Quantum random number generation
Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing
2016-06-28
Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less
Quantum random number generator
Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-05-10
A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.
Uniform random number generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farr, W. R.
1971-01-01
Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.
Pseudo-Random Number Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.
1984-01-01
Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.
Self-correcting random number generator
Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-09-06
A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.
Generation of pseudo-random numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.
1982-01-01
Practical methods for generating acceptable random numbers from a variety of probability distributions which are frequently encountered in engineering applications are described. The speed, accuracy, and guarantee of statistical randomness of the various methods are discussed.
All-optical fast random number generator.
Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong
2010-09-13
We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation.
The MCNP5 Random number generator
Brown, F. B.; Nagaya, Y.
2002-01-01
MCNP and other Monte Carlo particle transport codes use random number generators to produce random variates from a uniform distribution on the interval. These random variates are then used in subsequent sampling from probability distributions to simulate the physical behavior of particles during the transport process. This paper describes the new random number generator developed for MCNP Version 5. The new generator will optionally preserve the exact random sequence of previous versions and is entirely conformant to the Fortran-90 standard, hence completely portable. In addition, skip-ahead algorithms have been implemented to efficiently initialize the generator for new histories, a capability that greatly simplifies parallel algorithms. Further, the precision of the generator has been increased, extending the period by a factor of 10{sup 5}. Finally, the new generator has been subjected to 3 different sets of rigorous and extensive statistical tests to verify that it produces a sufficiently random sequence.
Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-01-01
Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .
Exploring number space by random digit generation.
Loetscher, Tobias; Brugger, Peter
2007-07-01
There is some evidence that human subjects preferentially select small numbers when asked to sample numbers from large intervals "at random". A retrospective analysis of single digit frequencies in 16 independent experiments with the Mental Dice Task (generation of digits 1-6 during 1 min) confirmed the occurrence of small-number biases (SNBs) in 488 healthy subjects. A subset of these experiments suggested a spatial nature of this bias in the sense of a "leftward" shift along the number line. First, individual SNBs were correlated with leftward deviations in a number line bisection task (but unrelated to the bisection of physical lines). Second, in 20 men, the magnitude of SNBs significantly correlated with leftward attentional biases in the judgment of chimeric faces. Finally, cognitive activation of the right hemisphere enhanced SNBs in 20 different men, while left hemisphere activation reduced them. Together, these findings provide support for a spatial component in random number generation. Specifically, they allow an interpretation of SNBs in terms of "pseudoneglect in number space." We recommend the use of random digit generation for future explorations of spatial-attentional asymmetries in numerical processing and discuss methodological issues relevant to prospective designs.
Operational conditions for random-number generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compagner, A.
1995-11-01
Ensemble theory is used to describe arbitrary sequences of integers, whether formed by the decimals of π or produced by a roulette or by any other means. Correlation coefficients of any range and order are defined as Fourier transforms of the ensemble weights. Competing definitions of random sequences are considered. Special attention is given to sequences of random numbers needed for Monte Carlo calculations. Different recipes for those sequences lead to correlations that vary in range and order, but the total amount of correlation is the same for all sequences of a given length (without internal periodicities). For maximum-length sequences produced by linear algorithms, most correlation coefficients are zero, but the remaining ones are of absolute value 1. In well-tempered sequences, these complete correlations are of high order or of very long range. General conditions to be obeyed by random-number generators are discussed and a qualitative method for comparing different recipes is given.
How random are random numbers generated using photons?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M.; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Hirsch, Jorge G.
2015-06-01
Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined.
Long period pseudo random number sequence generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Charles C. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A circuit for generating a sequence of pseudo random numbers, (A sub K). There is an exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) for the normal basis representation of elements in a finite field GF(2 sup m) each represented by m binary digits and having two inputs and an output from which the sequence (A sub K). Of pseudo random numbers is taken. One of the two inputs is connected to receive the outputs (E sub K) of maximal length shift register of n stages. There is a switch having a pair of inputs and an output. The switch outputs is connected to the other of the two inputs of the exponentiator. One of the switch inputs is connected for initially receiving a primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m). Finally, there is a delay circuit having an input and an output. The delay circuit output is connected to the other of the switch inputs and the delay circuit input is connected to the output of the exponentiator. Whereby after the exponentiator initially receives the primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m) through the switch, the switch can be switched to cause the exponentiator to receive as its input a delayed output A(K-1) from the exponentiator thereby generating (A sub K) continuously at the output of the exponentiator. The exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) is novel and comprises a cyclic-shift circuit; a Massey-Omura multiplier; and, a control logic circuit all operably connected together to perform the function U(sub i) = 92(sup i) (for n(sub i) = 1 or 1 (for n(subi) = 0).
A Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Normal Numbers
Bailey, David H.
2004-12-31
In a recent paper, Richard Crandall and the present author established that each of a certain class of explicitly given real constants, uncountably infinite in number, is b-normal, for an integer that appears in the formula defining the constant. A b-normal constant is one where every string of m digits appears in the base-b expansion of the constant with limiting frequency b{sup -m}. This paper shows how this result can be used to fashion an efficient and effective pseudo-random number generator, which generates successive strings of binary digits from one of the constants in this class. The resulting generator, which tests slightly faster than a conventional linear congruential generator, avoids difficulties with large power-of-two data access strides that may occur when using conventional generators. It is also well suited for parallel processing--each processor can quickly and independently compute its starting value, with the collective sequence generated by all processors being the same as that generated by a single processor.
A random number generator for continuous random variables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.
1972-01-01
A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.
An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.
2005-02-01
A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.
SPRNG Scalable Parallel Random Number Generator LIbrary
Srinivasan, Ashok
2010-03-16
This revision corrects some errors in SPRNG 1. Users of newer SPRNG versions can obtain the corrected files and build their version with it. This version also improves the scalability of some of the application-based tests in the SPRNG test suite. It also includes an interface to a parallel Mersenne Twister, so that if users install the Mersenne Twister, then they can test this generator with the SPRNG test suite and also use some SPRNG features with that generator.
SPRNG Scalable Parallel Random Number Generator LIbrary
2010-03-16
This revision corrects some errors in SPRNG 1. Users of newer SPRNG versions can obtain the corrected files and build their version with it. This version also improves the scalability of some of the application-based tests in the SPRNG test suite. It also includes an interface to a parallel Mersenne Twister, so that if users install the Mersenne Twister, then they can test this generator with the SPRNG test suite and also use some SPRNGmore » features with that generator.« less
Effects of regular switching between languages during random number generation.
Strenge, Hans; Böhm, Jessica
2005-04-01
Random number generation is a task that engages working memory and executive processes within the domain of number representation. In the present study we address the role of language in number processing by switching languages during random number generation (numbers 1-9), using German (L1) and English (L2), and alternating L1/L2. Results indicate large correspondence between performance in L1 and L2. In contrast to nonswitching performance, randomization with alternating languages showed a significant increase of omitted responses, whereas the random sequences were less stereotyped, showing significantly less repetition avoidance and cycling behavior. During an intentional switch between languages, errors in language sequence appeared in 23% of responses on the average, independently of the quality of randomization but associated with a clear persistence of L2. These results indicate that random number generation is more closely linked to auditory-phonological representation of numerals than to visual arabic notation. PMID:15974362
Effects of regular switching between languages during random number generation.
Strenge, Hans; Böhm, Jessica
2005-04-01
Random number generation is a task that engages working memory and executive processes within the domain of number representation. In the present study we address the role of language in number processing by switching languages during random number generation (numbers 1-9), using German (L1) and English (L2), and alternating L1/L2. Results indicate large correspondence between performance in L1 and L2. In contrast to nonswitching performance, randomization with alternating languages showed a significant increase of omitted responses, whereas the random sequences were less stereotyped, showing significantly less repetition avoidance and cycling behavior. During an intentional switch between languages, errors in language sequence appeared in 23% of responses on the average, independently of the quality of randomization but associated with a clear persistence of L2. These results indicate that random number generation is more closely linked to auditory-phonological representation of numerals than to visual arabic notation.
Humans cannot consciously generate random numbers sequences: Polemic study.
Figurska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Maciej; Kulesza, Kamil
2008-01-01
It is widely believed, that randomness exists in Nature. In fact such an assumption underlies many scientific theories and is embedded in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Assuming that this hypothesis is valid one can use natural phenomena, like radioactive decay, to generate random numbers. Today, computers are capable of generating the so-called pseudorandom numbers. Such series of numbers are only seemingly random (bias in the randomness quality can be observed). Question whether people can produce random numbers, has been investigated by many scientists in the recent years. The paper "Humans can consciously generate random numbers sequences..." published recently in Medical Hypotheses made claims that were in many ways contrary to state of art; it also stated far-reaching hypotheses. So, we decided to repeat the experiments reported, with special care being taken of proper laboratory procedures. Here, we present the results and discuss possible implications in computer and other sciences. PMID:17888582
RNGAVXLIB: Program library for random number generation, AVX realization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guskova, M. S.; Barash, L. Yu.; Shchur, L. N.
2016-03-01
We present the random number generator (RNG) library RNGAVXLIB, which contains fast AVX realizations of a number of modern random number generators, and also the abilities to jump ahead inside a RNG sequence and to initialize up to 1019 independent random number streams with block splitting method. Fast AVX implementations produce exactly the same output sequences as the original algorithms. Usage of AVX vectorization allows to substantially improve performance of the generators. The new realizations are up to 2 times faster than the SSE realizations implemented in the previous version of the library (Barash and Shchur, 2013), and up to 40 times faster compared to the original algorithms written in ANSI C.
Pseudo-random number generator for the Sigma 5 computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carroll, S. N.
1983-01-01
A technique is presented for developing a pseudo-random number generator based on the linear congruential form. The two numbers used for the generator are a prime number and a corresponding primitive root, where the prime is the largest prime number that can be accurately represented on a particular computer. The primitive root is selected by applying Marsaglia's lattice test. The technique presented was applied to write a random number program for the Sigma 5 computer. The new program, named S:RANDOM1, is judged to be superior to the older program named S:RANDOM. For applications requiring several independent random number generators, a table is included showing several acceptable primitive roots. The technique and programs described can be applied to any computer having word length different from that of the Sigma 5.
A Optical Random Number Generator Based on Photoevent Locations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martino, Anthony J.
1990-01-01
The well-known Monte Carlo method was combined with the relatively new technique of quantum-limited imaging to produce an optical random number generator in which the locations of detected photoevents provided the random numbers. The optical random number generator used a two -dimensional, position-sensitive, photon-counting detector. The spatial distribution of photoevent locations was dictated by imaging a control object onto the detector. An iterative calibration procedure was developed to determine the brightness function written onto the control object, which was a piece of film or a video monitor. With both control objects, the iterative calibration procedure led to improvements in the performance of the system. The ideal control object would combine the spatial resolution and temporal stability of film with the reproducibility and quick reconfiguration of the video monitor. Use of the optical random number generator was demonstrated in Monte Carlo matrix inversion and a simulation of sunlight scattering from raindrops. The optical random number generator was shown to have the advantage of speed over available pseudorandom number generators. With film as the control object, it also had the advantage of producing true random numbers. Even with the video monitor, it did not produce a repeating sequence. The pseudorandom number generator had the advantage of producing a wider range of random numbers. The wider range made no difference in the behavior of the matrix inversion algorithm. However, with the rainbows, where continuous quantities were simulated, noticeable effects occurred.
Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor.
Amri, Emna; Felk, Yacine; Stucki, Damien; Ma, Jiaju; Fossum, Eric R
2016-06-29
A new quantum random number generation method is proposed. The method is based on the randomness of the photon emission process and the single photon counting capability of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS). It has the potential to generate high-quality random numbers with remarkable data output rate. In this paper, the principle of photon statistics and theory of entropy are discussed. Sample data were collected with QIS jot device, and its randomness quality was analyzed. The randomness assessment method and results are discussed.
Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor
Amri, Emna; Felk, Yacine; Stucki, Damien; Ma, Jiaju; Fossum, Eric R.
2016-01-01
A new quantum random number generation method is proposed. The method is based on the randomness of the photon emission process and the single photon counting capability of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS). It has the potential to generate high-quality random numbers with remarkable data output rate. In this paper, the principle of photon statistics and theory of entropy are discussed. Sample data were collected with QIS jot device, and its randomness quality was analyzed. The randomness assessment method and results are discussed. PMID:27367698
Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor.
Amri, Emna; Felk, Yacine; Stucki, Damien; Ma, Jiaju; Fossum, Eric R
2016-01-01
A new quantum random number generation method is proposed. The method is based on the randomness of the photon emission process and the single photon counting capability of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS). It has the potential to generate high-quality random numbers with remarkable data output rate. In this paper, the principle of photon statistics and theory of entropy are discussed. Sample data were collected with QIS jot device, and its randomness quality was analyzed. The randomness assessment method and results are discussed. PMID:27367698
Random Number Generation for Petascale Quantum Monte Carlo
Ashok Srinivasan
2010-03-16
The quality of random number generators can affect the results of Monte Carlo computations, especially when a large number of random numbers are consumed. Furthermore, correlations present between different random number streams in a parallel computation can further affect the results. The SPRNG software, which the author had developed earlier, has pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) capable of producing large numbers of streams with large periods. However, they had been empirically tested on only thousand streams earlier. In the work summarized here, we tested the SPRNG generators with over a hundred thousand streams, involving over 10^14 random numbers per test, on some tests. We also tested the popular Mersenne Twister. We believe that these are the largest tests of PRNGs, both in terms of the numbers of streams tested and the number of random numbers tested. We observed defects in some of these generators, including the Mersenne Twister, while a few generators appeared to perform well. We also corrected an error in the implementation of one of the SPRNG generators.
A hybrid-type quantum random number generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hai-Qiang, Ma; Wu, Zhu; Ke-Jin, Wei; Rui-Xue, Li; Hong-Wei, Liu
2016-05-01
This paper proposes a well-performing hybrid-type truly quantum random number generator based on the time interval between two independent single-photon detection signals, which is practical and intuitive, and generates the initial random number sources from a combination of multiple existing random number sources. A time-to-amplitude converter and multichannel analyzer are used for qualitative analysis to demonstrate that each and every step is random. Furthermore, a carefully designed data acquisition system is used to obtain a high-quality random sequence. Our scheme is simple and proves that the random number bit rate can be dramatically increased to satisfy practical requirements. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178010 and 11374042), the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. bupt2014TS01).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miszczak, Jarosław Adam
2013-01-01
The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random
Social Noise: Generating Random Numbers from Twitter Streams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Norberto; Quintas, Fernando; Sánchez, Luis; Arias, Jesús
2015-12-01
Due to the multiple applications of random numbers in computer systems (cryptography, online gambling, computer simulation, etc.) it is important to have mechanisms to generate these numbers. True Random Number Generators (TRNGs) are commonly used for this purpose. TRNGs rely on non-deterministic sources to generate randomness. Physical processes (like noise in semiconductors, quantum phenomenon, etc.) play this role in state of the art TRNGs. In this paper, we depart from previous work and explore the possibility of defining social TRNGs using the stream of public messages of the microblogging service Twitter as randomness source. Thus, we define two TRNGs based on Twitter stream information and evaluate them using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite. The results of the evaluation confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach.
GASPRNG: GPU accelerated scalable parallel random number generator library
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Shuang; Peterson, Gregory D.
2013-04-01
Graphics processors represent a promising technology for accelerating computational science applications. Many computational science applications require fast and scalable random number generation with good statistical properties, so they use the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators library (SPRNG). We present the GPU Accelerated SPRNG library (GASPRNG) to accelerate SPRNG in GPU-based high performance computing systems. GASPRNG includes code for a host CPU and CUDA code for execution on NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) along with a programming interface to support various usage models for pseudorandom numbers and computational science applications executing on the CPU, GPU, or both. This paper describes the implementation approach used to produce high performance and also describes how to use the programming interface. The programming interface allows a user to be able to use GASPRNG the same way as SPRNG on traditional serial or parallel computers as well as to develop tightly coupled programs executing primarily on the GPU. We also describe how to install GASPRNG and use it. To help illustrate linking with GASPRNG, various demonstration codes are included for the different usage models. GASPRNG on a single GPU shows up to 280x speedup over SPRNG on a single CPU core and is able to scale for larger systems in the same manner as SPRNG. Because GASPRNG generates identical streams of pseudorandom numbers as SPRNG, users can be confident about the quality of GASPRNG for scalable computational science applications. Catalogue identifier: AEOI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: UTK license. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167900 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1422058 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and CUDA. Computer: Any PC or
Random number generation in native and foreign languages.
Strenge, Hans; Bohm, Jessica
2004-06-01
The effects of different levels of language proficiency on random number generation were examined in this study. 16 healthy right-handed students (7 women, 9 men; aged 22 to 25 years, M=23.8, SD=.83) attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9 at pacing frequencies of 1, 1.5, and 2 Hz. Randomization was done in German (native language L1), English (first foreign language L2), and French (second foreign language L3). There was a pattern of redundancy and seriation tendencies, increasing with speed of generation for all languages (L1-L3). While using L2 and L3, responses slowed and the number of errors committed increased. Further, there was a peculiar pattern of dissociation in nonrandom performance with an increase of habitual counting in ones and a strong reduction of counting in twos. All effects were most pronounced when subjects used L3 and 2-Hz pacing rates. Slowing and nonrandomness was not correlated with self-assessment parameters regarding language proficiency. We suggest that in a task involving number activation in a nonnative language, lack of proficiency will interfere with random number generation, leading to interruptions and rule breaking, at least when reaching the limits of attentional capacity at higher pacing rates. PMID:15291201
HASPRNG: Hardware Accelerated Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, JunKyu; Bi, Yu; Peterson, Gregory D.; Hinde, Robert J.; Harrison, Robert J.
2009-12-01
The Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators library (SPRNG) supports fast and scalable random number generation with good statistical properties for parallel computational science applications. In order to accelerate SPRNG in high performance reconfigurable computing systems, we present the Hardware Accelerated SPRNG library (HASPRNG). Ported to the Xilinx University Program (XUP) and Cray XD1 reconfigurable computing platforms, HASPRNG includes the reconfigurable logic for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) along with a programming interface which performs integer random number generation that produces identical results with SPRNG. This paper describes the reconfigurable logic of HASPRNG exploiting the mathematical properties and data parallelism residing in the SPRNG algorithms to produce high performance and also describes how to use the programming interface to minimize the communication overhead between FPGAs and microprocessors. The programming interface allows a user to be able to use HASPRNG the same way as SPRNG 2.0 on platforms such as the Cray XD1. We also describe how to install HASPRNG and use it. For HASPRNG usage we discuss a FPGA π-estimator for a High Performance Reconfigurable Computer (HPRC) sample application and compare to a software π-estimator. HASPRNG shows 1.7x speedup over SPRNG on the Cray XD1 and is able to obtain substantial speedup for a HPRC application. Program summaryProgram title: HASPRNG Catalogue identifier: AEER_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEER_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 594 928 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 509 724 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: VHDL (XUP and Cray XD1), C++ (XUP), C (Cray XD1) Computer: PowerPC 405
Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu
2016-05-01
Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.
Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu
2016-05-01
Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.
Quantum random number generators and their applications in cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stipcevic, Mario
2012-06-01
Random number generators (RNG) are an important resource in many areas: cryptography (both quantum and classical), probabilistic computation (Monte Carlo methods), numerical simulations, industrial testing and labeling, hazard games, scientific research etc. Because today's computers are deterministic, they can not create random numbers unless complemented with a physical RNG. Randomness of a RNG can be defined and scientifically characterized and measured. Especially valuable is the information-theoretic provable RNG which, at state of the art, seem to be possible only by harvest of randomness inherent to certain (simple) quantum systems and such a generator we call Quantum RNG (QRNG). On the other hand, current industry standards dictate use of RNGs based on free running oscillators (FRO) whose randomness is derived from electronics noise present in logic circuits and which, although quantum in nature, cannot be strictly proven. This approach is currently used in FPGA and ASIC chips. We compare weak and strong aspects of the two approaches for use in cryptography and in general. We also give an alternative definition of randomness, discuss usage of single photon detectors in realization of QRNGs and give several examples where QRNG can significantly improve security of a cryptographic system.
Implementing Quality Control on a Random Number Stream to Improve a Stochastic Weather Generator
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
For decades stochastic modelers have used computerized random number generators to produce random numeric sequences fitting a specified statistical distribution. Unfortunately, none of the random number generators we tested satisfactorily produced the target distribution. The result is generated d...
Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator
Humble, Travis S
2014-01-01
The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.
Strenge, Hans; Rogge, Carolin
2010-04-01
The effects of different instructions on verbal random number generation were examined in 40 healthy students who attempted to generate random sequences of the digits 1 to 6. Two groups of 20 received different instructions with alternative numerical representations. The Symbolic group (Arabic digits) was instructed to randomize while continuously using the analogy of selecting and replacing numbered balls from a hat, whereas the Nonsymbolic group (arrays of dots) was instructed to imagine repeatedly throwing a die. Participants asked for self-reports on their strategies reported spontaneously occurring visuospatial imagination of a mental number line (42%), or imagining throwing a die (23%). Individual number representation was not affected by the initial instruction. There were no differences in randomization performance by group. Comprehensive understanding of the nature of the randomization task requires considering individual differences in construction of mental models. PMID:20499555
FPGA Implementation of Metastability-Based True Random Number Generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hata, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Shuichi
True random number generators (TRNGs) are important as a basis for computer security. Though there are some TRNGs composed of analog circuit, the use of digital circuits is desired for the application of TRNGs to logic LSIs. Some of the digital TRNGs utilize jitter in free-running ring oscillators as a source of entropy, which consume large power. Another type of TRNG exploits the metastability of a latch to generate entropy. Although this kind of TRNG has been mostly implemented with full-custom LSI technology, this study presents an implementation based on common FPGA technology. Our TRNG is comprised of logic gates only, and can be integrated in any kind of logic LSI. The RS latch in our TRNG is implemented as a hard-macro to guarantee the quality of randomness by minimizing the signal skew and load imbalance of internal nodes. To improve the quality and throughput, the output of 64-256 latches are XOR'ed. The derived design was verified on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA (XC4VFX20), and passed NIST statistical test suite without post-processing. Our TRNG with 256 latches occupies 580 slices, while achieving 12.5Mbps throughput.
Statistical evaluation of PACSTAT random number generation capabilities
Piepel, G.F.; Toland, M.R.; Harty, H.; Budden, M.J.; Bartley, C.L.
1988-05-01
This report summarizes the work performed in verifying the general purpose Monte Carlo driver-program PACSTAT. The main objective of the work was to verify the performance of PACSTAT's random number generation capabilities. Secondary objectives were to document (using controlled configuration management procedures) changes made in PACSTAT at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and to assure that PACSTAT input and output files satisfy quality assurance traceability constraints. Upon receipt of the PRIME version of the PACSTAT code from the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff converted the code to run on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAXs. The modifications to PACSTAT were implemented using the WITNESS configuration management system, with the modifications themselves intended to make the code as portable as possible. Certain modifications were made to make the PACSTAT input and output files conform to quality assurance traceability constraints. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.
Finding the best portable congruential random number generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sezgin, Fatin; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin
2013-08-01
Linear congruential random number generators must have large moduli to attain maximum periods, but this creates integer overflow during calculations. Several methods have been suggested to remedy this problem while obtaining portability. Approximate factoring is the most common method in portable implementations, but there is no systematic technique for finding appropriate multipliers and an exhaustive search is prohibitively expensive. We offer a very efficient method for finding all portable multipliers of any given modulus value. Letting M=AB+C, the multiplier A gives a portable result if B-C is positive. If it is negative, the portable multiplier can be defined as A=⌊M/B⌋. We also suggest a method for discovering the most fertile search region for spectral top-quality multipliers in a two-dimensional space. The method is extremely promising for best generator searches in very large moduli: 64-bit sizes and above. As an application to an important and challenging problem, we examined the prime modulus 263-25, suitable for 64-bit register size, and determined 12 high quality portable generators successfully passing stringent spectral and empirical tests.
Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation
England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J.
2014-02-03
The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.
Stipčević, Mario
2016-03-01
In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed. PMID:27036825
Stipčević, Mario
2016-03-01
In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stipčević, Mario
2016-03-01
In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.
Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection
Applegate, M. J.; Thomas, O.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Ritchie, D. A.
2015-08-17
We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser. By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons, we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. We extract random bits from the detected photon numbers with an efficiency of 99% corresponding to 1.97 bits per detected photon number yielding a bit rate of 143 Mbit/s, and verify that the extracted bits pass stringent statistical tests for randomness. Our scheme is highly scalable and has the potential of multi-Gbit/s bit rates.
Using Computer-Generated Random Numbers to Calculate the Lifetime of a Comet.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danesh, Iraj
1991-01-01
An educational technique to calculate the lifetime of a comet using software-generated random numbers is introduced to undergraduate physiques and astronomy students. Discussed are the generation and eligibility of the required random numbers, background literature related to the problem, and the solution to the problem using random numbers.…
Anosov C-systems and random number generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savvidy, G. K.
2016-08-01
We further develop our previous proposal to use hyperbolic Anosov C-systems to generate pseudorandom numbers and to use them for efficient Monte Carlo calculations in high energy particle physics. All trajectories of hyperbolic dynamical systems are exponentially unstable, and C-systems therefore have mixing of all orders, a countable Lebesgue spectrum, and a positive Kolmogorov entropy. These exceptional ergodic properties follow from the C-condition introduced by Anosov. This condition defines a rich class of dynamical systems forming an open set in the space of all dynamical systems. An important property of C-systems is that they have a countable set of everywhere dense periodic trajectories and their density increases exponentially with entropy. Of special interest are the C-systems defined on higher-dimensional tori. Such C-systems are excellent candidates for generating pseudorandom numbers that can be used in Monte Carlo calculations. An efficient algorithm was recently constructed that allows generating long C-system trajectories very rapidly. These trajectories have good statistical properties and can be used for calculations in quantum chromodynamics and in high energy particle physics.
Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming
2016-08-01
We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s-1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s-1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.
Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming
2016-08-01
We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s‑1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s‑1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks
Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation. PMID:26842402
Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.
a Pseudo-Random Number Generator Employing Multiple RÉNYI Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lui, Oi-Yan; Yuen, Ching-Hung; Wong, Kwok-Wo
2013-11-01
The increasing risk along with the drastic development of multimedia data transmission has raised a big concern on data security. A good pseudo-random number generator is an essential tool in cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel pseudo-random number generator based on the controlled combination of the outputs of several digitized chaotic Rényi maps. The generated pseudo-random sequences have passed both the NIST 800-22 Revision 1a and the DIEHARD tests. Moreover, simulation results show that the proposed pseudo-random number generator requires less operation time than existing generators and is highly sensitive to the seed.
Strenge, Hans; Müller-Deile, Joachim
2007-08-01
Oral random number generation is a widely used neuropsychological task engaging a number of overlapping neural systems of attention, number representation, response generation, and working memory. Although phonological processing is known to be essential for random number generation no information exists on the significance of the auditory feedback of hearing one's own voice on task performance. We therefore examined the influence of auditory feedback in 15 profoundly deaf adults with cochlear implants in a device-on/off experiment. No significant effects of occluding auditory feedback on random number generation were noted, thus supporting an internal response-monitoring model independent of auditory condition. PMID:17691037
Quantum random number generator using a microresonator-based Kerr oscillator.
Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Yu, Mengjie; Luke, Kevin; Carvalho, Daniel O; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L
2016-09-15
We demonstrate an all-optical quantum random number generator using a dual-pumped degenerate optical parametric oscillator in a silicon nitride microresonator. The frequency-degenerate bi-phase state output is realized using parametric four-wave mixing in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime with two nondegenerate pumps. We achieve a random number generation rate of 2 MHz and verify the randomness of our output using the National Institute of Standards and Technology Statistical Test Suite. The scheme offers potential for a chip-scale random number generator with gigahertz generation rates and no postprocessing. PMID:27628355
Quantum random number generator using a microresonator-based Kerr oscillator.
Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Yu, Mengjie; Luke, Kevin; Carvalho, Daniel O; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L
2016-09-15
We demonstrate an all-optical quantum random number generator using a dual-pumped degenerate optical parametric oscillator in a silicon nitride microresonator. The frequency-degenerate bi-phase state output is realized using parametric four-wave mixing in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime with two nondegenerate pumps. We achieve a random number generation rate of 2 MHz and verify the randomness of our output using the National Institute of Standards and Technology Statistical Test Suite. The scheme offers potential for a chip-scale random number generator with gigahertz generation rates and no postprocessing.
Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng
2014-02-03
We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.
Doing better by getting worse: posthypnotic amnesia improves random number generation.
