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Sample records for random assignment implications

  1. Medicare Part D Roulette: Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajul A.; Walberg, Mark P.; Woelfel, Joseph A.; Amaral, Michelle M.; Varu, Paresh

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual-eligible (Medicare/Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned to a benchmark plan, which provides prescription drug coverage under the Part D benefit without consideration of their prescription drug profile. To date, the potential for beneficiary assignment to a plan with poor formulary coverage has been minimally studied and the resultant financial impact to beneficiaries unknown. Objective We sought to determine cost variability and drug use restrictions under each available 2010 California benchmark plan. Methods Dual-eligible beneficiaries were provided Part D plan assistance during the 2010 annual election period. The Medicare Web site was used to determine benchmark plan costs and prescription utilization restrictions for each of the six California benchmark plans available for random assignment in 2010. A standardized survey was used to record all de-identified beneficiary demographic and plan specific data. For each low-income subsidy-recipient (n = 113), cost, rank, number of non-formulary medications, and prescription utilization restrictions were recorded for each available 2010 California benchmark plan. Formulary matching rates (percent of beneficiary's medications on plan formulary) were calculated for each benchmark plan. Results Auto-assigned beneficiaries had only a 34% chance of being assigned to the lowest cost plan; the remainder faced potentially significant avoidable out-of-pocket costs. Wide variations between benchmark plans were observed for plan cost, formulary coverage, formulary matching rates, and prescription utilization restrictions. Conclusions Beneficiaries had a 66% chance of being assigned to a sub-optimal plan; thereby, they faced significant avoidable out-of-pocket costs. Alternative methods of beneficiary assignment could decrease beneficiary and Medicare costs while also reducing medication non-compliance. PMID:24753963

  2. Medicare Part D roulette: potential implications of random assignment and plan restrictions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajul A; Walberg, Mark P; Woelfel, Joseph A; Amaral, Michelle M; Varu, Paresh

    2013-01-01

    Dual-eligible (Medicare/Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned to a benchmark plan, which provides prescription drug coverage under the Part D benefit without consideration of their prescription drug profile. To date, the potential for beneficiary assignment to a plan with poor formulary coverage has been minimally studied and the resultant financial impact to beneficiaries unknown. We sought to determine cost variability and drug use restrictions under each available 2010 California benchmark plan. Dual-eligible beneficiaries were provided Part D plan assistance during the 2010 annual election period. The Medicare Web site was used to determine benchmark plan costs and prescription utilization restrictions for each of the six California benchmark plans available for random assignment in 2010. A standardized survey was used to record all de-identified beneficiary demographic and plan specific data. For each low-income subsidy-recipient (n = 113), cost, rank, number of non-formulary medications, and prescription utilization restrictions were recorded for each available 2010 California benchmark plan. Formulary matching rates (percent of beneficiary's medications on plan formulary) were calculated for each benchmark plan. Auto-assigned beneficiaries had only a 34% chance of being assigned to the lowest cost plan; the remainder faced potentially significant avoidable out-of-pocket costs. Wide variations between benchmark plans were observed for plan cost, formulary coverage, formulary matching rates, and prescription utilization restrictions. Beneficiaries had a 66% chance of being assigned to a sub-optimal plan; thereby, they faced significant avoidable out-of-pocket costs. Alternative methods of beneficiary assignment could decrease beneficiary and Medicare costs while also reducing medication non-compliance.

  3. The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-11-01

    The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.

  4. A Randomized Experiment Comparing Random and Cutoff-Based Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R.; Galindo, Rodolfo; Wong, Vivian C.; Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review past studies comparing randomized experiments to regression discontinuity designs, mostly finding similar results, but with significant exceptions. The latter might be due to potential confounds of study characteristics with assignment method or with failure to estimate the same parameter over methods. In this study, we…

  5. Random Assignment: Practical Considerations from Field Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, Franklyn W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven qualitative issues associated with randomization that have the potential to weaken or destroy otherwise sound experimental designs are reviewed and illustrated via actual field experiments. Issue areas include ethics and legality, liability risks, manipulation of randomized outcomes, hidden bias, design intrusiveness, case flow, and…

  6. Challenges and Dilemmas in Implementing Random Assignment in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong-Dean, Colin; Hofstetter, Carolyn Huie; Strick, Betsy R.

    2011-01-01

    In the contentious debate over the use of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in education research, little attention has been given to how methodological issues arise and/or are resolved in the implementation of random assignment. Following a review of the methodological-theoretical literature on RCTs and alternative research designs, this article…

  7. Challenges and Dilemmas in Implementing Random Assignment in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong-Dean, Colin; Hofstetter, Carolyn Huie; Strick, Betsy R.

    2011-01-01

    In the contentious debate over the use of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in education research, little attention has been given to how methodological issues arise and/or are resolved in the implementation of random assignment. Following a review of the methodological-theoretical literature on RCTs and alternative research designs, this article…

  8. A multiple imputation strategy for sequential multiple assignment randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Shortreed, Susan M.; Laber, Eric; Stroup, T. Scott; Pineau, Joelle; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMARTs) are increasingly being used to inform clinical and intervention science. In a SMART, each patient is repeatedly randomized over time. Each randomization occurs at a critical decision point in the treatment course. These critical decision points often correspond to milestones in the disease process or other changes in a patient’s health status. Thus, the timing and number of randomizations may vary across patients and depend on evolving patient-specific information. This presents unique challenges when analyzing data from a SMART in the presence of missing data. This paper presents the first comprehensive discussion of missing data issues typical of SMART studies: we describe five specific challenges, and propose a flexible imputation strategy to facilitate valid statistical estimation and inference using incomplete data from a SMART. To illustrate these contributions, we consider data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention and Effectiveness (CATIE), one of the most well-known SMARTs to date. PMID:24919867

  9. The Functioning of Single-Case Randomization Tests with and without Random Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferron, John; Foster-Johnson, Lynn; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2003-01-01

    Used Monte Carlo methods to examine the Type I error rates for randomization tests applied to single-case data arising from ABAB designs involving random, systematic, or response-guided assignment of interventions. Discusses conditions under which Type I error rate is controlled or is not. (SLD)

  10. Introduction to Dynamic Treatment Strategies and Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Lavori, Philip W.; Dawson, Ree

    2014-01-01

    Background In June 2013 a one-day workshop on Dynamic Treatment Strategies (DTS) and Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials (SMART) was held at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. These two linked topics have generated a great deal of interest as researchers have recognized the importance of comparing entire strategies for managing chronic disease. A number of articles emerged from that workshop. Purpose The purpose of this survey of the DTS/SMART methodology (which is taken from the introductory talk in the workshop) is to provide the reader of the collected articles presented in this volume with sufficient background to appreciate the more detailed discussions in the papers. Methods The way that the DTS arises naturally in clinical practice is described, along with its connection to the well-known difficulties of intepreting the analysis by intention-to-treat. The SMART methodology for comparing DTS is described, and the basics of estimation and inference presented. Results The DTS/SMART methodology can be a flexible and practical way to optimize ongoing clinical decision making, providing evidence (based on randomization) for comparative effectiveness. Limitations The DTS/SMART methodology is not a solution for unstandardized study protocols. Conclusions The DTS/SMART methodology has growing relevance to comparative effectiveness research and the needs of the learning healthcare system. PMID:24784487

  11. Teaching Random Assignment: A Classroom Demonstration Using a Deck of Playing Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Stuetzle, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Despite its apparent simplicity, random assignment is an abstract concept for many students. This article describes a classroom demonstration that uses a standard deck of playing cards. In small groups, students randomly assign playing cards (i.e., participants) to 2 treatment groups. Following randomization, students compare the relative…

  12. Teaching Random Assignment: A Classroom Demonstration Using a Deck of Playing Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Stuetzle, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Despite its apparent simplicity, random assignment is an abstract concept for many students. This article describes a classroom demonstration that uses a standard deck of playing cards. In small groups, students randomly assign playing cards (i.e., participants) to 2 treatment groups. Following randomization, students compare the relative…

  13. Sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) with adaptive randomization for quality improvement in depression treatment program.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ying Kuen; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Davidson, Karina W

    2015-06-01

    Implementation study is an important tool for deploying state-of-the-art treatments from clinical efficacy studies into a treatment program, with the dual goals of learning about effectiveness of the treatments and improving the quality of care for patients enrolled into the program. In this article, we deal with the design of a treatment program of dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) for patients with depression post-acute coronary syndrome. We introduce a novel adaptive randomization scheme for a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial of DTRs. Our approach adapts the randomization probabilities to favor treatment sequences having comparatively superior Q-functions used in Q-learning. The proposed approach addresses three main concerns of an implementation study: it allows incorporation of historical data or opinions, it includes randomization for learning purposes, and it aims to improve care via adaptation throughout the program. We demonstrate how to apply our method to design a depression treatment program using data from a previous study. By simulation, we illustrate that the inputs from historical data are important for the program performance measured by the expected outcomes of the enrollees, but also show that the adaptive randomization scheme is able to compensate poorly specified historical inputs by improving patient outcomes within a reasonable horizon. The simulation results also confirm that the proposed design allows efficient learning of the treatments by alleviating the curse of dimensionality.

  14. Implementing Random Assignment: A Computer-Based Approach in a Field Experimental Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Douglas; Cook, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A major problem in social science research is that of successfully carrying out the random assignment of persons to experimental and control groups. In this study a computer-based random assignment procedure operated successfully on a weekly basis for 17 consecutive weeks in a program serving over 360 ex-offenders. (CTM)

  15. Lessons Learned about Random Assignment Evaluation Implementation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorthy, Savitha; Sanchez, Raquel; Tseng, Fannie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide some practical insight into the process of implementing large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCT) in educational settings and to provide general recommendations for researchers conducting education-based RCTs in the future. The authors draw their recommendations from their recent experiences…

  16. Understanding and Supporting the Career Implications of International Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, David G.; Doherty, Noeleen; Luethy, Madeleine; Osborn, Derek

    2011-01-01

    International assignments represent an important form of migration in the global economy. In contrast to most other migrants, international assignees enjoy a relatively privileged position in the labor market. Authored by a diverse team of academics and practitioners, this paper draws on insights from empirical research and unpublished examples…

  17. Assigning a Price to Radiative Forcing: Methods, Results, and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D. A.; Howarth, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change mitigation frameworks have increasingly begun to include components that involve active management of the land surface. Predominantly, these programs focus on the sequestration of greenhouse gasses in vegetation and soils, generating offset credits for projects which demonstrate considerable storage. However, it is widely known that biogeophysical interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, such as latent and sensible heat flux, albedo radiative forcing, and surface roughness, can in many cases outweigh the influence of greenhouse gas storage on global and local climate. Surface albedo, in particular, has attracted attention in the context of these frameworks because it has been shown to influence the overall climate benefits of high-latitude forest growth through tradeoffs between carbon sequestration and radiative forcing from seasonal snow cover albedo. Here we review a methodology for pricing albedo-related radiative forcing through the use of an integrated assessment model, present the results under several emissions and social preference scenarios, and describe the implications that this pricing methodology may have on forest land management in the Northeastern United States. Additionally, we investigate the consequences of projected decreased winter precipitation on the net climate benefits of snow albedo throughout the state of New Hampshire, USA.

  18. 77 FR 5850 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Development and Research, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Frances Perkins Bldg., Room N-5641, Washington, DC... be randomly assigned to one of three groups. The three research groups to which they would be... and behavioral research. On June 17, 2010, MDRC's IRB determined this study to be of no more than...

  19. A Post-Hoc Procedure That Can Be Better than Random Assignment to Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.; Saka, Thomas

    An analytical procedure that uses fall kindergarten assessment data to retroactively create equivalent comparison groups for longitudinal research and evaluation studies was designed and tested, and then analytically and empirically compared with random assignment to treatment. Students entering kindergarten in Hawaii are administered the Peabody…

  20. Random Assignment and Informed Consent: A Case Study of Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Hoggart, Lesley; Hamilton, Gayle

    2008-01-01

    Although random assignment is generally the preferred methodology in impact evaluations, it raises numerous ethical concerns, some of which are addressed by securing participants' informed consent. However, there has been little investigation of how consent is obtained in social experiments and the amount of information that can be conveyed--and…

  1. 76 FR 74076 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate the YouthBuild Program; Final Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate the YouthBuild Program... public interest to use a random assignment impact methodology for the study. In the sites randomly...

  2. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  3. Can Nonexperimental Estimates Replicate Estimates Based on Random Assignment in Evaluations of School Choice? A Within-Study Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bifulco, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The ability of nonexperimental estimators to match impact estimates derived from random assignment is examined using data from the evaluation of two interdistrict magnet schools. As in previous within-study comparisons, nonexperimental estimates differ from estimates based on random assignment when nonexperimental estimators are implemented…

  4. Can Nonexperimental Estimates Replicate Estimates Based on Random Assignment in Evaluations of School Choice? A Within-Study Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bifulco, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The ability of nonexperimental estimators to match impact estimates derived from random assignment is examined using data from the evaluation of two interdistrict magnet schools. As in previous within-study comparisons, nonexperimental estimates differ from estimates based on random assignment when nonexperimental estimators are implemented…

  5. Inference for the median residual life function in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Ko, Jin H; Wahed, Abdus S

    2014-04-30

    In survival analysis, median residual lifetime is often used as a summary measure to assess treatment effectiveness; it is not clear, however, how such a quantity could be estimated for a given dynamic treatment regimen using data from sequential randomized clinical trials. We propose a method to estimate a dynamic treatment regimen-specific median residual life (MERL) function from sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. We present the MERL estimator, which is based on inverse probability weighting, as well as, two variance estimates for the MERL estimator. One variance estimate follows from Lunceford, Davidian and Tsiatis' 2002 survival function-based variance estimate and the other uses the sandwich estimator. The MERL estimator is evaluated, and its two variance estimates are compared through simulation studies, showing that the estimator and both variance estimates produce approximately unbiased results in large samples. To demonstrate our methods, the estimator has been applied to data from a sequentially randomized leukemia clinical trial.

  6. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. An efficient randomized algorithm for contact-based NMR backbone resonance assignment.

    PubMed

    Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Pandurangan, Gopal

    2006-01-15

    Backbone resonance assignment is a critical bottleneck in studies of protein structure, dynamics and interactions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A minimalist approach to assignment, which we call 'contact-based', seeks to dramatically reduce experimental time and expense by replacing the standard suite of through-bond experiments with the through-space (nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy, NOESY) experiment. In the contact-based approach, spectral data are represented in a graph with vertices for putative residues (of unknown relation to the primary sequence) and edges for hypothesized NOESY interactions, such that observed spectral peaks could be explained if the residues were 'close enough'. Due to experimental ambiguity, several incorrect edges can be hypothesized for each spectral peak. An assignment is derived by identifying consistent patterns of edges (e.g. for alpha-helices and beta-sheets) within a graph and by mapping the vertices to the primary sequence. The key algorithmic challenge is to be able to uncover these patterns even when they are obscured by significant noise. This paper develops, analyzes and applies a novel algorithm for the identification of polytopes representing consistent patterns of edges in a corrupted NOESY graph. Our randomized algorithm aggregates simplices into polytopes and fixes inconsistencies with simple local modifications, called rotations, that maintain most of the structure already uncovered. In characterizing the effects of experimental noise, we employ an NMR-specific random graph model in proving that our algorithm gives optimal performance in expected polynomial time, even when the input graph is significantly corrupted. We confirm this analysis in simulation studies with graphs corrupted by up to 500% noise. Finally, we demonstrate the practical application of the algorithm on several experimental beta-sheet datasets. Our approach is able to eliminate a large majority of noise edges and to

  8. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    PubMed

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  9. Comparison of adaptive treatment strategies based on longitudinal outcomes in sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo

    2017-02-10

    In sequential multiple assignment randomized trials, longitudinal outcomes may be the most important outcomes of interest because this type of trials is usually conducted in areas of chronic diseases or conditions. We propose to use a weighted generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach to analyzing data from such type of trials for comparing two adaptive treatment strategies based on generalized linear models. Although the randomization probabilities are known, we consider estimated weights in which the randomization probabilities are replaced by their empirical estimates and prove that the resulting weighted GEE estimator is more efficient than the estimators with true weights. The variance of the weighted GEE estimator is estimated by an empirical sandwich estimator. The time variable in the model can be linear, piecewise linear, or more complicated forms. This provides more flexibility that is important because, in the adaptive treatment setting, the treatment changes over time and, hence, a single linear trend over the whole period of study may not be practical. Simulation results show that the weighted GEE estimators of regression coefficients are consistent regardless of the specification of the correlation structure of the longitudinal outcomes. The weighted GEE method is then applied in analyzing data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A small n sequential multiple assignment randomized trial design for use in rare disease research.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Roy N; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Pagnoux, Christian; Micheletti, Robert; Grayson, Peter C; Chen, Yeh-Fong; Merkel, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials in rare diseases are difficult to conduct due to the limited number of patients available with each disorder. We developed a Phase 2 trial which is a small n sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (snSMART) design to test several treatments for a rare disease for which no standard therapy exists. This paper illustrates the design, sample size estimation and operating characteristics of an snSMART. We investigate the performance of a class of weighted Z statistics via computer simulations. We demonstrate the increase in power over traditional single stage designs, and indicate how the power changes as a function of the weight given to each stage. The snSMART design is promising in a rare disease setting where several alternative treatments are under consideration and small sample sizes are necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurocognitive Profiles of Preterm Infants Randomly Assigned to Lower or Higher Hematocrit Thresholds for Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn; Lindgren, Scott; Nopoulos, Peg; Bell, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Preterm infants are frequently transfused with red blood cells based on standardized guidelines or clinical concern that anemia taxes infants’ physiological compensatory mechanisms and thereby threatens their health and well-being. The impact of various transfusion guidelines on long-term neurocognitive outcome is not known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate long-term neurocognitive outcome on children born prematurely and treated at birth with different transfusion guidelines. Methods Neurocognitive outcomes were examined at school age for 56 preterm infants randomly assigned to a liberal (n = 33) or restrictive (n = 23) transfusion strategy. Tests of intelligence, achievement, language, visual-spatial/motor, and memory skills were administered. Between-group differences were assessed. Results Those in the liberal transfusion group performed more poorly than those in the restrictive group on measures of associative verbal fluency, visual memory, and reading. Conclusions Findings highlight possible long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of maintaining higher hematocrit levels. PMID:21360360

  12. Designing a Pilot Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial for Developing an Adaptive Treatment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Daniel; Compton, Scott N.; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Duan, Naihua; Murphy, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in how best to adapt and re-adapt treatments to individuals to maximize clinical benefit. In response, adaptive treatment strategies (ATS), which operationalize adaptive, sequential clinical decision making, have been developed. From a patient's perspective an ATS is a sequence of treatments, each individualized to the patient's evolving health status. From a clinician's perspective, an ATS is a sequence of decision rules that input the patient's current health status and output the next recommended treatment. Sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMART) have been developed to address the sequencing questions that arise in the development of ATSs, but SMARTs are relatively new in clinical research. This article provides an introduction to ATSs and SMART designs. This article also discusses the design of SMART pilot studies to address feasibility concerns, and to prepare investigators for a full-scale SMART. As an example, we consider an example SMART for the development of an ATS in the treatment of pediatric generalized anxiety disorders. Using the example SMART, we identify and discuss design issues unique to SMARTs that are best addressed in an external pilot study prior to the full-scale SMART. We also address the question of how many participants are needed in a SMART pilot study. A properly executed pilot study can be used to effectively address concerns about acceptability and feasibility in preparation for (that is, prior to) executing a full-scale SMART. PMID:22438190

  13. Designing a pilot sequential multiple assignment randomized trial for developing an adaptive treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Daniel; Compton, Scott N; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Duan, Naihua; Murphy, Susan A

    2012-07-30

    There is growing interest in how best to adapt and readapt treatments to individuals to maximize clinical benefit. In response, adaptive treatment strategies (ATS), which operationalize adaptive, sequential clinical decision making, have been developed. From a patient's perspective an ATS is a sequence of treatments, each individualized to the patient's evolving health status. From a clinician's perspective, an ATS is a sequence of decision rules that input the patient's current health status and output the next recommended treatment. Sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMART) have been developed to address the sequencing questions that arise in the development of ATSs, but SMARTs are relatively new in clinical research. This article provides an introduction to ATSs and SMART designs. This article also discusses the design of SMART pilot studies to address feasibility concerns, and to prepare investigators for a full-scale SMART. We consider an example SMART for the development of an ATS in the treatment of pediatric generalized anxiety disorders. Using the example SMART, we identify and discuss design issues unique to SMARTs that are best addressed in an external pilot study prior to the full-scale SMART. We also address the question of how many participants are needed in a SMART pilot study. A properly executed pilot study can be used to effectively address concerns about acceptability and feasibility in preparation for (that is, prior to) executing a full-scale SMART. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Stability of parental understanding of random assignment in childhood leukemia trials: an empirical examination of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Greenley, Rachel Neff; Drotar, Dennis; Zyzanski, Stephen J; Kodish, Eric

    2006-02-20

    To examine stability versus change in parental understanding of random assignment in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for pediatric leukemia and to identify factors associated with changes in understanding. Eighty-four parents of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia who were enrolled onto a pediatric leukemia RCT at one of six US children's hospitals participated. Parents were interviewed twice, once within 48 hours after the Informed Consent Conference (ICC; time 1 [T1]) and again 6 months later (time 2 [T2]). Interviews focused on parental understanding of key components of the RCT, including random assignment. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and later analyzed. Changes in understanding of random assignment occurred in 19% of parents, with 17% of parents deteriorating in understanding from T1 to T2. Forty-nine percent of parents failed to understand random assignment at both times. Factors associated with understanding at both times included majority ethnicity, high socioeconomic status, parental reading of consent document, and presence of a nurse during the ICC. Physician discussion of specific components of the RCT was also associated with understanding at both times. Female caregivers and parents of low socioeconomic status were overrepresented among those who showed decay in understanding from T1 to T2. Parents showed little gain in understanding over time. Factors that predicted understanding at diagnosis as well as sustained understanding over time may be important intervention targets. Attention to both modifiable and nonmodifiable barriers is important for clinical practice.

  15. Use of non-assigned interventions in a randomized trial of internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Caroline O; Graham, Amanda L

    2014-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis of Internet interventions for smoking cessation found mixed evidence regarding effectiveness. One explanation may be differential use of non-assigned cessation treatments-including other Internet programs-that either amplify or mask study intervention effects. We examined the impact of non-assigned treatment use on cessation outcomes in The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. Participants were randomized to a basic Internet (BI) comparison condition (N = 675), enhanced Internet (EI: N = 651), or EI plus telephone counseling (EI+P: N = 679). The primary outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) at 3 and 6 months. Assigned intervention use was assessed with automated tracking data. Assessment of non-assigned treatments included pharmacotherapy, behavioral, alternative, and non-study Internet treatments. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models examined whether non-assigned treatment use was associated with 30-day ppa. About 70% of participants used at least one non-assigned treatment. A higher rate of non-study Internet treatment among BI participants was the only treatment group difference at both 3 and 6 months. Multivariate models controlling for condition and baseline predictors of non-assigned treatment use showed that high-intensity non-study Internet treatment was positively associated with 30-day ppa at 3 and 6 months, and pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment use was negatively associated with 30-day ppa at 6 months. Non-assigned treatment use is an important factor to consider when evaluating Internet cessation interventions. Results highlight methodological issues in selecting a comparison condition. Researchers should report non-assigned treatment use alongside main trial outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. Randomness, Its Meanings and Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanero, Carmen; Green, David R.; Serrano, Luis Romero

    1998-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the different meanings associated with randomness throughout its historical evolution as well as a summary of research concerning the subjective perception of randomness by children and adolescents. Some teaching suggestions are included to help students gradually understand the characteristics of random phenomena. Contains…

  17. Impact of Referral Source and Study Applicants’ Preference for Randomly Assigned Service on Research Enrollment, Service Engagement, and Evaluative Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Cathaleene; Barreira, Paul; Hargreaves, William; Bickman, Leonard; Fisher, William; Aronson, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    Objective The inability to blind research participants to their experimental conditions is the Achilles’ heel of mental health services research. When one experimental condition receives more disappointed participants, or more satisfied participants, research findings can be biased in spite of random assignment. The authors explored the potential for research participants’ preference for one experimental program over another to compromise the generalizability and validity of randomized controlled service evaluations as well as cross-study comparisons. Method Three Cox regression analyses measured the impact of applicants’ service assignment preference on research project enrollment, engagement in assigned services, and a service-related outcome, competitive employment. Results A stated service preference, referral by an agency with a low level of continuity in outpatient care, and willingness to switch from current services were significant positive predictors of research enrollment. Match to service assignment preference was a significant positive predictor of service engagement, and mismatch to assignment preference was a significant negative predictor of both service engagement and employment outcome. Conclusions Referral source type and service assignment preference should be routinely measured and statistically controlled for in all studies of mental health service effectiveness to provide a sound empirical base for evidence-based practice. PMID:15800153

  18. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment" tested whether a measure created by study authors could identify teachers who are effective at increasing student achievement. The authors used 2009-10 school year data to create a single composite measure of teacher effectiveness;…

  19. Effect of Random versus Nonrandom Assignment in a Comparison of Inpatient and Day Hospital Rehabilitation for Male Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    To examine differences in substance use and psychosocial outcomes under experimental and nonexperimental designs, compared alcoholic patients randomly assigned to day hospital or inpatient rehabilitation with patients who self-selected these treatment settings. Self-selecting patients experienced outcomes no better than those who were randomly…

  20. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from a Random Assignment Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 14608

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Steven; Fullerton, Jon; Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assesses teaching practice based on videos and essays submitted by teachers. We compared the performance of classrooms of elementary students in Los Angeles randomly assigned to NBPTS applicants and to comparison teachers. We used information on whether each applicant achieved…

  1. Random assignment in clinical trials: issues in planning (Infant Health and Development Program).

    PubMed

    Kraemer, H C; Fendt, K H

    1990-01-01

    Various options available for the randomization of subjects into groups in a clinical trial are discussed, emphasizing the issues of logistics given less focus in more mathematical treatments. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of total randomization, of Zelen-type randomization procedures, of Efron-type procedures vs more classical blocking procedures to control the balance between groups, and of Simon-Pocock-type procedures vs more classical stratification for controlling possible biases in prognostic factors. Finally, we discuss issues related to choice and implementation of randomization procedures. The discussion is illustrated with the processes of decision-making in a national collaborative randomized clinical trial, the Infant Health and Development Program.

  2. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  3. NMR sequential assignment of Escherichia coli thioredoxin utilizing random fractional deuteriation

    SciTech Connect

    LeMaster, D.M.; Richards, F.M.

    1988-01-12

    All non-proline residues except for the N-terminal dipeptide have been assigned in the 108-residue protein Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Central to these experiments has been the use of protein samples in which all carbon-bound hydrogen positions are substituted to 75% with deuterium by bacterial growth on partially deuteriated carbon sources and media. The dilution of the local proton density gives rise to narrower line widths with little loss in sensitivity. In addition, passive or secondary coupling to protons not directly involved in the coherence transfer process of correlation experiments is largely suppressed, thus significantly improving the resolution for side-chain couplings. Simultaneous multiresidue-type assignments have been obtained by incorporation of several amino acids with differing selective ..cap alpha.. and/or ..beta..-deuteriation into a fractionally deuteriated background. Combined with several single residue type labeling experiments, these selective labelings have yielded direct residue type assignments for two-thirds of the protein. In addition to improved resolution, the amide to carbon-bound proton NOESY spectra offered equivalent sensitivity while the amide to amide NOESY spectra offered superior sensitivity to that observed for natural abundance samples. The resultant sequential assignment has an average number of nearest-neighbor NOE connectivities of 2.35 out of the possible 3 ..cap alpha..-amide, ..beta..-amide, and amide-amide connectivities.

  4. It Takes Two Shining Lights to Brighten the Room: Peer Effects with Random Roommate Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Pu, Shi

    2017-01-01

    We used housing assignment data from a college in China to investigate peer effects on college grades. Study results provided some evidence for peer effects in college housing units. First, peer effects through means occurred during both fall and spring semester of the first year in college, with estimated effect much larger than that in previous…

  5. It Takes Two Shining Lights to Brighten the Room: Peer Effects with Random Roommate Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Pu, Shi

    2017-01-01

    We used housing assignment data from a college in China to investigate peer effects on college grades. Study results provided some evidence for peer effects in college housing units. First, peer effects through means occurred during both fall and spring semester of the first year in college, with estimated effect much larger than that in previous…

  6. Disentangling Mathematics Target and Access Skills: Implications for Accommodation Assignment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Geller, Joshua P.

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate assignment of accommodations is predicated on a clear distinction between target skills and access skills. In this study, we examine the agreement between test developer/researchers' and educators' classification of target and access skills as a possible explanatory mechanism for assigning accommodations. Findings indicate that…

  7. Gender Differences in Types of Assignments Preferred: Implications for Computer Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brenda Cantwell

    2006-01-01

    A study analyzing survey results of more than 850 students enrolled in college computer courses was conducted. The survey included, among other things, questions about students' preferences for a programming assignment. The three choices given were examples of common types of programming assignments found in CS1 textbooks: an application to…

  8. Supporting parents who have youth with emotional disturbances through a parent-to-parent support program: a proof of concept study using random assignment.

    PubMed

    Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Albert J; Green, Amy L; Ferron, John M

    2011-09-01

    Poor outcomes for youth who have emotional disturbances (ED), especially for those youth who are placed in special education programs, are well documented. Parent Connectors is a parent-to-parent support program delivered through weekly telephone calls to families of youth with ED in special education programs, with the aim of increasing the engagement of parents in their child's education and treatment and improving the academic and emotional functioning of the child. Findings from a proof of concept study using random assignment of participants yielded encouraging support for the clinical efficacy of the intervention. Results demonstrated enhanced outcomes for parents who were highly strained at the beginning of the study. Implications for future research in the area of parent support are provided.

  9. An assessment of health behavior peer effects in Peking University dormitories: a randomized cluster-assignment design for interference.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Changzheng; Lv, Jun; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling), dietary intake and tobacco use. Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers.

  10. An Assessment of Health Behavior Peer Effects in Peking University Dormitories: A Randomized Cluster-Assignment Design for Interference

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Changzheng; Lv, Jun; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. Methods Study design: Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. Study population: Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. Measurement: Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling), dietary intake and tobacco use. Results Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. Conclusion Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers. PMID:24040377

  11. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study: A Case Study in Random Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the long-term benefits of preschool programs for young children living in poverty in the High/Scope Perry Preschool Study, which examined the lives of 123 African Americans randomly divided into a preschool treatment group and a no-preschool comparison group. Cost-benefit analyses of data on these students to age 27 show beneficial effects…

  12. Assigning Students in Group Work Projects. Can We Do Better than Random?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Mark; Land, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of group work projects in higher education focuses on a comparison of the performance of student groups formed randomly, with those formed using the Honey and Mumford learning styles questionnaire. Describes results that indicate no significant difference in student performances and considers the relationship to the Kolb model.…

  13. Assigning Students in Group Work Projects. Can We Do Better than Random?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Mark; Land, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of group work projects in higher education focuses on a comparison of the performance of student groups formed randomly, with those formed using the Honey and Mumford learning styles questionnaire. Describes results that indicate no significant difference in student performances and considers the relationship to the Kolb model.…

  14. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  15. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  16. Effect of Treatment Assignment on Intravaginal Cleansing in a Randomized Study of the Diaphragm with Candidate Microbicide

    PubMed Central

    Legardy-Williams, Jennifer; Turner, Abigail Norris; Rabozakandriana, Tiana O.O.; Williams, D'Nyce; Razafindravoavy, Sandra; Behets, Frieda; Van Damme, Kathleen; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Intravaginal cleansing may predispose women to adverse health outcomes and may interfere with the effectiveness and safety of female-initiated methods for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a 4-week randomized study of 192 Malagasy sex workers, we evaluated associations between self-reported intravaginal cleansing and randomization assignment: diaphragm with viscous candidate microbicide gel (Acidform™, TOPCAD, Chicago, IL, licensed to Instead, Coppell, TX), diaphragm with placebo hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC, ReProtect LLC, Baltimore, MD), Acidform alone, or HEC alone. Methods Women were counseled to avoid intravaginal cleansing and were blinded to gel assignment. We evaluated changes in self-reported intravaginal cleansing across the study and assessed the effects of treatment assignment and covariates on frequent (more than once daily) intravaginal cleansing. Significant predictors in domain-specific models were evaluated in an all-domain multiple regression model. Results The proportion of women reporting intravaginal cleansing decreased from baseline (97%) to week 1 (82%) (p < 0.001). Self-reported frequent intravaginal cleansing decreased from baseline (87% to 56%) during the same time period (p < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, the Acidform-diaphragm group had 60% lower odds of frequent intravaginal cleansing during the study (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.8) compared to the control group (HEC only). HEC-diaphragm and Acidform only users did not differ from controls. Living on the coast of Madagascar, not cohabiting, frequent intravaginal cleansing at enrollment, and high coital frequency predicted frequent intravaginal cleansing during follow-up. Conclusions Gel characteristics and the diaphragm's presence likely influenced women's cleansing. Viscous gel delivered by a cervical barrier (such as a diaphragm) may minimize the likelihood of frequent intravaginal cleansing. PMID:21314445

  17. Pressure ulcer prevention: a randomized controlled trial of 2 risk-directed strategies for patient surface assignment.

    PubMed

    Inman, K J; Dymock, K; Fysh, N; Robbins, B; Rutledge, F S; Sibbald, W J

    1999-03-01

    To compare the clinical utility, in terms of incidence of pressure ulcer (PU) development, and economic impact of 2 programs of patient surface assignment for PU prevention. Randomized controlled clinical trial with economic evaluation. 30-bed multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU), serving as the regional trauma center. 144 consecutive eligible patients at risk for the development of PUs. PU risk was assessed on admission using the Skin Ulcer Risk Evaluation (SURE) Score, and patients were randomized to either the experimental (purchase) or control group (purchase/rent). Based on their SURE Score, patients were assigned a specialty surface if needed. Patients received head-to-toe skin assessments twice weekly, new PUs were documented, a new SURE Score was calculated, and specialty surfaces were upgraded or downgraded as necessary. The incidence of PUs by site and severity, and cost. Multivariate logistic regression and decision modeling. No significant differences were detected between groups with respect to baseline population characteristics, nor in the development of PUs. Predictors of PU development were ICU length of stay and SURE Score. The experimental (purchase) group was the less costly strategy. Under baseline assumptions, surface costs per at-risk patient were $76 CDN and $171 CDN in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The savings of $95 CDN per at-risk patient translates into conservative annual savings of $47,500 CDN. Using an objective, risk-based method of patient surface assignment, the authors compared the clinical and economic outcomes of 2 programs of PU prevention. In a direct comparison of alternatives, the strategy that emphasized purchased rather than rented products proved to be the more economical. Finally, this approach illustrates how by prospectively capturing data on both the costs and consequences of competing alternatives, a more objective and informed decision-making process can result.

  18. Patterns in the Initial Teaching Assignments of Secondary English Teachers: Implications for Teacher Agency and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieler, Deborah; Holmes, Stephen; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the teaching assignments of English teachers in 13 Mid-Atlantic high schools across five states. Data on the experience levels of 175 English teachers teaching 246 classes and surveys from 85 teacher participants were collected. Findings reveal that major agency-thwarting challenges face new English teachers: They typically are…

  19. Patterns in the Initial Teaching Assignments of Secondary English Teachers: Implications for Teacher Agency and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieler, Deborah; Holmes, Stephen; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the teaching assignments of English teachers in 13 Mid-Atlantic high schools across five states. Data on the experience levels of 175 English teachers teaching 246 classes and surveys from 85 teacher participants were collected. Findings reveal that major agency-thwarting challenges face new English teachers: They typically are…

  20. Communication interventions for minimally verbal children with autism: a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kasari, Connie; Kaiser, Ann; Goods, Kelly; Nietfeld, Jennifer; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Murphy, Susan; Almirall, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the effect of beginning treatment with a speech-generating device (SGD) in the context of a blended, adaptive treatment design for improving spontaneous, communicative utterances in school-aged, minimally verbal children with autism. A total of 61 minimally verbal children with autism, aged 5 to 8 years, were randomized to a blended developmental/behavioral intervention (JASP+EMT) with or without the augmentation of a SGD for 6 months with a 3-month follow-up. The intervention consisted of 2 stages. In stage 1, all children received 2 sessions per week for 3 months. Stage 2 intervention was adapted (by increased sessions or adding the SGD) based on the child's early response. The primary outcome was the total number of spontaneous communicative utterances; secondary measures were the total number of novel words and total comments from a natural language sample. Primary aim results found improvements in spontaneous communicative utterances, novel words, and comments that all favored the blended behavioral intervention that began by including an SGD (JASP+EMT+SGD) as opposed to spoken words alone (JASP+EMT). Secondary aim results suggest that the adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD and intensifying JASP+EMT+SGD for children who were slow responders led to better posttreatment outcomes. Minimally verbal school-aged children can make significant and rapid gains in spoken spontaneous language with a novel, blended intervention that focuses on joint engagement and play skills and incorporates an SGD. Future studies should further explore the tailoring design used in this study to better understand children's response to treatment. Clinical trial registration information-Developmental and Augmented Intervention for Facilitating Expressive Language (CCNIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01013545. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Communication Interventions for Minimally Verbal Children With Autism: Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, Connie; Kaiser, Ann; Goods, Kelly; Nietfeld, Jennifer; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Murphy, Susan; Almirall, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested the effect of beginning treatment with a speech-generating device in the context of a blended, adaptive treatment design for improving spontaneous, communicative utterances in school-aged, minimally verbal children with autism. Method Sixty-one minimally verbal children with autism, aged 5 to 8 years, were randomized to a blended developmental/behavioral intervention (JASP+EMT) with or without the augmentation of a speech-generating device (SGD) for 6 months with a 3-month follow-up. The intervention consisted of two stages. In Stage 1 all children received two sessions per week for 3 months. Stage 2 intervention was adapted (increased sessions or adding the SGD) based on the child’s early response. The primary outcome was the total number of spontaneous communicative utterances; secondary measures were total number of novel words and total comments from a natural language sample. Results Primary aim results found improvements in spontaneous communicative utterances, novel words, and comments that all favored the blended behavioral intervention that began by including an SGD (JASP+EMT+SGD) as opposed to spoken words alone (JASP+EMT). Secondary aim results suggest that the adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD and intensifying JASP+EMT+SGD for children who were slow responders led to better post-treatment outcomes. Conclusion Minimally verbal school-aged children can make significant and rapid gains in spoken spontaneous language with a novel, blended intervention that focuses on joint engagement and play skills and incorporates an SGD. Future studies should further explore the tailoring design used in this study to better understand children’s response to treatment. Clinical trial registration information—Developmental and Augmented Intervention for Facilitating Expressive Language (CCNIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01013545. PMID:24839882

  2. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects.

  3. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents’ weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents’ weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  4. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of personalized Dynamic Treatment Regimes (DTRs) and Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials (SMARTs) in mental health studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; ZENG, Donglin; WANG, Yuanjia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) are sequential decision rules tailored at each point where a clinical decision is made based on each patient’s time-varying characteristics and intermediate outcomes observed at earlier points in time. The complexity, patient heterogeneity, and chronicity of mental disorders call for learning optimal DTRs to dynamically adapt treatment to an individual’s response over time. The Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMARTs) design allows for estimating causal effects of DTRs. Modern statistical tools have been developed to optimize DTRs based on personalized variables and intermediate outcomes using rich data collected from SMARTs; these statistical methods can also be used to recommend tailoring variables for designing future SMART studies. This paper introduces DTRs and SMARTs using two examples in mental health studies, discusses two machine learning methods for estimating optimal DTR from SMARTs data, and demonstrates the performance of the statistical methods using simulated data. PMID:25642116

  6. Does Money Really Matter? Estimating Impacts of Family Income on Young Children's Achievement With Data From Random-Assignment Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Greg J.; Morris, Pamela A.; Rodrigues, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists do not agree on the size and nature of the causal impacts of parental income on children's achievement. We revisit this issue using a set of welfare and antipoverty experiments conducted in the 1990s. We utilize an instrumental variables strategy to leverage the variation in income and achievement that arises from random assignment to the treatment group to estimate the causal effect of income on child achievement. Our estimates suggest that a $1,000 increase in annual income increases young children's achievement by 5%–6% of a standard deviation. As such, our results suggest that family income has a policy-relevant, positive impact on the eventual school achievement of preschool children. PMID:21688900

  7. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L.; Terwilliger, J.; Weissenbach, J.

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A tilt-pair based method for assigning the projection directions of randomly oriented single-particle molecules.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yutaka; Mine, Shouhei; Kawasaki, Kazunori

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we describe an improved method to assign the projection angle for averaged images using tilt-pair images for three-dimensional reconstructions from randomly oriented single-particle molecular images. Our study addressed the so-called 'initial volume problem' in the single-particle reconstruction, which involves estimation of projection angles of the particle images. The projected images of the particles in different tilt observations were mixed and averaged for the characteristic views. After the ranking of these group average images in terms of reliable tilt angle information, mutual tilt angles between images are assigned from the constituent tilt-pair information. Then, multiples of the conical tilt series are made and merged to construct a network graph of the particle images in terms of projection angles, which are optimized for the three-dimensional reconstruction. We developed the method with images of a synthetic object and applied it to a single-particle image data set of the purified deacetylase from archaea. With the introduction of low-angle tilt observations to minimize unfavorable imaging conditions due to tilting, the results demonstrated reasonable reconstruction models without imposing symmetry to the structure. This method also guides its users to discriminate particle images of different conformational state of the molecule.

  9. The Effects of Therapist Competence in Assigning Homework in Cognitive Therapy with Cluster C Personality Disorders: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryum, Truls; Stiles, Tore C.; Svartberg, Martin; McCullough, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Therapist competence in assigning homework was used to predict mid- and posttreatment outcome for patients with Cluster C personality disorders in cognitive therapy (CT). Twenty-five patients that underwent 40 sessions of CT were taken from a randomized controlled trial (Svartberg, Stiles, & Seltzer, 2004). Therapist competence in assigning…

  10. The Effects of Therapist Competence in Assigning Homework in Cognitive Therapy with Cluster C Personality Disorders: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryum, Truls; Stiles, Tore C.; Svartberg, Martin; McCullough, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Therapist competence in assigning homework was used to predict mid- and posttreatment outcome for patients with Cluster C personality disorders in cognitive therapy (CT). Twenty-five patients that underwent 40 sessions of CT were taken from a randomized controlled trial (Svartberg, Stiles, & Seltzer, 2004). Therapist competence in assigning…

  11. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  12. The Association between Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Birth Weight–Implication of Buffer Exposure Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30km in Connecticut (2000–2006), in the New England region of the U.S. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics. PMID:26594233

  13. Variation of Cats under Domestication: Genetic Assignment of Domestic Cats to Breeds and Worldwide Random Bred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, J. D.; Lipinski, M. J.; Gandolfi, B.; Froenicke, L.; Grahn, J. C.; Grahn, R. A.; Lyons, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Both cat breeders and the lay public have interests in the origins of their pets, not only in the genetic identity of the purebred individuals, but also the historical origins of common household cats. The cat fancy is a relatively new institution with over 85% of its 40–50 breeds arising only in the past 75 years, primarily through selection on single-gene aesthetic traits. The short, yet intense cat breed history poses a significant challenge to the development of a genetic marker-based breed identification strategy. Using different breed assignment strategies and methods, 477 cats representing 29 fancy breeds were analysed with 38 short tandem repeats, 148 intergenic and five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results suggest the frequentist method of Paetkau (accuracy single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.78, short tandem repeats = 0.88) surpasses the Bayesian method of Rannala and Mountain (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.56, short tandem repeats = 0.83) for accurate assignment of individuals to the correct breed. Additionally, a post-assignment verification step with the five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms accurately identified between 0.31 and 0.58 of the mis-assigned individuals raising the sensitivity of assignment with the frequentist method to 0.89 and 0.92 single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats respectively. This study provides a novel multi-step assignment strategy and suggests that, despite their short breed history and breed family groupings, a majority of cats can be assigned to their proper breed or population of origin, i.e. race. PMID:23171373

  14. Variation of cats under domestication: genetic assignment of domestic cats to breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, J D; Lipinski, M J; Gandolfi, B; Froenicke, L; Grahn, J C; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A

    2013-06-01

    Both cat breeders and the lay public have interests in the origins of their pets, not only in the genetic identity of the purebred individuals, but also in the historical origins of common household cats. The cat fancy is a relatively new institution with over 85% of its 40-50 breeds arising only in the past 75 years, primarily through selection on single-gene aesthetic traits. The short, yet intense cat breed history poses a significant challenge to the development of a genetic marker-based breed identification strategy. Using different breed assignment strategies and methods, 477 cats representing 29 fancy breeds were analysed with 38 short tandem repeats, 148 intergenic and five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results suggest the frequentist method of Paetkau (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.78, short tandem repeats = 0.88) surpasses the Bayesian method of Rannala and Mountain (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.56, short tandem repeats = 0.83) for accurate assignment of individuals to the correct breed. Additionally, a post-assignment verification step with the five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms accurately identified between 0.31 and 0.58 of the misassigned individuals raising the sensitivity of assignment with the frequentist method to 0.89 and 0.92 for single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats respectively. This study provides a novel multistep assignment strategy and suggests that, despite their short breed history and breed family groupings, a majority of cats can be assigned to their proper breed or population of origin, that is, race.

  15. Complete backbone and DENQ side chain NMR assignments in proteins from a single experiment: implications to structure-function studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jithender G; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2014-03-01

    Resonance assignment is the first and the most crucial step in all nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on structure-function relationships in biological macromolecules. Often, the assignment exercise has to be repeated several times when specific interactions with ligands, substrates etc., have to be elucidated for understanding the functional mechanisms. While the protein backbone serves to provide a scaffold, the side chains interact directly with the ligands. Such investigations will be greatly facilitated, if there are rapid methods for obtaining exhaustive information with minimum of NMR experimentation. In this context, we present here a pulse sequence which exploits the recently introduced technique of parallel detection of multiple nuclei, e.g. (1)H and (13)C, and results in two 3D-data sets simultaneously. These yield complete backbone resonance assignment ((1)H(N), (15)N, (13)CO, (1)Hα/(13)Cα, and (1)Hβ/(13)Cβ chemical shifts) and side chain assignment of D, E, N and Q residues. Such an exhaustive assignment has the potential of yielding accurate 3D structures using one or more of several algorithms which calculate structures of the molecules very reliably on the basis of NMR chemical shifts alone. The side chain assignments of D, E, N, and Q will be extremely valuable for interaction studies with different ligands; D and E side chains are known to be involved in majority of catalytic activities. Utility of this experiment has been demonstrated with Ca(2+) bound M-crystallin, which contains largely D, E, N and Q residues at the metal binding sites.

  16. The Relationship between Cognitive Academic Levels of Proficiency and Response to Intervention Tier Assignment and the Implications for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Bonery, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship(s) between a student's Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) levels of proficiency and Response to Intervention tier (RtI) assignment for academic instruction and the Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS) scores. The CALP levels were derived from…

  17. Pathways to Assignment of Payees

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Marc I.; Ablondi, Karen; Black, Anne C.; Serowik, Kristin L.; Rowe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    How clients come to be assigned representative payees and/or conservators to manage their funds is not well understood. We compared clients assigned a payee during a clinical trial of a money management-based intervention to those not assigned payees and examined antecedents to payee assignment. One year after randomization, significantly more clients assigned to the ATM money management intervention were assigned payees than participants in the control condition (10 of 47 vs. 2 of 43; p=.02); those assigned payees had lower baseline GAF scores and participated more in study therapies. Several ATM clients were assigned payees after third parties paid more attention to clients’ finances, and others after having negotiated storage of their funds with the ATM money manager during the study. Assignment of payees appears to be influenced by whether third parties critically attend to how clients’ manage funds and by clients’ receptiveness to having a payee. PMID:23765182

  18. Pathways to assignment of payees.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc I; Ablondi, Karen; Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Rowe, Michael

    2014-04-01

    How clients come to be assigned representative payees and/or conservators to manage their funds is not well understood. We compared clients assigned a payee during a clinical trial of a money management-based intervention to those not assigned payees and examined antecedents to payee assignment. One year after randomization, significantly more clients assigned to the advisor teller money manager (ATM) money management intervention were assigned payees than participants in the control condition (10 of 47 vs. 2 of 43; p = .02); those assigned payees had lower baseline GAF scores and participated more in study therapies. Several ATM clients were assigned payees after third parties paid more attention to clients' finances, and others after having negotiated storage of their funds with the ATM money manager during the study. Assignment of payees appears to be influenced by whether third parties critically attend to how clients' manage funds and by clients' receptiveness to having a payee.

  19. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  20. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  1. Analysis of emplaced waste data and implications of non-random emplacement for performance assessment for the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Channell, James K.

    2003-05-31

    The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act recognized that after the initial certification of the WIPP and start of disposal operations, operating experience and ongoing research would result in new technical and scientific information. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has previously reported on issues that it considers important as the Department of Energy (DOE) works towards the first recertification. One of these issues involves the assumption of random emplacement of waste used in the performance assessment calculations in support of the initial certification application. As actual waste emplacement data are now available from four years of disposal, the EEG performed an analysis to evaluate the validity of that initial assumption and determine implications for performance assessment. Panel 1 was closed in March 2003. The degree of deviation between actual emplaced waste in Panel 1 and an assumption of random emplacement is apparent with concentrations of 239Pu being 3.20 times, 240Pu being 2.67 times, and 241Am being 4.13 times the projected repository average for the space occupied by the waste. A spatial statistical analysis was performed using available Panel 1 data retrieved from the WWIS and assigned room coordinates by Sandia National Laboratories. A comparison was made between the waste as emplaced and a randomization of the same waste. Conversely, the distribution of waste as emplaced is similar to the distribution of waste in the individual containers and can be characterized as bi-modal and skewed with a long high-concentration tail. The distribution of randomized waste is fairly symmetrical, as would be expected from classical statistical theory. In the event of a future drilling intrusion, comparison of these two distributions shows a higher probability of intersecting a high-concentration stack of the actual emplaced waste, over that of the same waste emplaced in a randomized manner as was assumed in the certified

  2. Estimating the Causal Effect of Randomization versus Treatment Preference in a Doubly Randomized Preference Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Sue M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Wang, Pei; Shadish, William R.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Although randomized studies have high internal validity, generalizability of the estimated causal effect from randomized clinical trials to real-world clinical or educational practice may be limited. We consider the implication of randomized assignment to treatment, as compared with choice of preferred treatment as it occurs in real-world…

  3. Estimating the causal effect of randomization versus treatment preference in a doubly randomized preference trial.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sue M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Wang, Pei; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Although randomized studies have high internal validity, generalizability of the estimated causal effect from randomized clinical trials to real-world clinical or educational practice may be limited. We consider the implication of randomized assignment to treatment, as compared with choice of preferred treatment as it occurs in real-world conditions. Compliance, engagement, or motivation may be better with a preferred treatment, and this can complicate the generalizability of results from randomized trials. The doubly randomized preference trial (DRPT) is a hybrid randomized and nonrandomized design that allows for estimation of the causal effect of randomization versus treatment preference. In the DRPT, individuals are first randomized to either randomized assignment or choice assignment. Those in the randomized assignment group are then randomized to treatment or control, and those in the choice group receive their preference of treatment versus control. Using the potential outcomes framework, we apply the algebra of conditional independence to show how the DRPT can be used to derive an unbiased estimate of the causal effect of randomization versus preference for each of the treatment and comparison conditions. Also, we show how these results can be implemented using full matching on the propensity score. The methodology is illustrated with a DRPT of introductory psychology students who were randomized to randomized assignment or preference of mathematics versus vocabulary training. We found a small to moderate benefit of preference versus randomization with respect to the mathematics outcome for those who received mathematics training.

  4. Anxiety and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Patients With Low–Tumor Burden Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Randomly Assigned to Two Different Rituximab Dosing Regimens: Results From ECOG Trial E4402 (RESORT)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Lynne I.; Zhao, Fengmin; Hong, Fangxin; Williams, Michael E.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Krauss, John C.; Advani, Ranjana H.; Go, Ronald S.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Leach, Joseph W.; O'Connor, Brian; Schuster, Stephen J.; Cella, David; Horning, Sandra J.; Kahl, Brad S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare illness-related anxiety among participants in the Rituximab Extended Schedule or Retreatment Trial (RESORT) randomly assigned to maintenance rituximab (MR) versus rituximab re-treatment (RR). A secondary objective was to examine whether the superiority of MR versus RR on anxiety depended on illness-related coping style. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 253) completed patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures at random assignment to MR or RR (baseline); at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after random assignment; and at rituximab failure. PRO measures assessed illness-related anxiety and coping style, and secondary end points including general anxiety, worry and interference with emotional well-being, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients were classified as using an active or avoidant illness-related coping style. Independent sample t tests and linear mixed-effects models were used to identify treatment arm differences on PRO end points and differences based on coping style. Results Illness-related anxiety was comparable between treatment arms at all time points (P > .05), regardless of coping style (active or avoidant). Illness-related anxiety and general anxiety significantly decreased over time on both arms. HRQoL scores were relatively stable and did not change significantly from baseline for both arms. An avoidant coping style was associated with significantly higher anxiety (18% and 13% exceeded clinical cutoff points at baseline and 6 months, respectively) and poorer HRQoL compared with an active coping style (P < .001), regardless of treatment arm assignment. Conclusion Surveillance until RR at progression was not associated with increased anxiety compared with MR, regardless of coping style. Avoidant coping was associated with higher anxiety and poorer HRQoL. PMID:25605841

  5. Anxiety and health-related quality of life among patients with low-tumor burden non-Hodgkin lymphoma randomly assigned to two different rituximab dosing regimens: results from ECOG trial E4402 (RESORT).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lynne I; Zhao, Fengmin; Hong, Fangxin; Williams, Michael E; Gascoyne, Randy D; Krauss, John C; Advani, Ranjana H; Go, Ronald S; Habermann, Thomas M; Leach, Joseph W; O'Connor, Brian; Schuster, Stephen J; Cella, David; Horning, Sandra J; Kahl, Brad S

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare illness-related anxiety among participants in the Rituximab Extended Schedule or Retreatment Trial (RESORT) randomly assigned to maintenance rituximab (MR) versus rituximab re-treatment (RR). A secondary objective was to examine whether the superiority of MR versus RR on anxiety depended on illness-related coping style. Patients (N = 253) completed patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures at random assignment to MR or RR (baseline); at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after random assignment; and at rituximab failure. PRO measures assessed illness-related anxiety and coping style, and secondary end points including general anxiety, worry and interference with emotional well-being, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients were classified as using an active or avoidant illness-related coping style. Independent sample t tests and linear mixed-effects models were used to identify treatment arm differences on PRO end points and differences based on coping style. Illness-related anxiety was comparable between treatment arms at all time points (P > .05), regardless of coping style (active or avoidant). Illness-related anxiety and general anxiety significantly decreased over time on both arms. HRQoL scores were relatively stable and did not change significantly from baseline for both arms. An avoidant coping style was associated with significantly higher anxiety (18% and 13% exceeded clinical cutoff points at baseline and 6 months, respectively) and poorer HRQoL compared with an active coping style (P < .001), regardless of treatment arm assignment. Surveillance until RR at progression was not associated with increased anxiety compared with MR, regardless of coping style. Avoidant coping was associated with higher anxiety and poorer HRQoL. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Proton NMR assignments of heme contracts and catalytically implicated amino acids in cyanide-ligated cytochrome c peroxidase determined from one- and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effects

    SciTech Connect

    Satterlee, J.D. ); Erman, J.E. )

    1991-05-07

    Proton NMR assignments of the heme pocket and catalytically relevant amino acid protons have been accomplished for cyanide-ligated yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. This form of the protein, while not enzymatically active itself, is the best model available (that displays a resolvable proton NMR spectrum) for the six-coordinate low-spin active intermediates, compounds I and II. The assignments were made with a combination of one- and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect methods and demonstrate the utility of NOESY experiments for paramagnetic proteins of relatively large size (M{sub r} 34,000). Assignments of both isotope exchangeable and nonexchangeable proton resonances were obtained by using enzyme preparations in both 90% H{sub 2}O/10% D{sub 2}O and, separately, in 99.9% D{sub 2}O solvent systems. Complete resonance assignments have been achieved for the proximal histidine, His-175, and His-52, which is a member of the catalytic triad on the distal side of the heme. In addition, partial assignments are reported for Trp-51 and Arg-48, catalytically important residues, both on the distal side. Aside from His-175, partial assignments for amino acids on the proximal side of the heme are proposed for the alanines at primary sequence positions 174 and 176 and for Thr-180 and Leu-232.

  7. Short-Term-Effectiveness of a Relationship Education Program for Distressed Military Couples, in the Context of Foreign Assignments for the German Armed Forces. Preliminary Findings From a Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Christoph; Kliem, Sören; Zimmermann, Peter; Kowalski, Jens

    2017-06-26

    This study examines the short-term effectiveness of a relationship education program designed for military couples. Distressed couples were randomly placed in either a wait-list control group or an intervention group. We conducted training sessions before a 3-month foreign assignment, and refresher courses approximately 6-week post-assignment. We analyzed the dyadic data of 32 couples, using hierarchical linear modeling in a two-level model. Reduction in unresolved conflicts was found in the intervention group, with large pre-post effects for both partners. Relationship satisfaction scores were improved, with moderate-to-large effects only for soldiers, rather than their partners. Post-follow-up effect sizes suggested further improvement in the intervention group. Future research should examine the long-term effectiveness of this treatment. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  9. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n=436); to test whether (a) medication at follow-up, (b) cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or (c) both relate to substance use/SUD; to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n=261). Method Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. Results The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8 year follow-up or earlier (M age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Conclusions Medication for ADHD did not protect from, nor contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8 year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information—Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. PMID:23452682

  10. Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a function of childhood ADHD, random assignment to childhood treatments, and subsequent medication.

    PubMed

    Molina, Brooke S G; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Eugene Arnold, L; Swanson, James M; Pelham, William E; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B; Greenhill, Laurence L; Jensen, Peter S; Wells, Karen C; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-03-01

    To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or both relate to substance use/SUD; and to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n = 261). Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8-year follow-up or earlier (mean age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than in the non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Medication for ADHD did not protect from, or contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8-year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information-Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent

  11. Preference and Expectation for Treatment Assignment in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Once- vs Twice-weekly Yoga for Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Janice; Sherman, Karen J.; Saper, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In studies involving nonpharmacological complementary and alternative medicine interventions, participant blinding is very difficult. Participant expectations may affect perceived benefit of therapy. In studies of yoga as treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the relationship between patient expectations and preferences on outcomes. This study was designed to identify baseline predictors of preference and to determine if expectations and preferences for different doses of yoga affect back-related function and low back pain intensity. Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of a 12-week randomized controlled trial comparing once-weekly vs twice-weekly yoga for treatment of chronic low back pain in 93 adults from a predominantly low-income minority population. At baseline, participants were asked about back function, back pain, treatment expectations, and treatment preferences. We created a variable “concordance” to describe the matching of participant preference to randomized treatment. Our outcome variables were change in back function and pain intensity after 12 weeks of yoga instruction. We performed logistic regression to identify predictors of preference for once- or twice-weekly yoga instruction. We created linear regression models to identify independent associations between expectations, preference, concordance, and outcomes. Results: Worse back function at baseline was associated with 20% higher odds of preferring twice-weekly yoga (OR 1.2, CI 1.1, 1.3). Individuals with higher expectation scores for twice-weekly yoga had 90% higher odds of preferring twice-weekly vs once-weekly yoga (OR 1.9, CI 1.3, 2.7). Individuals with higher expectation scores for once-weekly yoga had 40% less odds of preferring twice-weekly yoga (OR 0.6, CI 0.5, 0.9). After controlling for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant relationship between treatment outcomes, preference, expectation scores, or concordance

  12. Within-Site Variation in Feather Stable Hydrogen Isotope (δ2Hf) Values of Boreal Songbirds: Implications for Assignment to Molt Origin

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Erin M.; Sólymos, Péter; Foster, Kenneth R.; Godwin, Christine M.; Krikun, Richard; Pyle, Peter; Hobson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bird migration and dispersal is important to inform full life-cycle conservation planning. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios from feathers (δ2Hf) can be linked to amount-weighted long-term, growing season precipitation δ2H (δ2Hp) surfaces to create δ2Hf isoscapes for assignment to molt origin. However, transfer functions linking δ2Hp with δ2Hf are influenced by physiological and environmental processes. A better understanding of the causes and consequences of variation in δ2Hf values among individuals and species will improve the predictive ability of geographic assignment tests. We tested for effects of species, land cover, forage substrate, nest substrate, diet composition, body mass, sex, and phylogenetic relatedness on δ2Hf from individuals at least two years old of 21 songbird species captured during the same breeding season at a site in northeastern Alberta, Canada. For four species, we also tested for a year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf. A model including species as single predictor received the most support (AIC weight = 0.74) in explaining variation in δ2Hf. A species-specific variance parameter was part of all best-ranked models, suggesting variation in δ2Hf was not consistent among species. The second best-ranked model included a forage substrate × diet interaction term (AIC weight = 0.16). There was a significant year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf suggesting that interspecific differences in δ2Hf can differ among years. Our results suggest that within- and among-year interspecific variation in δ2Hf is the most important source of variance typically not being explicitly quantified in geographic assignment tests using non-specific transfer functions to convert δ2Hp into δ2Hf. However, this source of variation is consistent with the range of variation from the transfer functions most commonly being propagated in assignment tests of geographic origins for passerines breeding in North America. PMID:27806037

  13. Within-Site Variation in Feather Stable Hydrogen Isotope (δ2Hf) Values of Boreal Songbirds: Implications for Assignment to Molt Origin.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Cameron J; Haché, Samuel; Bayne, Erin M; Sólymos, Péter; Foster, Kenneth R; Godwin, Christine M; Krikun, Richard; Pyle, Peter; Hobson, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bird migration and dispersal is important to inform full life-cycle conservation planning. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios from feathers (δ2Hf) can be linked to amount-weighted long-term, growing season precipitation δ2H (δ2Hp) surfaces to create δ2Hf isoscapes for assignment to molt origin. However, transfer functions linking δ2Hp with δ2Hf are influenced by physiological and environmental processes. A better understanding of the causes and consequences of variation in δ2Hf values among individuals and species will improve the predictive ability of geographic assignment tests. We tested for effects of species, land cover, forage substrate, nest substrate, diet composition, body mass, sex, and phylogenetic relatedness on δ2Hf from individuals at least two years old of 21 songbird species captured during the same breeding season at a site in northeastern Alberta, Canada. For four species, we also tested for a year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf. A model including species as single predictor received the most support (AIC weight = 0.74) in explaining variation in δ2Hf. A species-specific variance parameter was part of all best-ranked models, suggesting variation in δ2Hf was not consistent among species. The second best-ranked model included a forage substrate × diet interaction term (AIC weight = 0.16). There was a significant year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf suggesting that interspecific differences in δ2Hf can differ among years. Our results suggest that within- and among-year interspecific variation in δ2Hf is the most important source of variance typically not being explicitly quantified in geographic assignment tests using non-specific transfer functions to convert δ2Hp into δ2Hf. However, this source of variation is consistent with the range of variation from the transfer functions most commonly being propagated in assignment tests of geographic origins for passerines breeding in North America.

  14. An investigation of the partial-assignment completion effect on students' assignment choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L; Skinner, Christopher H; Parkhurst, John; Conley, Elisha

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the partial assignment completion effect. Seventh-grade students were given a math assignment. After working for 5 min, they were interrupted and their partially completed assignments were collected. About 20 min later, students were given their partially completed assignment and a new, control assignment that contained the same number of equivalent problems that were incomplete on their partially completed assignment. Students were told that they would have to complete an assignment but could choose which assignment they completed. Significantly more students chose their partially completed assignment. Theoretical and applied implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Booster immune response in children 6-7 years of age, randomly assigned to four groups with two MMR vaccines applied by aerosol or by injection.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ortega, José-Luis; Bennett, John V; Castañeda-Desales, Deyanira; Quintanilla, Doris-Ma Arellano; Martínez, David; de Castro, Jorge Fernández

    2014-06-17

    Aerosol immunization may be a useful tool to reach and sustain the elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome. We compared booster seroresponses to aerosolized or injected MMR vaccines containing different strains of measles (Attenuvax or Edmonston-Zagreb) and mumps (Jeryl-Lynn or Leningrad-Zagreb). To assess the safety and immunogenicity of two MMR: Vaccines administered by aerosol. A randomized and controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and booster responses to the MMR SII (Serum Institute of India) and MMR II (Merck Sharp & Dhome) vaccines, both of which were administered by aerosol (ae) or injection (inj) to Mexican children aged 6-7 years in elementary schools. The seroresponses were evaluated by PRN (measles) and ELISA (rubella and mumps). Adverse events were followed-up for 28 days after the immunization. Two hundred and fifty-three of 260 children completed the one-month follow-up. All participants reached protective seropositivity for measles and rubella after immunization, and 98.3 to 100% reached protective seropositivity for mumps (p=0.552). The proportions of the seroresponses (a 2-fold rise from the baseline antibody titers) to measles were 38.3% for MMR SII (ae), 31.3% for MMR II (ae), 37.5% for MMR SII (inj), and 44.6% for MMR II (inj) (p=0.483). The seroresponses for rubella were 26.7% for MMR SII (ae), 31.3% for MMR II (ae), 46.9% for MMR SII (inj), and 40.0% for MMR II (inj) (p=0.086). The seroresponse to mumps were 31.7% for MMR SII (ae), 25.0% for MMR II (ae), 48.4% for MMR SII (inj), and 53.9% for MMR II (inj) (p=0.002). The difference in the seroresponse of a 4-fold rise from the baseline antibody titers was not statistically significant. Only mild adverse events were noted. Aerosolized vaccines were as safe and as immunogenic as injected vaccines. CMN 2010-005 (National Regulatory Authority). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy applied to [Fe(OEP)(NO)]: The Vibrational Assignments of Five-Coordinate Ferrous Heme Nitrosyls and Implications for Electronic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Nicolai; Galinato, Mary Grace I.; Paulat, Florian; Richter-Addo, George B.; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Xu, Nan; Zhao, Jiyong

    2010-01-01

    This study presents Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) data on the five-coordinate (5C) ferrous heme nitrosyl complex [Fe(OEP)(NO)] (1, OEP2− = octaethylporphyrinato dianion) and the corresponding 15N18O labeled complex. The obtained spectra identify two isotope sensitive features at 522 and 388 cm−1, which shift to 508 and 381 cm−1, respectively, upon isotope labeling. These features are assigned to the Fe-NO stretch ν(Fe-NO) and the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode δip(Fe-N-O), the latter has been unambiguously assigned for the first time for 1. The obtained NRVS data were simulated using our quantum chemistry centered normal coordinate analysis (QCC-NCA). Since complex 1 can potentially exist in 12 different conformations involving the FeNO and peripheral ethyl orientations, extended DFT calculations and QCC-NCA simulations were performed to determine how these conformations affect the NRVS properties of [Fe(OEP)NO]. These results show that the properties and force constants of the FeNO unit are hardly affected by the conformational changes involving the ethyl substituents. On the other hand, the NRVS-active porphyrin-based vibrations around 340 – 360, 300 –320, and 250 – 270 cm−1 are sensitive to the conformational changes. The spectroscopic changes observed in these regions are due to selective mechanical couplings of one component of Eu-type (in ideal D4h symmetry) porphyrin-based vibrations with the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode. This leads to the observed variations in Fe(OEP) core mode energies and NRVS intensities without affecting the properties of the FeNO unit. The QCC-NCA simulated NRVS spectra of 1 show excellent agreement with experiment, and indicate that conformer F is likely present in the samples of this complex investigated here. The observed porphyrin-based vibrations in the NRVS spectra of 1 are also assigned based on the QCC-NCA results. The obtained force constants of the Fe-NO and N-O bonds are 2.83 – 2

  17. Assignments That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests, on a humorous note, a game-plan for assignment justification and elaboration that utilizes, in a constructive and professional manner, the best of what is known about assignment-making. (EL)

  18. Use of 3' untranslated sequences of human cDNAs for rapid chromosome assignment and conversion to STSs: implications for an expression map of the genome.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, A S; Khan, A S; Hopkins, J A; Sikela, J M

    1991-01-01

    A general mapping strategy is described in which the 3'untranslated regions of human cDNAs are used to design PCR primers which will selectively amplify human genomic sequences in a rodent background. When applied to panels of human x hamster somatic cell hybrid DNAs, this approach provides a PCR-based method for rapidly assigning genes to specific chromosomes and chromosomal regions. In addition, it follows from the virtual absence of introns in the 3'untranslated region of vertebrate genes that within this region the cDNA sequences almost always will be identical to those of the genomic DNA and can therefore be used to automatically generate gene-specific sequence-tagged sites (STSs). We have applied this strategy to six human cDNAs and demonstrate that 1) the primers selectively amplify human genomic DNA and 2) the PCR product is of the size predicted from the cDNA. To test this approach further we have utilized it to confirm the known chromosomal location of the retinoblastoma gene. Lastly, we describe how this strategy can readily be applied to unknown human cDNAs, and thereby be integrated into efforts to generate a human STS expression map of the genome. A strategy for production of such a map, using human brain cDNAs as a model, is described. Images PMID:2030965

  19. Disease Distribution in Low-stage Tubo-ovarian High-grade Serous Carcinoma (HGSC): Implications for Assigning Primary Site and FIGO Stage.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveena; Benson, Jack L; Gan, Carmen; Anglesio, Michael; Arora, Rupali; Faruqi, Asma Z; Hirschowitz, Lynn; Kommoss, Friedrich; Scott, Kerry; Trevisan, Giorgia; Leen, Sarah Lam Shang; Wilkinson, Nafisa; Gilks, C Blake; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-08-04

    The latest FIGO and TNM (eighth edition) staging systems for ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal neoplasms require primary site assignment as tubal/ovarian/peritoneal, but provide no guidance or criteria. Fewer than 10% of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) cases present at low stage (stage I/II). Low-stage cases offer a unique opportunity to understand the pattern of disease early in its evolution prior to wide dissemination and provide valuable evidence for guiding specimen handling and tumor staging. This study aimed to examine disease distribution in low-stage tubo-ovarian HGSC. Anonymized pathology reports of 152 stage I/II extrauterine HGSCs from 6 teaching hospitals were analyzed: group 1 (n=67) comprised cases with complete tubal examination by Sectioning and Extensively Examining the FIMbriated end of the tube (SEE-FIM) and group 2 (n=85) consisted of cases without documentation of both tubes being fully examined by the SEE-FIM or a SEE-FIM-like protocol. The stage, site/pattern of involvement, site/size of largest tumor focus and laterality of tubal and ovarian involvement were recorded. Tubal mucosal involvement was present in 95% of optimally examined cases and many factors influenced detection of tubal disease. Bilateral involvement, suggestive of metastasis, was significantly more frequent in the ovaries (35%) than the tubes (9%) (P<0.0001, Fisher exact test). No case showed a complete absence of tubal/ovarian involvement, questioning the biological existence of primary peritoneal HGSC. Disease distribution in low-stage cases supports a tubal origin for most HGSCs. Detailed tubal sampling upstages some apparent stage I cases through detection of microscopic tubal involvement.

  20. Post-Secondary Science Students' Explanations of "Randomness" and "Variation" and Implications for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougis, Rebekka Darner; Stomberg, Janet F.; O'Hare, Alicia T.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Bader, Nicholas E.; Meixner, Thomas; Carey, Cayelan C.

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of randomness and variation are pervasive in science. The purpose of this study was to document how post-secondary life science students explain randomness and variation, infer relationships between their explanations, and ability to describe and identify appropriate and inappropriate variation, and determine if students can identify…

  1. Therapeutic Homework Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbishley, M. Anne; Yost, Elizabeth B.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines guidelines to follow in assigning therapeutic homework to students, focusing on student preparation, including behavior change, choosing and devising assignments, and checking on homework. With modification, counseling homework can be used with all students who are beyond second or third grade. (BL)

  2. The Failed Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swyt, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an unsuccessful English 101 writing assignment in which students were asked to analyze a Gary Larson cartoon. Examines critically the type of assignment that seeks to address and incorporate the student writer's "local knowledge" of cultural texts, while at the same time containing what counts as knowledge within limited parameters of…

  3. Estimators used in the New Mexico inventory: practical implications of "truly" random nonresponse within each stratum

    Treesearch

    Paul L. Patterson; Sara A. Goeking

    2012-01-01

    The annual forest inventory of New Mexico began as an accelerated inventory, and 8 of the 10 Phase 2 panels were sampled between 2008 and 2011. The inventory includes a large proportion of nonresponse. FIA's estimation process uses post-stratification and assumes that nonresponse occurs at random within each stratum. We construct an estimator for the New Mexico...

  4. The Implications of Teacher Selection and Teacher Effects in Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Randomized experiments have become an increasingly popular design to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in education (Spybrook, 2008). Many of the interventions evaluated in education are delivered to groups of students, rather than to individuals. Experiments designed to evaluate programs delivered at the group level often…

  5. Treatment Preferences Affect the Therapeutic Alliance: Implications for Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; McCarthy, Kevin Scott; Barrett, Marna S.; Rynn, Moira; Gallop, Robert; Barber, Jacques P.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of treatment preferences on the development of the therapeutic alliance was investigated. Seventy-five patients were followed while participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing supportive-expressive psychotherapy with sertraline or pill placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Therapeutic alliance was…

  6. Random Variation in Student Performance by Class Size: Implications of NCLB in Rural Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Stephan J.

    2005-01-01

    Schools that fail to make "adequate yearly progress" under NCLB face sanctions and may lose students to other schools. In smaller schools, random yearly variation in innate student ability and behavior can cause changes in scores that are beyond the influence of teachers. This study examines changes in reading and math scores across…

  7. Treatment Preferences Affect the Therapeutic Alliance: Implications for Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; McCarthy, Kevin Scott; Barrett, Marna S.; Rynn, Moira; Gallop, Robert; Barber, Jacques P.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of treatment preferences on the development of the therapeutic alliance was investigated. Seventy-five patients were followed while participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing supportive-expressive psychotherapy with sertraline or pill placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Therapeutic alliance was…

  8. Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Bonati, Leo H; Ederle, Jörg; McCabe, Dominick JH; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Gaines, Peter A; Beard, Jonathan D; Venables, Graham S; Markus, Hugh S; Clifton, Andrew; Sandercock, Peter; Brown, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background In the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), early recurrent carotid stenosis was more common in patients assigned to endovascular treatment than it was in patients assigned to endarterectomy (CEA), raising concerns about the long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment. We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS. Methods 413 patients who were randomly assigned in CAVATAS and completed treatment for carotid stenosis (200 patients had endovascular treatment and 213 patients had endarterectomy) had prospective clinical follow-up at a median of 5 years and carotid duplex ultrasound at a median of 4 years. We investigated the cumulative long-term incidence of carotid restenosis after endovascular treatment and endarterectomy, the effect of the use of stents on restenosis after endovascular treatment, risk factors for the development of restenosis, and the effect of carotid restenosis on the risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN01425573. Findings Severe carotid restenosis (≥70%) or occlusion occurred significantly more often in patients in the endovascular arm than in patients in the endarterectomy arm (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3·17, 95% CI 1·89–5·32; p<0·0001). The estimated 5-year incidence of restenosis was 30·7% in the endovascular arm and 10·5% in the endarterectomy arm. Patients in the endovascular arm who were treated with a stent (n=50) had a significantly lower risk of developing restenosis of 70% or greater compared with those treated with balloon angioplasty alone (n=145; HR 0·43, 0·19–0·97; p=0·04). Current smoking or a history of smoking was a predictor of restenosis of 70% or more (2·32, 1·19–4·54; p=0·01) and the early finding of moderate stenosis (50–69%) up to 60 days after treatment was associated with the risk of progression to restenosis of 70

  9. Hospital chaplains' involvement in a randomized controlled multidisciplinary trial: implications for spiritual care and research.

    PubMed

    Piderman, Katherine M; Johnson, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Chaplains' involvement in spirituality and health research can contribute something vital and unique to these investigations. It can also provide opportunity for professional growth and increased effectiveness. This article describes the authors' experience as co-investigators in a randomized controlled trial involving patients with a life expectancy of less than five years receiving radiation therapy for advanced cancer. It also discusses the application to clinical settings and other research.

  10. My Favorite Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  11. My Favorite Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  12. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  13. Group assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, Aubrey B.; Gadaleta, Sabino

    2003-12-01

    Multiple frame data association, whether it is based on multiple hypothesis tracking or multi-dimensional assignment problems, has established itself as the method of choice for difficult tracking problems, principally due to the ability to hold difficult data association decisions in abeyance until additional information is available. Over the last twenty years, these methods have focused on one-to-one assignments, many-to-one, and many-to-many assignments. Group tracking, on the other hand, introduces new complexity into the association process, especially if some soft decision making capability is desired. Thus, the goal of this work is to combine multiple grouping hypotheses for each frame of data (tracks or measurements) with matching these hypotheses across multiple frames of data using one-to-one, many-to-one, or many-to-many assignments to determine the correct hypothesis on each frame of data and connectivity across the frames. The resulting formulation is sufficiently general to cover four broad classes of problems in multiple target tracking, namely (a) group cluster tracking, (b) pixel (clump) IR cluster tracking, (c) the merged measurement problem, and (d) MHT for track-to-track fusion. What is more, the cluster assignment problem for either two or multiple dimensions represents a generalized data association problem in the sense that it reduces to the classical assignment problems when there are no overlapping groups or clusters. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate group methods for use in multiple frame group tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations of the group assignment problem are developed.

  14. Group assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, Aubrey B.; Gadaleta, Sabino

    2004-01-01

    Multiple frame data association, whether it is based on multiple hypothesis tracking or multi-dimensional assignment problems, has established itself as the method of choice for difficult tracking problems, principally due to the ability to hold difficult data association decisions in abeyance until additional information is available. Over the last twenty years, these methods have focused on one-to-one assignments, many-to-one, and many-to-many assignments. Group tracking, on the other hand, introduces new complexity into the association process, especially if some soft decision making capability is desired. Thus, the goal of this work is to combine multiple grouping hypotheses for each frame of data (tracks or measurements) with matching these hypotheses across multiple frames of data using one-to-one, many-to-one, or many-to-many assignments to determine the correct hypothesis on each frame of data and connectivity across the frames. The resulting formulation is sufficiently general to cover four broad classes of problems in multiple target tracking, namely (a) group cluster tracking, (b) pixel (clump) IR cluster tracking, (c) the merged measurement problem, and (d) MHT for track-to-track fusion. What is more, the cluster assignment problem for either two or multiple dimensions represents a generalized data association problem in the sense that it reduces to the classical assignment problems when there are no overlapping groups or clusters. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate group methods for use in multiple frame group tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations of the group assignment problem are developed.

  15. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: Results of a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Gaylord, Susan A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned < $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. 37 participants completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable members of society. PMID:20648913

  16. A Hierarchy of Russian Writing Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengramt, Sandra F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the implications of the ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines for the writing curriculum. Argues that the functions identified in the guidelines should be practices in writing as well as in speech. Discusses error correction techniques and presents examples of writing assignments in Russian that elicit advanced-level functions. (SED)

  17. 42 CFR 433.146 - Rights assigned; assignment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights assigned; assignment method. 433.146 Section 433.146 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Assignment of Rights to Benefits § 433.146 Rights assigned; assignment method. (a) Except as specified...

  18. Sedimentary bed evolution as a mean-reverting random walk: Implications for tracer statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Raleigh L.; Purohit, Prashant K.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2014-09-01

    Sediment tracers are increasingly employed to estimate bed load transport and landscape evolution rates. Tracer trajectories are dominated by periods of immobility ("waiting times") as they are buried and reexcavated in the stochastically evolving river bed. Here we model bed evolution as a random walk with mean-reverting tendency (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) originating from the restoring effect of erosion and deposition. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model contains two parameters, a and b, related to the particle feed rate and range of bed elevation fluctuations, respectively. Observations of bed evolution in flume experiments agree with model predictions; in particular, the model reproduces the asymptotic t-1 tail in the tracer waiting time exceedance probability distribution. This waiting time distribution is similar to that inferred for tracers in natural gravel streams and avalanching rice piles, indicating applicability of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck mean-reverting model to many disordered transport systems with tracer burial and excavation.

  19. Sampling scale effects in random fields and implications for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Skøien, Jon Olav; Blöschl, Günter

    2006-03-01

    The concept of a sampling scale triplet of spacing, extent and support is used to define the spatial dimensions of a monitoring network or a field study. The spacing is the average distance between samples, the extent is the size of the domain sampled and the support is the averaging area of one sample. The aim of this paper is to examine what is the bias and the random error (uncertainty) introduced by the sampling scale triplet into estimates of the mean, the spatial variance and the integral scale of a variable in a landscape. The integral scale is a measure of the average distance over which a variable is correlated in space. A large number of two dimensional random fields are generated from which hypothetical samples, conforming to a certain sampling scale triplet, are drawn which in turn are used to estimate the sample mean, spatial variance and integral scale. The results indicate that the biases can be up to two orders of magnitude. The bias of the integral scale is positively related to the magnitude of any of the components of the scale triplet while the bias of the spatial variance is different for different components of the scale triplet. All sampling scale effects are relative to the underlying correlation length of the variable of interest which is closely related to the integral scale. The integral scale can hence be used for sampling design and data interpretation. Suggestions are given on how to adjust a monitoring network to the scales of the variables of interest and how to interpret sampling scale effects in environmental data.

  20. A randomized study of multimedia informational aids for research on medical practices: Implications for informed consent.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Stephanie A; Constantine, Melissa; Magnus, David; Porter, Kathryn M; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Green, Michael; Kass, Nancy E; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Cho, Mildred K

    2017-02-01

    Participant understanding is a key element of informed consent for enrollment in research. However, participants often do not understand the nature, risks, benefits, or design of the studies in which they take part. Research on medical practices, which studies standard interventions rather than new treatments, has the potential to be especially confusing to participants because it is embedded within usual clinical care. Our objective in this randomized study was to compare the ability of a range of multimedia informational aids to improve participant understanding in the context of research on medical practices. We administered a web-based survey to members of a proprietary online panel sample selected to match national US demographics. Respondents were randomized to one of five arms: four content-equivalent informational aids (animated videos, slideshows with voice-over, comics, and text) and one no-intervention control. We measured knowledge of research on medical practices using a summary knowledge score from 10 questions based on the content of the informational aids. We used analysis of variance and paired t-tests to compare knowledge scores between arms. There were 1500 completed surveys (300 in each arm). Mean knowledge scores were highest for the slideshows with voice-over (65.7%), followed by the animated videos (62.7%), comics (60.7%), text (57.2%), and control (50.3%). Differences between arms were statistically significant except between the slideshows with voice-over and animated videos and between the animated videos and comics. Informational aids that included an audio component (animated videos and slideshows with voice-over) had higher knowledge scores than those without an audio component (64.2% vs 59.0%, p < .0001). There was no difference between informational aids with a character-driven story component (animated videos and comics) and those without. Our results show that simple multimedia aids that use a dual-channel approach, such as

  1. Retaining women in a prenatal care randomized controlled trial in Canada: implications for program planning.

    PubMed

    Tough, Suzanne C; Siever, Jodi E; Johnston, David W

    2007-07-06

    Challenges to retention in prenatal care seem to exist under both universal systems of care, as in Canada, and non-universal systems of care, as in the United States. However, among populations being served by a system of publicly funded health care, the barriers are less well understood and universal uptake of prenatal services has not been realized. Determining the characteristics of women who dropped out of a prenatal care randomized controlled trial can help identify those who may need alternate retention and service approaches. In this study, pregnant women were randomized to: a) current standard of care; b) 'a' plus nursing support; or c) 'b' plus a paraprofessional home visitor. 16% of 2,015 women did not complete all three telephone interviews (197 dropped out and 124 became unreachable). Responders were compared to non-responders on demographics, lifestyle, psychosocial factors, and life events using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression to determine the probability of not completing the prenatal program. Completion rates did not differ by intervention. In comparison to responders, non-responders were more likely to be younger, less educated, have lower incomes, smoke, have low social support, have a history of depression, and have separated or divorced parents (all p < 0.05). Unreachable women were more likely to be single, use drugs, report distress and adverse life events (all p < 0.05). Non-Caucasian women were more likely to drop out (p = 0.002). Logistic regression modeling indicated that independent key risk factors for dropping out were: less than high school education, separated or divorced parents, lower social support, and being non-Caucasian. Pregnant women who were single/separated/divorced, less than 25 years old, had less than high school education, earned less than $40,000 in annual household income, and/or smoked had greater odds of becoming unreachable at some point during

  2. Case Assignment in Agrammatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruigendijk, Esther; van Zonneveld, Ron; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the omission patterns of case markers in the spontaneous speech of 12 Dutch and German adult speakers with agrammatic aphasia within the framework of Chomsky's case theory. Data supported the hypothesis that, if no case assigner is produced, the noun will receive nominative case by default or the case-marking morpheme will be…

  3. Making Effective Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Although the focus of this issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is on making effective assignments, most of the articles also emphasize the importance and power of writing. Articles deal with the following topics: (1) the use of I-search (as explained by Kenneth Macrorie in "Searching Writing") as a form of research paper…

  4. Principals Make Assignments Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The inner-city high school in Washington, DC, that Guillaume Gendre joined as an assistant principal had a modest reputation for achievement but was nevertheless challenged to raise expectations for student work. In other schools, Gendre had used assignments--a specific kind of instructional task in which students are charged to think about an…

  5. Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Flux, Glenn D; Guy, Matthew J; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A

    2002-09-07

    For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations.

  6. Effects of correlations and fees in random multiplicative environments: Implications for portfolio management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alper, Ofer; Somekh-Baruch, Anelia; Pirvandy, Oz; Schaps, Malka; Yaari, Gur

    2017-08-01

    Geometric Brownian motion (GBM) is frequently used to model price dynamics of financial assets, and a weighted average of multiple GBMs is commonly used to model a financial portfolio. Diversified portfolios can lead to an increased exponential growth compared to a single asset by effectively reducing the effective noise. The sum of GBM processes is no longer a log-normal process and has a complex statistical properties. The nonergodicity of the weighted average process results in constant degradation of the exponential growth from the ensemble average toward the time average. One way to stay closer to the ensemble average is to maintain a balanced portfolio: keep the relative weights of the different assets constant over time. To keep these proportions constant, whenever assets values change, it is necessary to rebalance their relative weights, exposing this strategy to fees (transaction costs). Two strategies that were suggested in the past for cases that involve fees are rebalance the portfolio periodically and rebalance it in a partial way. In this paper, we study these two strategies in the presence of correlations and fees. We show that using periodic and partial rebalance strategies, it is possible to maintain a steady exponential growth while minimizing the losses due to fees. We also demonstrate how these redistribution strategies perform in a phenomenal way on real-world market data, despite the fact that not all assumptions of the model hold in these real-world systems. Our results have important implications for stochastic dynamics in general and to portfolio management in particular, as we show that there is a superior alternative to the common buy-and-hold strategy, even in the presence of correlations and fees.

  7. Effects of correlations and fees in random multiplicative environments: Implications for portfolio management.

    PubMed

    Alper, Ofer; Somekh-Baruch, Anelia; Pirvandy, Oz; Schaps, Malka; Yaari, Gur

    2017-08-01

    Geometric Brownian motion (GBM) is frequently used to model price dynamics of financial assets, and a weighted average of multiple GBMs is commonly used to model a financial portfolio. Diversified portfolios can lead to an increased exponential growth compared to a single asset by effectively reducing the effective noise. The sum of GBM processes is no longer a log-normal process and has a complex statistical properties. The nonergodicity of the weighted average process results in constant degradation of the exponential growth from the ensemble average toward the time average. One way to stay closer to the ensemble average is to maintain a balanced portfolio: keep the relative weights of the different assets constant over time. To keep these proportions constant, whenever assets values change, it is necessary to rebalance their relative weights, exposing this strategy to fees (transaction costs). Two strategies that were suggested in the past for cases that involve fees are rebalance the portfolio periodically and rebalance it in a partial way. In this paper, we study these two strategies in the presence of correlations and fees. We show that using periodic and partial rebalance strategies, it is possible to maintain a steady exponential growth while minimizing the losses due to fees. We also demonstrate how these redistribution strategies perform in a phenomenal way on real-world market data, despite the fact that not all assumptions of the model hold in these real-world systems. Our results have important implications for stochastic dynamics in general and to portfolio management in particular, as we show that there is a superior alternative to the common buy-and-hold strategy, even in the presence of correlations and fees.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of oral hydrocortisone - Results and implications from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Werumeus Buning, Jorien; Touw, Daan J; Brummelman, Pauline; Dullaart, Robin P F; van den Berg, Gerrit; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Kamp, Jasper; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; van Beek, André P

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed at comparing pharmacokinetics of two different doses of hydrocortisone (HC) in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI). Forty-six patients with SAI participated in this randomized double-blind crossover study. Patients received two different doses of HC (0.2-0.3mg HC/kg body weight/day and 0.4-0.6mg HC/kg body weight/day). One- and two-compartment population models for plasma free cortisol, plasma total cortisol and salivary cortisol were parameterized. The individual pharmacokinetic parameters clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination half-life (t1/2), maximum concentration (Cmax), and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. The one-compartment models gave a better description of the data compared to the two-compartment models. Weight-adjusted dosing reduced variability in cortisol exposure with comparable AUCs between weight groups. However, there was large inter-individual variation in CL and Vd of plasma free cortisol, plasma total cortisol and salivary cortisol. As a consequence, AUC24h varied more than 10 fold. Cortisol exposure was increased with the higher dose, but this was dose proportional only for free cortisol concentrations and not for total cortisol. Cortisol concentrations after a doubling of the dose were only dose proportional for free cortisol. HC pharmacokinetics can differ up to 10-fold inter-individually and individual adjustment of treatment doses may be necessary. Doubling of the HC dose in fast metabolizers (patients that showed relative low AUC and thus high clearance compared to other patients), does not result in significantly enhanced exposure during large parts of the day and these patients may need other management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  10. Case assignment in agrammatism.

    PubMed

    Ruigendijk, E; van Zonneveld, R; Bastiaanse, R

    1999-08-01

    Agrammatic speech is characterized by the omission and substitution of grammatical morphemes. Some recent papers suggest that certain patterns of omission and substitution are ruled by linguistic, that is, syntactic processes (e.g., Hagiwara, 1995; Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998). In the present paper, the omission pattern of case markers in the spontaneous speech of Dutch and German speakers with agrammatic aphasia is analyzed within the framework of Chomsky's (1986) case theory, which says that every phonetically realized NP must receive (abstract) case. The inflected verb (I) assigns nominative case to the subject in the sentence, and the verb (V) assigns dative and accusative case to the indirect and direct object, respectively. This, in combination with the knowledge that verbs and verb inflections are notoriously difficult for speakers with agrammatism, served as the basis for this study. We hypothesize that, if no case assigner is produced, the noun will receive nominative case by default or the case marking morpheme (i.e., the determiner) will be omitted. This hypothesis has been tested and was supported by the data.

  11. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  12. Conceptualizing Patient Barriers to Nonadherence with Homework Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Shinkfield, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    Nonadherence with homework assignments and, by implication, "barriers" to homework assignments are a frequent occurrence in the practice of standard cognitive therapy (Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., Emery, G. (1979). "Cognitive therapy of depression." New York: The Guilford Press). The clinical examples in this article illustrate some of…

  13. Military Personnel Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-09

    of Defense, Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Defense Agencies," > f , February 4, 1970 (hereby canceled) (d) DoD Directive 1315.14...34DoD Components"). 2. Does not apply to service members in non-DoD activities covered by DoD Directive 1000.17 (reference ( f )). C. DEFINITIONS Terms...possible, shall be allowed to extend any assignment voluntarily beyond the prescribed tour. f . Through the grades of 0-5 for officers and E-8 for enlisted

  14. Protein side-chain resonance assignment and NOE assignment using RDC-defined backbones without TOCSY data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-08-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA: (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA: extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA: assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA: have backbone

  15. The Effects of Assigned Role Versus Non-Assigned Role on Group Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Philip A.

    1972-01-01

    Students in speech classes at Northern Illinois University participated in tests to determine what assumption of roles in discussion groups impairs participation and prohibits consensus. Students were randomly assigned to one of twelve discussion groups of five members each. The topic and materials for discussion were excerpted from the local…

  16. 76 FR 55880 - Recording Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Recording Assignments ACTION: Proposed collection; comment... should be directed to Joyce R. Johnson, Manager, Assignment Division, Mail Stop 1450, United States...) to record patent and trademark assignment documents, including transfers of properties (i.e. patents...

  17. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  18. Fibre assignment in next-generation wide-field spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Isaac; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sánchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibres to targets in next-generation fibre-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, which we have called the draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogues, we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm, compared to a random assignment, can be as much as 2 per cent for the first tiles. For a survey such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BigBOSS), this would imply saving for observation several hundred thousand objects or, alternatively, reducing the covered area in ˜350 deg2. An important advantage of this method is that the fibre collision problem can be solved easily and in an optimal way. We also discuss the additional optimizations of the fibre-positioning process. In particular, we show that if we allow for the rotation of the focal plane, we can improve the efficiency of the process by ˜3.5-4.5 per cent, even if only small adjustments are permitted (up to 2°). For instruments that allow large rotations of the focal plane, the expected gain increases to ˜5-6 per cent. Therefore, these results strongly support the use of focal plane rotation in future spectrographs, as far as the efficiency of the fibre-positioning process is concerned. Finally, we discuss the implications of our optimizations and provide some basic hints for an optimal survey strategy, based on the number of targets per positioner.

  19. Impact of non-homologous end-joining deficiency on random and targeted DNA integration: implications for gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    Iiizumi, Susumu; Kurosawa, Aya; So, Sairei; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Chikaraishi, Yuichi; Ishii, Ayako; Adachi, Noritaka

    2008-01-01

    In higher animal cells, the principal limitation of gene-targeting technology is the extremely low efficiency of targeted integration, which occurs three to four orders of magnitude less frequently than random integration. Assuming that random integration mechanistically involves non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), inactivation of this pathway should reduce random integration and may enhance gene targeting. To test this possibility, we examined the frequencies of random and targeted integration in NHEJ-deficient chicken DT40 and human Nalm-6 cell lines. As expected, loss of NHEJ resulted in drastically reduced random integration in DT40 cells. Unexpectedly, however, this was not the case for Nalm-6 cells, indicating that NHEJ is not the sole mechanism of random integration. Nevertheless, we present evidence that NHEJ inactivation can lead to enhanced gene targeting through a reduction of random integration and/or an increase in targeted integration by homologous recombination. Most intriguingly, our results show that, in the absence of functional NHEJ, random integration of targeting vectors occurs more frequently than non-targeting vectors (harboring no or little homology to the host genome), implying that suppression of NHEJ-independent random integration events is needed to greatly enhance gene targeting in animal cells. PMID:18835848

  20. Optimizing Marine Security Guard Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Bangkok , Thailand East Asia and Pacific 18 4 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Western Hemisphere - South 13 5 Frankfurt, Germany Western Europe and Scandinavia 15...2008). Each 7 stationing plan satisfies a myriad of unit requirements, such as building and land availability. Similarly, each assignment solution...optimize the assignment of enlisted Marines to billets. EAM-GLOBAL seeks to assign the best Marine-billet fit while balancing staffing shortages

  1. Effects of stereospecific positioning of fatty acids in triacylglycerol structures in native and randomized fats: a review of their nutritional implications

    PubMed Central

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Sundram, Kalyana

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on lipid lowering diets have focused on the total content of saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. However, the distribution of these fatty acids on the triacylglycerol (TAG) molecule and the molecular TAG species generated by this stereospecificity are characteristic for various native dietary TAGs. Fat randomization or interesterification is a process involving the positional redistribution of fatty acids, which leads to the generation of new TAG molecular species. A comparison between native and randomized TAGs is the subject of this review with regards to the role of stereospecificity of fatty acids in metabolic processing and effects on fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia. The positioning of unsaturated versus saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position of TAGs indicate differences in early metabolic processing and postprandial clearance, which may explain modulatory effects on atherogenecity and thrombogenecity. Both human and animal studies are discussed with implications for human health. PMID:17625019

  2. De-Coding Writing Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Argues that understanding assignments is the first step toward successful college writing. Urges instructors to support students by helping them to decode assignments. Breaks down instructions into individual tasks including (1) writing an essay, (2) examining an issue, (3) reviewing articles and books, and (4) focusing on some texts. Defines each…

  3. Writing in Science and Technology: An Analysis of Assignments from Ten Undergraduate Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braine, George

    1989-01-01

    A study classified 61 writing assignments from 10 undergraduate science and technology courses on the basis of audience and task specifications. Most assignments emphasized reporting on specific participatory experiences, and 25 percent of assignments specified an audience other than the course instructor. Pedagogical implications for…

  4. Randomness and Self-similarity in the Topology of River Networks and its Implications for predicting scaling in floods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, V. K.; Mantilla, R.; Troutman, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Properties of randomness (Random model) and mean self-similarity (Tokunaga model) in the topology of river networks have been investigated independently of each other for over forty years. It has been observed that the random model does not predict the observed topology of river networks but Tokunaga model does. However, it does not include randomness that is an important feature of river networks. A new class of river network models called random self-similar networks (RSN) that combines self-similarity and randomness has been introduced to understand important topological features observed in river networks. We will present new results from a set of 30 basins located across the continental United States and representing a wide range of hydroclimatic variability that support the hypothesis of statistical self-similarity postulated by the RSN model. The generators of the RSN model obey a geometric distribution, and self-similarity holds in a statistical sense in 26 of these 30 basins. We will describe how topological self-similarity in river networks provides a theoretical framework to understand observed scaling (power laws) in peak flows by solving mass and momentum conservation equations that describe river-flow generation and its transport in a river network for a rainfall-runoff event.

  5. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-07-01

    Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1-2 AA), noise (250-600%) and missings (10-40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in alpha-helices, 70% in beta-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors.

  6. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. Results: We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1–2 AA), noise (250–600%) and missings (10–40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in α-helices, 70% in β-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Availability: Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors. Contact: gopal@cs.purdue.edu; cbk@cs.dartmouth.edu PMID:18586716

  7. Emergency Department Rotational Patient Assignment.

    PubMed

    Traub, Stephen J; Stewart, Christopher F; Didehban, Roshanak; Bartley, Adam C; Saghafian, Soroush; Smith, Vernon D; Silvers, Scott M; LeCheminant, Ryan; Lipinski, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    We compare emergency department (ED) operational metrics obtained in the first year of a rotational patient assignment system (in which patients are assigned to physicians automatically according to an algorithm) with those obtained in the last year of a traditional physician self-assignment system (in which physicians assigned themselves to patients at physician discretion). This was a pre-post retrospective study of patients at a single ED with no financial incentives for physician productivity. Metrics of interest were length of stay; arrival-to-provider time; rates of left before being seen, left subsequent to being seen, early returns (within 72 hours), and early returns with admission; and complaint ratio. We analyzed 23,514 visits in the last year of physician self-assignment and 24,112 visits in the first year of rotational patient assignment. Rotational patient assignment was associated with the following improvements (percentage change): median length of stay 232 to 207 minutes (11%), median arrival to provider time 39 to 22 minutes (44%), left before being seen 0.73% to 0.36% (51%), and complaint ratio 9.0/1,000 to 5.4/1,000 (40%). There were no changes in left subsequent to being seen, early returns, or early returns with admission. In a single facility, the transition from physician self-assignment to rotational patient assignment was associated with improvement in a broad array of ED operational metrics. Rotational patient assignment may be a useful strategy in ED front-end process redesign. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Coordinated series of studies to evaluate characteristics and mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes in high-risk patients randomly assigned to enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin: design and rationale of the SYNERGY Library.

    PubMed

    Petersen, John L; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Goodman, Shaun G; Kleiman, Neal S; Marian, A J; Stone, Gregg W; Lansky, Alexandra J; Lincoff, A Michael; Hazen, Stanley L; Nessel, Christopher C; Toro-Figueroa, Luis; Tate, Lynn; Reist, Craig J; Cohen, Marc; Califf, Robert M; Ferguson, James J

    2004-08-01

    Clinical trials and accompanying substudies in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have over the last several years yielded a wealth of knowledge about the pathophysiology and management of this high-risk condition. The Superior Yield of the New strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and GlYcoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (SYNERGY) trial is a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effect of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin on death and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation ACS. The SYNERGY Library has been designed as a coordinated series of investigations with simultaneous data acquisition on the same cohort of approximately 500 SYNERGY patients at 60 centers in North America. Specifically, electrocardiograms, coronary arteriograms, inflammatory markers, coagulation studies, and genetic samples will be collected and processed at core laboratory facilities, and the results will be stored in a central repository. This novel strategy for substudy investigation is unprecedented in cardiovascular clinical trials. The goal is to gain significant understanding about this patient population, discover new principles of pathophysiology, identify novel pharmacologic targets, and streamline further drug development. It is hoped that the SYNERGY Library will serve as a model for future substudy design to maximize academic insight within the framework of a large-scale, multicenter trial.

  9. An Assignment Sequence for Underprepared Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Kristi

    2000-01-01

    Presents a sequenced writing assignment on shopping to aid basic writers. Describes a writing assignment focused around online and mail-order shopping. Notes steps in preparing for the assignment, the sequence, and discusses responses to the assignments. (SC)

  10. An Assignment Sequence for Underprepared Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Kristi

    2000-01-01

    Presents a sequenced writing assignment on shopping to aid basic writers. Describes a writing assignment focused around online and mail-order shopping. Notes steps in preparing for the assignment, the sequence, and discusses responses to the assignments. (SC)

  11. Node assignment in heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Som, Sukhamoy

    1993-01-01

    A number of node assignment schemes, both static and dynamic, are explored for the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM). The architecture under consideration consists of heterogeneous processors and implements dataflow models of real-time applications. Terminology is developed for heterogeneous computing. New definitions are added to the ATAMM for token and assignment classifications. It is proved that a periodic execution is possible for dataflow graphs. Assignment algorithms are developed and proved. A design procedure is described for satisfying an objective function in an heterogeneous architecture. Several examples are provided for illustration.

  12. Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment and NOE Assignment Using RDC-Defined Backbones without TOCSY Data3

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-01-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA have backbone RMSD 0

  13. Clinical events in high-risk hypertensive patients randomly assigned to calcium channel blocker versus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial.

    PubMed

    Leenen, Frans H H; Nwachuku, Chuke E; Black, Henry R; Cushman, William C; Davis, Barry R; Simpson, Lara M; Alderman, Michael H; Atlas, Steven A; Basile, Jan N; Cuyjet, Aloysius B; Dart, Richard; Felicetta, James V; Grimm, Richard H; Haywood, L Julian; Jafri, Syed Z A; Proschan, Michael A; Thadani, Udho; Whelton, Paul K; Wright, Jackson T

    2006-09-01

    The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) provides a unique opportunity to compare the long-term relative safety and efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium channel blocker-initiated therapy in older hypertensive individuals. Patients were randomized to amlodipine (n=9048) or lisinopril (n=9054). The primary outcome was combined fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intention-to-treat. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, stroke, combined cardiovascular disease (CVD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cancer, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Mean follow-up was 4.9 years. Blood pressure control was similar in nonblacks, but not in blacks. No significant differences were found between treatment groups for the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, ESRD, or cancer. Stroke rates were higher on lisinopril in blacks (RR=1.51, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.86) but not in nonblacks (RR=1.07, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.28), and in women (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.79), but not in men (RR=1.10, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.31). Rates of combined CVD were higher (RR=1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.12) because of higher rates for strokes, peripheral arterial disease, and angina, which were partly offset by lower rates for heart failure (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.96) on lisinopril compared with amlodipine. Gastrointestinal bleeds and angioedema were higher on lisinopril. Patients with and without baseline coronary heart disease showed similar outcome patterns. We conclude that in hypertensive patients, the risks for coronary events are similar, but for stroke, combined CVD, gastrointestinal bleeding, and angioedema are higher and for heart failure are lower for lisinopril-based compared with amlodipine-based therapy. Some, but not all, of these differences may be explained by less effective blood pressure control in the lisinopril arm.

  14. Effects of individualized assignments on biology achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    A pretest-posttest, randomized, two groups, experimental, factorial design compared effects of detailed and nondetailed assignments on biology achievement over seven and a half months. Detailed assignments (favoring field independence and induction) employed block diagrams and stepwise directions. Nondetailed assignments (favoring field dependence and deduction) virtually lacked these. The accessible population was 101 tenth grade preparatory school male students. The 95 students enrolled in first year biology constituted the sample. Two by three ANOVA was done on residualized posttest score means of the students. Totally, the detailed students achieved significantly higher than the nondetailed students. This significantly higher achievement was only true of detailed students in the middle thirds of the deviation intelligence quotient (DIQ) range and of the grade point average (G.P.A.) range after the breakdown into upper, middle, and lower thirds of intellectual capability (ability and achievement). The upper third detailed DIQ grouping indirectly achieved higher than its peers, whereas the lower detailed DIQ third achieved lower than its peers. Thus, high capability students apparently benefit from flow and block diagrams, inductions, field independence, and high structure, whereas low capability students may be hindered by these.

  15. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of HNVAC, an MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, in Phase I single centre and Phase II/III multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel assignment studies.

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, V H; Sampath, G; Hegde, Nagendra R; Mohan, V Krishna; Ella, Krishna M

    2014-07-31

    The clinical evaluation of the MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine HNVAC in adults aged 18-65 years is reported. In the Phase I randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre study, 160 subjects were parallelly assigned 3:1 to vaccine:placebo groups (n=60:20) with both the aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations. A single dose of both the formulations containing 15 μg of haemagglutinin protein showed minimal adverse reactions, the most common of which were pain at injection site (11.67%) and fever (10.00%). Both formulations produced 74-81% seroprotection (SRP: titre of ≥40), 67-70% seroconversion (SRC: four-fold increase in titres between days 0 and 21), and a four-fold increase in geometric mean titres (GMT). Aluminium hydroxide did not have a significant effect either on immunogenicity or on reactogenicity. Nevertheless, based on its recognized positive effects on the stability and immunogenicity of many vaccines, and its marginal benefit in both pre-clinical and Phase I studies of HNVAC, alum adjuvanted HNVAC was further tested in a staggered Phase II/III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre study of 200 and 195 subjects, respectively, parallelly assigned 4:1 to adjuvanted vaccine and placebo groups. In these studies, the most common adverse reactions were pain at injection site (6.88% and 5.77% in Stage 1 and Stage 2, respectively) and fever (7.50% and 7.05%, respectively), and a single dose resulted in 87-90% SRP, 85-86% SRC, and a nearly six-fold increase in GMT, meeting or exceeding licensing criteria. It is concluded that HNVAC is safe and immunogenic to adults of 18-65 years.

  16. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  17. How to Improve the Peer Review Method: Free-Selection vs Assigned-Pair Protocol Evaluated in a Computer Networking Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides field research evidence on the efficiency of a "free-selection" peer review assignment protocol as compared to the typically implemented "assigned-pair" protocol. The study employed 54 sophomore students who were randomly assigned into three groups: Assigned-Pair (AP) (the teacher assigns student works for review to student…

  18. 7 CFR 97.131 - Conditional assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditional assignments. 97.131 Section 97.131... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Assignments and Recording § 97.131 Conditional assignments. Assignments recorded in the Office are regarded as absolute assignments for Office purposes until canceled in writing...

  19. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  20. Managing Large Volumes of Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, James; Hagen, John, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In spring 2003, the Distance Education Network (DEN), Viterbi School of Engineering at the University of Southern California (USC), had 860 students and more than 1,000 enrollments in 70 courses toward 10 different degrees. Typically, for assignments in engineering courses, professors require students to show how their answers are derived so that…

  1. The Year of Secret Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Jaclyn

    2004-01-01

    The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

  2. Assessment and Implication of Prognostic Imbalance in Randomized Controlled Trials with a Binary Outcome – A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Rong; Walter, Stephen D.; Guyatt, Gordon; Devereaux, P. J.; Walsh, Michael; Thorlund, Kristian; Thabane, Lehana

    2012-01-01

    Background Chance imbalance in baseline prognosis of a randomized controlled trial can lead to over or underestimation of treatment effects, particularly in trials with small sample sizes. Our study aimed to (1) evaluate the probability of imbalance in a binary prognostic factor (PF) between two treatment arms, (2) investigate the impact of prognostic imbalance on the estimation of a treatment effect, and (3) examine the effect of sample size (n) in relation to the first two objectives. Methods We simulated data from parallel-group trials evaluating a binary outcome by varying the risk of the outcome, effect of the treatment, power and prevalence of the PF, and n. Logistic regression models with and without adjustment for the PF were compared in terms of bias, standard error, coverage of confidence interval and statistical power. Results For a PF with a prevalence of 0.5, the probability of a difference in the frequency of the PF≥5% reaches 0.42 with 125/arm. Ignoring a strong PF (relative risk = 5) leads to underestimating the strength of a moderate treatment effect, and the underestimate is independent of n when n is >50/arm. Adjusting for such PF increases statistical power. If the PF is weak (RR = 2), adjustment makes little difference in statistical inference. Conditional on a 5% imbalance of a powerful PF, adjustment reduces the likelihood of large bias. If an absolute measure of imbalance ≥5% is deemed important, including 1000 patients/arm provides sufficient protection against such an imbalance. Two thousand patients/arm may provide an adequate control against large random deviations in treatment effect estimation in the presence of a powerful PF. Conclusions The probability of prognostic imbalance in small trials can be substantial. Covariate adjustment improves estimation accuracy and statistical power, and hence should be performed when strong PFs are observed. PMID:22629322

  3. Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Cognition Effects of the Proprietary Extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) Targeting Phosphodiesterase-4 in Cognitively Healthy Subjects: Implications for Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Simon; Farina-Woodbury, Michel; Terpstra, Kristen; Antongiorgi, Joalex; Bureau, Yves; Cernovsky, Zack; Hou, Jirui; Sanchez, Veronica; Williams, Marissa; Copen, John; Husni, Mariwan; Goble, Liz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Converging evidence suggests that PDE-4 (phosphodiesterase subtype 4) plays a crucial role in regulating cognition via the PDE-4-cAMP cascade signaling involving phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Objective. The primary endpoint was to examine the neurocognitive effects of extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) and to assess the safety and tolerability of Zembrin in cognitively healthy control subjects. Method. We chose the randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design in our study. We randomized normal healthy subjects (total n = 21) to receive either 25 mg capsule Zembrin or placebo capsule once daily for 3 weeks, in a randomized placebo-controlled 3-week cross-over design. We administered battery of neuropsychological tests: CNS Vital Signs and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D) at baseline and regular intervals and monitored side effects with treatment emergent adverse events scale. Results. 21 subjects (mean age: 54.6 years ± 6.0 yrs; male/female ratio: 9/12) entered the study. Zembrin at 25 mg daily dosage significantly improved cognitive set flexibility (P < 0.032) and executive function (P < 0.022), compared with the placebo group. Positive changes in mood and sleep were found. Zembrin was well tolerated. Conclusion. The promising cognitive enhancing effects of Zembrin likely implicate the PDE-4-cAMP-CREB cascade, a novel drug target in the potential treatment of early Alzheimer's dementia. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01805518. PMID:25389443

  4. Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Cognition Effects of the Proprietary Extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) Targeting Phosphodiesterase-4 in Cognitively Healthy Subjects: Implications for Alzheimer's Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Simon; Gericke, Nigel; Farina-Woodbury, Michel; Badmaev, Vladimir; Raheb, Hana; Terpstra, Kristen; Antongiorgi, Joalex; Bureau, Yves; Cernovsky, Zack; Hou, Jirui; Sanchez, Veronica; Williams, Marissa; Copen, John; Husni, Mariwan; Goble, Liz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Converging evidence suggests that PDE-4 (phosphodiesterase subtype 4) plays a crucial role in regulating cognition via the PDE-4-cAMP cascade signaling involving phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Objective. The primary endpoint was to examine the neurocognitive effects of extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) and to assess the safety and tolerability of Zembrin in cognitively healthy control subjects. Method. We chose the randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design in our study. We randomized normal healthy subjects (total n = 21) to receive either 25 mg capsule Zembrin or placebo capsule once daily for 3 weeks, in a randomized placebo-controlled 3-week cross-over design. We administered battery of neuropsychological tests: CNS Vital Signs and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D) at baseline and regular intervals and monitored side effects with treatment emergent adverse events scale. Results. 21 subjects (mean age: 54.6 years ± 6.0 yrs; male/female ratio: 9/12) entered the study. Zembrin at 25 mg daily dosage significantly improved cognitive set flexibility (P < 0.032) and executive function (P < 0.022), compared with the placebo group. Positive changes in mood and sleep were found. Zembrin was well tolerated. Conclusion. The promising cognitive enhancing effects of Zembrin likely implicate the PDE-4-cAMP-CREB cascade, a novel drug target in the potential treatment of early Alzheimer's dementia. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01805518.

  5. CISA: combined NMR resonance connectivity information determination and sequential assignment.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Lin, Guohui

    2007-01-01

    A nearly complete sequential resonance assignment is a key factor leading to successful protein structure determination via NMR spectroscopy. Assuming the availability of a set of NMR spectral peak lists, most of the existing assignment algorithms first use the differences between chemical shift values for common nuclei across multiple spectra to provide the evidence that some pairs of peaks should be assigned to sequentially adjacent amino acid residues in the target protein. They then use these connectivities as constraints to produce a sequential assignment. At various levels of success, these algorithms typically generate a large number of potential connectivity constraints, and it grows exponentially as the quality of spectral data decreases. A key observation used in our sequential assignment program, CISA, is that chemical shift residual signature information can be used to improve the connectivity determination, and thus to dramatically decrease the number of predicted connectivity constraints. Fewer connectivity constraints lead to less ambiguities in the sequential assignment. Extensive simulation studies on several large test datasets demonstrated that CISA is efficient and effective, compared to three most recently proposed sequential resonance assignment programs RANDOM, PACES, and MARS.

  6. A random model for mapping imprinted quantitative trait loci in a structured pedigree: an implication for mapping canine hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Todhunter, Rory J; Wu, Song; Hou, Wei; Mateescu, Raluca; Zhang, Zhiwu; Burton-Wurster, Nancy I; Acland, Gregory M; Lust, George; Wu, Rongling

    2007-08-01

    Genetic imprinting may have played a more notable role in shaping embryonic development of plants, animals, and humans than previously appreciated. Quantitative trait loci that are imprinted (iQTL) exert monoallelic effects, depending on the parent of origin, which is an exception to the laws of Mendelian genetics. In this article, we present a modified random effect-based mapping model to use in a genome-wide scan for the distribution of iQTL that contribute to genetic variance for a complex trait in a structured pedigree. This model, implemented with the maximum likelihood method, capitalizes on a network of relatedness for maternally and paternally derived alleles through identical-by-descent sharing, thus allowing for the discrimination of the genetic variances due to alleles derived from maternal and paternal parents. The model was employed to map iQTL responsible for canine hip dysplasia in a multihierarchical canine pedigree, founded with seven greyhounds and six Labrador retrievers. Of eight significant QTL detected, three, located on CFA1, CFA8, and CF28, were found to trigger significant parent-of-origin effects on the age of femoral capital ossification measured at the left and right hips of a canine. The detected iQTL provide important candidate regions for fine-mapping of imprinted genes and for studying their structure and function in the control of complex traits.

  7. Cu impurity in insulators and in metal-insulator-metal structures: Implications for resistance-switching random access memories

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Sumeet C. Meade, Roy; Sandhu, Gurtej S.

    2015-02-07

    We present numerical results from atomistic simulations of Cu in SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with an emphasis on the thermodynamic, kinetic, and electronic properties. The calculated properties of Cu impurity at various concentrations (9.91 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} and 3.41 × 10{sup 22 }cm{sup −3}) in bulk oxides are presented. The metal-insulator interfaces result in up to a ∼4 eV reduction in the formation energies relative to the crystalline bulk. Additionally, the importance of Cu-Cu interaction in lowering the chemical potential is introduced. These concepts are then discussed in the context of formation and stability of localized conductive paths in resistance-switching Random Access Memories (RRAM-M). The electronic density of states and non-equilibrium transmission through these localized paths are studied, confirming conduction by showing three orders of magnitude increase in the electron transmission. The dynamic behavior of the conductive paths is investigated with atomistic drift-diffusion calculations. Finally, the paper concludes with a molecular dynamics simulation of a RRAM-M cell that attempts to combine the aforementioned phenomena in one self-consistent model.

  8. Cu impurity in insulators and in metal-insulator-metal structures: Implications for resistance-switching random access memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sumeet C.; Meade, Roy; Sandhu, Gurtej S.

    2015-02-01

    We present numerical results from atomistic simulations of Cu in SiO2 and Al2O3, with an emphasis on the thermodynamic, kinetic, and electronic properties. The calculated properties of Cu impurity at various concentrations (9.91 × 1020 cm-3 and 3.41 × 1022 cm-3) in bulk oxides are presented. The metal-insulator interfaces result in up to a ˜4 eV reduction in the formation energies relative to the crystalline bulk. Additionally, the importance of Cu-Cu interaction in lowering the chemical potential is introduced. These concepts are then discussed in the context of formation and stability of localized conductive paths in resistance-switching Random Access Memories (RRAM-M). The electronic density of states and non-equilibrium transmission through these localized paths are studied, confirming conduction by showing three orders of magnitude increase in the electron transmission. The dynamic behavior of the conductive paths is investigated with atomistic drift-diffusion calculations. Finally, the paper concludes with a molecular dynamics simulation of a RRAM-M cell that attempts to combine the aforementioned phenomena in one self-consistent model.

  9. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  10. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

  11. Scheduling Linearly Indexed Assignment Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailath, Thomas; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    1989-05-01

    It has been recently shown that linearly indexed Assignment Codes can be efficiently used for coding several problems especially in signal processing and matrix algebra. In fact, mathematical expressions for many algorithms are directly in the form of linearly indexed codes, and examples include the formulas for matrix multiplication, any m-dimensional convolution/correlation, matrix transposition, and solving matrix Lyapunov's equation. Systematic procedures for converting linearly indexed Assignment Codes to localized algorithms that are closely related to Regular Iterative Algorithms (RIAs) have also been developed. These localized algorithms can be often efficiently scheduled by modeling them as RIAs; however, it is not always efficient to do so. In this paper we shall analyze and develop systematic procedures for determining efficient schedules directly for the linearly indexed ACs and the localized algorithms. We shall also illustrate our procedures by determining schedules for examples such as matrix transposition and Gauss-Jordan elimination algorithm.

  12. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

  13. THE WEAPONS-ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    sub i 1 = or i = or m . The probability that the (ith) target will not be hit if attacked by the (jth) missile is a known quantity P sub ij, 1 = or i... or m , 1 = or j = or n. It is assumed that a hit results in total destruction of the target. The report considers the assignment of missiles to targets to effect the maximum expected return.

  14. Amorphous chalcogenides as random octahedrally bonded solids: I. Implications for the first sharp diffraction peak, photodarkening, and Boson peak.

    PubMed

    Lukyanov, Alexey; Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2017-09-21

    We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for generating high-quality structures for amorphous materials exhibiting distorted octahedral coordination. The computationally costly step of equilibrating the simulated melt is relegated to a much more efficient procedure, viz., generation of a random close-packed structure, which is subsequently used to generate parent structures for octahedrally bonded amorphous solids. The sites of the so-obtained lattice are populated by atoms and vacancies according to the desired stoichiometry while allowing one to control the number of homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear bonds and, hence, effects of the mixing entropy. The resulting parent structure is geometrically optimized using quantum-chemical force fields; by varying the extent of geometric optimization of the parent structure, one can partially control the degree of octahedrality in local coordination and the strength of secondary bonding. The present methodology is applied to the archetypal chalcogenide alloys AsxSe1-x. We find that local coordination in these alloys interpolates between octahedral and tetrahedral bonding but in a non-obvious way; it exhibits bonding motifs that are not characteristic of either extreme. We consistently recover the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in our structures and argue that the corresponding mid-range order stems from the charge density wave formed by regions housing covalent and weak, secondary interactions. The number of secondary interactions is determined by a delicate interplay between octahedrality and tetrahedrality in the covalent bonding; many of these interactions are homonuclear. The present results are consistent with the experimentally observed dependence of the FSDP on arsenic content, pressure, and temperature and its correlation with photodarkening and the Boson peak. They also suggest that the position of the FSDP can be used to infer the effective particle size relevant for the configurational equilibration in

  15. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: implications for MR enterography.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Fidler, Jeff L; Huprich, James E; Ratuapli, Shiva K; Holmes, David R; Riederer, Stephen J; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350ml in 45min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200mg i.v., age 31±3y, 13 females), or placebo (37±3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62±2 (mean±SEM) and 74±2min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P<0.0001) after erythromycin (260±49ml) than placebo (688±63ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76-100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P=0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P=0.001) after erythromycin (18.8±4.3mm) than placebo (17.3±2.8mm) infusion. After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during enterography using current standard delay times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conservation genetics of bush mango from central/west Africa: implications from random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A J; Gillies, A C; Wilson, J; Dawson, I K

    2000-07-01

    Genetic variation was assessed in the two bush mango species, Irvingia gabonensis and I. wombolu, valuable multipurpose fruit trees from central and west Africa that are currently undergoing domestication. A total of 130 individuals sampled from Cameroon, Nigeria and Gabon were analysed using 74 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Significant genetic integrity was found in the two morphologically similar species (among-species analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA] variance component 25.8%, P < 0.001), with no evidence of hybridization, even between individuals from areas of sympatry where hybridization was considered probable. Results suggest that large-scale transplantation of either species into new habitats will probably not lead to genetic introgression from or into the other species. Therefore, subsequent cultivation of the two species should not be hindered by this consideration, although further studies on the potential for hybridization/introgression between these species would be prudent. Significant genetic differentiation of both species (among-countries within species, nested AMOVA variance component 9.8%, P < 0.001) was observed over the sampled regions, and genetic similarity of samples decreased significantly with increasing geographical distance, according to number of alleles in common (NAC) analysis. 'Hot spots' of genetic diversity were found clustered in southern Nigeria and southern Cameroon for I. wombolu, and in southern Nigeria, southern Cameroon and central Gabon for I. gabonensis. The possible reasons for this distribution of genetic variation are discussed, but it may reflect evolutionary history, as these populations occur in areas of postulated Pleistocene refugia. The application of these results to domestication programmes and, in the light of extensive deforestation in the region, conservation approaches, is discussed.

  17. Amorphous chalcogenides as random octahedrally bonded solids: I. Implications for the first sharp diffraction peak, photodarkening, and Boson peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, Alexey; Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2017-09-01

    We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for generating high-quality structures for amorphous materials exhibiting distorted octahedral coordination. The computationally costly step of equilibrating the simulated melt is relegated to a much more efficient procedure, viz., generation of a random close-packed structure, which is subsequently used to generate parent structures for octahedrally bonded amorphous solids. The sites of the so-obtained lattice are populated by atoms and vacancies according to the desired stoichiometry while allowing one to control the number of homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear bonds and, hence, effects of the mixing entropy. The resulting parent structure is geometrically optimized using quantum-chemical force fields; by varying the extent of geometric optimization of the parent structure, one can partially control the degree of octahedrality in local coordination and the strength of secondary bonding. The present methodology is applied to the archetypal chalcogenide alloys AsxSe1-x. We find that local coordination in these alloys interpolates between octahedral and tetrahedral bonding but in a non-obvious way; it exhibits bonding motifs that are not characteristic of either extreme. We consistently recover the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in our structures and argue that the corresponding mid-range order stems from the charge density wave formed by regions housing covalent and weak, secondary interactions. The number of secondary interactions is determined by a delicate interplay between octahedrality and tetrahedrality in the covalent bonding; many of these interactions are homonuclear. The present results are consistent with the experimentally observed dependence of the FSDP on arsenic content, pressure, and temperature and its correlation with photodarkening and the Boson peak. They also suggest that the position of the FSDP can be used to infer the effective particle size relevant for the configurational equilibration in

  18. Model Refinement Using Eigensystem Assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.

    2000-01-01

    IA novel approach for the refinement of finite-element-based analytical models of flexible structures is presented. The proposed approach models the possible refinements in the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the finite element model in the form of a constant gain feedback with acceleration, velocity, and displacement measurements, respectively. Once the free elements of the structural matrices have been defined, the problem of model refinement reduces to obtaining position, velocity, and acceleration gain matrices with appropriate sparsity that reassign a desired subset of the eigenvalues of the model, along with partial mode shapes, from their baseline values to those obtained from system identification test data. A sequential procedure is used to assign one conjugate pair of eigenvalues at each step using symmetric output feedback gain matrices, and the eigenvectors are partially assigned, while ensuring that the eigenvalues assigned in the previous steps are not disturbed. The procedure can also impose that gain matrices be dissipative to guarantee the stability of the refined model. A numerical example, involving finite element model refinement for a structural testbed at NASA Langley Research Center (Controls-Structures-Interaction Evolutionary model) is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  19. Model Refinement Using Eigensystem Assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Pieman G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presented a novel approach for the refinement of finite-element-based analytical models of flexible structures is presented. The proposed approach models the possible refinements in the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the finite element model in the form of a constant gain feedback with acceleration, velocity, and displacement measurements, respectively. Once, the free elements of the structural matrices have been defined, the problem of model refinement reduces to obtaining position, velocity, and acceleration gain matrices, which reassign a desired subset of the eigenvalues of the model, along with partial mode shapes, from their baseline values to those obtained from system identification test data. A sequential procedure is used to assign one self-conjugate pair of closed-loop eigenvalues at each step using symmetric output feedback gain matrices, and the closed-loop eigenvectors are partially assigned, while ensuring that the eigenvalues assigned in the previous steps are not disturbed. The procedure can also impose that gain matrices be dissipative in order to guarantee the stability of the refined model. A numerical example, involving finite element model refinement for a structural testbed at NASA Langley (CSI Evolutionary Model) is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  20. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  1. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  2. Intranasal adminsitration of oxytocin in postnatal depression: implications for psychodynamic psychotherapy from a randomized double-blind pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Clarici, Andrea; Pellizzoni, Sandra; Guaschino, Secondo; Alberico, Salvatore; Bembich, Stefano; Giuliani, Rosella; Short, Antonia; Guarino, Giuseppina; Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is active in the central nervous system and is generally considered to be involved in prosocial behaviors and feelings. In light of its documented positive effect on maternal behavior, we designed a study to ascertain whether oxytocin exerts any therapeutic effects on depressive symptoms in women affected by maternal postnatal depression. A group of 16 mothers were recruited in a randomized double-blind study: the women agreed to take part in a brief course of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (12 sessions, once a week) while also being administered, during the 12-weeks period, a daily dose of intranasal oxytocin (or a placebo). The pre-treatment evaluation also included a personality assessment of the major primary-process emotional command systems described by Panksepp () and a semi-quantitative assessment by the therapist of the mother’s depressive symptoms and of her personality. No significant effect on depressive symptomatology was found following the administration of oxytocin (as compared to a placebo) during the period of psychotherapy. Nevertheless, a personality trait evaluation of the mothers, conducted in our overall sample group, showed a decrease in the narcissistic trait only within the group who took oxytocin. The depressive (dysphoric) trait was in fact significantly affected by psychotherapy (this effect was only present in the placebo group so it may reflect a positive placebo effect enhancing the favorable influence of psychotherapy on depressive symptoms) but not in the presence of oxytocin. Therefore, the neuropeptide would appear to play some role in the modulation of cerebral functions involved in the self-centered (narcissistic) dimension of the suffering that can occur with postnatal depression. Based on these results, there was support for our hypothesis that what is generally defined as postnatal depression may include disturbances of narcissistic affective balance, and oxytocin supplementation can

  3. Evaluation of Automatically Assigned Job-Specific Interview Modules.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Melissa C; Lan, Qing; Ge, Calvin; Locke, Sarah J; Hosgood, Dean; Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Hu; Xu, Jun; Lam, Tai Hing; Kwong, Yok Lam; Chen, Kexin; Xu, Caigang; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C H; Ip, Kai Ming Dennis; Purdue, Mark P; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nat; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-08-01

    In community-based epidemiological studies, job- and industry-specific 'modules' are often used to systematically obtain details about the subject's work tasks. The module assignment is often made by the interviewer, who may have insufficient occupational hygiene knowledge to assign the correct module. We evaluated, in the context of a case-control study of lymphoid neoplasms in Asia ('AsiaLymph'), the performance of an algorithm that provided automatic, real-time module assignment during a computer-assisted personal interview. AsiaLymph's occupational component began with a lifetime occupational history questionnaire with free-text responses and three solvent exposure screening questions. To assign each job to one of 23 study-specific modules, an algorithm automatically searched the free-text responses to the questions 'job title' and 'product made or services provided by employer' using a list of module-specific keywords, comprising over 5800 keywords in English, Traditional and Simplified Chinese. Hierarchical decision rules were used when the keyword match triggered multiple modules. If no keyword match was identified, a generic solvent module was assigned if the subject responded 'yes' to any of the three solvent screening questions. If these question responses were all 'no', a work location module was assigned, which redirected the subject to the farming, teaching, health professional, solvent, or industry solvent modules or ended the questions for that job, depending on the location response. We conducted a reliability assessment that compared the algorithm-assigned modules to consensus module assignments made by two industrial hygienists for a subset of 1251 (of 11409) jobs selected using a stratified random selection procedure using module-specific strata. Discordant assignments between the algorithm and consensus assignments (483 jobs) were qualitatively reviewed by the hygienists to evaluate the potential information lost from missed questions with using

  4. Evaluation of Automatically Assigned Job-Specific Interview Modules

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Lan, Qing; Ge, Calvin; Locke, Sarah J.; Hosgood, Dean; Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Hu; Xu, Jun; Lam, Tai Hing; Kwong, Yok Lam; Chen, Kexin; Xu, Caigang; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Ip, Kai Ming Dennis; Purdue, Mark P.; Bassig, Bryan A.; Rothman, Nat; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In community-based epidemiological studies, job- and industry-specific ‘modules’ are often used to systematically obtain details about the subject’s work tasks. The module assignment is often made by the interviewer, who may have insufficient occupational hygiene knowledge to assign the correct module. We evaluated, in the context of a case–control study of lymphoid neoplasms in Asia (‘AsiaLymph’), the performance of an algorithm that provided automatic, real-time module assignment during a computer-assisted personal interview. Methods: AsiaLymph’s occupational component began with a lifetime occupational history questionnaire with free-text responses and three solvent exposure screening questions. To assign each job to one of 23 study-specific modules, an algorithm automatically searched the free-text responses to the questions ‘job title’ and ‘product made or services provided by employer’ using a list of module-specific keywords, comprising over 5800 keywords in English, Traditional and Simplified Chinese. Hierarchical decision rules were used when the keyword match triggered multiple modules. If no keyword match was identified, a generic solvent module was assigned if the subject responded ‘yes’ to any of the three solvent screening questions. If these question responses were all ‘no’, a work location module was assigned, which redirected the subject to the farming, teaching, health professional, solvent, or industry solvent modules or ended the questions for that job, depending on the location response. We conducted a reliability assessment that compared the algorithm-assigned modules to consensus module assignments made by two industrial hygienists for a subset of 1251 (of 11409) jobs selected using a stratified random selection procedure using module-specific strata. Discordant assignments between the algorithm and consensus assignments (483 jobs) were qualitatively reviewed by the hygienists to evaluate the potential

  5. 37 CFR 3.56 - Conditional assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional assignments. 3.56... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording § 3.56 Conditional assignments. Assignments which are made conditional on the performance of certain acts or events...

  6. 48 CFR 252.227-7011 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignments. 252.227-7011... Clauses 252.227-7011 Assignments. As prescribed at 227.7010, insert the following clause in assignments. Assignment (AUG 1984) The Contractor hereby conveys to the Government, as represented by the Secretary of...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7010 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignments. 227.7010..., Licenses, and Assignments 227.7010 Assignments. (a) The clause at 252.227-7011 is an example which may be used in contracts of assignment of patent rights to the Government. (b) To facilitate proof of...

  8. 25 CFR 535.2 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignments. 535.2 Section 535.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN... § 535.2 Assignments. Subject to the approval of the Chairman, a management contractor may assign its... contractor shall submit such assignment to the Chairman upon execution. The Chairman shall approve or...

  9. Semantic Gender Assignment Regularities in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, Beate; Schiller, Niels O.

    2004-01-01

    Gender assignment relates to a native speaker's knowledge of the structure of the gender system of his/her language, allowing the speaker to select the appropriate gender for each noun. Whereas categorical assignment rules and exceptional gender assignment are well investigated, assignment regularities, i.e., tendencies in the gender distribution…

  10. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Intensive Care Unit–Acquired Weakness: Protocol and Methodological Implications for a Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Alexander D.; Brower, Roy G.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.; Fan, Eddy; Zanni, Jennifer M.; Ciesla, Nancy D.; Feldman, Dorianne R.; Korupolu, Radha; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Background As the population ages and critical care advances, a growing number of survivors of critical illness will be at risk for intensive care unit (ICU)–acquired weakness. Bed rest, which is common in the ICU, causes adverse effects, including muscle weakness. Consequently, patients need ICU-based interventions focused on the muscular system. Although emerging evidence supports the benefits of early rehabilitation during mechanical ventilation, additional therapies may be beneficial. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), which can provide some muscular activity even very early during critical illness, is a promising modality for patients in the ICU. Objective The objectives of this article are to discuss the implications of bed rest for patients with critical illness, summarize recent studies of early rehabilitation and NMES in the ICU, and describe a protocol for a randomized, phase II pilot study of NMES in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Design The study was a randomized, sham-controlled, concealed, phase II pilot study with caregivers and outcome assessors blinded to the treatment allocation. Setting The study setting will be a medical ICU. Participants The study participants will be patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation for 1 day or more, who are expected to stay in the ICU for an additional 2 days or more, and who meet no exclusion criteria. Intervention The intervention will be NMES (versus a sham [control] intervention) applied to the quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles for 60 minutes per day. Measurements Lower-extremity muscle strength at hospital discharge will be the primary outcome measure. Limitations Muscle strength is a surrogate measure, not a patient-centered outcome. The assessments will not include laboratory, genetic, or histological measures aimed at a mechanistic understanding of NMES. The optimal duration or dose of NMES is unclear. Conclusions If NMES is beneficial, the results of

  11. Dynamic Logic Assigned to Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan; Paseka, Jan

    2017-02-01

    A dynamic logic B can be assigned to every automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] without regard if [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] is deterministic or nondeterministic. This logic enables us to formulate observations on [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] in the form of composed propositions and, due to a transition functor T, it captures the dynamic behaviour of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. There are formulated conditions under which the automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] can be recovered by means of B and T.

  12. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  13. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  14. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  15. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  16. Effects of Problem Order on Accuracy, Preference, and Choice of Multiplication Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Robert L.; Saecker, Lee B.

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 151) completed three in-class mathematics assignments that varied with respect to the order of short, medium, and long multiplication problems, including a short-to-long order, a long-to-short order, and a random order. Problem order within assignments did not significantly affect work accuracy, completion time, or assignment…

  17. Keeping It Short and Sweet: Brief, Ungraded Writing Assignments Facilitate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Weisberg, Robert; Paul, Luci; Bubier, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Can short, ungraded, free-writing assignments promote learning of course material? We randomly assigned introductory psychology recitation sections (N = 978 students) to writing or thinking conditions. For all sections, teaching assistants presented students with a discussion topic based in current coursework. Students either wrote or thought…

  18. 47 CFR 1.9055 - Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing... GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9055 Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications....

  19. 47 CFR 1.9055 - Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing... GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9055 Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications....

  20. 47 CFR 1.9055 - Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing... GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9055 Assignment of file numbers to spectrum leasing notifications and applications....

  1. Reaction Based Grasp Force Assignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    tested with 72 random spatial commanded object wrenches. The MATLAB code used to generate the FLRS solutions is included in Appendix B. 7.1 Grasp...this independence leads to a rela- tively easy implementation of simultaneous computation on parallel processors. The MATLAB and C code developed to...appendix documents the MATLAB script that was used to generate the data presented in this document. This includes the code necessary to generate object

  2. Persuasive Effects of Linguistic Agency Assignments and Point of View in Narrative Health Messages About Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; McGlone, Matthew S; Bell, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    The authors explored the effects of linguistic agency and point of view on narrative force. Participants (N = 499) were randomly assigned to read one version of an article about colon cancer, defined by a 2 (disease agency: cancer, human) × 2 (temporal agency: death, human) × 2 (point of view: first person, third person) between-subjects design. Disease agency language assigned agency to cancer (e.g., "Cancer developed in me") or to humans (e.g., "I developed cancer"). Temporal agency language described death as approaching humans (e.g., "as death closes in on patients) or as being approached by humans (e.g., "as patients close in on death"). The narrative was presented from the first-person singular or third-person plural viewpoint. Participants then completed a questionnaire measuring threat perceptions, efficacy, transportation, and other study variables. Language assigning agency to humans rather than to cancer elevated susceptibility beliefs. Death-approach language led to greater fear than human-approach language without impacting efficacy perceptions. Human-approach language was rated more persuasive than death-approach language, but only in first-person point-of-view narratives. Transportation and identification were positively associated with ratings of threat severity and susceptibility, fear, efficacy, behavioral intentions, and message persuasiveness. Implications for message design are discussed.

  3. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H....

  4. Implication of Posture Analysing Software to Evaluate the Postural Changes after Corrective Exercise Strategy on Subjects with Upper Body Dysfunction-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Senthil, Purushothaman; Sudhakar, S; Porcelvan, S; Francis, T G Tilak; Rathnamala, D; Radhakrishnan, R

    2017-07-01

    The postural adaptation is very common now a days in school going children, office desk oriented job, computer users and frequent mobile users, and in all major industrial workers. Several studies have documented a high incidence of postural abnormalities in a given population; however, methods of postural measurement were poorly defined. The implication of postural pro software to analyse the postural imbalance of upper body dysfunction is very rare and literature studies says that the kinematic changes in particular segment will produce pain/discomfort and thereby lesser productivity of subjects. To evaluate the postural changes in subjects with upper body dysfunction after a corrective exercise strategy using postural analysis software and pectoralis minor muscle length testing. After explaining the procedure and benefits, informed consent was taken from the participating subjects (age 25-55 years). Subjects with upper body dysfunction were randomly allocated into two groups (each group 30 subjects). The Group-A received the corrective exercise strategy and Group-B received the conventional exercise for eight weeks of study duration (15 reps each exercise, total duration of 40 min; four days/week. Pre and Post posture analysis were analysed using posture pro software along with flexibility of pectoralis minor was assessed using ruler scale method. After interpretation of data, both the group showed the postural alteration and pectoralis minor muscle length changes, p-value (p<0.01) of both group showed highly significant changes. But comparing the both groups, the subjects who received the corrective exercise strategy shown more percentage of improvement in posture alteration (56.25%), pectoralis minor muscle length changes (68.69%) than the conventional exercise received subjects in posture alteration (24.86%) and pectoralis minor muscle length changes (21.9%). Altered postural changes and pectoralis minor muscle flexibility before and after the corrective

  5. 28 CFR 548.17 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work assignments. 548.17 Section 548.17... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.17 Work assignments. When the religious tenets of an inmate's faith are violated or jeopardized by a particular work assignment, a...

  6. 28 CFR 548.17 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work assignments. 548.17 Section 548.17... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.17 Work assignments. When the religious tenets of an inmate's faith are violated or jeopardized by a particular work assignment, a...

  7. 28 CFR 548.17 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work assignments. 548.17 Section 548.17... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.17 Work assignments. When the religious tenets of an inmate's faith are violated or jeopardized by a particular work assignment, a...

  8. 28 CFR 548.17 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work assignments. 548.17 Section 548.17... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.17 Work assignments. When the religious tenets of an inmate's faith are violated or jeopardized by a particular work assignment, a...

  9. The Mechanism Design Approach to Student Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Parag A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism design approach to student assignment involves the theoretical, empirical, and experimental study of systems used to allocate students into schools around the world. Recent practical experience designing systems for student assignment has raised new theoretical questions for the theory of matching and assignment. This article reviews…

  10. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H. ...

  11. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.602 Section 74.602... Stations § 74.602 Frequency assignment. (a) The following frequencies are available for assignment to... to GSO FSS operations in the 12.75-13.25 GHz band. (1) Frequencies shown above between 2450 and 2500...

  12. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H. ...

  13. 47 CFR 74.103 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.103 Section 74.103....103 Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies allocated to broadcasting and the various categories of auxiliary stations, in the FCC's Table of Frequency Allocations (Part 2 of this chapter), may be assigned...

  14. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H. ...

  15. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.602 Section 74.602... Stations § 74.602 Frequency assignment. (a) The following frequencies are available for assignment to... to GSO FSS operations in the 12.75-13.25 GHz band. (1) Frequencies shown above between 2450 and 2500...

  16. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating within...

  17. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating within...

  18. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating within...

  19. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating within...

  20. 47 CFR 74.103 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.103 Section 74.103....103 Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies allocated to broadcasting and the various categories of auxiliary stations, in the FCC's Table of Frequency Allocations (Part 2 of this chapter), may be assigned...

  1. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.770 Section... § 221.770 Assignment option. A mortgagee holding a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before... securing it, directly to the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA). Upon such assignment...

  2. 33 CFR 20.201 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment. 20.201 Section 20.201 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE... § 20.201 Assignment. An ALJ, assigned by the Chief ALJ after receipt of the complaint, shall preside...

  3. 48 CFR 208.7002 - Assignment authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment authority. 208... 208.7002 Assignment authority. (a) Under the DoD Coordinated Acquisition Program, contracting... Administration (GSA). Commodity assignments are made— (1) To the departments and agencies, by the Deputy Under...

  4. 5 CFR 870.901 - Assignments permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments permitted. 870.901 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Assignments of Life Insurance § 870.901 Assignments permitted. (a) (1) Section 208 of the Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984, Pub...

  5. 42 CFR 414.918 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment. 414.918 Section 414.918 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... B § 414.918 Assignment. Payment for a CAP drug may be made only on an assignment-related basis. ...

  6. 25 CFR 215.20 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment. 215.20 Section 215.20 Indians BUREAU OF..., QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.20 Assignment. Leases granted or approved under the regulations in this part may be... Secretary of the Interior and subject to his approval as to the terms and conditions of such assignments...

  7. 36 CFR 228.52 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignments. 228.52 Section... of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.52 Assignments. (a) Limitations. A purchaser or... proposed assignment involving contract or permit performance unless the assignee: (1) Submits information...

  8. 7 CFR 701.42 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 701.42 Section 701.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.42 Assignments. Participants may assign ECP cost-share assistance payments...

  9. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Allocations. (b) The frequency band 944-952 MHz is available for assignment to aural STL and ICR stations. One...

  10. 31 CFR 337.5 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignments. 337.5 Section 337.5... ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.5 Assignments. (a) If the registered payee, or an assignee holding a certificated debenture under proper assignment from the registered payee, desires that...

  11. 25 CFR 214.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignments. 214.18 Section 214.18 Indians BUREAU OF..., OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.18 Assignments. Approved leases or any interest therein may... otherwise. Transfers or assignments, when so approved, shall be subject to the terms and conditions of the...

  12. 7 CFR 1488.17 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment. 1488.17 Section 1488.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.17 Assignment. The exporter shall not assign any claim or rights or any amounts...

  13. 32 CFR 1656.6 - Overseas assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overseas assignments. 1656.6 Section 1656.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.6 Overseas assignments. Alternative Service job assignments outside the United States, its...

  14. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07... channels are stacked in those sections stacking is permitted, channel assignments may be made for the...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.218 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 1430.218 Section 1430.218 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Assignments. Any producer may assign a payment to be made under this part in accordance with part 1404 of this...

  16. 7 CFR 1401.6 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Agriculture... PAYMENT § 1401.6 Assignments. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a payment made under this part may not be the subject of an assignment, except as determined and announced by CCC. ...

  17. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How does... assignment of additional caseload are determined in the following manner: (i) A State agency entering its...

  18. 28 CFR 548.17 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work assignments. 548.17 Section 548.17... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.17 Work assignments. When the religious tenets of an inmate's faith are violated or jeopardized by a particular work assignment, a...

  19. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.255 Section... Assignment option. (a) A mortgagee holding a mortgage insured pursuant to a conditional or firm commitment..., directly to the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA). Upon such assignment, transfer and...

  20. 44 CFR 295.14 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignments. 295.14 Section 295.14 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND....14 Assignments. Assignment of claims and the right to receive compensation for claims under the CGFAA...

  1. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  2. 12 CFR 563e.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned ratings. 563e.28 Section 563e.28 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.28 Assigned ratings. (a) Ratings in general. Subject to paragraphs (b) and(c) of this section, the OTS assigns to a savings association a rating of “outstanding...

  3. 12 CFR 228.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned ratings. 228.28 Section 228.28 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.28 Assigned ratings. (a) Ratings in general. Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the Board assigns to a bank a...

  4. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  5. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  6. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  7. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When determining losses under this section, assigned production will be used to offset the loss of production...

  9. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.602 Section 74.602... Stations § 74.602 Frequency assignment. (a) The following frequencies are available for assignment to... to GSO FSS operations in the 12.75-13.25 GHz band. (1) Frequencies shown above between 2450 and...

  10. Assigning Homework to Couples and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilio, Frank M.; Dickson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Homework assignments, or "out-of-session assignments," have gained popularity among couple and family therapists due to their potential to solidify the work achieved during the course of therapy and to help clients take responsibility for their own change. Homework assignments also serve as a testing ground in therapy to determine what works and…

  11. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  12. 5 CFR 351.705 - Administrative assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative assignment. 351.705 Section 351.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Assignment Rights (Bump and Retreat) § 351.705 Administrative assignment. (a) An...

  13. The Mechanism Design Approach to Student Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Parag A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism design approach to student assignment involves the theoretical, empirical, and experimental study of systems used to allocate students into schools around the world. Recent practical experience designing systems for student assignment has raised new theoretical questions for the theory of matching and assignment. This article reviews…

  14. Integrated assignment and path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  15. Assignment of job modules onto array processors

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunaga, K.; Yamada, S.; Kasai, T.

    1987-07-01

    This paper deals with the optimum assignment of job modules onto array processors. In array processors it is important to assign job modules onto processors such that the modules that communicate with each other are assigned to adjacent processors, because communication overhead increases as communications occur between processors that are remotely connected. The authors propose an efficient algorithm to solve this assignment problem for a specific array of processors. The algorithm reduces the quadratic problem to a solvable linear problem that produces a good, but not necessarily optimal solution. This is followed by a phase of iterations in which the solution is improved by small perturbation of the assignment.

  16. Evolutionary dynamics on random structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, S.M.; Reidys, C.M. |

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors consider the evolutionary dynamics of populations of sequences, under a process of selection at the phenotypic level of structures. They use a simple graph-theoretic representation of structures which captures well the properties of the mapping between RNA sequences and their molecular structure. Each sequence is assigned to a structure by means of a sequence-to-structure mapping. The authors make the basic assumption that every fitness landscape can be factorized through the structures. The set of all sequences that map into a particular random structure can then be modeled as a random graph in sequence space, the so-called neutral network. They analyze in detail how an evolving population searches for new structures, in particular how they switch from one neutral network to another. They verify that transitions occur directly between neutral networks, and study the effects of different population sizes and the influence of the relatedness of the structures on these transitions. In fitness landscapes where several structures exhibit high fitness, the authors then study evolutionary paths on the structural level taken by the population during its search. They present a new way of expressing structural similarities which are shown to have relevant implications for the time evolution of the population.

  17. An Investigation of the Partial-Assignment Completion Effect on Students' Assignment Choice Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Conley, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the partial assignment completion effect. Seventh-grade students were given a math assignment. After working for 5 min, they were interrupted and their partially completed assignments were collected. About 20 min later, students were given their partially completed assignment and a new, control assignment…

  18. An Investigation of the Partial-Assignment Completion Effect on Students' Assignment Choice Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Conley, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the partial assignment completion effect. Seventh-grade students were given a math assignment. After working for 5 min, they were interrupted and their partially completed assignments were collected. About 20 min later, students were given their partially completed assignment and a new, control assignment…

  19. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  20. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  1. Implication of Posture Analysing Software to Evaluate the Postural Changes after Corrective Exercise Strategy on Subjects with Upper Body Dysfunction-A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar, S; Porcelvan, S; Francis, T.G. Tilak; Rathnamala, D; Radhakrishnan, R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The postural adaptation is very common now a days in school going children, office desk oriented job, computer users and frequent mobile users, and in all major industrial workers. Several studies have documented a high incidence of postural abnormalities in a given population; however, methods of postural measurement were poorly defined. The implication of postural pro software to analyse the postural imbalance of upper body dysfunction is very rare and literature studies says that the kinematic changes in particular segment will produce pain/discomfort and thereby lesser productivity of subjects. Aim To evaluate the postural changes in subjects with upper body dysfunction after a corrective exercise strategy using postural analysis software and pectoralis minor muscle length testing. Materials and Methods After explaining the procedure and benefits, informed consent was taken from the participating subjects (age 25-55 years). Subjects with upper body dysfunction were randomly allocated into two groups (each group 30 subjects). The Group–A received the corrective exercise strategy and Group-B received the conventional exercise for eight weeks of study duration (15 reps each exercise, total duration of 40 min; four days/week. Pre and Post posture analysis were analysed using posture pro software along with flexibility of pectoralis minor was assessed using ruler scale method. Results After interpretation of data, both the group showed the postural alteration and pectoralis minor muscle length changes, p-value (p<0.01) of both group showed highly significant changes. But comparing the both groups, the subjects who received the corrective exercise strategy shown more percentage of improvement in posture alteration (56.25%), pectoralis minor muscle length changes (68.69%) than the conventional exercise received subjects in posture alteration (24.86%) and pectoralis minor muscle length changes (21.9%). Conclusion Altered postural changes and pectoralis

  2. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  3. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel 16...

  4. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.1202 Section 74.1202... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM broadcast... stations. The application must be specific with regard to the frequency requested. Only one output channel...

  5. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this section...

  6. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel 16...

  7. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel 16...

  8. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users of...

  9. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this section...

  10. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this section...

  11. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.1202 Section 74.1202... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM broadcast... stations. The application must be specific with regard to the frequency requested. Only one output channel...

  12. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this section...

  13. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users of...

  14. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.1202 Section 74.1202... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM broadcast... stations. The application must be specific with regard to the frequency requested. Only one output channel...

  15. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel 16...

  16. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users of...

  17. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel 16...

  18. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users of...

  19. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.1202 Section 74.1202... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM broadcast... stations. The application must be specific with regard to the frequency requested. Only one output channel...

  20. 47 CFR 73.6006 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignments. 73.6006 Section 73.6006... Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6006 Channel assignments. Class A TV stations will not be authorized on UHF TV channels 52 through 69, or on channels unavailable for TV broadcast station use...

  1. 47 CFR 73.6006 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel assignments. 73.6006 Section 73.6006... Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6006 Channel assignments. Class A TV stations will not be authorized on UHF TV channels 52 through 69, or on channels unavailable for TV broadcast station use...

  2. 47 CFR 80.511 - Assignment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment limitations. 80.511 Section 80.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.511 Assignment limitations. (a...

  3. 47 CFR 74.103 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.103 Section 74.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO....103 Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies allocated to broadcasting and the various categories of...

  4. 10 CFR 725.26 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment. 725.26 Section 725.26 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Permits § 725.26 Assignment. An access permit is nontransferable and nonassignable. ...

  5. 38 CFR 9.6 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignments. 9.6 Section 9.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SERVICEMEMBERS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.6 Assignments. Servicemembers' Group Life...

  6. 7 CFR 633.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 633.16 Section 633.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.16 Assignments. Any person entitled to any cash...

  7. 20 CFR 61.404 - Assignments; creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignments; creditors. 61.404 Section 61.404 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY... COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous Provisions § 61.404 Assignments...

  8. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  9. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment...

  10. 7 CFR 1467.17 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 1467.17 Section 1467.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.17 Assignments. Any person...

  11. 7 CFR 1410.58 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 1410.58 Section 1410.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.58 Assignments...

  12. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a) Any...

  13. 7 CFR 625.17 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 625.17 Section 625.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.17 Assignments. Any person entitled to any...

  14. 7 CFR 784.15 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 784.15 Section 784.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.15 Assignments. Any person...

  15. 7 CFR 623.19 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 623.19 Section 623.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.19 Assignments. Any participant entitled...

  16. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a) Any...

  17. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a) Any...

  18. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a) Any...

  19. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a) Any...

  20. 7 CFR 1467.17 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignments. 1467.17 Section 1467.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.17 Assignments. Any...

  1. 7 CFR 623.19 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignments. 623.19 Section 623.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.19 Assignments. Any participant...

  2. Optimization of Rated Officer Staff Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    determinant +1, -1 or 0, which holds for the assignment problem ( Bazaraa et al., 1990). The Unimodularity Theorem states for an integer matrix A with...Prentice-Hall, 1993. 2. Air Force Instruction 36-2110, Assignments, 20 April 2005. 3. Bazaraa , Mokhtar S., Jarvis, John J. and Sherali, Hanif D

  3. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  4. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  5. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  6. 31 CFR 337.5 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... individual assigning on behalf of an owner will be required in accordance with part 306 of this chapter. (b... protection afforded by registration. (c) Debentures submitted for conversion to book-entry form should be assigned to “The Federal Housing Commissioner for conversion to book-entry debentures for the account of...

  7. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station...

  8. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station...

  9. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station...

  10. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station...

  11. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station...

  12. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  13. 36 CFR 228.52 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assignments. 228.52 Section 228.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.52 Assignments. (a) Limitations. A purchaser...

  14. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  15. 7 CFR 625.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignments. 625.18 Section 625.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.18 Assignments. Any person entitled to any...

  16. 7 CFR 625.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignments. 625.18 Section 625.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.18 Assignments. Any person entitled to any...

  17. 7 CFR 625.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignments. 625.18 Section 625.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.18 Assignments. Any person entitled to any...

  18. 7 CFR 625.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignments. 625.18 Section 625.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.18 Assignments. Any person entitled to any...

  19. Maximizing Completion and Comprehension of Reading Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Leanne R.

    The author presents self-report data from students in three upper-level undergraduate courses to illustrate the comparative effectiveness of different out-of-class assessment approaches in promoting completion and comprehension of reading assignments. Students reported agreeing or strongly agreeing that all three assignments motivated them to…

  20. 32 CFR 884.2 - Assigned responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned responsibilities. 884.2 Section 884.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.2 Assigned responsibilities. (a...

  1. 32 CFR 884.2 - Assigned responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assigned responsibilities. 884.2 Section 884.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.2 Assigned responsibilities. (a...

  2. 32 CFR 1656.6 - Overseas assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.6 Overseas assignments. Alternative Service job assignments outside the United States, its... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (b) The job meets the criteria listed in § 1656.5(a); (c) The ASW and the...

  3. 32 CFR 1656.6 - Overseas assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.6 Overseas assignments. Alternative Service job assignments outside the United States, its... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (b) The job meets the criteria listed in § 1656.5(a); (c) The ASW and the...

  4. Online Discussion Assignments Improve Students' Class Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineweaver, Tara T.

    2010-01-01

    To increase the number of students who read the text before class and to promote student interaction centering on text material, I developed an online discussion assignment as a required component of a cognitive psychology course. Across 2 studies, this assignment had a limited effect on examination performance, but students completing online…

  5. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  6. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  7. 25 CFR 214.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assignments. 214.18 Section 214.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.18 Assignments. Approved leases or any interest therein may...

  8. 25 CFR 214.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assignments. 214.18 Section 214.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.18 Assignments. Approved leases or any interest therein may...

  9. 25 CFR 214.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assignments. 214.18 Section 214.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.18 Assignments. Approved leases or any interest therein may...

  10. 25 CFR 214.18 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assignments. 214.18 Section 214.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.18 Assignments. Approved leases or any interest therein may...

  11. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  12. Discriminant Kernel Assignment for Image Coding.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yue; Zhao, Yanyu; Ren, Zhiquan; Kong, Youyong; Bao, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes discriminant kernel assignment (DKA) in the bag-of-features framework for image representation. DKA slightly modifies existing kernel assignment to learn width-variant Gaussian kernel functions to perform discriminant local feature assignment. When directly applying gradient-descent method to solve DKA, the optimization may contain multiple time-consuming reassignment implementations in iterations. Accordingly, we introduce a more practical way to locally linearize the DKA objective and the difficult task is cast as a sequence of easier ones. Since DKA only focuses on the feature assignment part, it seamlessly collaborates with other discriminative learning approaches, e.g., discriminant dictionary learning or multiple kernel learning, for even better performances. Experimental evaluations on multiple benchmark datasets verify that DKA outperforms other image assignment approaches and exhibits significant efficiency in feature coding.

  13. Real life working shift assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, San-Nah; Kwek, Yeek-Ling; Tiong, Wei-King; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2017-07-01

    This study concerns about the working shift assignment in an outlet of Supermarket X in Eastern Mall, Kuching. The working shift assignment needs to be solved at least once in every month. Current approval process of working shifts is too troublesome and time-consuming. Furthermore, the management staff cannot have an overview of manpower and working shift schedule. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop working shift assignment simulation and propose a working shift assignment solution. The main objective for this study is to fulfill manpower demand at minimum operation cost. Besides, the day off and meal break policy should be fulfilled accordingly. Demand based heuristic is proposed to assign working shift and the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the real data.

  14. Reliability of assigning correct current procedural terminology-4 E/M codes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Patricia N; Wilson, Andrew G; Derwin, Mary Elizabeth; Scodellaro, Robbie; Jackson, Raymond E

    2002-09-01

    We determine the degree of interagency and intra-agency agreement on Current Procedural Terminology-4 (CPT-4) coding levels for emergency department medical records. We hypothesized that the level of agreement among coding agencies would be poor, but the distribution of codes would be similar and not significantly different. We performed a prospective observational study consisting of 3 separate randomized, blinded trials: 2 interagency comparisons and 1 intra-agency comparison. The setting was 2 suburban academic EDs. In the 2 interagency audits, 4 coding agencies were used. In the intra-agency comparison, we used 5 individual coders from within our own internal agency. The main outcome measures were the level of agreement not due to chance estimated with the multiple-rater weighted kappa statistic and the Kendall tau-b. We measured the distribution of codes by agency or by individual coders with the chi(2) test. Our sample for the 2 interagency audits consisted of 194 and 195 records, respectively. We observed poor agreement in the level of coding assigned to individual charts among the 4 coding agencies, with kappa values of 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.275 to 0.285) and 0.287 (95% CI 0.283 to 0.291). Our intra-agency comparison consisted of 100 records. The agreement in the intra-agency review was significantly better but still fair (kappa=0.436; 95% CI 0.428 to 0.444). The distribution of CPT-4 codes was significantly different for all 3 comparisons (P <.001). For our patient population, group of physicians, and methods of documentation, we identified poor-to-fair agreement in coding of emergency charts between coding agencies. Only fair agreement was measured in the intra-agency sample. The distribution of assigned CPT-4 codes was significantly different in each comparison. These findings have important financial and legal implications regarding the reliability of coding methods.

  15. Automated Assignment of Proposals to Reviewers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil; Kantak, Anil

    2006-01-01

    A computer program automates the process of selecting unbiased peer reviewers of research proposals submitted to NASA. Heretofore, such selection has been performed by manual searching of two large databases subject to a set of assignment rules. One database lists proposals and proposers; the other database lists potential reviewers. The manual search takes an average of several weeks per proposal. In contrast, the present software can perform the selection in seconds. The program begins by selecting one entry from each database, then applying the assignment rules to this pair of entries. If and only if all the assignment rules are satisfied, the chosen reviewer is assigned to the chosen proposal. The assignment rules enforced by the program are (1) a maximum allowable number of proposals assigned to a single reviewer; (2) a maximum allowable number of reviewers assigned to a single proposal; (3) if the proposing team includes a member affiliated with an industry, then the reviewer must not be affiliated with any industry; and (4) the reviewer must not be a member of the proposing team or affiliated with the same institution as that of a member of the proposing team.

  16. Optimal processor assignment for pipeline computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Simha, Rahul; Choudhury, Alok N.; Narahari, Bhagirath

    1991-01-01

    The availability of large scale multitasked parallel architectures introduces the following processor assignment problem for pipelined computations. Given a set of tasks and their precedence constraints, along with their experimentally determined individual responses times for different processor sizes, find an assignment of processor to tasks. Two objectives are of interest: minimal response given a throughput requirement, and maximal throughput given a response time requirement. These assignment problems differ considerably from the classical mapping problem in which several tasks share a processor; instead, it is assumed that a large number of processors are to be assigned to a relatively small number of tasks. Efficient assignment algorithms were developed for different classes of task structures. For a p processor system and a series parallel precedence graph with n constituent tasks, an O(np2) algorithm is provided that finds the optimal assignment for the response time optimization problem; it was found that the assignment optimizing the constrained throughput in O(np2log p) time. Special cases of linear, independent, and tree graphs are also considered.

  17. Comparing Looping Teacher-Assigned and Traditional Teacher-Assigned Student Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    A problem in many elementary schools is determining which teacher assignment strategy best promotes the academic progress of students. To find and implement educational practices that address the academic needs of all learners, schools need research-based data focusing on the 2 teacher assignment strategies: looping assignment (LA) and traditional…

  18. Eigenstructure assignment approach for structural damage detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, David C.; Kaouk, Mohamed

    1992-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for incorporating measured modal data into an existing refined finite element model is examined with the objective of detecting and locating structural damage. The algorithm is based on the partial inverse problem, in that only partial spectral information is required. The technique utilizes a symmetric eigenstructure assignment algorithm to perform the partial spectral assignment. Algorithms to enhance mode shape assignability and to preserve sparsity in the damaged FEM are developed. The sparsity preservation is of particular importance when considering damage detection in trusslike structures. Several examples are presented to highlight the key points made within the paper.

  19. 31 CFR 306.40 - Execution of assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Execution of assignments. 306.40.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.40 Execution of assignments. The assignment of... the presence of an individual authorized to certify assignments. All assignments must be made on the...

  20. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM...

  1. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... November 30, 1983 (or, in the Direct Endorsement program, a property appraisal report signed by the mortgagee's approved underwriter on or before November 30, 1983) has the option to assign, transfer and...

  2. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  3. 12 CFR 25.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Discrimination against applicants on a prohibited basis in violation, for example, of the Equal Credit...) of this section on the bank's assigned rating, the OCC considers the nature, extent, and strength...

  4. 12 CFR 345.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable law, rule, or regulation includes, but is not limited to: (i) Discrimination against applicants on... section on the bank's assigned rating, the FDIC considers the nature, extent, and strength of the...

  5. Homework assignments in couple and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Dattilio, Frank M

    2002-05-01

    Homework has been cited as an integral part of a number of theoretical orientations and therapy formats; unfortunately, very little has been written about its use with couples and families. This is despite the fact that many couple and family therapists espouse the use of homework or out-of-session assignments in order to help the effects of therapy jell. This article reviews some of the empirical literature on homework assignments and their effectiveness in the domain of therapy for families and couples. It also highlights the effectiveness of and the need for out-of-session assignments in treatment. A case illustration is used to demonstrate how homework assignments may be used as a significant change agent in couple and family treatment.

  6. Perceived Drug Assignment and Treatment Outcome in Smokers Given Nicotine Patch Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Steffani R.; Fong, Dalea M.; Bryson, Susan W.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Killen, Joel D.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between treatment outcome and perceived drug assignment in smokers (nicotine patch (NP) or placebo) using abstinence and relapse status. Smokers (N = 424) were randomly assigned to receive either NP or placebo as part of a study that examined the effects of combining NP with self-help programs. Beliefs about drug assignment, assessed at the 12-month follow-up, were obtained from 384 participants. Beliefs were related to abstinence at the 2-month, p < .05, and 6-month follow-ups, p < .05, for the NP group, but not the placebo. Beliefs were not related to abstinence at 12 months for either group. Survival analysis assessing relapse revealed that beliefs were related to relapse status, regardless of actual group assignment. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between perceived drug assignment and treatment outcome. Future studies using multiple treatment outcome measures and assessments of beliefs over time are warranted. PMID:20598833

  7. Performance evaluation of distributed wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Tomohiro; Wang, Xi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2004-04-01

    In WDM wavelength routed networks, prior to a data transfer, a call setup procedure is required to reserve a wavelength path between the source-destination node pairs. A distributed approach to a connection setup can achieve a very high speed, while improving the reliability and reducing the implementation cost of the networks. However, along with many advantages, several major challenges have been posed by the distributed scheme in how the management and allocation of wavelength could be efficiently carried out. In this thesis, we apply a distributed wavelength assignment algorithm named priority based wavelength assignment (PWA) that was originally proposed for the use in burst switched optical networks to the problem of reserving wavelengths of path reservation protocols in the distributed control optical networks. Instead of assigning wavelengths randomly, this approach lets each node select the "safest" wavelengths based on the information of wavelength utilization history, thus unnecessary future contention is prevented. The simulation results presented in this paper show that the proposed protocol can enhance the performance of the system without introducing any apparent drawbacks.

  8. Assignment of points to three-dimensional trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Sorsby, C.R.

    1988-10-01

    The subject of this thesis is the assignment of 3-D points to trajectories in the context of computer vision and image understanding. Successive frames of points, 3-D range-images, are assigned to trajectories according to smoothness of motion criteria. No assumptions are made about rigidity of objects. The 3-D range images used may originate from any range finder such as stereo vision, a time-of-flight range finder, etc. These range images are assumed to be arriving in a variety of applications such as autonomous vehicle navigation or intrusion detection in addition to its application in scene analysis. Greedy exchange algorithms are examined and versions that accept continuously arriving sets of points are implemented in the C programming language. The algorithm implementations are embedded in a software test-frame which simulates the continuous arrival of 3-D range-images. The simulated range images are generated in such a way as to assign points to trajectories at random. Then the algorithms are used to reassign the points to the correct trajectories, thus testing the efficacy of the algorithms. A parallel implementation is attempted on a 12 processor Encore computer and some possibilities for a processor array implementation, such as a systolic array or a wavefront array processor, are described. 17 refs., 20 figs.

  9. Three-dimensional scanning near field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging of random arrays of copper nanoparticles: implications for plasmonic solar cell enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ezugwu, Sabastine; Ye, Hanyang; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2015-01-07

    In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz ≥ 220 nm from the surface for random arrays of Cu-NPs of ∼ 60-100 nm in diameter. These heights are too large to use Cu-NPs in contact of the active layer for light harvesting in thin organic solar cells, which are typically no thicker than 200 nm. Using a 200 nm transparent spacer between the system of Cu-NPs and the solar cell active layer, we demonstrate that forward-scattered light can be conveyed in 200 nm thin film solar cells. This architecture increases the solar cell photoconversion efficiency by a factor of 3. Our 3D-SNOM technique is general enough to be suitable for a large number of other applications in nanoplasmonics.

  10. Physician in Triage Versus Rotational Patient Assignment.

    PubMed

    Traub, Stephen J; Bartley, Adam C; Smith, Vernon D; Didehban, Roshanak; Lipinski, Christopher A; Saghafian, Soroush

    2016-05-01

    Physician in triage and rotational patient assignment are different front-end processes that are designed to improve patient flow, but there are little or no data comparing them. To compare physician in triage with rotational patient assignment with respect to multiple emergency department (ED) operational metrics. Design-Retrospective cohort review. Patients-Patients seen on 23 days on which we utilized a physician in triage with those patients seen on 23 matched days when we utilized rotational patient assignment. There were 1,869 visits during physician in triage and 1,906 visits during rotational patient assignment. In a simple comparison, rotational patient assignment was associated with a lower median length of stay (LOS) than physician in triage (219 min vs. 233 min; difference of 14 min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5-27 min). In a multivariate linear regression incorporating multiple confounders, there was a nonsignificant reduction in the geometric mean LOS in rotational patient assignment vs. physician in triage (204 min vs. 217 min; reduction of 6.25%; 95% CI -3.6% to 15.2%). There were no significant differences between groups for left before being seen, left subsequent to being seen, early (within 72 h) returns, early returns with admission, or complaint ratio. In a single-site study, there were no statistically significant differences in important ED operational metrics between a physician in triage model and a rotational patient assignment model after adjusting for confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. What's What: The (Nearly) Definitive Guide to Reaction Role Assignment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nadine; Stiefl, Nikolaus; Landrum, Gregory A

    2016-12-27

    When analyzing chemical reactions it is essential to know which molecules are actively involved in the reaction and which educts will form the product molecules. Assigning reaction roles, like reactant, reagent, or product, to the molecules of a chemical reaction might be a trivial problem for hand-curated reaction schemes but it is more difficult to automate, an essential step when handling large amounts of reaction data. Here, we describe a new fingerprint-based and data-driven approach to assign reaction roles which is also applicable to rather unbalanced and noisy reaction schemes. Given a set of molecules involved and knowing the product(s) of a reaction we assign the most probable reactants and sort out the remaining reagents. Our approach was validated using two different data sets: one hand-curated data set comprising about 680 diverse reactions extracted from patents which span more than 200 different reaction types and include up to 18 different reactants. A second set consists of 50 000 randomly picked reactions from US patents. The results of the second data set were compared to results obtained using two different atom-to-atom mapping algorithms. For both data sets our method assigns the reaction roles correctly for the vast majority of the reactions, achieving an accuracy of 88% and 97% respectively. The median time needed, about 8 ms, indicates that the algorithm is fast enough to be applied to large collections. The new method is available as part of the RDKit toolkit and the data sets and Jupyter notebooks used for evaluation of the new method are available in the Supporting Information of this publication.

  12. On eigensystem assignment with dissipativity constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep

    1993-01-01

    Stability of the closed-loop system is of vital importance when controller synthesis is being performed using a reduced order model of the open-loop plant. For passive systems such as flexible space structures, closed-loop stability is often ensured by low-authority dissipative controllers using collocated and compatible sensors and actuators. This paper considers the problem of eigensystem assignment for flexible structures using constant-gain output feedback, under the dissipativity constraints requiring that the gain matrices be nonnegative definite. A novel method is developed in which a sequential procedure is used to assign one complex-conjugate pair of closed-loop eigenvalues in each step. At each step, an iterative technique is employed for generating a nonnegative definite gain matrix that assigns a new pair while keeping the previously assigned pairs unchanged. This method can assign up to m closed-loop system eigenvalues, where m is the number of control inputs. A numerical example of damping enhancement for a large flexible structure is presented to demonstrate the approach.

  13. Unifying Temporal and Structural Credit Assignment Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2004-01-01

    Single-agent reinforcement learners in time-extended domains and multi-agent systems share a common dilemma known as the credit assignment problem. Multi-agent systems have the structural credit assignment problem of determining the contributions of a particular agent to a common task. Instead, time-extended single-agent systems have the temporal credit assignment problem of determining the contribution of a particular action to the quality of the full sequence of actions. Traditionally these two problems are considered different and are handled in separate ways. In this article we show how these two forms of the credit assignment problem are equivalent. In this unified frame-work, a single-agent Markov decision process can be broken down into a single-time-step multi-agent process. Furthermore we show that Monte-Carlo estimation or Q-learning (depending on whether the values of resulting actions in the episode are known at the time of learning) are equivalent to different agent utility functions in a multi-agent system. This equivalence shows how an often neglected issue in multi-agent systems is equivalent to a well-known deficiency in multi-time-step learning and lays the basis for solving time-extended multi-agent problems, where both credit assignment problems are present.

  14. Stereospecific assignment of the asparagine and glutamine sidechain amide protons in proteins from chemical shift analysis.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Tobias; Schneider, Philipp; Kieninger, Bärbel; Donaubauer, Harald; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2017-02-01

    Side chain amide protons of asparagine and glutamine residues in random-coil peptides are characterized by large chemical shift differences and can be stereospecifically assigned on the basis of their chemical shift values only. The bimodal chemical shift distributions stored in the biological magnetic resonance data bank (BMRB) do not allow such an assignment. However, an analysis of the BMRB shows, that a substantial part of all stored stereospecific assignments is not correct. We show here that in most cases stereospecific assignment can also be done for folded proteins using an unbiased artificial chemical shift data base (UACSB). For a separation of the chemical shifts of the two amide resonance lines with differences ≥0.40 ppm for asparagine and differences ≥0.42 ppm for glutamine, the downfield shifted resonance lines can be assigned to H(δ21) and H(ε21), respectively, at a confidence level >95%. A classifier derived from UASCB can also be used to correct the BMRB data. The program tool AssignmentChecker implemented in AUREMOL calculates the Bayesian probability for a given stereospecific assignment and automatically corrects the assignments for a given list of chemical shifts.

  15. Three-dimensional scanning near field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging of random arrays of copper nanoparticles: implications for plasmonic solar cell enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezugwu, Sabastine; Ye, Hanyang; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz >= 220 nm from the surface for random arrays of Cu-NPs of ~60-100 nm in diameter. These heights are too large to use Cu-NPs in contact of the active layer for light harvesting in thin organic solar cells, which are typically no thicker than 200 nm. Using a 200 nm transparent spacer between the system of Cu-NPs and the solar cell active layer, we demonstrate that forward-scattered light can be conveyed in 200 nm thin film solar cells. This architecture increases the solar cell photoconversion efficiency by a factor of 3. Our 3D-SNOM technique is general enough to be suitable for a large number of other applications in nanoplasmonics.In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz >= 220

  16. Grouping puts figure-ground assignment in context by constraining propagation of edge-assignment

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Joseph L.; Driver, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Figure-ground organization involves assignment of edges to a figural shape on one or the other side of each dividing edge. Established visual cues for edge-assignment primarily concern relatively local rather than contextual factors. Here we show that assignment for a locally-unbiased edge can be affected by assignment of a remote contextual edge that has its own locally-biased assignment. We find that such propagation of edge-assignment from the biased remote context occurs only when the biased and unbiased edges are grouped. This new principle, whereby grouping constrains propagation of figural edge-assignment, emerges from both subjective reports and from an objective short-term edge-matching task. It generalizes from moving displays involving grouping by common fate and collinearity, to static displays with grouping by similarity of edge-contrast polarity, or apparent occlusion. Our results identify a new contextual influence upon edge-assignment. They also identify a new mechanistic relation between grouping and figure-ground processes, whereby grouping between remote elements can constrain propagation of edge-assignment between those elements. PMID:20436200

  17. Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Beneficiary Assignment Update.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Thomas; MacKinney, A Clinton; Mueller, Keith J; Ullrich, Fred; Zhu, Xi

    2016-06-01

    This brief updates Brief No. 2014-3 and explains changes in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Accountable Care Organization (ACO) regulations issued in June 2015 pertaining to beneficiary assignment for Medicare Shared Savings Program ACOs. Overall, the regulatory changes are intended to (1) encourage ACOs to participate in two-sided risk contracts, (2) increase the likelihood that beneficiaries are assigned to the physician (and ACO) from whom they receive most of their primary care services, and (3) make it easier for Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) to participate in ACOs. Understanding ACO beneficiary assignment policies is critical for ACO in managing their panel of ACO providers and beneficiaries.

  18. Reasoning about Assignments in Recursive Data Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalet, Alejandro; Madlener, Ken

    This paper presents a framework to reason about the effects of assignments in recursive data structures. We define an operational semantics for a core language based on Meyer's ideas for a semantics for the object-oriented language Eiffel. A series of field accesses, e.g. f1 • f2 • ··· • fn , can be seen as a path on the heap. We provide rules that describe how these multidot expressions are affected by an assignment. Using multidot expressions to construct an abstraction of a list, we show the correctness of a list reversal algorithm. This approach does not require induction and the reasoning about the assignments is encapsulated in the mentioned rules. We also discuss how to use this approach when working with other data structures and how it compares to the inductive approach. The framework, rules and examples have been formalised and proven correct using the PVS proof assistant.

  19. The airport gate assignment problem: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bouras, Abdelghani; Ghaleb, Mageed A; Suryahatmaja, Umar S; Salem, Ahmed M

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area.

  20. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  1. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  2. Manganese Oxidation State Assignment for Manganese Catalase.

    PubMed

    Beal, Nathan J; O'Malley, Patrick J

    2016-04-06

    The oxidation state assignment of the manganese ions present in the superoxidized manganese (III/IV) catalase active site is determined by comparing experimental and broken symmetry density functional theory calculated (14)N, (17)O, and (1)H hyperfine couplings. Experimental results have been interpreted to indicate that the substrate water is coordinated to the Mn(III) ion. However, by calculating hyperfine couplings for both scenarios we show that water is coordinated to the Mn(IV) ion and that the assigned oxidation states of the two manganese ions present in the site are the opposite of that previously proposed based on experimental measurements alone.

  3. Power Calculations for Moderators in Multi-Site Cluster Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Kelcey, Ben; Dong, Nianbo

    2016-01-01

    Cluster randomized trials (CRTs), or studies in which intact groups of individuals are randomly assigned to a condition, are becoming more common in evaluation studies of educational programs. A specific type of CRT in which clusters are randomly assigned to treatment within blocks or sites, known as multisite cluster randomized trials (MSCRTs),…

  4. 31 CFR 306.43 - Voidance of assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voidance of assignments. 306.43.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.43 Voidance of assignments. An assignment of a... authorized to certify assignments of securities. Unless otherwise authorized by the Bureau, the disclaimer...

  5. Nonparametric statistical tests for single-case systematic and randomized ABAB…AB and alternating treatment intervention designs: new developments, new directions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Joel R; Ferron, John M; Kratochwill, Thomas R

    2012-10-01

    In this four-investigation Monte Carlo simulation study, we examined the properties of nonparametric randomization and permutation statistical tests applied to single-case ABAB…AB and alternating treatment designs based on either systematically alternating or randomly determined phase assignments. Contrary to previous admonitions, when appropriately conceptualized nonparametric tests were conducted the systematic designs maintained Type I error rates at or less than their nominal values whenever either no or positive autocorrelation was present in the series. Statistical power for all designs varied as a function of both the number of phases and the number of observations per phase. It was concluded that to increase methodological rigor and statistical precision in the face of autocorrelation, (a) whenever possible, researchers should adopt a randomization scheme in assigning the orders in which the A and B phases are administered and (b) in situations where randomized phase assignment is not feasible, researchers should adopt a systematic phase assignment scheme consisting of individually alternating A and B observations, with a cost of sacrificing some degree of statistical power. Implications for single-case intervention research in school psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The adaptive approach for storage assignment by mining data of warehouse management system for distribution centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-Huang Chiang, David; Lin, Chia-Ping; Chen, Mu-Chen

    2011-05-01

    Among distribution centre operations, order picking has been reported to be the most labour-intensive activity. Sophisticated storage assignment policies adopted to reduce the travel distance of order picking have been explored in the literature. Unfortunately, previous research has been devoted to locating entire products from scratch. Instead, this study intends to propose an adaptive approach, a Data Mining-based Storage Assignment approach (DMSA), to find the optimal storage assignment for newly delivered products that need to be put away when there is vacant shelf space in a distribution centre. In the DMSA, a new association index (AIX) is developed to evaluate the fitness between the put away products and the unassigned storage locations by applying association rule mining. With AIX, the storage location assignment problem (SLAP) can be formulated and solved as a binary integer programming. To evaluate the performance of DMSA, a real-world order database of a distribution centre is obtained and used to compare the results from DMSA with a random assignment approach. It turns out that DMSA outperforms random assignment as the number of put away products and the proportion of put away products with high turnover rates increase.

  7. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-10-05

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR - implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Sengaloundeth, Sivong; Green, Michael D; Fernández, Facundo M; Manolin, Ot; Phommavong, Khamlieng; Insixiengmay, Vongsavanh; Hampton, Christina Y; Nyadong, Leonard; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Hostetler, Dana; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Vongsack, Latsamy; Phompida, Samlane; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Syhakhang, Lamphone; Newton, Paul N

    2009-07-28

    Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9%) sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68-97%) sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8%) fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26-115.7 mg/tablet). This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT) in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  9. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sengaloundeth, Sivong; Green, Michael D; Fernández, Facundo M; Manolin, Ot; Phommavong, Khamlieng; Insixiengmay, Vongsavanh; Hampton, Christina Y; Nyadong, Leonard; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Hostetler, Dana; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Vongsack, Latsamy; Phompida, Samlane; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Syhakhang, Lamphone; Newton, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9%) sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97%) sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8%) fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet). Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT) in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention. PMID:19638225

  10. OptAssign--A Web-Based Tool for Assigning Students to Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, David

    2009-01-01

    A frequent task in educational settings is to assign students to groups based on stated preferences for some projects or topics. This paper introduces a web-based tool supporting both the work flow of collecting student data and the group formation. The latter is based on finding optimal solutions to suitable mathematical assignment problems,…

  11. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. 211.274-5 Section 211.274-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS...

  12. Perceiving and Using Slanting Devices: Two Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles B.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines two assignments: (1) analyzing an article from the popular press for its use of slanting and propaganda devices; and (2) writing an article that incorporates various techniques of slanting and propagandizing. Includes two "slanted" articles about Walter Mondale's presidential campaign to use in this exercise. (MM)

  13. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  14. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as described in paragraph (i) of this section. Broadcast network-entities may also use the 1990-2110... Remote Pickup Service, and Local Television Transmission Service licensees will be required to use the... existing users in the area. The Commission reserves the right to assign frequencies other than...

  15. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  16. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Partial eigenvalue assignment for structural damage mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, Chimpalthradi R.; Iyengar, N. G. R.

    2011-01-01

    In partial eigenvalue assignment, not all eigenvalues of the open loop system matrix are modified through a multiple input state or output feedback controller. This freedom available to assign selected eigenvalues of the closed loop system matrix has been widely used in design contexts such as to eliminate spillover effects in structural control problems. Similar approach is also required to modify damping and/or stiffness characteristics in selected eigenmodes of a damaged structure. When an external force acts on the damaged structure, partial eigenvalue assignment in this fashion will attempt to use minimal control effort and keep the structure active with safe operation. In this paper, a new approach to partial eigenvalue assignment and its application to structural damage mitigation are presented. A three mass spring-damper model with damage in one of the springs is illustrated with damping modifications at specific eigenmodes. The procedure is repeated for a second example, which is a cantilever beam modeled using two inputs and 10 state variables.

  18. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  19. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  20. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  1. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  2. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  3. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions...

  4. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions...

  5. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions...

  6. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions...

  7. Perceiving and Using Slanting Devices: Two Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles B.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines two assignments: (1) analyzing an article from the popular press for its use of slanting and propaganda devices; and (2) writing an article that incorporates various techniques of slanting and propagandizing. Includes two "slanted" articles about Walter Mondale's presidential campaign to use in this exercise. (MM)

  8. Democratization of Learning through Thematic Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…

  9. Payload flight assignments: NASA mixed fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, Norman

    1993-01-01

    This mixed fleet manifest, which serves as the baseline for planning purposes, includes payload flight assignments for the Space Shuttle through FY 1995 and NASA expendable launch vehicle (EVL) missions through FY 1999. The FY 1996-1999 Shuttle manifest planning is omitted pending Space Station redesign. Also included in this document are a list of previous flights, payload requests, and payload/acronyms.

  10. School Assignment, School Choice and Social Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Simon; Briggs, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the chances of poor and non-poor children getting places in good schools, analysing the relationship between poverty, location and school assignment. Our dataset allows us to measure location and distance very precisely. The simple unconditional difference in probabilities of attending a good school is substantial. We run an analysis…

  11. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How does... participation trends in the State in previous fiscal years; and (C) Other information provided by the State...

  12. Assigning Grammatical Gender during Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Segui, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the processes by which grammatical gender is assigned during word production. French words varied in strength of sublexical cues, based on whether the word ending was typical for one gender rather than neutral about gender, and lexical cues, derived from the associated definite article being uninformative…

  13. The Civic Awareness and Imagination Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, David E.

    2005-01-01

    There exists a natural connection between civic engagement and the public speaking class. Too often, however, this connection remains indirect at best and lost in a sea of uninspired topic selections and convenient source cites at worst. This assignment offers one way to help public speaking students increase their civic awareness and imagination…

  14. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  15. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255.... (b) The mortgagee may exercise its assignment option within 1 year following the...

  16. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255.... (b) The mortgagee may exercise its assignment option within 1 year following the...

  17. Successful Pedagogy with Web Assignments Checker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pundak, David; Maharshak, Arie; Rozner, Shmaryahu

    2005-01-01

    What is the effect on studies when integrating Web Assignment Checker (WAC) into science teaching? This article examines the change in students' attitudes to this question from the beginning of the course to its end, as compared with the attitudes of the teaching staff. The examiner's questionnaires, incorporating six aspects relating to students'…

  18. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  19. Teachers' Grading Practices: Meaning and Values Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Youyi; Cheng, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and…

  20. Teachers' Grading Practices: Meaning and Values Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Youyi; Cheng, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and…

  1. Teaching Historical Analysis through Creative Writing Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janine Larmon; Graham, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating creative writing exercises in history courses can heighten students' critical reading and analytical skills in an active learning model. We identify and define two types of possible assignments that use model texts as their locus: centripetal, which focuses on specific context and disciplinary terms, and centrifugal, which address…

  2. Politics, Internet Assignments, and Civic Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Vaughn

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor of American government fights the apathy and cynicism of college students toward politics by using the Internet to help students more fairly appraise the workings of the American political system. One assignment has students research and manage a particular public policy initiative through visits to Web sites…

  3. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  4. Writing Assignments Based on Literary Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The literature selections serving as the basis for writing assignments in the articles in this journal issue range from time-honored English classics ("Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green Knight") and American standards ("A Farewell to Arms,""The Scarlet Letter") to contemporary fiction. The articles deal with works by women writers (Shirley…

  5. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  6. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  7. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When.... (4) The crop is planted after the STC-established final planting date according to § 1437.103. (5...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When.... (4) The crop is planted after the STC-established final planting date according to § 1437.103. (5...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When.... (4) The crop is planted after the STC-established final planting date according to § 1437.103. (5...

  10. Teaching Historical Analysis through Creative Writing Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janine Larmon; Graham, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating creative writing exercises in history courses can heighten students' critical reading and analytical skills in an active learning model. We identify and define two types of possible assignments that use model texts as their locus: centripetal, which focuses on specific context and disciplinary terms, and centrifugal, which address…

  11. Feedback for Web-based Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; De Boer, W.; Slotman, K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a concept used at the University of Twente based on increased flexibility in learning options and the active student in which there are assignments submitted and monitored via a Web-based course management system. Outlines conceptual aspects of feedback as part of the assessment process, particularly feedback supported by a Web-based…

  12. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  13. Designing and Grading Oral Communication Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Brooke L.

    1998-01-01

    To address concerns that college students do not develop adequate oral communication skills, guidelines are offered to faculty for designing oral presentation assignments within their courses, developing grading criteria, guiding students in their preparation for speaking, and addressing some of the unique challenges of this process, which include…

  14. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  15. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  17. Credit assignment during movement reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    We often need to learn how to move based on a single performance measure that reflects the overall success of our movements. However, movements have many properties, such as their trajectories, speeds and timing of end-points, thus the brain needs to decide which properties of movements should be improved; it needs to solve the credit assignment problem. Currently, little is known about how humans solve credit assignment problems in the context of reinforcement learning. Here we tested how human participants solve such problems during a trajectory-learning task. Without an explicitly-defined target movement, participants made hand reaches and received monetary rewards as feedback on a trial-by-trial basis. The curvature and direction of the attempted reach trajectories determined the monetary rewards received in a manner that can be manipulated experimentally. Based on the history of action-reward pairs, participants quickly solved the credit assignment problem and learned the implicit payoff function. A Bayesian credit-assignment model with built-in forgetting accurately predicts their trial-by-trial learning.

  18. The Well-Tempered Mathematics Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Thomas W.

    Mathematics faculty around the United States are using writing assignments in a variety of ways. A mathematics teacher at Alma College, Michigan, has students write mathematical autobiographies, keep a reading logbook, and write letters to other students about the course, letters to instructors about the topics, or about what they do not…

  19. 32 CFR 241.3 - Assignment authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assignment authority. 241.3 Section 241.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PILOT PROGRAM FOR TEMPORARY EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL § 241.3...

  20. Writing Assignments Based on Literary Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The literature selections serving as the basis for writing assignments in the articles in this journal issue range from time-honored English classics ("Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green Knight") and American standards ("A Farewell to Arms,""The Scarlet Letter") to contemporary fiction. The articles deal with works by women writers (Shirley…

  1. A Literature Assignment with a Civic Emphasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brough, Barbara L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students wrestled with an assignment that asked them to name their heroes or heroines, compare them to "Beowulf," and defend their choices in writing and class discussion. Tells how students gained insight into their community and the ways in which people make it better. (MG)

  2. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... locations removed from existing co-channel TV broadcast stations by not less than the following distances... within the assignable frequencies may be combined to form a channel whose maximum bandwidth shall not... safety wireless licensees in the 700 MHz band. (2) Any low power auxiliary station that operates...

  3. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... processing a mortgagee's claim for insurance benefits under this section, the Commissioner may direct the... terminate and the mortgagee shall be entitled to receive insurance benefits in accordance with this section. (b) The mortgagee may exercise its assignment option within 1 year following the twentieth...

  4. A Literature Assignment with a Civic Emphasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brough, Barbara L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students wrestled with an assignment that asked them to name their heroes or heroines, compare them to "Beowulf," and defend their choices in writing and class discussion. Tells how students gained insight into their community and the ways in which people make it better. (MG)

  5. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  6. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  7. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  8. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  9. Dynamic traffic assignment on parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Frye, R.; Jakob, R.; Rickert, M.; Stretz, P.

    1998-12-01

    The authors describe part of the current framework of the TRANSIMS traffic research project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It includes parallel implementations of a route planner and a microscopic traffic simulation model. They present performance figures and results of an offline load-balancing scheme used in one of the iterative re-planning runs required for dynamic route assignment.

  10. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  11. Pole Assignment for Second-Order Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains some results for pole assignment problems for the second-order system M ẍ(t)+D ẋ(t)+K x (t)=B u (t) . Specifically, Algorithm 0 constructs feedback matrices F1 and F2 such that the closed-loop quadratic pencil Pc( λ)= λ2M+ λ ( D+ BF2)+( K+ BF1) has a desired set of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors are well-conditioned. The method is a modification of the SVD-based method proposed by Juang and Maghami [1, 2] which is a second-order adaptation of the well-known robust eigenvalue assignment method by Kautsky et al. [3] for first-order systems. Robustness is achieved by minimising some not-so-well-known condition numbers of the eigenvalues of the closed-loop second-order pencil. We next consider the partial pole assignment problem. In 1997, Datta, Elhay and Ram proposed three biorthogonality relations for eigenvectors of symmetric definite quadratic pencils [4]. One of these relations was used to derive an explicit solution to the partial pole assignment problem by state feedback for the related single-input symmetric definite second-order control system. The solution shed new light on the stabilisation and control of large flexible space structures, for which only one small subset of the spectrum needs to be reassigned while retaining the complementary part of the spectrum. In this paper, the method has been generalised for multi-input and non-symmetric quadratic pencils. Finally, we discuss briefly the output feedback pole assignment problem.

  12. 75 FR 55352 - Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... of the Secretary Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 5-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities to the Administrator, Wage and Hour Division. 1. Purpose. To delegate authorities and assign responsibilities to...

  13. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  14. A New Concurrent Calibration Method for Nonequivalent Group Design under Nonrandom Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazaki, Kei; Hoshino, Takahiro; Mayekawa, Shin-ichi; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a new item parameter linking method for the common-item nonequivalent groups design in item response theory (IRT). Previous studies assumed that examinees are randomly assigned to either test form. However, examinees can frequently select their own test forms and tests often differ according to examinees' abilities. In such…

  15. A New Concurrent Calibration Method for Nonequivalent Group Design under Nonrandom Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazaki, Kei; Hoshino, Takahiro; Mayekawa, Shin-ichi; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a new item parameter linking method for the common-item nonequivalent groups design in item response theory (IRT). Previous studies assumed that examinees are randomly assigned to either test form. However, examinees can frequently select their own test forms and tests often differ according to examinees' abilities. In such…

  16. THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING, SPECIFIC TEACHING ASSIGNMENTS, AND JOB SATISFACTIONS OF GEORGIA SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, HENRY; SCOTT, OWEN

    TO SURVEY THE CERTIFICATION STATUS, TEACHING ASSIGNMENT, AND SELECTED JOB-RELATED OPINIONS OF GEORGIA SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS, DATA ON 115 SCHOOLS AND 403 TEACHERS WAS EXTRACTED FROM A RANDOM SAMPLING OF THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS TO THE GEORGIA ACCREDITING COMMISSION. AN UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE ASKING WHICH ASPECTS OF…

  17. Relationships between Teacher-Assigned Grades and Academic Achievement as Determined by AIMS Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between student achievement, as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards, and teacher-assigned grades within a large, urban Phoenix, Arizona school district. For the quantitative component of the study, a proportionate stratified random sample of 3rd grade students from schools…

  18. Summer School Effects in a Randomized Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvoch, Keith; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    This field-based randomized trial examined the effect of assignment to and participation in summer school for two moderately at-risk samples of struggling readers. Application of multiple regression models to difference scores capturing the change in summer reading fluency revealed that kindergarten students randomly assigned to summer school…

  19. Hawthorne Effect with Transient Behavioral and Biochemical Changes in a Randomized Controlled Sleep Extension Trial of Chronically Short-Sleeping Obese Adults: Implications for the Design and Interpretation of Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Rother, Kristina I.; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit. Design Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention) after 81 days (median), and attended run-in visit 121 days later. Setting Outpatient. Patients Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8), mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, <6.5 h sleep/night. Intervention Non-pharmacological sleep extension. Measurements Sleep duration (diaries and actigraphy watch), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fasting glucose, insulin and lipids. Results Prior to any intervention, marked improvements occurred between screening and randomization. Sleep duration increased (diaries: 357.4 ±51.2 vs. 388.1±48.6 min/night; mean±SD; P<0.001 screening vs. randomization; actigraphy: 344.3 ±41.9 vs. 358.6±48.2 min/night; P<0.001) sleep quality improved (9.1±3.2 vs. 8.2±3.0 PSQI score; P<0.001), sleepiness tended to improve (8.9±4.6 vs. 8.3±4.5 ESS score; P = 0.06), insulin resistance decreased (0.327±0.038 vs. 0.351±0.045; Quicki index; P<0.001), and lipids improved, except for HDL-C. Abnormal fasting glucose (25% vs. 11%; P = 0.007), and metabolic syndrome (42% vs. 29%; P = 0.007) both decreased. In absence of intervention, the earlier metabolic improvements disappeared at the run-in visit. Limitations Relatively small sample size. Conclusions Improvements in biochemical and behavioral parameters between screening and randomization changed the “true” study baseline, thereby potentially affecting outcome. While regression to the mean and placebo effect were considered, these findings are most consistent with the “Hawthorne effect”, according to which behavior measured in the setting of an experimental study changes in response to the attention received from study investigators. This is the

  20. Hawthorne effect with transient behavioral and biochemical changes in a randomized controlled sleep extension trial of chronically short-sleeping obese adults: implications for the design and interpretation of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Rother, Kristina I; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit. Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention) after 81 days (median), and attended run-in visit 121 days later. Outpatient. Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8), mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, <6.5 h sleep/night. Non-pharmacological sleep extension. Sleep duration (diaries and actigraphy watch), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fasting glucose, insulin and lipids. Prior to any intervention, marked improvements occurred between screening and randomization. Sleep duration increased (diaries: 357.4 ±51.2 vs. 388.1±48.6 min/night; mean±SD; P<0.001 screening vs. randomization; actigraphy: 344.3 ±41.9 vs. 358.6±48.2 min/night; P<0.001) sleep quality improved (9.1±3.2 vs. 8.2±3.0 PSQI score; P<0.001), sleepiness tended to improve (8.9±4.6 vs. 8.3±4.5 ESS score; P = 0.06), insulin resistance decreased (0.327±0.038 vs. 0.351±0.045; Quicki index; P<0.001), and lipids improved, except for HDL-C. Abnormal fasting glucose (25% vs. 11%; P = 0.007), and metabolic syndrome (42% vs. 29%; P = 0.007) both decreased. In absence of intervention, the earlier metabolic improvements disappeared at the run-in visit. Relatively small sample size. Improvements in biochemical and behavioral parameters between screening and randomization changed the "true" study baseline, thereby potentially affecting outcome. While regression to the mean and placebo effect were considered, these findings are most consistent with the "Hawthorne effect", according to which behavior measured in the setting of an experimental study changes in response to the attention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings

  1. Scattering in discrete random media with implications to propagation through rain. Ph.D. Thesis George Washingtion Univ., Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, L. J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The multiple scattering effects on wave propagation through a volume of discrete scatterers were investigated. The mean field and intensity for a distribution of scatterers was developed using a discrete random media formulation, and second order series expansions for the mean field and total intensity derived for one-dimensional and three-dimensional configurations. The volume distribution results were shown to proceed directly from the one-dimensional results. The multiple scattering intensity expansion was compared to the classical single scattering intensity and the classical result was found to represent only the first three terms in the total intensity expansion. The Foldy approximation to the mean field was applied to develop the coherent intensity, and was found to exactly represent all coherent terms of the total intensity.

  2. A combined strategy for solving quadratic assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahyaningsih, Faiz

    2017-08-01

    The quadratic assignment problem is a combinatorial problem of deciding the placement of facilities in specified locations in such a way as to minimize a nonconvex objective function expressed in terms of flow between facilities, and distance between location. Due to the non-convexity nature of the problem, therefore to get a `good' starting point is necessary in order to obtain a better optimal solution. In this paper we propose a combined strategy (random point strategy to get initial starting point and then use forward exchange strategy and backward exchange strategy to get `optimal' solution). As a computational experience we've solved the problem of Esc 16b, Esc 16c and Esc 16h from QAPLIB. Finally, we present a comparative study between Combined Strategy and Data -Guided Lexisearch Algorithm. The computational study shows the effectiveness of our proposed combined strategy.

  3. Game theoretic target assignment approach in ballistic missile defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mo; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Wu, Yingli

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, both Pareto game theory and learning theory algorithms are utilized in a resource management module for a practical missile interception system. The resource management module will determine how many and which antimissiles will be launched for interception. Such interception decisions are based on the number of invading missiles, availability of antimissiles, special capability of antimissiles, and realistic constraints on the movements of both invading missiles and antimissiles such as minimum turning radius, maximum velocity, fuel range, etc. Simulations demonstrate performance improvements when compared to existing strategies (i.e. random assignment), independent of guidance laws (i.e. Proportional Navigation (PN) or the Differential-Game-based Guidance Law (DGL) guidance laws) under end-game interception cases or midcourse interception situations.

  4. Algorithms for selecting informative marker panels for population assignment.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2005-11-01

    Given a set of potential source populations, genotypes of an individual of unknown origin at a collection of markers can be used to predict the correct source population of the individual. For improved efficiency, informative markers can be chosen from a larger set of markers to maximize the accuracy of this prediction. However, selecting the loci that are individually most informative does not necessarily produce the optimal panel. Here, using genotypes from eight species--carp, cat, chicken, dog, fly, grayling, human, and maize--this univariate accumulation procedure is compared to new multivariate "greedy" and "maximin" algorithms for choosing marker panels. The procedures generally suggest similar panels, although the greedy method often recommends inclusion of loci that are not chosen by the other algorithms. In seven of the eight species, when applied to five or more markers, all methods achieve at least 94% assignment accuracy on simulated individuals, with one species--dog--producing this level of accuracy with only three markers, and the eighth species--human--requiring approximately 13-16 markers. The new algorithms produce substantial improvements over use of randomly selected markers; where differences among the methods are noticeable, the greedy algorithm leads to slightly higher probabilities of correct assignment. Although none of the approaches necessarily chooses the panel with optimal performance, the algorithms all likely select panels with performance near enough to the maximum that they all are suitable for practical use.

  5. Phonon assignments in GaN bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, H. W.

    2004-07-01

    The measured phonon-density of states of bulk GaN by time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy has been recently reported by Nipko et al. [CITE]. The authors have also calculated the true partial and total DOS as well as the phonon dispersion curves along major symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone. However, the group-theoretical phonon assignments have not been provided. Based on calculated symmetry allowed modes spanned by displacement representation and on the derived connectivity relations along the major directions in the Brillouin zone we have assigned Nipko's phonon dispersion curves to irreducible representations (species) of the C^46v (P63mc) space group of GaN.

  6. College Women's Assignment of Blame Versus Responsibility for Sexual Assault Experiences.

    PubMed

    Donde, Sapana D

    2016-08-30

    The present study investigated in a sample of college women (N = 154) (a) assignment of self-blame, perpetrator blame, personal responsibility, and perpetrator responsibility for sexual assault; (b) differences in how women assigned blame versus responsibility toward themselves and the perpetrator; (c) significant correlations between blame and responsibility of self and the perpetrator and positive and negative post-assault outcomes; and (d) the underlying factors that explained different forms of blame and responsibility. The present study suggests a need for future sexual assault research to delineate and further examine the constructs of blame and responsibility. Implications for practice are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Expanding access to parasite-based malaria diagnosis through retail drug shops in Tanzania: evidence from a randomized trial and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Kathleen; Ward, Abigail; Krenz, Bonnie; Petty, Nora; Bryson, Lindsay; Dolkart, Caitlin; Visser, Theodoor; Le Menach, Arnaud; Scott, Valerie K; Cohen, Justin M; Mtumbuka, Esther; Mkude, Sigsbert

    2017-01-03

    Tanzania has seen a reduction in the fraction of fevers caused by malaria, likely due in part to scale-up of control measures. While national guidelines require parasite-based diagnosis prior to treatment, it is estimated that more than half of suspected malaria treatment-seeking in Tanzania initiates in the private retail sector, where diagnosis by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy is illegal. This pilot study investigated whether the introduction of RDTs into Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) under realistic market conditions would improve case management practices. Dispensers from ADDOs in two intervention districts in Tanzania were trained to stock and perform RDTs and monitored quarterly. Each district was assigned a different recommended retail price to evaluate the need for a subsidy. Malaria RDT and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) uptake and availability were measured pre-intervention and 1 year post-intervention through structured surveys of ADDO owners and exiting customers in both intervention districts and one contiguous control district. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to compare the three districts and identify predictive variables for testing. A total of 310 dispensers from 262 ADDOs were trained to stock and perform RDTs. RDT availability in intervention ADDOs increased from 1% (n = 172) to 73% (n = 163) during the study; ACT medicines were available in 75% of 260 pre-intervention and 68% of 254 post-intervention ADDOs. Pre-treatment testing performed within the ADDO increased from 0 to 65% of suspected malaria patients who visited a shop (95% CI 60.8-69.6%) with no difference between intervention districts. Overall parasite-based diagnosis increased from 19 to 74% in intervention districts and from 3 to 18% in the control district. Prior knowledge of RDT availability (aOR = 1.9, p = 0.03) and RDT experience (aOR = 1.9, p = 0.01) were predictors for testing. Adherence data

  8. Accurate taxonomic assignment of short pyrosequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Clemente, José C; Jansson, Jesper; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in the taxonomy dependent assignment of pyrosequencing reads are usually resolved by mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor in a reference taxonomy of all those sequences that match the read. This conservative approach has the drawback of mapping a read to a possibly large clade that may also contain many sequences not matching the read. A more accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can be made by mapping each read to the node in the reference taxonomy that provides the best precision and recall. We show that given a suffix array for the sequences in the reference taxonomy, a short read can be mapped to the node of the reference taxonomy with the best combined value of precision and recall in time linear in the size of the taxonomy subtree rooted at the lowest common ancestor of the matching sequences. An accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can thus be made with about the same efficiency as when mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor of all matching sequences in a reference taxonomy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several metagenomic datasets of marine and gut microbiota.

  9. Students' Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José

    2017-01-01

    The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students' academic performance and the differences in students' time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall. PMID:28326046

  10. Students' Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José

    2017-01-01

    The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students' academic performance and the differences in students' time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall.

  11. Two center, randomized pilot study of migraine prophylaxis comparing paradigms using pre-emptive frovatriptan or daily topiramate: research and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cady, Roger K; Voirin, James; Farmer, Kathleen; Browning, Rebecca; Beach, M E; Tarrasch, Jeanne

    2012-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and clinical benefit of 2 paradigms of migraine prevention using pre-emptive frovatriptan and daily topiramate. The study compares the paradigms of pre-emptive use of frovatriptan, a drug approved for acute migraine, and the daily use of topiramate, a Federal Drug Administration-approved and -accepted standard for migraine prophylaxis. Traditionally, preventive treatment of migraine required daily medication. However, recent studies suggest that pre-emptive prophylaxis may be beneficial to those migraineurs who can predict an attack of migraine based on premonitory symptoms and treat during that phase. A total of 76 adult subjects with a diagnosis of migraine were screened for the study. During a 1-month baseline period, subjects demonstrated through a daily diary that they predicted at least 50% of migraine attacks during the premonitory phase and treated with their usual medication. Of these, 55 were randomized to either Group A (daily topiramate) or Group B (frovatriptan during premonitory symptoms); 44 completed the study. The treatment period lasted 2 months. The subjects answered the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire at randomization, and at Weeks 4 and 8. The revised Patient Perception of Migraine Questionnaire was answered 24 hours after taking frovatriptan (Group A, for break-through headaches; Group B, treatment during premonitory symptoms). The number of migraine attacks and headache days per month decreased significantly from baseline for both Groups A and B. Subjects in Group A had considerably more adverse events leading to study withdrawal than in Group B (18% vs 4%). Though this study was not powered to directly compare the efficacy of the 2 drugs, topiramate showed superiority over frovatriptan at Month 2 in reduction of headache days, which was a secondary end point in the study (P = .036). This pilot study demonstrated that statistical benefit for reduction of headache days over baseline for both pre

  12. The double-assignment method for the exponential chaotic tabu search in quadratic assignment problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Kazuaki; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is one of the NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. An exponential chaotic tabu search using a 2-opt algorithm driven by chaotic neuro-dynamics has been proposed as one heuristic method for solving QAPs. In this paper we first propose a new local search, the double-assignment method, suitable for the exponential chaotic tabu search, which adopts features of the Lin-Kernighan algorithm. We then introduce chaotic neuro-dynamics into the double-assignment method to propose a novel exponential chaotic tabu search. We further improve the proposed exponential chaotic tabu search with the double-assignment method by enhancing the effect of chaotic neuro-dynamics.

  13. The particle-particle random phase approximation and beyond - insight from the superconductive Gorkov perspective and implications of an efficient truncation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Du; Yang, Weitao; Weitao Yang Group Team

    As an excited-state electronic structure method, the particle-particle random phase approximation (ppRPA) satisfactorily resolves many challenges for the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)/particle-hole (ph) RPA, e.g. absence of double excitations, diradicals, singlet-to-triplet instability, etc. Given that the ppRPA equation has been derived from the pairing potential linear response, we derive it using the propagator approach using the superconductive Gorkov formalism. Systematic higher-order contributions are added to the ppRPA, yielding the pp Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). This development can be combined with our recently proposed truncation scheme, which makes typical ppRPA calculations up to 100 times faster than the Davidson's algorithm. Since the electron correlation is important in yielding good excitation energies for the ppRPA (the superiority of DFT reference states over Hartree-Fock ones, esp. for large systems), combining the two developments allows us to add the electron correlation into the ppRPA calculation at a modest formal scaling of O(N4), pushing the excitation energy calculations towards both larger systems and higher accuracy.

  14. The Metabolic and Endocrine Response and Health Implications of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Findings From Recent Randomized Controlled Trials123

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including fructose itself, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sucrose have engendered considerable controversy. The effects of HFCS and sucrose in sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, have generated intense scientific debate that has spilled over to the public. This controversy is related to well-known differences in metabolism between fructose and glucose in the liver. In addition, research studies have often been conducted comparing pure fructose and pure glucose even though neither is consumed to any appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Other evidence has been drawn from animal studies and epidemiologic or cohort studies. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared HFCS with sucrose (the 2 sugars most commonly consumed in the human diet) at dosage amounts within the normal human consumption range. This review compares results of recently concluded RCTs with other forms of evidence related to fructose, HFCS, and sucrose. We conclude that great caution must be used when suggesting adverse health effects of consuming these sugars in the normal way they are consumed and at the normal amounts in the human diet, because RCTs do not support adverse health consequences at these doses when employing these sugars. PMID:24228199

  15. 48 CFR 1552.211-74 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Work assignments. 1552.211... Work assignments. As prescribed in 1511.011-74, insert the following contract clause in cost-reimbursement type term form contracts when work assignments are to be used. Work Assignments (APR 1984) (a) The...

  16. 48 CFR 1552.211-74 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Work assignments. 1552.211... Work assignments. As prescribed in 1511.011-74, insert the following contract clause in cost-reimbursement type term form contracts when work assignments are to be used. Work Assignments (APR 1984) (a) The...

  17. 48 CFR 1552.211-74 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Work assignments. 1552.211... Work assignments. As prescribed in 1511.011-74, insert the following contract clause in cost-reimbursement type term form contracts when work assignments are to be used. Work Assignments (APR 1984) (a) The...

  18. 48 CFR 1552.211-74 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Work assignments. 1552.211... Work assignments. As prescribed in 1511.011-74, insert the following contract clause in cost-reimbursement type term form contracts when work assignments are to be used. Work Assignments (APR 1984) (a) The...

  19. 28 CFR 301.103 - Inmate work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate work assignments. 301.103 Section... COMPENSATION General § 301.103 Inmate work assignments. The unit team of each inmate, which ordinarily designates work assignments, or whoever makes work assignments, shall review appropriate medical...

  20. 7 CFR 97.130 - Recording of assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recording of assignments. 97.130 Section 97.130... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Assignments and Recording § 97.130 Recording of assignments. (a) Any assignment of an application for a certificate, or of a certificate of plant variety protection, or of any...

  1. 7 CFR 1404.4 - Execution of assignment form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Execution of assignment form. 1404.4 Section 1404.4... OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES ASSIGNMENT OF PAYMENTS § 1404.4 Execution of assignment form. (a)(1) The assignment of any FSA or CCC payment must be made by the execution of Form CCC-36...

  2. 31 CFR 306.41 - Form of assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of assignment. 306.41 Section.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.41 Form of assignment. Registered securities... advance refunding or prerefunding offer. Assignments to “The Secretary of the Treasury,” “The Secretary of...

  3. 24 CFR 203.350 - Assignment of mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of mortgage. 203.350... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Assignment of Mortgage § 203.350 Assignment of mortgage. (a) Assignment of modified mortgages pursuant to section 230, National Housing Act...

  4. 7 CFR 1469.35 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets and assignments. 1469.35 Section 1469.35... Administration § 1469.35 Offsets and assignments. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, NRCS... entitled to any payment may assign any payments in accordance with regulations governing assignment of...

  5. 7 CFR 762.160 - Assignment of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of guarantee. 762.160 Section 762.160... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.160 Assignment of guarantee. (a) The following... Agency may refuse to execute the Assignment of Guarantee and prohibit the assignment in case of the...

  6. 48 CFR 42.602 - Assignment and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment and location... Assignment and location. (a) A CACO may be assigned only when (1) the contractor has at least two locations... discontinue a CACO assignment should be based on such factors as (1) the benefits of coordination and liaison...

  7. 47 CFR 22.537 - Technical channel assignment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical channel assignment criteria. 22.537... assignment criteria. The rules in this section establish technical assignment criteria for the channels listed in § 22.531. These criteria permit channel assignments to be made in a manner such that reception...

  8. 7 CFR 1468.34 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets and assignments. 1468.34 Section 1468.34... § 1468.34 Offsets and assignments. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any payment... to any payment may assign any payments in accordance with regulations governing assignment of payment...

  9. 7 CFR 1470.35 - Offsets and assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsets and assignments. 1470.35 Section 1470.35... Administration § 1470.35 Offsets and assignments. (a) Any payment or portion thereof due any participant under... assign any payments in accordance with regulations governing assignment of payment found at 7 CFR part...

  10. 7 CFR 400.305 - Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 400.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... Underwriting Classification System Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.305 Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications. (a) Assignment of a Nonstandard Classification of assigned yields, assigned yield...

  11. 7 CFR 400.305 - Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 400.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... Underwriting Classification System Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.305 Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications. (a) Assignment of a Nonstandard Classification of assigned yields, assigned yield...

  12. 7 CFR 400.305 - Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 400.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... Underwriting Classification System Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.305 Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications. (a) Assignment of a Nonstandard Classification of assigned yields, assigned yield...

  13. 7 CFR 400.305 - Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 400.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP... Underwriting Classification System Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.305 Assignment of Nonstandard Classifications. (a) Assignment of a Nonstandard Classification of assigned yields, assigned yield...

  14. Lessons and implications from a mass immunization campaign in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: an experience from a cluster-randomized double-blinded vaccine trial [NCT00125047

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Ochiai, Rion Leon; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Bhutto, Naveed Sarwar; Rasool, Shahid; Puri, Mahesh K; Ali, Mohammad; Wasan, Shafi Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Jawed; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Ivanoff, Bernard; Galindo, Claudia M; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Acosta, Camilo J; Clemens, John D; Nizami, Shaikh Qamaruddin; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety and logistic feasibility of a mass immunization strategy outside the local immunization program in the pediatric population of urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cluster-randomized double blind preventive trial was launched in August 2003 in 60 geographic clusters covering 21,059 children ages 2 to 16 years. After consent was obtained from parents or guardians, eligible children were immunized parenterally at vaccination posts in each cluster with Vi polysaccharide or hepatitis A vaccine. Safety, logistics, and standards were monitored and documented. Results The vaccine coverage of the population was 74% and was higher in those under age 10 years. No life-threatening serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events occurred in less than 1% of all vaccine recipients and the main reactions reported were fever and local pain. The proportion of adverse events in Vi polysaccharide and hepatitis A recipients will not be known until the end of the trial when the code is broken. Throughout the vaccination campaign safe injection practices were maintained and the cold chain was not interrupted. Mass vaccination in slums had good acceptance. Because populations in such areas are highly mobile, settlement conditions could affect coverage. Systemic reactions were uncommon and local reactions were mild and transient. Close community involvement was pivotal for information dissemination and immunization coverage. Conclusion This vaccine strategy described together with other information that will soon be available in the area (cost/effectiveness, vaccine delivery costs, etc) will make typhoid fever control become a reality in the near future. PMID:16725026

  15. In-Vivo Efficacy of Chloroquine to Clear Asymptomatic Infections in Mozambican Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial with Implications for Elimination Strategies.

    PubMed

    Galatas, Beatriz; Nhamussua, Lidia; Candrinho, Baltazar; Mabote, Lurdes; Cisteró, Pau; Gupta, Himanshu; Rabinovich, Regina; Menéndez, Clara; Macete, Eusebio; Saute, Francisco; Mayor, Alfredo; Alonso, Pedro; Bassat, Quique; Aide, Pedro

    2017-05-02

    Recent reports regarding the re-emergence of parasite sensitivity to chloroquine call for a new consideration of this drug as an interesting complementary tool in malaria elimination efforts, given its good safety profile and long half-life. A randomized (2:1), single-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Manhiça, Mozambique, to assess the in-vivo efficacy of chloroquine to clear plasmodium falciparum (Pf) asymptomatic infections. Primary study endpoint was the rate of adequate and parasitological response (ACPR) to therapy on day 28 (PCR-corrected). Day 0 isolates were analyzed to assess the presence of the PfCRT-76T CQ resistance marker. A total of 52 and 27 male adults were included in the CQ and Placebo group respectively. PCR-corrected ACPR was significantly higher in the CQ arm 89.4% (95%CI 80-98%) compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). CQ cleared 49/50 infections within the first 72 h while placebo cleared 12/26 (LRT p < 0.001). The PfCRT-76T mutation was present only in one out of 108 (0.9%) samples at baseline, well below the 84% prevalence found in 1999 in the same area. This study presents preliminary evidence of a return of chloroquine sensitivity in Mozambican Pf isolates, and calls for its further evaluation in community-based malaria elimination efforts, in combination with other effective anti-malarials. www.clinicalTrials.gov NCT02698748.

  16. Prevalence of radiographic findings in individuals with chronic low back pain screened for a randomized controlled trial: secondary analysis and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Vining, Robert D.; Potocki, Eric; McLean, Ian; Seidman, Michael; Morgenthal, A. Paige; Boysen, James; Goertz, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence of graded disc degeneration, spondylolisthesis, transitional segmentation and the distribution of sacral slope in patients 21 to 65 years of age with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods This retrospective study analyzed 247 digital lumbar radiographic series obtained during a randomized controlled trial of chiropractic patients with CLBP. CLBP was defined as pain in the low back lasting 12 weeks or longer. Radiographic findings of disc degeneration, spondylolisthesis, and lumbosacral transitional segmentation were graded by 2 authors using established classification criteria. Sacral slope was measured with a digital tool contained within imaging software. Results Lumbosacral transitional segments graded I – IV (Castellvi classification) were present in 14% of cases. Lumbar disc degeneration was most prevalent at L3-4 (49%) followed by L4-5 (42%), L2-3 (41%), L5-S1 (37%), and L1-2 (29%). Isthmic spondylolisthesis was present in 5% of cases with L5 the most common location. Degenerative spondylolisthesis demonstrated a prevalence rate of 18%, most commonly occurring at L4. The prevalence of degenerative spondylolisthesis was 51% for females aged 50–59 and 24% for males in the same age range. Conclusions Moderate-severe disc degeneration, multi-level disc narrowing, and degenerative spondylolisthesis were common in individuals with CLBP over age 40. Isthmic spondylolisthesis was not more prevalent than what has been reported in other populations. Transitional segmentation was identified in a minority of participants with some of these exhibiting accessory joints or fusion. Mean sacral slope in individuals with CLBP was not substantially different from mean slopes reported in other populations. PMID:25455834

  17. Duration of bed occupancy as calculated at a random chosen day in an acute care ward. Implications for the use of scarce resources in psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Berg, John E; Restan, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    Background Psychiatric acute wards are obliged to admit patients without delay according to the Act on Compulsive Psychiatric Care. Residential long term treatment facilities and rehabilitation facilities may use a waiting list. Patients, who may not be discharged from the acute ward or should not wait there, then occupy acute ward beds. Materials and methods Bed occupancy in one acute ward at a random day in 2002 was registered (n = 23). Successively, the length of stay of all patients was registered, together with information on waiting time after a decision was made on further treatment needs. Eleven patients waited for further resident treatment. The running cost of stay was calculated for the acute ward and in the different resident follow-up facilities. Twenty-three patients consumed a total of 776 resident days. 425 (54.8%) of these were waiting days. Patients waited up to 86 days. Results Total cost of treatment was 0.69 million Euro (0.90 mill. $), waiting costs were 54.8% of this, 0.38 million Euro (0.50 million $). The difference between acute care costs and the costs in the relevant secondary resident facility was defined as the imputed loss. Net loss by waiting was 0.20 million Euro (0.26 million $) or 28.8% of total cost. Discussion This point estimate study indicates that treating patients too sick to be released to anything less than some other intramural facility locks a sizable amount of the resources of a psychiatric acute ward. The method used minimized the chance of financially biased treatment decisions. Costs of frustration to staff and family members, and delayed effect of treatment was set to zero. Direct extrapolation to costs per year is not warranted, but it is suggested that our findings would be comparable to other acute wards as well. The study shows how participant observation and cost effectiveness analysis may be combined. PMID:15921516

  18. Consistent Assignment of Nursing Staff to Residents in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review of Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tonya; Nolet, Kimberly; Bowers, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Study: Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents is promoted by a number of national organizations as a strategy for improving nursing home quality and is included in pay for performance schedules in several states. However, research has shown inconsistent effects of consistent assignment on quality outcomes. In order to advance the state of the science of research on consistent assignment and inform current practice and policy, a literature review was conducted to critique conceptual and methodological understandings of consistent assignment. Design and Methods: Twenty original research reports of consistent assignment in nursing homes were found through a variety of search strategies. Results: Consistent assignment was conceptualized and operationalized in multiple ways with little overlap from study to study. There was a lack of established methods to measure consistent assignment. Methodological limitations included a lack of control and statistical analyses of group differences in experimental-level studies, small sample sizes, lack of attention to confounds in multicomponent interventions, and outcomes that were not theoretically linked. Implications: Future research should focus on developing a conceptual understanding of consistent assignment focused on definition, measurement, and links to outcomes. To inform current policies, testing consistent assignment should include attention to contexts within and levels at which it is most effective. PMID:23996209

  19. An Ultimatum Game Approach to Billet Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Michael McKee, Ph.D. Todd Cherry , Ph.D. Michael Jones, Ph.D. Appalachian State University and Tanja F. Blackstone, Ph.D. Navy Personnel...Assignments David McEvoy, Ph.D. Michael McKee, Ph.D. Todd Cherry , Ph.D. Michael Jones, Ph.D. Appalachian State University and Tanja F...PROJECT ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER David McEvoy, Ph.D. Michael McKee, Ph.D. Todd Cherry , Ph.D. Michael Jones, Ph.D. Tanja

  20. Constrained neural approaches to quadratic assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Sato, M

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss analog neural approaches to the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). These approaches employ a hard constraints scheme to restrict the domain space, and are able to obtain much improved solutions over conventional neural approaches. Since only a few strong heuristics for QAP have been known to date, our approaches are good alternatives, capable of obtaining fairly good solutions in a short period of time. Some of them can also be applied to large-scale problems, say of size N>/=300.

  1. A Generalized Assignment Heuristic for Vehicle Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    1977), 517-524. 20. Shuster, K. A. and D. A. Schur.- "A Heuristic Approach to Routing Solid Waste Collection Vehicles," U.S. Environmental Protection...this problem by ( VRP ). L. . . . .. i -3- Formulation of the Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ) min Z c X. (1)ijk 1) i jk S.t. Z aiYik < bk , k ,...,K (2) 1...developing a sophisticated solution theory for the traveling salesman and generalized assignment models embedded within ( VRP ). By con- trast

  2. Transition Operators Assigned to Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan; Paseka, Jan

    2016-12-01

    By a physical system we recognize a set of propositions about a given system with their truth values depending on the states of the system. Since every physical system can go from one state to another one, there exists a binary relation on the set of states describing this transition. Our aim is to assign to every such system an operator on the set of propositions which is fully determined by the mentioned relation. We establish conditions under which the given relation can be recovered by means of this transition operator.

  3. Complete (1) H NMR assignment of cedranolides.

    PubMed

    Perez-Hernandez, Nury; Gordillo-Roman, Barbara; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Cerda-Garcia-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Complete and unambiguous (1) H NMR chemical shift assignment of α-cedrene (2) and cedrol (9), as well as for α-pipitzol (1), isocedrol (10), and the six related compounds 3-8 has been established by iterative full spin analysis using the PERCH NMR software (PERCH Solutions Ltd., Kuopio, Finland). The total sets of coupling constants are described and correlated with the conformational equilibria of the five-membered ring of 1-10, which were calculated using the complete basis set method. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia1234

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Waldron, Keith W; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE

    2015-01-01

    Background: The particle size and structure of masticated almonds have a significant impact on nutrient release (bioaccessibility) and digestion kinetics. Objectives: The goals of this study were to quantify the effects of mastication on the bioaccessibility of intracellular lipid of almond tissue and examine microstructural characteristics of masticated almonds. Design: In a randomized, subject-blind, crossover trial, 17 healthy subjects chewed natural almonds (NAs) or roasted almonds (RAs) in 4 separate mastication sessions. Particle size distributions (PSDs) of the expectorated boluses were measured by using mechanical sieving and laser diffraction (primary outcome). The microstructure of masticated almonds, including the structural integrity of the cell walls (i.e., dietary fiber), was examined with microscopy. Lipid bioaccessibility was predicted by using a theoretical model, based on almond particle size and cell dimensions, and then compared with empirically derived release data. Results: Intersubject variations (n = 15; 2 subjects withdrew) in PSDs of both NA and RA samples were small (e.g., laser diffraction; CV: 12% and 9%, respectively). Significant differences in PSDs were found between these 2 almond forms (P < 0.05). A small proportion of lipid was released from ruptured cells on fractured surfaces of masticated particles, as predicted by using the mathematical model (8.5% and 11.3% for NAs and RAs, respectively). This low percentage of lipid bioaccessibility is attributable to the high proportion (35–40%) of large particles (>500 μm) in masticated almonds. Microstructural examination of the almonds indicated that most intracellular lipid remained undisturbed in intact cells after mastication. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for

  5. Neurobiological Aspects of Mindfulness in Pain Autoregulation: Unexpected Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial and Possible Implications for Meditation Research.

    PubMed

    Esch, Tobias; Winkler, Jeremy; Auwärter, Volker; Gnann, Heike; Huber, Roman; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has demonstrated that short meditation training may yield higher pain tolerance in acute experimental pain. Our study aimed at examining underlying mechanisms of this alleged effect. In addition, placebo research has shown that higher pain tolerance is mediated via endogenous neuromodulators: experimental inhibition of opioid receptors by naloxone antagonized this effect. We performed a trial to discern possible placebo from meditation-specific effects on pain tolerance and attention. Objectives: It was proposed that (i) meditation training will increase pain tolerance; (ii) naloxone will inhibit this effect; (iii) increased pain tolerance will correlate with improved attention performance and mindfulness. Methods: Randomized-controlled, partly blinded trial with 31 healthy meditation-naïve adults. Pain tolerance was assessed by the tourniquet test, attention performance was measured by Attention Network Test (ANT), self-perceived mindfulness by Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. 16 participants received a 5-day meditation training, focusing on body/breath awareness; the control group (N = 15) received no intervention. Measures were taken before the intervention and on 3 consecutive days after the training, with all participants receiving either no infusion, naloxone infusion, or saline infusion (blinded). Blood samples were taken in order to determine serum morphine and morphine glucuronide levels by applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: The meditation group produced fewer errors in ANT. Paradoxically, increases in pain tolerance occurred in both groups (accentuated in control), and correlated with reported mindfulness. Naloxone showed a trend to decrease pain tolerance in both groups. Plasma analyses revealed sporadic morphine and/or morphine metabolite findings with no discernable pattern. Discussion: Main objectives could not be verified. Since underlying study goals had not been made explicit to

  6. Neurobiological Aspects of Mindfulness in Pain Autoregulation: Unexpected Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial and Possible Implications for Meditation Research

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Tobias; Winkler, Jeremy; Auwärter, Volker; Gnann, Heike; Huber, Roman; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has demonstrated that short meditation training may yield higher pain tolerance in acute experimental pain. Our study aimed at examining underlying mechanisms of this alleged effect. In addition, placebo research has shown that higher pain tolerance is mediated via endogenous neuromodulators: experimental inhibition of opioid receptors by naloxone antagonized this effect. We performed a trial to discern possible placebo from meditation-specific effects on pain tolerance and attention. Objectives: It was proposed that (i) meditation training will increase pain tolerance; (ii) naloxone will inhibit this effect; (iii) increased pain tolerance will correlate with improved attention performance and mindfulness. Methods: Randomized-controlled, partly blinded trial with 31 healthy meditation-naïve adults. Pain tolerance was assessed by the tourniquet test, attention performance was measured by Attention Network Test (ANT), self-perceived mindfulness by Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. 16 participants received a 5-day meditation training, focusing on body/breath awareness; the control group (N = 15) received no intervention. Measures were taken before the intervention and on 3 consecutive days after the training, with all participants receiving either no infusion, naloxone infusion, or saline infusion (blinded). Blood samples were taken in order to determine serum morphine and morphine glucuronide levels by applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: The meditation group produced fewer errors in ANT. Paradoxically, increases in pain tolerance occurred in both groups (accentuated in control), and correlated with reported mindfulness. Naloxone showed a trend to decrease pain tolerance in both groups. Plasma analyses revealed sporadic morphine and/or morphine metabolite findings with no discernable pattern. Discussion: Main objectives could not be verified. Since underlying study goals had not been made explicit to

  7. Spin-multipole nuclear matrix elements in the p n quasiparticle random-phase approximation: Implications for β and β β half-lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostensalo, Joel; Suhonen, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    Half-lives for 148 potentially measurable 2nd-, 3rd-, 4th-, 5th-, 6th-, and 7th-forbidden unique beta transitions are predicted. To achieve this, the ratio of the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs), calculated by the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA), MpnQRPA, and a two-quasiparticle (two-qp) model, Mqp, is studied and compared with earlier calculations for the allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) 1+ and first-forbidden spin-dipole (SD) 2- transitions. The present calculations are done using realistic single-particle model spaces and G -matrix based microscopic two-body interactions. In terms of the ratio k =MpnQRPA/Mqp the studied decays fall into two groups: for GROUP 1, which consists of transitions involving non-magic nuclei, the ratio turns out to be k =0.29 ±0.15 . For GROUP 2, consisting of transitions involving semimagic nuclei, the ratio is 0.5-0.8 for half of the decays and less than 5 ×10-3 for the other half. The magnitudes of the NMEs for several nuclei of GROUP 2 depend sensitively on the size of the used single-particle space and the energies of few key single-particle orbitals used in the pnQRPA calculation, while no such dependence is found for the transitions involving nuclei of GROUP 1. Comparing the NME ratios k of GROUP 1 with those of the earlier GT and SD calculations, where also experimental data are available, the expected "experimental" half-lives for the decays between the 0+ ground state of the even-even reference nuclei and the Jπ=3+,4-,5+,6-,7+,8- states of the neighboring odd-odd nuclei are derived for possible experimental verification. The present results could also shed light to the magnitudes of the NMEs corresponding to the high-forbidden unique 0+→Jπ=3+,4-,5+,6-,7+,8- virtual transitions taking part in the neutrinoless double beta decays.

  8. Replicating and Extending Research on the Partial Assignment Completion Effect: Is Sunk Cost Related to Partial Assignment Completion Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Taylor, Emily P.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Nalls, Meagan L.

    2014-01-01

    After students acquire a skill, mastery often requires them to choose to engage in assigned academic activities (e.g., independent seatwork, and homework). Although students may be more likely to choose to work on partially completed assignments than on new assignments, the partial assignment completion (PAC) effect may not be very powerful. The…

  9. Replicating and Extending Research on the Partial Assignment Completion Effect: Is Sunk Cost Related to Partial Assignment Completion Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Taylor, Emily P.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Nalls, Meagan L.

    2014-01-01

    After students acquire a skill, mastery often requires them to choose to engage in assigned academic activities (e.g., independent seatwork, and homework). Although students may be more likely to choose to work on partially completed assignments than on new assignments, the partial assignment completion (PAC) effect may not be very powerful. The…

  10. Parental knowledge of child development and the assignment of tractor work to children.

    PubMed

    Pickett, William; Marlenga, Barbara; Berg, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    Many childhood farm tractor injuries occur during the performance of work that was assigned by parents, and some tractor work is beyond the developmental capabilities of children. This has been highlighted recently by a policy statement authored by the American Academy of Pediatrics. The objective of this study was 1) to assess child development knowledge of farm parents who received a new resource, the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT), and 2) to determine whether this knowledge was associated with use of NAGCAT in the assignment of tractor jobs and with compliance with 2 aspects of the NAGCAT tractor guideline. Secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized controlled trial that involved 450 farms in the United States and Canada was conducted. Variables assessed included 1) parental knowledge of child development across several age groups and 3 domains of child development (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial), 2) documentation of the most common tractor jobs assigned to each child, and 3) a report of whether NAGCAT was used in assigning these tractor jobs. High parental knowledge of child development was associated with enhanced use of NAGCAT and fewer violations when assigning tractor work to children. However, even in the presence of high knowledge, some farm parents still assigned to their children work that was in violation of NAGCAT. Educational interventions by themselves are not sufficient to remove many farm children from known occupational hazards. These findings are discussed in light of the recent policy statement on agricultural injuries from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Bacteria as bullies: effects of linguistic agency assignment in health message.

    PubMed

    Bell, Robert A; McGlone, Matthew S; Dragojevic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    When describing health threats, communicators can assign agency to the threat (e.g., "Hepatitis C has infected 4 million Americans") or to humans (e.g., "Four million Americans have contracted hepatitis C"). In an online experiment, the authors explored how assignment of agency affects perceptions of susceptibility and severity of a health threat, response efficacy, self-efficacy, fear arousal, and intentions to adopt health-protective recommendations. Participants were 719 individuals recruited through Mechanical Turk ( www.mturk.com ), a crowdsource labor market run by Amazon ( www.amazon.com ). The participants were assigned randomly to read 1 of 8 flyers defined by a 2×4 (Agency Assignment×Topic) factorial design. Each flyer examined 1 health threat (E. coli, necrotizing fasciitis, salmonella, or Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae) and was written in language that emphasized bacterial or human agency. Perceived susceptibility and severity were highest when bacterial agency language was used. Response efficacy, self-efficacy, and fear arousal were not significantly affected by agency assignment. Participants reported stronger intentions to adopt recommendations when bacteria agency language was used, but this effect did not reach conventional standards of significance (p < .051). The authors concluded that health communicators can increase target audiences' perceptions of susceptibility and severity by assigning agency to the threat in question when devising health messages.

  12. Vicious viruses and vigilant vaccines: effects of linguistic agency assignment in health policy advocacy.

    PubMed

    Bell, Robert A; McGlone, Matthew S; Dragojevic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Studying the effect of a fictitious policy editorial advocating mandatory vaccination of youth against human papillomavirus (HPV), the authors hypothesized that linguistic assignment of agency to HPV (e.g., "HPV preys on millions of people") would increase perceptions of its severity, relative to a comparable message that assigned agency to humans (e.g., "Millions of people contract HPV"). In addition, the authors predicted that HPV vaccines would be perceived as more effective when agency was assigned to vaccination (e.g., "Vaccination guards people") rather than to humans (e.g., "People guard themselves through vaccination"). University students (N = 361) were randomly assigned to read one of four versions of the editorial defined by a 2 ×2 (Threat Agency × Immunization Agency) factorial design and thereafter completed a questionnaire. When agency was assigned to the virus or the vaccine, HPV was perceived as a more severe threat, vaccination was perceived as more effective, and people were more in favor of mandatory HPV vaccination. The authors concluded that linguistic agency assignment bestows potency to the agent, thereby making threats more alarming and medical interventions seem more effective.

  13. A Parent-Mediated Intervention That Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 43:540–555, 2013a). The current analyses focus on children’s attachment related outcomes. Results revealed that children who were randomly assigned to FPI showed bigger increases in attachment-related behaviors, compared to children assigned to the control condition. Significant treatment effects of FPI were found for both an observational measure of attachment-related behaviors elicited during a brief separation-reunion episode and a questionnaire measure evaluating parental perceptions of child attachment. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24488157

  14. Metaphor use and health literacy: a pilot study of strategies to explain randomization in cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Janice L; Parrott, Roxanne L; Nussbaum, Jon F

    2011-01-01

    Patients often have difficulty understanding what randomization is and why it is needed in Phase III clinical trials. Physicians commonly report using metaphorical language to convey the role of chance in being assignment to treatment; however, the effectiveness of this strategy as an educational tool has not been explored. Guided by W. McGuire's (1972) information-processing model, the purpose of this pilot study was to explore effects of metaphors to explain randomization on message acceptance and behavioral intention to participate in a Phase III clinical trial among a sample of low-income, rural women (N = 64). Participants were randomly assigned to watch a video that explained randomization using 1 of 3 message strategies: a low-literacy definition, standard metaphor (i.e., flip of a coin), or a culturally derived metaphor (i.e., sex of a baby). The influence of attention on behavioral intentions to participate in clinical trials was partially moderated by message strategy. Under conditions of low attention, participants in the culturally derived metaphor condition experienced significantly higher intentions to participate in clinical trials compared with participants in the standard metaphor condition. However, as attention increased, differences in intentions among the conditions diminished. Having a positive affective response to the randomization message was a strong, positive predictor of behavioral intentions to participate in clinical trials. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  15. Assigning functional meaning to digital circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, S.T.; Chisholm, G.H.

    1997-07-01

    During computer-aided design, the problem of how to determine the logical function of a digital circuit arises in many contexts. For example, assigning functional meaning to a circuit is a fundamental operation in both reverse engineering and implementation validation. This report describes such a determination by discussing how a higher-level functional representation is constructed from a detailed circuit description (i.e., a gate-level netlist, which is a list of logic gates and their interconnections). The approach used involves transforming parts of the netlist into a functional representation and then manipulating this representation. Two types of functional representations are described: (1) a mathematical representation based on the logical operators ``exor`` and ``and`` and (2) a directed acyclic graph representation based on binary decision trees. Each representation provides a canonical form of the logical function being implemented (i.e., a form that is independent of implementation details). Such forms, however, have a well-known problem associated with the ordering of inputs: for each order, a unique form exists. A solution to this problem is given for both representations. Experimental results that demonstrate the use of these representations in the process of assigning functional meaning to a circuit are provided. The report also identifies and discusses issues critical to the performance required of this fundamental operation.

  16. USE OF BIOLOGICAL ASSIGNMENT IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION CLINICAL TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Brent R.; Leifer, Eric S.; Bredeson, Chris; Horowitz, Mary M.; Ewell, Marian; Carter, Shelly; Geller, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background When comparing treatments for a specific illness, it is sometimes impractical or impossible to conduct a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Biological assignment trials are one alternative design. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) trials, a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor is considered optimal, but such donors are available for only 20-30% of otherwise eligible patients. Rather than randomizing only those with a matched sibling donor, in a recent multiple myeloma trial, the type of HCT each patient received was biologically based, i.e., chosen according to whether or not the patient had a matched sibling donor. Purpose This article describes the design and implementation of biological assignment trials as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Methods We focus on several aspects of such trials, including efficiency of trial duration, ethical issues, and potential sources of bias. Statistical issues are considered including sample size calculations, monitoring for biased enrollment, and adjustments for imbalances in patient characteristics. A multiple myeloma trial is used as an illustration. Results Although they often require a larger sample size, biological assignment trials can provide substantial efficiency in terms of study duration over randomized trials when accrual to a randomized trial would be slow. Determination of sample size requires consideration of the anticipated proportion of patients with a biologically favored (HLA-matched sibling) donor. An add-on randomization of patients without a matched sibling donor may alleviate ethical concerns about applicability of study results to all patients regardless of whether the biological assignment groups differ with respect to outcome. Limitations Prognostic factor imbalance and enrollment bias can occur in a biological assignment trial. Statistical adjustment for potential imbalance in prognostic factors is important, as is monitoring center accrual for

  17. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 17DD and WHO 17D-213/77 yellow fever vaccines in children: implications for the Brazilian National Immunization Program.

    PubMed

    2007-04-20

    Vaccines against yellow fever currently recommended by the World Health Organization contain either virus sub-strains 17D or 17DD. In adults, the 17DD vaccine demonstrated high seroconversion and similar performance to vaccines manufactured with the WHO 17D-213/77 seed-lot. In another study, 17DD vaccine showed lower seroconversion rates in children younger than 2 years. Data also suggested lower seroconversion with simultaneous application of measles vaccine. This finding in very young children is not consistent with data from studies with 17D vaccines. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was designed (1) to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two yellow fever vaccines: 17DD (licensed product) and 17D-213/77 (investigational product) in children aged 9-23 months; (2) to assess the effect of simultaneous administration of yellow fever and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccines; and (3) to investigate the interference of maternal antibodies in the response to yellow fever vaccination. The anticipated implications of the results are changes in vaccine sub-strains used in manufacturing YF vaccine used in several countries and changes in the yellow fever vaccination schedule recommendations in national immunization programs.

  18. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  19. A multistage linear array assignment problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Shier, D. R.; Kincaid, R. K.; Richards, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The implementation of certain algorithms on parallel processing computing architectures can involve partitioning contiguous elements into a fixed number of groups, each of which is to be handled by a single processor. It is desired to find an assignment of elements to processors that minimizes the sum of the maximum workloads experienced at each stage. This problem can be viewed as a multi-objective network optimization problem. Polynomially-bounded algorithms are developed for the case of two stages, whereas the associated decision problem (for an arbitrary number of stages) is shown to be NP-complete. Heuristic procedures are therefore proposed and analyzed for the general problem. Computational experience with one of the exact problems, incorporating certain pruning rules, is presented with one of the exact problems. Empirical results also demonstrate that one of the heuristic procedures is especially effective in practice.

  20. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.