating neonatal mortality by applying a systems thinking approach to explore the dynamics arising from the neonatal health complexity and non-linearity and its interplay with health systems factors, using Uganda as a case study. Methods Literature reviews and interviews were conducted in two divisions of Kampala district with high neonatal mortality rates with mothers at antenatal clinics and at home, village health workers, community leaders, healthcare decision and policy makers, and frontline health workers from both public and private health facilities. Data analysis and brainstorming sessions were used to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) depicting the causes of neonatal mortality, which were validated by local and international stakeholders. Results We developed two CLDs for demand and supply side issues, depicting the range of factors associated with neonatal mortality such as maternal health, level of awareness of maternal and newborn health, and availability and quality of health services, among others. Further, the reinforcing and balancing feedback loops that resulted from this complexity were also examined. The potential high leverage points include special gender considerations to ensure that girls receive essential education, thereby increasing maternal literacy rates, improved socioeconomic status enabling mothers to keep healthy and utilise health services, improved supervision, and

  9. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Tumwine, James K

    2008-12-22

    Child under-nutrition is a leading factor underlying child mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies from Uganda have reported impaired growth, but there have been few if any community-based infant anthropometric studies from Eastern Uganda. The aim of this study was to describe current infant growth patterns using WHO Child Growth Standards and to determine the extent to which these patterns are associated with infant feeding practices, equity dimensions, morbidity and use of primary health care for the infants. A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices, socio-economic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was conducted in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003; 723 mother-infant (0-11 months) pairs were analysed. Infant anthropometric status was assessed using z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ). Dependent dichotomous variables were constructed using WLZ < -2 (wasting) and LAZ < -2 (stunting) as cut-off values. A conceptual hierarchical framework was used as the basis for controlling for the explanatory factors in multivariate analysis. Household wealth was assessed using principal components analysis. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Diarrhoea during the previous 14 days was associated with wasting in the crude analysis, but no factors were significantly associated with wasting in the adjusted analysis. The adjusted analysis for stunting showed associations with age and gender. Stunting was more prevalent among boys than girls, 58.7% versus 41.3%. Having brothers and/or sisters was a protective factor