Terhune, Devin Blair; Brugger, Peter
2011-01-01
Although forgetting is often regarded as a deficit that we need to control to optimize cognitive functioning, it can have beneficial effects in a number of contexts. We examined whether disrupting memory for previous numerical responses would attenuate repetition avoidance (the tendency to avoid repeating the same number) during random number generation and thereby improve the randomness of responses. Low suggestible and low dissociative and high dissociative highly suggestible individuals completed a random number generation task in a control condition, following a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget previous numerical responses, and in a second control condition following the cancellation of the suggestion. High dissociative highly suggestible participants displayed a selective increase in repetitions during posthypnotic amnesia, with equivalent repetition frequency to a random system, whereas the other two groups exhibited repetition avoidance across conditions. Our results demonstrate that temporarily disrupting memory for previous numerical responses improves random number generation.
High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao
2015-07-15
We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite.
Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser.
Guo, Hong; Tang, Wenzhuo; Liu, Yu; Wei, Wei
2010-05-01
We present a simple approach to realize truly random number generator based on measuring the phase noise of a single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser. The true randomness of the quantum phase noise originates from the spontaneous emission of photons and the random bit generation rate is ultimately limited only by the laser linewidth. With the final bit generation rate of 20 Mbit/s, the truly random bit sequence guaranteed by the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics passes the three standard randomness tests (ENT, Diehard, and NIST Statistical Test Suites). Moreover, a continuously generated random bit sequence, with length up to 14 Gbit, is verified by two additional criteria for its true randomness.
Strenge, Hans; Niederberger, Uwe
2008-06-01
The interference effect between Grooved Pegboard task with either hand and the executive task of cued verbal random number generation was investigated. 24 normal right-handed subjects performed each task under separate (single-task) and concurrent (dual-task) conditions. Articulatory suppression was required as an additional secondary task during pegboard performance. Analysis indicated an unambiguous distinction between the two hands. Comparisons of single-task and dual-task conditions showed an asymmetrical pattern of unidirectional interference with no practice effects during pegboard performance. Concurrent performance with nondominant hand but not the dominant hand of random number generation performance became continuously slower. There was no effect of divided attention on pegboard performance. Findings support the idea that the nondominant hand on the pegboard and random number tasks draw from the same processing resources but that for the executive aspect random number generation is more sensitive to changes in allocation of attentional resources. PMID:18712198
The generation of 68 Gbps quantum random number by measuring laser phase fluctuations.
Nie, You-Qi; Huang, Leilei; Liu, Yang; Payne, Frank; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-06-01
The speed of a quantum random number generator is essential for practical applications, such as high-speed quantum key distribution systems. Here, we push the speed of a quantum random number generator to 68 Gbps by operating a laser around its threshold level. To achieve the rate, not only high-speed photodetector and high sampling rate are needed but also a very stable interferometer is required. A practical interferometer with active feedback instead of common temperature control is developed to meet the requirement of stability. Phase fluctuations of the laser are measured by the interferometer with a photodetector and then digitalized to raw random numbers with a rate of 80 Gbps. The min-entropy of the raw data is evaluated by modeling the system and is used to quantify the quantum randomness of the raw data. The bias of the raw data caused by other signals, such as classical and detection noises, can be removed by Toeplitz-matrix hashing randomness extraction. The final random numbers can pass through the standard randomness tests. Our demonstration shows that high-speed quantum random number generators are ready for practical usage.
The generation of 68 Gbps quantum random number by measuring laser phase fluctuations
Nie, You-Qi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Huang, Leilei; Payne, Frank
2015-06-15
The speed of a quantum random number generator is essential for practical applications, such as high-speed quantum key distribution systems. Here, we push the speed of a quantum random number generator to 68 Gbps by operating a laser around its threshold level. To achieve the rate, not only high-speed photodetector and high sampling rate are needed but also a very stable interferometer is required. A practical interferometer with active feedback instead of common temperature control is developed to meet the requirement of stability. Phase fluctuations of the laser are measured by the interferometer with a photodetector and then digitalized to raw random numbers with a rate of 80 Gbps. The min-entropy of the raw data is evaluated by modeling the system and is used to quantify the quantum randomness of the raw data. The bias of the raw data caused by other signals, such as classical and detection noises, can be removed by Toeplitz-matrix hashing randomness extraction. The final random numbers can pass through the standard randomness tests. Our demonstration shows that high-speed quantum random number generators are ready for practical usage.
Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction.
Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Zhou, Hongyi; Liang, Hao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-01
We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps. PMID:27475609
Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Zhou, Hongyi; Liang, Hao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-01
We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.
Scope of Various Random Number Generators in Ant System Approach for TSP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sen, S. K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
Experimented on heuristic, based on an ant system approach for traveling Salesman problem, are several quasi and pseudo-random number generators. This experiment is to explore if any particular generator is most desirable. Such an experiment on large samples has the potential to rank the performance of the generators for the foregoing heuristic. This is just to seek an answer to the controversial performance ranking of the generators in probabilistic/statically sense.
25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... CLASS II GAMES § 547.14 What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation... rules of the game. For example, if a bingo game with 75 objects with numbers or other designations has a... serial correlation (outcomes shall be independent from the previous game); and (x) Test on...
25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... CLASS II GAMES § 547.14 What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation... rules of the game. For example, if a bingo game with 75 objects with numbers or other designations has a... serial correlation (outcomes shall be independent from the previous game); and (x) Test on...
25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... CLASS II GAMES § 547.14 What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation... rules of the game. For example, if a bingo game with 75 objects with numbers or other designations has a... serial correlation (outcomes shall be independent from the previous game); and (x) Test on...
Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes
Yuan, Z. L. Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.
2014-06-30
We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.
On parallel random number generation for accelerating simulations of communication systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brugger, C.; Weithoffer, S.; de Schryver, C.; Wasenmüller, U.; Wehn, N.
2014-11-01
Powerful compute clusters and multi-core systems have become widely available in research and industry nowadays. This boost in utilizable computational power tempts people to run compute-intensive tasks on those clusters, either for speed or accuracy reasons. Especially Monte Carlo simulations with their inherent parallelism promise very high speedups. Nevertheless, the quality of Monte Carlo simulations strongly depends on the quality of the employed random numbers. In this work we present a comprehensive analysis of state-of-the-art pseudo random number generators like the MT19937 or the WELL generator used for parallel stream generation in different settings. These random number generators can be realized in hardware as well as in software and help to accelerate the analysis (or simulation) of communications systems. We show that it is possible to generate high-quality parallel random number streams with both generators, as long as some configuration constraints are met. We furthermore depict that distributed simulations with those generator types are viable even to very high degrees of parallelism.
Quantum random number generation enhanced by weak-coherent states interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira da Silva, T.; Xavier, G. B.; Amaral, G. C.; Temporão, G. P.; von der Weid, J. P.
2016-08-01
We propose and demonstrate a technique for quantum random number generation based on the random population of the output spatial modes of a beam splitter when both inputs are simultaneously fed with indistinguishable weak coherent states. We simulate and experimentally validate the probability of generation of random bits as a function of the average photon number per input, and compare it to the traditional approach of a single weak coherent state transmitted through a beam-splitter, showing an improvement of up to 32\\%. The ensuing interference phenomenon reduces the probability of coincident counts between the detectors associated with bits 0 and 1, thus increasing the probability of occurrence of a valid output. A long bit string is assessed by a standard randomness test suite with good confidence. Our proposal can be easily implemented and opens attractive performance gains without a significant trade-off.
Quantum random number generation enhanced by weak-coherent states interference.
Ferreira da Silva, T; Xavier, G B; Amaral, G C; Temporão, G P; von der Weid, J P
2016-08-22
We propose and demonstrate a technique for quantum random number generation based on the random population of the output spatial modes of a beam splitter when both inputs are simultaneously fed with indistinguishable weak coherent states. We simulate and experimentally validate the probability of generation of random bits as a function of the average photon number per input, and compare it to the traditional approach of a single weak coherent state transmitted through a beam-splitter, showing an improvement of up to 32%. The ensuing interference phenomenon reduces the probability of coincident counts between the detectors associated with bits 0 and 1, thus increasing the probability of occurrence of a valid output. A long bit string is assessed by a standard randomness test suite with good confidence. Our proposal can be easily implemented and opens attractive performance gains without a significant trade-off. PMID:27557235
True random number generator based on discretized encoding of the time interval between photons.
Li, Shen; Wang, Long; Wu, Ling-An; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Zhai, Guang-Jie
2013-01-01
We propose an approach to generate true random number sequences based on the discretized encoding of the time interval between photons. The method is simple and efficient, and can produce a highly random sequence several times longer than that of other methods based on threshold or parity selection, without the need for hashing. A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed, showing that the system could be easily integrated and applied to quantum cryptography and other fields. PMID:23456008
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosch, Holger; Steinkamp, Fiona; Boller, Emil
2006-01-01
Seance-room and other large-scale psychokinetic phenomena have fascinated humankind for decades. Experimental research has reduced these phenomena to attempts to influence (a) the fall of dice and, later, (b) the output of random number generators (RNGs). The meta-analysis combined 380 studies that assessed whether RNG output correlated with human…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, J. R.; Taylor, M. S.
1982-01-01
Let X be a K-dimensional random variable serving as input for a system with output Y (not necessarily of dimension k). given X, an outcome Y or a distribution of outcomes G(Y/X) may be obtained either explicitly or implicity. The situation is considered in which there is a real world data set X sub j sub = 1 (n) and a means of simulating an outcome Y. A method for empirical random number generation based on the sample of observations of the random variable X without estimating the underlying density is discussed.
Geisseler, Olivia; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Buchmann, Andreas; Bezzola, Ladina; Reuter, Katja; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Weller, David; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter
2016-09-01
Human subjects typically deviate systematically from randomness when attempting to produce a sequence of random numbers. Despite an increasing number of behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies on random number generation (RNG), its structural correlates have never been investigated. We set out to fill this gap in 44 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease whose impact on RNG has never been studied. The RNG task required the paced (1 Hz) generation of the numbers from 1 to 6 in a sequence as random as possible. The same task was administered in 39 matched healthy controls. To assess neuroanatomical correlates such as cortical thickness, lesion load and third ventricle width, all subjects underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Compared to controls, MS patients exhibited an enhanced tendency to arrange consecutive numbers in an ascending order ("forward counting"). Furthermore, patients showed a higher susceptibility to rule breaks (producing out-of-category digits like 7) and to skip beats of the metronome. Clinico-anatomical correlation analyses revealed two main findings: First, increased counting in MS patients was associated with higher cortical lesion load. Second, increased number of skipped beats was related to widespread cortical thinning. In conclusion, our test results illustrate a loss of behavioral complexity in the course of MS, while the imaging results suggest an association between this loss and cortical pathology.
Geisseler, Olivia; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Buchmann, Andreas; Bezzola, Ladina; Reuter, Katja; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Weller, David; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter
2016-09-01
Human subjects typically deviate systematically from randomness when attempting to produce a sequence of random numbers. Despite an increasing number of behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies on random number generation (RNG), its structural correlates have never been investigated. We set out to fill this gap in 44 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease whose impact on RNG has never been studied. The RNG task required the paced (1 Hz) generation of the numbers from 1 to 6 in a sequence as random as possible. The same task was administered in 39 matched healthy controls. To assess neuroanatomical correlates such as cortical thickness, lesion load and third ventricle width, all subjects underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Compared to controls, MS patients exhibited an enhanced tendency to arrange consecutive numbers in an ascending order ("forward counting"). Furthermore, patients showed a higher susceptibility to rule breaks (producing out-of-category digits like 7) and to skip beats of the metronome. Clinico-anatomical correlation analyses revealed two main findings: First, increased counting in MS patients was associated with higher cortical lesion load. Second, increased number of skipped beats was related to widespread cortical thinning. In conclusion, our test results illustrate a loss of behavioral complexity in the course of MS, while the imaging results suggest an association between this loss and cortical pathology. PMID:27403852
Scope of Various Random Number Generators in ant System Approach for TSP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sen, S. K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
Experimented on heuristic, based on an ant system approach for traveling salesman problem, are several quasi- and pseudo-random number generators. This experiment is to explore if any particular generator is most desirable. Such an experiment on large samples has the potential to rank the performance of the generators for the foregoing heuristic. This is mainly to seek an answer to the controversial issue "which generator is the best in terms of quality of the result (accuracy) as well as cost of producing the result (time/computational complexity) in a probabilistic/statistical sense."
Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.
2011-08-10
Highlights: {yields} Molecular Dynamics codes implemented on GPUs have achieved two-order of magnitude computational accelerations. {yields} Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations require a large number of random numbers per time step. {yields} We introduce a method for generating small batches of pseudorandom numbers distributed over many threads of calculations. {yields} With this method, Dissipative Particle Dynamics is implemented on a GPU device without requiring thread-to-thread communication. - Abstract: Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.
Random Numbers and Quantum Computers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCartney, Mark; Glass, David
2002-01-01
The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boonsathorn, Wasita; Charoen, Danuvasin; Dryver, Arthur L.
2014-01-01
E-Learning brings access to a powerful but often overlooked teaching tool: random number generation. Using random number generation, a practically infinite number of quantitative problem-solution sets can be created. In addition, within the e-learning context, in the spirit of the mastery of learning, it is possible to assign online quantitative…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.
2011-08-01
Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.
An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.
Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert
2015-01-01
Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology. PMID:26057576
An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.
Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert
2015-06-09
Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.
Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer
Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi
2014-01-01
By using nanoscale energy-transfer dynamics and density matrix formalism, we demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic oscillation and random-number generation occur in a nanoscale system. The physical system consists of a pair of quantum dots (QDs), with one QD smaller than the other, between which energy transfers via optical near-field interactions. When the system is pumped by continuous-wave radiation and incorporates a timing delay between two energy transfers within the system, it emits optical pulses. We refer to such QD pairs as nano-optical pulsers (NOPs). Irradiating an NOP with external periodic optical pulses causes the oscillating frequency of the NOP to synchronize with the external stimulus. We find that chaotic oscillation occurs in the NOP population when they are connected by an external time delay. Moreover, by evaluating the time-domain signals by statistical-test suites, we confirm that the signals are sufficiently random to qualify the system as a random-number generator (RNG). This study reveals that even relatively simple nanodevices that interact locally with each other through optical energy transfer at scales far below the wavelength of irradiating light can exhibit complex oscillatory dynamics. These findings are significant for applications such as ultrasmall RNGs. PMID:25113239
40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... generation on any two-dimensional square grid. 761.308 Section 761.308 Protection of Environment... Â§ 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each...
40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... generation on any two-dimensional square grid. 761.308 Section 761.308 Protection of Environment... Â§ 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each...
40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... generation on any two-dimensional square grid. 761.308 Section 761.308 Protection of Environment... Â§ 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each...
40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... generation on any two-dimensional square grid. 761.308 Section 761.308 Protection of Environment... Â§ 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each...
40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... generation on any two-dimensional square grid. 761.308 Section 761.308 Protection of Environment... Â§ 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each...
Li, Dongfang; Lu, Zhaojun; Zou, Xuecheng; Liu, Zhenglin
2015-01-01
Random number generators (RNG) play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF) elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST) randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks. PMID:26501283
Oomens, Wouter; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Hasselman, Fred; Egger, Jos I. M.
2015-01-01
The concept of executive functions plays a prominent role in contemporary experimental and clinical studies on cognition. One paradigm used in this framework is the random number generation (RNG) task, the execution of which demands aspects of executive functioning, specifically inhibition and working memory. Data from the RNG task are best seen as a series of successive events. However, traditional RNG measures that are used to quantify executive functioning are mostly summary statistics referring to deviations from mathematical randomness. In the current study, we explore the utility of recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), a non-linear method that keeps the entire sequence intact, as a better way to describe executive functioning compared to traditional measures. To this aim, 242 first- and second-year students completed a non-paced RNG task. Principal component analysis of their data showed that traditional and RQA measures convey more or less the same information. However, RQA measures do so more parsimoniously and have a better interpretation. PMID:26097449
Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yicheng; Chng, Brenda; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2016-07-01
We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.
Spectrum and entropy of C-systems MIXMAX random number generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savvidy, Konstantin; Savvidy, George
2016-10-01
The uniformly hyperbolic Anosov C-systems defined on a torus have very strong instability of their trajectories, as strong as it can be in principle. These systems have exponential instability of all their trajectories and as such have mixing of all orders, nonzero Kolmogorov entropy and a countable set of everywhere dense periodic trajectories. In this paper we are studying the properties of their spectrum and of the entropy. For a two-parameter family of C-system operators A(N,s), parametrised by the integers N and s, we found the universal limiting form of the spectrum, the dependence of entropy on N and the period of its trajectories on a rational sublattice. One can deduce from this result that the entropy and the periods are sharply increasing with N. We present a new three-parameter family of C-operators A(N,s,m) and analyse the dependence of its spectrum and of the entropy on the parameter m. We developed our earlier suggestion to use these tuneable Anosov C-systems for multipurpos Monte-Carlo simulations. The MIXMAX family of random number generators based on Anosov C-systems provide high quality statistical properties, thanks to their large entropy, have the best combination of speed, reasonable size of the state, tuneable parameters and availability for implementing the parallelisation.
Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej
2015-01-01
Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357
Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej
2015-10-22
Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.
Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej
2015-01-01
Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357
Three criteria for quantum random-number generators based on beam splitters
Svozil, Karl
2009-05-15
We propose three criteria for the generation of random digital strings from quantum beam splitters: (i) three or more mutually exclusive outcomes corresponding to the invocation of three- and higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, (ii) the mandatory use of pure states in conjugated bases for preparation and detection, and (iii) the use of entangled singlet (unique) states for elimination of bias.
A new technique for ultrafast physical random number generation using optical chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsonbaty, Amr; Hegazy, Salem F.; Obayya, Salah S. A.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we numerically demonstrate a new extraction scheme for generating ultra-fast physically random sequence of bits. For this purpose, we utilize a dual-channel optical chaos source with suppressed time delayed (TD) signature in both the intensity and the phase of its two channels. The proposed technique uses M 1-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) to compare the level of the chaotic intensity signal at time t with its levels after incommensurable delay-interval Tm, where m = {1,2, … , M}. The binary output of each 1-bit ADC is then sampled by a positive-edge-triggered D flip flop. The clock sequence applied to the flip-flops is relatively delayed such that the rising edge of the clock triggering the m flip-flop precedes the rising edge of the clock of a subsequent m+1 flip-flop by a fixed period. The outputs of all flip flops are then combined by means of a parity-check logic. Numerical simulations are carried out using values of parameters at which TD signature is suppressed for chosen values of setup parameters. The 15 statistical tests in Special Publication 800-22 from NIST are applied to the generated random bits in order to examine the randomness quality of these bits for different values of M. The results show that all tests are passed from M = 1 to M = 39 at sampling rate up to 34.5 GHz which indicates that the maximum generation rate of random bits is 2.691 Tb/sec using a chaotic source of single VCSEL and without employing any pre-processing techniques.
Efficient Monte Carlo simulations using a shuffled nested Weyl sequence random number generator.
Tretiakov, K V; Wojciechowski, K W
1999-12-01
The pseudorandom number generator proposed recently by Holian et al. [B. L. Holian, O. E. Percus, T. T. Warnock, and P. A. Whitlock, Phys. Rev. E 50, 1607 (1994)] is tested via Monte Carlo computation of the free energy difference between the defectless hcp and fcc hard sphere crystals by the Frenkel-Ladd method [D. Frenkel and A. J. C. Ladd, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3188 (1984)]. It is shown that this fast and convenient for parallel computing generator gives results in good agreement with results obtained by other generators. An estimate of high accuracy is obtained for the hcp-fcc free energy difference near melting. PMID:11970727
Procassini, R J; Beck, B R
2004-12-07
It might be assumed that use of a ''high-quality'' random number generator (RNG), producing a sequence of ''pseudo random'' numbers with a ''long'' repetition period, is crucial for producing unbiased results in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations. While several theoretical and empirical tests have been devised to check the quality (randomness and period) of an RNG, for many applications it is not clear what level of RNG quality is required to produce unbiased results. This paper explores the issue of RNG quality in the context of parallel, Monte Carlo transport simulations in order to determine how ''good'' is ''good enough''. This study employs the MERCURY Monte Carlo code, which incorporates the CNPRNG library for the generation of pseudo-random numbers via linear congruential generator (LCG) algorithms. The paper outlines the usage of random numbers during parallel MERCURY simulations, and then describes the source and criticality transport simulations which comprise the empirical basis of this study. A series of calculations for each test problem in which the quality of the RNG (period of the LCG) is varied provides the empirical basis for determining the minimum repetition period which may be employed without producing a bias in the mean integrated results.
Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu
2016-12-01
We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process.
Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu
2016-12-01
We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. PMID:27554145
Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut
2009-08-01
Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test. PMID:19831087
Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut
2009-08-01
Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao
2016-04-01
The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.
Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao
2016-04-01
The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.
Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao
2016-04-01
The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications. PMID:27131692
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liberty, Joshua W.
This dissertation uses the hierarchical q-state Potts model at the critical point to develop a new random number generator test. We start with an exposition of renormalization group approach by means of which one can numerically exactly compute the free energy, specific heat and susceptibility of large, but finite lattices. We then show that generalization of these standard techniques allows one to also compute probability distributions related to the energy and the order parameter. The various computed quantities can be compared with Monte Carlo estimates of the same quantities. We demonstrate that the structure of the hierarchical lattices used allows one to perform the Monte Carlo calculations by direct sampling. This avoids the usual critical slowing down that plagues Monte Carlo calculations at the critical point. As is well known, critical behavior is highly susceptible to perturbations. We expect that flaws of the pseudo random number generator, such as correlations, will cause statistically significant discrepancies between the results of the simulations and the numerically exactly computed results. Details of the computer code generated for these tests are included.
25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... must not be feasible to predict future outputs of an RNG, even if the algorithm and the past sequence...) Scaling algorithms and scaled numbers. An RNG that provides output scaled to given ranges must: (1) Be... an unbiased algorithm. A scaling algorithm is considered to be unbiased if the measured bias is...
25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... must not be feasible to predict future outputs of an RNG, even if the algorithm and the past sequence...) Scaling algorithms and scaled numbers. An RNG that provides output scaled to given ranges must: (1) Be... an unbiased algorithm. A scaling algorithm is considered to be unbiased if the measured bias is...
Investigating the Randomness of Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendleton, Kenn L.
2009-01-01
The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…
Beem, Lance W.
2011-01-01
Abstract Background Reiki therapy is documented for relief of pain and stress. Energetic healing has been documented to alter biologic markers of illness such as hematocrit. True random number generators are reported to be affected by energy healers and spiritually oriented conscious awareness. Methods The patient was a then 54-year-old severely ill man who had hepatitis C types 1 and 2 and who did not improve with conventional therapy. He also suffered from obesity, the metabolic syndrome, asthma, and hypertension. He was treated with experimental high-dose interferon/riboviron therapy with resultant profound anemia and neutropenia. Energetic healing and Reiki therapy was administered initially to enhance the patient's sense of well-being and to relieve anxiety. Possible effects on the patient's absolute neutrophil count and hematocrit were incidentally noted. Reiki therapy was then initiated at times of profound neutropenia to assess its possible effect on the patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Reiki and other energetic healing sessions were monitored with a true random number generator (RNG). Results Statistically significant relationships were documented between Reiki therapy, a quieting of the electronically created white noise of the RNG during healing sessions, and improvement in the patient's ANC. The immediate clinical result was that the patient could tolerate the high-dose interferon regimen without missing doses because of absolute neutropenia. The patient was initially a late responder to interferon and had been given a 5% chance of clearing the virus. He remains clear of the virus 1 year after treatment. Conclusions The association between changes in the RNG, Reiki therapy, and a patient's ANC is the first to the authors' knowledge in the medical literature. Future studies assessing the effects of energetic healing on specific biologic markers of disease are anticipated. Concurrent use of a true RNG may prove to correlate with the
Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.
Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C
2010-04-15
Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory. PMID:20393558
Random Numbers from a Delay Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Self, Julian; Mackey, Michael C.
2016-10-01
Delay differential equations can have "chaotic" solutions that can be used to mimic Brownian motion. Since a Brownian motion is random in its velocity, it is reasonable to think that a random number generator might be constructed from such a model. In this preliminary study, we consider one specific example of this and show that it satisfies criteria commonly employed in the testing of random number generators (from TestU01's very stringent "Big Crush" battery of tests). A technique termed digit discarding, commonly used in both this generator and physical RNGs using laser feedback systems, is discussed with regard to the maximal Lyapunov exponent. Also, we benchmark the generator to a contemporary common method: the multiple recursive generator, MRG32k3a. Although our method is about 7 times slower than MRG32k3a, there is in principle no apparent limit on the number of possible values that can be generated from the scheme we present here.
Generating random density matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Życzkowski, Karol; Penson, Karol A.; Nechita, Ion; Collins, Benoît
2011-06-01
We study various methods to generate ensembles of random density matrices of a fixed size N, obtained by partial trace of pure states on composite systems. Structured ensembles of random pure states, invariant with respect to local unitary transformations are introduced. To analyze statistical properties of quantum entanglement in bi-partite systems we analyze the distribution of Schmidt coefficients of random pure states. Such a distribution is derived in the case of a superposition of k random maximally entangled states. For another ensemble, obtained by performing selective measurements in a maximally entangled basis on a multi-partite system, we show that this distribution is given by the Fuss-Catalan law and find the average entanglement entropy. A more general class of structured ensembles proposed, containing also the case of Bures, forms an extension of the standard ensemble of structureless random pure states, described asymptotically, as N → ∞, by the Marchenko-Pastur distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Martin
2011-01-01
One of the author's undergraduate students recently asked him whether it was possible to generate a random positive integer. After some thought, the author realised that there were plenty of interesting mathematical ideas inherent in her question. So much so in fact, that the author decided to organise a workshop, open both to undergraduates and…
Mohr, Christine; Koutrakis, Nikolaos; Kuhn, Gustav
2015-01-01
Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn skeptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgments of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals’ explicit traditional (religious) and non-traditional (e.g., paranormal) beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g., repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group) or a psychic (psychic group). The instruction influenced participants’ explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people’s interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events. PMID:25653626
Mohr, Christine; Koutrakis, Nikolaos; Kuhn, Gustav
2014-01-01
Magical ideation and belief in the paranormal is considered to represent a trait-like character; people either believe in it or not. Yet, anecdotes indicate that exposure to an anomalous event can turn skeptics into believers. This transformation is likely to be accompanied by altered cognitive functioning such as impaired judgments of event likelihood. Here, we investigated whether the exposure to an anomalous event changes individuals' explicit traditional (religious) and non-traditional (e.g., paranormal) beliefs as well as cognitive biases that have previously been associated with non-traditional beliefs, e.g., repetition avoidance when producing random numbers in a mental dice task. In a classroom, 91 students saw a magic demonstration after their psychology lecture. Before the demonstration, half of the students were told that the performance was done respectively by a conjuror (magician group) or a psychic (psychic group). The instruction influenced participants' explanations of the anomalous event. Participants in the magician, as compared to the psychic group, were more likely to explain the event through conjuring abilities while the reverse was true for psychic abilities. Moreover, these explanations correlated positively with their prior traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Finally, we observed that the psychic group showed more repetition avoidance than the magician group, and this effect remained the same regardless of whether assessed before or after the magic demonstration. We conclude that pre-existing beliefs and contextual suggestions both influence people's interpretations of anomalous events and associated cognitive biases. Beliefs and associated cognitive biases are likely flexible well into adulthood and change with actual life events.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ben-Ari, Morechai
2004-01-01
The term "random" is frequently used in discussion of the theory of evolution, even though the mathematical concept of randomness is problematic and of little relevance in the theory. Therefore, since the core concept of the theory of evolution is the non-random process of natural selection, the term random should not be used in teaching the…
Maes, Joseph H R; Eling, Paul A T M; Reelick, Miriam F; Kessels, Roy P C
2011-03-01
In random number generation (RNG) tasks, used to assess executive functioning, participants are asked to generate a random sequence of digits at a paced rate, either verbally or by writing. Some previous studies used an alternative format in which participants had to randomly press different response keys, assuming that this task version demands the same cognitive processes as those implied in the standard version. The present study examined the validity of this assumption. To this end, the construct validity, reliability, and sensitivity of a conceptually similar task version of the key-press task were examined. Participants had to randomly click on, or point to, the digits 1-9, laid out orderly in a 3 × 3 grid on a computer screen. Psychometric properties of this task were examined, based on the performance of 131 healthy participants and 80 patients with cognitive decline. The results suggest that the click/point RNG task version can be used as a reliable and valid substitute for standard task versions that use the same response set and response pacing rate as those used in the present study. This task might be a useful alternative, demanding no separate recording and recoding of responses, and being suitable for use with patients with speech or writing problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, X.; Wu, Z. M.; Wu, J. G.; Deng, T.; Fan, L.; Zhong, Z. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xia, G. Q.
2015-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to generate multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers (PRNs) by taking two chaotic signal outputs from mutually coupled semiconductor lasers (MC-SLs) as entropy sources. First, through controlling the operation parameters of the MC-SL system, two time-delay signature (TDS) suppressed chaotic signals can be obtained. Next, each of these two chaotic signals is sampled by an 8 bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a sampling rate of 10 GHz, and then a bitwise exclusive-OR (XOR) operation on the corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time delayed signal is implemented to obtain 8 bit XOR data. Furthermore, through selecting the five least significant bits (LSBs) of 8 bit XOR data to form 5 bit Boolean sequences, two sets of PRN streams with a rate up to 50 Gbits s-1 are generated and successfully pass the NIST statistical tests. Finally, merging these two sets of 50 Gbits s-1 PRN streams by an interleaving operation, another set of the 100 Gbits s-1 PRN stream, which meets all the quality criteria of NIST statistical tests, is also acquired.
Quasi-Random Sequence Generators.
1994-03-01
Version 00 LPTAU generates quasi-random sequences. The sequences are uniformly distributed sets of L=2**30 points in the N-dimensional unit cube: I**N=[0,1]. The sequences are used as nodes for multidimensional integration, as searching points in global optimization, as trial points in multicriteria decision making, as quasi-random points for quasi Monte Carlo algorithms.
Fast generation of sparse random kernel graphs
Hagberg, Aric; Lemons, Nathan; Du, Wen -Bo
2015-09-10
The development of kernel-based inhomogeneous random graphs has provided models that are flexible enough to capture many observed characteristics of real networks, and that are also mathematically tractable. We specify a class of inhomogeneous random graph models, called random kernel graphs, that produces sparse graphs with tunable graph properties, and we develop an efficient generation algorithm to sample random instances from this model. As real-world networks are usually large, it is essential that the run-time of generation algorithms scales better than quadratically in the number of vertices n. We show that for many practical kernels our algorithm runs in time at most ο(n(logn)²). As an example, we show how to generate samples of power-law degree distribution graphs with tunable assortativity.
Fast generation of sparse random kernel graphs
Hagberg, Aric; Lemons, Nathan; Du, Wen -Bo
2015-09-10
The development of kernel-based inhomogeneous random graphs has provided models that are flexible enough to capture many observed characteristics of real networks, and that are also mathematically tractable. We specify a class of inhomogeneous random graph models, called random kernel graphs, that produces sparse graphs with tunable graph properties, and we develop an efficient generation algorithm to sample random instances from this model. As real-world networks are usually large, it is essential that the run-time of generation algorithms scales better than quadratically in the number of vertices n. We show that for many practical kernels our algorithm runs in timemore » at most ο(n(logn)²). As an example, we show how to generate samples of power-law degree distribution graphs with tunable assortativity.« less
Security of Semi-Device-Independent Random Number Expansion Protocols
Li, Dan-Dan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei
2015-01-01
Semi-device-independent random number expansion (SDI-RNE) protocols require some truly random numbers to generate fresh ones, with making no assumptions on the internal working of quantum devices except for the dimension of the Hilbert space. The generated randomness is certified by non-classical correlation in the prepare-and-measure test. Until now, the analytical relations between the amount of the generated randomness and the degree of non-classical correlation, which are crucial for evaluating the security of SDI-RNE protocols, are not clear under both the ideal condition and the practical one. In the paper, first, we give the analytical relation between the above two factors under the ideal condition. As well, we derive the analytical relation under the practical conditions, where devices’ behavior is not independent and identical in each round and there exists deviation in estimating the non-classical behavior of devices. Furthermore, we choose a different randomness extractor (i.e., two-universal random function) and give the security proof. PMID:26503335
Security of Semi-Device-Independent Random Number Expansion Protocols.
Li, Dan-Dan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei
2015-01-01
Semi-device-independent random number expansion (SDI-RNE) protocols require some truly random numbers to generate fresh ones, with making no assumptions on the internal working of quantum devices except for the dimension of the Hilbert space. The generated randomness is certified by non-classical correlation in the prepare-and-measure test. Until now, the analytical relations between the amount of the generated randomness and the degree of non-classical correlation, which are crucial for evaluating the security of SDI-RNE protocols, are not clear under both the ideal condition and the practical one. In the paper, first, we give the analytical relation between the above two factors under the ideal condition. As well, we derive the analytical relation under the practical conditions, where devices' behavior is not independent and identical in each round and there exists deviation in estimating the non-classical behavior of devices. Furthermore, we choose a different randomness extractor (i.e., two-universal random function) and give the security proof.
Quantum Random Numbers Guaranteed by Kochen-Specker Theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Um, Mark; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Shen, Yang-Chao; Deng, Dong-Ling; Duan, Lu-Ming; Kim, Kihwan; CQI Team
2013-05-01
We present a random number generator certified by Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem with a trapped ion system. Outcomes of quantum theory are intrinsically random and can be used to produce genuine randomness. In real implementation, however, the true randomness is inevitably mingled with classical noise or control imperfection and cannot be decisively certified. The KS inequality differentiates the results of quantum mechanics from those of classical theory, non-contextual in nature. We demonstrate the experimental violations of the KS inequality, in particular, the Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality without the detection loophole and reasonably without the compatibility loophole. The violations are used to certify the randomness of a generated string. As a proof of principle, we produce 1 × 105 random numbers that contain 5.2 × 104 bits of minimum entropy. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China Grant 2011CBA00300, 2011CBA00301, 2011CBA00302, the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 61073174, 61033001, 61061130540. KK acknowledges the support of the Thousand Young Talents plan.
Integrated-Circuit Pseudorandom-Number Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steelman, James E.; Beasley, Jeff; Aragon, Michael; Ramirez, Francisco; Summers, Kenneth L.; Knoebel, Arthur
1992-01-01
Integrated circuit produces 8-bit pseudorandom numbers from specified probability distribution, at rate of 10 MHz. Use of Boolean logic, circuit implements pseudorandom-number-generating algorithm. Circuit includes eight 12-bit pseudorandom-number generators, outputs are uniformly distributed. 8-bit pseudorandom numbers satisfying specified nonuniform probability distribution are generated by processing uniformly distributed outputs of eight 12-bit pseudorandom-number generators through "pipeline" of D flip-flops, comparators, and memories implementing conditional probabilities on zeros and ones.
Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2009-01-01
A physical principle (more precisely, a principle that incorporates mathematical models used in physics) has been conceived as the basis of a method of generating randomness in Monte Carlo simulations. The principle eliminates the need for conventional random-number generators. The Monte Carlo simulation method is among the most powerful computational methods for solving high-dimensional problems in physics, chemistry, economics, and information processing. The Monte Carlo simulation method is especially effective for solving problems in which computational complexity increases exponentially with dimensionality. The main advantage of the Monte Carlo simulation method over other methods is that the demand on computational resources becomes independent of dimensionality. As augmented by the present principle, the Monte Carlo simulation method becomes an even more powerful computational method that is especially useful for solving problems associated with dynamics of fluids, planning, scheduling, and combinatorial optimization. The present principle is based on coupling of dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation. The randomness is generated by non-Lipschitz instability of dynamics triggered and controlled by feedback from the Liouville equation. (In non-Lipschitz dynamics, the derivatives of solutions of the dynamical equations are not required to be bounded.)
Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions
Kirby, W.
1983-01-01
Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)
Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions
Kirby, W.H.
1980-01-01
Use of previously codes and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main programs. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chisquare, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F tests. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function I (subzero), gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)
Techniques for testing the quality of parallel pseudorandom number generators
Cuccaro, S.A.; Mascagni, M.; Pryor, D.V.
1995-12-01
Ensuring that pseudorandom number generators have good randomness properties is more complicated in a multiprocessor implementation than in the uniprocessor case. We discuss simple extensions of uniprocessor testing for SIMD parallel streams, and develop in detail a repeatability test for the SPMD paradigm. Examples of the application of these tests to an additive tagged-Fibonacci generator are also given.
Which numbers do you have in mind? Number generation is influenced by reading direction.
Göbel, Silke M; Maier, Carolin A; Shaki, Samuel
2015-09-01
In Western participants, small numbers are associated with left and larger numbers with right space. A biological account proposes that brain asymmetries lead to these attentional asymmetries in number space. In contrast, a cultural account proposes that the direction of this association is shaped by reading direction. We explored whether number generation is influenced by reading direction in participants from a left-to-right (UK) and a right-to-left (Arab) reading culture. Participants generated numbers randomly while lying on their left and right side. The mean number generated by participants from a left-to-right reading culture was smaller when they lay on their left than on their right side, and the opposite was found for participants from a right-to-left reading culture. Asymmetries in number space observed in number generation are more compatible with a cultural than biological account.
Generating functionals for quantum field theories with random potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Mudit; Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-01-01
We consider generating functionals for computing correlators in quantum field theories with random potentials. Examples of such theories include cosmological systems in context of the string theory landscape (e.g. cosmic inflation) or condensed matter systems with quenched disorder (e.g. spin glass). We use the so-called replica trick to define two different generating functionals for calculating correlators of the quantum fields averaged over a given distribution of random potentials. The first generating functional is appropriate for calculating averaged (in-out) amplitudes and involves a single replica of fields, but the replica limit is taken to an (unphysical) negative one number of fields outside of the path integral. When the number of replicas is doubled the generating functional can also be used for calculating averaged probabilities (squared amplitudes) using the in-in construction. The second generating functional involves an infinite number of replicas, but can be used for calculating both in-out and in-in correlators and the replica limits are taken to only a zero number of fields. We discuss the formalism in details for a single real scalar field, but the generalization to more fields or to different types of fields is straightforward. We work out three examples: one where the mass of scalar field is treated as a random variable and two where the functional form of interactions is random, one described by a Gaussian random field and the other by a Euclidean action in the field configuration space.
Code System to Generate Latin Hypercube and Random Samples.
1999-02-25
Version: 00 LHS was written for the generation of multi variate samples either completely at random or by a constrained randomization termed Latin hypercube sampling (LHS). The generation of these samples is based on user-specified parameters which dictate the characteristics of the generated samples, such as type of sample (LHS or random), sample size, number of samples desired, correlation structure on input variables, and type of distribution specified on each variable. The following distributions aremore » built into the program: normal, lognormal, uniform, loguniform, triangular, and beta. In addition, the samples from the uniform and loguniform distributions may be modified by changing the frequency of the sampling within subintervals, and a subroutine which can be modified by the user to generate samples from other distributions (including empirical data) is provided.« less
Code System to Generate Latin Hypercube and Random Samples.
IMAN, RONALD L.
1999-02-25
Version: 00 LHS was written for the generation of multi variate samples either completely at random or by a constrained randomization termed Latin hypercube sampling (LHS). The generation of these samples is based on user-specified parameters which dictate the characteristics of the generated samples, such as type of sample (LHS or random), sample size, number of samples desired, correlation structure on input variables, and type of distribution specified on each variable. The following distributions are built into the program: normal, lognormal, uniform, loguniform, triangular, and beta. In addition, the samples from the uniform and loguniform distributions may be modified by changing the frequency of the sampling within subintervals, and a subroutine which can be modified by the user to generate samples from other distributions (including empirical data) is provided.
Saturation of number variance in embedded random-matrix ensembles.
Prakash, Ravi; Pandey, Akhilesh
2016-05-01
We study fluctuation properties of embedded random matrix ensembles of noninteracting particles. For ensemble of two noninteracting particle systems, we find that unlike the spectra of classical random matrices, correlation functions are nonstationary. In the locally stationary region of spectra, we study the number variance and the spacing distributions. The spacing distributions follow the Poisson statistics, which is a key behavior of uncorrelated spectra. The number variance varies linearly as in the Poisson case for short correlation lengths but a kind of regularization occurs for large correlation lengths, and the number variance approaches saturation values. These results are known in the study of integrable systems but are being demonstrated for the first time in random matrix theory. We conjecture that the interacting particle cases, which exhibit the characteristics of classical random matrices for short correlation lengths, will also show saturation effects for large correlation lengths. PMID:27300898
Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J
2011-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond. PMID:22273908
Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J
2011-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond.
The Generation of Random Equilateral Polygons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarado, Sotero; Calvo, Jorge Alberto; Millett, Kenneth C.
2011-04-01
Freely jointed random equilateral polygons serve as a common model for polymer rings, reflecting their statistical properties under theta conditions. To generate equilateral polygons, researchers employ many procedures that have been proved, or at least are believed, to be random with respect to the natural measure on the space of polygonal knots. As a result, the random selection of equilateral polygons, as well as the statistical robustness of this selection, is of particular interest. In this research, we study the key features of four popular methods: the Polygonal Folding, the Crankshaft Rotation, the Hedgehog, and the Triangle Methods. In particular, we compare the implementation and efficacy of these procedures, especially in regards to the population distribution of polygons in the space of polygonal knots, the distribution of edge vectors, the local curvature, and the local torsion. In addition, we give a rigorous proof that the Crankshaft Rotation Method is ergodic.
Building Kindergartners' Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey
2012-01-01
Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small-group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 44 in each…
Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.
Chen, Nelson G
2016-08-01
Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.
Markov speckle for efficient random bit generation.
Horstmeyer, Roarke; Chen, Richard Y; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei
2012-11-19
Optical speckle is commonly observed in measurements using coherent radiation. While lacking experimental validation, previous work has often assumed that speckle's random spatial pattern follows a Markov process. Here, we present a derivation and experimental confirmation of conditions under which this assumption holds true. We demonstrate that a detected speckle field can be designed to obey the first-order Markov property by using a Cauchy attenuation mask to modulate scattered light. Creating Markov speckle enables the development of more accurate and efficient image post-processing algorithms, with applications including improved de-noising, segmentation and super-resolution. To show its versatility, we use the Cauchy mask to maximize the entropy of a detected speckle field with fixed average speckle size, allowing cryptographic applications to extract a maximum number of useful random bits from speckle images.
Efficient biased random bit generation for parallel processing
Slone, D.M.
1994-09-28
A lattice gas automaton was implemented on a massively parallel machine (the BBN TC2000) and a vector supercomputer (the CRAY C90). The automaton models Burgers equation {rho}t + {rho}{rho}{sub x} = {nu}{rho}{sub xx} in 1 dimension. The lattice gas evolves by advecting and colliding pseudo-particles on a 1-dimensional, periodic grid. The specific rules for colliding particles are stochastic in nature and require the generation of many billions of random numbers to create the random bits necessary for the lattice gas. The goal of the thesis was to speed up the process of generating the random bits and thereby lessen the computational bottleneck of the automaton.
EPCGen2 Pseudorandom Number Generators: Analysis of J3Gen
Peinado, Alberto; Munilla, Jorge; Fúster-Sabater, Amparo
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the cryptographic security of J3Gen, a promising pseudo random number generator for low-cost passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. Although J3Gen has been shown to fulfill the randomness criteria set by the EPCglobal Gen2 standard and is intended for security applications, we describe here two cryptanalytic attacks that question its security claims: (i) a probabilistic attack based on solving linear equation systems; and (ii) a deterministic attack based on the decimation of the output sequence. Numerical results, supported by simulations, show that for the specific recommended values of the configurable parameters, a low number of intercepted output bits are enough to break J3Gen. We then make some recommendations that address these issues. PMID:24721767
EPCGen2 pseudorandom number generators: analysis of J3Gen.
Peinado, Alberto; Munilla, Jorge; Fúster-Sabater, Amparo
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the cryptographic security of J3Gen, a promising pseudo random number generator for low-cost passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. Although J3Gen has been shown to fulfill the randomness criteria set by the EPCglobal Gen2 standard and is intended for security applications, we describe here two cryptanalytic attacks that question its security claims: (i) a probabilistic attack based on solving linear equation systems; and (ii) a deterministic attack based on the decimation of the output sequence. Numerical results, supported by simulations, show that for the specific recommended values of the configurable parameters, a low number of intercepted output bits are enough to break J3Gen. We then make some recommendations that address these issues. PMID:24721767
Number of distinct sites visited by a subdiffusive random walker.
Yuste, Santos Bravo; Klafter, J; Lindenberg, Katja
2008-03-01
The asymptotic mean number of distinct sites visited by a subdiffusive continuous-time random walker in two dimensions seems not to have been explicitly calculated anywhere in the literature. This number has been calculated for other dimensions for only one specific asymptotic behavior of the waiting time distribution between steps. We present an explicit derivation for two cases in all integer dimensions so as to formally complete a tableau of results. In this tableau we include the dominant as well as subdominant contributions in all integer dimensions. Other quantities that can be calculated from the mean number of distinct sites visited are also discussed.
On the number of connected components of random algebraic hypersurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fyodorov, Yan V.; Lerario, Antonio; Lundberg, Erik
2015-09-01
We study the expectation of the number of components b0(X) of a random algebraic hypersurface X defined by the zero set in projective space RPn of a random homogeneous polynomial f of degree d. Specifically, we consider invariant ensembles, that is Gaussian ensembles of polynomials that are invariant under an orthogonal change of variables. Fixing n, under some rescaling assumptions on the family of ensembles (as d → ∞), we prove that Eb0(X) has the same order of growth as [ Eb0(X ∩ RP1) ] n. This relates the average number of components of X to the classical problem of M. Kac (1943) on the number of zeros of the random univariate polynomial f|RP1. The proof requires an upper bound for Eb0(X), which we obtain by counting extrema using Random Matrix Theory methods from Fyodorov (2013), and it also requires a lower bound, which we obtain by a modification of the barrier method from Lerario and Lundberg (2015) and Nazarov and Sodin (2009). We also provide quantitative upper bounds on implied constants; for the real Fubini-Study model these estimates provide super-exponential decay (as n → ∞) of the leading coefficient (in d) of Eb0(X) .
At least some errors are randomly generated (Freud was wrong)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sellen, A. J.; Senders, J. W.
1986-01-01
An experiment was carried out to expose something about human error generating mechanisms. In the context of the experiment, an error was made when a subject pressed the wrong key on a computer keyboard or pressed no key at all in the time allotted. These might be considered, respectively, errors of substitution and errors of omission. Each of seven subjects saw a sequence of three digital numbers, made an easily learned binary judgement about each, and was to press the appropriate one of two keys. Each session consisted of 1,000 presentations of randomly permuted, fixed numbers broken into 10 blocks of 100. One of two keys should have been pressed within one second of the onset of each stimulus. These data were subjected to statistical analyses in order to probe the nature of the error generating mechanisms. Goodness of fit tests for a Poisson distribution for the number of errors per 50 trial interval and for an exponential distribution of the length of the intervals between errors were carried out. There is evidence for an endogenous mechanism that may best be described as a random error generator. Furthermore, an item analysis of the number of errors produced per stimulus suggests the existence of a second mechanism operating on task driven factors producing exogenous errors. Some errors, at least, are the result of constant probability generating mechanisms with error rate idiosyncratically determined for each subject.
Building Kindergartners’ Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study
Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey
2015-01-01
Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. PMID:25866417
Implementation of a portable and reproducible parallel pseudorandom number generator
Pryor, D.V.; Cuccaro, S.A.; Mascagni, M.; Robinson, M.L.
1994-12-31
The authors describe in detail the parallel implementation of a family of additive lagged-Fibonacci pseudorandom number generators. The theoretical structure of these generators is exploited to preserve their well-known randomness properties and to provide a parallel system in of distinct cycles. The algorithm presented here solves the reproducibility problem for a far larger class of parallel Monte Carlo applications than has been previously possible. In particular, Monte Carlo applications that undergo ``splitting`` can be coded to be reproducible, independent both of the number of processors and the execution order of the parallel processes. A library of portable C routines (available from the authors) that implements these ideas is also described.
Random Numbers Demonstrate the Frequency of Type I Errors: Three Spreadsheets for Class Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffy, Sean
2010-01-01
This paper describes three spreadsheet exercises demonstrating the nature and frequency of type I errors using random number generation. The exercises are designed specifically to address issues related to testing multiple relations using correlation (Demonstration I), t tests varying in sample size (Demonstration II) and multiple comparisons…
Multistability, chaos, and random signal generation in semiconductor superlattices.
Ying, Lei; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-06-01
Historically, semiconductor superlattices, artificial periodic structures of different semiconductor materials, were invented with the purpose of engineering or manipulating the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A key application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers, and detectors in the "unusual" spectral range of subterahertz and terahertz (0.1-10 THz), which cannot be readily realized using conventional radiation sources, the so-called THz gap. Efforts in the past three decades have demonstrated various nonlinear dynamical behaviors including chaos, suggesting the potential to exploit chaos in semiconductor superlattices as random signal sources (e.g., random number generators) in the THz frequency range. We consider a realistic model of hot electrons in semiconductor superlattice, taking into account the induced space charge field. Through a systematic exploration of the phase space we find that, when the system is subject to an external electrical driving of a single frequency, chaos is typically associated with the occurrence of multistability. That is, for a given parameter setting, while there are initial conditions that lead to chaotic trajectories, simultaneously there are other initial conditions that lead to regular motions. Transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt. Multistability thus presents an obstacle to utilizing the superlattice system as a reliable and robust random signal source. However, we demonstrate that, when an additional driving field of incommensurate frequency is applied, multistability can be eliminated, with chaos representing the only possible asymptotic behavior of the system. In such a case, a random initial condition will lead to a trajectory landing in a chaotic attractor with probability 1, making quasiperiodically driven semiconductor superlattices potentially as a reliable
Multistability, chaos, and random signal generation in semiconductor superlattices.
Ying, Lei; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-06-01
Historically, semiconductor superlattices, artificial periodic structures of different semiconductor materials, were invented with the purpose of engineering or manipulating the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A key application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers, and detectors in the "unusual" spectral range of subterahertz and terahertz (0.1-10 THz), which cannot be readily realized using conventional radiation sources, the so-called THz gap. Efforts in the past three decades have demonstrated various nonlinear dynamical behaviors including chaos, suggesting the potential to exploit chaos in semiconductor superlattices as random signal sources (e.g., random number generators) in the THz frequency range. We consider a realistic model of hot electrons in semiconductor superlattice, taking into account the induced space charge field. Through a systematic exploration of the phase space we find that, when the system is subject to an external electrical driving of a single frequency, chaos is typically associated with the occurrence of multistability. That is, for a given parameter setting, while there are initial conditions that lead to chaotic trajectories, simultaneously there are other initial conditions that lead to regular motions. Transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt. Multistability thus presents an obstacle to utilizing the superlattice system as a reliable and robust random signal source. However, we demonstrate that, when an additional driving field of incommensurate frequency is applied, multistability can be eliminated, with chaos representing the only possible asymptotic behavior of the system. In such a case, a random initial condition will lead to a trajectory landing in a chaotic attractor with probability 1, making quasiperiodically driven semiconductor superlattices potentially as a reliable
Multistability, chaos, and random signal generation in semiconductor superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Lei; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-06-01
Historically, semiconductor superlattices, artificial periodic structures of different semiconductor materials, were invented with the purpose of engineering or manipulating the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A key application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers, and detectors in the "unusual" spectral range of subterahertz and terahertz (0.1-10 THz), which cannot be readily realized using conventional radiation sources, the so-called THz gap. Efforts in the past three decades have demonstrated various nonlinear dynamical behaviors including chaos, suggesting the potential to exploit chaos in semiconductor superlattices as random signal sources (e.g., random number generators) in the THz frequency range. We consider a realistic model of hot electrons in semiconductor superlattice, taking into account the induced space charge field. Through a systematic exploration of the phase space we find that, when the system is subject to an external electrical driving of a single frequency, chaos is typically associated with the occurrence of multistability. That is, for a given parameter setting, while there are initial conditions that lead to chaotic trajectories, simultaneously there are other initial conditions that lead to regular motions. Transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt. Multistability thus presents an obstacle to utilizing the superlattice system as a reliable and robust random signal source. However, we demonstrate that, when an additional driving field of incommensurate frequency is applied, multistability can be eliminated, with chaos representing the only possible asymptotic behavior of the system. In such a case, a random initial condition will lead to a trajectory landing in a chaotic attractor with probability 1, making quasiperiodically driven semiconductor superlattices potentially as a reliable
A Computer Program for Generating Sequences of Primary Arithmetic Facts in Random Order.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burns, Edward
A computer program which generates randomly sequenced problems for testing the abilities of students to add, subtract, and multiply one-digit numbers is described. Appendices provide tables of random sequences with directions for using the tables. The 54-statement FORTRAN program which can be used in generating additional sequences is also…
49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...
49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...
49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...
49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...
49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...
RANDOM PULSE GENERATOR PRODUCING FIDUCIAL MARKS
Nielsen, W.F.
1960-02-01
The apparatus for automatically applying a fiducial marking, having a nonrepetitive pattern, to a plurality of simultaneously made records comprises, in series, a bypass filter, a trigger circuit, and a pulse generator, with printing means connected to and controlled by the pulse generator for simultaneously making the visible fiducial marks on a plurality of simultaneously produced records.
Image encryption using random sequence generated from generalized information domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia-Yan, Zhang; Guo-Ji, Zhang; Xuan, Li; Ya-Zhou, Ren; Jie-Hua, Wu
2016-05-01
A novel image encryption method based on the random sequence generated from the generalized information domain and permutation–diffusion architecture is proposed. The random sequence is generated by reconstruction from the generalized information file and discrete trajectory extraction from the data stream. The trajectory address sequence is used to generate a P-box to shuffle the plain image while random sequences are treated as keystreams. A new factor called drift factor is employed to accelerate and enhance the performance of the random sequence generator. An initial value is introduced to make the encryption method an approximately one-time pad. Experimental results show that the random sequences pass the NIST statistical test with a high ratio and extensive analysis demonstrates that the new encryption scheme has superior security.
Truly random bit generation based on a novel random Brillouin fiber laser.
Xiang, Dao; Lu, Ping; Xu, Yanping; Gao, Song; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi
2015-11-15
We propose a novel dual-emission random Brillouin fiber laser (RBFL) with bidirectional pumping operation. Numerical simulations and experimental verification of the chaotic temporal and statistical properties of the RBFL are conducted, revealing intrinsic unpredictable intensity fluctuations and two completely uncorrelated laser outputs. A random bit generator based on quantum noise sources in the random Fabry-Perot resonator of the RBFL is realized at a bit rate of 5 Mbps with verified randomness.
Truly random bit generation based on a novel random Brillouin fiber laser.
Xiang, Dao; Lu, Ping; Xu, Yanping; Gao, Song; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi
2015-11-15
We propose a novel dual-emission random Brillouin fiber laser (RBFL) with bidirectional pumping operation. Numerical simulations and experimental verification of the chaotic temporal and statistical properties of the RBFL are conducted, revealing intrinsic unpredictable intensity fluctuations and two completely uncorrelated laser outputs. A random bit generator based on quantum noise sources in the random Fabry-Perot resonator of the RBFL is realized at a bit rate of 5 Mbps with verified randomness. PMID:26565888
Simulations in evolution. III. Randomness as a generator of opportunities.
Testa, Bernard; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Mordalski, Stefan
2013-01-01
In Neo-Darwinism, variation and natural selection are the two evolutionary mechanisms which propel biological evolution. Our previous reports presented a histogram model to simulate the evolution of populations of individuals classified into bins according to an unspecified, quantifiable phenotypic character, and whose number in each bin changed generation after generation under the influence of fitness, while the total population was maintained constant. The histogram model also allowed Shannon entropy (SE) to be monitored continuously as the information content of the total population decreased or increased. Here, a simple Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language) application was developed to carry out these computations, with the critical feature of an added random factor in the percent of individuals whose offspring moved to a vicinal bin. The results of the simulations demonstrate that the random factor mimicking variation increased considerably the range of values covered by Shannon entropy, especially when the percentage of changed offspring was high. This increase in information content is interpreted as facilitated adaptability of the population.
Pseudorandom number generation using chaotic true orbits of the Bernoulli map.
Saito, Asaki; Yamaguchi, Akihiro
2016-06-01
We devise a pseudorandom number generator that exactly computes chaotic true orbits of the Bernoulli map on quadratic algebraic integers. Moreover, we describe a way to select the initial points (seeds) for generating multiple pseudorandom binary sequences. This selection method distributes the initial points almost uniformly (equidistantly) in the unit interval, and latter parts of the generated sequences are guaranteed not to coincide. We also demonstrate through statistical testing that the generated sequences possess good randomness properties.
Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the ...
Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the main floor and on the mezzanine are visible behind and above the generators. - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA
The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.
2015-01-01
"Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…
The Numbers Game: Phasing in Generated ID Numbers at the University of Oregon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eveland, Sue
2005-01-01
With all the recent headlines about security breaches and information loss at financial and educational institutions, the higher education community needs to address the issue of using social security numbers as ID numbers. The University of Oregon undertook a change process to assign generated ID numbers to all records in their information…
Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-06-01
Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
Escherichia coli minichromosomes: random segregation and absence of copy number control.
Jensen, M R; Løbner-Olesen, A; Rasmussen, K V
1990-09-20
Minichromosomes, i.e. plasmids that can replicate from an integrated oriC, have been puzzling because of their high copy numbers compared to that of the chromosomal oriC, their lack of incompatibility with the chromosome and their high loss frequencies. Using single cell resistance to tetracycline or ampicillin as an indicator of copy number we followed the development of minichromosome distributions in Escherichia coli cells transformed with minichromosomes and then allowed to grow towards the steady state. The final copy number distribution was not reached within 15 to 20 generations. If the minichromosome carried the sop (partitioning) genes from plasmid F, the development of the copy number distribution was further drastically delayed. We conclude that E. coli cells have no function that directly controls minichromosomal copy numbers, hence the absence of incompatibility in the sense of shared copy number control. We suggest that minichromosomes are subject to the same replication control as the chromosome but segregate randomly in the absence of integrated partitioning genes. This, combined with evidence that the lowest copy number classes are normally present despite high average copy numbers, can account for the high loss frequencies.
Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator
Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.
2007-03-15
Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironowicz, Piotr; Tavakoli, Armin; Hameedi, Alley; Marques, Breno; Pawłowski, Marcin; Bourennane, Mohamed
2016-06-01
Quantum communication with systems of dimension larger than two provides advantages in information processing tasks. Examples include higher rates of key distribution and random number generation. The main disadvantage of using such multi-dimensional quantum systems is the increased complexity of the experimental setup. Here, we analyze a not-so-obvious problem: the relation between randomness certification and computational requirements of the post-processing of experimental data. In particular, we consider semi-device independent randomness certification from an experiment using a four dimensional quantum system to violate the classical bound of a random access code. Using state-of-the-art techniques, a smaller quantum violation requires more computational power to demonstrate randomness, which at some point becomes impossible with today’s computers although the randomness is (probably) still there. We show that by dedicating more input settings of the experiment to randomness certification, then by more computational postprocessing of the experimental data which corresponds to a quantum violation, one may increase the amount of certified randomness. Furthermore, we introduce a method that significantly lowers the computational complexity of randomness certification. Our results show how more randomness can be generated without altering the hardware and indicate a path for future semi-device independent protocols to follow.
Fully photonics-based physical random bit generator.
Li, Pu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xianglian; Yi, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jianguo; Guo, Xiaomin; Guo, Yanqiang; Wang, Yuncai
2016-07-15
We propose a fully photonics-based approach for ultrafast physical random bit generation. This approach exploits a compact nonlinear loop mirror (called a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, TOAD) to sample the chaotic optical waveform in an all-optical domain and then generate random bit streams through further comparison with a threshold level. This method can efficiently overcome the electronic jitter bottleneck confronted by existing RBGs in practice. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that this method can continuously extract 5 Gb/s random bit streams from the chaotic output of a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with optical feedback. This limited generation rate is caused by the bandwidth of the used optical chaos. PMID:27420532
Fully photonics-based physical random bit generator.
Li, Pu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xianglian; Yi, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jianguo; Guo, Xiaomin; Guo, Yanqiang; Wang, Yuncai
2016-07-15
We propose a fully photonics-based approach for ultrafast physical random bit generation. This approach exploits a compact nonlinear loop mirror (called a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, TOAD) to sample the chaotic optical waveform in an all-optical domain and then generate random bit streams through further comparison with a threshold level. This method can efficiently overcome the electronic jitter bottleneck confronted by existing RBGs in practice. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that this method can continuously extract 5 Gb/s random bit streams from the chaotic output of a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with optical feedback. This limited generation rate is caused by the bandwidth of the used optical chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Liyi
2016-05-01
Stochastic optimization is a fundamental problem that finds applications in many areas including biological and cognitive sciences. The classical stochastic approximation algorithm for iterative stochastic optimization requires gradient information of the sample object function that is typically difficult to obtain in practice. Recently there has been renewed interests in derivative free approaches to stochastic optimization. In this paper, we examine the rates of convergence for the Kiefer-Wolfowitz algorithm and the mirror descent algorithm, by approximating gradient using finite differences generated through common random numbers. It is shown that the convergence of these algorithms can be accelerated by controlling the implementation of the finite differences. Particularly, it is shown that the rate can be increased to n-2/5 in general and to n-1/2, the best possible rate of stochastic approximation, in Monte Carlo optimization for a broad class of problems, in the iteration number n.
Electrical generation of stationary light in random scattering media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redmond, S. M.; Armstrong, G. L.; Chan, H.-Y.; Mattson, E.; Mock, A.; Li, B.; Potts, J. R.; Cui, M.; Rand, S. C.; Oliveira, S. L.; Marchal, J.; Hinklin, T.; Laine, R. M.
2004-01-01
In recent years there has been great interest in controlling the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. In gases and crystals, coherent techniques have been applied to alter the speed of light without changing the physical or chemical structure of the medium. Also, light transmitted by highly disordered solids has exhibited signatures of Anderson localization, indicating the existence of a regime of ``stopped'' light that is mediated by random elastic scattering. However, to date, light has not been generated in a random medium as a pointlike excitation that is fixed in space from the outset. Here we report experimental evidence for the electrical generation and confinement of light within nanosized volumes of a random dielectric scattering medium in which a population inversion has been established, and discuss the properties of these novel light sources.
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-01-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-04-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology.
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-01-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302
Quantum random bit generation using energy fluctuations in stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Moffatt, Doug; Spanner, Michael; Lausten, Rune; Sussman, Benjamin J
2013-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in modern information processing systems, with applications in cryptography, numerical simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the measurement of pulse energy quantum fluctuations in Stokes light generated by spontaneously-initiated stimulated Raman scattering. Bright Stokes pulse energy fluctuations up to five times the mean energy are measured with fast photodiodes and converted to unbiased random binary strings. Since the pulse energy is a continuous variable, multiple bits can be extracted from a single measurement. Our approach can be generalized to a wide range of Raman active materials; here we demonstrate a prototype using the optical phonon line in bulk diamond. PMID:24514488
Quantum random bit generation using energy fluctuations in stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Moffatt, Doug; Spanner, Michael; Lausten, Rune; Sussman, Benjamin J
2013-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in modern information processing systems, with applications in cryptography, numerical simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the measurement of pulse energy quantum fluctuations in Stokes light generated by spontaneously-initiated stimulated Raman scattering. Bright Stokes pulse energy fluctuations up to five times the mean energy are measured with fast photodiodes and converted to unbiased random binary strings. Since the pulse energy is a continuous variable, multiple bits can be extracted from a single measurement. Our approach can be generalized to a wide range of Raman active materials; here we demonstrate a prototype using the optical phonon line in bulk diamond.
Verifying a multiprocessor cache controller using random case generation
Wood, D.A.; Gibson, G.A.; Katz, R.H. )
1989-01-01
The newest generation of cache controller chips provide coherency to support multiprocessor systems, i.e., the controllers coordinate access to the cache memories to guarantee a single global view of memory. The cache coherency protocols they implement complicate the controller design, making design verification difficult. In the design of the cache controller for SPUR, a shared memory multiprocessor designed and built at U.C. Berkeley, the authors developed a random tester to generate and verify the complex interactions between multiple processors in the the functional simulation. Replacing the CPU model, the tester generates memory references by randomly selecting from a script of actions and checks. The checks verify correct completion of their corresponding actions. The tester was easy to develop, and detected over half of the functional bugs uncovered during simulation. They used an assembly language version of the random tester to verify the prototype hardware. A multiprocessor system is operational; it runs the Sprite operating system and is being used for experiments in parallel programming.
Evolution of dendrimer conformational structure with generation number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betancourt, Beatriz A. Pazmiño; Douglas, Jack F.
2016-05-01
We simulate the conformational structure of a coarse-grained model of dendrimer molecules in a good solvent as a function of generation number G and find that they evolve through substantially more complex structures than regular star polymers with increasing arms because of their hierarchical topological structure. As G increases, they evolve from 3-arm stars to branched polymers that geometrically resemble lattice animals, and then percolation clusters for G = 4 - 6 range. For larger G, the dendrimers become similar to porous particles, but the molecule segregates segregates into subdomains at G = 9, reflecting the branching complexity of the first dendrimer generation.
Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Martin
2013-01-01
We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…
Shteingart, Hanan; Loewenstein, Yonatan
2016-01-01
There is a long history of experiments in which participants are instructed to generate a long sequence of binary random numbers. The scope of this line of research has shifted over the years from identifying the basic psychological principles and/or the heuristics that lead to deviations from randomness, to one of predicting future choices. In this paper, we used generalized linear regression and the framework of Reinforcement Learning in order to address both points. In particular, we used logistic regression analysis in order to characterize the temporal sequence of participants' choices. Surprisingly, a population analysis indicated that the contribution of the most recent trial has only a weak effect on behavior, compared to more preceding trials, a result that seems irreconcilable with standard sequential effects that decay monotonously with the delay. However, when considering each participant separately, we found that the magnitudes of the sequential effect are a monotonous decreasing function of the delay, yet these individual sequential effects are largely averaged out in a population analysis because of heterogeneity. The substantial behavioral heterogeneity in this task is further demonstrated quantitatively by considering the predictive power of the model. We show that a heterogeneous model of sequential dependencies captures the structure available in random sequence generation. Finally, we show that the results of the logistic regression analysis can be interpreted in the framework of reinforcement learning, allowing us to compare the sequential effects in the random sequence generation task to those in an operant learning task. We show that in contrast to the random sequence generation task, sequential effects in operant learning are far more homogenous across the population. These results suggest that in the random sequence generation task, different participants adopt different cognitive strategies to suppress sequential dependencies when
Random phase-free computer-generated hologram.
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2015-04-01
Addition of random phase to the object light is required in computer-generated holograms (CGHs) to widely diffuse the object light and to avoid its concentration on the CGH; however, this addition causes considerable speckle noise in the reconstructed image. For improving the speckle noise problem, techniques such as iterative phase retrieval algorithms and multi-random phase method are used; however, they are time consuming and are of limited effectiveness. Herein, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive method that drastically improves the image quality and reduces the speckle noise by multiplying the object light with the virtual convergence light. Feasibility of the proposed method is shown using simulations and optical reconstructions; moreover, we apply it to lens-less zoom-able holographic projection. The proposed method is useful for the speckle problems in holographic applications.
Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.
2014-03-01
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.
Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing
Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.
2014-01-01
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed “reads” are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions. PMID:24681819
A program generating homogeneous random graphs with given weights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogacz, L.; Burda, Z.; Janke, W.; Waclaw, B.
2005-12-01
We present a program package to generate homogeneous random graphs with probabilities prescribed by the user. The statistical weight of a labeled graph α is given in the form W(α)=∏i=1Np(q), where p(q) is an arbitrary user function and q are the degrees of the graph nodes. The program can be used to generate two types of graphs (simple graphs and pseudo-graphs) from three types of ensembles (micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical). Program summaryTitle of the program:GraphGen Catalogue identifier:ADWL Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWL Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: PC, Alpha workstation Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:Linux, Unix, MS Windows XP Programing language used:C Memory required to execute with typical data:300 k words for a graph with 1000 nodes and up to 50 000 links No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processor used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized:No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2253 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 330 Distribution format:tar.gz Keywords:Random graphs, complex networks, Markov process, Monte Carlo method Nature of the problem:The program generates random graphs. The probabilities of graph occurrence are proportional to their statistical weight, dependent on node degrees defined by arbitrary distributions Method of solution:The starting graph is taken arbitrary and then a sequence of graphs is generated. Each graph is obtained from the previous one by means of a simple modification. The probability of accepting or rejecting the new graph results from a detailed balance condition realized as Metropolis algorithm. When the length of the generated Markov chain increases, the probabilities of graph occurrence approach the stationary distribution given by
Shteingart, Hanan; Loewenstein, Yonatan
2016-01-01
There is a long history of experiments in which participants are instructed to generate a long sequence of binary random numbers. The scope of this line of research has shifted over the years from identifying the basic psychological principles and/or the heuristics that lead to deviations from randomness, to one of predicting future choices. In this paper, we used generalized linear regression and the framework of Reinforcement Learning in order to address both points. In particular, we used logistic regression analysis in order to characterize the temporal sequence of participants’ choices. Surprisingly, a population analysis indicated that the contribution of the most recent trial has only a weak effect on behavior, compared to more preceding trials, a result that seems irreconcilable with standard sequential effects that decay monotonously with the delay. However, when considering each participant separately, we found that the magnitudes of the sequential effect are a monotonous decreasing function of the delay, yet these individual sequential effects are largely averaged out in a population analysis because of heterogeneity. The substantial behavioral heterogeneity in this task is further demonstrated quantitatively by considering the predictive power of the model. We show that a heterogeneous model of sequential dependencies captures the structure available in random sequence generation. Finally, we show that the results of the logistic regression analysis can be interpreted in the framework of reinforcement learning, allowing us to compare the sequential effects in the random sequence generation task to those in an operant learning task. We show that in contrast to the random sequence generation task, sequential effects in operant learning are far more homogenous across the population. These results suggest that in the random sequence generation task, different participants adopt different cognitive strategies to suppress sequential dependencies when
Phase transition in a stochastic prime-number generator.
Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Miramontes, Octavio
2007-07-01
We introduce a stochastic algorithm that acts as a prime-number generator. The dynamics of this algorithm gives rise to a continuous phase transition, which separates a phase where the algorithm is able to reduce a whole set of integers into primes and a phase where the system reaches a frozen state with low prime density. We present both numerical simulations and an analytical approach in terms of an annealed approximation, by means of which the data are collapsed. A critical slowing-down phenomenon is also outlined.
Intensive statistical complexity measure of pseudorandom number generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larrondo, H. A.; González, C. M.; Martín, M. T.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O. A.
2005-10-01
A Statistical Complexity measure has been recently proposed to quantify the performance of chaotic Pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) (Physica A 354 (2005) 281). Here we revisit this quantifier and introduce two important improvements: (i) consideration of an intensive statistical complexity (Physica A 334 (2004) 119), and (ii) following the prescription of Brand and Pompe (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 174102-1) in evaluating the probability distribution associated with the PRNG. The ensuing new measure is applied to a very well-tested PRNG advanced by Marsaglia.
Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2010-08-16
Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.
Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2010-08-16
Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs. PMID:20721222
Takahashi, Rie; Akizawa, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Atsushi; Harayama, Takahisa; Tsuzuki, Ken; Sunada, Satoshi; Arai, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2014-05-19
We generate random bit sequences from chaotic temporal waveforms by using photonic integrated circuits (PICs) with different external cavity lengths. We investigate the condition for generating random bits at different sampling rates of single-bit generation method with the PICs. We succeed in generating certified random bit sequences by using the PIC with 3, 4, 5, or 10-mm-long external cavity, whereas random bits cannot pass all the statistical tests of randomness when the PIC with 1 or 2 mm-long external cavity is used.
Generation of Random Particle Packings for Discrete Element Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, S.; Weatherley, D.; Ayton, T.
2012-04-01
An important step in the setup process of Discrete Element Model (DEM) simulations is the generation of a suitable particle packing. There are quite a number of properties such a granular material specimen should ideally have, such as high coordination number, isotropy, the ability to fill arbitrary bounding volumes and the absence of locked-in stresses. An algorithm which is able to produce specimens fulfilling these requirements is the insertion based sphere packing algorithm originally proposed by Place and Mora, 2001 [2] and extended in this work. The algorithm works in two stages. First a number of "seed" spheres are inserted into the bounding volume. In the second stage the gaps between the "seed" spheres are filled by inserting new spheres in a way so they have D+1 (i.e. 3 in 2D, 4 in 3D) touching contacts with either other spheres or the boundaries of the enclosing volume. Here we present an implementation of the algorithm and a systematic statistical analysis of the generated sphere packings. The analysis of the particle radius distribution shows that they follow a power-law with an exponent ≈ D (i.e. ≈3 for a 3D packing and ≈2 for 2D). Although the algorithm intrinsically guarantees coordination numbers of at least 4 in 3D and 3 in 2D, the coordination numbers realized in the generated packings can be significantly higher, reaching beyond 50 if the range of particle radii is sufficiently large. Even for relatively small ranges of particle sizes (e.g. Rmin = 0.5Rmax) the maximum coordination number may exceed 10. The degree of isotropy of the generated sphere packing is also analysed in both 2D and 3D, by measuring the distribution of orientations of vectors joining the centres of adjacent particles. If the range of particle sizes is small, the packing algorithm yields moderate anisotropy approaching that expected for a face-centred cubic packing of equal-sized particles. However, once Rmin < 0.3Rmax a very high degree of isotropy is demonstrated in
Generating Random Earthquake Events for Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeVeque, Randall J.; Waagan, Knut; González, Frank I.; Rim, Donsub; Lin, Guang
2016-08-01
To perform probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for subduction zone earthquakes, it is necessary to start with a catalog of possible future events along with the annual probability of occurrence, or a probability distribution of such events that can be easily sampled. For near-field events, the distribution of slip on the fault can have a significant effect on the resulting tsunami. We present an approach to defining a probability distribution based on subdividing the fault geometry into many subfaults and prescribing a desired covariance matrix relating slip on one subfault to slip on any other subfault. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix are then used to define a Karhunen-Loève expansion for random slip patterns. This is similar to a spectral representation of random slip based on Fourier series but conforms to a general fault geometry. We show that only a few terms in this series are needed to represent the features of the slip distribution that are most important in tsunami generation, first with a simple one-dimensional example where slip varies only in the down-dip direction and then on a portion of the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
Using Common Random Numbers in Health Care Cost-Effectiveness Simulation Modeling
Murphy, Daniel R; Klein, Robert W; Smolen, Lee J; Klein, Timothy M; Roberts, Stephen D
2013-01-01
Objectives To identify the problem of separating statistical noise from treatment effects in health outcomes modeling and analysis. To demonstrate the implementation of one technique, common random numbers (CRNs), and to illustrate the value of CRNs to assess costs and outcomes under uncertainty. Methods A microsimulation model was designed to evaluate osteoporosis treatment, estimating cost and utility measures for patient cohorts at high risk of osteoporosis-related fractures. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated using a full implementation of CRNs, a partial implementation of CRNs, and no CRNs. A modification to traditional probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was used to determine how variance reduction can impact a decision maker's view of treatment efficacy and costs. Results The full use of CRNs provided a 93.6 percent reduction in variance compared to simulations not using the technique. The use of partial CRNs provided a 5.6 percent reduction. The PSA results using full CRNs demonstrated a substantially tighter range of cost-benefit outcomes for teriparatide usage than the cost-benefits generated without the technique. Conclusions CRNs provide substantial variance reduction for cost-effectiveness studies. By reducing variability not associated with the treatment being evaluated, CRNs provide a better understanding of treatment effects and risks. PMID:23402573
Specifying executive representations and processes in number generation tasks.
Scott, S K; Barnard, P J; May, J
2001-08-01
The Interacting Cognitive Subsystems framework, ICS (Barnard, 1985) proposes that central executive phenomena can be accounted for by two autonomous subsystems, which process different forms of meaning: propositional and schematic (implicational) meanings. The apparent supervisory role of the executive arises from limitations on the exchange of information between these and other cognitive subsystems. This general proposal is elaborated in four experiments in which a total of 1,293 participants are asked to spontaneously generate a large verbal number to varying task constraints, with the intention of specifying the representations of number and task that underlie responses. Responses change systematically according to participants' use of explicit propositional information provided by the instructions, and inferred implicational information about what the experimenter is requesting. There was a high error rate (between 6% and 24%), participants producing responses that did not fall within the large range indicated by the instructions. The studies support the distinction between propositional and implicational processing in executive function, and provide a framework for understanding normal executive representations and processes.
Specifying executive representations and processes in number generation tasks.
Scott, S K; Barnard, P J; May, J
2001-08-01
The Interacting Cognitive Subsystems framework, ICS (Barnard, 1985) proposes that central executive phenomena can be accounted for by two autonomous subsystems, which process different forms of meaning: propositional and schematic (implicational) meanings. The apparent supervisory role of the executive arises from limitations on the exchange of information between these and other cognitive subsystems. This general proposal is elaborated in four experiments in which a total of 1,293 participants are asked to spontaneously generate a large verbal number to varying task constraints, with the intention of specifying the representations of number and task that underlie responses. Responses change systematically according to participants' use of explicit propositional information provided by the instructions, and inferred implicational information about what the experimenter is requesting. There was a high error rate (between 6% and 24%), participants producing responses that did not fall within the large range indicated by the instructions. The studies support the distinction between propositional and implicational processing in executive function, and provide a framework for understanding normal executive representations and processes. PMID:11548028
Generating Small Numbers by Tunneling in Multi-Throat Compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimopoulos, Savas; Kachru, Shamit; Kaloper, Nemanja; Lawrence, Albion; Silverstein, Eva
A generic F-theory compactification containing many D3 branes develops multiple brane throats. The interaction of observers residing inside different throats involves tunneling suppression and as a result, is very weak. This suggests a new mechanism for generating small numbers in Nature. One application is to the hierarchy problem: large supersymmetry breaking near the unification scale inside a shallow throat causes TeV-scale SUSY-breaking inside the standard-model throat. Another application, inspired by nuclear-decay, is in designing naturally long-lived particles: a cold dark matter particle residing near the standard model brane decays to an approximate CFT-state of a longer throat within a Hubble time. This suggests that most of the mass of the universe today could consist of CFT-matter and may soften structure formation at sub-galactic scales. The tunneling calculation demonstrates that the coupling between two throats is dominated by higher dimensional modes and consequently is much larger than a naive application of holography might suggest.
Generating Small Numbers by Tunneling in Multi-Throat Compactifications
Silverstein, Eva M
2001-07-25
A generic F-theory compactification containing many D3 branes develops multiple brane throats. The interaction of observers residing inside different throats involves tunneling suppression and, as a result, is very weak. This suggests a new mechanism for generating small numbers in Nature. One application is to the hierarchy problem: large supersymmetry breaking near the unification scale inside a shallow throat causes TeV-scale SUSY-breaking inside the standard-model throat. Another application, inspired by nuclear-decay, is in designing naturally long-lived particles: a cold dark matter particle residing near the standard model brane decays to an approximate CFT-state of a longer throat within a Hubble time. This suggests that most of the mass of the universe today could consist of CFT-matter and may soften structure formation at sub-galactic scales. The tunneling calculation demonstrates that the coupling between two throats is dominated by higher dimensional modes and consequently is much larger than a naive application of holography might suggest.
On the number of crossings of a strip by sample paths of a random walk
Lotov, V I; Orlova, N G
2003-06-30
Exact expressions are obtained for the distribution of the total number of crossings of a strip by sample paths of a random walk whose jumps have a two-sided geometric distribution. The distribution of the number of crossings during a finite time interval is found in explicit form for walks with jumps taking the values {+-}1. A limit theorem is proved for the joint distribution of the number of crossings of an expanding strip on a finite (increasing) time interval and the position of the walk at the end of this interval, and the corresponding limit distribution is found.
Generation of Large Numbers of Independently Transformed Fertile Barley Plants.
Wan, Y.; Lemaux, P. G.
1994-01-01
A rapid, efficient, and reproducible system to generate large numbers of independently transformed, self-fertile, transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants is described. Immature zygotic embryos, young callus, and microspore-derived embryos were bombarded with a plasmid containing bar and uidA either alone or in combination with another plasmid containing a barley yellow dwarf virus coat protein (BYDVcp) gene. A total of 91 independent bialaphos-resistant callus lines expressed functional phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, the product of bar. Integration of bar was confirmed by DNA hybridization in the 67 lines analyzed. Co-transformation frequencies of 84 and 85% were determined for the two linked genes (bar and uidA) and for two unlinked genes (bar and the BYDVcp gene), respectively. More than 500 green, fertile, transgenic plants were regenerated from 36 transformed callus lines on bialaphos-containing medium; albino plants only were regenerated from 41 lines. T0 plants in 25 lines (three plants per line) were analyzed by DNA hybridization, and all contained bar. Most contained the same integration patterns for the introduced genes (bar, uidA, and the BYDVcp gene) as their parental callus lines. Transmission of the genes to T1 progeny was confirmed in the five families analyzed by DNA hybridization. A germination test of immature T1 embryos on bialaphos-containing medium was useful for selecting individuals that were actively expressing bar, although this was not a good indicator of the presence or absence of bar. Expression of bar in some progeny plants was indicated by resistance to the herbicide Basta. The T1 plants were in soil approximately 7 months after bombardment of the immature embryo. PMID:12232059
Large Deviation Function for the Number of Eigenvalues of Sparse Random Graphs Inside an Interval.
Metz, Fernando L; Pérez Castillo, Isaac
2016-09-01
We present a general method to obtain the exact rate function Ψ_{[a,b]}(k) controlling the large deviation probability Prob[I_{N}[a,b]=kN]≍e^{-NΨ_{[a,b]}(k)} that an N×N sparse random matrix has I_{N}[a,b]=kN eigenvalues inside the interval [a,b]. The method is applied to study the eigenvalue statistics in two distinct examples: (i) the shifted index number of eigenvalues for an ensemble of Erdös-Rényi graphs and (ii) the number of eigenvalues within a bounded region of the spectrum for the Anderson model on regular random graphs. A salient feature of the rate function in both cases is that, unlike rotationally invariant random matrices, it is asymmetric with respect to its minimum. The asymmetric character depends on the disorder in a way that is compatible with the distinct eigenvalue statistics corresponding to localized and delocalized eigenstates. The results also show that the level compressibility κ_{2}/κ_{1} for the Anderson model on a regular graph satisfies 0<κ_{2}/κ_{1}<1 in the bulk regime, in contrast with the behavior found in Gaussian random matrices. Our theoretical findings are thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization in both cases, showing a reasonable good agreement. PMID:27636476
Large Deviation Function for the Number of Eigenvalues of Sparse Random Graphs Inside an Interval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metz, Fernando L.; Pérez Castillo, Isaac
2016-09-01
We present a general method to obtain the exact rate function Ψ[a ,b ](k ) controlling the large deviation probability Prob[IN[a ,b ]=k N ]≍e-N Ψ[a ,b ](k ) that an N ×N sparse random matrix has IN[a ,b ]=k N eigenvalues inside the interval [a ,b ]. The method is applied to study the eigenvalue statistics in two distinct examples: (i) the shifted index number of eigenvalues for an ensemble of Erdös-Rényi graphs and (ii) the number of eigenvalues within a bounded region of the spectrum for the Anderson model on regular random graphs. A salient feature of the rate function in both cases is that, unlike rotationally invariant random matrices, it is asymmetric with respect to its minimum. The asymmetric character depends on the disorder in a way that is compatible with the distinct eigenvalue statistics corresponding to localized and delocalized eigenstates. The results also show that the level compressibility κ2/κ1 for the Anderson model on a regular graph satisfies 0 <κ2/κ1<1 in the bulk regime, in contrast with the behavior found in Gaussian random matrices. Our theoretical findings are thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization in both cases, showing a reasonable good agreement.
Oracle inequalities for SVMs that are based on random entropy numbers
Steinwart, Ingo
2009-01-01
In this paper we present a new technique for bounding local Rademacher averages of function classes induced by a loss function and a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). At the heart of this technique lies the observation that certain expectations of random entropy numbers can be bounded by the eigenvalues of the integral operator associated to the RKHS. We then work out the details of the new technique by establishing two new oracle inequalities for SVMs, which complement and generalize orevious results.
Li, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Song-Sui; Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Chan, Sze-Chun
2015-09-01
A semiconductor laser with distributed feedback from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is investigated for random bit generation (RBG). The feedback perturbs the laser to emit chaotically with the intensity being sampled periodically. The samples are then converted into random bits by a simple postprocessing of self-differencing and selecting bits. Unlike a conventional mirror that provides localized feedback, the FBG provides distributed feedback which effectively suppresses the information of the round-trip feedback delay time. Randomness is ensured even when the sampling period is commensurate with the feedback delay between the laser and the grating. Consequently, in RBG, the FBG feedback enables continuous tuning of the output bit rate, reduces the minimum sampling period, and increases the number of bits selected per sample. RBG is experimentally investigated at a sampling period continuously tunable from over 16 ns down to 50 ps, while the feedback delay is fixed at 7.7 ns. By selecting 5 least-significant bits per sample, output bit rates from 0.3 to 100 Gbps are achieved with randomness examined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology test suite.
Grouping by proximity and the visual impression of approximate number in random dot arrays.
Im, Hee Yeon; Zhong, Sheng-Hua; Halberda, Justin
2016-09-01
We address the challenges of how to model human perceptual grouping in random dot arrays and how perceptual grouping affects human number estimation in these arrays. We introduce a modeling approach relying on a modified k-means clustering algorithm to formally describe human observers' grouping behavior. We found that a default grouping window size of approximately 4° of visual angle describes human grouping judgments across a range of random dot arrays (i.e., items within 4° are grouped together). This window size was highly consistent across observers and images, and was also stable across stimulus durations, suggesting that the k-means model captured a robust signature of perceptual grouping. Further, the k-means model outperformed other models (e.g., CODE) at describing human grouping behavior. Next, we found that the more the dots in a display are clustered together, the more human observers tend to underestimate the numerosity of the dots. We demonstrate that this effect is independent of density, and the modified k-means model can predict human observers' numerosity judgments and underestimation. Finally, we explored the robustness of the relationship between clustering and dot number underestimation and found that the effects of clustering remain, but are greatly reduced, when participants receive feedback on every trial. Together, this work suggests some promising avenues for formal models of human grouping behavior, and it highlights the importance of a 4° window of perceptual grouping. Lastly, it reveals a robust, somewhat plastic, relationship between perceptual grouping and number estimation.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states
Vergyris, Panagiotis; Meany, Thomas; Lunghi, Tommaso; Sauder, Gregory; Downes, James; Steel, M. J.; Withford, Michael J.; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2016-01-01
Beyond the use of genuine monolithic integrated optical platforms, we report here a hybrid strategy enabling on-chip generation of configurable heralded two-photon states. More specifically, we combine two different fabrication techniques, i.e., non-linear waveguides on lithium niobate for efficient photon-pair generation and femtosecond-laser-direct-written waveguides on glass for photon manipulation. Through real-time device manipulation capabilities, a variety of path-coded heralded two-photon states can be produced, ranging from product to entangled states. Those states are engineered with high levels of purity, assessed by fidelities of 99.5 ± 8% and 95.0 ± 8%, respectively, obtained via quantum interferometric measurements. Our strategy therefore stands as a milestone for further exploiting entanglement-based protocols, relying on engineered quantum states, and enabled by scalable and compatible photonic circuits. PMID:27775062
Large-Scale Magnetic Field Generation by Randomly Forced Shearing Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinemann, T.; McWilliams, J. C.; Schekochihin, A. A.
2011-12-01
A rigorous theory for the generation of a large-scale magnetic field by random nonhelically forced motions of a conducting fluid combined with a linear shear is presented in the analytically tractable limit of low magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) and weak shear. The dynamo is kinematic and due to fluctuations in the net (volume-averaged) electromotive force. This is a minimal proof-of-concept quasilinear calculation aiming to put the shear dynamo, a new effect recently found in numerical experiments, on a firm theoretical footing. Numerically observed scalings of the wave number and growth rate of the fastest-growing mode, previously not understood, are derived analytically. The simplicity of the model suggests that shear dynamo action may be a generic property of sheared magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Li, Nianqiang; Kim, Byungchil; Chizhevsky, V N; Locquet, A; Bloch, M; Citrin, D S; Pan, Wei
2014-03-24
This paper reports the experimental investigation of two different approaches to random bit generation based on the chaotic dynamics of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback. By computing high-order finite differences of the chaotic laser intensity time series, we obtain time series with symmetric statistical distributions that are more conducive to ultrafast random bit generation. The first approach is guided by information-theoretic considerations and could potentially reach random bit generation rates as high as 160 Gb/s by extracting 4 bits per sample. The second approach is based on pragmatic considerations and could lead to rates of 2.2 Tb/s by extracting 55 bits per sample. The randomness of the bit sequences obtained from the two approaches is tested against three standard randomness tests (ENT, Diehard, and NIST tests), as well as by calculating the statistical bias and the serial correlation coefficients on longer sequences of random bits than those used in the standard tests.
Aperture determination of RHIC92 from randomly generated initial coordinates
Dell, G.F.
1992-12-31
Results obtained by tracking 100 particles for 1,000 turns when initial coordinates are selected randomly, with the requirement that the total emittance be constant, are compared to results from 1,000-turn and 10{sup 6}-turn runs when initial coordinates satisfy {epsilon}{sub x}(i) = {epsilon}{sub y}(i) and X{sub i}{prime} = Y{sub i}{prime} = 0. For studies of ten distributions of magnetic field errors, the 100-particle results given apertures equivalent to those from 10{sup 6}-turn runs, have an aperture distribution of considerably less width, and yet require only one tenth the computer time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrano, I.; Martinez-Agirre, M.; Tutar, M.
2016-02-01
A passive grid-generated turbulence technique for generating turbulent inflow conditions in large-eddy simulation (LES) is developed on moderate number of mesh cells and the results are compared with synthetic methods and wind tunnel experiments performed at Reynolds (Re) number of order 100 (based on Taylor microscale). Consistent with previous investigations, it is found that the synthetic methods turbulence dissipate the turbulence kinetic energy very quickly while the present technique represents this decay more accurately. However, this pre-computation method usually requires considerable computational cost. The aim of this study is, therefore, to decrease the computational cost by employing a relatively coarse mesh resolution accompanied with an appropriate wall modelling approach in the solid boundary. The results are within an acceptable accuracy and, therefore, offer a cost-effective solution to generate inflow turbulence parameters for their use in different aerodynamic applications at low Re numbers.
Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao
2013-04-01
Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.
Hysteresis in random-field Ising model on a Bethe lattice with a mixed coordination number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Prabodh; Thongjaomayum, Diana
2016-06-01
We study zero-temperature hysteresis in the random-field Ising model on a Bethe lattice where a fraction c of the sites have coordination number z = 4 while the remaining fraction 1-c have z = 3. Numerical simulations as well as probabilistic methods are used to show the existence of critical hysteresis for all values of c\\gt 0. This extends earlier results for c = 0 and c = 1 to the entire range 0≤slant c≤slant 1, and provides new insight in non-equilibrium critical phenomena. Our analysis shows that a spanning avalanche can occur on a lattice even in the absence of a spanning cluster of z = 4 sites.
Annoni, J.; Pegna, A.
1997-01-01
OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that, during random motor generation, the spatial contingencies inherent to the task would induce additional preferences in normal subjects, shifting their performances farther from randomness. By contrast, perceptual or executive dysfunction could alter these task related biases in patients with brain damage. METHODS—Two groups of patients, with right and left focal brain lesions, as well as 25 right handed subjects matched for age and handedness were asked to execute a random choice motor task—namely, to generate a random series of 180 button presses from a set of 10 keys placed vertically in front of them. RESULTS—In the control group, as in the left brain lesion group, motor generation was subject to deviations from theoretical expected randomness, similar to those when numbers are generated mentally, as immediate repetitions (successive presses on the same key) are avoided. However, the distribution of button presses was also contingent on the topographic disposition of the keys: the central keys were chosen more often than those placed at extreme positions. Small distances were favoured, particularly with the left hand. These patterns were influenced by implicit strategies and task related contingencies. By contrast, right brain lesion patients with frontal involvement tended to show a more square distribution of key presses—that is, the number of key presses tended to be more equally distributed. The strategies were also altered by brain lesions: the number of immediate repetitions was more frequent when the lesion involved the right frontal areas yielding a random generation nearer to expected theoretical randomness. The frequency of adjacent key presses was increased by right anterior and left posterior cortical as well as by right subcortical lesions, but decreased by left subcortical lesions. CONCLUSIONS—Depending on the side of the lesion and the degree of cortical-subcortical involvement, the
Fast nondeterministic random-bit generation using on-chip chaos lasers
Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter; Tsuzuki, Ken; Uchida, Atsushi
2011-03-15
It is shown that broadband chaos suitable for fast nondeterministic random-bit generation in small devices can be achieved in a semiconductor laser with a short external cavity. The design of the device is based on a theoretical model for nondeterministic random-bit generation by amplification of microscopic noise. Moreover, it is demonstrated that bit sequences passing common tests of statistical randomness at rates up to 2.08 Gbits/s can be generated using on-chip lasers with a monolithically integrated external cavity, amplifiers, and a photodetector.
Brownian motion properties of optoelectronic random bit generators based on laser chaos.
Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Wang, Yuncai; Wang, Yongge
2016-07-11
The nondeterministic property of the optoelectronic random bit generator (RBG) based on laser chaos are experimentally analyzed from two aspects of the central limit theorem and law of iterated logarithm. The random bits are extracted from an optical feedback chaotic laser diode using a multi-bit extraction technique in the electrical domain. Our experimental results demonstrate that the generated random bits have no statistical distance from the Brownian motion, besides that they can pass the state-of-the-art industry-benchmark statistical test suite (NIST SP800-22). All of them give a mathematically provable evidence that the ultrafast random bit generator based on laser chaos can be used as a nondeterministic random bit source. PMID:27410852
Brownian motion properties of optoelectronic random bit generators based on laser chaos.
Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Wang, Yuncai; Wang, Yongge
2016-07-11
The nondeterministic property of the optoelectronic random bit generator (RBG) based on laser chaos are experimentally analyzed from two aspects of the central limit theorem and law of iterated logarithm. The random bits are extracted from an optical feedback chaotic laser diode using a multi-bit extraction technique in the electrical domain. Our experimental results demonstrate that the generated random bits have no statistical distance from the Brownian motion, besides that they can pass the state-of-the-art industry-benchmark statistical test suite (NIST SP800-22). All of them give a mathematically provable evidence that the ultrafast random bit generator based on laser chaos can be used as a nondeterministic random bit source.
Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers.
Hirano, Kunihito; Yamazaki, Taiki; Morikatsu, Shinichiro; Okumura, Haruka; Aida, Hiroki; Uchida, Atsushi; Yoshimori, Shigeru; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Harayama, Takahisa; Davis, Peter
2010-03-15
We experimentally demonstrate random bit generation using multi-bit samples of bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers. Chaotic fluctuation of laser output is generated in a semiconductor laser with optical feedback and the chaotic output is injected into a second semiconductor laser to obtain a chaotic intensity signal with bandwidth enhanced up to 16 GHz. The chaotic signal is converted to an 8-bit digital signal by sampling with a digital oscilloscope at 12.5 Giga samples per second (GS/s). Random bits are generated by bitwise exclusive-OR operation on corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delayed signal. Statistical tests verify the randomness of bit sequences obtained using 1 to 6 bits per sample, corresponding to fast random bit generation rates from 12.5 to 75 Gigabit per second (Gb/s) ( = 6 bit x 12.5 GS/s).
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Makowski, Michał; Nagahama, Yuki; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Sano, Marie; Kakue, Takashi; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Takada, Naoki; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2016-05-20
We propose two calculation methods of generating color computer-generated holograms (CGHs) with the random phase-free method and color space conversion in order to improve the image quality and accelerate the calculation. The random phase-free method improves the image quality in monochrome CGH, but it is not performed in color CGH. We first aimed to improve the image quality of color CGH using the random phase-free method and then to accelerate the color CGH generation with a combination of the random phase-free method and color space conversion method, which accelerates the color CGH calculation due to down-sampling of the color components converted by color space conversion. To overcome the problem of image quality degradation that occurs due to the down-sampling of random phases, the combination of the random phase-free method and color space conversion method improves the quality of reconstructed images and accelerates the color CGH calculation. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method in simulation, and in this paper discuss its application to lensless zoomable holographic projection.
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Makowski, Michał; Nagahama, Yuki; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Sano, Marie; Kakue, Takashi; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Takada, Naoki; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2016-05-20
We propose two calculation methods of generating color computer-generated holograms (CGHs) with the random phase-free method and color space conversion in order to improve the image quality and accelerate the calculation. The random phase-free method improves the image quality in monochrome CGH, but it is not performed in color CGH. We first aimed to improve the image quality of color CGH using the random phase-free method and then to accelerate the color CGH generation with a combination of the random phase-free method and color space conversion method, which accelerates the color CGH calculation due to down-sampling of the color components converted by color space conversion. To overcome the problem of image quality degradation that occurs due to the down-sampling of random phases, the combination of the random phase-free method and color space conversion method improves the quality of reconstructed images and accelerates the color CGH calculation. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method in simulation, and in this paper discuss its application to lensless zoomable holographic projection. PMID:27411145
Condition for generating the same scattered spectral density by random and deterministic media.
Wang, Tao; Ding, Yi; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu
2015-02-01
We present a condition for generating the same scattered spectral density by random and deterministic media. Examples of light waves on scattering from a Gaussian-centered deterministic medium and a Gaussian-correlated quasi-homogeneous random medium are discussed. It is shown that the normalized far-zone scattered spectral density produced by a Gaussian-centered deterministic medium and by a Gaussian-correlated quasi-homogeneous random medium will be identical provided that the square of the effective width of normalized correlation coefficient of the quasi-homogeneous random medium is twice the square of the effective width of scattering potential of the determinate medium.
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Zumeta, Rebecca O.
2009-01-01
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students’ math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20–30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students’ mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. PMID:19865600
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gersten, Russell; Rolfhus, Eric; Clarke, Ben; Decker, Lauren E.; Wilkins, Chuck; Dimino, Joseph
2015-01-01
Replication studies are extremely rare in education. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scale-up replication of Fuchs et al., which in a sample of 139 found a statistically significant positive impact for Number Rockets, a small-group intervention for at-risk first graders that focused on building understanding of number operations. The…
Generation of Multi-Lod 3d City Models in Citygml with the Procedural Modelling Engine RANDOM3DCITY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biljecki, F.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.
2016-09-01
The production and dissemination of semantic 3D city models is rapidly increasing benefiting a growing number of use cases. However, their availability in multiple LODs and in the CityGML format is still problematic in practice. This hinders applications and experiments where multi-LOD datasets are required as input, for instance, to determine the performance of different LODs in a spatial analysis. An alternative approach to obtain 3D city models is to generate them with procedural modelling, which is - as we discuss in this paper - well suited as a method to source multi-LOD datasets useful for a number of applications. However, procedural modelling has not yet been employed for this purpose. Therefore, we have developed RANDOM3DCITY, an experimental procedural modelling engine for generating synthetic datasets of buildings and other urban features. The engine is designed to produce models in CityGML and does so in multiple LODs. Besides the generation of multiple geometric LODs, we implement the realisation of multiple levels of spatiosemantic coherence, geometric reference variants, and indoor representations. As a result of their permutations, each building can be generated in 392 different CityGML representations, an unprecedented number of modelling variants of the same feature. The datasets produced by RANDOM3DCITY are suited for several applications, as we show in this paper with documented uses. The developed engine is available under an open-source licence at Github at Random3Dcity"target="_blank">http://github.com/tudelft3d/Random3Dcity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ustinova, I.; Kozlova, A.
2016-08-01
The spectrum of potency as same the function of correlation is one of the most important characteristic of the second process random order. The spectrum of potency allows to judge about, that structure of process gives opportunity to take estimation of spectrum composition of useful signals and hindrances, allows to produce synthesis (reconstruction) the signals and to build filters and to obtain the estimates filtration. The purpose of this presenting work is modeling of process random stationary potency spectrum by random dates number in measurement moments. Using by probability theory methods and mathematical statistics was derived unbiased estimator of the potency spectrum in the form of spline first order, and were researched statistic characteristics estimation.
Graphene based widely-tunable and singly-polarized pulse generation with random fiber lasers
Yao, B. C.; Rao, Y. J.; Wang, Z. N.; Wu, Y.; Zhou, J. H.; Wu, H.; Fan, M. Q.; Cao, X. L.; Zhang, W. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, Y. R.; Churkin, D.; Turitsyn, S.; Wong, C. W.
2015-01-01
Pulse generation often requires a stabilized cavity and its corresponding mode structure for initial phase-locking. Contrastingly, modeless cavity-free random lasers provide new possibilities for high quantum efficiency lasing that could potentially be widely tunable spectrally and temporally. Pulse generation in random lasers, however, has remained elusive since the discovery of modeless gain lasing. Here we report coherent pulse generation with modeless random lasers based on the unique polarization selectivity and broadband saturable absorption of monolayer graphene. Simultaneous temporal compression of cavity-free pulses are observed with such a polarization modulation, along with a broadly-tunable pulsewidth across two orders of magnitude down to 900 ps, a broadly-tunable repetition rate across three orders of magnitude up to 3 MHz, and a singly-polarized pulse train at 41 dB extinction ratio, about an order of magnitude larger than conventional pulsed fiber lasers. Moreover, our graphene-based pulse formation also demonstrates robust pulse-to-pulse stability and wide-wavelength operation due to the cavity-less feature. Such a graphene-based architecture not only provides a tunable pulsed random laser for fiber-optic sensing, speckle-free imaging, and laser-material processing, but also a new way for the non-random CW fiber lasers to generate widely tunable and singly-polarized pulses. PMID:26687730
Graphene based widely-tunable and singly-polarized pulse generation with random fiber lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, B. C.; Rao, Y. J.; Wang, Z. N.; Wu, Y.; Zhou, J. H.; Wu, H.; Fan, M. Q.; Cao, X. L.; Zhang, W. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, Y. R.; Churkin, D.; Turitsyn, S.; Wong, C. W.
2015-12-01
Pulse generation often requires a stabilized cavity and its corresponding mode structure for initial phase-locking. Contrastingly, modeless cavity-free random lasers provide new possibilities for high quantum efficiency lasing that could potentially be widely tunable spectrally and temporally. Pulse generation in random lasers, however, has remained elusive since the discovery of modeless gain lasing. Here we report coherent pulse generation with modeless random lasers based on the unique polarization selectivity and broadband saturable absorption of monolayer graphene. Simultaneous temporal compression of cavity-free pulses are observed with such a polarization modulation, along with a broadly-tunable pulsewidth across two orders of magnitude down to 900 ps, a broadly-tunable repetition rate across three orders of magnitude up to 3 MHz, and a singly-polarized pulse train at 41 dB extinction ratio, about an order of magnitude larger than conventional pulsed fiber lasers. Moreover, our graphene-based pulse formation also demonstrates robust pulse-to-pulse stability and wide-wavelength operation due to the cavity-less feature. Such a graphene-based architecture not only provides a tunable pulsed random laser for fiber-optic sensing, speckle-free imaging, and laser-material processing, but also a new way for the non-random CW fiber lasers to generate widely tunable and singly-polarized pulses.
Random fields generation on the GPU with the spectral turning bands method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.
2014-08-01
Random field (RF) generation algorithms are of paramount importance for many scientific domains, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics and many others. Some examples are the generation of initial conditions for cosmological simulations or hydrodynamical turbulence driving. In the latter a new random field is needed every time-step. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and require the whole generated field to be stored in memory. Moreover, they are limited to regular rectilinear meshes and need an extra processing step to support non-regular meshes. In this paper, we introduce TBARF (Turning BAnd Random Fields), a RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step, and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. We show that TBARF can easily generate RF on non-regular (non uniform) meshes and can afford mesh sizes bigger than the available GPU memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. TBARF is 2 to 5 times faster than the traditional methods when generating RFs with more than 16M cells. It can also generate RF on non-regular meshes, and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.
An Autonomous Mobile Robot Guided by a Chaotic True Random Bits Generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volos, Ch. K.; Kyprianidis, I. M.; Stouboulos, I. N.; Stavrinides, S. G.; Anagnostopoulos, A. N.
In this work a robot's controller, which ensures chaotic motion to an autonomous mobile robot, is presented. This new strategy, which is very useful in many robotic missions, generates an unpredictable trajectory by using a chaotic path planning generator. The proposed generator produces a trajectory, which is the result of a sequence of planned target locations. In contrary with other similar works, this one is based on a new chaotic true random bits generator, which has as a basic feature the coexistence of two different synchronization phenomena between mutually coupled identical nonlinear circuits. Simulation tests confirm that the whole robot's workplace is covered with unpredictable way in a very satisfactory time.
Random walk of a swimmer in a low-Reynolds-number medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, Michaël; Berti, Stefano; Peyla, Philippe; Rafaï, Salima
2011-03-01
Swimming at a micrometer scale demands particular strategies. When inertia is negligible compared to viscous forces, hydrodynamics equations are reversible in time. To achieve propulsion, microswimmers must therefore deform in a way that is not invariant under time reversal. Here, we investigate dispersal properties of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by means of microscopy and cell tracking. We show that tracked trajectories are well modeled by a correlated random walk. This process is based on short time correlations in the direction of movement called persistence. At longer times, correlation is lost and a standard random walk characterizes the trajectories. Moreover, high-speed imaging enables us to show how the back-and-forth motion of flagella at very short times affects the statistical description of the dynamics. Finally, we show how drag forces modify the characteristics of this particular random walk.
Code to generate random identifiers and select QA/QC samples
Mehnert, Edward
1992-01-01
SAMPLID is a PC-based, FORTRAN-77 code which generates unique numbers for identification of samples, selection of QA/QC samples, and generation of labels. These procedures are tedious, but using a computer code such as SAMPLID can increase efficiency and reduce or eliminate errors and bias. The algorithm, used in SAMPLID, for generation of pseudorandom numbers is free of statistical flaws present in commonly available algorithms.
Towse, John Nicholas; Towse, Andrea Sarah; Saito, Satoru; Maehara, Yukio; Miyake, Akira
2016-01-01
Generating random number sequences is a popular psychological task often used to measure executive functioning. We explore random generation under “joint cognition” instructions; pairs of participants take turns to compile a shared response sequence. Across three studies, we point to six key findings from this novel format. First, there are both costs and benefits from group performance. Second, repetition avoidance occurs in dyadic as well as individual production settings. Third, individuals modify their choices in a dyadic situation such that the pair becomes the unit of psychological function. Fourth, there is immediate contagion of sequence stereotypy amongst the pairs (i.e., each contributor “owns” their partner’s response). Fifth, dyad effects occur even when participants know their partner is not interacting with them (Experiment 2). Sixth, ironically, directing participants’ efforts away from their shared task responsibility can actually benefit conjoint performance (Experiment 3). These results both constrain models of random generation and illuminate processes of joint cognition. PMID:26977923
Odic, Darko; Halberda, Justin
2015-01-01
Humans can quickly and intuitively represent the number of objects in a scene using visual evidence through the Approximate Number System (ANS). But the computations that support the encoding of visual number—the transformation from the retinal input into ANS representations—remain controversial. Two types of number encoding theories have been proposed: those arguing that number is encoded through a dedicated, enumeration computation, and those arguing that visual number is inferred from nonnumber specific visual features, such as surface area, density, convex hull, etc. Here, we attempt to adjudicate between these two theories by testing participants on both a number and a cumulative area task while also tracking their eye-movements. We hypothesize that if approximate number and surface area depend on distinct encoding computations, saccadic signatures should be distinct for the two tasks, even if the visual stimuli are identical. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that discriminating number versus cumulative area modulates both where participants look (i.e., participants spend more time looking at the more numerous set in the number task and the larger set in the cumulative area task), and how participants look (i.e., cumulative area encoding shows fewer, longer saccades, while number encoding shows many short saccades and many switches between targets). We further identify several saccadic signatures that are associated with task difficulty and correct versus incorrect trials for both dimensions. These results suggest distinct encoding algorithms for number and cumulative area extraction, and thereby distinct representations of these dimensions. PMID:26575191
Spectral turning bands for efficient Gaussian random fields generation on GPUs and accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.
2015-11-01
A random field (RF) is a set of correlated random variables associated with different spatial locations. RF generation algorithms are of crucial importance for many scientific areas, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics, and many others. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D fast Fourier transform (FFT), which does not scale well for RF bigger than the available memory; they are also limited to regular rectilinear meshes. We introduce random field generation with the turning band method (RAFT), an RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs and accelerators. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower-order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. RAFT can easily generate RF on non-regular (non-uniform) meshes and efficiently produce fields with mesh sizes bigger than the available device memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. Our algorithm generates RF with the correct statistical behavior and is tested on a variety of modern hardware, such as NVIDIA Tesla, AMD FirePro and Intel Phi. RAFT is faster than the traditional methods on regular meshes and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.
Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.
2008-01-01
Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…
Tolosa, S Cativa; Blacher, S; Denis, A; Marajofsky, A; Pirard, J-P; Gommes, C J
2009-10-01
A stochastic version of the watershed algorithm is obtained by choosing randomly in the image the seeds from which the watershed regions are grown. The output of the procedure is a probability density function corresponding to the probability that each pixel belongs to a boundary. In the present paper, two stochastic seed-generation processes are explored to avoid over-segmentation. The first is a non-uniform Poisson process, the density of which is optimized on the basis of opening granulometry. The second process positions the seeds randomly within disks centred on the maxima of a distance map. The two methods are applied to characterize the grain structure of nuclear fuel pellets. Estimators are proposed for the total edge length and grain number per unit area, L(A) and N(A), which take advantage of the probabilistic nature of the probability density function and do not require segmentation.
On the number of chiral generations in Z2× Z2 orbifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donagi, Ron; Faraggi, Alon E.
2004-08-01
The data from collider experiments and cosmic observatories indicates the existence of three light matter generations. In some classes of string compactifications the number of generations is related to a topological quantity, the Euler characteristic. However, these do not explain the existence of three generations. In a class of free fermionic string models, related to the Z2× Z2 orbifold compactification, the existence of three generations is correlated with the existence of three twisted sectors in this class of compactifications. However, the three generation models are constructed in the free fermionic formulation and their geometrical correspondence is not readily available. In this paper we classify quotients of the Z2× Z2 orbifold by additional symmetric shifts on the three complex tori. We show that three generation vacua are not obtained in this manner, indicating that the geometrical structures underlying the free fermionic models are more esoteric.
Oliver, Neus; Soriano, Miguel C; Sukow, David W; Fischer, Ingo
2011-12-01
Chaotic semiconductor lasers have been proven attractive for fast random bit generation. To follow this strategy, simple robust systems and a systematic approach determining the required dynamical properties and most suitable conditions for this application are needed. We show that dynamics of a single mode laser with polarization-rotated feedback are optimal for random bit generation when characterized simultaneously by a broad power spectrum and low autocorrelation. We observe that successful random bit generation also is sensitive to digitization and postprocessing procedures. Applying the identified criteria, we achieve fast random bit generation rates (up to 4 Gbit/s) with minimal postprocessing.
Broadband second harmonic generation in an imperfect nonlinear photonic crystal with random defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Kun; Liu, Yali; Ren, Xiaobin; Fan, Jingyang
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study broadband second harmonic generation (SHG) in an imperfect nonlinear photonic crystal in which defects are introduced with random lengths. We show that the efficient SHG output is obtained when the length of each defect varies near certain specialized values. The bandwidth of the SHG output broadens with the increasing randomness of defect length. Moreover, the SHG bandwidth is nearly unaffected only when the total length of the whole structure is long enough. The disordered structure also exhibits good tolerance to the fabrication error, which provides a way to control SHG intensity and bandwidth separately.
Sander, Anja; Wosniok, Werner; Gabel, Detlef
2014-06-01
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with Na2B12H11SH (BSH) or p-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine (BPA), and with a combination of both, was compared to radiotherapy with temozolomide, and the number of patients required to show statistically significant differences between the treatments was calculated. Whereas arms using BPA require excessive number of patients in each arm, a two-armed clinical trial with BSH and radiotherapy plus temozolomide is feasible. PMID:24373823
On an acoustic field generated by subsonic jet at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamamoto, K.; Arndt, R. E. A.
1978-01-01
An acoustic field generated by subsonic jets at low Reynolds numbers was investigated. This work is motivated by the need to increase the fundamental understanding of the jet noise generation mechanism which is essential to the development of further advanced techniques of noise suppression. The scope of this study consists of two major investigation. One is a study of large scale coherent structure in the jet turbulence, and the other is a study of the Reynolds number dependence of jet noise. With this in mind, extensive flow and acoustic measurements in low Reynolds number turbulent jets (8,930 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 220,000) were undertaken using miniature nozzles of the same configuration but different diameters at various exist Mach numbers (0.2 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 0.9).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beale, Paul
2015-03-01
We propose a new class of pseudorandom number generators based on Pohlig-Hellman exponentiation ciphers. The method generates uniform pseudorandom streams by encrypting simple sequences of short integer messages into ciphertexts by exponentiation modulo prime numbers. The advantages of the method are: the method is trivially parallelizable by parameterization with each pseudorandom number generator derived from an independent prime modulus, the method is fully scalable on massively parallel computing clusters due to the large number of primes available for each implementation, the seeding and initialization of the independent streams is simple, the method requires only a few integer multiply-mod operations per pseudorandom number, the state of each instance is defined by only a few integer values, the period of each instance is different, and the method passes a battery of intrastream and interstream correlation tests using up to 1013 pseudorandom numbers per test. We propose an implementation using 32-bit prime moduli with small exponents that require only a few 64-bit multiply-mod operations that can be executed directly in hardware. The 32-bit implementation we propose has millions of possible instances, all with periods greater than 1018. Supported by NSF CNS-082179.
Torioka, T
1978-11-10
It has been claimed that pattern separation in cerebellar cortex plays an important role in controlling movements and balance for vertebrates. A number of the neural models for cerebellar cortex have been proposed and their pattern separability has been analyzed. These results, however, only explain a part of pattern separability in random neural nets. The present paper is intended to study an extended theory of pattern separability in a new model with inhibitory connections. In addition to this, the effect of the number of connections on pattern separability is cleared up. It is also shown that the signal from the inhibitory connections has crucial importance for pattern separability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomita, Toshihiro; Miyaji, Kousuke
2016-04-01
The dependence of random telegraph noise (RTN) amplitude distribution on the number of traps and trap depth position is investigated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo device simulation including random dopant fluctuation (RDF) in a 30 nm NAND multi level flash memory. The ΔV th tail distribution becomes broad at fixed double traps, indicating that the number of traps greatly affects the worst RTN characteristics. It is also found that for both fixed single and fixed double traps, the ΔV th distribution in the lowest cell threshold voltage (V th) state shows the broadest distribution among all cell V th states. This is because the drain current flows at the channel surface in the lowest cell V th state, while at a high cell V th, it flows at the deeper position owing to the fringing coupling between the control gate (CG) and the channel. In this work, the ΔV th distribution with the number of traps following the Poisson distribution is also considered to cope with the variations in trap number. As a result, it is found that the number of traps is an important factor for understanding RTN characteristics. In addition, considering trap position in the tunnel oxide thickness direction is also an important factor.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Zumeta, Rebecca O.
2009-01-01
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC)…
Synthesis of cervical tissue second harmonic generation images using Markov random field modeling.
Yousefi, S; Kehtarnavaz, N; Gholipour, A
2011-01-01
This paper presents a statistical image modeling approach based on Markov random field to synthesize cervical tissue second harmonic generation (SHG) images. Binary images representing fiber and pore areas of the cervix tissue are first obtained from SHG images using an image processing pipeline consisting of noise removal, contrast enhancement and optimal thresholding. These binary images are modeled using a Markov random field whose parameters are estimated via the least squares method. The parameters are then used to synthesize fiber and pore areas of cervical tissue in the form of binary images. The effectiveness of the synthesis is demonstrated by reporting the classification outcome for two classes of cervical SHG images collected from mice at two different stages of normal pregnancy. The developed synthesis allows generation of realistic fiber and pore area binary images for cervical tissue studies.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Many species in temperate climates show latitudinal variation in life-cycle corresponding to synchronization with seasonal fluctuations in resources. In particular, insects often vary clinally in voltinism (the number of generations per year) which is determined by the timing of diapause terminatio...
Catalytic micromotor generating self-propelled regular motion through random fluctuation
Yamamoto, Daigo; Mukai, Atsushi; Okita, Naoaki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Shioi, Akihisa
2013-01-01
Most of the current studies on nano/microscale motors to generate regular motion have adapted the strategy to fabricate a composite with different materials. In this paper, we report that a simple object solely made of platinum generates regular motion driven by a catalytic chemical reaction with hydrogen peroxide. Depending on the morphological symmetry of the catalytic particles, a rich variety of random and regular motions are observed. The experimental trend is well reproduced by a simple theoretical model by taking into account of the anisotropic viscous effect on the self-propelled active Brownian fluctuation. PMID:23883050
GENCOV: a Fortran program that generates randomly censored survival data with covariates.
Ciampi, A; Chapman, J A; Hogg, S A; Thiffault, J
1989-05-01
We present a Fortran program for simulating censored survival data with covariates under the assumption of random censoring. The program generates times distributed according to the uniform distribution, the generalized Gamma distribution, the log-normal distribution and Pettitt's generalized logistic distribution with Box-Cox transformation of the time variable. Covariates can be introduced in the definition of the survival time, resulting in the generalized log-gamma, log-normal and Pettitt's regression models. Thereby the program provides the means for generating censored survival data according to parametric versions of three common regression models for censored survival data: the Accelerated Failure Time, the Proportional Hazards and the Proportional Odds models.
Venkataraman, Narayan; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venky N
2013-10-01
A nine-year (1999-2007) continuous panel of crash histories on interstates in Washington State, USA, was used to estimate random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models for various aggregations of crashes. A total of 21 different models were assessed in terms of four ways to aggregate crashes, by: (a) severity, (b) number of vehicles involved, (c) crash type, and by (d) location characteristics. The models within these aggregations include specifications for all severities (property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, disabling injury, and fatality), number of vehicles involved (one-vehicle to five-or-more-vehicle), crash type (sideswipe, same direction, overturn, head-on, fixed object, rear-end, and other), and location types (urban interchange, rural interchange, urban non-interchange, rural non-interchange). A total of 1153 directional road segments comprising of the seven Washington State interstates were analyzed, yielding statistical models of crash frequency based on 10,377 observations. These results suggest that in general there was a significant improvement in log-likelihood when using RPNB compared to a fixed parameter negative binomial baseline model. Heterogeneity effects are most noticeable for lighting type, road curvature, and traffic volume (ADT). Median lighting or right-side lighting are linked to increased crash frequencies in many models for more than half of the road segments compared to both-sides lighting. Both-sides lighting thereby appears to generally lead to a safety improvement. Traffic volume has a random parameter but the effect is always toward increasing crash frequencies as expected. However that the effect is random shows that the effect of traffic volume on crash frequency is complex and varies by road segment. The number of lanes has a random parameter effect only in the interchange type models. The results show that road segment-specific insights into crash frequency occurrence can lead to improved design policy and
Venkataraman, Narayan; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venky N
2013-10-01
A nine-year (1999-2007) continuous panel of crash histories on interstates in Washington State, USA, was used to estimate random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models for various aggregations of crashes. A total of 21 different models were assessed in terms of four ways to aggregate crashes, by: (a) severity, (b) number of vehicles involved, (c) crash type, and by (d) location characteristics. The models within these aggregations include specifications for all severities (property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, disabling injury, and fatality), number of vehicles involved (one-vehicle to five-or-more-vehicle), crash type (sideswipe, same direction, overturn, head-on, fixed object, rear-end, and other), and location types (urban interchange, rural interchange, urban non-interchange, rural non-interchange). A total of 1153 directional road segments comprising of the seven Washington State interstates were analyzed, yielding statistical models of crash frequency based on 10,377 observations. These results suggest that in general there was a significant improvement in log-likelihood when using RPNB compared to a fixed parameter negative binomial baseline model. Heterogeneity effects are most noticeable for lighting type, road curvature, and traffic volume (ADT). Median lighting or right-side lighting are linked to increased crash frequencies in many models for more than half of the road segments compared to both-sides lighting. Both-sides lighting thereby appears to generally lead to a safety improvement. Traffic volume has a random parameter but the effect is always toward increasing crash frequencies as expected. However that the effect is random shows that the effect of traffic volume on crash frequency is complex and varies by road segment. The number of lanes has a random parameter effect only in the interchange type models. The results show that road segment-specific insights into crash frequency occurrence can lead to improved design policy and
dos Santos, Gisele Munhoes; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Medeiros, Italo Roberto Torres; Oiticcica, Jeanne; da Silva, Eleonora Csipai; Penteado, Silvio
2014-07-23
Hearing aids with an integrated sound generator have been used to enhance the treatment of tinnitus. The main aim of this study was to verify whether the combined use of amplification and sound generator is more effective than conventional amplification alone in reducing tinnitus annoyance by means of the use of a new hearing aid with an integrated sound generator. A total of 49 patients underwent a blind randomized clinical trial. Tinnitus annoyance was measured by Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and numerical scales, and psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus were also performed. The sound generator was set at the lowest intensity capable of providing relief from tinnitus. Results showed that 62.5% of the patients presented a reduction in tinnitus annoyance in the combined fitting group and in the group with amplification alone, 78% showed a reduction. This difference between the groups was not statistically significant.
Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Li; Sheng-Kai, Liao; Fu-Tian, Liang; Qi, Shen; Hao, Liang; Cheng-Zhi, Peng
2016-03-01
Not Available Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, Shanghai Branch, University of Science and Technology of China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11405172.
Liverseed, David R; Logan, Perry W; Johnson, Carl E; Morey, Sandy Z; Raynor, Peter C
2013-03-01
Conventional abrasive sanding generates high concentrations of particles. Depending on the substrate being abraded and exposure duration, overexposure to the particles can cause negative health effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer. The goal of this study was to understand the differences in particle emissions between a conventional random orbital sanding system and a self-generated vacuum random orbital sanding system with attached particle filtration bag. Particle concentrations were sampled for each system in a controlled test chamber for oak wood, chromate painted (hexavalent chromium) steel panels, and gel-coated (titanium dioxide) fiberglass panels using a Gesamtstaub-Probenahmesystem (GSP) sampler at three different locations adjacent to the sanding. Elevated concentrations were reported for all particles in the samples collected during conventional sanding. The geometric mean concentration ratios for the three substrates ranged from 320 to 4640 times greater for the conventional sanding system than the self-generated vacuum sanding system. The differences in the particle concentration generated by the two sanding systems were statistically significant with the two sample t-test (P < 0.0001) for all three substances. The data suggest that workers using conventional sanding systems could utilize the self-generated vacuum sanding system technology to potentially reduce exposure to particles and mitigate negative health effects.
Liverseed, David R.
2013-01-01
Conventional abrasive sanding generates high concentrations of particles. Depending on the substrate being abraded and exposure duration, overexposure to the particles can cause negative health effects ranging from respiratory irritation to cancer. The goal of this study was to understand the differences in particle emissions between a conventional random orbital sanding system and a self-generated vacuum random orbital sanding system with attached particle filtration bag. Particle concentrations were sampled for each system in a controlled test chamber for oak wood, chromate painted (hexavalent chromium) steel panels, and gel-coated (titanium dioxide) fiberglass panels using a Gesamtstaub-Probenahmesystem (GSP) sampler at three different locations adjacent to the sanding. Elevated concentrations were reported for all particles in the samples collected during conventional sanding. The geometric mean concentration ratios for the three substrates ranged from 320 to 4640 times greater for the conventional sanding system than the self-generated vacuum sanding system. The differences in the particle concentration generated by the two sanding systems were statistically significant with the two sample t-test (P < 0.0001) for all three substances. The data suggest that workers using conventional sanding systems could utilize the self-generated vacuum sanding system technology to potentially reduce exposure to particles and mitigate negative health effects. PMID:23065674
4.5 Gbps high-speed real-time physical random bit generator.
Wang, Anbang; Li, Pu; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Lei; Wang, Yuncai
2013-08-26
We report a prototype of high-speed real-time physical random bit generator based on a chaotic laser. The chaotic laser consists of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback in fiber external cavity configuration. The chaotic laser intensity signal is quantized into binary stream by differential comparison which makes the amplitude distribution symmetric with respect to zero mean value. An exclusive-OR gate operation between two raw binary streams from the chaotic signal and its delayed signal is used to overcome the influences of the weak periodicity induced by the external cavity resonance inherent in the chaotic laser. After exclusive-OR operation, the prototype can generate a single fast random bit stream in real time without any off-line processing procedures. Its bit rate can be handily and continuously tuned up to 4.5 Gbps by a trigger clock. Experiment results demonstrate that our generator possesses high-quality randomness with verified by the three-standard-deviation criterion and industry-benchmark statistical tests.
Dominguez-Juarez, J L; Kozyreff, G; Martorell, Jordi
2011-01-01
Unmarked sensitive detection of molecules is needed in environmental pollution monitoring, disease diagnosis, security screening systems and in many other situations in which a substance must be identified. When molecules are attached or adsorbed onto an interface, detecting their presence is possible using second harmonic light generation, because at interfaces the inversion symmetry is broken. However, such light generation usually requires either dense matter or a large number of molecules combined with high-power laser sources. Here we show that using high-Q spherical microresonators and low average power, between 50 and 100 small non-fluorescent molecules deposited on the outer surface of the microresonator can generate a detectable change in the second harmonic light. This generation requires phase matching in the whispering gallery modes, which we achieved using a new procedure to periodically pattern, with nanometric precision, a molecular surface monolayer. PMID:21448153
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Chang
2016-09-01
A new algorithm for multi-objective wind farm layout optimization is presented. It formulates the wind turbine locations as continuous variables and is capable of optimizing the number of turbines and their locations in the wind farm simultaneously. Two objectives are considered. One is to maximize the total power production, which is calculated by considering the wake effects using the Jensen wake model combined with the local wind distribution. The other is to minimize the total electrical cable length. This length is assumed to be the total length of the minimal spanning tree that connects all turbines and is calculated by using Prim's algorithm. Constraints on wind farm boundary and wind turbine proximity are also considered. An ideal test case shows the proposed algorithm largely outperforms a famous multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). In the real test case based on the Horn Rev 1 wind farm, the algorithm also obtains useful Pareto frontiers and provides a wide range of Pareto optimal layouts with different numbers of turbines for a real-life wind farm developer.
Sakuraba, Ryohsuke; Iwakawa, Kento; Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi
2015-01-26
We experimentally demonstrate fast physical random bit generation from bandwidth-enhanced chaos by using three-cascaded semiconductor lasers. The bandwidth-enhanced chaos is obtained with the standard bandwidth of 35.2 GHz, the effective bandwidth of 26.0 GHz and the flatness of 5.6 dB, whose waveform is used for random bit generation. Two schemes of single-bit and multi-bit extraction methods for random bit generation are carried out to evaluate the entropy rate and the maximum random bit generation rate. For single-bit generation, the generation rate at 20 Gb/s is obtained for physical random bit sequences. For multi-bit generation, the maximum generation rate at 1.2 Tb/s ( = 100 GS/s × 6 bits × 2 data) is equivalently achieved for physical random bit sequences whose randomness is verified by using both NIST Special Publication 800-22 and TestU01.
Thermodynamic method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault
Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.
2012-01-01
This report presents a new method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault, suitable for use as initial conditions in a dynamic rupture simulation. The method employs concepts from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. A pattern of fault slip is considered to be analogous to a micro-state of a thermodynamic system. The energy of the micro-state is taken to be the elastic energy stored in the surrounding medium. Then, the Boltzmann distribution gives the probability of a given pattern of fault slip and stress. We show how to decompose the system into independent degrees of freedom, which makes it computationally feasible to select a random state. However, due to the equipartition theorem, straightforward application of the Boltzmann distribution leads to a divergence which predicts infinite stress. To avoid equipartition, we show that the finite strength of the fault acts to restrict the possible states of the system. By analyzing a set of earthquake scaling relations, we derive a new formula for the expected power spectral density of the stress distribution, which allows us to construct a computer algorithm free of infinities. We then present a new technique for controlling the extent of the rupture by generating a random stress distribution thousands of times larger than the fault surface, and selecting a portion which, by chance, has a positive stress perturbation of the desired size. Finally, we present a new two-stage nucleation method that combines a small zone of forced rupture with a larger zone of reduced fracture energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Over, Thomas, M.; Gupta, Vijay K.
1994-01-01
Under the theory of independent and identically distributed random cascades, the probability distribution of the cascade generator determines the spatial and the ensemble properties of spatial rainfall. Three sets of radar-derived rainfall data in space and time are analyzed to estimate the probability distribution of the generator. A detailed comparison between instantaneous scans of spatial rainfall and simulated cascades using the scaling properties of the marginal moments is carried out. This comparison highlights important similarities and differences between the data and the random cascade theory. Differences are quantified and measured for the three datasets. Evidence is presented to show that the scaling properties of the rainfall can be captured to the first order by a random cascade with a single parameter. The dependence of this parameter on forcing by the large-scale meteorological conditions, as measured by the large-scale spatial average rain rate, is investigated for these three datasets. The data show that this dependence can be captured by a one-to-one function. Since the large-scale average rain rate can be diagnosed from the large-scale dynamics, this relationship demonstrates an important linkage between the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and the statistical cascade theory of mesoscale rainfall. Potential application of this research to parameterization of runoff from the land surface and regional flood frequency analysis is briefly discussed, and open problems for further research are presented.
Theory and generation of conditional, scalable sub-Gaussian random fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panzeri, M.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Neuman, S. P.
2016-03-01
Many earth and environmental (as well as a host of other) variables, Y, and their spatial (or temporal) increments, ΔY, exhibit non-Gaussian statistical scaling. Previously we were able to capture key aspects of such non-Gaussian scaling by treating Y and/or ΔY as sub-Gaussian random fields (or processes). This however left unaddressed the empirical finding that whereas sample frequency distributions of Y tend to display relatively mild non-Gaussian peaks and tails, those of ΔY often reveal peaks that grow sharper and tails that become heavier with decreasing separation distance or lag. Recently we proposed a generalized sub-Gaussian model (GSG) which resolves this apparent inconsistency between the statistical scaling behaviors of observed variables and their increments. We presented an algorithm to generate unconditional random realizations of statistically isotropic or anisotropic GSG functions and illustrated it in two dimensions. Most importantly, we demonstrated the feasibility of estimating all parameters of a GSG model underlying a single realization of Y by analyzing jointly spatial moments of Y data and corresponding increments, ΔY. Here, we extend our GSG model to account for noisy measurements of Y at a discrete set of points in space (or time), present an algorithm to generate conditional realizations of corresponding isotropic or anisotropic random fields, introduce two approximate versions of this algorithm to reduce CPU time, and explore them on one and two-dimensional synthetic test cases.
Yang, Xiuping; Min, Lequan; Wang, Xue
2015-05-01
This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% key streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 2(1345). As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.
Yang, Xiuping Min, Lequan Wang, Xue
2015-05-15
This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% key streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 2{sup 1345}. As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.
Numbers matter to informed patient choices: A randomized design across age and numeracy levels
Peters, Ellen; Hart, P. Sol; Tusler, Martin; Fraenkel, Liana
2013-01-01
Background How drug adverse events (AEs) are communicated in the United States may mislead consumers and result in low adherence. Requiring written information to include numeric AE-likelihood information might lessen these effects, but providing numbers may disadvantage less skilled populations. Objective To determine risk comprehension and willingness to use a medication when presented with numeric or non-numeric AE-likelihood information across age, numeracy, and cholesterol-lowering-drug-usage groups. Design In a cross-sectional internet survey (N=905; American Life Panel, 5/15/08–6/18/08), respondents were presented with a hypothetical prescription medication for high cholesterol. AE likelihoods were described using one of six formats (non-numeric: Consumer-Medication-Information (CMI)-like list, risk labels; numeric: percentage, frequency, risk-labels-plus-percentage, risk-labels-plus-frequency). Main outcome measures were risk comprehension (recoded to indicate presence/absence of risk overestimation and underestimation), willingness to use the medication (7-point scale; not likely=0, very likely=6), and main reason for willingness (chosen from eight predefined reasons). Results Individuals given non-numeric information were more likely to overestimate risk, less willing to take the medication, and gave different reasons than those provided numeric information across numeracy and age groups (e.g., among less numerate: 69% and 18% overestimated risks in non-numeric and numeric formats, respectively; among more numerate: these same proportions were 66% and 6%). Less numerate middle-aged and older adults, however, showed less influence of numeric format on willingness to take the medication. Limitations It is unclear whether differences are clinically meaningful although some differences are large. Conclusions Providing numeric AE-likelihood information (compared to non-numeric) is likely to increase risk comprehension across numeracy and age levels. Its
Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping
Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.
2011-05-15
Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.
Morrill, André; Forbes, Mark R
2012-06-01
Parasite aggregation is viewed as a natural law in parasite-host ecology but is a paradox insofar as parasites should follow the Poisson distribution if hosts are encountered randomly. Much research has focused on whether parasite aggregation in or on hosts is explained by aggregation of infective parasite stages in the environment, or by heterogeneity within host samples in terms of host responses to infection (e.g., through representation of different age classes of hosts). In this paper, we argue that the typically aggregated distributions of parasites may be explained simply. We propose that aggregated distributions can be derived from parasites encountering hosts randomly, but subsequently by parasites being 'lost' from hosts based on condition-linked escape or immunity of hosts. Host condition should be a normally distributed trait even among otherwise homogeneous sets of hosts. Our model shows that mean host condition and variation in host condition have different effects on the different metrics of parasite aggregation. Our model further predicts that as host condition increases, parasites become more aggregated but numbers of attending parasites are reduced overall and this is important for parasite population dynamics. The effects of deviation from random encounter are discussed with respect to the relationship between host condition and final parasite numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandolesi, E.; Moorkamp, M.; Jones, A. G.
2014-12-01
Most electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods focus on the electrical conductivity of rocks and sediments to determine the geological structure of the subsurface. Electric conductivity itself is measured in the laboratory with a wide range of instruments and techniques. These measurements seldom return a compatible result. The presence of partially-interconnected random pathways of electrically conductive materials in resistive hosts has been studied for decades, and recently with increasing interest. To comprehend which conductive mechanism scales from the microstructures up to field electrical conductivity measurements, two main branch of studies have been undertaken: statistical probability of having a conductive pathways and mixing laws. Several numerical approaches have been tested to understand the effects of interconnected pathways of conductors at field scale. Usually these studies were restricted in two ways: the sources are considered constant in time (i.e., DC) and the domain is, with few exception, two-dimensional. We simulated the effects of time-varying EM sources on the conductivity measured on the surface of a three-dimensional randomly generated body embedded in an uniform host by using electromagnetic induction equations. We modelled a two-phase mixture of resistive and conductive elements with the goal of comparing the conductivity measured on field scale with the one proper of the elements constituting the random rock, and to test how the internal structures influence the directionality of the responses. Moreover, we modelled data from randomly generated bodies characterized by coherent internal structures, to check the effect of the named structures on the anisotropy of the effective conductivity. We compared these values with the electrical conductivity limits predicted by Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and the effective conductivity predicted by the Archie's law, both cast in its classic form and in an updated that allow to take in account two
A Mathematical Analysis of the R-MAT Random Graph Generator
Groer, Christopher S; Sullivan, Blair D; Poole, Stephen W
2011-01-01
The R-MAT graph generator introduced by Chakrabarti, Faloutsos, and Zhan offers a simple, fast method for generating very large directed graphs. These properties have made it a popular choice as a method of generating graphs for objects of study in a variety of disciplines, from social network analysis to high performance computing. We analyze the graphs generated by R-MAT and model the generator in terms of occupancy problems in order to prove results about the degree distributions of these graphs. We prove that the limiting degree distributions can be expressed as a mixture of normal distributions, contradicting the widely held belief that R-MAT degree distributions exhibit the power law or scale free distribution observed in many real world graphs. Additionally, this paper offers an efficient computational technique for computing the exact degree distribution, as well as concise expressions for a number of properties of R-MAT graphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meshram, S. Gajbhiye; Sharma, S. K.; Tignath, S.
2015-10-01
Watershed is an ideal unit for planning and management of land and water resources (Gajbhiye et al., IEEE international conference on advances in technology and engineering (ICATE), Bombay, vol 1, issue 9, pp 23-25, 2013a; Gajbhiye et al., Appl Water Sci 4(1):51-61, 2014a; Gajbhiye et al., J Geol Soc India (SCI-IF 0.596) 84(2):192-196, 2014b). This study aims to generate the curve number, using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) and the effect of slope on curve number values. The study was carried out in Kanhaiya Nala watershed located in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. Soil map, Land Use/Land cover and slope map were generated in GIS Environment. The CN parameter values corresponding to various soil, land cover, and land management conditions were selected from Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) standard table. Curve number (CN) is an index developed by the NRCS, to represent the potential for storm water runoff within a drainage area. The CN for a drainage basin is estimated using a combination of land use, soil, and antecedent soil moisture condition (AMC). In present study effect of slope on CN values were determined. The result showed that the CN unadjusted value are higher in comparison to CN adjusted with slope. Remote sensing and GIS is very reliable technique for the preparation of most of the input data required by the SCS curve number model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Suman; Sadique Uz Zaman, J. K. M.; Ghosh, Ranjan
2016-06-01
In Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the standard S-Box is conventionally generated by using a particular irreducible polynomial {11B} in GF(28) as the modulus and a particular additive constant polynomial {63} in GF(2), though it can be generated by many other polynomials. In this paper, it has been shown that it is possible to generate secured AES S-Boxes by using some other selected modulus and additive polynomials and also can be generated randomly, using a PRNG like BBS. A comparative study has been made on the randomness of corresponding AES ciphertexts generated, using these S-Boxes, by the NIST Test Suite coded for this paper. It has been found that besides using the standard one, other moduli and additive constants are also able to generate equally or better random ciphertexts; the same is true for random S-Boxes also. As these new types of S-Boxes are user-defined, hence unknown, they are able to prevent linear and differential cryptanalysis. Moreover, they act as additional key-inputs to AES, thus increasing the key-space.
A random approach of test macro generation for early detection of hotspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jong-hyun; Kim, Chin; Kang, Minsoo; Hwang, Sungwook; Yang, Jae-seok; Harb, Mohammed; Al-Imam, Mohamed; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe
2016-03-01
Multiple-Patterning Technology (MPT) is still the preferred choice over EUV for the advanced technology nodes, starting the 20nm node. Down the way to 7nm and 5nm nodes, Self-Aligned Multiple Patterning (SAMP) appears to be one of the effective multiple patterning techniques in terms of achieving small pitch of printed lines on wafer, yet its yield is in question. Predicting and enhancing the yield in the early stages of technology development are some of the main objectives for creating test macros on test masks. While conventional yield ramp techniques for a new technology node have relied on using designs from previous technology nodes as a starting point to identify patterns for Design of Experiment (DoE) creation, these techniques are challenging to apply in the case of introducing an MPT technique like SAMP that did not exist in previous nodes. This paper presents a new strategy for generating test structures based on random placement of unit patterns that can construct more meaningful bigger patterns. Specifications governing the relationships between those unit patterns can be adjusted to generate layout clips that look like realistic SAMP designs. A via chain can be constructed to connect the random DoE of SAMP structures through a routing layer to external pads for electrical measurement. These clips are decomposed according to the decomposition rules of the technology into the appropriate mandrel and cut masks. The decomposed clips can be tested through simulations, or electrically on silicon to discover hotspots. The hotspots can be used in optimizing the fabrication process and models to fix them. They can also be used as learning patterns for DFM deck development. By expanding the size of the randomly generated test structures, more hotspots can be detected. This should provide a faster way to enhance the yield of a new technology node.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, F.; Matsushima, M.; Honkura, Y.
2004-12-01
We have carried out 3D numerical simulations of MHD dynamo in a rotating spherical shell to investigate behavior of the convection structure and the generated magnetic field. Here, we focus on Rayleigh number (Ra) dependence of numerical dynamos to make extrapolation to the geodynamo regime, and thus, performed parameter survey varying Ra up to about 53 times the critical value, Rac. To make wider parameter survey, we use moderate value of the Ekman number (10-4). Using the other fixed parameters, the Prandtl number Pr=1, the magnetic Prandtl number Pm=2, and radius ratio ri/r_o=0.35, dynamos undergo a series of bifurcations with increasing Ra from well known dipolar dynamos without convection inside the tangent cylinder (TC), DP1, to the ones with active convection inside TC generating the toroidal magnetic field through the ω -effect, DP2, non-dipolar dynamos, NDP, and then TC-dominating dynamos, TCD. Between DP2 and NDP transition, the magnetic energy shows a dramatic reduction, and then increases again, whereas the kinetic energy monotonically increases. TCD dynamos are also found in Glatzmaier and Roberts dynamo model using hyperdiffusivity. In this regime, advection term in the momentum equation plays a role in momentum balance, while other dynamos at lower Ra are essentially in geostrophic state. The Lorentz force counteracts the advection term to inhibit disturbance in convection structure due to vortex stretching. It seems that viscous effects still play a role in momentum balance. Using the results obtained in this study, it is suggested that the magnetic Reynolds number similar to the Earth's core would be achieved at Ra ˜ 80Rac.
Stochastic generation of explicit pore structures by thresholding Gaussian random fields
Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Winter, C. Larrabee
2014-11-15
We provide a description and computational investigation of an efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures. Smolarkiewicz and Winter introduced this specific method in pores resolving simulation of Darcy flows (Smolarkiewicz and Winter, 2010 [1]) without giving a complete formal description or analysis of the method, or indicating how to control the parameterization of the ensemble. We address both issues in this paper. The method consists of two steps. First, a realization of a correlated Gaussian field, or topography, is produced by convolving a prescribed kernel with an initial field of independent, identically distributed random variables. The intrinsic length scales of the kernel determine the correlation structure of the topography. Next, a sample pore space is generated by applying a level threshold to the Gaussian field realization: points are assigned to the void phase or the solid phase depending on whether the topography over them is above or below the threshold. Hence, the topology and geometry of the pore space depend on the form of the kernel and the level threshold. Manipulating these two user prescribed quantities allows good control of pore space observables, in particular the Minkowski functionals. Extensions of the method to generate media with multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions are also discussed. To demonstrate its usefulness, the method is used to generate a pore space with physical and hydrological properties similar to a sample of Berea sandstone. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures is provided. •Samples are generated by applying a level threshold to a Gaussian field realization. •Two user prescribed quantities determine the topology and geometry of the pore space. •Multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions can be produced. •A pore space based on Berea sandstone is generated.
Galindo-Torres, S A; Muñoz, J D; Alonso-Marroquín, F
2010-11-01
Minkowski operators (dilation and erosion of sets in vector spaces) have been extensively used in computer graphics, image processing to analyze the structure of materials, and more recently in molecular dynamics. Here, we apply those mathematical concepts to extend the discrete element method to simulate granular materials with complex-shaped particles. The Voronoi-Minkowski diagrams are introduced to generate random packings of complex-shaped particles with tunable particle roundness. Contact forces and potentials are calculated in terms of distances instead of overlaps. By using the Verlet method to detect neighborhood, we achieve CPU times that grow linearly with the body's number of sides. Simulations of dissipative granular materials under shear demonstrate that the method maintains conservation of energy in accord with the first law of thermodynamics. A series of simulations for biaxial test, shear band formation, hysteretic behavior, and ratcheting show that the model can reproduce the main features of real granular-soil behavior.
A Geostatistical Scaling Approach for the Generation of Non Gaussian Random Variables and Increments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guadagnini, Alberto; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Riva, Monica; Panzeri, Marco
2016-04-01
We address manifestations of non-Gaussian statistical scaling displayed by many variables, Y, and their (spatial or temporal) increments. Evidence of such behavior includes symmetry of increment distributions at all separation distances (or lags) with sharp peaks and heavy tails which tend to decay asymptotically as lag increases. Variables reported to exhibit such distributions include quantities of direct relevance to hydrogeological sciences, e.g. porosity, log permeability, electrical resistivity, soil and sediment texture, sediment transport rate, rainfall, measured and simulated turbulent fluid velocity, and other. No model known to us captures all of the documented statistical scaling behaviors in a unique and consistent manner. We recently proposed a generalized sub-Gaussian model (GSG) which reconciles within a unique theoretical framework the probability distributions of a target variable and its increments. We presented an algorithm to generate unconditional random realizations of statistically isotropic or anisotropic GSG functions and illustrated it in two dimensions. In this context, we demonstrated the feasibility of estimating all key parameters of a GSG model underlying a single realization of Y by analyzing jointly spatial moments of Y data and corresponding increments. Here, we extend our GSG model to account for noisy measurements of Y at a discrete set of points in space (or time), present an algorithm to generate conditional realizations of corresponding isotropic or anisotropic random field, and explore them on one- and two-dimensional synthetic test cases.
Stochastic generation of explicit pore structures by thresholding Gaussian random fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Winter, C. Larrabee
2014-11-01
We provide a description and computational investigation of an efficient method to stochastically generate realistic pore structures. Smolarkiewicz and Winter introduced this specific method in pores resolving simulation of Darcy flows (Smolarkiewicz and Winter, 2010 [1]) without giving a complete formal description or analysis of the method, or indicating how to control the parameterization of the ensemble. We address both issues in this paper. The method consists of two steps. First, a realization of a correlated Gaussian field, or topography, is produced by convolving a prescribed kernel with an initial field of independent, identically distributed random variables. The intrinsic length scales of the kernel determine the correlation structure of the topography. Next, a sample pore space is generated by applying a level threshold to the Gaussian field realization: points are assigned to the void phase or the solid phase depending on whether the topography over them is above or below the threshold. Hence, the topology and geometry of the pore space depend on the form of the kernel and the level threshold. Manipulating these two user prescribed quantities allows good control of pore space observables, in particular the Minkowski functionals. Extensions of the method to generate media with multiple pore structures and preferential flow directions are also discussed. To demonstrate its usefulness, the method is used to generate a pore space with physical and hydrological properties similar to a sample of Berea sandstone.
Zieliński, Tomasz G
2015-04-01
This paper proposes and discusses an approach for the design and quality inspection of the morphology dedicated for sound absorbing foams, using a relatively simple technique for a random generation of periodic microstructures representative for open-cell foams with spherical pores. The design is controlled by a few parameters, namely, the total open porosity and the average pore size, as well as the standard deviation of pore size. These design parameters are set up exactly and independently, however, the setting of the standard deviation of pore sizes requires some number of pores in the representative volume element (RVE); this number is a procedure parameter. Another pore structure parameter which may be indirectly affected is the average size of windows linking the pores, however, it is in fact weakly controlled by the maximal pore-penetration factor, and moreover, it depends on the porosity and pore size. The proposed methodology for testing microstructure-designs of sound absorbing porous media applies the multi-scale modeling where some important transport parameters-responsible for sound propagation in a porous medium-are calculated from microstructure using the generated RVE, in order to estimate the sound velocity and absorption of such a designed material. PMID:25920832
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deneubourg, J. L.; Aron, S.; Goss, S.; Pasteels, J. M.; Duerinck, G.
1986-10-01
Two major types of foraging organisation in ants are described and compared, being illustrated with experimental data and mathematical models. The first concerns large colonies of identical, unspecialised foragers. The communication and interaction between foragers and their randomness generates collective and efficient structures. The second concerns small societies of deterministic and specialised foragers, rarely communicating together. The first organisation is discussed in relation to the different recruitment mechanisms, trail-following error, quality and degree of aggregation of food-sources, and territorial marking, and is the key to many types of collective behaviour in social insects. The second is discussed in relation to spatial specialisation, foraging density, individual learning and genetic programming. The two organisations may be associated in the same colony. The choice of organisation is discussed in relation to colony size and size and predictability of food sources.
Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Tao, Shiqiang; Xing, Guangming; Mozes, Jeno; Zonjy, Bilal; Lhatoo, Samden D
2015-01-01
Background A unique study identifier serves as a key for linking research data about a study subject without revealing protected health information in the identifier. While sufficient for single-site and limited-scale studies, the use of common unique study identifiers has several drawbacks for large multicenter studies, where thousands of research participants may be recruited from multiple sites. An important property of study identifiers is error tolerance (or validatable), in that inadvertent editing mistakes during their transmission and use will most likely result in invalid study identifiers. Objective This paper introduces a novel method called "Randomized N-gram Hashing (NHash)," for generating unique study identifiers in a distributed and validatable fashion, in multicenter research. NHash has a unique set of properties: (1) it is a pseudonym serving the purpose of linking research data about a study participant for research purposes; (2) it can be generated automatically in a completely distributed fashion with virtually no risk for identifier collision; (3) it incorporates a set of cryptographic hash functions based on N-grams, with a combination of additional encryption techniques such as a shift cipher; (d) it is validatable (error tolerant) in the sense that inadvertent edit errors will mostly result in invalid identifiers. Methods NHash consists of 2 phases. First, an intermediate string using randomized N-gram hashing is generated. This string consists of a collection of N-gram hashes f 1, f 2, ..., f k. The input for each function f i has 3 components: a random number r, an integer n, and input data m. The result, f i(r, n, m), is an n-gram of m with a starting position s, which is computed as (r mod |m|), where |m| represents the length of m. The output for Step 1 is the concatenation of the sequence f 1(r 1, n 1, m 1), f 2(r 2, n 2, m 2), ..., f k(r k, n k, m k). In the second phase, the intermediate string generated in Phase 1 is encrypted
A plane wave generation method by wave number domain point focusing.
Chang, Ji-Ho; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Yang-Hann
2010-11-01
A method for generation of a wave-field that is a plane wave is described. This method uses an array of loudspeakers phased so that the field in the wave-number domain is nearly concentrated at a point, this point being at the wave-number vector of the desired plane wave. The method described here for such a wave-number concentration makes use of an expansion in spherical harmonics, and requires a relatively small number of measurement points for a good approximate achievement of a plane wave. The measurement points are on a spherical surface surrounding the array of loudspeakers. The input signals for the individual loudspeakers can be derived without a matrix inversion or without explicit assumptions about the loudspeakers. The mathematical development involves spherical harmonics and three-dimensional Fourier transforms. Some numerical examples are given, with various assumptions concerning the nature of the loudspeakers, that support the premise that the method described in the present paper may be useful in applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Chika; Abe, Keiko; Noguchi, Hiroki; Nomura, Kumiko; Ikegami, Kazutaka; Fujita, Shinobu
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel nonvolatile-random access memory (RAM) cell design based on a “normally-off memory architecture” using a perpendicular spin torque transfer-magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) based on a four-transistors static random access memory (SRAM) in order to reduce the operating power of mobile processors. After the cell design concept and basic operation are proposed, a stable and reliable operation for read/write is confirmed by circuit simulation.
Copy number variation of individual cattle genomes using next-generation sequencing
Bickhart, Derek M.; Hou, Yali; Schroeder, Steven G.; Alkan, Can; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Song, Jiuzhou; Schnabel, Robert D.; Ventura, Mario; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Eichler, Evan E.; Liu, George E.
2012-01-01
Copy number variations (CNVs) affect a wide range of phenotypic traits; however, CNVs in or near segmental duplication regions are often intractable. Using a read depth approach based on next-generation sequencing, we examined genome-wide copy number differences among five taurine (three Angus, one Holstein, and one Hereford) and one indicine (Nelore) cattle. Within mapped chromosomal sequence, we identified 1265 CNV regions comprising ∼55.6-Mbp sequence—476 of which (∼38%) have not previously been reported. We validated this sequence-based CNV call set with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), achieving a validation rate of 82% and a false positive rate of 8%. We further estimated absolute copy numbers for genomic segments and annotated genes in each individual. Surveys of the top 25 most variable genes revealed that the Nelore individual had the lowest copy numbers in 13 cases (∼52%, χ2 test; P-value <0.05). In contrast, genes related to pathogen- and parasite-resistance, such as CATHL4 and ULBP17, were highly duplicated in the Nelore individual relative to the taurine cattle, while genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism, including APOL3 and FABP2, were highly duplicated in the beef breeds. These CNV regions also harbor genes like BPIFA2A (BSP30A) and WC1, suggesting that some CNVs may be associated with breed-specific differences in adaptation, health, and production traits. By providing the first individualized cattle CNV and segmental duplication maps and genome-wide gene copy number estimates, we enable future CNV studies into highly duplicated regions in the cattle genome. PMID:22300768
Vu Tien Khang, J
1989-07-01
This paper presents a FORTRAN IV subroutine to calculate inbreeding and kinship coefficients from pedigree information in a diploid population without self-fertilization. The user can specify the number of ancestral generations to be taken into account. It is thus possible to determine contributions of succeeding ancestral generations to the inbreeding and kinship coefficients under consideration. The subroutine is based on a recursive procedure that generates systematically all paths connecting two individuals. NP and NM, whose kinship coefficient is to be calculated (or between the father NP and the mother NM of the individual whose inbreeding coefficient is to be calculated). These paths obey the following conditions: (i) a given path does not contain the same parent-offspring link more than once; (ii) the vertex of a path is an ancestor common to individuals NP and NM, with a rank lower or equal to the parameter specified in input. Constraints regarding the size of the corpus of genealogical data and the storage method are discussed, as well as the interest of this subroutine compared to the existing ones. An example of application is given.
Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology.
Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru
2016-01-01
We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553
de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik
2012-01-01
To what extent free response generation in different tasks uses common and task-specific neurocognitive processes has remained unclear. Here, we investigated overlap and differences in neural activity during musical improvisation and pseudo-random response generation. Brain activity was measured using fMRI in a group of professional classical pianists, who performed musical improvisation of melodies, pseudo-random key-presses and a baseline condition (sight-reading), on either two, six or twelve keys on a piano keyboard. The results revealed an extensive overlap in neural activity between the two generative conditions. Active regions included the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and pre-SMA. No regions showed higher activity in improvisation than in pseudo-random generation. These findings suggest that the activated regions fulfill generic functions that are utilized in different types of free generation tasks, independent of overall goal. In contrast, pseudo-random generation was accompanied by higher activity than improvisation in several regions. This presumably reflects the participants' musical expertise as well as the pseudo-random generation task's high load on attention, working memory, and executive control. The results highlight the significance of using naturalistic tasks to study human behavior and cognition. No brain activity was related to the size of the response set. We discuss that this may reflect that the musicians were able to use specific strategies for improvisation, by which there was no simple relationship between response set size and neural activity. PMID:21782960
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Nishikawa, Isao; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Toyoizumi, Taro
Source of cortical variability and its influence on signal processing remain an open question. We address the latter, by studying two types of balanced randomly connected networks of quadratic I-F neurons, with irregular spontaneous activity: (a) a deterministic network with strong connections generating noise by chaotic dynamics (b) a stochastic network with weak connections receiving noisy input. They are analytically tractable in the limit of large network-size and channel time-constant. Despite different sources of noise, spontaneous activity of these networks are identical unless majority of neurons are simultaneously recorded. However, the two networks show remarkably different sensitivity to external stimuli. In the former, input reverberates internally and can be read out over long time, but in the latter, inputs rapidly decay. This is further enhanced with activity-dependent plasticity at input synapses producing marked difference in decoding inputs from neural activity. We show, this leads to distinct performance of the two networks to integrate temporally separate signals from multiple sources, with the deterministic chaotic network activity serving as reservoir for Monte Carlo sampling to perform near optimal Bayesian integration, unlike its stochastic counterpart.
Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A; Lin, Haiqun; Swartz, Marvin; McEvoy, Joseph; Stroup, Scott
2015-07-01
No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.
Human acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase variants generated by random mutagenesis.
Summerscales, Joanna E; Josephy, P David
2004-01-01
Acetyl CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes catalyze the N-acetylation of aromatic amines and the O-acetylation of aryl hydroxylamines, reactions that govern the disposition and toxicity of many drugs and carcinogens. The human NAT genes and enzymes NAT1 and NAT2 are highly polymorphic and constitute one of the best studied examples of the genetic control of drug metabolism. Naturally occurring human NAT variants provide limited insight into the relationship between NAT amino acid sequence and enzyme activity. We have shown previously that the expression of recombinant NAT2 in bacterial tester strains results in greatly enhanced sensitivity to mutagenic nitroaromatic compounds (which are reduced to aryl hydroxylamines by bacterial enzymes). We hypothesized that random mutagenesis combined with rapid screening could be used to identify functionally significant amino acid residues in NAT enzymes. Pools of NAT2 variants were generated by polymerase chain reaction-mediated random mutagenesis of the complete coding sequence. Reversion induced by a NAT-dependent mutagen, 3-methyl-2-nitroimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, was used as the basis for screening these pools to identify variants with altered enzyme activity. Eighteen variants were characterized by quantitative mutagenicity assays and enzyme kinetic measurements. This approach can provide new insight into the biochemistry of enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of mutagens. PMID:14722254
Wei, Julong; Xu, Shizhong
2016-02-01
Most standard QTL mapping procedures apply to populations derived from the cross of two parents. QTL detected from such biparental populations are rarely relevant to breeding programs because of the narrow genetic basis: only two alleles are involved per locus. To improve the generality and applicability of mapping results, QTL should be detected using populations initiated from multiple parents, such as the multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) populations. The greatest challenges of QTL mapping in MAGIC populations come from multiple founder alleles and control of the genetic background information. We developed a random-model methodology by treating the founder effects of each locus as random effects following a normal distribution with a locus-specific variance. We also fit a polygenic effect to the model to control the genetic background. To improve the statistical power for a scanned marker, we release the marker effect absorbed by the polygene back to the model. In contrast to the fixed-model approach, we estimate and test the variance of each locus and scan the entire genome one locus at a time using likelihood-ratio test statistics. Simulation studies showed that this method can increase statistical power and reduce type I error compared with composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiparent whole-genome average interval mapping (MPWGAIM). We demonstrated the method using a public Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC population and a mouse MAGIC population.
Second harmonic generation in random composites of particles with core-shell structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.
2006-08-01
We study the effective second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficient in a random composite consisting of particles with a core-shell structure embedded in a linear dielectric host. The material making up the core of the particles is assumed to be nonconducting, but with a nonlinear susceptibility for SHG. The coating material is assumed to be linear and metallic. An expression for the effective SHG coefficient is obtained, in terms of various local field factors. The effective SHG response per unit volume of nonlinear material is found to be greatly enhanced at certain frequencies. For coated particles, the core-shell structure allows for tuning of the resonance through the choice of material parameters and/or the ratio of the core to shell volume fraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Scheerlinck, Nico; Nicolaï, Bart M.
2009-01-01
When modelling the behaviour of horticultural products, demonstrating large sources of biological variation, we often run into the issue of non-Gaussian distributed model parameters. This work presents an algorithm to reproduce such correlated non-Gaussian model parameters for use with Monte Carlo simulations. The algorithm works around the problem of non-Gaussian distributions by transforming the observed non-Gaussian probability distributions using a proposed SKN-distribution function before applying the covariance decomposition algorithm to generate Gaussian random co-varying parameter sets. The proposed SKN-distribution function is based on the standard Gaussian distribution function and can exhibit different degrees of both skewness and kurtosis. This technique is demonstrated using a case study on modelling the ripening of tomato fruit evaluating the propagation of biological variation with time.
Ischebeck, Anja; Heim, Stefan; Siedentopf, Christian; Zamarian, Laura; Schocke, Michael; Kremser, Christian; Egger, Karl; Strenge, Hans; Scheperjans, Filip; Delazer, Margarete
2008-08-01
Months, days of the week, and numbers differ from other verbal concepts because they are ordered in a sequence, whereas no order is imposed on members of other categories, such as animals or tools. Recent studies suggest that numbers activate a representation of their quantity within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) automatically, that is, in tasks that do not require the processing of quantity. It is unclear, however, whether ordered verbal materials in general and not only numbers activate the IPS in such tasks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study word generation of months, numbers, and animals were compared. Word generation of numbers and nonnumerical materials from an ordered category (months) activated the IPS more strongly than generating items from a not-ordered category such as animals or the verbal control conditions. An ROI analysis of three subregions within the anterior IPS revealed that the most anterior and lateral of these regions, human intraparietal area hIP2, shows a greater sensitivity to ordered materials than the other two areas, hIP1 and hIP3. Interestingly, no difference in activation was observed within the IPS between numbers and months suggesting that the activation of the IPS might not be modulated by the additional quantity information carried by numbers. PMID:17705220
Precise algorithm to generate random sequential addition of hard hyperspheres at saturation.
Zhang, G; Torquato, S
2013-11-01
The study of the packing of hard hyperspheres in d-dimensional Euclidean space R^{d} has been a topic of great interest in statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory. While the densest known packings are ordered in sufficiently low dimensions, it has been suggested that in sufficiently large dimensions, the densest packings might be disordered. The random sequential addition (RSA) time-dependent packing process, in which congruent hard hyperspheres are randomly and sequentially placed into a system without interparticle overlap, is a useful packing model to study disorder in high dimensions. Of particular interest is the infinite-time saturation limit in which the available space for another sphere tends to zero. However, the associated saturation density has been determined in all previous investigations by extrapolating the density results for nearly saturated configurations to the saturation limit, which necessarily introduces numerical uncertainties. We have refined an algorithm devised by us [S. Torquato, O. U. Uche, and F. H. Stillinger, Phys. Rev. E 74, 061308 (2006)] to generate RSA packings of identical hyperspheres. The improved algorithm produce such packings that are guaranteed to contain no available space in a large simulation box using finite computational time with heretofore unattained precision and across the widest range of dimensions (2≤d≤8). We have also calculated the packing and covering densities, pair correlation function g(2)(r), and structure factor S(k) of the saturated RSA configurations. As the space dimension increases, we find that pair correlations markedly diminish, consistent with a recently proposed "decorrelation" principle, and the degree of "hyperuniformity" (suppression of infinite-wavelength density fluctuations) increases. We have also calculated the void exclusion probability in order to compute the so-called quantizer error of the RSA packings, which is related to the second moment of inertia of the average
Precise algorithm to generate random sequential addition of hard hyperspheres at saturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, G.; Torquato, S.
2013-11-01
The study of the packing of hard hyperspheres in d-dimensional Euclidean space Rd has been a topic of great interest in statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory. While the densest known packings are ordered in sufficiently low dimensions, it has been suggested that in sufficiently large dimensions, the densest packings might be disordered. The random sequential addition (RSA) time-dependent packing process, in which congruent hard hyperspheres are randomly and sequentially placed into a system without interparticle overlap, is a useful packing model to study disorder in high dimensions. Of particular interest is the infinite-time saturation limit in which the available space for another sphere tends to zero. However, the associated saturation density has been determined in all previous investigations by extrapolating the density results for nearly saturated configurations to the saturation limit, which necessarily introduces numerical uncertainties. We have refined an algorithm devised by us [S. Torquato, O. U. Uche, and F. H. Stillinger, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.74.061308 74, 061308 (2006)] to generate RSA packings of identical hyperspheres. The improved algorithm produce such packings that are guaranteed to contain no available space in a large simulation box using finite computational time with heretofore unattained precision and across the widest range of dimensions (2≤d≤8). We have also calculated the packing and covering densities, pair correlation function g2(r), and structure factor S(k) of the saturated RSA configurations. As the space dimension increases, we find that pair correlations markedly diminish, consistent with a recently proposed “decorrelation” principle, and the degree of “hyperuniformity” (suppression of infinite-wavelength density fluctuations) increases. We have also calculated the void exclusion probability in order to compute the so-called quantizer error of the RSA packings, which is related to the
Precise algorithm to generate random sequential addition of hard hyperspheres at saturation.
Zhang, G; Torquato, S
2013-11-01
The study of the packing of hard hyperspheres in d-dimensional Euclidean space R^{d} has been a topic of great interest in statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory. While the densest known packings are ordered in sufficiently low dimensions, it has been suggested that in sufficiently large dimensions, the densest packings might be disordered. The random sequential addition (RSA) time-dependent packing process, in which congruent hard hyperspheres are randomly and sequentially placed into a system without interparticle overlap, is a useful packing model to study disorder in high dimensions. Of particular interest is the infinite-time saturation limit in which the available space for another sphere tends to zero. However, the associated saturation density has been determined in all previous investigations by extrapolating the density results for nearly saturated configurations to the saturation limit, which necessarily introduces numerical uncertainties. We have refined an algorithm devised by us [S. Torquato, O. U. Uche, and F. H. Stillinger, Phys. Rev. E 74, 061308 (2006)] to generate RSA packings of identical hyperspheres. The improved algorithm produce such packings that are guaranteed to contain no available space in a large simulation box using finite computational time with heretofore unattained precision and across the widest range of dimensions (2≤d≤8). We have also calculated the packing and covering densities, pair correlation function g(2)(r), and structure factor S(k) of the saturated RSA configurations. As the space dimension increases, we find that pair correlations markedly diminish, consistent with a recently proposed "decorrelation" principle, and the degree of "hyperuniformity" (suppression of infinite-wavelength density fluctuations) increases. We have also calculated the void exclusion probability in order to compute the so-called quantizer error of the RSA packings, which is related to the second moment of inertia of the average
Unstructured and adaptive mesh generation for high Reynolds number viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1991-01-01
A method for generating and adaptively refining a highly stretched unstructured mesh suitable for the computation of high-Reynolds-number viscous flows about arbitrary two-dimensional geometries was developed. The method is based on the Delaunay triangulation of a predetermined set of points and employs a local mapping in order to achieve the high stretching rates required in the boundary-layer and wake regions. The initial mesh-point distribution is determined in a geometry-adaptive manner which clusters points in regions of high curvature and sharp corners. Adaptive mesh refinement is achieved by adding new points in regions of large flow gradients, and locally retriangulating; thus, obviating the need for global mesh regeneration. Initial and adapted meshes about complex multi-element airfoil geometries are shown and compressible flow solutions are computed on these meshes.
Levy, R C; Kozak, G M; Wadsworth, C B; Coates, B S; Dopman, E B
2015-01-01
Many temperate insects take advantage of longer growing seasons at lower latitudes by increasing their generation number or voltinism. In some insects, development time abruptly decreases when additional generations are fit into the season. Consequently, latitudinal 'sawtooth' clines associated with shifts in voltinism are seen for phenotypes correlated with development time, like body size. However, latitudinal variation in voltinism has not been linked to genetic variation at specific loci. Here, we show a pattern in allele frequency among voltinism ecotypes of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis) that is reminiscent of a sawtooth cline. We characterized 145 autosomal and sex-linked SNPs and found that period, a circadian gene that is genetically linked to a major QTL determining variation in post-diapause development time, shows cyclical variation between voltinism ecotypes. Allele frequencies at an unlinked circadian clock gene cryptochrome1 were correlated with period. These results suggest that selection on development time to 'fit' complete life cycles into a latitudinally varying growing season produces oscillations in alleles associated with voltinism, primarily through changes at loci underlying the duration of transitions between diapause and other life history phases. Correlations among clock loci suggest possible coupling between the circadian clock and the circannual rhythms for synchronizing seasonal life history. We anticipate that latitudinal oscillations in allele frequency will represent signatures of adaptation to seasonal environments in other insects and may be critical to understanding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of variable environments, including response to global climate change. PMID:25430782
Self-heterodyne interference spectroscopy using a comb generated by pseudo-random modulation.
Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Michaud-Belleau, Vincent; Anstie, James D; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Luiten, Andre N; Genest, Jérôme
2015-10-19
We present an original instrument designed to accomplish high-speed spectroscopy of individual optical lines based on a frequency comb generated by pseudo-random phase modulation of a continuous-wave (CW) laser. This approach delivers efficient usage of the laser power as well as independent control over the spectral point spacing, bandwidth and central wavelength of the comb. The comb is mixed with a local oscillator generated from the same CW laser frequency-shifted by an acousto-optic modulator, enabling a self-heterodyne detection scheme. The current configuration offers a calibrated spectrum every 1.12 µs. We demonstrate the capabilities of the spectrometer by producing averaged, as well as time-resolved, spectra of the D1 transition of cesium with a 9.8-MHz point spacing, a 50-kHz resolution and a span of more than 3 GHz. The spectra obtained after 1 ms of averaging are fitted with complex Voigt profiles that return parameters in good agreement with expected values. PMID:26480442
A simulation of the measurement of electrical conductivity in randomly generated two-phase rocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandolesi, Eric; Moorkamp, Max; Jones, Alan G.
2014-05-01
Geological models of the subsurface require detailed data, often unavailable from direct observation or well logs. Hence imaging the subsurface relies on models obtained by interpretation of geophysical data. Several electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods focus on the EM properties of rocks and sediments to determine a reliable image of the subsurface, while the same electromagnetic properties are directly measured in laboratories. Often these laboratory measurements return equivocal results that are difficult to reconcile with field observations. Recently different numerical approaches have been investigated in order to understand the effects of the geometry and continuity of interconnected pathways of conductors on EM field measurements, often restricting the studies to direct current (DC) sources. Bearing in mind the time-varying nature of the natural electromagnetic sources that play a role in field measurements, we numerically simulate the effects of such EM sources on the conductivity measured on the surface of a randomly generated three-dimensional body embedded in a uniform host by using electromagnetic induction equations, thus simulating a magnetotelluric (MT) survey. A key point in such a simulation is the scalability of the problem: the deeper the target, the longer the period of the EM source is needed. On the other hand, a long period signal ignores small heterogeneous conductors in the target bulk of the material, averaging the different conductivities in a median value. Since most real rocks are poor conductors, we have modeled a two-phase mixture of rock and interconnected conductive elements (representing melts, saline fluids, sulphidic, carbonitic, or metallic sediments, etc.), randomly generated within the background host. We have compared the results from the simulated measurements with the target rock embedded at different depths with electrical conductivity predicted by both Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds and an updated multi-phase Archie
On the Formation Mechanisms of Artificially Generated High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-López, Eduardo; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Buxton, Oliver R. H.
2016-08-01
We investigate the evolution of an artificially thick turbulent boundary layer generated by two families of small obstacles (divided into uniform and non-uniform wall normal distributions of blockage). One- and two-point velocity measurements using constant temperature anemometry show that the canonical behaviour of a boundary layer is recovered after an adaptation region downstream of the trips presenting 150~% higher momentum thickness (or equivalently, Reynolds number) than the natural case for the same downstream distance (x≈ 3 m). The effect of the degree of immersion of the trips for h/δ ≳ 1 is shown to play a secondary role. The one-point diagnostic quantities used to assess the degree of recovery of the canonical properties are the friction coefficient (representative of the inner motions), the shape factor and wake parameter (representative of the wake regions); they provide a severe test to be applied to artificially generated boundary layers. Simultaneous two-point velocity measurements of both spanwise and wall-normal correlations and the modulation of inner velocity by the outer structures show that there are two different formation mechanisms for the boundary layer. The trips with high aspect ratio and uniform distributed blockage leave the inner motions of the boundary layer relatively undisturbed, which subsequently drive the mixing of the obstacles' wake with the wall-bounded flow (wall-driven). In contrast, the low aspect-ratio trips with non-uniform blockage destroy the inner structures, which are then re-formed further downstream under the influence of the wake of the trips (wake-driven).
Implementation of 140 Gb/s true random bit generator based on a chaotic photonic integrated circuit.
Argyris, Apostolos; Deligiannidis, Stavros; Pikasis, Evangelos; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris
2010-08-30
In the present work a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) that emits broadband chaotic signals is employed for ultra-fast generation of true random bit sequences. Chaotic dynamics emerge from a DFB laser, accompanied by a monolithic integrated 1-cm long external cavity (EC) that provides controllable optical feedback. The short length minimizes the existence of external cavity modes, so flattened broadband spectra with minimized intrinsic periodicities can emerge. After sampling and quantization--without including optical de-correlation techniques and using most significant bits (MSB) elimination post-processing--truly random bit streams with bit-rates as high as 140 Gb/s can be generated. Finally, the extreme robustness of the random bit generator for adaptive bit-rate operation and for various operating conditions of the PIC is demonstrated.
2014-01-01
Background Copy number variation (CNV), a source of genetic diversity in mammals, has been shown to underlie biological functions related to production traits. Notwithstanding, there have been few studies conducted on CNVs using next generation sequencing at the population level. Results Illumina NGS data was obtained for ten Holsteins, a dairy cattle, and 22 Hanwoo, a beef cattle. The sequence data for each of the 32 animals varied from 13.58-fold to almost 20-fold coverage. We detected a total of 6,811 deleted CNVs across the analyzed individuals (average length = 2732.2 bp) corresponding to 0.74% of the cattle genome (18.6 Mbp of variable sequence). By examining the overlap between CNV deletion regions and genes, we selected 30 genes with the highest deletion scores. These genes were found to be related to the nervous system, more specifically with nervous transmission, neuron motion, and neurogenesis. We regarded these genes as having been effected by the domestication process. Further analysis of the CNV genotyping information revealed 94 putative selected CNVs and 954 breed-specific CNVs. Conclusions This study provides useful information for assessing the impact of CNVs on cattle traits using NGS at the population level. PMID:24673797
Generation of optical 'Schrödinger cats' from photon number states.
Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe
2007-08-16
Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a 'cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger 'kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the 'dead' and 'alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory.
Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.
2010-12-01
When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.
Can social capital be intentionally generated? a randomized trial from rural South Africa.
Pronyk, Paul M; Harpham, Trudy; Busza, Joanna; Phetla, Godfrey; Morison, Linda A; Hargreaves, James R; Kim, Julia C; Watts, Charlotte H; Porter, John D
2008-11-01
While much descriptive research has documented positive associations between social capital and a range of economic, social and health outcomes, there have been few intervention studies to assess whether social capital can be intentionally generated. We conducted an intervention in rural South Africa that combined group-based microfinance with participatory gender and HIV training in an attempt to catalyze changes in solidarity, reciprocity and social group membership as a means to reduce women's vulnerability to intimate partner violence and HIV. A cluster randomized trial was used to assess intervention effects among eight study villages. In this paper, we examined effects on structural and cognitive social capital among 845 participants and age and wealth matched women from households in comparison villages. This was supported by a diverse portfolio of qualitative research. After two years, adjusted effect estimates indicated higher levels of structural and cognitive social capital in the intervention group than the comparison group, although confidence intervals were wide. Qualitative research illustrated the ways in which economic and social gains enhanced participation in social groups, and the positive and negative dynamics that emerged within the program. There were numerous instances where individuals and village loan centres worked to address community concerns, both working through existing social networks, and through the establishment of new partnerships with local leadership structures, police, the health sector and NGOs. This is among the first experimental trials suggesting that social capital can be exogenously strengthened. The implications for community interventions in public health are further explored.
Borzov, E A; Marakhonov, A V; Ivanov, M V; Drozdova, P B; Baranova, A V; Skoblov, M Iu
2014-01-01
The generation of true random and pseudorandom control sequences is an important problem of computational biology. Available random sequence generators differ in underlying probabilistic models that often remain undisclosed to users. Random sequences produced by differing probabilistic models substantially differ in their outputs commonly used as baselines for evaluations of the motif frequencies. Moreover, modern bioinformatics studies often require generation of matching control transcriptome with emulated partitions into ORFs, 5'- and 3'-UTRs as well as the proportion of non-coding RNAs within model transcriptome rather than relatively simple continuous control sequences. Here we describe novel random sequence generating tool RANDTRAN that accounts for the length distribution of 5' and 3' non-translated regions in given transcriptome and the partition-specific di- and trinucleotide compositions in translated and non-translated regions. RANDRAN presents matching control transcriptomes in ready-to-use UCSC genome browser-compatible input files. These features may be useful for generating of control sequence sets for common types of computational analysis of various sequence motifs within various sets of RNA. RANDTRAN is available for free download at http://www.genereseairch.ru/images/Randtran.rar.
Population clustering based on copy number variations detected from next generation sequencing data
Duan, Junbo; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Wan, Mingxi; Deng, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Ping
2015-01-01
Copy number variations (CNVs) can be used as significant bio-markers and next generation sequencing (NGS) provides a high resolution detection of these CNVs. But how to extract features from CNVs and further apply them to genomic studies such as population clustering have become a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a novel method for population clustering based on CNVs from NGS. First, CNVs are extracted from each sample to form a feature matrix. Then, this feature matrix is decomposed into the source matrix and weight matrix with non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). The source matrix consists of common CNVs that are shared by all the samples from the same group, and the weight matrix indicates the corresponding level of CNVs from each sample. Therefore, using NMF of CNVs one can differentiate samples from different ethnic groups, i.e. population clustering. To validate the approach, we applied it to the analysis of both simulation data and two real data set from the 1000 Genomes Project. The results on simulation data demonstrate that the proposed method can recover the true common CNVs with high quality. The results on the first real data analysis show that the proposed method can cluster two family trio with different ancestries into two ethnic groups and the results on the second real data analysis show that the proposed method can be applied to the whole-genome with large sample size consisting of multiple groups. Both results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for population clustering. PMID:25152046
Font, Carlos; Gilbreath, G Charmaine; Restaino, Sergio; Bonanno, David; Bajramaj, Blerta; Nock, Kristen
2015-11-01
This paper investigates the extent to which atmospheric turbulence can be exploited as a random bit generator. Atmospheric turbulence is considered an inherently random process due to the complex inhomogeneous system composition and its sensitivity to changes in pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind conditions. A self-calibrating Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to collect phase fluctuations in the temporal domain introduced to an optical beam propagating through the atmosphere. The recorded phase fluctuations were converted into bit streams that were further analyzed in order to search for evidence of randomness. Empirical data and results that characterize the degree of randomness produced in the temporal phase component of an optical wave propagating through the atmosphere are presented.
Hostetter, Galen; Kim, Su Young; Savage, Stephanie; Gooden, Gerald C; Barrett, Michael; Zhang, Jian; Alla, Lalitamba; Watanabe, April; Einspahr, Janine; Prasad, Anil; Nickoloff, Brian J; Carpten, John; Trent, Jeffrey; Alberts, David; Bittner, Michael
2010-01-01
Genomic technologies, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), increasingly offer definitive gene dosage profiles in clinical samples. Historically, copy number profiling was limited to large fresh-frozen tumors where intact DNA could be readily extracted. Genomic analyses of pre-neoplastic tumors and diagnostic biopsies are often limited to DNA processed by formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding (FFPE). We present specialized protocols for DNA extraction and processing from FFPE tissues utilizing DNase processing to generate randomly fragmented DNA. The protocols are applied to FFPE clinical samples of varied tumor types, from multiple institutions and of varied block age. Direct comparative analyses with regression coefficient were calculated on split-sample (portion fresh/portion FFPE) of colorectal tumor samples. We show equal detection of a homozygous loss of SMAD4 at the exon-level in the SW480 cell line and gene-specific alterations in the split tumor samples. aCGH application to a set of archival FFPE samples of skin squamous cell carcinomas detected a novel hemizygous deletion in INPP5A on 10q26.3. Finally we present data on derivative of log ratio, a particular sensitive detector of measurement variance, for 216 sequential hybridizations to assess protocol reliability over a wide range of FFPE samples.
Education in Chronically Poor Rural Areas Lags across Generations. Issue Brief Number 24
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ulrich, Jessica D.
2011-01-01
As part of the Community and Environment in Rural America (CERA) initiative, the Carsey Institute has been investigating broad trends between rural community types, including the education level of residents and their parents. Since 2007, Carsey researchers have conducted over 17,000 telephone surveys with randomly selected adult Americans from…
Srinivasa Rao, Mathukumalli; Swathi, Pettem; Rama Rao, Chitiprolu Anantha; Rao, K. V.; Raju, B. M. K.; Srinivas, Karlapudi; Manimanjari, Dammu; Maheswari, Mandapaka
2015-01-01
The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)—2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1–2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18–22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods. PMID:25671564
Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Swathi, Pettem; Rao, Chitiprolu Anantha Rama; Rao, K V; Raju, B M K; Srinivas, Karlapudi; Manimanjari, Dammu; Maheswari, Mandapaka
2015-01-01
The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)-2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1-2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18-22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.
ArcCN-Runoff: An ArcGIS tool for generating curve number and runoff maps
Zhan, X.; Huang, M.-L.
2004-01-01
The development and the application of ArcCN-Runoff tool, an extension of ESRI@ ArcGIS software, are reported. This tool can be applied to determine curve numbers and to calculate runoff or infiltration for a rainfall event in a watershed. Implementation of GIS techniques such as dissolving, intersecting, and a curve-number reference table improve efficiency. Technical processing time may be reduced from days, if not weeks, to hours for producing spatially varied curve number and runoff maps. An application example for a watershed in Lyon County and Osage County, Kansas, USA, is presented. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Technical bases of the second generation SARIS core model (Task Number: 90-008-0)
Gregory, M.V.
1991-11-01
A methodology has been developed to rigorously derive the constants in the Savannah River Simulator (SARIS) core model from detailed, charge-design, diffusion theory solutions. This methodology is intended to replace the ill-defined, ad hoc iterative process used in the past to generate these constants. Along the development path, three shortcomings of the current core model were identified and corrected. The updated core model with revised constants is termed the second generation core model. In addition, changes in the decay heat and delayed neutron precursor models are also recommended, all in the interest of improving simulator neutronics fidelity.
Sunada, Satoshi; Harayama, Takahisa; Davis, Peter; Tsuzuki, Ken; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Atsushi
2012-12-01
We present an experimental method for directly observing the amplification of microscopic intrinsic noise in a high-dimensional chaotic laser system, a laser with delayed feedback. In the experiment, the chaotic laser system is repeatedly switched from a stable lasing state to a chaotic state, and the time evolution of an ensemble of chaotic states starting from the same initial state is measured. It is experimentally demonstrated that intrinsic noises amplified by the chaotic dynamics are transformed into macroscopic fluctuating signals, and the probability density of the output light intensity actually converges to a natural invariant probability density in a strongly chaotic regime. Moreover, with the experimental method, we discuss the application of the chaotic laser systems to physical random bit generators. It is experimentally shown that the convergence to the invariant density plays an important role in nondeterministic random bit generation, which could be desirable for future ultimate secure communication systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Allen G.
In July 1990, the Leadership Academy was established within the Kentucky Community College System (KCCS) for the purpose of preparing the next generation of leaders within the system's 14 colleges. An eight-member advisory board, appointed by the chancellor of the KCCS, set about developing the activities of the Academy. The three goals adopted by…
Elliptic grid generation with orthogonality and spacing control on an arbitrary number of boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, J. A.
1990-01-01
A procedure for the generation of two and quasi-three-dimensional grids with control of orthogonality and spacing with respect to any and/or all boundaries of the domain is described. The elliptic grid generation equations of Thompson are solved implicitly. Control of the grid behavior is achieved through the introduction of forcing functions terms in the manner of Steger and Sorenson or in a modification of the method of Hilgenstock. The forcing function terms are constructed on the boundaries and propagated into the domain using transfinite Lagrangian bivariate interpolation. An anisotropic transfinite stencil is introduced and is shown to produce excellent grid behavior particularly in the vicinity of corner singularities. Emphasis is placed on the generation of viscous grids and the method is shown to be suited for use in the generation of grids for internal as well as external flow geometries. A FORTRAN program named PISCES has been written to implement the algorithm. Examples of grids for internal and external flows are given that highlight the characteristics and behavior of the algorithm.
Using histograms to introduce randomization in the generation of ensembles of decision trees
Kamath, Chandrika; Cantu-Paz, Erick; Littau, David
2005-02-22
A system for decision tree ensembles that includes a module to read the data, a module to create a histogram, a module to evaluate a potential split according to some criterion using the histogram, a module to select a split point randomly in an interval around the best split, a module to split the data, and a module to combine multiple decision trees in ensembles. The decision tree method includes the steps of reading the data; creating a histogram; evaluating a potential split according to some criterion using the histogram, selecting a split point randomly in an interval around the best split, splitting the data, and combining multiple decision trees in ensembles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Samuel B.; Levy, Roy; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Lu, Min; Lo, Wen-Juo
2012-01-01
A number of psychometricians have argued for the use of parallel analysis to determine the number of factors. However, parallel analysis must be viewed at best as a heuristic approach rather than a mathematically rigorous one. The authors suggest a revision to parallel analysis that could improve its accuracy. A Monte Carlo study is conducted to…
Performance of a cascade in an annular vortex-generating tunnel over range of Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thurston, Sidney; Brunk, Ralph E
1951-01-01
Total-pressure deficiency for an annular cascade of 65-(12)10 blades was measured at three radial stations over a range of Reynolds numbers from 50,000 to 250,000 and at angles of attack of 15 degrees and 25 degrees. The variation of turning angle and shape of static pressure distribution at these stations is also shown.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Earnest, Darrell Steven
2012-01-01
This dissertation explores fifth and eighth grade students' interpretations of three kinds of mathematical representations: number lines, the Cartesian plane, and graphs of linear functions. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, I administered the paper-and-pencil Linear Representations Assessment (LRA) to examine students'…
Enhanced enstrophy generation for turbulent convection in low-Prandtl-number fluids
Schumacher, Jörg; Götzfried, Paul; Scheel, Janet D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent convection is often present in liquids with a kinematic viscosity much smaller than the diffusivity of the temperature. Here we reveal why these convection flows obey a much stronger level of fluid turbulence than those in which kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are the same; i.e., the Prandtl number Pr is unity. We compare turbulent convection in air at Pr=0.7 and in liquid mercury at Pr=0.021. In this comparison the Prandtl number at constant Grashof number Gr is varied, rather than at constant Rayleigh number Ra as usually done. Our simulations demonstrate that the turbulent Kolmogorov-like cascade is extended both at the large- and small-scale ends with decreasing Pr. The kinetic energy injection into the flow takes place over the whole cascade range. In contrast to convection in air, the kinetic energy injection rate is particularly enhanced for liquid mercury for all scales larger than the characteristic width of thermal plumes. As a consequence, mean values and fluctuations of the local strain rates are increased, which in turn results in significantly enhanced enstrophy production by vortex stretching. The normalized distributions of enstrophy production in the bulk and the ratio of the principal strain rates are found to agree for both Prs. Despite the different energy injection mechanisms, the principal strain rates also agree with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence conducted at the same Reynolds numbers as for the convection flows. Our results have thus interesting implications for small-scale turbulence modeling of liquid metal convection in astrophysical and technological applications. PMID:26195793
Bewerunge, Jörg; Sengupta, Ankush; Capellmann, Ronja F; Platten, Florian; Sengupta, Surajit; Egelhaaf, Stefan U
2016-07-28
Colloidal particles were exposed to a random potential energy landscape that has been created optically via a speckle pattern. The mean particle density as well as the potential roughness, i.e., the disorder strength, were varied. The local probability density of the particles as well as its main characteristics were determined. For the first time, the disorder-averaged pair density correlation function g((1))(r) and an analogue of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter g((2))(r), which quantifies the correlation of the mean local density among disorder realisations, were measured experimentally and shown to be consistent with replica liquid state theory results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2011-03-01
RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!
Martinez, L C; Calzado, A
2016-01-01
A parametric model is used for the calculation of the CT number of some selected human tissues of known compositions (Hi) in two hybrid systems, one SPECT-CT and one PET-CT. Only one well characterized substance, not necessarily tissue-like, needs to be scanned with the protocol of interest. The linear attenuation coefficients of these tissues for some energies of interest (μ(i)) have been calculated from their tabulated compositions and the NIST databases. These coefficients have been compared with those calculated with the bilinear model from the CT number (μ(B)i). No relevant differences have been found for bones and lung. In the soft tissue region, the differences can be up to 5%. These discrepancies are attributed to the different chemical composition for the tissues assumed by both methods.
Generating a lexicon without a language model: Do words for number count?
Spaepen, Elizabet; Coppola, Marie; Flaherty, Molly; Spelke, Elizabeth; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
2013-01-01
Homesigns are communication systems created by deaf individuals without access to conventional linguistic input. To investigate how homesign gestures for number function in short-term memory compared to homesign gestures for objects, actions, or attributes, we conducted memory span tasks with adult homesigners in Nicaragua, and with comparison groups of unschooled hearing Spanish speakers and deaf Nicaraguan Sign Language signers. There was no difference between groups in recall of gestures or words for objects, actions or attributes; homesign gestures therefore can function as word units in short-term memory. However, homesigners showed poorer recall of numbers than the other groups. Unlike the other groups, increasing the numerical value of the to-be-remembered quantities negatively affected recall in homesigners, but not controls. When developed without linguistic input, gestures for number do not seem to function as summaries of the cardinal values of the sets (four), but rather as indexes of items within a set (one-one-one-one). PMID:24187432
A method for generating new datasets based on copy number for cancer analysis.
Kim, Shinuk; Kon, Mark; Kang, Hyunsik
2015-01-01
New data sources for the analysis of cancer data are rapidly supplementing the large number of gene-expression markers used for current methods of analysis. Significant among these new sources are copy number variation (CNV) datasets, which typically enumerate several hundred thousand CNVs distributed throughout the genome. Several useful algorithms allow systems-level analyses of such datasets. However, these rich data sources have not yet been analyzed as deeply as gene-expression data. To address this issue, the extensive toolsets used for analyzing expression data in cancerous and noncancerous tissue (e.g., gene set enrichment analysis and phenotype prediction) could be redirected to extract a great deal of predictive information from CNV data, in particular those derived from cancers. Here we present a software package capable of preprocessing standard Agilent copy number datasets into a form to which essentially all expression analysis tools can be applied. We illustrate the use of this toolset in predicting the survival time of patients with ovarian cancer or glioblastoma multiforme and also provide an analysis of gene- and pathway-level deletions in these two types of cancer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motschmann, Uwe; Raeder, Joachim
1992-01-01
The behavior of minor ions just downstream of a low Mach number quasi-perpendicular shock is investigated both theoretically and by computer simulations. Because all ions see the same cross shock electric field their deceleration depends on their charge to mass ratio, yielding different downstream velocities. It is shown that these differences in velocity can lead to coherent wave structures in the downstream region of quasi-perpendicular shocks with a narrow transition layer. These waves are shown to be multi ion hybrid waves in contrast to mirror waves and ion cyclotron waves. Under favorable conditions these waves should be observable both at interplanetary shocks and at planetary bowshocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ildoo; Wu, X. L.
2015-10-01
A structure-based Strouhal-Reynolds number relationship, St =1 /(A +B /Re ) , has been recently proposed based on observations of laminar vortex shedding from circular cylinders in a flowing soap film. Since the new St -Re relation was derived from a general physical consideration, it raises the possibility that it may be applicable to vortex shedding from bodies other than circular ones. The work presented herein provides experimental evidence that this is the case. Our measurements also show that, in the asymptotic limit (Re →∞ ), St∞=1 /A ≃0.21 is constant independent of rod shapes, leaving B the only parameter that is shape dependent.
Bardin, Jérémie; Rouget, Isabelle; Yacobucci, Margaret Mary; Cecca, Fabrizio
2014-08-01
Since the introduction of the cladistic method in systematics, continuous characters have been integrated into analyses but no methods for their treatment have received unanimous support. Some methods require a large number of character states to discretise continuous characters in order to keep the maximum level of information about taxa differences within the coding scheme. Our objective was to assess the impact of increasing the character state number on the outcomes of phylogenetic analyses. Analysis of a variety of simulated datasets shows that these methods for coding continuous characters can lead to the generation of well-resolved trees that do not reflect a phylogenetic signal. We call this phenomenon the flattening of the tree-length distribution; it is influenced by both the relative quantity of continuous characters in relation to discrete characters, and the number of characters in relation to the number of taxa. Bootstrap tests provide a method to avoid this potential bias. PMID:24148350
Modeste Nguimdo, Romain; Tchitnga, Robert; Woafo, Paul
2013-12-15
We numerically investigate the possibility of using a coupling to increase the complexity in simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits operating at high frequency. We subsequently show that complex behaviors generated in such coupled systems, together with the post-processing are suitable for generating bit-streams which pass all the NIST tests for randomness. The electronic circuit is built up by unidirectionally coupling three two-component (one active and one passive) oscillators in a ring configuration through resistances. It turns out that, with such a coupling, high chaotic signals can be obtained. By extracting points at fixed interval of 10 ns (corresponding to a bit rate of 100 Mb/s) on such chaotic signals, each point being simultaneously converted in 16-bits (or 8-bits), we find that the binary sequence constructed by including the 10(or 2) least significant bits pass statistical tests of randomness, meaning that bit-streams with random properties can be achieved with an overall bit rate up to 10×100 Mb/s =1Gbit/s (or 2×100 Mb/s =200 Megabit/s). Moreover, by varying the bias voltages, we also investigate the parameter range for which more complex signals can be obtained. Besides being simple to implement, the two-component electronic circuit setup is very cheap as compared to optical and electro-optical systems.
Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Tchitnga, Robert; Woafo, Paul
2013-12-01
We numerically investigate the possibility of using a coupling to increase the complexity in simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits operating at high frequency. We subsequently show that complex behaviors generated in such coupled systems, together with the post-processing are suitable for generating bit-streams which pass all the NIST tests for randomness. The electronic circuit is built up by unidirectionally coupling three two-component (one active and one passive) oscillators in a ring configuration through resistances. It turns out that, with such a coupling, high chaotic signals can be obtained. By extracting points at fixed interval of 10 ns (corresponding to a bit rate of 100 Mb/s) on such chaotic signals, each point being simultaneously converted in 16-bits (or 8-bits), we find that the binary sequence constructed by including the 10(or 2) least significant bits pass statistical tests of randomness, meaning that bit-streams with random properties can be achieved with an overall bit rate up to 10×100 Mb/s = 1 Gbit/s (or 2×100 Mb/s =200 Megabit/s). Moreover, by varying the bias voltages, we also investigate the parameter range for which more complex signals can be obtained. Besides being simple to implement, the two-component electronic circuit setup is very cheap as compared to optical and electro-optical systems.
Mikami, Takuya; Kanno, Kazutaka; Aoyama, Kota; Uchida, Atsushi; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Arai, Ken-ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2012-01-01
We analyze the time for growth of bit entropy when generating nondeterministic bits using a chaotic semiconductor laser model. The mechanism for generating nondeterministic bits is modeled as a 1-bit sampling of the intensity of light output. Microscopic noise results in an ensemble of trajectories whose bit entropy increases with time. The time for the growth of bit entropy, called the memory time, depends on both noise strength and laser dynamics. It is shown that the average memory time decreases logarithmically with increase in noise strength. It is argued that the ratio of change in average memory time with change in logarithm of noise strength can be used to estimate the intrinsic dynamical entropy rate for this method of random bit generation. It is also shown that in this model the entropy rate corresponds to the maximum Lyapunov exponent.
Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.
Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul
2012-06-18
We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies. PMID:22714485
Ballistic range experiments on the superboom generated at increasing flight Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanai, M.; Toong, T.-Y.; Pierce, A. D.
1976-01-01
Ballistic range experiments for the study of the propagation of converging shocks are described and the similarity between the observed phenomenon and that expected for superbooms created by accelerating supersonic aircraft is discussed. For weak shocks (shock Mach numbers of about 1.03), a structure resembling that of a folded shock predicted by geometrical acoustics theory is observed while for stronger shocks, a concave front with enhanced overpressure is recorded. Other results are in general accord with the basic concepts of shock propagation and in conjunction with some theoretical scaling laws indicate that the peak magnification of sonic booms due to aircraft flight acceleration in the real atmosphere should be in the range of 6 to 13.
Random bits, true and unbiased, from atmospheric turbulence.
Marangon, Davide G; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2014-06-30
Random numbers represent a fundamental ingredient for secure communications and numerical simulation as well as to games and in general to Information Science. Physical processes with intrinsic unpredictability may be exploited to generate genuine random numbers. The optical propagation in strong atmospheric turbulence is here taken to this purpose, by observing a laser beam after a 143 km free-space path. In addition, we developed an algorithm to extract the randomness of the beam images at the receiver without post-processing. The numbers passed very selective randomness tests for qualification as genuine random numbers. The extracting algorithm can be easily generalized to random images generated by different physical processes.
Analysis and Improvement of a Pseudorandom Number Generator for EPC Gen2 Tags
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melia-Segui, J.; Garcia-Alfaro, J.; Herrera-Joancomarti, J.
The EPC Gen2 is an international standard that proposes the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the supply chain. It is designed to balance cost and functionality. The development of Gen2 tags faces, in fact, several challenging constraints such as cost, compatibility regulations, power consumption, and performance requirements. As a consequence, security on board of Gen2 tags is often minimal. It is, indeed, mainly based on the use of on board pseudorandomness. This pseudorandomness is used to blind the communication between readers and tags; and to acknowledge the proper execution of password-protected operations. Gen2 manufacturers are often reluctant to show the design of their pseudorandom generators. Security through obscurity has always been ineffective. Some open designs have also been proposed. Most of them fail, however, to prove their correctness. We analyze a recent proposal presented in the literature and demonstrate that it is, in fact, insecure. We propose an alternative mechanism that fits the Gen2 constraints and satisfies the security requirements.
Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.
2004-01-01
Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Martin; Elm, Matthias T.; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakita, Shinya; Hara, Shinjiro; Klar, Peter J.
2015-10-01
The temporal dependence of the resistance of MnAs nanocluster arrangements grown by selective-area metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is investigated at different temperatures. The resistance of such arrangements exhibits random telegraph noise with jumps between discrete resistance levels. The effect is attributed to thermally activated switching of the magnetic domain structure resulting in alterations of spin-dependent scattering between the MnAs clusters of the arrangements. The behavior can be qualitatively understood by a simple model in which it is assumed that the nanocluster arrangement consists of three domains in accordance with investigations by magnetic force microscopy. The magnetizations of the outer larger domains remain fixed, whereas the magnetization of a smaller intermediate domain (or domain wall) exhibits thermally activated switching between local minima of its energy landscape. The results of the model indicate that the time scale of an actual switching event of the entire intermediate domain comprises the nucleation of a seed domain consisting of a few thousand Mn spins followed by the transformation of the entire domain by domain-wall motion in order to reorient its magnetization.
Doyle, Orla; McGlanaghy, Edel; O’Farrelly, Christine; Tremblay, Richard E.
2016-01-01
This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children’s emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728 PMID:27253184
Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.
Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B
2014-11-01
Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, John
1995-02-01
Recently it has been observed that the transport of conserved charges into the electroweak bubble wall alters the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario, by allowing the baryon asymmetry to be generated over a larger volume including the outside of the bubble. We give here a very simple analytic estimate of the change in the baryon number generated, by considering a simple toy model with a single particle and a single conserved change. Our results indicate that in general diffusion itself will produce at most a small enhancement of the baryon asymmetry as compared with the original spontaneous baryogenesis scenario; by no more than a factor of order 10. This suggests that any large enhancement of the baryon asymmetry due to diffusion effects in realistic multi-particle models can only be due to the elimination of cancellations between the contributions of the individual particles. Our discussion should be generally useful for making simple estimates of the baryon number generated including diffusion effects, given the asymmetry generated in the original spontaneous baryogenesis model.
Labat, I.; Drmanac, R.
1992-12-01
The sequencing by hybridization (SBH) method has been developed for assaying millions of 0.5- to 2-kb-tong clones. This opens up an efficient way for defining the order of short clones and creating a physical map at 100-bp resolution. Moreover, complete sequences can be obtained using a modest number (about 3000) of probes if hybridization and gel sequence data from overlapped or similar sequences are used. In light of these possibilities, various heuristic algorithms have been developed and tested in simulation experiments. This approach can influence the interpretation of the intuitively obvious term, ``known sequence.``
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, Joshua F.; Crosson, Amy C.; Paré-Blagoev, E. Juliana; Snow, Catherine E.
2015-01-01
Classroom discussion, despite its association with good academic outcomes, is exceedingly rare in U.S. schools. The Word Generation intervention involves the provision of texts and activities to be implemented across content area class, organized around engaging and discussable dilemmas. The program was evaluated with 1,554 middle grade students…
Analysis and Validation of Grid dem Generation Based on Gaussian Markov Random Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar, F. J.; Aguilar, M. A.; Blanco, J. L.; Nemmaoui, A.; García Lorca, A. M.
2016-06-01
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are considered as one of the most relevant geospatial data to carry out land-cover and land-use classification. This work deals with the application of a mathematical framework based on a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) to interpolate grid DEMs from scattered elevation data. The performance of the GMRF interpolation model was tested on a set of LiDAR data (0.87 points/m2) provided by the Spanish Government (PNOA Programme) over a complex working area mainly covered by greenhouses in Almería, Spain. The original LiDAR data was decimated by randomly removing different fractions of the original points (from 10% to up to 99% of points removed). In every case, the remaining points (scattered observed points) were used to obtain a 1 m grid spacing GMRF-interpolated Digital Surface Model (DSM) whose accuracy was assessed by means of the set of previously extracted checkpoints. The GMRF accuracy results were compared with those provided by the widely known Triangulation with Linear Interpolation (TLI). Finally, the GMRF method was applied to a real-world case consisting of filling the LiDAR-derived DSM gaps after manually filtering out non-ground points to obtain a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Regarding accuracy, both GMRF and TLI produced visually pleasing and similar results in terms of vertical accuracy. As an added bonus, the GMRF mathematical framework makes possible to both retrieve the estimated uncertainty for every interpolated elevation point (the DEM uncertainty) and include break lines or terrain discontinuities between adjacent cells to produce higher quality DTMs.
Two-point generating function of the free energy for a directed polymer in a random medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prolhac, