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Sample records for ramada inn clemson

  1. Reorganizing the Clemson University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Joseph F., Jr.; Babel, Deborah B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes organizational changes made at the Clemson University Libraries. Highlights include the creation of a task force that consulted library personnel, faculty, support staff, and students; changes in the administrative structure; greater employee involvement; changes in the decision-making process; and increased cooperation and…

  2. Clemson University Balances Growth with Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Colleges are fond of issuing proclamations filled with ambitious goals. So Clemson University was hardly charting new territory in 2001 when its Board of Trustees endorsed 27 goals to make it a top-20 public research university. Less than two years later, Clemson achieved one of those benchmarks by exceeding $100-million per year in research…

  3. Clemson University: College and University Systems Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The administrative computing operation of Clemson University is discussed. The university's computing history, computer hardware, and computing organization (including the Computer Center, administrative programing services, and information systems development) are described. (MLW)

  4. Electronic Proposal Processing at Clemson University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Dewitt A.; McCracken, Alden L.

    1988-01-01

    Office automation technology is being used to process proposals at Clemson University. The Electronic Proposal Submittal project is a process by which the Principal Investigator can create a proposal at his or her local station and electronically submit it for processing. (Author/MLW)

  5. RHRU Clemson, Clemson, South Carolina: Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, November 1980 - May 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, P. W.

    The hybrid solar energy system is composed of a flat plate collector and greenhouse, and is designed to service the space heating and domestic hot water load while providing an environment for home food production. The equipment features a 388 square foot collector and 1161 cubic feet of crushed rock located under the building. The auxiliary equipment consists of electric resistance heaters for space heating and electric immersion heaters for domestic hot water. Detailed data on the energy savings realized from operation of the system from November 1980 to May 1981 are presented. Flow sheets show the flow of solar energy through the RHRU Clemson. Weather data for the Clemson area are given.

  6. 15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OLD FAITHFUL INN. THE INN'S NAMESAKE, OLD FAITHFUL GEYSER IS AT LEFT. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  7. Conference on New Processes for Braille Manufacture (Ramada Inn, Boston, Massachusetts, May 18-19, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

    Proceedings from a conference on braille production and services are summarized. Only equipment which is ready for use is considered. Specific methods of producing braille discussed include the following: use of plates from a stereograph, computer line printer, braille embossers or braille writers, continuous strip embossed tape from a teletype…

  8. Clemson Researchers Find Prescribed Fire Regenerates Oak Forests

    Treesearch

    David van Lear; Patrick Brose

    1999-01-01

    Fire is being prescribed by Clemson University forestry researchers to regenerate oak forests. Regenerating oaks following timber harvests is a major challenge because faster growing yellow polar and red maple trees crowd out hte more valuable oak seedlings.

  9. Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tuten, James Maner; Haque, Imtiaz; Rigas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-30

    In November of 2009, Clemson University was awarded a competitive grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to design, build and operate a facility for full-scale, highly accelerated mechanical testing of next-generation wind turbine drivetrain technologies. The primary goal of the project was to design, construct, commission, and operate a state-of-the-art sustainable facility that permits full-scale highly accelerated testing of advanced drivetrain systems for large wind turbines. The secondary goal was to meet the objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, especially in job creation, and provide a positive impact on economically distressed areas in the United States, and preservation and economic recovery in an expeditious manner. The project was executed according to a managed cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy and was an extraordinary success. The resultant new facility is located in North Charleston, SC, providing easy transportation access by rail, road or ship and operates on an open access model such that it is available to the U.S. Wind Industry for research, analysis, and evaluation activities. The 72 m by 97 m facility features two mechanical dynamometer test bays for evaluating the torque and blade dynamic forces experienced by the rotors of wind turbine drivetrains. The dynamometers are rated at 7.5 MW and 15 MW of low speed shaft power and are configured as independent test areas capable of simultaneous operation. All six degrees of freedom, three linear and three rotational, for blade and rotor dynamics are replicated through the combination of a drive motor, speed reduction gearbox and a controllable hydraulic load application unit (LAU). This new LAU setup readily supports accelerated lifetime mechanical testing and load analysis for the entire drivetrain system of the nacelle and easily simulates a wide variety of realistic operating scenarios in a controlled laboratory environment. The development of these

  10. Implementing a Peer Mentoring Model in the Clemson Eportfolio Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Gail L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the implementation of the ePortfolio Program in 2006, Clemson University has incorporated peer review for the formative feedback process. One of the challenges with this large-scale implementation has been ensuring that all work is reviewed and constructive feedback is provided in a timely manner. In this article, I discuss the strategies…

  11. Implementing a Peer Mentoring Model in the Clemson Eportfolio Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Gail L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the implementation of the ePortfolio Program in 2006, Clemson University has incorporated peer review for the formative feedback process. One of the challenges with this large-scale implementation has been ensuring that all work is reviewed and constructive feedback is provided in a timely manner. In this article, I discuss the strategies…

  12. Clemson final report: High temperature formulations for SRS soils

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1997-03-11

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate the application of a DC arc melter to in-situ vitrification of SRS soils. The melter that was available at the DOE/Industrial Vitrification Laboratory at Clemson University was equipped with opposing solid electrodes. To simulate field conditions, two hollow electrode configurations were evaluated which allowed fluxes to be injected into the melter while the soils were being vitrified. the first 4 runs utilized pre-blended flux (two runs) and attempted flux injection (two runs). These runs were terminated prematurely due to offgas sampling problems and melt freezing. The remaining four runs utilized a different electrode geometry, and the runs were not interrupted to change out the offgas sampling apparatus. These runs were conducted successfully.

  13. Colloids in the River Inn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In the light of an increasing number of technical applications using nanoparticles and reports of adverse effects of engineered nanoparticles, research on the occurrence and stability of particles in all compartments has to be intensified. Colloids in river water represent the geologic setting, environmental conditions, and the anthropogenic use in its catchment. The river not only acts as a sink for nanoparticles but also as the source term due to exchange in the hyporheic zone and in bank filtration setups. The concentration, size distribution and elemental composition of particles in the River Inn were studied from the source in the Swiss Alps to the river mouth at Passau from 2008 to 2014. Samples were collected after each tributary from a sub-catchment and filtered on site using a new filtration device for gentle filtration. The elemental composition was determined after acid digestion with ICP/MS. SEM/EDX analysis provided morphological and elemental information for single particles. A complementary chemical analysis of the river water was performed to assess the geochemical stability of individual particles. As presented at EGU 2014, particles in the upper, rural parts mainly reveal changes in the geological setting of the tributary catchments. Not unexpectedly, particles originating from crystalline rocks, were more stable than particles originating from calcareous rocks. Anthropogenic and industrial influences increase in the lower parts. This went together with a change of the size distribution, an increase of the number of organic particles, and a decrease of the microfauna. Interestingly, specific leisure activities in a sub-catchment, like extensive downhill skiing, manifest itself in the particle composition. This general setting was validated in last year's sampling campaigns. An interesting change in on site parameters and hydrochemical composition was seen during all sampling campaigns at an inflow from the valley Kaunertal, Austria. Therefore

  14. Konocti Harbon Inn, Kelseyville, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Konocti Harbor is a large resort complex, located on the shore of Clear Lake, in Kelseyville, California. A number of buildings on the property, including a 25,000 square foot lodge, 101 motel units and 48 apartment units are heated by the large water-to-water heat pumps, using water from the lake as a heat source. Due to low winter occupancy rates, these machines are run at very low capacity. In addition, a number of buildings are operated on electric resistance and propane backup boilers. This mode of operation results in a relatively high cost compared to the actual heating requirements. Since these systems were originally designed for low temperature water (125/sup 0/F supply 10/sup 0/..delta..t), a low temperature geothermal resource could potentially displace some of the conventional fuel currently used. The potential for geothermal use at the Konocti Harbor Inn is explored.

  15. 75 FR 13697 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pickens, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the office of the Eastern Service... designations extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the Earth are published in Paragraph... Feet or More Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO SC E5 Clemson, SC Clemson-Oconee...

  16. Defect Doping of InN

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.E.; van Genuchten, H.C.M.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Li, S.X.; A ger III, J.W.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Haller, E.E.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2007-07-22

    InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been subjected to 2 MeV He{sup +} irradiation followed by thermal annealing. Theoretical analysis of the electron mobilities shows that thermal annealing removes triply charged donor defects, creating films with electron mobilities approaching those predicted for uncompensated, singly charged donors. Optimum thermal annealing of irradiated InN can be used to produce samples with electron mobilities higher than those of as grown films.

  17. Colloids in the River Inn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Baumann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In the light of an increasing number of technical applications using nanoparticles and reports of adverse effects of engineered nanoparticles, research on the occurrence and stability of particles in all compartments has to be intensified. Colloids in river water represent the geologic setting, environmental conditions, and the anthropogenic use in its catchment. The river not only acts as a sink for nanoparticles but also as the source term due to exchange in the hyporheic zone and in bank filtration setups. The concentration, size distribution and elemental composition of particles in the River Inn were studied from the source in the Swiss Alps to the river mouth at Passau. Samples were collected after each tributary from a sub-catchment and filtered on-site. The elemental composition was determined after acid digestion with ICP/MS. SEM/EDX analyses provided morphological and elemental information for single particles. A complementary chemical analysis of the river water was performed to assess the geochemical stability of indvidual particles. Particles in the upper, rural parts mainly reveal changes in the geological setting of the tributary catchments. Not unexpectedly, particles originating from crystalline rocks, were more stable than particles originating from calcareous rocks. Anthropogenic and industrial influences increase in the lower parts. This went together with a change of the size distribution, an increase of the number of organic particles, and a decrease of the microfauna. Interestingly, specific leisure activities in a sub-catchment, like extensive downhill skiing, manifest itself in the particle composition.

  18. Investigating the Use of Design Methods by Capstone Design Students at Clemson University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Stuart; Summers, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe a preliminary study to understand the attitude of engineering students regarding the use of design methods in projects to identify the factors either affecting or influencing the use of these methods by novice engineers. A senior undergraduate capstone design course at Clemson University, consisting of approximately fifty…

  19. Astronaut Joins Clemson to Promote the Value of Integrative STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology and Engineering Teacher, 2013

    2013-01-01

    NASA and astronaut Patrick Forrester recently teamed up with Clemson University's College of Health Education and Human Development (HEHD) to promote STEM teaching and learning in the Upstate (SC) community. A goal of HEHD is to extend integrative STEM education opportunities to all teachers and their students in South Carolina. NASA space…

  20. Prospects for the Faculty Labor Market in the 1990s: A Clemson University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley

    Through a faculty retirement survey and a review of the literature, Clemson University, South Carolina, studied the future labor market for college faculty. The survey was administered to 1,250 faculty at the university in Fall, 1991. Fifty-six responded with data indicating that the College of Sciences, and the College of Agricultural Sciences…

  1. Astronaut Joins Clemson to Promote the Value of Integrative STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology and Engineering Teacher, 2013

    2013-01-01

    NASA and astronaut Patrick Forrester recently teamed up with Clemson University's College of Health Education and Human Development (HEHD) to promote STEM teaching and learning in the Upstate (SC) community. A goal of HEHD is to extend integrative STEM education opportunities to all teachers and their students in South Carolina. NASA space…

  2. Prospects for the Faculty Labor Market in the 1990s: A Clemson University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley

    Through a faculty retirement survey and a review of the literature, Clemson University, South Carolina, studied the future labor market for college faculty. The survey was administered to 1,250 faculty at the university in Fall, 1991. Fifty-six responded with data indicating that the College of Sciences, and the College of Agricultural Sciences…

  3. Alternative flood tide transport tactics in catadromous species: Anguilla anguilla, Liza ramada and Platichthys flesus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trancart, T.; Lambert, P.; Rochard, E.; Daverat, F.; Coustillas, J.; Roqueplo, C.

    2012-03-01

    Flood Tide Transport (FTT) was investigated using experimental annular flumes and analysed by Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA) to compare 3 species which use FTT: thinlip mullet Liza ramada, European eel Anguilla anguilla and European flounder Platichthys flesus. Juvenile fishes were submitted to experimental conditions simulating estuarine conditions in order to induce a behavioural rhythm which can be deemed comparable to FTT. MESA highlighted several behavioural rhythms within the same time series. The three species exhibited tidal rhythms in relation to time of day of migration, social behaviour and behaviour during ebb-tides. We hypothesise that ecological and morphological traits could induce these behaviours and indicate that it is possible to predict FTT variations for all catadromous species using diet ecology and morphology.

  4. Induced spawning and embryonic development of Liza ramada reared in freshwater ponds.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Mostafa A

    2010-05-01

    The possibility of inducing and synchronizing spawning can be very useful to facilitate fish farming, particularly in species that achieve ovarian development in captivity without ovulation occuring. The present study was undertaken to observe the morphological and normal embryonic development of thin-lipped mullet, Liza ramada, after spawning induction of fish reared in freshwater fish farms. The use of pregnyl (HCG) as a priming injection at a dose of 20,000 IU/kg body weight followed by a second injection of 40,000 IU HCG/kg body weight 24 h later, proved to be effective in inducing final oocyte maturation, ovulation and spawning in L. ramada at 52-60 h after hormonal injection. The mean number of the ovulated eggs for each female was 700 +/- 80.3 eggsg(-1) body weight. The mean rates of buoyancy, fertilization and hatching were 46 +/- 7.1, 55 +/- 8.4 and 60 +/- 6.6, respectively. Fertilized eggs were kept under normal environmental conditions in seawater at 20-21 degrees C. The first cleavage occurred at 40 min, epiboly began at 5 h, the embryonic body was formed at 24 h and hatching occurred at 48 h after spawning. Newly hatched larvae were approximately 2.5 mm (total length) and similar to those of the other mullet species in terms of external features except no pigment spots were present over the yolk. The mouth and foregut opened on the 5th day after hatching; at which the total length of larvae was 3.5 mm; the hindgut and anus had developed prior to hatching. The induced ovulation technique using acute injections of hormones is an important step in the development of the mullet culture.

  5. The Children's Inn at NIH turns 25 | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Children's Inn The Children's Inn at NIH turns 25 Past Issues / ... home …" for all families! What to Expect at The Children's Inn The Children's Inn enhances opportunities for ...

  6. Abstracts. 1978 AFOSR Contractors Meeting on Air-Breathing Combustion Dynamics and Kinetics, Ramada Inn-Downtown Dayton, Ohio, 10 - 13 October 1978

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-13

    the model has been developed through compar- ison with data. In addition, a multiphase turbulent reacting flow module has been formulated to accommodate...Mixing, Ignition and Combustion in R.B. Edelman, P.T. Harsha Flowing Reacting Fuel-Air Mixtures Sciences Applications, Inc. (F49620-77-C-0044) 2:55 8...4:35 11 Flow Flame Interactions and M. Gerstein Transient Flame Phenomena Univ. of Southern California (APOsR-77-3 354) 5:00 ADJOURN 11 Oct. 78

  7. Assessment of safety, nutritional, and spoilage characteristics of different lagoon grey mullets (Liza ramada, Liza aurata, and Liza saliens).

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Sylvain Sado; Vernocchi, Pamela; Maffei, Mirko; Belletti, Nicoletta; Gardini, Fausto; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2008-12-01

    Different lagoon grey mullets such as Liza ramada (thinlip mullet), Liza aurata (golden grey mullet), and Liza saliens (leaping grey mullet) were analyzed for their nutritional, microbiological, and safety parameters. The microbiological values never exceeded the lower limits stipulated by the Italian Higher Institute of Health. The pathogenic species frequently associated with seafood (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila) were never detected. The absence of coliforms and of Escherichia coli was noted in all fish species after 4 days of storage in ice. Heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury were always below the detection limits (0.01 mg/kg). All three fish species had low levels of total biogenic amines (80 to 100 mg/kg), and the presence of histamine was sporadic. All Liza species, particularly L. ramada and L. saliens, are a good source of omega3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  8. Operational rules for the implementation of INN prescribing.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Elien; Wirtz, Veronika J; Azermai, Majda; De Loof, Geert; Christiaens, Thierry; Nicolas, Luc; Van Bortel, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to describe the process, principles and results of the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) prescribing project in Belgium. The purpose of this project was to operationalize electronic INN prescribing for outpatient care in daily medical practice and to develop a factual database which can be used in electronic INN prescribing applications. The operationalization process consisted of three phases: (1) expert consultation, (2) review by regulatory authorities and (3) test phase with stakeholders and end-users. The INN prescribing project resulted into (1) operational rules for electronic INN prescribing and (2) a reference database to be implemented in commercial medical software. The operational rules for electronic INN prescribing define valid INN groups as sets of equivalent medicinal products, described by three elements: the therapeutic moiety (the active part of the therapeutic ingredient) or combination of therapeutic moieties, the strength (with standardized denominators), and the method of administration (with simplified but standardized options). The operational rules also define two categories of exemptions for INN prescribing: INN groups where the first choice of treatment should be continued throughout the therapy period (NO SWITCH) and medicinal product groups not suitable for INN prescribing (NO INN). The reference database is the result of the virtual classification of the Belgian therapeutic arsenal into INN groups, according to the operational rules. Defining the operational rules for INN prescribing for and with different stakeholders was a difficult yet feasible assignment. The INN prescribing project resulted into explicit operational rules and a reference database. The Belgian experience may provide important information for other countries planning to operationalize or refine electronic INN prescribing. It can also be used for a thorough evaluation of the impact of the new concept of INN prescribing on daily practice and on

  9. Clemson University Awarded $1 Million Grant from EPA for Research to Respond to Water Scarcity, Drought and Extreme Events

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a $1 million award to Clemson University for research addressing extreme weather events and climate change which impact the frequency and severity of droughts, subsequent wildf

  10. 2. Contextual view southwest from hillside behind Inn, with corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Contextual view southwest from hillside behind Inn, with corner of 'Big Sur Inn' Building (HABS-CA-2611-A) at extreme right, State Highway 1 curving through middle ground. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  11. 3. View to southeast from hillside behind Inn. Roof of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View to southeast from hillside behind Inn. Roof of 'Big Sur Inn' Building (HABS-CA-2611-A) at lower center, State Highway 1 bridge across Castro Creek Canyon at upper center. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  12. 16. LOOKING WEST AT OLD FAITHFUL INN, MOST OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOOKING WEST AT OLD FAITHFUL INN, MOST OF THE EAST WING IS VISIBLE TO THE LEFT. THE EAST WING ADDITION WAS BUILT BY THE INN'S ORIGINAL ARCHITECT, ROBERT C. REAMER IN 1913-14. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  13. Taming transport in InN

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, Joel W.; Miller, Nate R.

    2011-05-29

    The large electron affinity of InN, close to 6 eV and the largest of any III-V semiconductor, creates a strong driving force for native donor formation, both in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. Moreover, all InN surfaces, regardless of crystal orientation or doping, have been observed to have a surface accumulation layer of electrons, which interferes with standard electrical measurements. For these reasons, until recently, it was uncertain whether or not compensation by donor defects would prevent “real” p-type activity (i.e. existence of sufficiently shallow acceptors and mobile holes). A coordinated experimental approach using a combination of electrical (Hall effect) and electrothermal (Seebeck coefficient) measurements will be described that allows definitive evaluation of carrier transport in InN. In Mg-doped InN films, the sensitivity of thermopower to bulk hole conduction, combined with modeling of the parallel conducting layers (surface/bulk/interface), enables quantitative measurement of the free hole concentration and mobility. In undoped (n-type) material, combined Hall and thermopower measurements, along with a considering of the scattering mechanisms, leads to a quantitative understanding of the crucial role of charged line defects in limiting electron transport.

  14. Rethinking the INN system for therapeutic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Jérémy; Chastang, Romane; Dumet, Christophe; Watier, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the context of a possible revision of the International Nonproprietary Names (INN) system of recombinant monoclonal antibodies, which is saturated, we propose several avenues of reflection driven by the primary goal of the INN, information of health-care professionals. Clinical considerations argue for an abandon of the substems A (target category) and B (origin category), which lengthen the INN without real added-value. On the contrary, new substems or suffixes are required to alert on the absence/presence of an Fc portion and/or multispecificity, which are essential from a pharmacological point of view. Moreover, we think it necessary to explicitly mention Fc variations since they could influence the pharmacology of these biopharmaceuticals, and hence their efficacy and side-effects. Besides indicating the subclass/isotype in the documents easily accessible to health care professionals, we propose to systematically describe both the natural variations (allotypes) by using the Gm (G marker) system, and the artificial variations by using a Ge (G engineering) system that is discussed here and could apply to all IgG constant domains (tentatively called the Fy portion). PMID:27808597

  15. Mg doped InN and confirmation of free holes in InN

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Miller, N.; Mayer, M. A.; Haller, E. E.; Iwamoto, R.; Araki, T.; Nanishi, Y.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W. III

    2011-01-24

    We report a systematic investigation on Mg doped InN epilayers grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Electrolyte capacitance voltage (ECV) combined with thermopower measurements find p-type conduction over an Mg concentration range. For InN:Mg in this p-type 'window' the Seebeck coefficients dramatically change their signs from negative to positive when the thickness of undoped InN interlayer decreases to zero. This notable sign change of Seebeck coefficient explains the previous inconsistency between ECV and thermopower results and confirms the existence of mobile holes in the InN:Mg. Taking into account the undoped InN interlayer, the hole density and mobility are extracted.

  16. 1. View north from across State Highway 1 toward Inn. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View north from across State Highway 1 toward Inn. 'Big Sur Inn' Building (HABS-CA-2611-A) visible at left, 'Hayloft' Building (HABS-CA-2611-B at right center, and 'Antique' Building (HABS-CA-2611-C) and 'Champagne' Building (HABS-CA-2611-D) out of sight behind trees at right. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  17. Investigation of gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Madapu, Kishore K. E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Prasad, A. K.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dhara, S. E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in

    2015-06-24

    InN nanoparticles were grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using In{sub 2}O{sub 3} as precursor material. Raman spectroscopic studies show the presence of the wurtzite phase of as-grown InN. Size of the nanoparticles were in range from quantum dot (<8 nm) to larger sized particles (100 nm). We studied the gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles with CH{sub 4} gas. Sensors substrates were fabricated with interdigitated Au electrodes. InN nanoparticles show high response towards CH{sub 4} with minimum detectable concentration of 50 ppm at 200 °C.

  18. Post-collisional Ediacaran volcanism in oriental Ramada Plateau, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matté, Vinícius; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp

    2016-11-01

    Ediacaran volcanic sequences in southernmost Brazil are related to intense post-collisional magmatism of the Brasiliano Orogeny. A portion of this volcanism occurs in the oriental Ramada Plateau located in the center part of the Rio Grande Sul State and is correlated with Hilário and Acampamento Velho formations. The first one is represented dominantly by lava flows and dikes of shoshonitic andesitic composition, besides of volcanogenic sedimentary deposits. The acid rocks of the Acampamento Velho Formation are expressive in the area, comprising high-silica ignimbrites, usually densely welded. Dikes and domes are common too and rhyolitic lava flows occur at the top and intercalated to ignimbrites in the middle of the sequence. The acid rock association has a sodic alkaline affinity. In this unit we mapped a subvolcanic sill of trachyte showing evidence for magma mixing with the rhyolitic magma. It has sodic alkaline affinity, and FeOt/FeO + MgO ratios and agpaitic index lower than those recorded in the rhyolites/ignimbrites. The Acampamento Velho Formation includes in this area, subordinately, basalts as àà flows and dikes intercalated with acid rocks. They have sodic alkaline nature and characteristics of intraplate basic rocks. New zircon U-Pb dating indicates crystallization age of 560 ± 2 Ma in a densely welded ignimbrite, 560 ± 14 Ma for a mafic trachyte and 562 ± 2 Ma for a subvolcanic rhyolite. The sodic alkaline rocks in this region evolved by fractional crystallization processes and magma mixing with major crustal contribution at approximately 560 Ma. The chemical characteristics are similar to those of A-type granites associated with Neoproterozoic post-collision magmatism in the Sul-rio-grandense Shield.

  19. Research and education on fiber-based materials for nanofluidics at Clemson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2007-11-01

    Advanced materials and the science and engineering related to their design, process, test and manufacture represents one of the fast growing sectors of the Materials Science and Engineering field. Awareness of existing process, performance, manufacturing or recycle-ability issues and limitations, often dictates the next generation of advances needed to improve existing or create new materials. To compete in this growing science and technology area, trained experts must possess strong academic skills in their discipline as well as advanced communication, networking and cultural teamwork experience. Clemson's School of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), is continuing to expand our program to focus on unique capabilities which support local, regional and national needs in advanced materials. Specifically, MSE at Clemson is evolving to highlight intrinsic strengths in research and education areas related to optical materials, advanced fibers and composites (based on inorganic, organic and natural fibers), biomaterials and devices, and architectural and restoration material science (including the conservation and preservation of maritime structures). Additionally, we continue to invest in our expertise in materials design and fabrication, which has historically supported our well known programs in ceramics and textiles. In addition to a brief review of the School's forward-looking challenges to remain competitive among strong southeast regional materials science programs, this presentation will also highlight recent technical advances in fiber-based materials for nanofluidic applications. Specifically we will present recent results on design of fiber-based nanofluidics for sensor applications and we will discuss some physical phenomena associated with liquid transport at nanoscale.

  20. The Children's Inn at NIH Anniversary Key Messages | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Children's Inn The Children's Inn at NIH Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... Contents Anniversary Key Messages Playground and Park at The Children's Inn at NIH. Photo courtesy of Mahan ...

  1. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Dawood Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas. PMID:25664693

  2. Metal partitioning and availability in estuarine surface sediments: Changes promoted by feeding activity of Scrobicularia plana and Liza ramada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Duarte, Bernardo; Reis, Givaldo; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Costa, José Lino; Caçador, Isabel; Almeida, Pedro Raposo de

    2015-12-01

    Several works have evidenced in the past the importance and influence of plants and terrestrial invertebrates in metal availability in soils and sediments through changes in metal speciation. In contrast, the impact of estuarine invertebrates and fishes in this process has been poorly explored. The partition of metals in estuarine surface sediments was studied in a controlled environment according to four operationally defined fractions. Sediments were analyzed before and after the passage through the gut of two detritivorous species. Scrobicularia plana feeds on the bottom and suspended sediment particles through the inhalant siphon. Liza ramada is an interface feeder, filtering the superficial layer of the sediment and suspended particles in the water column. Cd, Cu and Ni bound to carbonates increased in the pellets of S. plana, compared with the ingested sediment, as did exchangeable Zn. Similarly, Cd and Zn bound to carbonates have also increased in the pellets of L. ramada; on the contrary, a decrease of Ni was observable in the pellets of this fish. The outcome of the controlled experiments pointed to a potential increase in some metals' availability in the estuarine environment, as a result of the more mobile metal forms in the excreted fecal pellets. This draws the attention to a relevant impact of the trophic activity of both species, alongside with the potential enhancement brought to it by the bioturbation promoted by them, in the role that the estuary itself has as a contaminants' buffer.

  3. Feeding ecology of Liza ramada (Risso, 1810) (Pisces, Mugilidae) in a south-western estuary of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, P. R.

    2003-05-01

    The feeding activity of the Liza ramada population inhabiting the Mira estuary (Portugal) is reduced during the winter and summer months. At the beginning of the spawning migration (i.e. November) an increase in the amount of food ingested was noticed. In the upper estuary, the feeding behaviour is independent of the tidal cycle, although there is some evidence of a daily rhythm in the food consumption rate, with a reduction during the night. No significant correlation was found between the quantity of particulate organic matter and the concentration of microalgae present in the stomach contents, and it seems that the bulk of the organic matter ingested by the thin-lipped grey mullets comes from a different origin than planktonic or benthic microalgae. The L. ramada population showed a positive selection for sediment particles between 55 and 250 μm in diameter. In general, the diet composition of this species showed a low diversity of food items. A total of 52 food items were identified in the stomach contents, the Bacillariophyceae being the dominant group. The genera Melosira and Ciclotella were the most common and abundant food items, although the genera Navicula, Nitzschia and Surirella were also classified as preferential food items. It was found that the volume of ploughed sediment that resulted from the feeding activity of the thin-lipped grey mullets, and the correspondent disturbed area increased exponentially with the length of the fish.

  4. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  5. 21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMICIRCULAR SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REAR OF OLD FAITHFUL INN, LOOKING NORTH. SEMI-CIRCULAR SIDE DINING ROOM, NOW CALLED THE BEAR PIT WAS ADDED IN 1927. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY-PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  6. Solar Hot Water for Motor Inn--Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes solar domestic-hot-water heater installation at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas which furnished 63% of total hot-water load of new 98-unit inn. Report presents a description of system, drawings and photographs of collectors, operations and maintenance instructions, manufacturers' specifications for pumps, and an engineer's report on performance.

  7. Nuclear Astrophysics Animations from the Nuclear Astrophysics Group at Clemson University

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meyer, Bradley; The, Lih-Sin

    The nuclear astrophysics group at Clemson University in South Carolina develops on-line tools and computer programs for astronomy, nuclear physics, and nuclear astrophysics. They have also done short animations that illustrate results from research with some of their tools. The animations are organized into three sections. The r-Process Movies demonstrate r-Process network calculations from the paper "Neutrino Capture and the R-Process" Meyer, McLaughlin, and Fuller, Phys. Rev. C, 58, 3696-3710 (1998). The Alpha-Rich Freezeout Movies are related to the reference: Standard alpha-rich freezeout calculation from The, Clayton, Jin, and Meyer 1998, Astrophysical Journal, "Reaction Rates Governing the Synthesis of 44Ti" At the current writing, the category for Low Metallicity s-Process Movies has only one item called n, p, 13C, 14N, 54Fe, and 88Sr Time evolution in convective zone.

  8. Savannah River Site sample and analysis plan for Clemson Technical Center waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrom, T.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis plan is to determine the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the SRS radioactive Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) liquid waste stream, to verify that it conforms to Waste Acceptance Criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Incineration Facility. Waste being sent to the ETTP TSCA Incinerator for treatment must be sufficiently characterized to ensure that the waste stream meets the waste acceptance criteria to ensure proper handling, classification, and processing of incoming waste to meet the Waste Storage and Treatment Facility`s Operating Permits. This sampling and analysis plan is limited to WSRC container(s) of homogeneous or multiphasic radioactive PCB contaminated liquids generated in association with a treatability study at Clemson Technical Center (CTC) and currently stored at the WSRC Solid Waste Division Mixed Waste Storage Facility (MWSF).

  9. First multicharged ion irradiation results from the CUEBIT facility at Clemson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, R.; Kulkarni, D. D.; Field, D. A.; Srinadhu, E. S.; Cutshall, D. B.; Harrell, W. R.; Harriss, J. E.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    A new electron beam ion trap (EBIT) based ion source and beamline were recently commissioned at Clemson University to produce decelerated beams of multi- to highly-charged ions for surface and materials physics research. This user facility is the first installation of a DREEBIT-designed superconducting trap and ion source (EBIS-SC) in the U.S. and includes custom-designed target preparation and irradiation setups. An overview of the source, beamline, and other facilities as well as results from first measurements on irradiated targets are discussed here. Results include extracted charge state distributions and first data on a series of irradiated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device targets. For the MOS devices, we show that voltage-dependent capacitance can serve as a record of the electronic component of ion stopping power for an irradiated, encapsulated oxide target.

  10. 17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ABANDONED GAS STATION ON LEFT AND ROAD TO BADWATER AT LEFT IN BACKGROUND. LOOKING WSW. - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. Optical properties of InN studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunya, Ye; Wei, Lin; Jin, Zhou; Shuping, Li; Li, Chen; Heng, Li; Xiaoxuan, Wu; Songqing, Liu; Junyong, Kang

    2016-10-01

    With recently developed InN epitaxy via a controlling In bilayer, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements had been carried out on the grown InN and the measured ellipsometric spectra were fitted with the Delta Psi2 software by using a suitable model and the dispersion rule. The thickness was measured by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Insight into the film quality of InN and the lattice constant were gained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). By fitting the SE, the thickness of the InN film is consistent with that obtained by SEM cross-sectional thickness measurement. The optical bandgap of InN was put forward to be 1.05 eV, which conforms to the experimental results measured by the absorption spectrum and cathodoluminescence (CL). The refractive index and the extinction coefficient of interest were represented for InN, which is useful to design optoelectronic devices. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2012CB619301), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2014AA032608), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11204254, 11404271), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. 2012121014, 20720150027).

  12. The INNs and outs of antibody nonproprietary names.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tim D; Carter, Paul J; Plückthun, Andreas; Vásquez, Max; Holgate, Robert G E; Hötzel, Isidro; Popplewell, Andrew G; Parren, Paul W H I; Enzelberger, Markus; Rademaker, Hendrik J; Clark, Michael R; Lowe, David C; Dahiyat, Bassil I; Smith, Victoria; Lambert, John M; Wu, Herren; Reilly, Mary; Haurum, John S; Dübel, Stefan; Huston, James S; Schirrmann, Thomas; Janssen, Richard A J; Steegmaier, Martin; Gross, Jane A; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Burton, Dennis R; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Chester, Kerry A; Glennie, Martin J; Davies, Julian; Walker, Adam; Martin, Steve; McCafferty, John; Baker, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    An important step in drug development is the assignment of an International Nonproprietary Name (INN) by the World Health Organization (WHO) that provides healthcare professionals with a unique and universally available designated name to identify each pharmaceutical substance. Monoclonal antibody INNs comprise a -mab suffix preceded by a substem indicating the antibody type, e.g., chimeric (-xi-), humanized (-zu-), or human (-u-). The WHO publishes INN definitions that specify how new monoclonal antibody therapeutics are categorized and adapts the definitions to new technologies. However, rapid progress in antibody technologies has blurred the boundaries between existing antibody categories and created a burgeoning array of new antibody formats. Thus, revising the INN system for antibodies is akin to aiming for a rapidly moving target. The WHO recently revised INN definitions for antibodies now to be based on amino acid sequence identity. These new definitions, however, are critically flawed as they are ambiguous and go against decades of scientific literature. A key concern is the imposition of an arbitrary threshold for identity against human germline antibody variable region sequences. This leads to inconsistent classification of somatically mutated human antibodies, humanized antibodies as well as antibodies derived from semi-synthetic/synthetic libraries and transgenic animals. Such sequence-based classification implies clear functional distinction between categories (e.g., immunogenicity). However, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Dialog between the WHO INN Expert Group and key stakeholders is needed to develop a new INN system for antibodies and to avoid confusion and miscommunication between researchers and clinicians prescribing antibodies.

  13. The INNs and outs of antibody nonproprietary names

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tim D.; Carter, Paul J.; Plückthun, Andreas; Vásquez, Max; Holgate, Robert G.E.; Hötzel, Isidro; Popplewell, Andrew G.; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Enzelberger, Markus; Rademaker, Hendrik J.; Clark, Michael R.; Lowe, David C.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.; Smith, Victoria; Lambert, John M.; Wu, Herren; Reilly, Mary; Haurum, John S.; Dübel, Stefan; Huston, James S.; Schirrmann, Thomas; Janssen, Richard A.J.; Steegmaier, Martin; Gross, Jane A.; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Chester, Kerry A.; Glennie, Martin J.; Davies, Julian; Walker, Adam; Martin, Steve; McCafferty, John; Baker, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    An important step in drug development is the assignment of an International Nonproprietary Name (INN) by the World Health Organization (WHO) that provides healthcare professionals with a unique and universally available designated name to identify each pharmaceutical substance. Monoclonal antibody INNs comprise a –mab suffix preceded by a substem indicating the antibody type, e.g., chimeric (-xi-), humanized (-zu-), or human (-u-). The WHO publishes INN definitions that specify how new monoclonal antibody therapeutics are categorized and adapts the definitions to new technologies. However, rapid progress in antibody technologies has blurred the boundaries between existing antibody categories and created a burgeoning array of new antibody formats. Thus, revising the INN system for antibodies is akin to aiming for a rapidly moving target. The WHO recently revised INN definitions for antibodies now to be based on amino acid sequence identity. These new definitions, however, are critically flawed as they are ambiguous and go against decades of scientific literature. A key concern is the imposition of an arbitrary threshold for identity against human germline antibody variable region sequences. This leads to inconsistent classification of somatically mutated human antibodies, humanized antibodies as well as antibodies derived from semi-synthetic/synthetic libraries and transgenic animals. Such sequence-based classification implies clear functional distinction between categories (e.g., immunogenicity). However, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Dialog between the WHO INN Expert Group and key stakeholders is needed to develop a new INN system for antibodies and to avoid confusion and miscommunication between researchers and clinicians prescribing antibodies. PMID:26716992

  14. Clemson University Science Master's Program in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure: A program evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sell, Elizabeth Eberhart

    The Clemson University Science Master's Program (SMP) in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure is a program which aims to link engineering, materials, construction, environment, architecture, business, and public policy to produce graduates with unique holistic perspective and expertise to immediately contribute to the workforce in the area of sustainable and resilient infrastructure. A program evaluation of the SMP has been performed to study the effectiveness of the SMP and identify areas where the goals and vision of the SMP are achieved and areas where improvements can be made. This was completed by analysis of trends within survey responses, review of Master's thesis reports, and review of courses taken. It was found that the SMP has facilitated new interdisciplinary research collaborations of faculty in different concentration areas within the Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, as well as collaboration with faculty in other departments. It is recommended that a course which provides instruction in all eight competency areas be required for all SMP students to provide a comprehensive overview and ensure all students are exposed to concepts of all competency areas. While all stakeholders are satisfied with the program and believe it has been successful thus far, efforts do need to be made as the program moves forward to address and improve some items that have been mentioned as needing improvement. The concerns about concentration courses, internship planning, and advising should be addressed. This evaluation provides benefits to prospective students, current SMP participants, and outside program supporters. The goal of this evaluation is to provide support that the SMP is an effective and worthwhile program for participating students, while attempting to identify any necessary program improvements and provide recommendations for achieving these improvements. This goal has been accomplished.

  15. InN Quantum Dot Based Infra-Red Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Arjun; Kumar, Mahesh; Roull, Basanta; Vinoy, K J; Krupanidhj, S B

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled InN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of InN QDs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The dot densities were varied by varying the indium flux. Variation of dot density was confirmed by FESEM images. Interdigitated electrodes were fabricated using standard lithog- raphy steps to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector devices. The devices show strong infrared response. It was found that the samples with higher density of InN QDs showed lower dark current and higher photo current. An explanation was provided for the observations and the experimental results were validated using Silvaco Atlas device simulator.

  16. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location.

  17. Effects of dispersed oil exposure on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the mortality of juvenile Liza ramada.

    PubMed

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Kanan, Rami; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Le Floch, Stéphane

    2011-04-01

    Dispersing an oil slick is considered to be an effective response to offshore oil spills. However, in nearshore areas, dispersant application is a controversial countermeasure: environmental benefits are counteracted by the toxicity of dispersant use. In our study, the actual toxicity of the dispersant response technique in the nearshore areas was evaluated through an experimental approach using juvenile Liza ramada. Fish were contaminated via the water column (i) by chemically dispersed oil, simulating dispersant application, (ii) by dispersant, as an internal control of chemical dispersion, (iii) by mechanically dispersed oil, simulating only the effect of natural mixing processes, without dispersant application, and (iv) by the water soluble fraction of oil, simulating the toxicity of an oil slick before recovery. Bioconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mortality were evaluated, and related to both total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in seawater. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed oil showed both a higher bioconcentration of PAH and a higher mortality than fish exposed to either the water soluble fraction of oil or the mechanically dispersed oil. These results suggest that (i) dispersion is a more toxic response technique than containment and recovery of the oil slick; (ii) in turbulent mixing areas, dispersant application increases the environmental risk for aquatic organisms living in the water column. Even if the experimental aspects of this study compel us to be cautious with our conclusions, responders could consider these results to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas.

  18. The Children's Inn at NIH - Three Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Children's Inn The Children's Inn at NIH - Three Stories Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Kristal Nemeroff—The Patient Kristal Nemeroff, age 2, at the Children's ...

  19. Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-10-05

    This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A `lessons learned` section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

  20. Solar Hot Water for a Motor Inn -- Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar hot-water installation at motor inn in Las Vegas, Nevada is described in report containing descriptions of design, philosophy, operation of system and problems and solutions. Provides drawings of solar roof plan, operator's instructions, manufacturers' brochures and copy of acceptance report.

  1. No Vacancy: Inn Provides Revenue Source for Financially Troubled Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Jerry G.; Brant, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    The Peabody Institute of Baltimore (Maryland), the Johns Hopkins University's music school, addressed its financial problems by converting four campus buildings into an inn used to house Elderhostel participants. Annual program revenues cover all costs and yield a financial reserve for the school. (MSE)

  2. Genetic detection and multilocus sequence typing of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains from mullets fish (Liza ramada).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Torres, Carmen; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Carneiro, Catarina; López, Maria; Radhouani, Hajer; Pardal, Miguel; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-09-01

    Enterococci have emerged as important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens in humans. The presence of vanA-enterococci was investigated in 103 fecal samples recovered from mullets fish (Liza ramada). All fecal samples were inoculated in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/L of vancomycin for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) recovery and two isolates/sample were characterized. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for 11 antibiotics by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. VRE identification was performed by biochemical and molecular methods. Additionally, the mechanisms of resistance to glycopeptides (vanA, vanB, vanC1, vanC2, and vanD) and other antibiotics [erm(A), erm(B), tet(L), tet(M), aph(2'')-aac(6'), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6'), vat(D), vat(E)] as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) and hyl virulence factors were investigated. vanA-Enterococcus faecium isolates were recovered from 4 of 103 tested samples, and they showed glycopeptide and erythromycin resistances. Three of them were also ampicillin resistant, two showed resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and kanamycin, and one showed resistance to gentamicin. The tet(M) and erm(B) genes were found in all tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant strains, respectively. The aph(3')-III and aph(2'')-aac(6') genes were identified in the kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates, respectively. The IS1216 element was identified within vanX-vanY region of Tn1546 in two vanA isolates. The hyl and esp virulence genes were found in four and two isolates, respectively. vanA-strains were ascribed to sequence types ST280 (two isolates) and ST273 (two isolates), including both lineages into the clonal complex CC17. Mullets fish can excrete VRE in their feces and may be a reservoir for such resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to other animals including humans.

  3. Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Kuball, M.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W. J.; Wang, X.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2005-05-01

    We report on the Raman analysis of A1(LO) (longitudinal optical) and E2 phonon lifetimes in InN and their temperature dependence from 80 to 700 K. Our experimental results show that among the various possible decay channels, the A1(LO) phonon decays asymmetrically into a high energy and a low energy phonon, whereas the E2 phonon predominantly decays into three phonons. Possible decay channels of the A1(LO) phonon may involve combinations of transverse optical and acoustic phonons. Phonon lifetimes of 1.3 and 4 ps were measured at 80 K for the A1(LO) and the E2 phonons, respectively. This rather long A1(LO) phonon lifetime suggests that hot phonon effects will play a role in InN for carrier relaxation.

  4. Temperature switching of cavity modes in InN microcrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanov, D. R. Kaibyshev, V. H.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Jmerik, V. N.; Kuznetsova, N. V.; Kopiev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. V.; Shubina, T. V.

    2015-11-15

    InN optical cavities supporting low-order whispering-gallery modes up to room temperature are formed by molecular-beam epitaxy on patterned substrates. The observed switching of the mode type with increasing temperature is explained in terms of changes in the optical parameters due to a shift of the absorption edge and modification of its shape. Modeling taking into account a variation in the refractive index reproduces the typical distributions of the electromagnetic-field intensity in the cavities.

  5. Lattice polarity detection of InN by circular photogalvanic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Wang, X. Q.; He, X. W.; Yin, C. M.; Xu, F. J.; Shen, B.; Chen, Y. H.; Wang, Z. G.; Ishitani, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2009-07-20

    We report an effective and nondestructive method based on circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) to detect the lattice polarity of InN. Because of the lattice inversion between In- and N-polar InN, the energy band spin splitting is opposite for InN films with different polarities. Consequently under light irradiation with the same helicity, CPGE photocurrents in In- and N-polar layers will have opposite directions, thus the polarity can be detected. This method is demonstrated by our CPGE measurements in both n- and p-type InN films.

  6. Lattice polarity detection of InN by circular photogalvanic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Wang, X. Q.; He, X. W.; Yin, C. M.; Xu, F. J.; Shen, B.; Chen, Y. H.; Wang, Z. G.; Ishitani, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2009-07-01

    We report an effective and nondestructive method based on circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) to detect the lattice polarity of InN. Because of the lattice inversion between In- and N-polar InN, the energy band spin splitting is opposite for InN films with different polarities. Consequently under light irradiation with the same helicity, CPGE photocurrents in In- and N-polar layers will have opposite directions, thus the polarity can be detected. This method is demonstrated by our CPGE measurements in both n- and p-type InN films.

  7. Prediction of rock salt structure of (InN)32 nanoparticles from first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Prabhsharan; Sekhon, S S; Kumar, Vijay

    2013-03-21

    From first principles calculations, we show that (InN)32 nanoparticles favor rock salt structure compared with wurtzite structure in bulk. A phase transition from wurtzite to rock salt structure is known to occur in bulk InN at 12.1 GPa and higher values of pressure for AlN and GaN. However, at the nanoscale we show that this structural transition takes place in (InN)32 without applying pressure. The charge asymmetry value "g" and cation/anion size ratio in InN describe very well this behavior. Similar studies on nanoparticles of AlN and GaN as well as a few other binary compounds such as MgS, AgI, ZnO, and CdSe, however, do not show such a transition. Our results suggest (InN)32 to be a unique candidate as further calculations on a few larger size (InN)n nanoparticles show that a filled cage (two shells) (InN)12@(InN)48 structure of (InN)60 has higher binding energy compared with a rock salt structure of (InN)64 leading to the conclusion that other 3D structures are likely to become favorable over rock salt structure for larger sizes.

  8. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of ZeT is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  9. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants.

  10. Applying the INN model to the MaxClique problem

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, T.

    1993-09-01

    Max-Clique is the problem of finding the largest clique in a given graph. It is not only NP-hard, but, as recent results suggest, even hard to approximate. Nevertheless it is still very important to develop and test practical algorithms that will find approximate solutions for the maximum clique problem on various graphs stemming from numerous applications. Indeed, many different types of algorithmic approaches are applied to that problem. Several neural networks and related algorithms were applied recently to combinatorial optimization problems in general and to the Max-Clique problem in particular. These neural nets are dynamical system which minimize a cost (or computational ``energy``) function that represents the optimization problem, the Max-Clique in our case. Therefore they all belong to the class of integer programming algorithms surveyed in the Pardalos and Xue review. The work presented here is a development and improvement of a neural network algorithm that was introduced recently. In the previous work, we have considered two Hopfield type neural networks, the INN and the HcN, and their application to the max-clique problem. In this paper, I concentrate on the INN network and present an improved version of the t-A algorithm that was introduced in. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: in section 2, I describe the INN model and how it implements a given graph. In section 3, it is characterized in terms of graph theory. In particular, the stable states of the network are mapped to the maximal cliques of its underling graph. In section 4, I present the t-Annealing algorithm and an improved version of it, the Adaptive t-Annealing. Several experiments done with these algorithms on benchmark graphs are reported in section 5, and the efficiency of the new algorithm is demonstrated. I conclude with a short discussion.

  11. Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of InN Nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Li, X.; Kryliouk, Olga; Park, H.J.; Mangum,J.; Anderson, T.

    2006-07-13

    InN nanorods were grown on a, c-, and r-plane of sapphire and also on Si (111) and GaN (0001) by non-catalytic, template-free hydride metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and studied by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss (EELS) and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. These nanocrystals have different shapes and different faceting depending on the substrate used and their crystallographic orientation. EELS measurements have confirmed the high purity of these crystals. The observed PL peak was in the range of 0.9-0.95 eV. The strongest PL intensity was observed for the nanocrystals with the larger diameters.

  12. Temperature sensitive photoconductivity observed in InN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Xinqiang; Feng, Li; Zheng, Xiantong; Chen, Guang; Yang, Xuelin; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Lu, Liwu; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Photoconductivity has been systematically studied in unintentionally doped n-type InN film with super-bandgap excitation (1.53 eV) at temperatures varying in the range of 100-300 K. A negative photoconductivity is observed at room temperature, whereas it gradually changes to be positive with decreasing temperature. Transition temperature from negative to positive photoconductivity is found to be greatly related to the residual electron concentration as the higher the electron concentration, the lower the transition temperature. An energy band model including a donor state with large lattice relaxation as well as a recombination center is proposed, which explains the experimental observation well.

  13. The Little Inn at the Crossroads: A Spiritual Approach to the Design of a Leadership Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bento, Regina F.

    2000-01-01

    A course on spiritual dimensions of leadership was designed using the metaphor of an inn at a crossroads. The inn included a virtual library of Web-based texts and studio space for creativity and self-expression. Seven workshops explored the following themes: language of leadership and change, personal leadership qualities, vision and mission,…

  14. Electronic structures and work functions of InN(0001) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jung-Hwan; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2007-03-01

    InN films have attracted great attention with its recently discovered band gap, 0.7eV, and evidence for p-type doping. We have studied theoretically the electronic structures, surfaces, and work functions of InN films using the highly precise FLAPW method. The passivation with pseudo-hydrogens has also been applied to the surfaces of InN(0001) films for comparison with the electronic structure of the ideal InN(0001) films. We compare the work functions of InN films with other wurtzite materials such as ZnO, GaN, and AlN, which we have also calculated. We discuss the mechanism of the structural transition with layer thickness for the very thin InN(0001) films, for which we have found that the ideal InN(0001) films of the wurtzite structure, up to 4 bilayers, optimize to the graphitic- like structure. We then discuss the relationship between the dipoles and the surfaces (work functions) of the InN(0001) films, and the possibilities of their p-type doping. R.E. Jones, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett, 96, 125505 (2006). Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, Phys. Rev. B, 24, 864 (1981). K. Shiraishi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, 59, 3455 (1990) C. L. Freeman, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett, 96, 066102 (2006)

  15. NIH's "Family Inn" Lets Out-of-Town Youngsters Stay "Home."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Sylvia

    1993-01-01

    The Children's Inn, on the grounds of the National Institutes for Health (NIH) near Washington, DC, serves as a national model of the value of family-centered homes for pediatric patients and their families. When parents bring their child to NIH from a distant place, they can stay in the inn with their child while the child is receiving treatment.…

  16. Inn1 couples contraction of the actomyosin ring to membrane ingression during cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto; Marchesi, Vanessa; Murray, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Pereira, Gislene; Edmondson, Ricky; Allen, Terry; Labib, Karim

    2008-04-01

    By rapidly depleting each of the essential budding yeast proteins of unknown function, we identified a novel factor that we call Inn1, which associates with the contractile actomyosin ring at the end of mitosis and is needed for cytokinesis. We show that Inn1 has a C2 domain at the amino terminus of the protein that is required for ingression of the plasma membrane, whereas the remainder of the protein recruits Inn1 to the actomyosin ring. The lethal effects of deleting the INN1 gene can be suppressed by artificial fusion of the C2 domain to other components of the actomyosin ring, restoring membrane ingression on contraction of the actomyosin ring. Our data indicate that recruitment of the C2 domain of Inn1 to the contractile actomyosin ring is crucial for ingression of the plasma membrane during cytokinesis in budding yeast.

  17. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xing-Min; Hao, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Ping

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  18. Geothermal heating facilities for Frontier Inn, Susanville, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A 38 unit motel composed of six major sections (coffee shop, A frame units, apartments, back units, two story units and office) was built over a number of years and exhibits widely varying types of construction. Space heating is provided by primarily electric resistance equipment with some propane use. Domestic hot water is provided primarily by propane with some electric resistance. The coffee shop uses fuel oil for both space and domestic hot water heating. A geothermal district heating system is being installed. Although the motel site is not located in the area of construction activity, it is expected that the pipeline will be extended. The potential of retrofitting the existing heating facilities at the inn to geothermal is studied.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN dots on nitrided sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Dengel, Radu-Gabriel; Stebounova, LarissaV.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2007-04-20

    A series of self-assembled InN dots are grown by radio frequency (RF) plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) directly on nitrided sapphire. Initial nitridation of the sapphire substrates at 900 C results in the formation of a rough AlN surface layer, which acts as a very thin buffer layer and facilitates the nucleation of the InN dots according to the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode, with a wetting layer of {approx}0.9 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that well-confined InN nanoislands with the greatest height/width at half-height ratio of 0.64 can be grown at 460 C. Lower substrate temperatures result in a reduced aspect ratio due to a lower diffusion rate of the In adatoms, whereas the thermal decomposition of InN truncates the growth at T>500 C. The densities of separated dots vary between 1.0 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} and 2.5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} depending on the growth time. Optical response of the InN dots under laser excitation is studied with apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, although no photoluminescence is observed from these samples. In view of the desirable implementation of InN nanostructures into photonic devices, the results indicate that nitrided sapphire is a suitable substrate for growing self-assembled InN nanodots.

  20. Genesis and Eruptive Dynamics of the Garnet-Bearing Rhyolites from the Ramadas Volcanic Centre (Altiplano-Puna Plateau, Central Andes, Argentina).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Astis, G.; Baez, W.; Bardelli, L.; Becchio, R.; Giordano, G.; Lucci, F.; Rossetti, F.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Ramadas volcanic centre (6.6 Ma) is a monogenetic calderic depression, now largely obliterated, almost coeval with the Late Miocene outbreak of highly explosive silicic activity in the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Ramadas erupted a rather complex suite of garnet-bearing, rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks, dominated by a >35 km3 fall deposit and preceded by the emplacement of a lag breccia containing abundant metasedimentary lithics and garnet-tourmaline leucogranites. During the waning stage of the eruption, small volume phreatomagmatic deposits formed a small tuff-ring, followed by a lava coulée emplacement. Volcanological data together with textural features of typical tube pumice evidence a volatiles-rich, plinian eruption. Petrographic and textural studies on juveniles confirm the presence of euhedral garnet as dominant phase and identify micrometric metaigneous fragments (Qtz+Bt+Kfs+Mt+Tur). BSE imaging and microprobe analyses on glasses, garnets and accessory mineral phases (zircon and monazite) provide further data to understand the genesis and eruptive conditions of these atypical rhyolites, geochemically different from those outcropping in the same region. Garnets display a homogeneous, unzoned almandine-spessartine composition (Alm72-71Sps24-23Pyr0-1Grs4-3) and are contained in a glassy rhyolitic magma with peraluminous character, HREE depleted and relative LREE enriched. It's known that primary igneous garnets are rare and can only develop under restricted conditions. Additionally, the presence of Zr and Mnz is associated with both magmatic and high-T metamorphic processes. Although more data need to be collected, our study and preliminary modelling point to the occurrence of thermal metamorphism shifting to partial melting of Fe-MnO-rich metapelitic rocks (or even re-melting of older acid volcanics), with final extraction of volatiles-rich rhyolitic melts, able to produce a plinian eruption. Here, Alm-Sps garnet could represent the peritectic product of the

  1. Intrinsic electronic properties of high-quality wurtzite InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisele, H.; Schuppang, J.; Schnedler, M.; Duchamp, M.; Nenstiel, C.; Portz, V.; Kure, T.; Bügler, M.; Lenz, A.; Dähne, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Gwo, S.; Choi, S.; Speck, J. S.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ebert, Ph.

    2016-12-01

    Recent reports suggested that InN is a highly unusual III-V semiconductor, whose behavior fundamentally differs from that of others. We therefore analyzed its intrinsic electronic properties on the highest available quality InN layers, demonstrating the absence of electron accumulation at the (10 1 ¯0 ) cleavage surface and in the bulk. The bulk electron density is governed solely by dopants. Hence, we conclude that InN acts similarly to the other III-V semiconductors and previously reported intriguing effects are related to low crystallinity, surface decomposition, nonstoichiometry, and/or In adlayers.

  2. Selective-Area Growth of Transferable InN Nanocolumns by Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Nanotemplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Guozhen; Xu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-02-01

    InN nanocolumn arrays were grown on c-plane sapphire with and without anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplates. The crystalline quality of InN nanocolumns was significantly improved by selective-area growth (SAG) using AAO templates, as verified by X-ray diffraction measurements. Then, InN nanocolumns were transferred onto p-type silicon substrates after etching off the AAO templates. Current-voltage characteristic of the transferred n-InN/p-Si heterojunctions shows on/off ratio as high as 4.65 × 103 at 2 V. This work offers a potential way to grow transferable devices with improving performances.

  3. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.

    2014-11-24

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} (or 1.25 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.

  4. Boron doped GaN and InN: Potential candidates for spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, S. W.; Huang, X. N.; Yao, K. L.

    2017-02-01

    The full potential linearized augmented plane wave method together with the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential is utilized to investigate the electronic structures and magnetism for boron doped GaN and InN. Calculations show the boron substituting nitrogen (BN defects) could induce the GaN and InN to be half-metallic ferromagnets. The magnetic moments mainly come from the BN defects, and each BN defect would produce the 2.00 μB total magnetic moment. The electronic structures indicate the carriers-mediated double exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Positive chemical pair interactions imply the BN defects would form the homogeneous distribution in GaN and InN matrix. Moderate formation energies suggest that GaN and InN with BN defects could be fabricated experimentally.

  5. InN Based Water Condensation Sensors on Glass and Flexible Plastic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Viorel; Costea, Stefan; Brezeanu, Mihai; Stan, George E.; Besleaga, Cristina; Galca, Aurelian C.; Ionescu, Gabriela; Ionescu, Octavian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the realization and characterization of a condensation sensor based on indium nitride (InN) layers deposited by magnetron sputtering on glass and flexible plastic substrates, having fast response and using potentially low cost fabrication technology. The InN devices work as open gate thin film sensitive transistors. Condensed water droplets, formed on the open gate region of the sensors, deplete the electron accumulation layer on the surface of InN film, thus decreasing the current of the sensor. The current increases back to its initial value when water droplets evaporate from the exposed InN film surface. The response time is as low as 2 s.

  6. Ambient pressure, low-temperature synthesis and characterization of colloidal InN nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jennifer C.; Yun, Dong Soo; Hu, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Highly soluble, non-aggregated colloidal wurtzite InN nanocrystals were obtained through an ambient pressure, low-temperature method followed by post-synthesis treatment with nitric acid. PMID:25484524

  7. An investigation of electronic and optical properties of InN nanosheet by first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, M.; Elahi, S. M.; Salehi, H.; Abolhassani, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated electronic and optical properties of InN nanosheet using density function theory (DFT) implemented in Wien2k code. We calculated the dielectric function, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refraction index, extinction index, reflectivity, and energy loss function of the InN nanosheet within GGA (PBE) and Engel-Vosko (E.V) approximation in two directions E||x (electric field parallel to nanosheet) and E||z (electric field perpendicular to nanosheet), we also calculated the band gap energy within GGA (PBE) and E.V approximations. Optical conductivity in directions to x and z shows that InN nanosheet has semiconductor properties. At the end, we calculated electronic and optical properties, and elastic constant of InN Bulk (wurtzite).

  8. Accommodation mechanism of InN nanocolumns grown on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2007-07-09

    High quality InN nanocolumns have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on bare and AlN-buffered Si(111) substrates. The accommodation mechanism of the InN nanocolumns to the substrate was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Samples grown on AlN-buffered Si(111) show abrupt interfaces between the nanocolumns and the buffer layer, where an array of periodically spaced misfit dislocations develops. Samples grown on bare Si(111) exhibit a thin Si{sub x}N{sub y} at the InN nanocolumn/substrate interface because of Si nitridation. The Si{sub x}N{sub y} thickness and roughness may affect the nanocolumn relative alignment to the substrate. In all cases, InN nanocolumns grow strain- and defect-free.

  9. Polarity and microstructure in InN thin layers grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, N.; Nakahara, Y.; Amano, H.

    2006-06-01

    Microstructures in InN grown on sapphire (0001) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to clarify the growth process. Special attention was paid to the selectivity of the crystal polarity of InN. The InN thin films grown on sapphire after nitridation has a flat surface while those grown on YSZ has hillocks on the surface. The crystal polarity was determined by comparing the experimentally observed intensity distribution in convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) disks with those simulated by the Broch-wave method. It was found that the InN grown on the sapphire has a nitrogen-polarity and the one on YSZ has a mixture of In- and N-polarities. The effect of surface-nitridation of sapphire on the growth process is also discussed

  10. Synthesis and characterization of InP and InN colloidal quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Osinski, Marek; Greenberg, Melisa; Bunge, Scott D.; Chen, Weiliang; Smolyakov, G. A.; Pulford, B. N.; Jiang, Ying-Bing

    2005-04-01

    InP quantum dots (QDs) with zinc blende structure and InN QDs with hexagonal structure were synthesized from appropriate organometallic precursors in a noncoordinating solvent using myristic acid as a ligand. The QDs were characterized by TEM, the associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron diffraction, and steady state UV-VIS optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. To our best knowledge, this paper reports synthesis of InN colloidal quantum dots for the first time.

  11. Growth of very large InN microcrystals by molecular beam epitaxy using epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, J.; Kishino, K.; Kikuchi, A.

    2015-02-28

    Very thick InN (∼40 μm) was grown by molecular beam epitaxy using the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique. In some regions, the ELO of InN was observed as expected, indicating an important step toward fabricating quasi-bulk InN substrates. Interestingly, most parts of the sample consist of large flat-topped microcrystals and well-faceted microstructures. This is likely due to local growth condition variations during ELO, which is supported by an experiment where ELO of InN was performed on a substrate with various stripe mask patterns. TEM characterization of a flat top InN microcrystal revealed few stacking faults and only related threading dislocations. Defect-free small faceted microcrystals were also observed. The thick InN crystals show a narrow photoluminescence spectrum with a peak at 0.679 eV and linewidth of 16.8 meV at 4 K.

  12. First-principles study of optical properties of InN nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmazdeh, Masoud Majidiyan; Mendi, Roohallah Taghavi; Zelati, Amir; Boochani, Arash; Nofeli, Fariba

    2016-05-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT), some optical properties of InN nanosheet, such as dielectric function, energy loss function, refractive index, reflectivity and absorption coefficient, have been calculated using the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) exchange-correlation potential and full potential-linearized augmented plane waves (FP-LAPW) method. The study of dielectric function show that optical properties of InN nanosheet are anisotropic and important energy range in the optical process is between low energies to 20 eV. The results indicate the plasmon energy of InN nanosheet occurs in the lower energy than bulk InN and in addition the plasmon energy in the in-plane direction is different from that perpendicular to the in-plane direction. The obtained optical gaps are 1.2 eV and 3.6 eV in perpendicular and parallel to c-axis, respectively. Study of refractive index and optical reflectivity shows that the superluminal phenomena occur in the several energy ranges for the InN nanosheet and this nanosheet has high transparency in a wide energy range. The results propose that the InN nanosheet is a good candidate for the optical communications applications, optoelectronics devices and transparent coatings.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of InN nanocrystals on glass substrate by plasma assisted reactive evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Alizadeh, M.; Shuhaimi, A.; Sundaram, S.; Hakim, K. M.; Goh, B. T.; Rahman, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    InN nanocrystals were grown on glass substrate by plasma assisted reactive evaporation technique and the quality was compared with InN on Si (111) substrate. Single phase InN was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and micro Raman analysis on both the substrates. Agglomerated and Hexagonal faceting nanocrystals observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis shows InN nanocrystals are nearly stochiometric. Photoluminescence reveals a broad emission near bandedge at 2 .04 eV and defect band at 1.07 eV. The Hall measurement on both the substrates reveals high electron carrier concentration. These encouraging results obtained suggested that high quality single crystalline InN can be obtained on glass substrate further optimizing the growth parameters. This novel growth of InN nanocrystals on glass substrate is an important step towards the development of monolithic, high efficiency low-cost InGaN-based renewable energy sources.

  14. RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Properties of InN and Related Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanishi, Yasushi; Saito, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro

    2003-05-01

    The fundamental band gap of InN has been thought to be about 1.9 eV for a long time. Recent developments of metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and RF-molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE) growth technologies have made it possible to obtain high-quality InN films. A lot of experimental results have been presented very recently, suggesting that the true band-gap energy of InN should be less than 1.0 eV. In this paper, we review the results of the detailed study of RF-MBE growth conditions for obtaining high-quality InN films. The full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of ω-mode X-ray diffraction (XRD), ω-2θ mode XRD and E2 (high-frequency)-phonon-mode peaks in the Raman scattering spectrum of the grown layer were 236.7 arcsec, 28.9 arcsec and 3.7 cm-1, respectively. The carrier concentration and room temperature electron mobility were 4.9× 1018 cm-3 and 1130 cm2/Vs, respectively. Photoluminescence and optical absorption measurements of these high-quality InN films have clearly demonstrated that the fundamental band gap of InN is about 0.8 eV. Studies on the growth and characterization of InGaN alloys over the entire alloy composition further supported that the fundamental band gap of InN is about 0.8 eV.

  15. The electronic structures of AlN and InN wurtzite nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wen; Li, Dong-Xiao

    2017-07-01

    We derive the relations between the analogous seven Luttinger-Kohn parameters and six Rashba-Sheka-Pikus parameters for wurtzite semiconductors, which can be used to investigate the electronic structures of some wurtzite semiconductors such as AlN and InN materials, including their low-dimensional structures. As an example, the electronic structures of AlN and InN nanowires are calculated by using the derived relations and six-band effective-mass k · p theory. Interestingly, it is found that the ground hole state of AlN nanowires is always a pure S state whether the radius R is small (1 nm) or large (6 nm), and the ground hole state only contains | Z > Bloch orbital component. Therefore, AlN nanowires is the ideal low-dimensional material for the production of purely linearly polarized π light, unlike ZnO nanowires, which emits plane-polarized σ light. However, the ground hole state of InN nanowires can be tuned from a pure S state to a mixed P state when the radius R is larger than 2.6 nm, which will make the polarized properties of the lowest optical transition changes from linearly polarized π light to plane-polarized σ light. Meanwhile, the valence band structures of InN nanowires will present strong band-crossings when the radius R increases to 6 nm, and through the detail analysis of possible transitions of InN nanowires at the Γ point, we find some of the neighbor optical transitions are almost degenerate, because the spin-orbit splitting energy of InN material is only 0.001 eV. Therefore, it is concluded that the electronic structures and optical properties of InN nanowires present great differences with that of AlN nanowires.

  16. Relation Between Structural and Optical Properties of InN and InxGa1-xN Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: InN InGaN structural and optical properties Abstract: <p>Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and optical measurements obtained from InN and...In1-xGaxNfilms (0 < x < 0.54) grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy are presented. Energy gaps measured byabsorption, PR, and PL for InN films grown on c...and optical measurements obtained from InN and In1-xGaxN films (0 < x < 0.54) grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy are presented. Energy gaps measured by

  17. The origin of an unusual tuff ring of perlitic rhyolite pyroclasts: The last explosive phase of the Ramadas Volcanic Centre, Andean Puna, Salta, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, M. A.; Cas, R. A. F.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    A thick sequence of bedded pyroclastic deposits, comprised largely of crystal poor, partially flow-banded perlite fragments defines the remains of a tuff ring around the eastern margin of the Miocene Ramadas Volcanic Centre (RVC), Central Andes, NW Argentina. In numerous quarry exposures, planar bed-forms dominate, but low-angle cross-stratification, lensoidal truncations and lateral pinching and swelling of cm-dm scale bed-forms occur, consistent with pyroclastic surge as the dominant transport and depositional mechanism. Intercalated are mantling, very fine grained, well-sorted, mm-cm scale planar ash layers that represent deposition from pyroclastic fall out and are most likely the products of co-surge ash clouds. Also observed are thick m-scale, laterally continuous, poorly-sorted horizons that are interpreted as pyroclastic flow deposits. Grainsize variations within the > 70 m thick succession range from fine ash to coarse lapilli, with occasional large blocks reaching 20 cm. Clast vesicularities are typically very low. The sequence constitutes a rhyolitic tuff ring around the proximal margins of the RVC. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that the tuff ring was developed following cessation of the major plinian eruption phase of the RVC. A series of pyroclastic density currents and associated ash clouds is inferred to have resulted in the construction of the rhyolitic tuff ring, with deposition focussed on the eastern and southern margins of the central vent. The fine-grained nature of the deposits and low clast vesicularity are consistent with some degree of magma:water interaction during fragmentation. Pervasive perlitic fracturing of clasts found within the tuff deposits also indicates hydration and an extended, post-depositional hydration of the pyroclastic sequence, due to the influence of meteoric water, is likely to have occurred, with deposit permeability, clast specific surface and climate influential in facilitating additional textural

  18. Organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, and PBDEs in grey mullets (Liza ramada) and allis shads (Alosa alosa) from the Vilaine estuary (France).

    PubMed

    Bocquené, Gilles; Abarnou, Alain

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the contamination levels of various organohalogenated compounds in two migratory fish species in the Vilaine River in western France. Organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs)), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in two diadromous species from the Vilaine estuary, the grey mullet (Liza ramada)-an amphihaline species, and the allis shad (Alosa alosa)-an anadromous species. Fish were collected in spring 2004 and spring 2005, upstream and downstream of the Arzal Dam. PCB contamination varied from 27 to 200 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.). PCDDs/Fs, expressed in toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ) varied from 0.4 to 2.8 pg g(-1) d.w. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs expressed in total TEQ varied from 1.4 to 18.8 pg g(-1) d.w. PBDE47 was present at around 2-10 ng g(-1) d.w. and concentrations of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane breakdown product p,p'-dichlorodiphenylchloroethylene varied from 1 to 14 ng g(-1) d.w. For both species, specimens collected upstream were more contaminated. The grey mullet specimens were less contaminated than the allis shad when taken downstream of the dam but were more contaminated upstream. The allis shads presented intermediate contaminant concentrations with a less pronounced difference between upstream and downstream specimens. However, it is thought that shads do not feed when they spawn in the upstream parts of rivers, which should modify the contaminant concentrations. However, measurements in upstream shad samples show an unexpected increase of the contamination, which remains unexplained.

  19. Effect of stress during handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma ion levels and somatolactin-expressing cells in mature female Liza ramada.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Noha A; Hashem, Amal M; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Mousa, Mostafa A

    2012-08-01

    The present experiments were designed to determine the effect of different stress factors; handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma cortisol, hydro mineral balance as well as changes in size, number and integrated intensity of somatolactin (SL)-expressing cells in Liza ramada mature females confined to fresh water ponds. The plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), and K(+) were higher, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were lower than controls during transportation without anesthesia. By using clove oil (5 mg L(-1)) as an anesthetic during transportation, the plasma cortisol, PO(4) (3-), Na(+), and K(+) were similar to controls, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were higher. During seawater acclimation, the plasma cortisol and minerals were significantly higher except Na(+) which was lower than controls. In addition, during induction of spawning, the plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) were significantly higher than controls. The SL-producing cells are located in the pars intermedia (PI) bordering the neurohypophysis. The stress affected the number, size, and immunostaining of SL-expressing cells. During seawater acclimation, the size and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were lower, but the number of these cells was higher than controls. Furthermore, the number, size, and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were significantly lower than controls during handling and after spawning, which was opposite to confinement. The response of SL-expressing cells in PI in parallel with changes in cortisol and hydro mineral balance induced by stress support the possible role of SL in the adaptive response of fish to stress.

  20. Raman scattering study of anharmonic phonon decay in InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech-Amador, Núria; Cuscó, Ramon; Artús, Luis; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2011-06-01

    We present Raman scattering measurements on wurtzite InN over a temperature range from 80 to 660 K. To investigate all phonon modes of the wurtzite structure, measurements were performed on c and m faces of high-quality InN epilayers. High-resolution measurements of the low-frequency E2 mode reveal a slight anharmonic broadening of such a long-lived phonon due to up-conversion processes and a substantial contribution of background impurity broadening in the determination of its linewidth. An analysis of the anharmonicity and lifetimes of the InN phonons is carried out. Possible decay channels including up-conversion processes and four-phonon processes are discussed on the basis of density functional theory calculations.

  1. Terahertz detectors arrays based on orderly aligned InN nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuechen; Liu, Huiqiang; Li, Qiuguo; Chen, Hao; Peng, Rufang; Chu, Sheng; Cheng, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured terahertz detectors employing a single semiconducting nanowire or graphene sheet have recently generated considerable interest as an alternative to existing THz technologies, for their merit on the ease of fabrication and above-room-temperature operation. However, the lack of alignment in nanostructure device hindered their potential toward practical applications. The present work reports ordered terahertz detectors arrays based on neatly aligned InN nanowires. The InN nanostructures (nanowires and nano-necklaces) were achieved by chemical vapor deposition growth, and then InN nanowires were successfully transferred and aligned into micrometer-sized groups by a “transfer-printing” method. Field effect transistors on aligned nanowires were fabricated and tested for terahertz detection purpose. The detector showed good photoresponse as well as low noise level. Besides, dense arrays of such detectors were also fabricated, which rendered a peak responsivity of 1.1 V/W from 7 detectors connected in series. PMID:26289498

  2. Anomalous magnetism of superconducting Mg-doped InN film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, P. H.; Hong, S. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Guo, Y. X.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the Meissner effect of Mg-doped InN film with superconducting transition onset temperature Tc,onset of 5 K. Mg-doped InN is magnetically ordered and exhibits a simultaneous first-order magnetic and electric transition near 50 K. Its behavior is similar to that of iron-based superconductors. A strong correlation is proposed to exist between structural distortion and superconductivity when Mg is doped into InN. The suppression of magnetic ordering close to Tc by doping is further demonstrated by anisotropic magnetoresistance and M-H measurements. The findings suggest that the superconducting mechanism in the system may not be conventional BCS.

  3. Stopping Power Of He, C And O In InN

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Siketic, Z.; Radovic, I. Bogdanovic

    2011-06-01

    Group III nitrides such as InN, GaN, and their alloys are increasingly important in a host of optoelectronic and electronic devices. The presence of unintentional impurities is one of the factors that can strongly affect the electronic properties of these materials, and thus ion beam analysis techniques can play a fundamental role, in particular heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis tracing and quantifying these contaminations. However, stopping powers in InN and GaN have not yet been measured, and data analysis relies on using the Bragg rule, which is often inaccurate. We have used a bulk method, previously developed by us and applied successfully to other systems, to determine experimentally the stopping power of several ions in InN. The results of our measurements and bulk method analysis are presented.

  4. Large area InN terahertz emitters based on the lateral photo-Dember effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wallauer, Jan Grumber, Christian; Walther, Markus; Polyakov, Vladimir; Iannucci, Robert; Cimalla, Volker; Ambacher, Oliver

    2015-09-14

    Large area terahertz emitters based on the lateral photo-Dember effect in InN (indium nitride) are presented. The formation of lateral photo-Dember currents is induced by laser-illumination through a microstructured metal cover processed onto the InN substrate, causing an asymmetry in the lateral photogenerated charge carrier distribution. Our design uses simple metal structures, which are produced by conventional two-dimensional micro-structuring techniques. Having favoring properties as a photo-Dember material InN is particularly well-suited as a substrate for our emitters. We demonstrate that the emission intensity of the emitters can be significantly influenced by the structure of the metal cover leaving room for improvement by optimizing the masking structures.

  5. Terahertz detectors arrays based on orderly aligned InN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuechen; Liu, Huiqiang; Li, Qiuguo; Chen, Hao; Peng, Rufang; Chu, Sheng; Cheng, Binbin

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured terahertz detectors employing a single semiconducting nanowire or graphene sheet have recently generated considerable interest as an alternative to existing THz technologies, for their merit on the ease of fabrication and above-room-temperature operation. However, the lack of alignment in nanostructure device hindered their potential toward practical applications. The present work reports ordered terahertz detectors arrays based on neatly aligned InN nanowires. The InN nanostructures (nanowires and nano-necklaces) were achieved by chemical vapor deposition growth, and then InN nanowires were successfully transferred and aligned into micrometer-sized groups by a “transfer-printing” method. Field effect transistors on aligned nanowires were fabricated and tested for terahertz detection purpose. The detector showed good photoresponse as well as low noise level. Besides, dense arrays of such detectors were also fabricated, which rendered a peak responsivity of 1.1 V/W from 7 detectors connected in series.

  6. Surface charge accumulation of InN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai; Schaff, William J.; Eastman, Lester F.; Stutz, C. E.

    2003-03-01

    A series of thin InN films down to 10 nm in thickness were prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy on either AlN or GaN buffers under optimized growth conditions. By extrapolating the fitted curve of sheet carrier density versus film thickness to zero film thickness, a strong excess sheet charge was derived, which must come from either the surface or the interface between InN and its buffer layer. Since metal contacts, including Ti, Al, Ni, and a Hg probe, can always form an ohmic contact on InN without any annealing, it is determined that at least part of the excess charge is surface charge, which was also confirmed by capacitance-voltage measurements.

  7. Anomalous surface potential behavior observed in InN by photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wei, Jiandong; Wang, Xinqiang; Wang, Ping; Li, Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Lattice-polarity dependence of InN surface photovoltage has been identified by an anomalous surface potential behavior observed via photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy. Upon above bandgap light illumination in the ambient atmosphere, the surface photovoltage of the In-polar InN shows a pronounced decrease, while that of the N-polar one keeps almost constant. Those different behaviors between N-polar and In-polar surfaces are attributed to a polarity-related surface reactivity, which is found not to be influenced by Mg-doping. These findings provide a simple and non-destructive approach to determine the lattice polarity and allow us to suggest that the In-polar InN, especially that with buried p-type conduction, should be chosen for sensing application.

  8. Selective-Area Growth of Transferable InN Nanocolumns by Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Nanotemplates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Guozhen; Xu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-12-01

    InN nanocolumn arrays were grown on c-plane sapphire with and without anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplates. The crystalline quality of InN nanocolumns was significantly improved by selective-area growth (SAG) using AAO templates, as verified by X-ray diffraction measurements. Then, InN nanocolumns were transferred onto p-type silicon substrates after etching off the AAO templates. Current-voltage characteristic of the transferred n-InN/p-Si heterojunctions shows on/off ratio as high as 4.65 × 10(3) at 2 V. This work offers a potential way to grow transferable devices with improving performances.

  9. Inhomogeneous free-electron distribution in InN nanowires: Photoluminescence excitation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; Garro, N.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Iikawa, F.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2010-09-01

    Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra have been measured for a set of self-assembled InN nanowires (NWs) and a high-crystalline quality InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The PLE experimental lineshapes have been reproduced by a self-consistent calculation of the absorption in a cylindrical InN NW. The differences in the PLE spectra can be accounted for the inhomogeneous electron distribution within the NWs caused by a bulk donor concentration (ND+) and a two-dimensional density of ionized surface states (Nss+) . For NW radii larger than 30 nm, ND+ and Nss+ modify the absorption edge and the lineshape, respectively, and can be determined from the comparison with the experimental data.

  10. Hydrogen adsorbed at N-polar InN: Significant changes in the surface electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, A.; Krischok, S.; Himmerlich, M.

    2015-06-01

    The interaction of atomic hydrogen and ammonia with as-grown N-polar InN surfaces is investigated using in situ photoelectron spectroscopy. Changes in the surface electronic properties, including the band alignment and work function, as well as the chemical bonding states of the substrate and adsorbates are characterized. Ammonia molecules are dissociating at the InN surface, resulting in adsorption of hydrogen species. Consequently, the considerable changes of the chemical and electronic properties of the InN surface during ammonia interaction are almost identical to those found for adsorption of atomic hydrogen. In both cases, hydrogen atoms preferentially bond to surface nitrogen atoms, resulting in the disappearance of the nitrogen dangling-bond-related occupied surface state close to the valence band edge at ˜1.6 eV binding energy and the formation of new occupied electron states at the conduction band edge. Furthermore, a decrease in work function during adsorption from 4.7 to 3.7-3.8 eV, as well as an increase in the surface downward band bending by 0.3 eV, confirm that hydrogen is acting as electron donor at InN surfaces and therefore has to be considered as one main reason for the surface electron accumulation observed at N-polar InN samples exposed to ambient conditions, for example as the dissociation product of molecules. The measured formation and occupation of electronic states above the conduction band minimum occur in conjunction with the observed increase in surface electron concentration and underline the relationship between the energy position of occupied electron states and surface band alignment for InN as a small-band-gap semiconductor.

  11. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; ...

    2014-11-24

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.

  12. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.

    2014-11-24

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.

  13. Sulfur passivation of surface electrons in highly Mg-doped InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhart, W. M.; Chai, J.; McConville, C. F.; Durbin, S. M.; Veal, T. D.

    2013-09-01

    Electron accumulation with a sheet density greater than 1013 cm-2 usually occurs at InN surfaces. Here, the effects of treatment with ammonium sulfide ((NH4)2Sx) on the surface electronic properties of highly Mg-doped InN (>4×1018 cm-3) have been investigated with high resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The valence band photoemission spectra show that the surface Fermi level decreases by approximately 0.08 eV with (NH4)2Sx treatment, resulting in a decrease of the downward band bending and up to a 70% reduction in the surface electron sheet density.

  14. Microstructures of InN film on 4H-SiC (0001) substrate grown by RF-MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantawongrit, P.; Sanorpim, S.; Yaguchi, H.; Orihara, M.; Limsuwan, P.

    2015-08-01

    InN film was grown on 4H-SiC (0001) substrate by RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE). Prior to the growth of InN film, an InN buffer layer with a thickness of ∼5.5 nm was grown on the substrate. Surface morphology, microstructure and structural quality of InN film were investigated. Micro-structural defects, such as stacking faults and anti-phase domain in InN film were carefully investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that a high density of line contrasts, parallel to the growth direction (c-axis), was clearly observed in the grown InN film. Dark field TEM images recorded with diffraction vectors g=11\\bar{2}0 and g = 0002 revealed that such line contrasts evolved from a coalescence of the adjacent misoriented islands during the initial stage of the InN nucleation on the substrate surface. This InN nucleation also led to a generation of anti-phase domains. Project supported by the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP) and the King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi under The National Research University Project. One of the authors (S. Sanorpim) was supported by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) and the Thai Government Stimulus Package 2 (TKK2555), under the Project for Establishment of Comprehensive Center for Innovative Food, Health Products and Agriculture.

  15. Study of InN epitaxial films and nanorods grown on GaN template by RF-MOMBE

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on high-quality InN materials prepared on a GaN template using radio-frequency metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy. We also discuss the structural and electro-optical properties of InN nanorods/films. The X-ray diffraction peaks of InN(0002) and InN(0004) were identified from their spectra, indicating that the (0001)-oriented hexagonal InN was epitaxially grown on the GaN template. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surface morphology revealed a two-dimensional growth at a rate of approximately 0.85 μm/h. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images identified a sharp InN/GaN interface and a clear epitaxial orientation relationship of [0001]InN // [0001]GaN and ( 2¯110)InN // ( 2¯110)GaN. The optical properties of wurtzite InN nanorods were determined according to the photoluminescence, revealing a band gap of 0.77 eV. PMID:22908859

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Tetragonal Distortion of InN Thin Films by RBS/Channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhi-Bo; Wu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Fa, Tao; Yao, Shu-De

    2009-08-01

    Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS/C) are used to identify the crystalline quality (χ min = 4.87%) of an InN thin film as a function of depth, and make a non-destructive quantitative analysis of the structure, in order to analyze the tetragonal distortion of the InN thin film at the depth determined.

  17. Growth mechanism and microstructure of low defect density InN (0001) In-face thin films on Si (111) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kehagias, Th.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Koukoula, T.; Komninou, Ph.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.; Tsagaraki, K.; Adikimenakis, A.

    2013-10-28

    Transmission electron microscopy has been employed to analyze the direct nucleation and growth, by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, of high quality InN (0001) In-face thin films on (111) Si substrates. Critical steps of the heteroepitaxial growth process are InN nucleation at low substrate temperature under excessively high N-flux conditions and subsequent growth of the main InN epilayer at the optimum conditions, namely, substrate temperature 400–450 °C and In/N flux ratio close to 1. InN nucleation occurs in the form of a very high density of three dimensional (3D) islands, which coalesce very fast into a low surface roughness InN film. The reduced reactivity of Si at low temperature and its fast coverage by InN limit the amount of unintentional Si nitridation by the excessively high nitrogen flux and good bonding/adhesion of the InN film directly on the Si substrate is achieved. The subsequent overgrowth of the main InN epilayer, in a layer-by-layer growth mode that enhances the lateral growth of InN, reduces significantly the crystal mosaicity and the density of threading dislocations is about an order of magnitude less compared to InN films grown using an AlN/GaN intermediate nucleation/buffer layer on Si. The InN films exhibit the In-face polarity and very smooth atomically stepped surfaces.

  18. Golf Tournament Drives in a Win for the Children’s Inn | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On September 23, golfers took to the Clustered Spires golf course in Frederick, Md., for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick hosted its inaugural golf tournament, with proceeds benefiting the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Children’s Inn.

  19. Self-assembled InN micro-mushrooms by upside-down pendeoepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Yang, Fan; Esser, Bryan D.; Kent, Thomas F.; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2016-06-01

    Self-assembly of hexagonal InN micro-mushrooms on Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals hexagonal mushroom caps with smooth top surfaces and a step-like morphology at the bottom surface. A detailed growth study along with SEM measurements reveals that an upside-down pendeoepitaxy mechanism underlies the formation of these structures. Cryogenic temperature photoluminescence measurements on the InN disks show a dominant band-to-acceptor recombination peak at 0.68 eV. Cross-section annular bright field (ABF-) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) reveals that the growth of these structures occurs along the [ 000 1 bar ] crystallographic orientation (N-face). Plan-view high angle annular dark field (HAADF) STEM in the center of the micro-disks reveals a hexagonal lattice indicative of stacking faults. However, at the outskirt of the micro-disk, surprisingly, a honeycomb lattice is observed in plan view STEM indicating a perfect freestanding Wurtzite InN disk that is free of stacking faults. This result opens a pathway for realizing strain-free, freestanding InN substrates.

  20. Dopants and Defects in InN and InGaN Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.; Jones, R.E.; Li, S.X.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2005-04-01

    We have performed systematic studies of the effects of high-energy particle irradiation on the properties of InGaN alloys. In agreement with the amphoteric defect model, irradiation of InN produces donor-like defects. The electron concentration increases with increasing radiation dose and saturates at 4 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} at very high doses. We find that the increase of the electron concentration causes a large blue-shift of the absorption edge, which is well-explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. The maximum electron concentration decreases with increasing Ga fraction in irradiated In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloys as the conduction band edge approaches the Fermi level stabilization energy (E{sub FS}). For x > 0.66 the conduction band edge moves above E{sub FS} and the irradiation of n-type films produces acceptor-like defects, resulting in a reduced free electron concentration. An analysis of the concentration dependence of the electron mobility in InN indicates that the dominant defects in irradiated InN are triply-charged donors. Finally, we show that InN films doped with Mg acceptors behave like undoped films above a threshold radiation dose.

  1. Golf Tournament Drives in a Win for the Children’s Inn | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On September 23, golfers took to the Clustered Spires golf course in Frederick, Md., for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick hosted its inaugural golf tournament, with proceeds benefiting the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Children’s Inn.

  2. Effect of interfacial lattice mismatch on bulk carrier concentration and band gap of InN

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Tangi, Malleswararao; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2012-10-15

    The issue of ambiguous values of the band gap (0.6 to 2 eV) of InN thin film in literature has been addressed by a careful experiment. We have grown wurtzite InN films by PA-MBE simultaneously on differently modified c-plane sapphire substrates and characterized by complementary structural and chemical probes. Our studies discount Mie resonances caused by metallic In segregation at grain boundaries as the reason for low band gap values ( Almost-Equal-To 0.6 eV) and also the formation of Indium oxides and oxynitrides as the cause for high band gap value ( Almost-Equal-To 2.0 eV). It is observed that polycrystallinity arising from azimuthal miss-orientation of c-oriented wurtzite InN crystals increases the carrier concentration and the band gap values. We have reviewed the band gap, carrier concentration, and effective mass of InN in literature and our own measurements, which show that the Moss-Burstein relation with a non-parabolic conduction band accounts for the observed variation of band gap with carrier concentration.

  3. Nanostructural and electronic properties of polytypes in InN nanocolumns

    SciTech Connect

    Kioseoglou, J.; Koukoula, T.; Komninou, Ph.; Kehagias, Th.; Georgakilas, A.; Androulidaki, M.

    2013-08-21

    Transmission electron microscopy techniques and density functional theory calculations were employed to investigate the nanostructural and electronic properties of InN polytypes observed in InN nanocolumns, grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. Moiré fringes and alternating hexagonal and cubic lattice stacking sequences along the c-axis, observed among the wurtzite layers, implied the presence of different structures embedded in the basic 2H structure of the nanocolumns. Quantitative electron diffraction analysis and high-resolution image simulations verified the coexistence of the wurtzite structure with the 4H, 6H, and the 3C zinc-blende structural polytypes. Total energies calculations established the 2H wurtzite structure as the most stable polytype. The band gap of all polytypes was found direct with the energies and the band gaps of the 4H (E{sub g} = 0.64 eV) and 6H (E{sub g} = 0.60 eV) structures calculated between the corresponding values of the 2H (E{sub g} = 0.75 eV) and 3C (E{sub g} = 0.49 eV) basic structures. Theoretical and experimental analysis showed that at the initial stages of growth InN nanocolumns were under tensile strain along both the basal plane and growth direction. Structural polytypes were then introduced in the form of embedded inclusions to accommodate the excess tensile strain along the growth direction, allowing the entire process of polymorphism to be the dominant strain relaxation mechanism of InN nanocolumns. Moreover, the lattice and energetic properties and band gap values of InN polytypes showed a linear dependence on hexagonality, while the presence of polytypes led to a characteristic broadening of the photoluminescence emission peak toward lower emission energies.

  4. Role of nitridation on polarity and growth of InN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Skuridina, D.; Solopow, S.; Pristovsek, M.; Vogt, P.; Kneissl, M.

    2013-08-01

    We report on metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of (0001)InN layers simultaneously grown on a-plane (112¯0) and c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates. The substrates were nitridated at temperatures from 500 °C to 1050 °C prior to the growth of c-plane InN layers. Nitridation determined the polarity, the crystallinity, and the surface morphology of the InN layers. Nitridation temperatures above 800 °C lead to N-polar InN layers, while nitridation temperatures from 700 °C to 750 °C produce mixed-polar InN layers, and nitridation temperatures from 500 °C to 650 °C produce In-polar InN layers. The roughness and crystallinity of the InN layers are correlated with the changes of polarity. The incorporation of nitrogen into the nitridation layers at different nitridation temperatures was measured. A strong N-Al bond signal after nitridation is correlated with N-polarity layers after overgrowth.

  5. In induced reconstructions of Si(1 1 1) as superlattice matched epitaxial templates for InN growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Tangi, Malleswararao; Shivaprasad, S.M.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A novel growth method to form InN at low growth temperatures. ► Use of Si reconstruction as a growth template for group III nitrides. ► Band gap variation of InN – Moss–Burstein shift – non-parabolic conduction band for InN. ► Super lattice matching epitaxy of metal induced reconstructions with III–V unit cell. -- Abstract: Indium induced surface reconstructions of Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 are used as templates to grow high quality InN. We grow InN on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7, Si(1 1 1)-4 × 1-In and Si(1 1 1)-1 × 1-In reconstructed surfaces and study the quality of the films formed using complementary characterization tools. InN grown on Si(1 1 1)-1 × 1-In reconstruction shows superior film quality with lowest band-edge emission having a narrow full width at half maximum, intense and narrow 0 0 0 2 X-ray diffraction, low surface roughness and carrier concentration an order lower than other samples. We attribute the high quality of the film formed at 300 °C to the integral matching of InN and super lattice dimensions, we also study the reasons for the band gap variation of InN in the literature. Present study demonstrates the proposed Superlattice Matched Epitaxy can be a general approach to grow good quality InN at much lower growth temperature on compatible In induced reconstructions of the Si surface.

  6. InN thin-film transistors fabricated on polymer sheets using pulsed sputtering deposition at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lye, Khe Shin; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Indium nitride (InN) is potentially suitable for the fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) because of its high electron mobility and peak electron velocity. However, InN is usually grown using a high temperature growth process, which is incompatible with large-area and lightweight TFT substrates. In this study, we report on the room temperature growth of InN films on flexible polyimide sheets using pulsed sputtering deposition. In addition, we report on the fabrication of InN-based TFTs on flexible polyimide sheets and the operation of these devices.

  7. Electrically injected near-infrared light emission from single InN nanowire p-i-n diode

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Binh Huy; Zhao, Songrui; Tran, Nhung Hong; Mi, Zetian

    2014-12-08

    We report on the achievement of electroluminescence emission of single InN p-i-n nanowire devices. InN p-i-n nanowire structures were grown directly on Si substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and subsequently transferred to foreign substrate for the fabrication of single nanowire light emitting diodes. Electroluminescence emission with a peak energy of 0.71 eV (1.75 μm) was observed at 77 K. The measurement of near-bandgap electroluminescence provides unambiguous evidence for the achievement of p-type conduction of InN.

  8. InN thin-film transistors fabricated on polymer sheets using pulsed sputtering deposition at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, Khe Shin; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-07-18

    Indium nitride (InN) is potentially suitable for the fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) because of its high electron mobility and peak electron velocity. However, InN is usually grown using a high temperature growth process, which is incompatible with large-area and lightweight TFT substrates. In this study, we report on the room temperature growth of InN films on flexible polyimide sheets using pulsed sputtering deposition. In addition, we report on the fabrication of InN-based TFTs on flexible polyimide sheets and the operation of these devices.

  9. Growth of InN nanorods prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with varying Cr thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. W.; Young, S. J.; Chang, S. J.; Hsueh, T. H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chen, K. J.; Hung, H.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, Y. L.

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates how the thickness of Cr deposited on the Si substrate after the nitridation process influences the AIN buffer layer and the InN nanorods. Atomic force microscopy results reveal that different thicknesses of Cr form varying sizes of CrN nanoislands. The results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that a Cr deposition thickness of 10 nm results in CrN nanoislands after the nitridation process, improving the quality and density of InN nanorods. A Cr layer that was too thick led to polycrystalline InN growth. The results of transmission electron microscopy indicate a baseball bat-like InN nanorod growth mechanism.

  10. High-phase-purity zinc-blende InN on r-plane sapphire substrate with controlled nitridation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Ching-Lien; Liu, Ting-Wei; Wu, Chien-Ting; Hsu, Hsu-Cheng; Hsu, Geng-Ming; Chen, Li-Chyong; Shiao, Wen-Yu; Yang, C. C.; Gällström, Andreas; Holtz, Per-Olof; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2008-03-01

    High-phase-purity zinc-blende (zb) InN thin film has been grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire substrate pretreated with nitridation. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the phase of the InN films changes from wurtzite (w) InN to a mixture of w-InN and zb-InN, to zb-InN with increasing nitridation time. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals an ultrathin crystallized interlayer produced by substrate nitridation, which plays an important role in controlling the InN phase. Photoluminescence emission of zb-InN measured at 20K shows a peak at a very low energy, 0.636eV, and an absorption edge at ˜0.62eV is observed at 2K, which is the lowest bandgap reported to date among the III-nitride semiconductors.

  11. R&W Club Frederick Raises $1,500 for The Children’s Inn at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Forty-four government and contractor employees, along with their friends and family members, took to the Maryland National Golf Club course this fall for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick held its third annual golf tournament at the Middletown, Md., golf course on Sept. 14 to raise funds for The Children’s Inn at NIH, which celebrated its 25th anniversary this year. The Inn provides support and a home away from home for seriously ill children and their families receiving treatment at the NIH Clinical Center. Through the tournament, the club raised approximately $1,500 for The Children’s Inn, according to Tanya Ransom, biologist, NCI Center for Cancer Research, and secretary of the R&W Club Frederick. She also coordinated the golf tournament. After the tournament, a silent auction of sports memorabilia and collectibles, sponsored by Great Moments, Frederick, was held, and a portion of the proceeds also went to the Inn.

  12. R&W Club Frederick Raises $1,500 for The Children’s Inn at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Forty-four government and contractor employees, along with their friends and family members, took to the Maryland National Golf Club course this fall for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick held its third annual golf tournament at the Middletown, Md., golf course on Sept. 14 to raise funds for The Children’s Inn at NIH, which celebrated its 25th anniversary this year. The Inn provides support and a home away from home for seriously ill children and their families receiving treatment at the NIH Clinical Center. Through the tournament, the club raised approximately $1,500 for The Children’s Inn, according to Tanya Ransom, biologist, NCI Center for Cancer Research, and secretary of the R&W Club Frederick. She also coordinated the golf tournament. After the tournament, a silent auction of sports memorabilia and collectibles, sponsored by Great Moments, Frederick, was held, and a portion of the proceeds also went to the Inn.

  13. Epitaxial relationship of semipolar s-plane (1101) InN grown on r-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrakopulos, G. P.

    2012-07-02

    The heteroepitaxy of semipolar s-plane (1101) InN grown directly on r-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques. The epitaxial relationship is determined to be (1101){sub InN} Parallel-To (1102){sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}, [1120]{sub InN} Parallel-To [2021]{sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}, [1102]{sub InN}{approx} Parallel-To [0221]{sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}, which ensures a 0.7% misfit along [1120]{sub InN}. Two orientation variants are identified. Proposed geometrical factors contributing to the high density of basal stacking faults, partial dislocations, and sphalerite cubic pockets include the misfit accommodation and reduction, as well as the accommodation of lattice twist.

  14. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The solar hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Days Inn Motel (120 rooms), I-35/2276 Valley View Lane, Dallas, Texas is described. The solar system was designed by ILI Incorporated to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. The Solar Energy Products, model CU-30WW liquid (water) flat plate collector (1000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. This system is one of eleven systems planned. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers. The operation of this system was begun March 11, 1980. The solar components were partly funded ($15,000 of 30,000 cost) by a Department of Energy grant.

  15. Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, R.; Liu, B.; Xie, Z. L.; Xiu, X. Q.; Han, P.; Lu, H.; Zheng, Y. D.; Chen, Y. H.; Tang, C. G.; Wang, Z. G.

    2008-01-01

    The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) is observed in InN at inter-band excitation. The function of the CPGE induced current on laser helicity is experimentally demonstrated and illustrated with the microscopic model. A spin-dependent current obtained in InN is one order larger than in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures at inter-band excitation. The dependence of CPGE current amplitude on light power and incident angle can be well evaluated with phenomenological theory. This sizeable spin-dependent current not only provides an opportunity to realize spin polarized current at room temperature, but also can be utilized as a reliable tool of spin splitting investigation in semiconductors.

  16. Reconstruction of an inn fire scene using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    An inn fire occurring in the middle of the night usually causes a great deal more injuries and deaths. This article examines the case study of an inn fire accident that resulted in the most serious casualties in Taiwan's history. Data based on the official fire investigation report and NFPA921 regulations are used, and the fire scenes are reconstructed using the latest Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program from NIST. The personnel evacuation time and time variants for various fire hazard factors of reconstructive analysis clarify the reason for such a high number of casualties. It reveals that the FDS program has come to play an essential role in fire investigation. The close comparison between simulation result and the actual fire scene also provides fire prevention engineers, a possible utilization of FDS to examine the effects of improved schemes for fire safety of buildings.

  17. Morphology Controlled Fabrication of InN Nanowires on Brass Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huijie; Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Growth of semiconductor nanowires on cheap metal substrates could pave the way to the large-scale manufacture of low-cost nanowire-based devices. In this work, we demonstrated that high density InN nanowires can be directly grown on brass substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that Zn from the brass substrates is the key factor in the formation of nanowires by restricting the lateral growth of InN. The nanowire morphology is highly dependent on the growth temperature. While at a lower growth temperature, the nanowires and the In droplets have large diameters. At the elevated growth temperature, the lateral sizes of the nanowires and the In droplets are much smaller. Moreover, the nanowire diameter can be controlled in situ by varying the temperature in the growth process. This method is very instructive to the diameter-controlled growth of nanowires of other materials. PMID:28335323

  18. Conservation of the Sinclair Inn Museum, and the Painted Room Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaftel, A.; Ward, J.

    2017-08-01

    Conservation of the historic 18thC. Sinclair Inn Museum, and of the recently discovered late 18th/early 19thC. unique panoramic wall paintings located in an upstairs room, are co-dependent. This project was carried out with Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) staff, and Conservator in Private Practice Ann Shaftel. This paper will introduce the Sinclair Inn Museum, outline the CCI murals and building investigations of 2011-15, the mural investigation of 2015-16, which confirmed that the mural extended to all four walls of the function room, now referred to as the Painted Room, and to describe how it has been revealed and conserved to date.

  19. Nitrogen ion beam synthesis of InN in InP(100) at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dhara, S.; Magudapathy, P.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Kalavathi, S.; Sastry, V.S.; Nair, K.G.M.; Hsu, G.M.; Chen, L.C.; Chen, K.H.; Santhakumar, K.; Soga, T.

    2006-06-12

    The InN phase is grown in crystalline InP(100) substrates by 50 keV N{sup +} implantation at an elevated temperature of 400 deg. C followed by annealing at 525 deg. C in N{sub 2} ambient. Crystallographic structural and Raman scattering studies are performed for the characterization of grown phases. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence studies show direct band-to-band transition peak {approx}1.06 eV at temperatures {<=}150 K. Implantations at an elevated temperature with a low ion beam current and subsequent low temperature annealing step are found responsible for the growth of high-quality InN phase.

  20. BN, AlN, GaN, InN: Charge Neutrality Level, Surface, Interfaces, Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudnyi, V. N.

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of the charge neutrality concept, the analysis is fulfilled of the experimental data on the electron properties of the defective semiconductors after the radiation exposure, the electronic parameters of interfaces, surface work function and efficiency of doping with the impurities of high solubility in the nitrides of the group wz-III-N (BN, AlN, GaN, InN). The numerical evaluations of the charge neutrality levels in these compounds are presented.

  1. Growth modes of InN (000-1) on GaN buffer layers on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Kitajima, Takeshi; Chen, Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2005-03-01

    In this work, using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the surface morphologies of epitaxial InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with intervening GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates. On smooth GaN buffer layers, nucleation and evolution of three-dimensional InN islands at various coverages and growth temperatures are investigated. The shapes of the InN islands are observed to be predominantly mesalike with large flat (000-1) tops, which suggests a possible role of indium as a surfactant. Rough GaN buffer layers composed of dense small GaN islands are found to significantly improve uniform InN wetting of the substrates, on which atomically smooth InN films are obtained that show the characteristics of step-flow growth. Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging reveals the defect-mediated surface morphology of smooth InN films, including surface terminations of screw dislocations and a high density of shallow surface pits with depths less than 0.3 nm. The mechanisms of the three-dimensional island size and shape evolution and formation of defects on smooth surfaces are considered.

  2. Epitaxial growth, electrical and optical properties of a-plane InN on r-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Ajagunna, A. O.; Iliopoulos, E.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Georgakilas, A.

    2010-01-15

    The heteroepitaxy of a-plane (1120) InN films on r-plane (1102) sapphire substrates, by nitrogen radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, has been investigated and compared to that of c-plane (0001) InN. The epitaxial growth of a-plane InN proceeded through the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of three-dimensional islands, resulting in surface roughness that increased monotonically with epilayer thickness. The full width at half maximum of (1120) x-ray diffraction rocking curves decreased significantly with increasing InN thickness, characteristic of structural improvement, and it reached the value of 24 arcmin for a 1 {mu}m thick film. Hall-effect measurements exhibited a similar dependence of electron concentration and mobility on thickness for both the a- and c-plane InN films. The analysis of the Hall-effect measurements, by considering the contribution of two conducting layers, indicates a similar accumulation of low mobility electrons with N{sub s}>10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} at the films' surface/interfacial region for both the a- and c-plane InN films. From optical transmittance measurements, the absorption edge of 0.768 eV was determined for the 1 {mu}m a-plane film, consistent with the expected Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited a lower energy peak at 0.631 eV, suggesting defect-related transitions.

  3. First principles study of effects of vacancies on electronic, magnetic and optical properties of InN nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, M.; Elahi, S. M.; Abolhassani, M. R.; Salehi, H.

    2017-05-01

    Based on the first principle study within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the density functional theory (DFT) implemented in Wien2k code, the effects of vacancies on electronic, magnetic and optical properties of InN nanosheet were investigated. We found that the vacancies in InN nanosheet induce spin polarized states in the band gap, and VN-defect, VIn-defect and VIn&N-defect induce local magnetic moments of (-0.01)μB , 3.0μB and 2.0μB , respectively. Also, we calculated the dielectric function, refraction index, extinction index, reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity and energy loss function of the perfect InN nanosheet and VN-defect, VIn-defect and VIn&N-defect of InN nanosheet for both polarization directions of light, i.e. E||x (electric field parallel to nanosheet) and E||z (electric field perpendicular to nanosheet). Our results show that InN nanosheet is a semiconductor which is dependent on the type of vacancies and that the optical properties of perfect and defective InN nanosheets are anisotropic for both polarization states.

  4. Photoelectrochemical properties of InN nanowire photoelectrodes for solar water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, J.; Bogdanoff, P.; Ramsteiner, M.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

    2016-07-01

    InN nanowires were grown on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Raman spectroscopy showed that the nanowires were strain-free and allowed the deduction of a free carrier concentration of 1-2 × 1018 cm-3. This value was confirmed by a Mott-Schottky analysis of electrolyte-based capacitance-voltage measurements. In addition, these measurements directly revealed the existence of a surface accumulation layer in the InN nanowires. In cyclic voltammetry measurements under irradiation from a Xe lamp with about 100 mW cm-2, high photocurrents of about 4 and 11 mA cm-2 were observed at 1.23 and 1.63 V bias potential versus reversible hydrogen electrode, respectively, using H2O2 as a hole scavenger. By comparing the photocurrent with and without H2O2, the main limiting factor in the performance of InN nanowire photoanodes was identified to be the poor catalytic efficiency for water oxidation at the surface, followed by parasitic bulk recombination.

  5. Ab initio study of MOCVD synthesis of InN and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkosz, Weronika; Zapol, Peter; Highland, Matthew J.; Fuoss, Paul H.; Stephenson, Gregory B.

    2011-03-01

    A detailed understanding of MOCVD growth of group III nitrides is important for improved control over their properties and performance in a wide range of applications. Because of the relative instability of InN, chemically active precursors such as NH3 are typically used to provide the high nitrogen activity needed for growth. Our goal is to understand the mechanism and species involved in active nitrogen formation on the growth surface. Here we present results of density functional theory calculations for the decomposition of NH3 on InN and GaN (0001) surfaces through reaction intermediates such as adsorbed NH2 and NH. The calculated equilibrium surface structures along with the reaction barriers for the dissociation pathways of NH3 on these surfaces are described. Kinetic modeling based on the calculated barriers to determine reaction mechanisms and effective nitrogen activities is discussed. The results will be used to elucidate chemical kinetics on GaN and InN (0001) surfaces under MOCVD growth conditions with the aim to optimize synthesis conditions and precursors for effective growth of metastable nitrides. Work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Low-temperature self-limiting atomic layer deposition of wurtzite InN on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we report on self-limiting growth of InN thin films at substrate temperatures as low as 200 °C by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). The precursors used in growth experiments were trimethylindium (TMI) and N2 plasma. Process parameters including TMI pulse time, N2 plasma exposure time, purge time, and deposition temperature have been optimized for self-limiting growth of InN with in ALD window. With the increase in exposure time of N2 plasma from 40 s to 100 s at 200 °C, growth rate showed a significant decrease from 1.60 to 0.64 Å/cycle. At 200 °C, growth rate saturated as 0.64 Å/cycle for TMI dose starting from 0.07 s. Structural, optical, and morphological characterization of InN were carried out in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of the grown InN films. Refractive index of the InN film deposited at 200 °C was found to be 2.66 at 650 nm. 48 nm-thick InN films exhibited relatively smooth surfaces with Rms surface roughness values of 0.98 nm, while the film density was extracted as 6.30 g/cm3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements depicted the peaks of indium, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen on the film surface and quantitative information revealed that films are nearly stoichiometric with rather low impurity content. In3d and N1s high-resolution scans confirmed the presence of InN with peaks located at 443.5 and 396.8 eV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) further confirmed the polycrystalline structure of InN thin films and elemental mapping revealed uniform distribution of indium and nitrogen along the scanned area of the InN film. Spectral absorption measurements exhibited an optical band edge around 1.9 eV. Our findings demonstrate that HCPA-ALD might be a promising technique to grow crystalline wurtzite InN thin films at low substrate temperatures.

  7. Low-temperature self-limiting atomic layer deposition of wurtzite InN on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Ali E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Kizir, Seda; Biyikli, Necmi E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we report on self-limiting growth of InN thin films at substrate temperatures as low as 200 °C by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). The precursors used in growth experiments were trimethylindium (TMI) and N{sub 2} plasma. Process parameters including TMI pulse time, N{sub 2} plasma exposure time, purge time, and deposition temperature have been optimized for self-limiting growth of InN with in ALD window. With the increase in exposure time of N{sub 2} plasma from 40 s to 100 s at 200 °C, growth rate showed a significant decrease from 1.60 to 0.64 Å/cycle. At 200 °C, growth rate saturated as 0.64 Å/cycle for TMI dose starting from 0.07 s. Structural, optical, and morphological characterization of InN were carried out in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of the grown InN films. Refractive index of the InN film deposited at 200 °C was found to be 2.66 at 650 nm. 48 nm-thick InN films exhibited relatively smooth surfaces with Rms surface roughness values of 0.98 nm, while the film density was extracted as 6.30 g/cm{sup 3}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements depicted the peaks of indium, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen on the film surface and quantitative information revealed that films are nearly stoichiometric with rather low impurity content. In3d and N1s high-resolution scans confirmed the presence of InN with peaks located at 443.5 and 396.8 eV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) further confirmed the polycrystalline structure of InN thin films and elemental mapping revealed uniform distribution of indium and nitrogen along the scanned area of the InN film. Spectral absorption measurements exhibited an optical band edge around 1.9 eV. Our findings demonstrate that HCPA-ALD might be a promising technique to grow crystalline wurtzite InN thin films at low substrate

  8. High Cubic-Phase Purity InN on MgO (001) Using Cubic-Phase GaN as a Buffer Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Sanorpim, S.; Kuntharin, S.; Parinyataramas, J.; Yaguchi, H.; Iwahashi, Y.; Orihara, M.; Hijikata, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-12-23

    High cubic-phase purity InN films were grown on MgO (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy with a cubic-phase GaN buffer layer. The cubic phase purity of the InN grown layers has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction, {mu}-Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. It is evidenced that the hexagonal-phase content in the InN overlayer much depends on hexagonal-phase content in the cubic-phase GaN buffer layer and increases with increasing the hexagonal-phase GaN content. From Raman scattering measurements, in addition, the InN layer with lowest hexagonal component (6%), only Raman characteristics of cubic TO{sub InN} and LO{sub InN} modes were observed, indicating a formation of a small amount of stacking faults, which does not affect on vibrational property.

  9. InN nanorods prepared with CrN nanoislands by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Wei; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Young, Sheng-Joue; Hsueh, Tao-Hung; Hung, Hung; Mai, Yu-Chun; Wang, Shih-Ming; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Wu, Ya-Ling; Chen, Yue-Zhang

    2011-07-01

    The authors report the influence of CrN nanoisland inserted on growth of baseball-bat InN nanorods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under In-rich conditions. By inserting CrN nanoislands between AlN nucleation layer and the Si (111) substrate, it was found that we could reduce strain form Si by inserting CrN nanoisland, FWHM of the x-ray rocking curve measured from InN nanorods from 3,299 reduced to 2,115 arcsec. It is due to the larger strain from lattice miss-match of the film-like InN structure; however, the strain from lattice miss-match was obvious reduced owing to CrN nanoisland inserted. The TEM images confirmed the CrN structures and In droplets dissociation from InN, by these results, we can speculate the growth mechanism of baseball-bat-like InN nanorods.

  10. Self-Catalyzed Growth of Vertically Aligned InN Nanorods by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tessarek, C; Fladischer, S; Dieker, C; Sarau, G; Hoffmann, B; Bashouti, M; Göbelt, M; Heilmann, M; Latzel, M; Butzen, E; Figge, S; Gust, A; Höflich, K; Feichtner, T; Büchele, M; Schwarzburg, K; Spiecker, E; Christiansen, S

    2016-06-08

    Vertically aligned hexagonal InN nanorods were grown mask-free by conventional metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy without any foreign catalyst. The In droplets on top of the nanorods indicate a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mode. A systematic study on important growth parameters has been carried out for the optimization of nanorod morphology. The nanorod N-polarity, induced by high temperature nitridation of the sapphire substrate, is necessary to achieve vertical growth. Hydrogen, usually inapplicable during InN growth due to formation of metallic indium, and silane are needed to enhance the aspect ratio and to reduce parasitic deposition beside the nanorods on the sapphire surface. The results reveal many similarities between InN and GaN nanorod growth showing that the process despite the large difference in growth temperature is similar. Transmission electron microscopy, spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to analyze the structural properties. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations are carried out to verify the optical activity of the InN nanorods. The InN nanorods are expected to be the material of choice for high-efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  11. Adsorption of gas molecules on graphene-like InN monolayer: A first-principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang; Yang, Qun; Meng, Ruishen; Tan, Chunjian; Liang, Qiuhua; Jiang, Junke; Ye, Huaiyu; Chen, Xianping

    2017-05-01

    Using first-principles calculation within density functional theory (DFT), we study the gas (CO, NH3, H2S, NO2, NO, SO2) adsorption properties on the surface of single-layer indium nitride (InN). Four different adsorption sites (Bridge, In, N, Hollow) are chosen to explore the most sensitive adsorption site. On the basis of the adsorption energy, band gap and charge transfer, we find that the most energetic favourable site is changeable between In site and N site for different gases. Moreover, our results reveal that InN is sensitive to NH3, SO2, H2S and NO2, by a physisorption or a chemisorption nature. We also perform a perpendicular electric field to the system and find that the applied electric field has a significant effect for the adsorption process. Besides, we also observed the desorption effects on NH3 adsorbed at the hollow site of InN when the electric field applied. In addition, the optical properties of InN monolayer affected by different gases are also discussed. Most of the gas adsorptions will cause the inhibition of light adsorption while the others can reduce the work function or enhance the adsorption ability in visible region. Our theoretical results indicate that monolayer InN is a promising candidate for gas sensing applications.

  12. Fundamental optical properties of InN grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth method

    SciTech Connect

    Kametani, Tatsuma; Kamimura, Jumpei; Inose, Yuta; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kishino, Katsumi; Ema, Kazuhiro

    2013-12-04

    Optical properties of InN grown by the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) method have been studied using photoluminescence (PL) and excitation-correlation (EC) measurements. The PL spectrum is analyzed by free-electron recombination band (FERB) model, which shows that the ELO sample has a very low background carrier concentration (n=5.5*10{sup 16}[cm{sup −3]}). EC measurements show that the dependences of the band gap renormalization and Auger effect on the carrier concentrations are similar in spite of the different physical origins.

  13. Infrared analysis of hole properties of Mg-doped p-type InN films

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Ishitani, Yoshihiro; Wang Xinqiang; Che, Song-Bek; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2008-12-08

    Mg-doped InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were characterized by infrared reflectance. Signatures of p-type conductivity in the spectra were obtained in the same doping density range where the existence of net acceptors was found by electrolyte capacitance-voltage measurements. Numerical spectrum analysis, which takes into account the large broadening factor of the normal mode energies of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling yielded high hole densities in the range of (0.1-1.2)x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and optical mobilities in the range of 25-70 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  14. Structural Differences in Mg-doped InN - Indication of Polytypism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    accumulation layer over- come by using electrolyte-based capacitance-voltage ( ECV ) measurements [6,7] and a combination of Hall ef- fect, photoluminescence...and ECV analysis [8]. Mg doped InN thin films were confirmed to be p-type. However, there are only few reports on structural properties of this...an increase of Mg concentration above 1.8x1020 cm-3 using ECV measure- ments leads to a change from p-conductivity to n-type. This concentration

  15. Nqrs Data for C10H12Br5Cl2InN2O [C10H10Br5Cl2InN2·H2O] (Subst. No. 1254)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12Br5Cl2InN2O [C10H10Br5Cl2InN2·H2O] (Subst. No. 1254)

  16. Near-infrared InN quantum dots on high-In composition InGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Soto Rodriguez, Paul E. D.; Gomez, Victor J.; Kumar, Praveen; Calleja, Enrique; Noetzel, Richard

    2013-04-01

    We report the growth of InN quantum dots (QDs) on thick InGaN layers with high In composition (>50%) by molecular beam epitaxy. Optimized growth conditions are identified for the InGaN layers at reduced growth temperature and increased active N flux resulting in minimized phase separation and defect generation. The InN QDs grown on top of the optimized InGaN layer exhibit small size, high density, and photoluminescence up to room temperature. The InN/InGaN QDs reveal excellent potential for intermediate band solar cells with the InGaN and InN QD bandgap energies tuned to the best match of absorption to the solar spectrum.

  17. A comparative investigation on sub-micrometer InN and GaN Gunn diodes working at terahertz frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin'an; Long, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Hao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    We report on a simulation for wurtzite-InN and GaN Gunn diodes with notch-doping and uniform-doping structural transit regions. Results show that 0.3-1.0 μm Gunn diodes with a diode area of 500 μm2 can generate fundamental frequencies of around 0.2-0.8 THz and rf currents of several hundred mA. InN diodes exhibit more stable oscillations, whereas GaN diodes generate higher oscillation frequencies at both dipole-domain mode and accumulation-domain mode due to different negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics of high-field transport. The sharp NDR region of InN makes it more suitable for short transit region Gunn diode. Higher Irf/Iav and lower bias voltage in InN Gunn diode imply its conversion efficiency significantly higher than GaN diode.

  18. Valence band offset of MgO /InN heterojunction measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. F.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, R. Q.; Fan, H. B.; Song, H. P.; Wei, H. Y.; Jiao, C. M.; Yang, S. Y.; Zhu, Q. S.; Wang, Z. G.

    2008-01-01

    MgO may be a promising gate dielectric and surface passivation film for InN based devices and the valence band offset of MgO /InN heterojunction has been measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offset is determined to be 1.59±0.23eV. Given the experimental band gap of 7.83 for the MgO, a type-I heterojunction with a conduction band offset of 5.54±0.23eV is found. The accurate determination of the valence and conduction band offsets is important for use of MgO /InN electronic devices.

  19. From Amateur Astronomer to Observatory Director: The Curious Case of R. T. A. Innes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Robert Innes was one of a select band of amateur astronomers who made the transition to professional ranks towards the end of the nineteenth century. Initially he had a passion for mathematical astronomy, but after settling in Sydney he developed a taste for observational astronomy, specialising in the search for new double stars. He quickly became known for his success in this field and for his publications on solar system perturbations, and with John Tebbutt's patronage managed to secure a clerical position at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope. Once there he continued to observe in his spare time and to publish, and, with strong support from Sir David Gill, was appointed founding Director of the Transvaal Observatory. By the time he died in 1933, Innes had received an honorary D.Sc. from Leiden University, and had established an international reputation as a positional astronomer. This paper provides an interesting case study of a well-known `amateur-turned-professional', and an example of the ways in which patronage played a key role in nineteenth and early twentieth century Australian and South African astronomy.

  20. Planar n +-in-n silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS IBL upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R.; Muenstermann, D.; Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T.

    2011-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning to upgrade its pixel detector by the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5×10 15 n eq cm -2 at their end-of-life. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for IBL fluences, n +-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a 90Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. With an expected threshold of 3000-4000 electrons, this result suggests that planar n +-in-n pixel sensors are radiation hard enough to be used as IBL sensor technology.

  1. Growth kinetics and island evolution during double-pulsed molecular beam epitaxy of InN

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, A.; Hein, C.; Bremers, H.; Rossow, U.; Hangleiter, A.

    2016-06-21

    The kinetic processes of InN growth using alternating source fluxes with sub-monolayer In pulses in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. Growth at various temperatures reveals the existence of two growth regimes. While growth at low temperatures is solely governed by surface diffusion, a combination of decomposition, desorption, and diffusion becomes decisive at growth temperatures of 470 °C and above. At this critical temperature, the surface morphology changes from a grainy structure to a structure made of huge islands. The formation of those islands is attributed to the development of an indium adlayer, which can be observed via reflection high energy electron diffraction monitoring. Based on the growth experiments conducted at temperatures below T{sub Growth} = 470 °C, an activation energy for diffusion of 0.54 ± 0.02 eV has been determined from the decreasing InN island density. A comparison between growth on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy GaN templates and pseudo bulk GaN indicates that step edges and dislocations are favorable nucleation sites. Based on the results, we developed a growth model, which describes the main mechanisms of the growth.

  2. Growth of wurtzite InN on bulk In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(111) wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Sadofev, Sergey; Cho, Yong Jin; Brandt, Oliver; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Calarco, Raffaella; Riechert, Henning; Erwin, Steven C.; Galazka, Zbigniew; Korytov, Maxym; Albrecht, Martin; Uecker, Reinhard; Fornari, Roberto

    2012-10-22

    A single phase InN epitaxial film is grown on a bulk In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(111) wafer by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The InN/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} orientation relationship is found to be (0001) parallel (111) and [1100] parallel [112]. High quality of the layer is confirmed by the small widths of the x-ray rocking curves, the sharp interfaces revealed by transmission electron microscopy, the narrow spectral width of the Raman E{sub 2}{sup h} vibrational mode, and the position of the photoluminescence band close to the fundamental band gap of InN.

  3. Band alignment of InN/6H-SiC heterojunction determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Qiang; Wu, Guoguang; Zhang, Yuantao; Gao, Fubin; Cai, Xupu; Zhao, Yang; Li, Wancheng Du, Guotong

    2014-08-11

    The valence band offset (VBO) of InN/6H-SiC heterojunction has been directly measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The VBO is determined to be −0.10 ± 0.23 eV and the conduction band offset is deduced to be −2.47 ± 0.23 eV, indicating that the heterojunction has a type-II band alignment. The accurate determination of the valence and conduction band offsets is important for applications and analysis of InN/6H-SiC optoelectronic devices.

  4. A Dance Class, a Drag King, & the Pedagogical Possibilities of Performative Hip-Hop: An Interview with Carmen Morrison & Alex U. Inn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schönfeldt-Aultman, Scott M.; Morrison, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Alex U. Inn is the co-founder and one of the two MCs of the hip-hop drag king group, Momma's Boyz. Momma's Boyz celebrated their tenth anniversary in 2014. Carmen Morrison is the offstage name of Alex U. Inn, though "Carmen" now goes by Alex offstage, as well. Within this interview, the names "Carmen" and "Alex" are…

  5. Growth of InN Nanowires with Uniform Diameter on Si(111) Substrates: Competition Between Migration and Desorption of In Atoms.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fangliang; Wen, Lei; Xu, Zhenzhu; Han, Jinglei; Yu, Yuefeng; Zhang, Shuguang; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-04-06

    The effects of the growth parameters on the uniformity and the aspect ratio of InN nanowires grown on Si(111) substrates have been studied systematically, and a modified quasi-equilibrium model is proposed. The growth temperature is of great importance for both the nucleation of the nanowires and the migration of In and N atoms, thus affecting the uniformity of the InN nanowires. In order to improve the uniformity of the InN nanowires, both traditional substrate nitridation and pre-In-droplet deposition have been implemented. It is found that the substrate nitridation is favorable for the nucleation of InN nanowires. However, the initial In atoms adhered to the substrate are insufficient to sustain the uniform growth of the InN nanowires. We have found that the initial In droplet on the substrate is not only advantageous for the nucleation of the InN nanowire, but also favorable for the In atom equilibrium between the initial In droplets and the direct In flux. Therefore, InN nanowires with a uniform aspect ratio and optimal diameter can be achieved. The results reported herein provide meaningful insights to understanding the growth kinetics during the InN nanowires growth, and open up great possibilities of developing high-performance group III-nitride-based devices.

  6. A Dance Class, a Drag King, & the Pedagogical Possibilities of Performative Hip-Hop: An Interview with Carmen Morrison & Alex U. Inn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schönfeldt-Aultman, Scott M.; Morrison, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Alex U. Inn is the co-founder and one of the two MCs of the hip-hop drag king group, Momma's Boyz. Momma's Boyz celebrated their tenth anniversary in 2014. Carmen Morrison is the offstage name of Alex U. Inn, though "Carmen" now goes by Alex offstage, as well. Within this interview, the names "Carmen" and "Alex" are…

  7. Periodic supply of indium as surfactant for N-polar InN growth by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yong-Zhao; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Ohgaki, Takeshi; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki; Okuno, Hanako; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the self-surfactant effect of In for N-polar InN growth by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. We found that InN quality was significantly improved if a thin In coverage (about 1.8 ML) was introduced before InN growth. However, this In coverage was slowly consumed during subsequent InN growth under N-rich condition. Periodically restoring In coverage for thick InN growth was proposed to solve this consumption problem. We suggest that the effect of In surfactant is to terminate the surface N dangling bonds and form an In adlayer, under which an efficient diffusion channel for lateral N adatom transport is created.

  8. Initial exploration of growth of InN by electrochemical solution growth.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes a brief and unsuccessful attempt to grow indium nitride via the electrochemical solution growth method and a modification thereof. Described in this report is a brief effort using a $50,000 LDRD award to explore the possibilities of applying the Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) technique to the growth of indium nitride (InN). The ability to grow bulk InN would be exciting from a scientific perspective, and a commercial incentive lies in the potential of extending the ESG technique to grow homogeneous, bulk alloys of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N for light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in the green region of the spectrum. Indium nitride is the most difficult of the III-nitrides to grow due to its very high equilibrium vapor pressure of nitrogen1. It is several orders of magnitude higher than for gallium nitride or aluminum nitride. InN has a bandgap energy of 0.7eV, and achieving its growth in bulk for large area, high quality substrates would permit the fabrication of LEDs operating in the infrared. By alloying with GaN and AlN, the bulk material used as substrates would enable high efficiency emission wavelengths that could be tailored all the way through the deep ultraviolet. In addition, InN has been shown to have very high electronic mobilities (2700 cm{sup 2}/V s), making it a promising material for transistors and even terahertz emitters. Several attempts at synthesizing InN have been made by several groups. It was shown that metallic indium does not interact with unactivated nitrogen even at very high temperatures. Thus sets up an incompatibility between the precursors in all growth methods: a tradeoff between thermally activating the nitrogen-containing precursor and the low decomposition temperature of solid InN. We have been working to develop a novel growth technique that circumvents the difficulties of other bulk growth techniques by precipitating the column III nitrides from a solvent, such as a molten chloride salt, that

  9. MBE Growth of InN/GaN(0001) and Shape Transitions of InN islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongge; Xie, Maohai; Liu, Ying; Ng, Y. F.

    2003-03-01

    Plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxial growth of InN on GaN(0001) is investigated. Both layer-by-layer and Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth modes are observed under different growth windows. Strain relaxation is studied by real-time recording of the in-plane lattice spacing evolutions on RHEED pattern, which suggest a gradual relaxation of the strain in InN film commenced during the first bilayer (BL) deposition and almost completed after 2-4 BLs. For SK growth, 3D islanding initiates after the strain has mostly been relieved, presumably by dislocations. Based on statistical analysis, the shape transitions of 3D islands are firstly observed in the III-nitrides system. The InN islands transform gradually from pyramids to platelets with increasing of In flux. Under In-rich growth condition, the reverse trend of island shape evolution dependence on volume size, compared with Equilibrium Crystal Shape (ECS) theory, is induced by the Indium self-surfactant effects, in which Indium adlayer on the top surface of InN islands will depress the thermodynamic driving force for the vertical growth of 3D islands. Lateral growth of 3D islands is not only the result of kinetic process but also favored by thermodynamics while Indium self-surfactant exist.

  10. Formation of polar InN with surface Fermi level near the valence band maximum by means of ammonia nitridation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, J.; Kuzmin, M.; Adell, J.; Balasubramanian, T.; Laukkanen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Development of InN films for devices is hindered due to metallic In clusters, formed readily during growth, and unintentional n-type conductivity of the nominally undoped films, including surface electron-accumulation layers via the Fermi level pinning into the conduction band. Plasma nitridation eliminates even large In clusters from the surface by changing them to two-dimensional InN [Yamaguchi and Nanishi, Appl. Phys. Expr.10.1143/APEX.2.051001 2, 051001 (2009)]. Here we utilized a similar approach, that is, nitridation of In-covered surfaces with ammonia (NH3) to grow thin, up to 25 nm thick polar InN films on Si(111) and GaN(0001) substrates. By means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, as well as photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that this simple NH3 nitridation provides the hitherto not reported formation of polar InN(000-1) films with the surface Fermi level close to the valence band maximum, as recent calculations [Belabbes , Phys. Rev. B10.1103/PhysRevB.84.205304 84, 205304 (2011)] predict.

  11. Generation of ultra-small InN nanocrystals by pulsed laser ablation of suspension in organic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurşungöz, Canan; Uzcengiz Şimşek, Elif; Tuzaklı, Refik; Ortaç, Bülend

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructures of InN have been extensively investigated since nano-size provides a number of advantages allowing applications in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is quite important to obtain pure InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) to reveal the characteristic features, which gain interest in the literature. Here, we proposed a new approach for the synthesis of ultra-small hexagonal InN-NCs by using suspension of micron-sized InN powder in ethanol with pulsed laser ablation method. The liquid environment, laser energy and ablation time were optimized and a post-synthesis treatment, centrifugation, was performed to achieve InN-NCs with the smallest size. Besides, the micron-sized InN powder suspension, as a starting material, enabled us to obtain InN-NCs having diameters smaller than 5 nm. We also presented a detailed characterization of InN-NCs and demonstrated that the formation mechanism mainly depends on the fragmentation due to laser irradiation of the suspension.

  12. Site-controlled crystalline InN growth from the V-pits of a GaN substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chien-Ting; Hsu, Lung-Hsing; Lai, Yung-Yu; Cheng, Shan-Yun; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Chien-Chung; Cheng, Yuh-Jen

    2017-05-01

    A site-controlled crystalline InN growth from the V-pits of a GaN substrate was investigated. The V- pits were fabricated by epitaxial lateral growth of GaN over SiO2 disks patterned on a sapphire substrate. InN crystals were found to preferably grow on the inclined {10-11} crystal planes of the V-pits. A V-pit size of 1 μm or less can provide precise site-controlled InN nucleation at the V-pit bottom, while no InN was grown on the rest of the exposed GaN surfaces. The site-controlled nucleation is attributed to the low surface energy point created by the converging six {10-11} crystal facets at the V-pit bottom. When In source supply is below a certain value, this V-pit bottom is the only location able to aggregate enough active sources to start nucleation, thereby providing site-controlled crystal growth.

  13. Elimination of surface band bending on N-polar InN with thin GaN capping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmík, J. Haščík, Š.; Kučera, M.; Kúdela, R.; Dobročka, E.; Adikimenakis, A.; Mičušík, M.; Gregor, M.; Plecenik, A.; Georgakilas, A.

    2015-11-09

    0.5–1 μm thick InN (0001) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with N- or In-polarity are investigated for the presence of native oxide, surface energy band bending, and effects introduced by 2 to 4 monolayers of GaN capping. Ex situ angle-resolved x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy is used to construct near-surface (GaN)/InN energy profiles, which is combined with deconvolution of In3d signal to trace the presence of InN native oxide for different types of polarity and capping. Downwards surface energy band bending was observed on bare samples with native oxide, regardless of the polarity. It was found that the In-polar InN surface is most readily oxidized, however, with only slightly less band bending if compared with the N-polar sample. On the other hand, InN surface oxidation was effectively mitigated by GaN capping. Still, as confirmed by ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy and by energy band diagram calculations, thin GaN cap layer may provide negative piezoelectric polarization charge at the GaN/InN hetero-interface of the N-polar sample, in addition to the passivation effect. These effects raised the band diagram up by about 0.65 eV, reaching a flat-band profile.

  14. Giant Reduction of InN Surface Electron Accumulation: Compensation of Surface Donors by Mg Dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhart, W. M.; Chai, J.; Morris, R. J. H.; Dowsett, M. G.; McConville, C. F.; Durbin, S. M.; Veal, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Extreme electron accumulation with sheet density greater than 1013cm-2 is almost universally present at the surface of indium nitride (InN). Here, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry are used to show that the surface Fermi level decreases as the Mg concentration increases, with the sheet electron density falling to below 108cm-2. Surface space-charge calculations indicate that the lowering of the surface Fermi level increases the density of unoccupied donor-type surface states and that these are largely compensated by Mg acceptors in the near-surface hole depletion region rather than by accumulated electrons. This is a significant step towards the realization of InN-based optoelectronic devices.

  15. Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunming; Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Xinqiang; Liu, Shitao; Zhang, Shan; Tang, Ning; Xu, Fujun; Chen, Zhuoyu; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Chen, Yonghai; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2013-05-08

    Electrically manipulating electron spins based on Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is a key pathway for applications of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) offer a particularly important SOC platform, where spin polarization can be tuned with an electric field perpendicular to the 2DES. Here, by measuring the tunable circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), we present a room-temperature electric-field-modulated spin splitting of surface electrons on InN epitaxial thin films that is a good candidate to realize spin injection. The surface band bending and resulting CPGE current are successfully modulated by ionic liquid gating within an electric double-layer transistor configuration. The clear gate voltage dependence of CPGE current indicates that the spin splitting of the surface electron accumulation layer is effectively tuned, providing a way to modulate the injected spin polarization in potential spintronic devices.

  16. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure InN Compact Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Lung-Chien; Kuo, Shu-Jung

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a nanostructured InN compact layer (InN-CPL). The effect of a nanostructured InN-CPL in a DSSC structure prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering was examined. The InN-CPL effectively reduces the back reaction at the interface between the indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC. DSSCs fabricated on ITO/InN-CPL/TiO2/D719 exhibited a short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and power conversion efficiency (η) of 23.2 mA/cm2, 0.7 V, and 8.9%, respectively.

  17. Electron Accumulation Layers in InN Nanocolumns Studied by Raman Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, E.; Lazic, S.; Calleja, J. M.; Agullo-Rueda, F.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2010-01-04

    Inelastic light scattering measurements on single crystal InN nanocolumns grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on both Si(001) and Si(111) substrates reveal the existence of a surface electron accumulation layer in the lateral non-polar sidewalls of the nanocolumns. Small and reversible electron density variations of this surface layer has been induced by chemical treatments of the nanocolumns, which can be accurately determined from the frequency of the LO phonon-plasmon coupled mode L{sub -}. The L{sub -} to E{sub 1}(LO) phonon intensity ratio dependence on the column diameter and the excitation wavelength is interpreted in terms of the inhomogeneous electron distribution in the nanocolumns volume and the presence of strong elastic light scattering by the nanocolumns. The TO modes fail to obey conventional selection rules, a fact that is also observed in GaN nanocolumns.

  18. Optical properties of InN with stoichoimetry violation and indium clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, T. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Glazov, M. M.; Kalvarskii, A. P.; Tkachman, M. G.; Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J.; Kavokin, A.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Butcher, K. S. A.; Guo, Q.; Monemar, B.; Kop'ev, P. S.

    2005-02-01

    We demonstrate that nonstoichiometry is one of the main reason of strong deviation of the InN optical gap in the 0.7-2 eV range, with N/In < 1 and N/In > 1 corresponding to the lower and higher energies, respectively. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of atomic orbital energies, which are strongly different for indium and nitrogen, therefore both excess atom incorporation and elimination could change the optical gap. We estimate such trends using the approximation of the empirical nearest-neighbor tight binding theory. It is also demonstrated that resonant absorption in In-enriched regions is an additional factor lowering an effective absorption edge.

  19. Strain Relief Analysis of InN Quantum Dots Grown on GaN

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    We present a study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the strain state of individual InN quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaN substrates. Moiré fringe and high resolution TEM analyses showed that the QDs are almost fully relaxed due to the generation of a 60° misfit dislocation network at the InN/GaN interface. By applying the Geometric Phase Algorithm to plan-view high-resolution micrographs, we show that this network consists of three essentially non-interacting sets of misfit dislocations lying along the directions. Close to the edge of the QD, the dislocations curve to meet the surface and form a network of threading dislocations surrounding the system. PMID:21794190

  20. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  1. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  2. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings, is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50% of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 ft/sup 2/ of flat plate collector, two 500 gal storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in 40% fuel savings.

  3. Temperature dependences of the contact resistivity in ohmic contacts to n{sup +}-InN

    SciTech Connect

    Sachenko, A. V.; Belyaev, A. E.; Boltovets, N. S.; Brunkov, P. N.; Jmerik, V. N.; Ivanov, S. V.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Konakova, R. V. Klad’ko, V. P.; Romanets, P. N.; Saja, P. O.; Safryuk, N. V.; Sheremet, V. N.

    2015-04-15

    The temperature dependences of the contact resistivity (ρ{sub c}) of ohmic contacts based on the Au-Ti-Pd-InN system are measured at an InN doping level of 2 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} in the temperature range of 4.2–300 K. At temperatures T > 150 K, linearly increasing dependences ρ{sub c}(T) are obtained. The dependences are explained within the mechanism of thermionic current flow through metal shunts associated with dislocations. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental dependences is achieved assuming that the flowing current is limited by the total resistance of the metal shunts, and the density of conductive dislocations is ∼5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}. Using the X-ray diffraction method, the density of screw and edge dislocations in the structure under study is measured: their total density exceeds 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}.

  4. Optical studies of MBE-grown InN nanocolumns: Evidence of surface electron accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Garro, N.; Cantarero, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2009-03-01

    Vertically self-aligned InN nanocolumns have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Different nanocolumn morphologies corresponding to different molecular beam epitaxy growth conditions have been studied. Raman spectra revealed strain-free nanocolumns with high crystalline quality for the full set of samples studied. Longitudinal optical modes both uncoupled and coupled to an electron plasma coexist in the Raman spectra pointing to the existence of two distinctive regions in the nanocolumn: a surface layer of degenerated electrons and a nondegenerated inner core. The characteristics of the low-temperature photoluminescence and its dependence on temperature and excitation power can be explained by a model considering localized holes recombining with degenerated electrons close to the nonpolar surface. The differences observed in the optical response of different samples showing similar crystalline quality have been attributed to the variation in the electron accumulation layer with the growth conditions.

  5. Angular-dependent Raman study of a- and s-plane InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filintoglou, K.; Katsikini, M.; Arvanitidis, J.; Christofilos, D.; Lotsari, A.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Vouroutzis, N.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.; Zoumakis, N.; Kourouklis, G. A.; Ves, S.

    2015-02-01

    Angular-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study nonpolar a-plane ( 1 1 ¯ 20 ) and semipolar s-plane ( 10 1 ¯ 1 ) InN epilayers. The intensity dependence of the Raman peaks assigned to the vibrational modes A1(TO), E1(TO), and E2 h on the angle ψ that corresponds to rotation around the growth axis, is very well reproduced by using expressions taking into account the corresponding Raman tensors and the experimental geometry, providing thus a reliable technique towards assessing the sample quality. The s- and a-plane InN epilayers grown on nitridated r-plane sapphire (Al2O3) exhibit good crystalline quality as deduced from the excellent fitting of the experimental angle-dependent peak intensities to the theoretical expressions as well as from the small width of the Raman peaks. On the contrary, in the case of the s-plane epilayer grown on non-nitridated r-plane sapphire, fitting of the angular dependence is much worse and can be modeled only by considering the presence of two structural modifications, rotated so as their c-axes are almost perpendicular to each other. Although the presence of the second variant is verified by transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, angular dependent Raman spectroscopy offers a non-destructive and quick way for its quantification. Rapid thermal annealing of this sample did not affect the angular dependence of the peak intensities. The shift of the E1(TO) and E2 h Raman peaks was used for the estimation of the strain state of the samples.

  6. Angular-dependent Raman study of a- and s-plane InN

    SciTech Connect

    Filintoglou, K.; Katsikini, M. Arvanitidis, J.; Lotsari, A.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Vouroutzis, N.; Ves, S.; Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. A.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.; Zoumakis, N.

    2015-02-21

    Angular-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study nonpolar a-plane (11{sup ¯}20) and semipolar s-plane (101{sup ¯}1) InN epilayers. The intensity dependence of the Raman peaks assigned to the vibrational modes A{sub 1}(TO), E{sub 1}(TO), and E{sub 2}{sup h} on the angle ψ that corresponds to rotation around the growth axis, is very well reproduced by using expressions taking into account the corresponding Raman tensors and the experimental geometry, providing thus a reliable technique towards assessing the sample quality. The s- and a-plane InN epilayers grown on nitridated r-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) exhibit good crystalline quality as deduced from the excellent fitting of the experimental angle-dependent peak intensities to the theoretical expressions as well as from the small width of the Raman peaks. On the contrary, in the case of the s-plane epilayer grown on non-nitridated r-plane sapphire, fitting of the angular dependence is much worse and can be modeled only by considering the presence of two structural modifications, rotated so as their c-axes are almost perpendicular to each other. Although the presence of the second variant is verified by transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, angular dependent Raman spectroscopy offers a non-destructive and quick way for its quantification. Rapid thermal annealing of this sample did not affect the angular dependence of the peak intensities. The shift of the E{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 2}{sup h} Raman peaks was used for the estimation of the strain state of the samples.

  7. Influence of hydrogen input partial pressure on the polarity of InN on GaAs (1 1 1)A grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hisashi; Eriguchi, Ken-ichi; Torii, Jun-ichi; Cho, Hyun-Chol; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori

    2008-04-01

    Influences of hydrogen input partial pressure in the carrier gas ( F=PHo/(PHo+PNo)) on the crystalline quality and polarities of InN on GaAs (1 1 1)A surfaces were investigated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). It was found that the polarity of the InN was affected by the hydrogen gas in the system regardless of the polarity of GaAs starting substrate. The polarity of InN layer grown with the hydrogen partial pressure of Fo=0.004 was a mixture of In-polarity and N-polarity, while that grown with Fo=0 was In-polarity. Degradation of the crystalline quality of InN grown with Fo=0.004 occurred due to the polarity inversion during the growth. The reason why the polarity of InN was influenced by the hydrogen carrier gas could be explained by the preferential growth of N-polarity InN in the H 2 contained ambient and/or the limiting reaction of InN decomposition.

  8. Role of Inn1 and its interactions with Hof1 and Cyk3 in promoting cleavage furrow and septum formation in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishihama, Ryuichi; Schreiter, Jennifer H; Onishi, Masayuki; Vallen, Elizabeth A; Hanna, Julia; Moravcevic, Katarina; Lippincott, Margaret F; Han, Haesun; Lemmon, Mark A; Pringle, John R; Bi, Erfei

    2009-06-15

    Cytokinesis requires coordination of actomyosin ring (AMR) contraction with rearrangements of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, new membrane, the chitin synthase Chs2 (which forms the primary septum [PS]), and the protein Inn1 are all delivered to the division site upon mitotic exit even when the AMR is absent. Inn1 is essential for PS formation but not for Chs2 localization. The Inn1 C-terminal region is necessary for localization, and distinct PXXP motifs in this region mediate functionally important interactions with SH3 domains in the cytokinesis proteins Hof1 (an F-BAR protein) and Cyk3 (whose overexpression can restore PS formation in inn1Delta cells). The Inn1 N terminus resembles C2 domains but does not appear to bind phospholipids; nonetheless, when overexpressed or fused to Hof1, it can provide Inn1 function even in the absence of the AMR. Thus, Inn1 and Cyk3 appear to cooperate in activating Chs2 for PS formation, which allows coordination of AMR contraction with ingression of the cleavage furrow.

  9. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  10. Structural properties of InN films grown on O-face ZnO(0001) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong Jin; Brandt, Oliver; Kaganer, Vladimir M.; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Riechert, Henning; Korytov, Maxim; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-04-09

    We study the impact of substrate temperature and layer thickness on the morphological and structural properties of InN films directly grown on O-face ZnO(0001) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing substrate temperature, an interfacial reaction between InN and ZnO takes place that eventually results in the formation of cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and voids. The properties of the InN films, however, are found to be unaffected by this reaction for substrate temperatures less than 550 deg. C. In fact, both the morphological and the structural quality of InN improve with increasing substrate temperature in the range from 350 to 500 deg. C. High quality films with low threading dislocation densities are demonstrated.

  11. Dislocation reduction via selective-area growth of InN accompanied by lateral growth by rf-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Jumpei; Kishino, Katsumi; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2010-10-04

    We investigated the selective-area growth (SAG) of InN by rf-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy using molybdenum (Mo)-mask-patterned sapphire (0001) substrates, which resulted in the formation of regularly arranged N-polar InN microcrystals. Transmission electron microscopy observation confirmed that the laterally grown side areas were nearly dislocation-free, although many threading dislocations (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}) were generated at the InN/sapphire interface and propagated into the center of the InN microcrystals along the crystal c-axis. The laterally grown InN microcrystals exhibited narrow near-IR emission spectra with a peak photon energy of 0.627 eV and a linewidth of 39 meV at room temperature.

  12. Dynamic atomic layer epitaxy of InN on/in +c-GaN matrix: Effect of “In+N” coverage and capping timing by GaN layer on effective InN thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Akihiko; Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Hwang, Eun-Sook; Itoi, Takaomi

    2016-01-11

    The growth front in the self-organizing and self-limiting epitaxy of ∼1 monolayer (ML)-thick InN wells on/in +c-GaN matrix by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been studied in detail, with special attention given to the behavior and role of the N atoms. The growth temperatures of interest are above 600 °C, far higher than the typical upper critical temperature of 500 °C in MBE. It was confirmed that 2 ML-thick InN wells can be frozen/inserted in GaN matrix at 620 °C, but it was found that N atoms at the growth front tend to selectively re-evaporate more quickly than In atoms at temperatures higher than 650 °C. As a result, the effective thickness of inserted InN wells in the GaN matrix at 660–670 °C were basically 1 ML or sub-ML, even though they were capped by a GaN barrier at the time of 2 ML “In+N” coverage. Furthermore, it was found that the N atoms located below In atoms in the dynamic atomic layer epitaxy growth front had remarkably weaker bonding to the +c-GaN surface.

  13. Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, Antaryami; Jang, Der-Jun Wang, Ming-Sung; Tu, L. W.

    2014-01-28

    Temperature and excitation power dependent time-integrated photoluminescence of Si doped InN thin films are investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra at low temperatures are described by single emission peak ensued due to “free-to-bound” recombination; whereas PL spectra at higher temperatures above 150 K are characterized by both “band-to-band” and “free-to-bound” transition. Carrier dynamics of Si doped InN thin films is studied using pump-probe reflection spectroscopy at room temperature. The hot electron cooling process is well described by electron-electron scattering. The dependence of the hot electron cooling rate on total electron density shows sublinear to linear behavior with increase of background electron density. The variation of the carrier recombination lifetime with total electron density implicates the dominance of the defect-related nonradiative recombination channel over other recombination processes.

  14. Role of native defects in nitrogen flux dependent carrier concentration of InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    We address the carrier concentration, strain, and bandgap issue of InN films grown on c-sapphire at different N-flux by molecular beam epitaxy using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the strain in InN films arises due to point defects like nitrogen interstitials and nitrogen antisites. We report minimal biaxial strain due to relaxed growth morphology and a minimal hydrostatic strain arising due to interstitial nitrogen atoms being partially compensated by nitrogen antisites. We find that the variation in absorption edge can be attributed to defect induced carrier concentration and that nitrogen interstitials and nitrogen antisites act as donors that yield the respective absorption edge and Moss-Burstein shift. Our studies are a step towards the ability to form low carrier concentration strain-relaxed films and to determine the intrinsic band gap value for this technologically important material.

  15. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of InN on GaN using tertiary-butylhydrazine as nitrogen source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremzow, Raimund; Pristovsek, Markus; Stellmach, Joachim; Savaş, Özgür; Kneissl, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The growth of InN on GaN/sapphire by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using tertiary-butylhydrazine (tBHy) was studied by varying temperature, V/III-ratio, growth time and carrier gas between nitrogen and hydrogen. The growth was characterized in-situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry and ex-situ by high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to ammonia, it was predicted that tBHy should allow InN growth for a much wider growth window and low V/III-ratios with growth temperatures below 600C. However, over a wide range of growth parameters only growth of metallic indium droplets was observed.

  16. Surface structure and surface kinetics of InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy: A HREELS study

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Ananta R. E-mail: anantaach@gmail.com; Thoms, Brian D.; Nepal, Neeraj; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-03-15

    The surface bonding configuration and kinetics of hydrogen desorption from InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. High resolution electron energy loss spectra exhibited loss peaks assigned to a Fuchs–Kliewer surface phonon, N-N and N-H surface species. The surface N-N vibrations are attributed to surface defects. The observation of N-H but no In-H surface species suggested N-terminated InN. Isothermal desorption data were best fit by the first-order desorption kinetics with an activation energy of (0.88 ± 0.06) eV and pre-exponential factor of (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5 }s{sup −1}.

  17. Polarity control and transport properties of Mg-doped (0001) InN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soojeong; Wu Feng; Bierwagen, Oliver; Speck, James S.

    2013-05-15

    The authors report on the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth and carrier transport of Mg-doped In-face (0001) InN. The 1.2 {mu}m thick InN films were grown on GaN:Fe templates under metal rich conditions with Mg concentration from 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3}. A morphological transition, associated with the formation of V-shape polarity inversion domains, was observed at Mg concentration over 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Seebeck measurements indicated p-type conductivity for Mg-concentrations from 9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3} to 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3}, i.e., as it exceeded the compensating (unintentional) donor concentration.

  18. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  19. R&W Club Frederick Hosts Second Annual Golf Tourney for The Children’s Inn | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 8, more than 40 NCI at Frederick and Leidos Biomedical Research employees, along with family and friends, swapped work clothes for golf gear at Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown. The golfers didn’t just play for fun; they participated in the second annual R&W Club Frederick Golf Tournament to support The Children’s Inn at NIH.

  20. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  1. R&W Club Frederick Hosts Second Annual Golf Tourney for The Children’s Inn | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 8, more than 40 NCI at Frederick and Leidos Biomedical Research employees, along with family and friends, swapped work clothes for golf gear at Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown. The golfers didn’t just play for fun; they participated in the second annual R&W Club Frederick Golf Tournament to support The Children’s Inn at NIH.

  2. Growth and Characterization of Single Crystalline InN Grown on GaN by RF Sputtering for Robust Schottky Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harotoonian, Vache; Woodall, Jerry M.

    2016-12-01

    High-quality, single crystal wurtzite InN films were fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron reactive sputtering on GaN templates. The sputtered InN films in this study were about 100 nm thick. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed the sputtered InN film had root-mean-square surface roughness of about 0.4 nm, which is comparable to the underlying GaN template. Coupled x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements confirmed the (0001) preferred growth orientation and ω-rocking curve full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) = 0.85° for the symmetrical (0002) diffraction peak. The present InN film has the best crystal quality in terms of narrower FWHM of XRD rocking curve among reported sputtered InN thin films. In-plane and out-of-plane XRD measurements revealed a relaxed film. Room temperature Hall Effect measurements showed mobility of 110 cm2/V.s and electron concentration of 1-2 × 1020/cm3. The feasibility of utilizing a cost effective and productive method of sputtering to form robust Schottky contacts to GaN using InN, an immiscible and metallic-like semiconductor, was explored.

  3. Current transport in W and WSI{sub x} ohmic contacts to InGaN and InN

    SciTech Connect

    Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.

    1997-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the specific contact resistance of W and WSi{sub 0.44} contacts on n{sup +} In{sub 0.65}Ga{sub 0.35}N and InN was measured in the range -50 {degrees}C to 125 {degrees}C. The results were compared to theoretical values for different conduction mechanisms, to further elucidate the conduction mechanism in these contact schemes for all but as-deposited metal to InN where thermionic emission appears to be the dominant mechanism. The contacts were found to produce low specific resistance ohmic contacts to InGaN at room temperature, e{sup c} {approximately} 10{sup -7} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for W and e{sub c} of 4x 10{sup -7} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for WSi{sub x}. InN metallized with W produced ohmic contacts with e{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup -7} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} and e{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup -6} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for WSi{sub x} at room temperature.

  4. Morphology and arrangement of InN nanocolumns deposited by radio-frequency sputtering: Effect of the buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteagudo-Lerma, L.; Valdueza-Felip, S.; Núñez-Cascajero, A.; Ruiz, A.; González-Herráez, M.; Monroy, E.; Naranjo, F. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the structural and optical properties of (0001)-oriented nanocolumnar films of InN deposited on c-sapphire substrates by radio-frequency reactive sputtering. It is observed that the column density and dimensions are highly dependent on the growth parameters of the buffer layer. We investigate four buffer layers consisting of (i) 30 nm of low-growth-rate InN, (ii) 30 nm of AlN deposited on the unbiased substrate (us), (iii) 30 nm of AlN deposited on the reverse-biased substrate (bs), and (iv) a 60-nm-thick bilayer consisting of 30-nm-thick bs-AlN deposited on top of 30-nm-thick us-AlN. Differences in the layer nucleation process due to the buffer layer induce variations of the column density in the range of (2.5-16)×109 cm-2, and of the column diameter in the range of 87-176 nm. Best results in terms of mosaicity are obtained using the bs-AlN buffer layer, which leads to a full width at half-maximum of the InN(0002) rocking curve of 1.2°. A residual compressive strain is still present in the nanocolumns. All samples exhibit room temperature photoluminescence emission at ~1.6 eV, and an apparent optical band gap at ~1.7 eV estimated from linear optical transmittance measurements.

  5. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-10-11

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

  6. Superconductivity of Ca2 InN with a layered structure embedding an anionic indium chain array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sehoon; Matsuishi, Satoru; Lee, Kimoon; Toda, Yoshitake; Wng Kim, Sung; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    We report the emergence of superconductivity in Ca2InN consisting of a two-dimensional (2D) array of zigzag indium chains embedded between Ca2N layers. A sudden drop of resistivity and a specific heat (Cp) jump attributed to the superconducting transition were observed at 0.6 K. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ = 4.24 mJ mol-1K-2 and Debye temperature ΘD = 322 K were determined from the Cp of the normal conducting state and the superconducting volume fraction was estimated to be ˜80% from the Cp jump, assuming a BCS-type weak coupling. Density functional theory calculations demonstrated that the electronic bands near the Fermi level (EF) are mainly derived from In 5p orbitals with π and σ bonding states and the Fermi surface is composed of cylindrical parts, corresponding to the quasi-2D electronic state of the In-chain array. By integrating the projected density of states of the In-p component up to EF, a valence electron population of ˜1.6 electrons/In was calculated, indicating that partially anionic state of In. The In 3d binding energies observed in Ca2InN by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy were negatively shifted from that in In metal. The superconductivity of Ca2InN is associated with the p-p bonding states of the anionic In layer.

  7. Electrical transport properties of single undoped and n-type doped InN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Richter, T; Lüth, H; Schäpers, Th; Meijers, R; Jeganathan, K; Estévez Hernández, S; Calarco, R; Marso, M

    2009-10-07

    Electrical transport properties of undoped and n-type doped InN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied by current-voltage and back-gate field-effect transistor measurements. The current-voltage characteristics show ohmic behavior in the temperature range between 4 and 300 K. Down to about 120 K a linear decrease in resistance with temperature is observed. The investigation of a large number of nanowires revealed for undoped as well as doped wires an approximately linear relation between the normalized conductance and diameter for wires with a diameter below 100 nm. This shows that the main conduction takes place in the tubular surface accumulation layer of the wires. In contrast, for doped wires with a diameter larger than 100 nm a quadratic dependence of conduction on the diameter was found, which is attributed to bulk conductance as the main contribution. The successful doping of the wires is confirmed by an enhanced conduction and by the results of the back-gate field-effect transistor measurements.

  8. Hole transport and photoluminescence in Mg-doped InN

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.; Ager III, J. W.; Smith III, H. M.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Schaff, W. J.; Gallinat, C.; Koblmuller, G.; Speck, J. S.

    2010-03-24

    Hole conductivity and photoluminescence were studied in Mg-doped InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Because surface electron accumulation interferes with carrier type determination by electrical measurements, the nature of the majority carriers in the bulk of the films was determined using thermopower measurements. Mg concentrations in a"window" from ca. 3 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3 produce hole-conducting, p-type films as evidenced by a positive Seebeck coecient. This conclusion is supported by electrolyte-based capacitance voltage measurements and by changes in the overall mobility observed by Hall effect, both of which are consistent with a change from surface accumulation on an n-type film to surface inversion on a p-type film. The observed Seebeck coefficients are understood in terms of a parallel conduction model with contributions from surface and bulk regions. In partially compensated films with Mg concentrations below the window region, two peaks are observed in photoluminescence at 672 meV and at 603 meV. They are attributed to band-to-band and band-to-acceptor transitions, respectively, and an acceptor binding energy of ~;;70 meV is deduced. In hole-conducting films with Mg concentrations in the window region, no photoluminescence is observed; this is attributed to electron trapping by deep states which are empty for Fermi levels close to the valence band edge.

  9. Molten salt-based growth of bulk GaN and InN for substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    An atmospheric pressure approach to growth of bulk group III-nitrides is outlined. Native III-nitride substrates for optoelectronic and high power, high frequency electronics are desirable to enhance performance and reliability of these devices; currently, these materials are available in research quantities only for GaN, and are unavailable in the case of InN. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions associated with traditional crystal growth techniques place these activities on the extreme edges of experimental physics. The novel techniques described herein rely on the production of the nitride precursor (N{sup 3-}) by chemical and/or electrochemical methods in a molten halide salt. This nitride ion is then reacted with group III metals in such a manner as to form the bulk nitride material. The work performed during the period of funding (February 2006-September 2006) focused on establishing that mass transport of GaN occurs in molten LiCl, the construction of a larger diameter electrochemical cell, the design, modification, and installation of a made-to-order glove box (required for handling very hygroscopic LiCl), and the feasibility of using room temperature molten salts to perform nitride chemistry experiments.

  10. Molten Salt-Based Growth of Bulk GaN and InN for Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2006-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure approach to growth of bulk group III-nitrides is outlined. Native III-nitride substrates for optoelectronic and high power, high frequency electronics are desirable to enhance performance and reliability of these devices; currently, these materials are available in research quantities only for GaN, and are unavailable in the case of InN. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions associated with traditional crystal growth techniques place these activities on the extreme edges of experimental physics. The technique described herein relies on the production of the nitride precursor (N3-) by chemical and/or electrochemical methods in a molten halide salt. This nitride ion is then reacted with group III metals in such a manner as to form the bulk nitride material. The work performed during the period of funding (July 2004-September 2005) focused on the initial measurement of the solubility of GaN in molten LiCl as a function of temperature, the construction of electrochemical cells, the modification of a commercial glove box (required for handling very hygroscopic LiCl), and on securing intellectual property for the technique.

  11. An investigation into the conversion of In2O3 into InN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Polina; Zervos, Matthew; Othonos, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Straight In2O3 nanowires (NWs) with diameters of 50 nm and lengths ≥2 μm have been grown on Si(001) via the wet oxidation of In at 850°C using Au as a catalyst. These exhibited clear peaks in the X-ray diffraction corresponding to the body centred cubic crystal structure of In2O3 while the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum at 300 K consisted of two broad peaks, centred around 400 and 550 nm. The post-growth nitridation of In2O3 NWs was systematically investigated by varying the nitridation temperature between 500 and 900°C, flow of NH3 and nitridation times between 1 and 6 h. The NWs are eliminated above 600°C while long nitridation times at 500 and 600°C did not result into the efficient conversion of In2O3 to InN. We find that the nitridation of In2O3 is effective by using NH3 and H2 or a two-step temperature nitridation process using just NH3 and slower ramp rates. We discuss the nitridation mechanism and its effect on the PL.

  12. First principles calculations of structural, electronic and optical properties of InN compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graine, R.; Chemam, R.; Gasmi, F. Z.; Nouri, R.; Meradji, H.; Khenata, R.

    2015-11-01

    We carried out ab initio calculations of structural, electronic and optical properties of Indium nitride (InN) compound in both zinc blende and wurtzite phases, using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW), within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). For the exchange and correlation potential, local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used. Moreover, the alternative form of GGA proposed by Engel and Vosko (EV-GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson schemes (mBJ) were also applied for band structure calculations. Ground state properties such as lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are calculated. Results obtained for band structure of these compounds have been compared with experimental results as well as other first principle computations. Our results show good agreement with the available data. The calculated band structure shows a direct band gap Γ → Γ. In the optical properties section, several optical quantities are investigated; in particular we have deduced the interband transitions from the imaginary part of the dielectric function.

  13. Evaluation of testing strategies for the radiation tolerant ATLAS n +-in-n pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas M.; Atlas Pixel Collaboration

    2003-10-01

    The development of particle tracker systems for high fluence environments in new high-energy physics experiments raises new challenges for the development, manufacturing and reliable testing of radiation tolerant components. The ATLAS pixel detector for use at the LHC, CERN, is designed to cover an active sensor area of 1.8 m2 with 1.1×10 8 read-out channels usable for a particle fluence up to 10 15 cm-2 ( 1 MeV neutron equivalent) and an ionization dose up to 500 kGy of mainly charged hadron radiation. To cope with such a harsh environment the ATLAS Pixel Collaboration has developed a radiation hard n +-in-n silicon pixel cell design with a standard cell size of 50×400 μm2. Using this design on an oxygenated silicon substrate, sensor production has started in 2001. This contribution describes results gained during the development of testing procedures of the ATLAS pixel sensor and evaluates quality assurance procedures regarding their relevance for detector operation in the ATLAS experiment. The specific set of tests discussed in detail measures sensor depletion, interface generation velocity, p-spray dose and biasing by punch-through mechanism and is designed to give insights into effects of irradiation with ionizing particles.

  14. Optical characterization of free electron concentration in heteroepitaxial InN layers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 transfer-matrix algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Katsidis, C. C.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2013-02-21

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been implemented as a non-destructive, non-invasive, tool for the optical characterization of a set of c-plane InN single heteroepitaxial layers spanning a wide range of thicknesses (30-2000 nm). The c-plane (0001) InN epilayers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on GaN(0001) buffer layers which had been grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. It is shown that for arbitrary multilayers with homogeneous anisotropic layers having their principal axes coincident with the laboratory coordinates, a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 matrix algebra based on a general transfer-matrix method (GTMM) is adequate to interpret their optical response. Analysis of optical reflectance in the far and mid infrared spectral range has been found capable to discriminate between the bulk, the surface and interface contributions of free carriers in the InN epilayers revealing the existence of electron accumulation layers with carrier concentrations in mid 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at both the InN surface and the InN/GaN interface. The spectra could be fitted with a three-layer model, determining the different electron concentration and mobility values of the bulk and of the surface and the interface electron accumulation layers in the InN films. The variation of these values with increasing InN thickness could be also sensitively detected by the optical measurements. The comparison between the optically determined drift mobility and the Hall mobility of the thickest sample reveals a value of r{sub H} = 1.49 for the Hall factor of InN at a carrier concentration of 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at 300 Degree-Sign {Kappa}.

  15. risk factor Inn (INNrisk) - transdisciplinary analysis of the 2005 flood in the province of Tyrol, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleewein, Klaus; Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Borsdorf, Axel

    2010-05-01

    The transdisciplinary project INNrisk, in collaboration with public risk and disaster management, investigates the severe floods of 22nd and 23rd of August, 2005, and their effects within the federal province of Tyrol. The inundation and accompanying processes (e.g. debris flows, log jams, underwashing of infrastructure) caused by the river Inn and its tributaries created a dangerous situation for Tyrol. The overall economic loss of direct assets is said to amount to ca. 500 million Euros. Climate change has basically been causing a statistical increase of damaging floods within the Alpine Space in recent decades while increasing vulnerability at the same time. The expansion of settlements is one factor in the threat to large numbers of people and growing economic losses. However, the disasters of the last decade provide an opportunity for analysing the flood process in terms of natural-science and geographical aspects as well as in terms of economic and statistical ones. This should lead to a better understanding of triggers and effects in those areas where humans are active and form the basis for mitigation and adaptation strategies. The results of such analyses represent valuable information for public risk and disaster management, particularly in presenting the effects on public and private households. The INNrisk project primarily aims to assess the framework conditions in systemic-legal terms and to analyse human actions during the floods in relation to various plans and the damage potentials resulting from them. The assessed losses depend to a great extent on the actions taken during the emergency and on flood operations by the public emergency management and local fire departments, which are in charge of floods and related processes in the case of Austria. Assessment will be carried out by analysing a database of series of human actions for the duration of the emergeny and increased risk. The project also strives to arrive at a macro- and mesoeconomic

  16. Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome: an intellectual disability syndrome with characteristic facies.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jillian; Jenkinson, Allan; Magee, Alex; Ennis, Sean; Monavari, Ahmad; Green, Andrew; Lynch, Sally A; Crushell, Ellen; Hughes, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    We report a female child from an Irish Traveller family presenting with severe intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, renal anomalies, dental caries and cyclical vomiting. Current health issues include global developmental delay, mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, dental malocclusion and caries and a single duplex left kidney. The proband and her mother also have multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic cause. DNA from the proband was enriched with the Agilent Sure Select v5 Exon array and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Rare homozygous variants were prioritized. Whole-exome sequencing identified three linked homozygous missense variants in THOC6 (c.298T>A, p.Trp100Arg; c.700G>C, p.Val234Leu; c.824G>A, p.Gly275Asp) as the likely cause of this child's intellectual disability syndrome, resulting in a molecular diagnosis of Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome (BBIS). This is the first report of BBIS in Europe. BBIS has been reported previously in two Hutterite families and one Saudi family. A review of all patients to date shows a relatively homogenous phenotype. Core clinical features include low birth weight with subsequent growth failure, short stature, intellectual disability with language delay, characteristic facies, renal anomalies and dental malocclusion with caries. Some patients also have cardiac defects. All patients show characteristic dysmorphic facial features including a tall forehead with high anterior hairline and deep-set eyes with upslanting palpebral fissures. The coexistence of intellectual disability together with these characteristic facies should provide a diagnostic clue for BBIS during patient evaluation.

  17. Radiation hardness studies of n + -in-n planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenheiner, S.; Goessling, C.; Jentzsch, J.; Klingenberg, R.; Muenstermann, D.; Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T.

    2011-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning upgrades of its pixel detector to cope with the luminosity increase foreseen in the coming years within the transition from LHC to Super-LHC (SLHC/HL-LHC). Associated with the increase in instantaneous luminosity is a rise of the target integrated luminosity from 730 to about 3000 fb -1 which directly translates into significantly higher radiation damage. These upgrades consist of the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL, with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis, before 2016/17. In addition, the complete pixel detector will be exchanged before 2020/21. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5×1015 neq cm-2 at their end-of-life. The total fluence of the innermost pixel layer after the SLHC upgrade might even reach 2×1016 neq cm-2. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for these fluences, n +-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a 90Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge after IBL fluences was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. After SLHC fluences, still reliable operation of the devices could be observed with a collected charge of more than 5000 electrons per MIP.

  18. Direct growth of hexagonal InN films on 6H-SiC by radio-frequency metal-organic molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Tsai, Din Ping

    2011-01-15

    Wurtzite InN films were prepared on a 6H-SiC substrate by a self-designed plasma-assisted metal-organic molecular-beam epitaxy system without a buffer layer. In this article, the authors investigate the structural and optical properties of InN films grown on a 6H-SiC substrate. The crystallinity and microstructure of the thin film were further characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning-electron microscopy, and transmission-electron microscopy. Electrical and optical properties were evaluated by Hall and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. XRD results indicate that InN film grown at 500 deg. C is epitaxially grown along the c-axis orientation. The two-dimensional growth mode is clearly shown in scanning-electron microscope images. Room-temperature PL spectra show that the emission peak is located at {approx}0.83 eV due to the Burstein-Moss effect. In addition, the crystalline InN samples crack and peel away from the substrate at elevated growth temperature. This phenomenon may be attributed to lattice mismatch and grain coalescence while increasing the growth temperature. The narrow window of the growth temperature plays an important role in engineering the InN epitaxial growth.

  19. Current conduction mechanism and electrical break-down in InN grown on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmik, J.; Fleury, C.; Adikimenakis, A.; Gregušová, D.; Ťapajna, M.; Dobročka, E.; Haščík, Š.; Kučera, M.; Kúdela, R.; Androulidaki, M.; Pogany, D.; Georgakilas, A.

    2017-06-01

    Current conduction mechanism, including electron mobility, electron drift velocity (vd) and electrical break-down have been investigated in a 0.5 μm-thick (0001) InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a GaN/sapphire template. Electron mobility (μ) of 1040 cm2/Vs and a free electron concentration (n) of 2.1 × 1018 cm-3 were measured at room temperature with only a limited change down to 20 K, suggesting scattering on dislocations and ionized impurities. Photoluminescence spectra and high-resolution X-ray diffraction correlated with the Hall experiment showing an emission peak at 0.69 eV, a full-width half-maximum of 30 meV, and a dislocation density Ndis ˜ 5.6 × 1010 cm-2. Current-voltage (I-V) characterization was done in a pulsed (10 ns-width) mode on InN resistors prepared by plasma processing and Ohmic contacts evaporation. Resistors with a different channel length ranging from 4 to 15.8 μm obeyed the Ohm law up to an electric field intensity Eknee ˜ 22 kV/cm, when vd ≥ 2.5 × 105 m/s. For higher E, I-V curves were nonlinear and evolved with time. Light emission with a photon energy > 0.7 eV has been observed already at modest Erad of ˜ 8.3 kV/cm and consequently, a trap-assisted interband tunneling was suggested to play a role. At Eknee ˜ 22 kV/cm, we assumed electron emission from traps, with a positive feed-back for the current enhancement. Catastrophic break-down appeared at E ˜ 25 kV/cm. Reduction of Ndis was suggested to fully exploit InN unique prospects for future high-frequency devices.

  20. Advances in modeling semiconductor epitaxy: Contributions of growth orientation and surface reconstruction to InN metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaba, Akira; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kempisty, Pawel; Shiraishi, Kenji; Kakimoto, Koichi; Koukitu, Akinori

    2016-12-01

    We propose a newly improved thermodynamic analysis method that incorporates surface energies. The new theoretical approach enables us to investigate the effects of the growth orientation and surface reconstruction. The obtained knowledge would be indispensable for examining the preferred growth conditions in terms of the contribution of the surface state. We applied the theoretical approach to study the growth processes of InN(0001) and (000\\bar{1}) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Calculation results reproduced the difference in optimum growth temperature. That is, we successfully developed a new theoretical approach that can predict growth processes on various growth surfaces.

  1. Direct immobilization of enzymes in GaN and InN nanocolumns: The urease case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofikiti, N.; Chaniotakis, N.; Grandal, J.; Utrera, M.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Iliopoulos, E.; Georgakilas, A.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, the development of potentiometric urea biosensors through the entrapment of urease enzyme within the cavities of nanocolumnar GaN and InN wurtzite semiconductor substrates, is being described. The biosensing capabilities of these materials are compared with biosensors based on the corresponding flat surfaces, in order to check the increased sensitivity and enzyme stabilization properties expected from the nanocolumns. The obtained results proved that the electrochemically active nanocolumns serve both as highly sensitive transducer, as well as stabilizing nanoenvironment within which urease retains its catalytic activity for a prolonged period of time.

  2. Systematic study on dynamic atomic layer epitaxy of InN on/in +c-GaN matrix and fabrication of fine-structure InN/GaN quantum wells: Role of high growth temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akihiko; Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Hwang, Eun-Sook; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi

    2016-12-01

    The growth kinetics and properties of nominally 1-ML (monolayer)-thick InN wells on/in +c-GaN matrix fabricated using dynamic atomic layer epitaxy (D-ALEp) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were systematically studied, with particular attention given to the effects of growth temperature. Attention was also given to how and where the ˜1-ML-thick InN layers were frozen or embedded on/in the +c-GaN matrix. The D-ALEp of InN on GaN was a two-stage process; in the 1st stage, an "In+N" bilayer/monolayer was formed on the GaN surface, while in the 2nd, this was capped by a GaN barrier layer. Each process was monitored in-situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The target growth temperature was above 620 °C and much higher than the upper critical epitaxy temperature of InN (˜500 °C). The "In+N" bilayer/monolayer tended to be an incommensurate phase, and the growth of InN layers was possible only when they were capped with a GaN layer. The InN layers could be coherently inserted into the GaN matrix under self-organizing and self-limiting epitaxy modes. The growth temperature was the most dominant growth parameter on both the growth process and the structure of the InN layers. Reflecting the inherent growth behavior of D-ALEp grown InN on/in +c-GaN at high growth temperature, the embedded InN layers in the GaN matrix were basically not full-ML in coverage, and the thickness of sheet-island-like InN layers was essentially either 1-ML or 2-ML. It was found that these InN layers tended to be frozen at the step edges on the GaN and around screw-type threading dislocations. The InN wells formed type-I band line-up heterostructures with GaN barriers, with exciton localization energies of about 300 and 500 meV at 15 K for the 1-ML and 2-ML InN wells, respectively.

  3. Reduction of electron accumulation at InN(0001) surfaces via saturation of surface states by potassium and oxygen as donor- or acceptor-type adsorbates

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhardt, A.; Reiß, S.; Krischok, S. Himmerlich, M.

    2014-01-28

    The influence of selected donor- and acceptor-type adsorbates on the electronic properties of InN(0001) surfaces is investigated implementing in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The changes in work function, surface band alignment, and chemical bond configurations are characterized during deposition of potassium and exposure to oxygen. Although an expected opponent charge transfer characteristic is observed with potassium donating its free electron to InN, while dissociated oxygen species extract partial charge from the substrate, a reduction of the surface electron accumulation occurs in both cases. This observation can be explained by adsorbate-induced saturation of free dangling bonds at the InN resulting in the disappearance of surface states, which initially pin the Fermi level and induce downward band bending.

  4. Growth of InN and In rich InGaN by ``High Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition'' (HPCVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buegler, Max; Alevli, Mustafa; Atalay, Ramazan; Durkaya, Goksel; Wang, Jielei; Senevirathna, Indika; Jamil, Muhammad; Ferguson, Ian; Dietz, Nikolaus

    2009-11-01

    We present the growth of III-nitrides under elevated nitrogen pressure to stabilize the growth surface at elevated temperatures. The achievable growth temperatures are significantly higher than in conventional low pressure MOCVD systems. With this the integration of In-rich materials into GaN and GaAlN becomes possible. In addition we present structural and optical properties of thin films grown by HPCVD at a reactor pressure of 15bar and temperatures of 870^oC. The Samples have been analyzed by Raman, optical absorption, IR reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy and by XRD. The growth of single phase layers of high crystalline quality has been proven by XRD with InN (0002) Bragg reflex FWHM's of 200arcsec (2θ-φ-scan) and 1600arcsec (rocking curves). These is backed up by Raman spectra with InN E2(high) peak FWHM's of below 10cm-1. Free carrier concentrations in the mid 10^18 cm-3 to low 10^19cm-3 have been calculated from IR reflection spectra. Photoluminescence spectroscopy showed luminescence at 0.77eV.

  5. InGaN nanowires with high InN molar fraction: growth, structural and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Lourenço-Martins, Hugo; Meuret, Sophie; Kociak, Mathieu; Haas, Benedikt; Rouvière, Jean-Luc; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bougerol, Catherine; Auzelle, T; Jalabert, D; Biquard, Xavier; Gayral, Bruno; Daudin, Bruno

    2016-05-13

    The structural and optical properties of axial GaN/InGaN/GaN nanowire heterostructures with high InN molar fractions grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied at the nanoscale by a combination of electron microscopy, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and nano-cathodoluminescence techniques. InN molar fractions up to 50% have been successfully incorporated without extended defects, as evidence of nanowire potentialities for practical device realisation in such a composition range. Taking advantage of the N-polarity of the self-nucleated GaN NWs grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111), the N-polar InGaN stability temperature diagram has been experimentally determined and found to extend to a higher temperature than its metal-polar counterpart. Furthermore, annealing of GaN-capped InGaN NWs up to 800 °C has been found to result in a 20 times increase of photoluminescence intensity, which is assigned to point defect curing.

  6. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  7. InGaN nanowires with high InN molar fraction: growth, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Lourenço-Martins, Hugo; Meuret, Sophie; Kociak, Mathieu; Haas, Benedikt; Rouvière, Jean-Luc; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bougerol, Catherine; Auzelle, T.; Jalabert, D.; Biquard, Xavier; Gayral, Bruno; Daudin, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The structural and optical properties of axial GaN/InGaN/GaN nanowire heterostructures with high InN molar fractions grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied at the nanoscale by a combination of electron microscopy, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and nano-cathodoluminescence techniques. InN molar fractions up to 50% have been successfully incorporated without extended defects, as evidence of nanowire potentialities for practical device realisation in such a composition range. Taking advantage of the N-polarity of the self-nucleated GaN NWs grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111), the N-polar InGaN stability temperature diagram has been experimentally determined and found to extend to a higher temperature than its metal-polar counterpart. Furthermore, annealing of GaN-capped InGaN NWs up to 800 °C has been found to result in a 20 times increase of photoluminescence intensity, which is assigned to point defect curing.

  8. Effects of substrate nitridation and buffer layer on the crystalline improvements of semi-polar InN(101¯3) crystal on GaAs(110) by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. C.; Togashi, R.; Murakami, H.; Kumagai, Y.; Koukitu, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this report, effects of ammonia nitridation and low temperature InN buffer growth were investigated to improve the crystalline quality of InN(101¯3) grown on GaAs(110) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). InN(101¯3) single crystal including less than 0.1% of differently oriented domains was successfully grown by inserting low temperature InN buffer layer. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of InN(101¯3) epitaxial layer were drastically decreased from 89 arcmin to 55 arcmin after processing ammonia nitridation of GaAs(110) substrate surface. Furthermore, the FWHM value was decreased to 38 arcmin by increasing growth time, and the mechanism of dislocation annihilation happened during epitaxial growth was discussed.

  9. The daytime boundary layer in the Inn Valley - A model evaluation study with high-quality turbulence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goger, Brigitta; Rotach, Mathias W.; Gohm, Alexander; Fuhrer, Oliver; Stiperski, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric processes associated with complex terrain include various phenomena on the meso- and microscale, which contribute significantly to the local weather in mountainous areas of the Earth. One of the most prominent and well-known boundary-layer phenomena in mountainous terrain is the daytime valley wind circulation, which is very pronounced on clear-sky days with weak synoptic forcing. We use several chosen "valley wind days" in the Inn Valley, Austria, as case studies for the evaluation of the performance of the NWP model COSMO on a horizontal resolution of 1.1 km with a focus on boundary-layer processes and turbulent exchange. The overall goal is to evaluate the model setup and to investigate whether the model's physics schemes (initially developed for horizontally homogeneous and flat surroundings) are suitable for truly complex terrain. We evaluate the model by using measurements from the so-called "i-Box" located in the Inn Valley. The i-Box consists of six core sites that are located at representative locations in the Inn Valley, and two remote sensing systems (wind Lidar and HATPRO passive T/RH profiler) in the city of Innsbruck. The long-term data set provides a data pool of high-resolution velocity variances, turbulence variables, radiation, soil moisture, and vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and wind in the lower troposphere, which allows a process-oriented analysis. A special focus is laid on the daytime valley boundary layer and its interaction with the developing up-valley wind. Vertical cross-sections show that the valley wind has an asymmetric structure, hence, the i-Box stations show a high spatial variability. While the station on the valley bottom and on the south-facing slope are clearly under the strong influence of the valley wind, the two stations on the north-facing slope are rather dominated by slope flows. We find that the valley wind has a strong (indirect) influence on the development of the local turbulence kinetic

  10. Influence of In-N Clusters on Band Gap Energy of Dilute Nitride In x Ga1-x N y As1-y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Guo, Heng-Fei; Chen, Li-Ying; Tang, Chun-Xiao; Lu, Ke-Qing

    2016-05-01

    The In-N clusters form in the dilute nitride InxGa1-xNyAs1-y alloys after annealing. It is found that the formation of the In-N clusters not only raises the N levels lying above the conduction band minimum (CBM) of InGaAs, but also raises the N levels below the CBM of InGaAs, leading to the variation of the impurity-host interaction. The blueshift of the band gap energy is relative to the variation of the impurity-host interaction. In order to describe the blueshift of the band gap energy due to the formation of the In-N clusters, a model is developed. It is found that the model can describe the blueshift of the band gap energy well. In addition, it is found the blueshift of the band gap energy due to the atom interdiffusion at the interface can be larger than that due to the formation of the In-N clusters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61504094, Tinjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology under No. 15JCYBJC16300, and Tianjin City High School Science and Technology Fund Planning Project No. 20120609

  11. Temperature dependence of the A1(LO) and E2 (high) phonons in hexagonal InN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, B.; Jian, J. K.; Wang, G.; Bao, H. Q.; Chen, X. L.

    2007-06-01

    The frequencies and dampings of the zone-center optical phonon modes of A1(LO) (longitudinal-optical) and E2 (high) in wurtzite InN nanowires have been investigated by micro-Raman scattering in the temperature range from 80 to 300 K. Our results reveal that the phonon frequencies decrease and the linewidths broaden with increasing temperature. The obtained experimental data of the frequencies and linewidths at various temperatures can be well described by an empirical model which takes into account the contribution of the thermal expansion of lattice and symmetric decay of phonons into two and three identical phonons with lower energy. The results show that decay into two phonons is the probable channel for the A1(LO) mode and three-phonon decay dominates the E2 (high) mode.

  12. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of InN studied using ab initio density functional theory and Boltzmann transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, P. D. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu; Scolfaro, L. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu

    2014-12-14

    The thermoelectric properties of indium nitride in the most stable wurtzite phase (w-InN) as a function of electron and hole concentrations and temperature were studied by solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory. Based on maximally localized Wannier function basis set and the ab initio band energies, results for the Seebeck coefficient are presented and compared with available experimental data for n-type as well as p-type systems. Also, theoretical results for electric conductivity and power factor are presented. Most cases showed good agreement between the calculated properties and experimental data for w-InN unintentionally and p-type doped with magnesium. Our predictions for temperature and concentration dependences of electrical conductivity and power factor revealed a promising use of InN for intermediate and high temperature thermoelectric applications. The rigid band approach and constant scattering time approximation were utilized in the calculations.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of InN nanowire network grown by vapor-liquid-solid method

    SciTech Connect

    Barick, B. K. E-mail: subho-dh@yahoo.co.in; Dhar, S. E-mail: subho-dh@yahoo.co.in; Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; Cantarero, Andres

    2015-05-15

    Growth of InN nanowires have been carried out on quartz substrates at different temperatures by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique using different thicknesses of Au catalyst layer. It has been found that a narrow window of Au layer thickness and growth temperature leads to multi-nucleation, in which each site acts as the origin of several nanowires. In this multi-nucleation regime, several tens of micrometer long wires with diameter as small as 20 nm are found to grow along [112{sup -}0] direction (a-plane) to form a dense network. Structural and electronic properties of these wires are studied. As grown nanowires show degenerate n-type behavior. Furthermore, x-ray photoemission study reveals an accumulation of electrons on the surface of these nanowires. Interestingly, the wire network shows persistence of photoconductivity for several hours after switching off the photoexcitation.

  14. Characterization of high quality InN grown on production-style plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy system

    SciTech Connect

    Gherasoiu, I.; O'Steen, M.; Bird, T.; Gotthold, D.; Chandolu, A.; Song, D. Y.; Xu, S. X.; Holtz, M.; Nikishin, S. A.; Schaff, W. J.

    2008-05-15

    In this work, the authors report step-flow growth mode of InN on [0001] oriented GaN templates, using a production-style molecular beam epitaxy system, Veeco GEN200 registered , equipped with a plasma source. Using adaptive growth conditions, they have obtained a surface morphology that exhibits the step-flow features. The root mean squared roughness over an area of 5x5 {mu}m{sup 2} is 1.4 nm with monolayer height terrace steps (0.281 nm), based on atomic force microscopy. It has been found that the presence of In droplets leads to defective surface morphology. From x-ray diffraction, they estimate edge and screw dislocation densities. The former is dominant over the latter. Micro-Raman spectra reveal narrow E{sub 2}{sup 2} phonon lines consistent with excellent crystalline quality of the epitaxial layers. The Hall mobility of 1 {mu}m thick InN layers, grown in step-flow mode, is slightly higher than 1400 cm{sup 2}/V s, while for other growth conditions yielding a smooth surface with no well-defined steps, mobility as high as 1904 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature has been measured. The samples exhibit high intensity photoluminescence (PL) with a corresponding band edge that shifts with free carrier concentration. For the lowest carrier concentration of 5.6x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, they observe PL emission at {approx}0.64 eV.

  15. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)1/(GaN)1-20 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Itoi, Takaomi; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)1/(GaN)1-20 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)1/(GaN)4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ˜1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ˜1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  16. Effects of Ga on the growth of InN on O-face ZnO(0001) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yong Jin; Riechert, Henning; Brandt, Oliver; Korytov, Maxim; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-07-30

    We compare the structural properties of InN and In{sub 0.95}Ga{sub 0.05}N films grown on O-face ZnO(0001) substrates at different temperatures. The small amount of Ga results in dramatic changes in the morphology and structural properties of InN. In particular, inversion domains start to appear at higher temperatures in the In{sub 0.95}Ga{sub 0.05}N film. This process is a consequence of the chemical reaction of ZnO with Ga which can be prevented by choosing the substrate temperature to be 450{sup Degree-Sign }C or below.

  17. Real-Time Optical Monitoring and Simulations of Gas Phase Kinetics in InN Vapor Phase Epitaxy at High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Nikolaus; Woods, Vincent; McCall, Sonya D.; Bachmann, Klaus J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the kinetics of nucleation and coalescence of heteroepitaxial thin films is a crucial step in controlling a chemical vapor deposition process, since it defines the perfection of the heteroepitaxial film both in terms of extended defect formation and chemical integrity of the interface. The initial nucleation process also defines the film quality during the later stages of film growth. The growth of emerging new materials heterostructures such as InN or In-rich Ga(x)In(1-x)N require deposition methods operating at higher vapor densities due to the high thermal decomposition pressure in these materials. High nitrogen pressure has been demonstrated to suppress thermal decomposition of InN, but has not been applied yet in chemical vapor deposition or etching experiments. Because of the difficulty with maintaining stochiometry at elevated temperature, current knowledge regarding thermodynamic data for InN, e.g., its melting point, temperature-dependent heat capacity, heat and entropy of formation are known with far less accuracy than for InP, InAs and InSb. Also, no information exists regarding the partial pressures of nitrogen and phosphorus along the liquidus surfaces of mixed-anion alloys of InN, of which the InN(x)P(1-x) system is the most interesting option. A miscibility gap is expected for InN(x)P(1-x) pseudobinary solidus compositions, but its extent is not established at this point by experimental studies under near equilibrium conditions. The extension of chemical vapor deposition to elevated pressure is also necessary for retaining stoichiometric single phase surface composition for materials that are characterized by large thermal decomposition pressures at optimum processing temperatures.

  18. Influences of residual oxygen impurities, cubic indium oxide grains and indium oxy-nitride alloy grains in hexagonal InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yodo, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kouyama, T.; Harada, Y.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the influences of residual oxygen (O) impurities, cubic indium oxide (-In2O3) grains and indium oxy-nitride (InON) alloy grains in 200 nm-thick hexagonal ()-InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Although -In2O3 grains with wide band-gap energy were formed in In film by N2 annealing, they were not easily formed in N2-annealed InN films. Even if they were not detected in N2-annealed InN films, the as-grown films still contained residual O impurities with concentrations of less than 0.5% ([O]0.5%). Although [O]1% could be estimated by investigating In2O3 grains formed in N2-annealed InN films, [O]0.5% could not be measured by it. However, we found that they can be qualitatively measured by investigating In2O3 grains formed by H2 annealing with higher reactivity with InN and O2, using X-ray diffraction and PL spectroscopy. In this paper, we discuss the formation mechanism of InON alloy grains in InN films.

  19. High-quality InN films on MgO (100) substrates: The key role of 30° in-plane rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Compeán García, V. D.; López Luna, E.; Rodríguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A.; Orozco Hinostroza, I. E.; Escobosa Echavarría, A.

    2014-05-12

    High crystalline layers of InN were grown on MgO(100) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good quality films were obtained by means of an in-plane rotation process induced by the annealing of an InN buffer layer to minimize the misfit between InN and MgO. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction showed linear streaky patterns along the [011{sup ¯}0] azimuth and a superimposed diffraction along the [112{sup ¯}0] azimuth, which correspond to a 30° α-InN film rotation. This rotation reduces the mismatch at the MgO/InN interface from 19.5% to less than 3.5%, increasing the structural quality, which was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Only the (0002) c plane diffraction of α-InN was observed and was centered at 2θ = 31.4°. Raman spectroscopy showed two modes corresponding to the hexagonal phase: E1(LO) at 591 cm{sup −1} and E2(high) at 488 cm{sup −1}. Hall effect measurements showed a carrier density of 9 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and an electron Hall mobility of 340 cm{sup 2}/(V s) for a film thickness of 140 nm.

  20. In-situ cyclic pulse annealing of InN on AlN/Si during IR-lamp-heated MBE growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Bungi, Yu; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi; Mori, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Harima, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    To improve crystal quality of InN, an in-situ cyclic rapid pulse annealing during growth was carried out using infrared-lamp-heated molecular beam epitaxy. A cycle of 4 min growth of InN at 400 °C and 3 s pulse annealing at a higher temperature was repeated 15 times on AlN on Si substrate. Annealing temperatures were 550, 590, 620, and 660 °C. The back of Si was directly heated by lamp irradiation through a quartz rod. A total InN film thickness was about 200 nm. With increasing annealing temperature up to 620 °C, crystal grain size by scanning electron microscope showed a tendency to increase, while widths of X-ray diffraction rocking curve of (0 0 0 2) reflection and E 2 (high) mode peak of Raman scattering spectra decreased. A peak of In (1 0 1) appeared in X-ray diffraction by annealing higher than 590 °C, and In droplets were found on the surface by annealing at 660 °C.

  1. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  2. Optimal geometrical design of inertial vibration DC piezoelectric nanogenerators based on obliquely aligned InN nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Ku, Nai-Jen; Liu, Guocheng; Wang, Chao-Hung; Gupta, Kapil; Liao, Wei-Shun; Ban, Dayan; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2017-09-28

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators have been investigated to generate electricity from environmental vibrations due to their energy conversion capabilities. In this study, we demonstrate an optimal geometrical design of inertial vibration direct-current piezoelectric nanogenerators based on obliquely aligned InN nanowire (NW) arrays with an optimized oblique angle of ∼58°, and driven by the inertial force of their own weight, using a mechanical shaker without any AC/DC converters. The nanogenerator device manifests potential applications not only as a unique energy harvesting device capable of scavenging energy from weak mechanical vibrations, but also as a sensitive strain sensor. The maximum output power density of the nanogenerator is estimated to be 2.9 nW cm(-2), leading to an improvement of about 3-12 times that of vertically aligned ZnO NW DC nanogenerators. Integration of two nanogenerators also exhibits a linear increase in the output power, offering an enormous potential for the creation of self-powered sustainable nanosystems utilizing incessantly natural ambient energy sources.

  3. A new perspective on soil erosion: exploring a thermodynamic approach in a small area of the River Inn catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion modeling has always struggled with compensating for the difference in time and spatial scale between model, data and the actual processes involved. This is especially the case with non-event based long-term models based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), yet USLE based soil erosion models are among the most common and widely used for they have rather low data requirements and can be applied to large areas. But the majority of mass from soil erosion is eroded within short periods of times during heavy rain events, often within minutes or hours. Advancements of the USLE (eg. the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) allow for a daily time step, but still apply the same empirical methods derived from the USLE. And to improve the actual quantification of sediment input into rivers soil erosion models are often combined with a Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) to get results within the range of measurements. This is still a viable approach for many applications, yet it leaves much to be desired in terms of understanding and reproducing the processes behind soil erosion and sediment input into rivers. That's why, instead of refining and retuning the existing methods, we explore a more comprehensive, physically consistent description on soil erosion. The idea is to describe soil erosion as a dissipative process (Kleidon et al., 2013) and test it in a small sub-basin of the River Inn catchment area in the pre-Alpine foothills. We then compare the results to sediment load measurements from the sub-basin and discuss the advantages and issues with the application of such an approach.

  4. Growth of InN films by radical-enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition at a low temperature of 200 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Shinnosuke; Lu, Yi; Oda, Osamu; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2017-06-01

    The InN films were deposited on GaN surfaces at a low temperature of 200 °C by radical-enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition (REMOCVD). The REMOCVD system can provide N radicals from the plasma of a N2-H2 mixture gas without using ammonia. Two types of GaN substrate, bulk GaN and GaN on Si(111), were used. The growth mode was modeled as a step flow on the basis of surface morphology observation by atomic force microscopy.

  5. The effect of McInnes solution on enamel and the effect of Tooth mousse on bleached enamel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Darshan, H E; Shashikiran, N D

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of McInnes bleaching agent on the micro hardness of enamel before and after bleaching and to evaluate the effect of G C Tooth Mousse on the bleached enamel surface for its microhardness. Materials and Methods: McInnes bleaching solution, Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate CCP-ACP (G C Tooth mousse) artificial saliva (Dept of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davengere), deionized water, Vickers Micro Hardness tester (Zwick/ZHV, Germany), freshly extracted teeth, cold cure acrylic, Diamond disc (Horico - PFINGST New jersey USA, KAVO- Germany), straight handpiece (kavo peca reta) and plastic moulds (6.5 × 2 mm). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare microhardness of the sound enamel surface by Vickers Hardness Number before and after bleaching with McInnes solution, and to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (G C Tooth Mousse) on the bleached enamel surface for its microhardness. Statistical analysis: The data obtained from the test were subjected for statistical analysis and are presented as range, mean and standard deviation. P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. The changes in microhardness at different times of assessment were analyzed using the paired ‘t’ test Results: All the samples showed decrease in the microhardness after two cycles of bleaching, though immediately after bleaching the decrease in the microhardness was not significant (P = 0.34). However, after the second cycles, it showed a significant decrease (P<0.01) in the microhardness. After application of remineralization solution (GC Tooth mousse), the samples showed a marginal increase in the microhardness (P<0.05) after seven days and a marked increase after fourteen days (P<0.001). Conclusion: McInnes bleaching agent does decrease the microhardness of enamel by causing enamel demineralization and GC Tooth mousse used in the study causes an increase in the

  6. Probabilistic retrospective forecasts of snow accumulation for the upcoming winter season in the Inn headwaters catchment (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Kristian; Hanzer, Florian; Stoll, Elena; Schöber, Johannes; Scaife, Adam A.; MacLachlan, Craig; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan; Strasser, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal predictions aim at forecasting meteorological quantities for the upcoming months and are analysed as monthly data in many cases due to the uncertainties involved. The skill of seasonal predictions is, however, not distributed homogeneously in space and time. While good model skill measures can be achieved for El Niño and the tropics, the skill of seasonal predictions for Europe is generally lower, which limits the applicability of this kind of predictions. This contribution deals with a systematic analysis of re-forecast data obtained from two coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models (Met Office GloSea5 and NCEP CFSv2). In contrast to some other studies, the focus is on the prediction of hydrologic storages rather than on hydrologic fluxes such as precipitation or runoff. This approach acknowledges the persistence in time of storages which makes predictions more skilful. The study area is the snow- and ice-melt dominated Inn headwaters catchment upstream of Kirchbichl gauging station (9 310 km2) located in the Austrian Alps. Building on wintertime re-forecasts of the climate models and a subsequent rev-ESP experiment (reverse Ensemble Streamflow Prediction), water balance simulations have been carried out using the Alpine Water balance And Runoff Estimation model (AWARE). Simulations of accumulated runoff depth in the subsequent spring season are compared to observations. This comparison of preliminary results reveals that the ensemble means of computed anomalies of accumulated runoff depth compare well with observations. The model chain GloSea5-AWARE correctly predicted the tendency of anomalies for 9 of 13 years, while the corresponding CFSv2-AWARE simulations result in only 5 of 13 correctly predicted years. The results suggest that some seasonal predictions may be capable of predicting tendencies of hydrologic model storages, although the skill of these predictions is in many cases low in Europe. As the number of correctly predicted winters does not

  7. Post-growth thermal oxidation of wurtzite InN thin films into body-center cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} for chemical/gas sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.F.; Yakovlev, N.L.; Chi, D.Z.; Liu, W.

    2014-06-01

    Post-growth thermal oxidations of InN have been studied using high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The InN thin films, having relative high crystal quality, were grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-sapphire substrates using InGaN/GaN buffer layers. HRXRD reveals that oxidation of wurtzite InN into body-center cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred at elevated temperatures. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} encapsulation improves the crystal quality of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxidized by using conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA) but it results in the presence of undesired metallic indium. Cycle-RTA not only improves the crystal quality but also avoids the byproduct of metallic indium. SIMS depth profile, using contaminate elements as the ‘interface markers,’ provide evidence that the oxidation of InN is dominated by oxygen inward diffusion mechanism. Together with the HRXRD results, we conclude that the crystal quality of the resultant In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InN heterostructure is mainly controlled by the balance between the speeds of oxygen diffusion and InN thermal dissociation, which can be effectively tuned by cycle-RTA. The obtained In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InN heterostructures can be fundamental materials for studying high speed chemical/gas sensing devices. - Graphical abstract: Oxidation of h-InN into bcc-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been realized at elevated temperatures. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cap improves the crystal quality of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxidized by conventional RTA but it results in the presence of undesired metallic indium. Cycle-RTA not only improves the crystal quality but also avoids the byproduct of metallic indium. SIMS depth profiles provide evidence that the oxidation of InN is dominated by oxygen inward diffusion mechanism. The crystal quality of the resultant In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InN heterostructure is mainly controlled by the balance between the speeds of oxygen diffusion and InN thermal

  8. Dependence of crystal orientation and bandgap on substrate temperature of molecular-beam epitaxy grown InN on bare Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Tangi, Malleswararao; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    The issue of variable bandgap values for InN films grown on c-sapphire has been addressed in this work. {alpha}-InN films have been deposited in nitrogen rich condition at different substrate temperatures on bare Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The results of several complementary characterization techniques show that single crystalline wurtzite InN is formed, but their orientation depends on the substrate temperature. The bandgap measured on these samples (1.78 eV) is explained by Moss-Burstein shift on these degenerately n-doped samples. Our results discount effects of crystal orientation, presence of oxygen at grain boundaries and In/N stoichiometry as factors that influence the measured band-gap values.

  9. Raman scattering study of background electron density in InN: a hydrodynamical approach to the LO-phonon-plasmon coupled modes.

    PubMed

    Cuscó, R; Alarcón-Lladó, E; Ibáñez, J; Yamaguchi, T; Nanishi, Y; Artús, L

    2009-10-14

    We use a hydrodynamical approach to analyse the long-wavelength LO-phonon-plasmon coupled modes observed in a set of high-quality MBE-grown InN epilayers with electron densities varying over one order of magnitude, from ∼2 × 10(18) to ∼2 × 10(19)  cm(-3). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Hall measurements. The correlation observed between the E(2)(high) mode frequency, and hence residual strain, and the electron density measured in the layers indicates that the differences in background electron density may be associated with threading dislocations. Owing to the low Raman signal, only the L(-) branch of the coupled modes can be unambiguously observed. The frequency of the L(-) Raman peak is, however, sensitive enough to the free electron density to allow its determination from lineshape fits to the spectra. These were carried out using an extended hydrodynamical model. Given the small bandgap energy and large conduction band nonparabolicity of InN, suitable expressions for the optical effective mass and mean square velocity that enter the hydrodynamical model were derived. Electron density values extracted from L(-) lineshape fits agree reasonably well with Hall determinations.

  10. SpaceInn hare-and-hounds exercise: Estimation of stellar properties using space-based asteroseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, D. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Miglio, A.; Antia, H. M.; Ball, W. H.; Basu, S.; Buldgen, G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Coelho, H. R.; Hekker, S.; Houdek, G.; Lebreton, Y.; Mazumdar, A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.; Verma, K.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Detailed oscillation spectra comprising individual frequencies for numerous solar-type stars and red giants are either currently available, e.g. courtesy of the CoRoT, Kepler, and K2 missions, or will become available with the upcoming NASA TESS and ESA PLATO 2.0 missions. The data can lead to a precise characterisation of these stars thereby improving our understanding of stellar evolution, exoplanetary systems, and the history of our galaxy. Aims: Our goal is to test and compare different methods for obtaining stellar properties from oscillation frequencies and spectroscopic constraints. Specifically, we would like to evaluate the accuracy of the results and reliability of the associated error bars, and to see where there is room for improvement. Methods: In the context of the SpaceInn network, we carried out a hare-and-hounds exercise in which one group, the hares, simulated observations of oscillation spectra for a set of ten artificial solar-type stars, and a number of hounds applied various methods for characterising these stars based on the data produced by the hares. Most of the hounds fell into two main groups. The first group used forward modelling (i.e. applied various search/optimisation algorithms in a stellar parameter space) whereas the second group relied on acoustic glitch signatures. Results: Results based on the forward modelling approach were accurate to 1.5% (radius), 3.9% (mass), 23% (age), 1.5% (surface gravity), and 1.8% (mean density), as based on the root mean square difference. Individual hounds reached different degrees of accuracy, some of which were substantially better than the above average values. For the two 1M⊙ stellar targets, the accuracy on the age is better than 10% thereby satisfying the requirements for the PLATO 2.0 mission. High stellar masses and atomic diffusion (which in our models does not include the effects of radiative accelerations) proved to be sources of difficulty. The average accuracies for the

  11. Role of nanoscale AlN and InN for the microwave characteristics of AlGaN/(Al,In)N/GaN-based HEMT

    SciTech Connect

    Lenka, T. R. Panda, A. K.

    2011-09-15

    A new AlGaN/GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is proposed and its micro-wave characteristics are discussed by introducing a nanoscale AlN or InN layer to study the potential improvement in their high frequency performance. The 2DEG transport mechanism including various sub-band calculations for both (Al,In) N-based HEMTs are also discussed in the paper. Apart from direct current characteristics of the proposed HEMT, various microwave parameters such as transconductance, unit current gain (h{sub 21} = 1) cut-off frequency (f{sub t}), high power-gain frequency (f{sub max}). Masons available/stable gain and masons unilateral gain are also discussed for both devices to understand its suitable deployment in microwave frequency range.

  12. Structural and electronic properties of InN epitaxial layer grown on c-plane sapphire by chemical vapor deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Barick, Barun Kumar Prasad, Nivedita; Saroj, Rajendra Kumar; Dhar, Subhabrata

    2016-09-15

    Growth of InN epilayers on c-plane sapphire substrate by chemical vapor deposition technique using pure indium metal and ammonia as precursors has been systematically explored. It has been found that [0001] oriented indium nitride epitaxial layers with smooth surface morphology can be grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by optimizing the growth conditions. Bandgap of the film is observed to be Burstein–Moss shifted likely to be due to high background electron concentration. It has been found that the concentration of this unintentional doping decreases with the increase in the growth temperature and the ammonia flux. Epitaxial quality on the other hand deteriorates as the growth temperature increases. Moreover, the morphology of the deposited layer has been found to change from flat top islands to faceted mounds as the flow rate of ammonia increases. This phenomenon is expected to be related to the difference in surface termination character at low and high ammonia flow rates.

  13. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  14. Thermal stability of W, WSi{sub {ital x}}, and Ti/Al ohmic contacts to InGaN, InN, and InAlN

    SciTech Connect

    Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Baca, A.G.; Hagerott-Crawford, M.

    1996-11-01

    W, WSi{sub 0.44}, and Ti/Al contact properties were examined on {ital n}{sup +}In{sub 0.65}Ga{sub 0.35}N, InN, and In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}N. W was found to produce low specific contact resistance (d{sub {ital c}}{approximately}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}cm{sup 2}) ohmic contacts to InGaN, with significant reaction between metal and semiconductor occurring at 900{degree}C mainly due to out diffusion of In and N. WSi{sub {ital x}} showed an as-deposited d{sub {ital c}} of 4{times}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}cm{sup 2} but this degraded significantly with subsequent annealing at {ge}600{degree}C. Ti/Al contacts were stable to {approximately}600{degree}C (d{sub {ital c}}{approximately}4{times}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}cm{sup 2} at {le}600{degree}C). The surfaces of these contacts remained smooth to 800{degree}C for W and WSi{sub {ital x}} and 650{degree}C for Ti/Al. InN contacted with W and Ti/Al produced ohmic contacts with d{sub {ital c}}{approximately}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}cm{sup 2} and for WSi{sub {ital xd}}{sub {ital c}}{approximately}10{sup {minus}6} {Omega}cm{sup 2}. All remained smooth to {approximately}600{degree}C, but exhibited significant interdiffusion of In, N, W, and Ti, respectively, at higher temperatures. The contact resistances for all three metalization schemes were {ge}10{sup {minus}4} {Omega}cm{sup 2} on InAlN, and degraded with subsequent annealing. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  15. W, WSi{sub x} and Ti/Al low resistance OHMIC contacts to InGaN, InN and InAlN

    SciTech Connect

    Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Baca, A.G.; Hagerott-Crawford, M.

    1996-06-01

    W, WSi{sub 0.44} and Ti/Al contacts were examined on n{sup +} In{sub 0.65}Ga{sub 0.35}N, InN and In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}N. W was found to produce low specific contact resistance ({rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2}) ohmic contacts to InGaN, with significant reaction between metal and semiconductor at 900 {degrees}C mainly due to out diffusion of In and N. WSi{sub x} showed an as-deposited {rho}{sub c} of 4{times}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} but this degraded significantly with subsequent annealing. Ti/Al contacts were stable to {approximately} 600 {degrees}C ({rho}{sub c} {approximately} 4{times}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} at {le}600 {degrees}C). The surfaces of these contacts remain smooth to 800 {degrees}C for W and WSi{sub x} and 650 {degrees}C for Ti/Al. InN contacted with W and Ti/Al produced ohmic contacts with {rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} and for WSi{sub x} {rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}6} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2}. All remained smooth to {approximately} 600 {degrees}C, but exhibited significant interdiffusion of In, N, W and Ti respectively at higher temperatures. The contact resistances for all three metalization schemes were {ge} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} on InAlN, and degrades with subsequent annealing. The Ti/Al was found to react with the InAlN above 400 {degrees}C, causing the contact resistance to increase rapidly. W and WSi{sub x} proved to be more stable with {rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} up to 650 {degrees}C and 700 {degrees}C respectively.

  16. High rate dry etching of GaN, AlN and InN in ECR Cl{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Shul, R.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Crawford, M.H.; Howard, A.J.; Parmeter, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Etch rates for binary nitrides in ECR Cl{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar are reported as a function of temperature, rf-bias, microwave power, pressure and relative gas proportions. GaN etch rates remain relatively constant from 30 to 125{degrees}C and then increase to a maximum of 2340 {angstrom}-min{sup {minus}1} at 170{degrees}C. The AlN etch rate decreases throughout the temperature range studied with a maximum of 960 {angstrom}-min{sup {minus}1} at 30{degrees}C. When CH{sub 4} is removed from the plasma chemistry, the GaN and InN etch rates are slightly lower, with less dramatic changes with temperature. The surface composition of the III-V nitrides remains unchanged over the temperatures studied. The GaN and InN rates increase significantly with rf power, and the fastest rates for all three binaries are obtained at 2 mTorr. Surface morphology is smooth for GaN over a wide range of conditions, whereas InN surfaces are more sensitive to plasma parameters.

  17. Tuning the effective band gap and finding the optimal growth condition of InN thin films on GaN/sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kankat; Rathore, Jaswant Singh; Laha, Apurba

    2017-01-01

    InN thin films are grown on GaN/sapphire substrates with varying the nitrogen plasma power in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) system. In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen plasma power on the different properties of the InN films, several characterization viz. x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence measurement, infra-red spectroscopy and Hall measurement were performed. Two interesting phenomena observed from the measurements are described in this paper. Firstly, it is found from both the photoluminescence and infrared spectroscopy that only by varying the nitrogen plasma power (thus the III/V ratio), one can fine tune the optical absorption edge, i.e., the effective band gap of InN from ∼0.72 eV to ∼ 0.77 eV. Secondly, it is inferred that the film grown with stoichiometric condition (III/V ∼ 1) exhibits the best structural and electrical properties.

  18. Surface and bulk electronic structures of heavily Mg-doped InN epilayer by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Masataka; Tsuda, Shunsuke; Nagata, Takahiro; Banal, Ryan G.; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yang, AnLi; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Koide, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Masamitsu; Uematsu, Nao; Wang, Ke; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the polarity, energy band diagram, and oxygen (O) distribution of a heavily Mg-doped InN (InN:Mg+) epilayer with a Mg concentration of 1.0 ± 0.5 × 1020 cm-3, the core-level and valence band (VB) photoelectron spectra are investigated by angle-resolved soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The InN:Mg+ epilayers are grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. In this doping level, the polarity inversion from In-polar to N-polar occurs with the increase in the Mg flow rate under the same growth conditions, and the VB spectrum clearly indicates the direction of polarity of InN:Mg+, which is N-polar. The energy band diagram is considered to exhibit a two-step downward bending structure due to the coexistence of the n+ surface electron accumulation layer and heavily Mg-doped p+ layer formed in the bulk. The O concentration rapidly increases until ˜4 nm with respect to the surface, which is deduced to be one of the reasons of the formation of the anomalous two-step energy band profile.

  19. Intrinsic thermal conductivities and size effect of alloys of wurtzite AlN, GaN, and InN from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinlong; Li, Wu; Luo, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact the alloys of wurtzite AlN, GaN, and InN are widely used in electronics, the studies on their thermal conductivities (κ) are inadequate, and the intrinsic limits are still unknown. In this work, the intrinsic κ of alloys and their films are calculated from first-principles within the virtual crystal treatment. The κ of alloys are strongly suppressed even by a small amount of alloying. For instance, with only 1% alloying of Al or In, κ of GaN decreases about 60%. At relatively high alloying, with concentration between 0.2 and 0.8, the κ of alloys are not significantly changed. At room temperature, the minimal a-axis κ are about 18, 22, and 8 W m-1 K-1, while the minimal c-axis κ are about 22, 27, and 10 W m-1 K-1 for AlxGa1-xN, InxGa1-xN, and InxAl1-xN, respectively. The size effect in films can persist up to a few tens of micrometers, and κ can be reduced by half in about 100 nm thick films.

  20. InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ju, Zhengang; Tan, Swee Tiam; Ji, Yun; Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Liancheng; Sun, Xiao Wei E-mail: VOLKAN@stanfordalumni.org; Demir, Hilmi Volkan E-mail: VOLKAN@stanfordalumni.org

    2014-07-21

    In conventional InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), thin InGaN quantum wells are usually adopted to mitigate the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE), caused due to strong polarization induced electric field, through spatially confining electrons and holes in small recombination volumes. However, this inevitably increases the carrier density in quantum wells, which in turn aggravates the Auger recombination, since the Auger recombination scales with the third power of the carrier density. As a result, the efficiency droop of the Auger recombination severely limits the LED performance. Here, we proposed and showed wide InGaN quantum wells with the InN composition linearly grading along the growth orientation in LED structures suppressing the Auger recombination and the QCSE simultaneously. Theoretically, the physical mechanisms behind the Auger recombination suppression are also revealed. The proposed LED structure has experimentally demonstrated significant improvement in optical output power and efficiency droop, proving to be an effective solution to this important problem of Auger recombination.

  1. Point defects introduced by InN alloying into In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, A.; Tsutsui, T.; Watanabe, T.; Kimura, S.; Zhang, Y.; Lozac'h, M.; Sang, L. W.; Sumiya, M.; Ishibashi, S.

    2013-03-28

    Native defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.06-0.14) grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation as a function of incident positron energy for In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N showed that vacancy-type defects were introduced with increasing InN composition, and the major defect species was identified as complexes between a cation vacancy and a nitrogen vacancy. The concentration of the divacancy, however, was found to be suppressed by Mg doping. The momentum distribution of electrons at the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN interface was close to that in defect-free GaN or In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, which was attributed to localization of positrons at the interface due to the built-in electric field, and to suppression of positron trapping by vacancy-type defects. We have also shown that the diffusion property of positrons is sensitive to an electric field near the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN interface.

  2. The effect of electrical properties for InGaN and InN by high-energy particle irradiation (notice of removal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shao-guang; Fan, Guang-han

    2008-03-01

    This paper (SPIE Paper 68411H) was removed from the SPIE Digital Library on 8 August 2008 upon discovery that the paper has substantially plagiarized the following two papers: R.E. Jones, S.X. Li, L. Hsu, K.M. Yu, W. Walukiewicz, Z. Liliental-Weber, J.W. Ager III, E.E. Haller, H. Lu, and W.J. Schaff, "Native-defect-controlled n-type conductivity in InN," Physica B 376-377 (2006) 436-439 and S.X. Li, K.M. Yu, J. Wu, R.E. Jones, W. Walukiewicz, J.W. Ager III, W. Shan, E.E. Haller, Hai Lu, and William J. Schaff, "Native defects in InxGa1-xN alloys," Physica B 376-377 (2006) 432-435. As stated in the SPIE Publication Ethics Guidelines, "SPIE defines plagiarism as the reuse of someone else's prior ideas, processes, results, or words without explicit attribution of the original author and source, or falsely representing someone else's work as one's own. Unauthorized use of another researcher's unpublished data or findings without permission is considered to be a form of plagiarism even if the source is attributed. SPIE considers plagiarism in any form, at any level, to be unacceptable and a serious breach of professional conduct." It is SPIE policy to remove such papers and to provide citations to original sources so that interested readers can obtain the information directly from those sources. One of the authors, Shao-guang Dong, accepts full responsibility and apologizes for this plagiarism and has absolved the second author, Guang-han Fan, of any prior knowledge of or professional misconduct in this matter. Guang-han Fan also states that he had not previously seen the paper or given permission to include his name as an author.

  3. Systematic study on dynamic atomic layer epitaxy of InN on/in +c-GaN matrix and fabrication of fine-structure InN/GaN quantum wells: Impact of excess In-atoms at high growth temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akihiko; Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Imai, Daichi; Hwang, Eun-Sook

    2016-12-01

    The growth kinetics of nominally one-monolayer (˜1-ML)-thick InN wells on/in the +c-GaN matrix fabricated using dynamic atomic layer epitaxy (D-ALEp) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were systematically studied, with particular attention given to the impacts of excess In atoms and/or In droplets at a high growth temperature of 650 °C. Even at a constant growth temperature of 650 °C, the thickness of the sheet-island-like InN-well layers could be controlled/varied from 1-ML to 2-ML owing to the effect of excess In atoms and/or In droplets accumulated during growth. The possible growth mechanism is discussed based on the ring-shaped bright cathodoluminescence emissions introduced along the circumference of the In droplets during growth. The effective thermal stability of N atoms below the bilayer adsorbed In atoms was increased by the presence of In droplets, resulting in the freezing of 2-ML-thick InN wells into the GaN matrix. It therefore became possible to study the difference between the emission properties of 1-ML and 2-ML-thick InN wells/GaN matrix quantum wells (QWs) having similar GaN matrix crystallinity grown at the same temperature. InN/GaN QW-samples grown under widely different In + N* supply conditions characteristically separated into two groups with distinctive emission-peak wavelengths originating from 1-ML and 2-ML-thick InN wells embedded in the GaN matrix. Reflecting the growth mechanism inherent to the D-ALEp of InN on/in the +c-GaN matrix at high temperature, either 1-ML or 2-ML-thick "binary" InN well layers tended to be frozen into the GaN matrix rather InGaN random ternary-alloys. Both the structural quality and uniformity of the 1-ML InN well sample were better than those of the 2-ML InN well sample, essentially owing to the quite thin critical thickness of around 1-ML arising from the large lattice mismatch of InN and GaN.

  4. India Basin 900 Innes Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lower Walnut Creek Restoration Project will restore and enhance coastal wetlands along southern shoreline of Suisun Bay from Suisun Bay upstream along Walnut Creek, improving habitat quality, diversity, and connectivity along three miles of creek channel.

  5. Proceedings of the Military Librarians’ Workshop (18th) Held at Fort Hauchuca, Arizona on 10-12 September 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-12

    in the proceedings. 4R6 OR~ CONTENTS Page Foreword ii Program iv Welcome I Special Command Briefing 3 Workshop Sessions 11 "Some Unwritten History of...Ms. Cathryn Lyon 34 NEW OEVELOPMENTS AT DDC . . . . Mr. Paul Klinefelter 35 Reminiscing . . . . Mr. Ernest DeWald 37 Participants 49 Sponsors of...Talk by Dr. Bruno Rolak, USACC Historian "Some Unwritten History of I Fort Huachuca" 0900-1100 Working Groups Ramada Inn Academic Earl SchwasG General

  6. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction.

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  8. Proceedings of the Clemson Workshop on Environmental Impacts of Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clugston, J. P.

    1980-04-01

    The pumping of water to a high reservoir for storage during periods of low power demand, so that it can be used for the generation of electricity during peak power demand was discussed. Papers which were presented exchanged ideas and data with regard to the environmental impact of this regular interchange of water.

  9. New Opportunities in Applied Mathematics. A Report from Clemson University and Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This report describes two programs which were developed with National Science Foundation support to enable graduates of the program to function in roles traditionally assigned to physicists, engineers, chemists, and computer scientists but which are primarily mathematical in nature. Graduates of traditional programs in mathematics have had little…

  10. The Clemson University, University Research Initiative Program in Discrete Mathematics and Computational Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    fluid dynamics has developed the consequences of a novel term in the energy equation, called pressure diffusion. Models incorporating this term offer new...nonhomogeneous Markov reward model", Reliability Engineering and System Safty , 27 (1990), 241-255. 59. Geist, R., and M. Smotherman "Ultrahigh...Clark, "Electrodynamic energy density and power flux", Math. Rep. Acad. Sci. Canada 10 (1988) 187-193. 70. Jeffries, Clark, "Eigenvalues, stability, and

  11. Places in Time: The Inns and Outhouses of Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailloux, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Rhetoric is often about "good guys" and "bad guys." Even more basically, it concerns who is in and who is out, what is included and what is excluded, who is placed inside and who outside a cultural community, a political movement, a professional organization. These ins and outs concern both the commonplaces of rhetoric and the rhetoric of …

  12. Places in Time: The Inns and Outhouses of Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailloux, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Rhetoric is often about "good guys" and "bad guys." Even more basically, it concerns who is in and who is out, what is included and what is excluded, who is placed inside and who outside a cultural community, a political movement, a professional organization. These ins and outs concern both the commonplaces of rhetoric and the rhetoric of …

  13. [SwapINN: analytic study about prescription swaps at pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Ana; Alexandra, Denise; Rodrigues, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A prescrição obrigatória por DCI foi imposta em 2012, para redução de custos do SNS e motivou discussão entre as partes envolvidas. Estudámos, numa população real, a dinâmica prescrição-dispensa de medicamentos.Objetivos: Determinar a percentagem de prescrições substituídas; avaliar os fatores associados à substituição; identificar as respetivas justificações; quantificar os diferenciais dos custos para utente e Serviço Nacional de Saúde.Material e Métodos: Estudo analítico. Amostra de conveniência constituída pelos medicamentos prescritos de uma unidade de saúde, de 19 a 23 de Dezembro de 2011. Três dias depois, os utentes foram entrevistados telefonicamente. Software: Excel® e SPSS®. Testes: Qui-quadrado e Mann-Whitney; n.s. = 0,05.Resultados: Total de 255 prescrições. A maioria foi efetuada a mulheres (62%), idade média 52 anos, 4 anos de escolaridade (33%) e para situações agudas (53%). Foram substituídas 31% das prescrições, sem relação com idade, sexo ou escolaridade, nem com o médico prescritor ou farmácia. Os medicamentos prescritos para situações crónicas foram menos substituídos (p < 0,001), assim como as prescrições de marca (p < 0,001). Os anti-infeciosos e anti-alérgicos foram os grupos com mais substituições (p = 0,009). Os utentes não se aperceberam da substituição em 72% dos casos. Nos casos de substituição, o utente pagou, em média, mais 79% que o prescrito e o Serviço Nacional de Saúde 5%.Discussão/Conclusão: Verificou-se substituição de 31% das prescrições, com mais custos para utente e Serviço Nacional de Saúde. Consideramos possível viés de seleção, informação e registo. Sendo agora obrigatória a prescrição por DCI, sugerimos a análise regular, a nível nacional, com base nas aplicações informáticas em uso, da prescrição e respetiva dispensa.

  14. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-10-20

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  15. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Clemson University. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  16. A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

  17. Geological-Seismological Evaluation of Earthquake Hazards at Hartwell and Clemson Upper and Lower Dams, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Central and Eastern North America Using Intensity and Felt Area, " Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 77, No. 5, p 1635- 1654...in the central and eastern North America using intensityh and felt area, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 77, (in press). Smith, G. E., 1980. A focal mechanism...Unlimited Prepared for US Army Engineer District, Savannah LABORATORY SvRnnah, Georgia 31402 ~-tSn ri s !-o c rq e r rn; eic e! n The firr.:,,ros .0n

  18. Preliminary Effects of Prescribed Burning and Thinning as Fuel Reduction Treatments on the Piedmont Soils of the Clemson Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Victor B. Shelburne; M. Forbes Boyle; Darren J. Lione; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    This study is a component of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate (NFFS) Study which is an integrated national network of long-term interdisciplinary research to facilitate broad applicability of fuel impacts. This part of the NFFS study in the Piedmont of South Carolina studied three ways of reducing fuel loads (prescribed burning, thinning, and the two in combination...

  19. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to
    manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks.
    Understanding ho...

  20. A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

  1. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to
    manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks.
    Understanding ho...

  2. IES '81—Effect of the ionosphere on radiowave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, John M.

    A symposium entitled ‘Effect of the Ionosphere on Radiowave Systems’ was held on April 14-16, 1981, at the Ramada Inn, Old Town, Alexandria, Virginia. Over 250 participants from government, private industry, and academia were in attendance at the symposium, which was organized by John M. Goodman of the Naval Research Laboratory and Jules Aarons of the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory and was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, NRL, and AFGL. The purpose of the symposium, as in the two previous IES conferences, held in 1975 and 1978, was to improve the information transfer between system architects, managers, and designers on the one hand and ionospheric physicists and propagation specialists on the other hand. Although the military (DoD) interest associated with various topics presented at the conference was transparent, the commercial and scientific research areas were also in evidence.

  3. Rationale Design of Human Prolactin Receptor Antagonists for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Wen Y. Chen, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Clemson University Clemson , SC 29634-5702 REPORT DATE: October 2004 TYPE OF REPORT: Final Addendum PREPARED...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Clemson University REPORT NUMBER Clemson , SC 29634-5702 E-Mail: wenc@ clemson .edu 9. SPONSORING...breast cancer cells and transgenic mice Susan K Peirce’ and Wen Y Chen*, 2.3 ’Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson , SC

  4. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-12-17

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  5. Hartwell Lake Project, Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Rehabilitation of Clemson Upper Diversion Dam. Construction Foundation Report. Volume 1. Text, Plates, and Appendix A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Contractors, Inc. Degrading EZ Bore Pipe Jacking, HWY 93 Hill Electric Co., Inc. Misc. Electrical Work J & R Fencing Co. Fence Kelletts Well Boring, Inc...cleared and cultivated while the steeper slopes are heavily wooded with pine and hardwoods. Bedrock which underlies the strean valleys and hills in the...on the crests of the hills and ridges and the minimum thicknesses usually in the valleys. Rock weathering can be found to varying depths beneath both

  6. Post-impact fatigue of cross-plied, through-the-thickness reinforced carbon/epoxy composites. M.S. Thesis - Clemson Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serdinak, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the post-impact fatigue response of integrally woven carbon/epoxy composites was conducted. Five different through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcing fibers were used in an experimental textile process that produced an integrally woven (0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0)(sub T) ply layup with 21K AS4 carbon tow fiber. The resin was Hercules 3501-6, and the five TTT reinforcing fibers were Kevlar, Toray carbon, AS4 carbon, glass, and IM6 carbon. The purpose of this investigation was to study the post-impact fatigue response of these material systems and to identify the optimum TTT fiber. Samples were impacted with one half inch diameter aluminum balls with an average velocity of 543 ft/sec. Post-impact static compression and constant amplitude tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted with a loading ratio of R=-5, and frequency of 4 Hz. Damage growth was monitored using x-radiographic and sectioning techniques and by examining the stress-strain response (across the impact site) throughout the fatigue tests. The static compressive stress versus far-field strain response was nearly linear for all material groups. All the samples had a transverse shear failure mode. The average compressive modulus (from far-field strain) was about 10 Msi. The average post-impact static compressive strength was about 35.5 Ksi. The IM6 carbon sample had a strength of over 40 Ksi, more than 16 percent stronger than average. There was considerable scatter in the S-N data. However, the IM6 carbon samples clearly had the best fatigue response. The response of the other materials, while worse than IM6 carbon, could not be ranked definitively. The initial damage zones caused by the impact loading and damage growth from fatigue loading were similar for all five TTT reinforcing materials. The initial damage zones were circular and consisted of delaminations, matrix cracks and ply cracks. Post-impact fatigue loading caused delamination growth, ply cracking and fiber bundle failures, typically 45 deg from impact load direction. During the initial 97 percent of fatigue life, delaminations, ply cracks and fiber bundle failures primarily grew at and near the impact site. During the final 3 percent of life, damage grew rapidly transverse to the loading direction as a through-the-thickness transverse shear failure. The stress-strain response was typically linear during the initial 50 percent of life, and stiffness dropped about 20 percent during this period. During the next 47 percent of life, stiffness dropped about 34 percent, and the stress-strain response was no longer linear. The stiffness decreased about 23 percent during the final 3 percent of life. These trends were typical of all the materials tested. Therefore, by monitoring stiffness loss, fatigue failure could be accurately anticipated.

  7. A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

  8. Assessing the Robustness of a POD-based Inversion Framework for Resistivity Imaging of Solute Plumes. Corresponding Author Email Address: smoysey@clemson.edu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oware, E. K.; Moysey, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional Tikhonov regularization is independent of the physical mechanisms driving state variables targeted by geophysical imaging systems. Hence, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) based inversion was previously introduced to include physics-based a priori information in constraining the imaging problem. The POD approach uses training data to extract a set of basis vectors that can be used within a basis-constrained inversion algorithm, where the training data are selected to represent possible distributions of a state variable that are consistent with the prevalent driving physical processes. For resistivity imaging of groundwater solutes the POD inversion approach involves Monte Carlo simulation of flow and transport in order to generate a training dataset, thereby intrinsically capturing the perceived physics of the underlying processes driving the subsurface electrical resistivity distribution in a non-parametric fashion. A key element of the POD technique presented previously involves the alignment of the Center of Mass (CoM) of all concentration training images at the true CoM of the solute plume being imaged, prior to extracting the POD basis patterns. The constructed basis was then used for constraining the data inversion procedure. This contribution seeks to study the robustness of the technique under varying degrees of uncertainty in the estimation of the true concentration CoM. We also present a novel strategy for automatically localizing the CoM of the training dataset as an integral component of the data inversion step. We use a 2D synthetic transport study in heterogeneous media as a test case for demonstrating the performance of POD-based inversion for different error scenarios. To assess the retrieval error associated with inaccurate basis CoM, the CoM for the basis was varied by shifting it as a percentage (10, 25, 75, and 100 %) of the width (i.e., second spatial moment) of the true plume in the horizontal, diagonal, and vertical directions prior to each reconstruction. Additionally, varying data uncertainties comprising 0, 3, and 10% Gaussian noise additives were considered, for each scenario tested. Overall, the POD inversion was found to be fairly insensitive to shifts in the true CoM. In the case of horizontal and vertical shifts, the reconstruction appears to be qualitatively robust until the training data are shifted by an entire plume width or thickness, respectively. In contrast, reconstruction degraded significantly when the training images were shifted by 50% of the true plume-dispersions in the diagonal direction. We also noted that the estimate of the true CoM, when approached from any of the three directions, converged at a unique location for each case of data uncertainty investigated. The error in the estimated CoM increased with increasing signal noise; relative errors of the x and y coordinates as a percentage of the true plume's horizontal and vertical widths for the 0, 3, and 10% noise cases are 0, 3.1, and 12.6% (x coordinate) and 5.6, 5.6, and 16.7% (y coordinate), respectively, suggesting that the plume center of mass is better constrained by resistivity data in the horizontal than the vertical direction.

  9. A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

  10. Hartwell Lake Project, Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Rehabilitation of Clemson Upper Diversion Dam. Construction Foundation Report. Volume 2. Appendices B thru E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Hole No. T-I-) PIOJC IWSALLATION S#W 3 De t-s e~ i I1 sif CLSIICTO O AERAS % CORE lox OR REMARKS ELEVATION OEPTH LEGENO Q.SC MTL ECOV - SAMPLE...ELEVATION DEPTH LEGEND CA OF TERIALS ECOV SAMPLE (DOdixg time. water loll. deph of T( Deuwpf,) ERY NO. wathe’mg, eft.. if 1,gf /ftfot) 6 2 3 5 0b C d f 9...INSPECTOR 9. TOTAL OEPTI4Oft HOLE 98 .4 NnyRector Engineer ELVTO ITIegO CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS % CORE Bo COft R EMAR KS ELEVATIOGr4W0# DE EGN ECOV

  11. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  12. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

  13. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Savannah, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar System was designed to provide 50 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Liquid Flat Plate Collectors (900 square feet) are used for the collector subsystem. The collector subsystem is closed loop, using 50 percent Ethylene Glycol solution antifreeze for freeze protection. The 1,000 gallon fiber glass storage tank contains two heat exchangers. One of the heat exchangers heats the storage tank with the collector solar energy. The other heat exchanger preheats the cold supply water as it passes through on the way to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tank heaters. Electrical energy supplements the solar energy for the DHW. The Collector Mounting System utilizes guy wires to structurally tie the collector array to the building.

  14. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  15. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. A liquid (water) flat plate collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers.

  16. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Forrest Lane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector (1,000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1,000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  17. Human Pulpal Reaction to the Modified McInnes Bleaching Technique,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Bleaching,v ital bleaching, pulp reaction D LA- 2. ABSTR ACT (Cotinue aevrw L N nweoesY and Identily by block number); ; z Am.C~m,-,e... pulp . Under the conditions of this study, there were no significant pulpal reactions to the bleaching technique even when a substantial amount of the...Bleaching Technique had any adverse effects on the pulp . Under the conditions of this study, there were no significant pulpal reactions to the

  18. Project EXCEL: Holiday Inn at Fisherman's Wharf, Housekeeping Department: Improving Customer Service, Module 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    Project EXCEL is a federally-funded workplace literacy program involving hotel enterprises in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. Its focus is on identification and instruction of literacy skills essential to job success for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. Training is intended to enable employees to understand written work orders,…

  19. No room at the inn: a snapshot of an American emergency room.

    PubMed

    Olson, E J

    1994-01-01

    The emergency rooms of American hospitals have frequently become the principal suppliers of nonurgent primary care to the under- and uninsured. Canvassing published reports and using original data obtained from a representative urban hospital, Erik Olson examines the demographics of the American emergency room and analyzes its finances. The costs of providing primary care are shifted, to the extent possible, to those who can pay. The result is escalating health care costs and a deterioration of quality of care due to overcrowding, leading some hospitals to close their emergency rooms and others to turn away ambulances or "dump" patients who still require critical care. Mr. Olson explains that state antidumping laws and the federal COBRA statute have been ineffective at stemming these practices in the face of severe economic pressure to continue them. Pointing out that emergency rooms are an excessively expensive method of treating uninsured nonemergency patients, he proposes a system of primary care clinics created through a public/private partnership between municipalities and existing private health care providers. The partnership is designed to maintain a high standard of care at the clinics. As an incentive to stimulate the appearance of such clinics, a tax would be imposed on private health care providers; the tax on a given provider would be reduced to the extent that provider subsidizes a local primary care clinic that offers universal coverage, regardless of insurance status. Because the existence of such clinics would reduce inefficient use of hospital emergency rooms, in the long run hospitals should find it less expensive to finance local primary care clinics than to continue to sustain unreimbursed expenses due to improper use of their emergency departments.

  20. Materials Data on Nd3InN (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Project EXCEL: Holiday Inn at Union Square, Housekeeping Department. Safety and Security, Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    Project EXCEL is a federally-funded workplace literacy program involving hotel enterprises in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. Its focus is on identification and instruction of literacy skills essential to job success for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. Training is intended to enable employees to understand written work orders,…

  2. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. Water in the liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature.

  3. Investigation of oxygen defects in wurtzite InN by using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Y.; Chubaci, J. F. D.; Matsuoka, M.; Freitas, J. A.; da Silva, A. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Density Functional Theory based on ab initio calculations was employed to investigate single and complex defects of oxygen in indium nitride and their influence on the optical properties. Different oxygen contents (x=1.38%, 4.16%, 5.55% and 11.11%) were considered in our study by using PBEsol-GGA and TB-mBJ for the treatment of exchange-correlation energy and potential. It was found that oxygen is energetically favorable to exist mainly as singly charged isolated defect. The results using TB-mBJ approximation predicts a narrowing of the VBM (valence band maximum) and CBM (conduction band minimum) as oxygen content increases. Nevertheless, the larger contribution of the Moss-Burstein effect leads to an effective band-gap increase, yielding absorption edge values larger than that of the intrinsic bulk indium nitride.

  4. Electrical and optical properties of InN with periodic metallic in insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Komissarova, T. A. Shubina, T. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Ivanov, S. V.; Ryabova, L. I.; Khokhlov, D. R.; Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J.; Araki, T.; Nanishi, Y.

    2009-03-15

    We report on a growth by molecular beam epitaxy of InN:In semiconductor/metal composite structures containing periodically inserted arrays of In clusters formed by intentional deposition of In metal films in a thickness range of 2-48 monolayers. It was found that indium insertions do not change markedly carrier mobility in the composites, that remains in the 1300-1600 cm{sup 2}/(V s) range, while carrier concentration increases with rising In amount. Spectra of thermally detected optical absorption do not exhibit a noticeable Burstein-Moss shift of a principal absorption edge with increasing the carrier concentration, but rather complicated modification of their shapes.

  5. Materials Data on InN (SG:216) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Antioxidant potential of commercially available cumin (Cuminum cyminuml inn) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, S Birjees; Iqbal, Shahid; Bhanger, M I

    2009-05-01

    Owing to increased safety concerns about synthetic antioxidants, exploitation of safer antioxidants based on natural origin is the focus of research nowadays. Cumin is a common spice and is used as a routine supportive cooking agent. Extracts of cumin were prepared in methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane by employing Soxhlet extraction apparatus. Determination of the total phenolic content, chelating activity, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity were taken as parameters for the assessment of antioxidant properties. The findings of this study suggest cumin to be a potent source of antioxidants. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with one another.

  7. Sport Psychology Training in Counseling Psychology Programs: Is There Room at the Inn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 53 counseling psychology programs about sport psychology training. Found that most respondents had students who were interested in sport psychology; counseling faculty were perceived to be receptive to their colleagues and graduate students having interests and pursuing research in sport psychology; and most program directors thought best…

  8. Materials Data on InN (SG:186) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on Nd3InN (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on La3InN (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on Pr3InN (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on InN (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Savannah, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The Solar System was designed to provide 50 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Liquid Flat Plate Collectors (900 square feet) are used for the collector subsystem. The collector subsystem is closed loop, using 50 percent Ethylene Glycol solution antifreeze for freeze protection. The 1,000 gallon fiber glass storage tank contains two heat exchangers. One of the heat exchangers heats the storage tank with the collector solar energy. The other heat exchanger preheats the cold supply water as it passes through on the way to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tank heaters. Electrical energy supplements the solar energy for the DHW. The Collector Mounting System utilizes guy wires to structurally tie the collector array to the building.

  14. The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... wouldn't accept that scenario. To get better access to top doctors, the O'Hallorans moved to the Gainesville, Fla., area. They also started clicking away on the Internet, determined to become cystinosis experts. Their online sleuthing ...

  15. Materials Data on Ti3InN (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. High pressure structural, electronic and vibrational properties of InN and InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, J. M.; Joshi, Mitesh; Gajjar, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    A first-principles plane wave self-consistent method with the Ultrasoftpseudopotential scheme in the framework of density functional theory is performed to study the high pressure structural, electronic and vibrational properties of InX (X = N, P) for the zinc-blende (ZnS/B3), rock-salt (NaCl/B1) and cesium-chloride (CsCl/B2) phases. We also calculate the phase transition pressures among these different phases. Conclusions based on electronic energy band structure, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states at high pressure phases along phase transition regions are outlined.

  17. InN Thin Film Lattice Dynamics by Grazing Incidence Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, J.; Bosak, A.; Krisch, M.; Manjón, F. J.; Romero, A. H.; Garro, N.; Wang, X.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kuball, M.

    2011-05-01

    Achieving comprehensive information on thin film lattice dynamics so far has eluded well established spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate here the novel application of grazing incidence inelastic x-ray scattering combined with ab initio calculations to determine the complete elastic stiffness tensor, the acoustic and low-energy optic phonon dispersion relations of thin wurtzite indium nitride films. Indium nitride is an especially relevant example, due to the technological interest for optoelectronic and solar cell applications in combination with other group III nitrides.

  18. 78 FR 42928 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...-property . Former CQRS, 133 Old Cherry Road, Clemson, South Carolina 29631. Clemson University Library, 116... land and facilities at CQRS, 133 Old Cherry Road in Clemson, South Carolina, to Clemson University. As... land and facilities at the 133 Old Cherry Road Property. USDA would no longer operate and/or maintain...

  19. Measuring the Effectiveness of AAMTD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-02

    Clemson University Clemson Apparel Research 500 Lebanon Road Pendleton, SC 29670 July 1993 ..-98 • •--_---z _ .. . 93-18377 I3 8 9 0 41...S). Patricia P. Watkins 7, PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) ANO AD)ORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMINC* OR•GANIZATION Clemson Apparel Research REPORT NUMBER 500... Clemson Apparel Research. In order to obtain the necessary data required, a survey was developed that is provided to visitors of Clemson Apparel

  20. Finite Element Based Photon Migration Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    turbid media based on an oxygen-sensitive dye Eric Shives, Yong Xu, and Huabei Jiang Department of Physics & Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson ...ORGANIZATION: Clemson University Clemson , South Carolina 29634-5702 REPORT DATE: May 2003 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Summary PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...DAMD17-99-1-9130 6. AUTHOR(S) Huabei Jiang, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Clemson University

  1. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (5th, Clemson, South Carolina, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.; And Others

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains eight papers: "Bacterial Transformation" (M. J. Ernest & N. J. Rosenbaum);…

  2. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (5th, Clemson, South Carolina, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.; And Others

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains eight papers: "Bacterial Transformation" (M. J. Ernest & N. J. Rosenbaum);…

  3. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Anadromous Fish Projects, March 18-20, 1986, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains descriptions of projects specifically related to anadromous salmonids. They include projects in the following categories: (1) fish and wildlife projects in western Montana; (2) fish health and physiology; (3) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Oregon I; (4) passage improvement and natural propagation - Washington; (5) habitat enhancement and passage improvements - Oregon II; (6) future hydroelectric assessments; (7) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Idaho; (8) downstream migration: flows and monitoring; (9) downstream migration: reservoir impacts; and (10) habitat evaluation and monitoring. (ACR)

  4. Making Room at the Inn: Implications of "Christian Legal Society v. Martinez" for Public College and University Housing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Michael D.; Russo, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    The supreme court's ruling in "Christian Legal Society v. Martinez", its most important case to date on student associational activities, upheld a policy at a public law school in California that required recognized student organizations (or clubs) to admit "all-comers" even if they disagreed with organizational goals and…

  5. Making Room at the Inn: Implications of "Christian Legal Society v. Martinez" for Public College and University Housing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Michael D.; Russo, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    The supreme court's ruling in "Christian Legal Society v. Martinez", its most important case to date on student associational activities, upheld a policy at a public law school in California that required recognized student organizations (or clubs) to admit "all-comers" even if they disagreed with organizational goals and…

  6. Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking northwest to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view in master bedroom looking northwest to show board & batten door opened to reveal original planks, with scale; note; nursery beyond door to west - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  7. Interior view, detail view in the northeast bedroom to show ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail view in the northeast bedroom to show window south of the fireplace, with scale; note water damage visible on wallpaper - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  8. Developing Proactive Methods for General Aviation Data Collection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Massoud Bazargan,3 Jaclyn Baron,1 Rebecca Iden,1 Daniel Halperin3 1Clemson University Clemson , SC 29634 2Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Federal...Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 11. Contract or Grant No. 1Clemson University; Clemson , SC 29634 2FAA Civil Aerospace Medical...Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin Alabama Florida Georgia Kentucky North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Mississippi Delaware Maryland New Jersey

  9. Curbing Alcohol-Related Problems at College Sports Events. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The athletics season at colleges and universities is well under way, with college football games drawing millions of spectators. For example, Clemson University, with an enrollment of 17,000 students, is located in Clemson, S.C., with a population of approximately 12,000. But Clemson Memorial Stadium, which can seat more than 80,000 football fans,…

  10. Molecular-Level Study of the Effect of Prior Axial Compression/Torsion on the Axial-Tensile Strength of PPTA Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-16

    predicting the fibrillation damage mechanism . To overcome this limitation of the present analysis , several new computational cells containing PPTA bi...should be noted that the M. Grujicic, R. Yavari, S. Ramaswami, and J.S. Snipes, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, 241...Clemson University,Department of Mechanical Engineering,241 Engineering Innovation Building,Clemson,SC,29634 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  11. Proceedings of the Navy Symposium on Aeroballistics (10th) Held at the Sheraton Motor Inn Fredericksburg, Virginia on 15-16-17 July 1975. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-17

    parameters on the particle condi- tions at impact. In addition to particle encapsulation, the effects of particle size , initial velocity and range...dimensional, the spherical particle was initially transformed to a cubic particle of equivalent volume. The initial width of the particle (to) was...the rate of deformation of the particle through the shock layer is independent of the initial size of the particle. The size independence shows that

  12. Proceedings of the Navy Symposium on Aeroballistics (10th) Held at the Sheraton Motor Inn, Fredericksburg, Virginia on 15-16-17 July 1975. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-17

    question raised by the 1974 Nicolet tests was whether even this yaw level would be sufficient to result in a short at the launch Mach numbers, from 0.919...of trimming a missile to large angles of attack and producing high levels of maneuverability. As an example, these features are very attractive for...which neglects compressibility. Tne results of this study should yield more accurate methods of determining vortex trajectories, a question of prime

  13. Proceedings from the Annual Army Environmental R&D Symposium (16th) Held 23-25 June 1992 at Fort Magruder Inn and Conference Center, Williamsburg, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    thin metal film . When aluminum parts are coated , nitrogen gas is introduced into the chamber during the operation to cool the aluminum parts and...sacrificial corrosion resistance. The ceramic sealcoat is a painted-on protective coating that is usually heat-cured. It forms a solid film and is often used...on top of aluminum- filled base coats . Primers, topcoats, and sealants provide solid film protective coatings . Materials used include epoxies

  14. Enhanced memory effect via quantum confinement in 16 nm InN nanoparticles embedded in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Ortaç, Bülend; Alevli, Mustafa; Dietz, Nikolaus; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-06-23

    In this work, the fabrication of charge trapping memory cells with laser-synthesized indium-nitride nanoparticles (InN-NPs) embedded in ZnO charge trapping layer is demonstrated. Atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers are used as tunnel and blocking oxides. The gate contacts are sputtered using a shadow mask which eliminates the need for any lithography steps. High frequency C-V{sub gate} measurements show that a memory effect is observed, due to the charging of the InN-NPs. With a low operating voltage of 4 V, the memory shows a noticeable threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2 V, which indicates that InN-NPs act as charge trapping centers. Without InN-NPs, the observed memory hysteresis is negligible. At higher programming voltages of 10 V, a memory window of 5 V is achieved and the V{sub t} shift direction indicates that electrons tunnel from channel to charge storage layer.

  15. Growth, nitrogen vacancy reduction and solid solution formation in cubic GaN thin films and the subsequent fabrication of superlattice structures using AIN and InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert F.

    1992-02-01

    An atomic layer epitaxy deposition system configured for the growth of thin films of the III-V nitrides of Al, Ga and In has been designed, constructed and commissioned. The system allows the introduction of up to 16 gases without mixing. Self-terminating growth of crystalline GaN films has been achieved on single crystal wafers of (0001) alpha(6H)-SiC. Results of analyses via Auger spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electron diffraction are described. Deposition of AlN and GaN via gas-source MBE was also continued during this period. The principal emphasis concerned the initial stages of growth of both compounds on the substrates of (00001) alpha(6H)-SiC and (0001) sapphire, as determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An initial layer of silicon nitride formed on the surface of SiC prior to the deposition of either nitride. The deposition of GaN on sapphire followed the Stranski-Krastanov mode of nucleation and growth, while on SiC, characteristics of three-dimensional growth were evident. By contrast, AlN grew initially in a layer-by-layer mode. Deposition of GaN on vicinal (100) Beta-SiC during UV irradiation resulted in the formation of a new 4H polytype of this material. Deposition of BN via gas-source MBE on Cu(110) resulted in nanocrystalline cBN; films grown on (111) Cu resulted in h-BN (graphitic phase). Similar studies using Si(100) substrates also resulted in the occurrence of cBN. The occurrence of the cubic polytype was enhanced while that of h-BN was discouraged with the use of the UV light at 400-500 C.

  16. Proceedings of the Navy Symposium on Aeroballistics (10th) Held at the Sheraton Motor Inn, Fredericksburg, Virginia, on 15-16-17 July 1975. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-17

    White Oak Laboratory Silver Spring, Maryland i 1 ~ i. I. *This work was supported by the Naval Air Systems Command, AIR 320 : 425 ~ A 10th Navy Symposlum... Air Force, Army, other government agjincics. ivertz’ mt d from industry. It is our hope that wr can provide a pleasant atmospheie for you ’mIn ng lou - 1 ...663-7646 KALIVRETENOS, C. A. KUSTER, F. A. Naval Surface Weapons Center Advanced Missile Project Office White Oak Laboratory Naval Air Development

  17. Proposed re-evaluation of the 154Eu thermal (<i>n>, γ) capture cross-section based on spent fuel benchmarking studies

    SciTech Connect

    Skutnik, Steven E.

    2016-09-22

    154Eu is a nuclide of considerable importance to both non-destructive measurements of used nuclear fuel assembly burnup as well as for calculating the radiation source term for used fuel storage and transportation. But, recent evidence from code validation studies of spent fuel benchmarks have revealed evidence of a systemic bias in predicted 154Eu inventories when using ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries, wherein Eu-154 is consistently over-predicted on the order of 10% or more. Further, this bias is found to correlate with sample burnup, resulting in a larger departure from experimental measurements for higher sample burnups. Here, the bias in Eu-154 is characterized across eleven spent fuel destructive assay benchmarks from five different assemblies. Based on these studies, possible amendments to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1 evaluations of the 154Eu (n,γ)155Eu are explored. By amending the location of the first resolved resonance for the 154Eu radiative capture cross-section (centered at 0.195 eV in ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1) to 0.188 eV and adjusting the neutron capture width proportional to $\\sqrt1/E$, the amended cross-section evaluation was found to reduce the bias in predicted 154Eu inventories by approximately 5–7%. And while the amended capture cross-section still results in a residual over-prediction of 154Eu (ranging from 2% to 9%), the effect is substantially attenuated compared with the nominal ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1 evaluations.

  18. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AIN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    IK AD-A248 058 - - H Final Technical ReportI I Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the...structural and chemical analyses, there is no reason to believe that a homogeneous solid solution close to this composition had formed. Moreover

  19. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AIN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    AD-A258 804 Final Technical Report Ii Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent...Technical 6/1/86-12/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin...According to the structural and chemical analyses, there is no reason to believe that a homogeneous solid solution close to this composition had

  20. ETL/EPA Workshop on Open Burning/Open Detonation (OB/OD) (Broker Inn, Boulder, Colorado 15-16 February 1995)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    the Front Range. 4DDA reduced errors in the predicted 3-D mesoscale flow fields. 4.1.2 Diffusion scheme "The Gaussian Puff Model SCIPUFF ," Dr. R. Ian...Closure Integrated Puff ( SCIPUFF ) model uses turbulence closure theory to represent diffusion, and a generalized moment tensor to describe wind-shear...Advantages of the SCIPUFF algorithm are that it is relatively fast, especially when compared with Lagrangian particle type schemes, and highly accurate

  1. The SpaceInn-SISMA Database: Characterization of a Large Sample of Variable and Active Stars by Means of Harps Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Mistò, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Molinaro, M.; Cepparo, F.; Roth, M.; Michel, E.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We created a large database of physical parameters and variability indicators by fully reducing and analyzing the large number of spectra taken to complement the asteroseismic observations of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) satellite. 7103 spectra of 261 stars obtained with the ESO echelle spectrograph HARPS have been stored in the VO-compliant database Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA), along with the CoRoT photometric data of the 72 CoRoT asteroseismic targets. The remaining stars belong to the same variable classes of the CoRoT targets and were observed to better characterize the properties of such classes. Several useful variability indicators (mean line profiles, indices of differential rotation, activity and emission lines) together with v\\sin i and radial-velocity measurements have been extracted from the spectra. The atmospheric parameters {T}{eff},{log}g, and [Fe/H] have been computed following a homogeneous procedure. As a result, we fully characterize a sample of new and known variable stars by computing several spectroscopic indicators, also providing some cases of simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy.

  2. Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in InN x Bi y Sb1-x-y /InSb quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhigang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yan Yang; Shen Li, Shu

    2017-07-01

    Quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, a fundamentally new quantum state of matter and topological phase transitions are characteristics of a kind of electronic material, popularly referred to as topological insulators (TIs). TIs are similar to ordinary insulator in terms of their bulk bandgap, but have gapless conducting edge-states that are topologically protected. These edge-states are facilitated by the time-reversal symmetry and they are robust against nonmagnetic impurity scattering. Recently, the quest for new materials exhibiting non-trivial topological state of matter has been of great research interest, as TIs find applications in new electronics and spintronics and quantum-computing devices. Here, we propose and demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that QSH effect and topological phase transitions can be realized in {{InN}}x{{Bi}}y{{Sb}}1-x-y/InSb semiconductor quantum wells (QWs). The simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and bismuth in InSb is instrumental in lowering the bandgap, while inducing opposite kinds of strain to attain a near-lattice-matching conducive for lattice growth. Phase diagram for bandgap shows that as we increase the QW thickness, at a critical thickness, the electronic bandstructure switches from a normal to an inverted type. We confirm that such transition are topological phase transitions between a traditional insulator and a TI exhibiting QSH effect—by demonstrating the topologically protected edge-states using the bandstructure, edge-localized distribution of the wavefunctions and edge-state spin-momentum locking phenomenon, presence of non-zero conductance in spite of the Fermi energy lying in the bandgap window, crossover points of Landau levels in the zero-mode indicating topological band inversion in the absence of any magnetic field and presence of large Rashba spin-splitting, which is essential for spin-manipulation in TIs.

  3. Clinical and histological evaluation of an analogue of palmitoylethanolamide, PLR 120 (comicronized Palmidrol INN) in cats with eosinophilic granuloma and eosinophilic plaque: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scarampella, F; Abramo, F; Noli, C

    2001-02-01

    Fifteen cats with eosinophilic granuloma or eosinophilic plaque were given PLR 120 at the dosage of 10 mg kg-1 twice daily for one month. PLR-120 down-modulates mast cell degranulation via a receptor-mediated mechanism. No other drugs were permitted and cats were kept free of parasites throughout the study. A clinical evaluation and skin biopsies were performed before and after the treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed at 15 and 30 days. Mast cell numbers were counted and their granular content was assessed by densitometric analysis on toluidine blue-stained sections before and after the treatment. Ten of 15 (67%) cats showed clinical improvement of signs and lesions. There was no significant difference between mast cell numbers in skin biopsies taken before and after the trial, whereas the number of granules was significantly increased (P < 0.009). This pilot study suggests that PLR-120 might be a useful drug for the treatment of eosinophilic granuloma and eosinophilic plaque.

  4. Evaluation of interpolations of InN, AlN and GaN lattice and elastic constants for their ternary and quaternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, F. M.; Mánuel, J. M.; García, R.; Reuters, B.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.

    2013-06-01

    Structural and compositional data were collected for several high-quality strained InGaN, InAlN, AlGaN and InAlGaN layers with various compositions. Based on these results, the InN/AlN/GaN molar fractions of every film were indirectly estimated by the application of Vegard's law (Vegard 1921 Z. Phys. 5 17) to lattice and elastic constants of the binaries and by an alternative approach proposed by (Williams et al 1978 J. Electron. Mater. 7 639) (even considering possible mistakes in its application). True compositions were independently assessed by x-ray spectroscopy or Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The results of both interpolation models are highlighted in utilizable contour and surface ternary plots of lattice constants and biaxial strain relaxation coefficients calculated for the whole compositional range. Calculated compositions from Vegard's law best fit the measured values. Finally, it is geometrically demonstrated that there are wrong assumptions in the Williams et al model, so that Vegard's law should only be used to successfully determine the compositions of ternary and quaternary III-N nitrides.

  5. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach to obtaining real time, superconducting YBa2Cu30(7-x) materials is presented. The work was carried out under the overall direction of Clemson University with tasks being performed at both Clemson and Westinghouse (Aiken, SC). Clemson prepared the tapecast superconducting 123 material and fabricated in into substrate-supported, environmentally-protected conducting links. Following this, all of the elements were individually tested for resistance vs. temperature and Tc; and then a portion of them were kept at Clemson for further testing while a randomly selected group was delivered to Westinghouse for specialized testing and evaluation in their low temperature/high vacuum and radiation facilities. In addition, a number of control samples (12 ea.) were put on the shelf at Clemson for further reference at the end of the testing period. The specific tests conducted at Clemson and Westinghouse/SRC are presented with a summary of the results.

  6. Control of a Remotely Operated Quadrotor Aerial Vehicle and Camera Unit Using a Fly-The-Camera Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-11

    Clemson University College of Engineering and Science Control and Robotics (CRB) Technical Report Number: CU/CRB/3/11...Computer Engineering, Clemson Uni- versity, Clemson, SC 29634. 2OC Robotics Ltd., Bristol, BS34 7JU, UK. 2School of Electrical Engineering and Automation...was presented in [1] and [10] where the camera platform, a quadrotor UAV, and the camera positioning unit are considered to be a single robotic unit. In

  7. 2-Dimensional B-Spline Algorithms with Applications to Ray Tracing in Media of Spatially-Varying Refractive Index

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Division Optical Radiation Branch August 2007 Interim Report for June 2007 – August 2007 DESTRUCTION NOTICE – Destroy by any method that will...Energy Bioeffects Division Optical Radiation Branch Distribution Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited NOTICE AND...Clemson University # * Directed Energy Bioeffects Division Ste B-100 Clemson, SC 29634-0975 Optical Radiation Branch San Antonio, TX 78228

  8. Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Waldrop; [Editor

    1998-01-01

    The Ninth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference was held February 25-27, 1997 on the campus of Clemson University in Clemson, SC. This conference was the latest in a series of meetings designed to provide a forum for the exchange of research information among silviculturists and researchers in related areas, research coordination, review of research in...

  9. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    APPLICATION MANUAL Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage... Energy Storage (STES) Ronald W. Falta and Fred Molz Clemson University Charles Newell GSI Environmental, Inc. Clemson University P.O. Box...manual is to describe the use of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, particularly through the employment of wintertime cooling

  10. DNA sequences and composition from 12 BAC clones-derived MUSB SSR markers mapped to cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. x G. Barbadense L.)chromosomes 11 and 21

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To discover resistance (R) and/or pathogen-induced (PR) genes involved in disease response, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from cv. Acala Maxxa (G. hirsutum) were sequenced at the Clemson University, Genomics Institute, Clemson, SC. These BACs derived MUSB single sequence repeat (SS...

  11. Interior view, front entrance doors; note; double doors have a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, front entrance doors; note; double doors have a box lock, sliding bolt locks into door head and sill as well as modern locks, butt hinges, slightly recessed panels, and five-ligh transom - Fort Hill, Clemson University Campus, Clemson, Pickens County, SC

  12. Book review: Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...

  13. Response of an Alumina Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Composite to Combined Tension-Torsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 2 ATTN: DTIC-FDAC 1 MIAC/ CINDAS , Purdue University, 2595 Yeager Road, West Lafayette, IN 47905 I Defense Advanced...91311 1 Prof. James G. Goree, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631 I William F. Grant, AVCO Specialty Materials

  14. Influence of temperature in thermal and oxidative stress responses in estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Madeira, D; Narciso, L; Cabral, H N; Vinagre, C; Diniz, M S

    2013-10-01

    The influence of increasing temperatures in thermal and oxidative stress responses were studied in the muscle of several estuarine fish species (Diplodus vulgaris, Diplodus sargus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Gobius niger and Liza ramada). Selected fish were collected in July at the Tagus estuary (24±0.9°C; salinity of 30±4‰; pH=8). Fish were subjected to a temperature increase of 1°C.h(-1) until they reached their Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), starting at 24°C (control temperature). Muscle samples were collected during the trial and results showed that oxidative stress biomarkers are highly sensitive to temperature. Results from stress oxidative enzymes show alterations with increasing temperature in all tested species. Catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activity significantly increased in L. ramada, D. labrax and decreased in D. vulgaris. Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) activity increased in L. ramada, D. sargus, D. vulgaris, and D. labrax. In G. niger it showed a cycle of increase-decrease. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased in L. ramada, D. sargus and D. labrax. With respect to correlation analysis (Pearson; Spearman r), the results showed that oxidation products and antioxidant defenses were correlated in L. ramada (LPO-CAT and LPO-GST, D. sargus (LPO-CAT), and D. labrax (LPO-CAT). Oxidative biomarkers were correlated with thermal stress biomarker (Hsp70) in L. ramada (CAT-Hsp70), D. vulgaris (LPO-Hsp70), D. labrax (GST-Hsp70) and G. niger (LPO-Hsp70). In conclusion, oxidative stress does occur with increasing temperatures and there seems to be a relation between thermal stress response and oxidative stress response. The results suggest that oxidative stress biomarkers should be applied with caution, particularly in field multi-species/multi-environment studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling low energy x-ray interactions with biological material at the CUEBIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberger, J.; Schott, M.; Kimmel, T.; Medlin, D.; Gall, A.; Rusin, M.; Dean, D.; Takacs, E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments at Clemson University have established the need to model the production of x-rays using a highly charged ion beam generated by the Clemson University Electron Beam Ion Trap (CUEBIT). A Geant4 modeling environment has been developed on Clemson University's Palmetto2 supercomputing cluster to simulate the interaction of these x- rays with biological material. Preliminary results of the model have been obtained after performing initial simulations on the computing cluster. Future experiments using the CUEBIT as well as refinements to the Geant4 model are discussed.

  16. Algebraic and Computational Aspects of Network Reliability and Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-15

    7 -A175 075 ALGEBRAIC AND COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS OF KETUORK / IRELIABILITY AND PROBLEMS(U) CLEMSON UNIV SC D SHIER 15 JUL 86 AFOSR-TR-86-2115 AFOSR...MONITORING ORGANIZATION I, afpplhcable) Clemson University AFOSR/NM 6C. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Codej 7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) Mlartin...Hall Bldg 410 Clemson , SC 29634-1907 Bolling AFB OC 20332-6448 S& NAME OF FUNOING/SPONSORING Bb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION

  17. 24 CFR 3285.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Pilings, columns, footings, piers, foundation walls, shims, and any combination thereof that, when... wood; manufactured concrete stands; concrete blocks; and portions of foundation walls. Ramada. Any... determined by dividing the ultimate load of a component or system by an appropriate factor of safety....

  18. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AlN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    were resistively heated either with Ta or W alloy wire heaters The gallium cell was loaded with 50 g of 99.999 999% pure gallium.3 The special high...E. Kaxiras, and R. M. Trump , Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(6), 632 (1989). 63. D. Heskett, A. Baddorf, and E. W. Plumrnmer, Surf. Sci. 195(1-2), 94 (1988). 64...traditional applications such as a hard coating for machining I ferrous metals. For a complete listing of materials-related properties of c-BN see Landot- 3

  19. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  20. High-pressure CVD Growth of InN and Indium-rich Group III-nitride Compound Semiconductors for Novel Mid- and Far-infrared Detectors and Emitters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    polarity of Group III-nitride crystals. A higher concentration of indium in InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QW) results in more strain and more polarization36...fluctuation) induced localized states in the InGaN layers play major roles in achieving highly efficient blue and green InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQW...the phase segregation process in dissimilar materials, or  the formation of straight or compositional graded quantum wells . p. 15 Figure 10

  1. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state of the art calibration sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, inter-calibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.

  2. The Nature of the Dimethyl-aluminum (-gallium and -indium) Methylphenylamide Dimers in Solution and the Molecular Structure of (CH3)2 InN (CH3)- (C6H5)2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-16

    by evaluating the effects of solvent and temperature on the cis/trans isomer ratios. All data are consistent with the hypotheses that the aluminum...investigated by IH NMR spectroscopy by evaluating the effects of solvent and temperature on the cis/trans isomer ratios. All data are consistent with...essentially independent of the nature of the nonreactive solvent . 3𔃾 Thus, [(CH 3 )2AIN(CH3)(C6Hs) 2 exists as an 83%/17% mixture of cis/trans isomers in

  3. Growth, nitrogen vacancy reduction, and solid solution formation in cubic GaN thin films and the subsequent fabrication of superlattice structures using AlN and InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert F.; Ailey-Trent, K. S.; Kester, Daniel; Paisley, Michael J.; Perry, Bill

    1992-06-01

    Undoped GaN films have been deposited by gas-source MBE having essentially intrinsic electrical character. Acceptor-type behavior has been achieved with Mg doping. The electrical properties of these latter films were resistivity = 0.5 omega-cm, Hall mobility (holes = 10 sq cm/V-s and carrier concentration = 1(10)(exp 18) cu cm. Photo-assisted gas-source MBE growth of stoichiometric GaN was also achieved using a 500 W Hg lamp. Illumination and Ga cell temperature altered the texture of the polycrystalline GaN in unusual ways, changing the growth habit from (0001) is parallel to (100) to (0001) is parallel to (111) and back again. Thin films of cubic-BN (c-BN) were also deposited on various substrates via both gas-source MBE and electron beam MBE. The use of Si(100) substrates, the latter technique, and the characterization tools of RHEED, XPS, LEED, SEM, FTIR, and HRTEM resulted in the achievement of an initial amorphous BN layer followed by a layer of turbostratic BN and subsequently by a layer of cubic BN. Cubic BN films were also deposited on polycrystalline diamond films grown via CVD on Si(100). The effect of the bombarding species was examined. Finally, the plans for both a systematic investigation of the ion implantation and contact development and related characterization of AlN and GaN with n- and p-type dopants and the construction and employment of a UV luminescence facility is discussed.

  4. Healing Arts Therapies and Person-Centred Dementia Care Healing Arts Therapies and Person-Centred Dementia Care Anthea Innes and Hatfield Karen (editors) Jessica Kingsley 137pp £13.95 1 84310 038X 184310038X.

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    Reading this digestible good practice guide, one is struck by the sheer enthusiasm of the contributors both on paper and in the descriptions of their 'therapies'. The authors are absolutely committed to their own specialties, and desire that we are as persuaded as they by the psychotherapeutic impact of the healing arts in dementia care. This evangelism becomes a little wearing after a while and the case studies that flesh out the meaning of what is observed feel a little too neat. The book suffers a little for its American influences and expectations. One feels that all environments are assumed to have daily access to music/drama/art therapists.

  5. Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change. Report of a Workshop at the University of Maryland Inn and Conference Center, College Park, MD. , November 12-14, 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Wielicki, B.; Spencer, R.; Emery, B.; Datla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. To address these problems and recommend directions for improvements in satellite instrument calibration some 75 scientists, including researchers who develop and analyze long-term data sets from satellites, experts in the field of satellite instrument calibration, and physicists working on state of the art calibration sources and standards met November 12 - 14, 2002 and discussed the issues. The workshop defined the absolute accuracies and long-term stabilities of global climate data sets that are needed to detect expected trends, translated these data set accuracies and stabilities to required satellite instrument accuracies and stabilities, and evaluated the ability of current observing systems to meet these requirements. The workshop's recommendations include a set of basic axioms or overarching principles that must guide high quality climate observations in general, and a roadmap for improving satellite instrument characterization, calibration, inter-calibration, and associated activities to meet the challenge of measuring global climate change. It is also recommended that a follow-up workshop be conducted to discuss implementation of the roadmap developed at this workshop.

  6. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AlN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    that the BGaN film remained predominantly single crystal, but shows both a normal cubic [110] pattern and a second hexagonal pattern [0110]. By contrast...27 Transmission electron microscopy (iEM) was used (Hitachi H-800) to more closely examine the microstructural evolution of the BN/ BGaN /GaN epitaxial...area diffraction (SAD) also showed the BGaN layer to be a mixture of cubic and wurtzitic phases. This layer was heavily faulted. The latter phenomenon

  7. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AlN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Laboratories, Inc. 3. Structural Analysis Reflection high-energy electron diffraction performed during growth indicated that the BGaN film remained...was used (Hitachi H-800) to more closely examine the microstructural evolution of the BN/ BGaN /GaN epitaxial films. Cross-section TEM specimens were... BGaN layer to be a mixture of cubic and wurtzitic phases. This layer was heavily faulted. The latter phenomenon is to be expected given the high

  8. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AlN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    p PTIC (AD-A238 521 Semi-Annual Letter Report Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the...SUBTITLE Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and S. FUNDING NUMBERS solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the R&T:s40000lsrqO5 Subsequent

  9. Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using AlN and InN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    AD-A253 331 Semiannual Report Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication...Growth, Nitrogen Vacancy Reduction and Solid Solution Formation in Cubic GaN Thin Films and the Subsequent Fabrication of Superlattice Structures Using...34 substrates, such as using a graded AlxGal-xN solid solution as a buffer layer. E. Conclusion We have shown that in the use of our modified gas source MBE

  10. Multicenter Phase II Study Evaluating Two Cycles of Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Cetuximab as Induction Regimen Prior to Surgery in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients with NSCLC Stage IB-IIIA (INN06-Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hilbe, Wolfgang; Pall, Georg; Kocher, Florian; Pircher, Andreas; Zabernigg, August; Schmid, Thomas; Schumacher, Michael; Jamnig, Herbert; Fiegl, Michael; Gächter, Anne; Freund, Martin; Kendler, Dorota; Manzl, Claudia; Zelger, Bettina; Popper, Helmut; Wöll, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    Background Different strategies for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage NSCLC have already been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a chemoimmunotherapy when limited to two cycles. Methods Between 01/2007 and 03/2010 41 patients with primarily resectable NSCLC stage IB to IIIA were included. Treatment consisted of two cycles cisplatin (40 mg/m2 d1+2) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 d1) q3 weeks, accompanied by the administration of cetuximab (400 mg/m2 d1, then 250 mg weekly). The primary endpoint was radiological response according to RECIST. Results 40 patients were evaluable for toxicity, 39 for response. The main grade 3/4 toxicities were: neutropenia 25%, leucopenia 11%, febrile neutropenia 6%, nausea 8% and rash 8%. 20 patients achieved a partial response, 17 a stable disease, 2 were not evaluable. 37 patients (95%) underwent surgery and in three of them a complete pathological response was achieved. At a median follow-up of 44.2 months, 41% of the patients had died, median progression-free survival was 22.5 months. Conclusions Two cycles of cisplatin/ docetaxel/ cetuximab showed promising efficacy in the neoadjuvant treatment of early-stage NSCLC and rapid operation was possible in 95% of patients. Toxicities were manageable and as expected. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register; Eudract-Nr: 2006-004639-31 PMID:26020783

  11. Nanoscale imaging of InN segregation and polymorphism in single vertically aligned InGaN/GaN multi quantum well nanorods by tip-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Poliani, E; Wagner, M R; Reparaz, J S; Mandl, M; Strassburg, M; Kong, X; Trampert, A; Sotomayor Torres, C M; Hoffmann, A; Maultzsch, J

    2013-07-10

    Vertically aligned GaN nanorod arrays with nonpolar InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells (MQW) were grown by MOVPE on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire templates. The chemical and structural properties of single nanorods are optically investigated with a spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). This enables the local mapping of variations in the chemical composition, charge distribution, and strain in the MQW region of the nanorods. Nanoscale fluctuations of the In content in the InGaN layer of a few percent can be identified and visualized with a lateral resolution below 35 nm. We obtain evidence for the presence of indium clustering and the formation of cubic inclusions in the wurtzite matrix near the QW layers. These results are directly confirmed by high-resolution TEM images, revealing the presence of stacking faults and different polymorphs close to the surface near the MQW region. The combination of TERS and HRTEM demonstrates the potential of this nanoscale near-field imaging technique, establishing TERS as a very potent, comprehensive, and nondestructive tool for the characterization and optimization of technologically relevant semiconductor nanostructures.

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING BEAR INN, SLEEPING BEAR INN GARAGE AND DORMITORY, D.H. DAY STORE, RESTROOM, AND GARAGE - Glen Haven Historic District, Route 209, Glen Arbor, Leelanau County, MI

  13. 18. Dining room at southwest corner of building, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Dining room at southwest corner of building, view to west. Scale stick visible against west wall, next to woman. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Big Sur Inn Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  14. 39. DINING ROOM, LOOKING (NORTH) BACK TOWARD ENTRANCE. BEFORE 1907, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DINING ROOM, LOOKING (NORTH) BACK TOWARD ENTRANCE. BEFORE 1907, GUESTS AT THE INN ATE FAMILY-STYLE AT LONG RECTANGULAR TABLES. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  15. Technology Education Students Make a Difference through Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Kurt Y.

    2001-01-01

    Explains how technology education can be a vehicle for addressing social concerns via service learning. Describes the Tiny Tiger Toy project initiated by technology majors at Clemson University. (JOW)

  16. Integrating Professional Programs in a Traditional Undergraduate Psychology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Bernard; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Four papers presented by psychology faculty members from Clemson University discuss how each person met the need for undergraduates to obtain job preparation in psychology. Topics cover industrial psychology, clinical psychology, teaching of psychology, and an interdisciplinary curriculum. (ND)

  17. Making It Better: Research, Assessment, and Recursive Learning Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookover, Robert; Timmerman, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides case study examples of how assessment efforts led to and have been enhanced by the creation of integrated curriculum delivery models in parks, recreation, and tourism programs at Clemson University and the University of Utah.

  18. Spider-mediated flux of PCBs from contaminated sediments to terrestrial ecosystems and potential risks to arachnivorous birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated aquatic insect utilization and PCB exposure in riparian spiders at the Lake Hartwell superfund site (Clemson, SC , USA). We sampled sediments, adult chironomids, terrestrial insects, riparian spiders (Tetragnathidae, Araneidae, and Mecynogea lemniscata), and upla...

  19. 21. Photocopy of maesured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of maesured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, SITE PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

  20. 19. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

  1. 17. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, BASEMENT PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

  2. 20. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, ATTIC PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

  3. 18. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

  4. Spider-mediated flux of PCBs from contaminated sediments to terrestrial ecosystems and potential risks to arachnivorous birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated aquatic insect utilization and PCB exposure in riparian spiders at the Lake Hartwell superfund site (Clemson, SC , USA). We sampled sediments, adult chironomids, terrestrial insects, riparian spiders (Tetragnathidae, Araneidae, and Mecynogea lemniscata), and upla...

  5. Technology Education Students Make a Difference through Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Kurt Y.

    2001-01-01

    Explains how technology education can be a vehicle for addressing social concerns via service learning. Describes the Tiny Tiger Toy project initiated by technology majors at Clemson University. (JOW)

  6. Making It Better: Research, Assessment, and Recursive Learning Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookover, Robert; Timmerman, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides case study examples of how assessment efforts led to and have been enhanced by the creation of integrated curriculum delivery models in parks, recreation, and tourism programs at Clemson University and the University of Utah.

  7. 75 FR 65263 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, except for an establishment located within a building... ``public accommodations facility'' as ``an inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, including but not... proposed interpretive rule would interpret ``public accommodations facility'' to mean: ``An inn, hotel...

  8. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Ordered Multifunctional Ceramic Nanocomposites for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    project was to explore physics, materials and surface chemistry behind the polymer-based route towards creation of magnetic ceramic composites out of...Department of Material Science and Engineering, Clemson University kkornev@clemson.edu In collaboration with Jeffery Owens, Tyndall Air Force Civil...Engineering Center Summary The goal of this project was to explore physics, materials and surface chemistry behind the polymer-based route towards

  9. Molecular-Level Analysis of Shock-Wave Physics and Derivation of the Hugoniot Relations for Fused Silica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    suggested that irreversible non-equilibrium deformation/damage processes play an important role in the mechanical response of fused silica to shock loading...approaches are greatly affected by the fidelity of M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, Z. Zhang, and W.C. Bell, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson...7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Clemson University,Department of Mechanical Engineering,241 Engineering Innovation Building

  10. Windshear detection radar signal processing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This final report briefly summarizes research work at Clemson in the Radar Systems Laboratory under the NASA Langley Research Grant NAG-1-928 in support of the Antenna and Microwave Branch, Guidance and Control Division, program to develop airborne sensor technology for the detection of low altitude windshear. A bibliography of all publications generated by Clemson personnel is included. An appendix provides abstracts of all publications.

  11. Supernova Science with an Advanced Compton Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-04

    Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 ABSTRACT Gamma-ray line emission is a direct probe of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in Type Ia supernovae. In this...suggested to contribute to the optical light (Woosley, Pinto & Hartmann 1989). The study of SN nucleosynthesis has branched into three principle categories...explosive nucleosynthesis , radiation transport, and galactic chemical evolution. The first category of study concentrates upon applying nuclear

  12. Tucson Diversion Channel. Phase I. Sport Fields & Picnic Area. Feature Design Memorandum Number 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Bicycle Motocross 17 4. Phase I Development Schedule and Costs 19 Schedule of Development 19 Cost Estimates 19 Discussion of Cost Increases 21 Project...Picnic Area) 12 Grading (Archery/ Motocross ) 13 Site Planting 14 Site Plan (Picnic Area) 15 Site Plan (Fields & Picnic Area) 16 Site Plan (Archery... Motocross ) 17 Site Irrigation & Domestic Water 18 Sewer 19 Electrical 20 Restrooms 21 Ramadas 22 Fitness Trail Detail & Entry Sign 23 Signage, Park

  13. [Ecological aspects between Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) and the host Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860 (Pisces, Characidae) in natural populations of northeastern Argentina].

    PubMed

    Hamann, M I

    1999-01-01

    From February 1987 to February 1989, the populational biology of Contraceacum sp. (larvae) in its paratenic host, the fish Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860, was studied in two ponds in a subtropical permanent habitat northeastern of Argentina. Fishes from Ramada Paso pond presented 80% of prevalence and 1 to 132 larvae per fish while fishes from Aeroclub pond presented 63% of prevalence and 1 to 184 larvae per fish. Fishes collected from Aeroclub pond have shown a high prevalence of infection during the first period of study (1987), diminishing the following year. In fishes from Ramada Paso pond the prevalence varied not significatively during the two years. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection increase with body length and weight of the hosts. Sex of hosts is not an influential factor in parasitic level. The lenitic "closed" environmental (Ramada Paso pond) evidenced the greatest larvae mean intensity and prevalence. Although, the lenitic "open" environmental (Aeroclub pond) showed the greatest parasitic number of individuals in an infrapopulation. The spatial dispersion in both ponds were aggregated and fit well a negative binomial model. Nevertheless, the Aeroclub pond presented the greatest overdispersion.

  14. Tectonic and unroofing history of Neogene Manantiales foreland basin deposits, Cordillera Frontal (32°30'S), San Juan Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Daniel J.

    2001-12-01

    The Miocene Manantiales foreland basin is located in Cordillera Frontal of San Juan, between 32°30' and 33°S. The unroofing study of the synorogenic Miocene deposits provides information about the structural evolution of Cordón de La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These Tertiary deposits are represented by the Chinches Formation and comprise seven members (Tc0-Tc6). They are the result of the uplift of Mesozoic sequences that crop out in La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt of the Cordillera Principal. Quaternary deposits unconformably overlying the Chinches Formation are composed of granitic and rhyolitic blocks, and represent the final uplift of the Cordón del Espinacito and a series of out-of-sequence thrusts. The unroofing studies also provide sufficient information to establish the out-of-sequence timing of the deformation at this latitude. Initial deposition of the Tertiary deposits can be dated at about 20 Ma, or early Miocene. Andesitic lavas dated in 9.2±0.3, 10.7±0.7, and 12.7±0.7 Ma unconformably overlie the structure of La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These facts constrain the uplift of the High Andes between 20 and 10 Ma at this latitude. The unconformity between Tertiary and Quaternary deposits suggests final uplift during Pliocene-Pleistocene times.

  15. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1991-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed.

  16. Biomolecular interactions of emerging two-dimensional materials with aromatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallineni, Sai Sunil Kumar; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    The present work experimentally investigates the interaction of aromatic amino acids, viz., tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine with novel two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO), and boron nitride (BN). Photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were employed to investigate the nature of interactions and possible charge transfer between 2D materials and amino acids. Consistent with previous theoretical studies, graphene and BN were observed to interact with amino acids through π- π interactions. Furthermore, we found that GO exhibits strong interactions with tryptophan and tyrosine as compared to graphene and BN, which we attribute to the formation of H-bonds between tryptophan and GO as shown theoretically in Ref. 2. On the other hand, phenylalanine did not exhibit much difference in interactions with G, GO, and BN. Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA.

  17. Insect community structure and function in Upper Three Runs, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.C.; English, W.R.; Looney, B.B.

    1993-07-08

    A project to document the insect species in the upper reaches of Upper Three Runs at the Savannah River site was recently completed. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Research Park Program. The work was performed by the Department of Entomology at Clemson University in clemson, SC, by John C. Morse (principal investigator), William R. English and their colleagues. The major output from this study was the dissertation of Dr. William R. English entitled ``Ecosystem Dynamics of a South Carolina Sandhills Stream.`` He investigated selected environmental resources and determined their dynamics and the dynamics of the aquatic invertebrate community structure in response to them.

  18. Ultraviolet, Optical and near-infrared photometric follow up of the transient source Fermi J1654-1055 with GROND and Swift-UVOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Bolmer, J.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Ajello, M.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2016-02-01

    Ultraviolet, Optical and near-infrared photometric follow up of the transient source Fermi J1654-1055 with GROND and Swift-UVOT A. Kaur (Clemson University), J. Bolmer, J. Greiner, A. Rau, P. Schady (all MPE, Garching), M. Ajello, D. H. Hartmann (Clemson University) We report the ultraviolet, optical and near IR photometric observations of the new gamma-ray source Fermi J1654-1055/PMN J1632-1052 (RA = 248.20900 deg and Dec = -10.87578 deg) detected by Fermi during the week of February 08 and 15, 2016 (see ATel #8721).

  19. Decision & Management Tools for DNAPL Sites: Optimization of Chlorinated Solvent Source and Plume Remediation Considering Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Rao et al., 2001; Rao and Jawitz, 2003; Parker and Park, 2004; Zhu and Sykes , 2004; Falta et al., 2005aFalta, 2008; Parker and Falta, 2008): Γ...Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents in the Subsurface. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Zhu, J., and J.F. Sykes . 2004. Simple screening models of NAPL...340C Clemson, SC 29634-0919 Phone: 864-656-0125 Fax: 864-656-1041 E-mail: faltar@clemson.edu Project Team Lead Charles , J. Newell GSI

  20. Efficacy and safety of AEZS-108 (INN: zoptarelin doxorubicin acetate) an LHRH agonist linked to doxorubicin in women with platinum refractory or resistant ovarian cancer expressing LHRH receptors: a multicenter phase II trial of the ago-study group (AGO GYN 5).

    PubMed

    Emons, Günter; Gorchev, Grigor; Sehouli, Jalid; Wimberger, Pauline; Stähle, Anne; Hanker, Lars; Hilpert, Felix; Sindermann, Herbert; Gründker, Carsten; Harter, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the activity and toxicity of AEZS-108 (Zoptarelin Doxorubicin Acetate) an LHRH agonist linked to doxorubicin in women with platinum refractory or resistant ovarian cancer expressing LHRH receptors. Women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer, expressing LHRH receptors were eligible for this trial, when they had progression during treatment with a platinum based regimen or within 6months after receiving a platinum based regimen and a previous taxane treatment. At least one measurable target lesion (RECIST) or CA-125 levels higher than twice the upper limit of normal range (GCIG-criteria) were required. Patients received AEZS-108 (267mg/m(2) equimolar to 76.8mg/m(2) of free doxorubicin) every 3weeks as a two hour i.v. infusion. Fifty-five of 59 (93%) of ovarian cancer samples screened expressed LHRH receptors. 42 patients were enrolled in this study and received at least 1 infusion of AEZS-108 (ITT population). Of these 42 patients 6 (14.3%) had a partial response, 16 (38%) stable disease, 16 (38%) progressive disease and 4 patients were not evaluable. Median time to progression was 12weeks (95% CI: 8-20weeks), and median overall survival was 53weeks (95% CI: 39-73weeks). Toxicity profile was favorable. AEZS-108 has a clinical activity in platinum refractory/resistant ovarian cancer which seems to be comparable to that of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or to topotecan. Toxicity was comparably low. These data support the concept of a targeted chemotherapy for tumors expressing LHRH receptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 17. Dining area of lobby/dining room, view to southsoutheast. Scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Dining area of lobby/dining room, view to south-southeast. Scale stick visible at left against corner of pillar; 5'10" figure for additional scale reference. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Big Sur Inn Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  2. 34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  3. 26. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE FROM SECOND FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE FROM SECOND FLOOR. LOCAL LODGEPOLE PINE WHICH WAS VALUED FOR ITS INVARIABLE DIAMETER WAS USED TO CONSTRUCT THE COLUMNS AND BEAMS OF THE INN WHILE GNARLED OR DISEASED LOGS WERE SELECTED FOR THE BRACES AND BALUSTERS. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  4. 18. LOOKING SOUTH AT STEEPLY PITCHED, GABLED ROOF. THE UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING SOUTH AT STEEPLY PITCHED, GABLED ROOF. THE UPPER DORMERS PROVIDE LIGHT IN THE LOBBY AND THE LOWER DORMERS OPEN INTO SOME OF THE ORIGINAL GUEST ROOMS IN THE INN. (TAKEN FROM CHERRY- PICKER) - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  5. Something of Value: How Franchise Sellers Make Training Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Gladys

    1975-01-01

    Training can be the most important benefit included in the purchase of a franchise. Several of these training programs used by franchise sellers (Castro Convertibles, Roto-Rooter, H and R Block, Dunhill Personnel Systems Inc., Carvel, Holiday Inns, Sheraton Inns Inc., McDonald's) are discussed. (Author/BP)

  6. Generic drug names and social welfare.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

    2013-06-01

    This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling.

  7. 77 FR 25228 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... public crossing, Power Inn Road (DOT 752887F), can be deemed an acceptable supplementary safety measure (SSM). The Power Inn Road crossing is equipped with flashing lights, gates, and medians that comply... that the posted highway speed limit is 45 mph instead of 40 mph, as required in the definition. A copy...

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy of an eary photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy of an eary photograph, courtesy of Montgomery County Historical Society, Norristown, Pa., THE KING OF PRUSSIA INN, c.1880. - King of Prussia Inn, U.S. Route 202 (Upper Merion Township), King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy of an eary photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy of an eary photograph, courtesy of Montgomery County Historical Society, Norristown, Pa., THE KING OF PRUSSIA INN, c.1860-1870. - King of Prussia Inn, U.S. Route 202 (Upper Merion Township), King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

  10. The Economic Evaluation of Alternatives (EEoA): Rethinking the Application of Cost-effectiveness Analysis, Multi-criteria Decision-making (MCDM) and the Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) in Defense Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    Outsourcing Travel (2005 Vendor Sales to the Federal Government) Airlines 2005 ($mil) Market share United $846 25% Delta $718 21% American $491 14.4% Hotels ...2005 ($mil) Market share Marriot $146 7.3% Holiday Inn $141 7.0% Residence Inn $125 6.3% Cars 2005 ($mil) Market share Hertz $76 20.2% Enterprise $56 15

  11. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  12. Videotex: A Campus Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Christopher; Nelson, Richard

    The purpose of videotex, its effect on the general consumer, and its use by Clemson University (South Carolina) are discussed. Videotex, a technology vehicle designed for the delivery of home information services, is not complicated. The simplicity of videotex makes it an ideal medium for the dissemination of information on a university campus…

  13. Two Approaches to Using Client Projects in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Lynne; Williams, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Client projects are an opportunity for universities to create long-lasting, mutually beneficial relationships with businesses through an academic consultancy service. This article discusses the rationale and logistics of two models for conducting such projects. One model, used at Clemson University, is a formal academic consultancy service in…

  14. Campus Shootings: A Prevention Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, James Alan

    2008-01-01

    New to the curriculum at many colleges this fall will be instruction for students in survival skills. The training material will not be like Clemson University's "College Survival Skills" Web site, which features useful advice on note taking, studying for exams, and dealing with professors. Rather, a new security DVD, Shots Fired on Campus:…

  15. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  16. Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

  17. Implementing ePortfolios for the Assessment of General Education Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Gail; Ramirez, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the Clemson ePortfolio Program initiated in 2006, where all undergraduate students are required to create an ePortfolio. Specifically, the program was designed as a mechanism through which to evaluate our recently revised general education program. In this program all undergraduates create and submit a digital portfolio as…

  18. Container-grown longleaf pine seedling quality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds; James P. Barnett

    2006-01-01

    The Longleaf Alliance, in cooperation with the USDA Forest Service, the Georgia Forestry Commission, and the Clemson Extension Service, has installed numerous longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedling quality studies across the Southeastern United States. This paper reviews survival and growth for different classes of container-grown longleaf...

  19. The Extension Service as a Resource in Planning at the Local Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Eddie D.; Jacob, Nelson L.

    Examining the role of Clemson University's Cooperative Extension Service in the planning stages of a Title V Community and Resource Development (CRD) program in South Carolina's rural Williamsburg County, this paper describes the Extension's 14-month involvement. The following specifics are addressed: (1) South Carolina's Title V program (staffed…

  20. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, David

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of word processors, micro- and minicomputer systems, and other digital office equipment is causing major design changes in existing networks. Local Area Networks (LANs) which have adequately served terminal users in the past must now be redesigned. Implementation at Clemson is described. (MLW)

  1. High-Performance Macromolecular Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    Patterson AFB, and with Dr. Richard Vaia in particular. • The PI served on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Clemson Advanced Fibers and Films...Project at UNC, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, NYU, Fluid Mechanics Seminar, February 18. • 2009, Coupling of Biochemistry and Stresses: A

  2. The Architect as University President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Architecture blends the arts and sciences in a vigorous way--one well suited to a university presidency. In this article, the author shares how his architectural education and background prepared and helped him for his responsibility as president of Clemson University. A big part of his responsibility is to help plan, financially support, build,…

  3. FORECASTS AND SENSITIVITY OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN FISH OF LAKE HARTWELL, SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX was applied to the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell, which received 400,000 lbs of PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, from 1955 until the early 1990s. AQUATOX was used to characterize food we...

  4. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  5. Project Blackbird: Deploying Condor in a Blackboard Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Clemson University implemented Condor architecture on the Blackboard learning management system (LMS) application servers in order to gain higher throughput when processing Blackboard course archives. Condor has typically been used for high-throughput research computing, not applied to non-research problems involving long processing times. This…

  6. Advanced GIS Exercise: Performing Error Analysis in ArcGIS ModelBuilder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Steven T.; Post, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of Geographic Information Systems is quickly becoming an integral part of the natural resource professionals' skill set. With the growing need of professionals with these skills, we created an advanced geographic information systems (GIS) exercise for students at Clemson University to introduce them to the concept of error analysis,…

  7. The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

  8. ICASE Semiannual Report, 1 April 1990 - 30 September 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Department of Mathematical Scien :es, Clemson University. Control Theory for Multivariable Systems. Joel H . Ferziger - Ph.D., Nuclear Engineering ...problems, with emphasis on effective numerical methods ; e Computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics...approach is applicable to the problem of estimating arbitrary corrosion shape of the material. Numerical experiments indicate the method is attractive

  9. Registration of PD 05035 and PD 05041 germplasm lines of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PD 05035 and PD 05041 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, the Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. PD 05035 was selected from a cross of PD 93007 and ‘SG 747’, an...

  10. FOODWEB MODELING FOR PCBS IN THE TWELVEMILE CREEK ARM OF LAKE HARTWELL, GA/SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a series of studies on the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, SC, to examine the pollution of the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell by PCBs that were released from the site until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB c...

  11. Baldcypress Restoration in a Saltwater Damaged Area of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    William H. Conner; Mehmet Ozalp

    2002-01-01

    Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) seed was collected in 1992 from nine different estuarine areas in the southeastern United States (Winyah Bay, SC, Ogeechee and Altmaha Rivers in GA, Loftin Creek, FL, Ochlockonee River FL, Mobile Bay, AL, West Pearl River, LA, Bayou LaBranche, LA, and Lake Chicot, LA) and planted in Clemson...

  12. Oxygen and nitrogen dyamics in split ponds vs. intensive and conventional catfish production ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  13. Oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in split ponds vs. conventional catfish production ponds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  14. Cross-Cultural and Global Interdependency Development in STEM Undergraduate Students: Results from Singapore Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexis, Frank; Casco, M.; Martin, J.; Zhang, G.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of study abroad programs is to educate and train future global leaders. This article examines the effectiveness of Clemson University's Singapore Study Abroad program in meeting this goal by exposing students to global perspectives of science technology, engineering and math (STEM) research and learning through an international summer…

  15. Earnings Gains through the Institutionalized Standard of Faculty Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the effects on costs, productivity, and service of faculty status for academic librarians. Three data sets are analyzed: (1) individual characteristics and salaries of librarians and faculty at Clemson University; (2) individual characteristics and salaries of librarians at 15 academic libraries; and (3) salaries and productivity of…

  16. Issues in Survey Assessments of STS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Pamela E.; Campbell, Todd; Hashidah Abd-Hamid, Nor

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the circuitous route taken in an attempt to identify an assessment mechanism for evaluating the impact of STS courses. After initially developing a survey that faculty felt only allowed for the measurement of student opinions about the impact of required STS general education courses, the faculty at Clemson University…

  17. Advanced GIS Exercise: Performing Error Analysis in ArcGIS ModelBuilder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Steven T.; Post, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of Geographic Information Systems is quickly becoming an integral part of the natural resource professionals' skill set. With the growing need of professionals with these skills, we created an advanced geographic information systems (GIS) exercise for students at Clemson University to introduce them to the concept of error analysis,…

  18. English 304 & Communications 250: Professional Rhetorics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Justin

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a course overview of English 304 & Communications 250: Professional Rhetorics. This course was a pilot project instituted at Clemson University in spring of 2008. The project integrally linked English 304 (Business Writing) and Communications 250 (Public Speaking), requiring the same students to be enrolled in both 3…

  19. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  20. Lunar fiberglass: Properties and process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Robert; Nichols, Todd

    1987-01-01

    A Clemson University ceramic engineering design for a lunar fiberglass plant is presented. The properties of glass fibers and metal-matrix composites are examined. Lunar geology is also discussed. A raw material and site are selected based on this information. A detailed plant design is presented, and summer experiments to be carried out at Johnson Space Center are reviewed.

  1. The Architect as University President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Architecture blends the arts and sciences in a vigorous way--one well suited to a university presidency. In this article, the author shares how his architectural education and background prepared and helped him for his responsibility as president of Clemson University. A big part of his responsibility is to help plan, financially support, build,…

  2. Collaborating with Users to Design Learning Spaces: Playing Nicely in the Sandbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    What should a campus do when it needs more learning spaces but can't construct new buildings? Dr. Benjamin Sill's first task when he became the director of Clemson University's general engineering program was to find space for classrooms and for the advising program. His search ended in the old YMCA building (Holtzendorff Hall), where space was…

  3. Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

    2007-01-01

    A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

  4. Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

    2007-01-01

    A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

  5. ‘Liberty’ Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar, ‘Liberty’ was jointly developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Clemson University, South Carolina Agriculture and Forestry Research System. This cultivar is a dry-fleshed type with attracti...

  6. Calculating Chemical Evolution on the Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.; Denny, J. E.; Clayton, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    We have constructed an interactive web site that may be of interest to cosmochemists seeking to understand the evolution of isotopes in the Galaxy. The URL is http://photon.phys.clemson.edu/gce.html. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. A Day in the Sandbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the Association for Continuing Higher Education (ACHE) gives a "Creative Use of Technology" award for "innovative uses of instructional and distance learning technologies in lifelong learning." In November 2008, the award was presented to Clemson University for its Teaching with Technology Experimental Classroom--affectionately known as…

  8. Project Blackbird: Deploying Condor in a Blackboard Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Clemson University implemented Condor architecture on the Blackboard learning management system (LMS) application servers in order to gain higher throughput when processing Blackboard course archives. Condor has typically been used for high-throughput research computing, not applied to non-research problems involving long processing times. This…

  9. A Day in the Sandbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the Association for Continuing Higher Education (ACHE) gives a "Creative Use of Technology" award for "innovative uses of instructional and distance learning technologies in lifelong learning." In November 2008, the award was presented to Clemson University for its Teaching with Technology Experimental Classroom--affectionately known as…

  10. Collaborating with Users to Design Learning Spaces: Playing Nicely in the Sandbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    What should a campus do when it needs more learning spaces but can't construct new buildings? Dr. Benjamin Sill's first task when he became the director of Clemson University's general engineering program was to find space for classrooms and for the advising program. His search ended in the old YMCA building (Holtzendorff Hall), where space was…

  11. Popular Science Journalism: Facilitating Learning through Peer Review and Communication of Science News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuten, Holly; Temesvari, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    In a multisemester Popular Science Journalism course that met for 2 hours once a week at Clemson University, students produced science news articles for the university newspaper by using primary literature, the internet, and interviews with researchers. Short lectures were given on topic choice, story development, literature surveys, common…

  12. FORECASTS AND SENSITIVITY OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN FISH OF LAKE HARTWELL, SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX was applied to the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell, which received 400,000 lbs of PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, from 1955 until the early 1990s. AQUATOX was used to characterize food we...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

  14. Institutionalizing Undergraduate Research for Geology Majors through Creative Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, John R.; Bixler, Robert D.; Carraway, Elizabeth R.; Moysey, Stephen M.; Murdoch, Lawrence R.; Schlautman, Mark R.; Warner, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The geology program at Clemson University has instituted a new, six-semester-long undergraduate research course sequence that requires student participation in ongoing departmental research projects from their sophomore through senior years. As a part of a university-wide initiative focusing on undergraduate research, termed Creative Inquiry at…

  15. It's Time To Know about Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martha H.

    This report describes "Time To Know about Teen Pregnancy," an educational intervention program implemented in 1985 in the junior and senior high schools in Cherokee County, South Carolina by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service. It provides an overview of the problem of adolescent pregnancy in South Carolina and describes…

  16. Effects of forest management on soil carbon: results of some long-term resampling studies

    Treesearch

    D.W. Johnson; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank; J. Shan; L.A. Morris; David H. D.H. van Lear; P.R. Kapeluck

    2002-01-01

    The effects of harvest intensity (sawlog, SAW; whole tree, WTH; and complete tree, CTH) on biomass and soil carbon (C) were studied in four forested sites in the Southeastern United States: (mixed deciduous forests at Oak Ridge, TN and Coweeta, NC; Pinus taeda at Clemson, SC; and P. eliottii at Bradford, FL). In general, harvesting had no lasting...

  17. Calculating Chemical Evolution on the Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.; Denny, J. E.; Clayton, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    We have constructed an interactive web site that may be of interest to cosmochemists seeking to understand the evolution of isotopes in the Galaxy. The URL is http://photon.phys.clemson.edu/gce.html. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

  20. A Photo Archive for the History of Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    2001-12-01

    A web site bearing this name has been created at Clemson University. (http://photon.phys.clemson.edu/wwwpages/PhotoArchive) Selected photographs (about 250) come from the author's personal photograph collection covering 45 years of research in nuclear astrophysics. The historiography will be described. Each photograph is accompanied by an accurate caption, including references to works being pursued at the time the photos were taken. The accuracy of the captions was itself a research effort, aided greatly by the author's three decades of daily diaries. Featured are the author's experiences with colleagues at Caltech (1956-67), Cambridge (1967-74), Rice University (1963-89), Heidelberg (1976-84) and Clemson University (1989-2001). Photographs may be used subject to the constraints and acknowledgements posted on the site. This entire collection has been given to the Center for the History of Physics, who will eventually also make the images available; however, old photographs are still being added. My captions may or may not be provided by CHP. Clemson University provided the time for this research project.

  1. Assessment as a Team Effort: The Pearce Center Assessment Research Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovitt, Carl R.

    Clemson University is addressing the related issues of: (1) how to integrate writing in courses throughout the curriculum; and (2) how to assess students' writing ability as well as the impact of assessment programs on that ability. Since 1990, the responsibility for addressing these two goals has been assumed by the Pearce Center for Professional…

  2. Field evaluation of brassica lines for resistance to bacterial blight in Charleston, South Carolina, 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twelve leafy green Brassica entries (including turnip, mustard, and collard greens) were evaluated for response to inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis (Psa) in an experiment conducted at the Clemson University Coastal Research and Education Center in Charleston, SC. On 21 Septembe...

  3. Vintage WAC: Improving the Learning Impact of WAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thew, Neill; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    This article is a report on the 2006 WAC Conference at Clemson University, written from the perspective of two international "critical friends." We use our reflections on the conference as a springboard for exploring the current state of play of the WAC movement, and for suggesting future areas for development. We noted three common sets…

  4. Campus Shootings: A Prevention Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, James Alan

    2008-01-01

    New to the curriculum at many colleges this fall will be instruction for students in survival skills. The training material will not be like Clemson University's "College Survival Skills" Web site, which features useful advice on note taking, studying for exams, and dealing with professors. Rather, a new security DVD, Shots Fired on Campus:…

  5. Assessment as a Team Effort: The Pearce Center Assessment Research Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovitt, Carl R.

    Clemson University is addressing the related issues of: (1) how to integrate writing in courses throughout the curriculum; and (2) how to assess students' writing ability as well as the impact of assessment programs on that ability. Since 1990, the responsibility for addressing these two goals has been assumed by the Pearce Center for Professional…

  6. FOODWEB MODELING FOR PCBS IN THE TWELVEMILE CREEK ARM OF LAKE HARTWELL, GA/SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a series of studies on the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, SC, to examine the pollution of the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell by PCBs that were released from the site until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB c...

  7. A Study of Coordinated Service Provision and Administrative Procedures in Selected University Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Strom Thurmond Inst. of Government and Public Affairs.

    This study investigated the existence of coordinated/consolidated services between colleges and universities and their communities by surveying 27 university communities of similar size and/or characteristics to Clemson University (South Carolina). The report begins with the profiles of the universities selected: their size in acreage, enrollment,…

  8. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACK BIOMAGNIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) THROUGH STREAM FOOD WEBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomagnification studies of PCBs in streams are rare, even though PCBs are known to biomagnify and persist in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated PCB contamination in Twelve Mile Creek (Clemson, South Carolina, U.S.A.), a stream that received >400,000 lbs. of PCBs from 1955-1978...

  9. Monograph Acquisitions Unit Staff Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve; And Others

    This staff manual provides a thorough description of the functions, procedures, and files of the monograph acquisitions department at South Carolina's Clemson University Library. It is noted that the department is responsible for both firm order and standing order purchases. Following introductory material, the principal processes of searching,…

  10. It's Time To Know about Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martha H.

    This report describes "Time To Know about Teen Pregnancy," an educational intervention program implemented in 1985 in the junior and senior high schools in Cherokee County, South Carolina by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service. It provides an overview of the problem of adolescent pregnancy in South Carolina and describes…

  11. The Effects of Prescribed Burning and Thinning on Herpetofauna and Small Mammals in the Upper Piedmont of South Carolina: Preliminary Results of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study

    Treesearch

    Eran S. Kilpatrick; Dean B. Kubacz; David C. Guynn; J. Drew Lanham; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    Due to heavy fuel loads resulting from years of fire suppression, upland pine and mixed pine hardwood forests in the Upper Piedmont of South Carolina are at risk of severe wildfire. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study (NFFS) was conducted on the Clemson Experimental Forest to study the effects of prescribed burning and thinning on a multitude of factors,...

  12. Popular Science Journalism: Facilitating Learning through Peer Review and Communication of Science News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuten, Holly; Temesvari, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    In a multisemester Popular Science Journalism course that met for 2 hours once a week at Clemson University, students produced science news articles for the university newspaper by using primary literature, the internet, and interviews with researchers. Short lectures were given on topic choice, story development, literature surveys, common…

  13. Registration of PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, and PD 05071 germplasm lines of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, and PD 05071 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, the Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, and PD 05071...

  14. 2014 Pee Dee germplasm releases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PD 05035, PD 05041, PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, PD 05071, PD 06001, and PD 06078 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. These ...

  15. Registration of PD 06001 and PD 06078 germplasm lines of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PD 06001 and PD 06078 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, the Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. PD 06001 is a breeding line selected from a cross of PD 93007 a...

  16. A Methodology and Linear Model for System Planning and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    1982-01-01

    The two-phase effort at Clemson University to design a comprehensive library automation program is reported. Phase one was based on a version of IBM's business system planning methodology, and the second was based on a linear model designed to compare existing program systems to the phase one design. (MLW)

  17. Corps Level Operational Art in Vietnam: A Study of II Field Force Commanders during Major Named Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    States. “ The Johnson Administration.” http://history.state.gov/ historicaldocuments ( accesed 20 October 2012). Military Review Archive. “Vietnam...Site.” http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/facultypages/ edmoise/bibliography.html ( accesed 10 November 2012). Naval War College Review: “Vietnam

  18. Efficacy of ProPhyt mixed with a low rate of Captec for control of peach scab in South Carolina, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in a mid-ripening experimental nectarine block (‘Redgold’) located at the Clemson University Research Station in Seneca, SC. Chemical formulations were applied with a handgun sprayer (200 gal/A spray volume) on 1 Apr (petal fall), 9 Apr (shuck split) and...

  19. Irreversible thermochromism in copper chloride Imidazolium Nanoparticle Networks.

    PubMed

    Kronstein, Martin; Kriechbaum, Konstantin; Akbarzadeh, Johanna; Peterlik, Herwig; Neouze, Marie-Alexandra

    2013-08-14

    In this work Imidazolium Nanoparticle Networks (INNs) with chloride counter-ions were used to complex copper dichloride. This complexation reaction leads to the formation of a green material. The properties of the copper INN material were compared to: first, copper imidazolium complexes, without the presence of silica nanoparticles, which are not thermochromic; second, chloride-containing INN material. The copper INN material showed irreversible thermochromic behaviour, with a clear colour change from green to yellow at 180 °C, which is due to a configuration change of the copper complex from planar to tetragonal. This structural change was studied using DSC and in situ SAXS measurements during heat treatment. The thermochromic material is stable under air up to 250 °C. This preliminary study opens the door of optical sensors for INN materials.

  20. Evaluation of sweet sorghum for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Monroe, G.E.; Nichols, R.L.; Gascho, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Among 8 varieties of sweet sorghum grown in Tifton loamy sand, Keller, MN, 1500 and Ramada had similar yields of stalks, 41-44 t/ha, and fermentable sugars, 5.8-5.9 t/ha, that were significantly higher than for other varieties. For the 3 high-yielding varieties, a farm-scale 3-roll mill extracted 32% of stalk weight as juice that contained 43% of stalk sugar. Juice was fermented and ethanol distilled with 81% of theoretical yield. 8 refs.

  1. Size and mercury concentration relationship as contamination index

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, F.; Zurera, G.; Pozo-Lora, R.

    1987-03-01

    The possible relationship which exists between size (as weight or length) and mercury concentration in muscle is used by some authors as evidence of the degree of mercury contamination present in aquatic environments. In this study, the level of mercury contamination present in populations of red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and grey mullet (Liza ramada) of the Marshes of the River Guadalquivir, both of great interest as food in the Marshes surroundings, has been shown. At the same time, the validity of using the relationship between size (as weight or length) and mercury concentration in muscle, as evidence of the mercury contamination present in the aquatic environment investigated, is discussed.

  2. Changes to International Nonproprietary Names for antibody therapeutics 2017 and beyond: of mice, men and more.

    PubMed

    Parren, Paul W H I; Carter, Paul J; Plückthun, Andreas

    Active pharmaceutical substances require an International Nonproprietary Name (INN) assigned by the World Health Organization (WHO) to obtain market authorization as a medicinal product. INNs are selected to represent a unique, generic name for a drug enabling unambiguous identification by stakeholders worldwide. INNs may be requested after initiating clinical development of an investigational drug. Pharmaceutical classes are indicated by a common stem or suffix. Currently, INNs for monoclonal antibody-based drugs are recognized by the suffix, -mab, preceded by a source infix such as -xi- (chimeric), -zu- (humanized) or -u- (human) designating the species from which the antibody was derived. However, many technological advances have made it increasingly difficult to accurately capture an antibody's source in its name. In 2014, the WHO and the United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council approached this challenge by implementing changes to antibody source infix definitions. Unfortunately, gaps and ambiguities in the definitions and procedures resulted in inconsistent source category assignments and widespread confusion. The Antibody Society, extensively supported by academic and industry scientists, voiced concerns leading to constructive dialog during scheduled consultations with WHO and USAN Council representatives. In June 2017, the WHO announced that use of the source infix will be discontinued for new antibody INNs effective immediately. We fully support this change as it better aligns antibody INNs with current and foreseeable future innovations in antibody therapeutics. Here we review the changes implemented. Additionally, we analyzed antibody INNs recently assigned under the previous 2014 definitions and provide recommendations for further alignment.

  3. An InN/InGaN Quantum Dot Electrochemical Biosensor for Clinical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Naveed ul Hassan; Gómez, Victor J.; Rodriguez, Paul E.D. Soto; Kumar, Praveen; Zaman, Saima; Willander, Magnus; Nötzel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Low-dimensional InN/InGaN quantum dots (QDs) are demonstrated for realizing highly sensitive and efficient potentiometric biosensors owing to their unique electronic properties. The InN QDs are biochemically functionalized. The fabricated biosensor exhibits high sensitivity of 97 mV/decade with fast output response within two seconds for the detection of cholesterol in the logarithmic concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−3 M. The selectivity and reusability of the biosensor are excellent and it shows negligible response to common interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. We also compare the biosensing properties of the InN QDs with those of an InN thin film having the same surface properties, i.e., high density of surface donor states, but different morphology and electronic properties. The sensitivity of the InN QDs-based biosensor is twice that of the InN thin film-based biosensor, the EMF is three times larger, and the response time is five times shorter. A bare InGaN layer does not produce a stable response. Hence, the superior biosensing properties of the InN QDs are governed by their unique surface properties together with the zero-dimensional electronic properties. Altogether, the InN QDs-based biosensor reveals great potential for clinical diagnosis applications. PMID:24132228

  4. Attitudes of physicians and pharmacists towards International Non-proprietary Name prescribing in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Elien; Elseviers, Monique; Plovie, Marijke; Vandeputte, Lieselot; Van Bortel, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2015-03-01

    International Non-proprietary Name (INN) prescribing is the use of the name of the active ingredient(s) instead of the brand name for prescribing. In Belgium, INN prescribing began in 2005 and a major policy change occurred in 2012. The aim was to explore the opinions of Dutch-speaking general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists. An electronic questionnaire with 39 five-point Likert scale statements and one open question was administered in 2013. Multivariate analysis was performed with multiple linear regression on a sum score for benefit statements and for drawback statements. Answers to the open question were qualitatively analysed. We received 745 valid responses with a representable sample for both subgroups. Participants perceived the motives to introduce INN prescribing as purely economic (to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures for the government and the patient). Participants accepted the concept of INN prescribing, but 88% stressed the importance of guaranteed treatment continuity, especially in older, chronic patients, to prevent patient confusion, medication non-adherence and erroneous drug use. In conclusion, the current way in which INN prescribing is applied in Belgium leads to many concerns among primary health professionals about patient confusion and medication adherence. Slightly adapting the current concept of INN prescribing to these concerns can turn INN prescribing into one of the major policies in Belgium to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures and to stimulate rational drug prescribing. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Cenozoic tectonics of the High Andes of west-central Argentina (30 36°S latitude)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Victor A.; Cegarra, Marcelo; Cristallini, Ernesto

    1996-06-01

    The structure of the Central Andes shows three distinctive segments characterized by different geometries. These geometries are superimposed on the present large-scale plate tectonic setting characterized by distinct subduction segments. The northern La Ramada segment is a thick-skinned fold and thrust belt formed by tectonic inversion of a Late Triassic rift. The central Aconcagua segment consists of a thin-skinned fold and thrust belt while the southern Malargüe segment like the first one is a thick-skinned fold and thrust belt developed by tectonic inversion of a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic rift system during late Cenozoic times. The amount of shortening gradually decreases from north to south, as indicated by the crustal roots of the Central Andes. The different geometries along the Principal Cordillera controlled the abrupt changes in the shortening among segments. The structure of Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas has also been considered in order to account for the total shortening. In the La Ramada segment the main shortening occurred in the Precordillera; in the Aconcagua segment in the Principal Cordillera while in the Malargüe segment the shortening is widely distributed in a broader Principal Cordillera, because south of the flat-slab subduction segment the Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas are missing.

  6. Biomarkers of marine pollution observed in species of mullet living in two eastern Mediterranean harbours.

    PubMed

    F Telli Karakoc A Hewer D H Phillips A F Gaines And G Yuregir

    1997-01-01

    The activities of enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and or oxidative processes, and the levels of aromatic DNA adducts, have been determined in the livers of grey mullet Oedalechilus labeo and Lisa ramada living in two eastern Mediterranean harbours. Glutathione peroxidase GSH P activity was 2.5 times higher 9 IU g-1 liver and glutathione reductase GSSG R activity was twice as high 2.5 IU g-1 liver in fish from the more polluted harbour at Mersin than in the harbour near Erdemli. Superoxide dismutase SOD activity was 25 lower 4.3 IU g-1 liver in the more polluted harbour. The concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde varied both with species and environment by a factor of 2.5-3. DNA adducts in liver were determined by 32P postlabelling. In Oedalechilus labeo in the more polluted harbour, adduct levels were 258 21 adducts per 108 nucleotides mean SE; two groups of Lisa ramada were distinguished having 261 48 and 30 6 adducts per 108 nucleotides, respectively. The average adduct level in a group of mullet of mixed species in the less polluted harbour was 3.3 2.3 adducts per 108 nucleotides. The results illuminate the ability of mullet to live in contaminated marine environments, and show that enzyme activities and liver DNA adduct levels can serve as indicators of marine pollution.

  7. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) based on PCR-RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments.

    PubMed

    Papasotiropoulos, V; Klossa-Kilia, E; Kilias, G; Alahiotis, S

    2002-04-01

    The genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family (Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens) were investigated at the mtDNA level, on samples taken from Messolongi lagoon-Greece. RFLP analysis of three PCR-amplified mtDNA gene segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) was used. Ten, eight, and nine restriction enzymes were found to have at least one recognition site at 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I genes, respectively. Several fragment patterns were revealed to be species-specific, and thus they could be useful in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers, as well as for further evolutionary studies. Seven different haplotypes were detected. The greatest amount of genetic differentiation was observed at the interspecific level, while little variation was revealed at the intraspecific level. The highest values of nucleotide sequence divergence were observed between M. cephalus and all the other species, while the lowest was found between C. labrosus and L. saliens. Dendrograms obtained by the three different methods (UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining, and Dollo parsimony), were found to exhibit in all cases the same topology. According to this, the most distinct species is M. cephalus, while the other species are clustered in two separate groups, thefirst one containing L. aurata and L. ramada, the other L. saliens and C. labrosus. This last clustering makes the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza questionable.

  8. 38. DINING ROOM, THE CHIMNEY WAS SEVERELY DAMAGED BY AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DINING ROOM, THE CHIMNEY WAS SEVERELY DAMAGED BY AN EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 AND HAD TO BE RECONSTRUCTED. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  9. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert W. Kerrigan, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert W. Kerrigan, Photographer August 24, 1936 INTERIOR DETAIL WEST WALL OF SOCIAL HALL - Trocadero Inn, Sigmund Stern Grove, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. MEG source localization using invariance of noise space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junpeng; Raij, Tommi; Hämäläinen, Matti; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    We propose INvariance of Noise (INN) space as a novel method for source localization of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. The method is based on the fact that modulations of source strengths across time change the energy in signal subspace but leave the noise subspace invariant. We compare INN with classical MUSIC, RAP-MUSIC, and beamformer approaches using simulated data while varying signal-to-noise ratios as well as distance and temporal correlation between two sources. We also demonstrate the utility of INN with actual auditory evoked MEG responses in eight subjects. In all cases, INN performed well, especially when the sources were closely spaced, highly correlated, or one source was considerably stronger than the other.

  11. 76 FR 75560 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Dr., Beverly Hills, 11000933 Marin County West Point Inn, Old RR grade, Mt. Tamalpais, Mill Valley..., Bounded by Holt, S. 1st, S. 5th, Austin, E. Wilson, & Roosevelt Sts., Mebane, 11000953 Cleveland County...

  12. 77 FR 69638 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...: The Holiday Inn Express, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg..., 301-435-6973, David.Weinberg@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos....

  13. 18. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Library, Local History Collection), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF MISSION INN, SEVENTH STREET ENTRANCE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  14. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey (Fed.) Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey (Fed.) Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer Sept 16, 1940 (G) EXTERIOR, DETAIL OF OLD TAVERN SIGN (ENGLISH SIDE) WITH PAINTED LION - Captain Arah Phelphs Inn, Colebrook, Litchfield County, CT

  15. 9. Oblique view northwest of east elevation at northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Oblique view northwest of east elevation at northeast corner of building; previous view taken at corner visible at extreme right. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  16. 77 FR 1941 - Center For Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Macromolecular Structure and Function A Study Section, February 2, 2012, 8 a.m. to February 2, 2012, 7 p.m., George Washington University Inn, 824 New...

  17. 75 FR 17767 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... of Commerce Building, 1201 Lincoln Ave, Steamboat Springs, 10000217 MAINE Penobscot County University... Drovers Inn and Round Family Residence, 2 Pumphouse Rd and 301 Main St, Vestal, 10000222 Cayuga County...

  18. 10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH MANUFACTURED BY MEAD-MORRISON MANUFACTURING COMPANY, HAVING A 450 TON CAPACITY - Anderson-Christofani Shipyard, Innes Avenue & Griffith Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 75 FR 23288 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323; August 13, 2010, at the Holiday Inn Express at 910 E. Tomichi, Gunnison... Junction, CO; telephone 970-244-3097. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Southwest Colorado RAC advises...

  20. 15. Detail, view northeast across second floor deck. Scale visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, view northeast across second floor deck. Scale visible at right of door opening into 'Fireplace' room. 'Van Gogh' room at left. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA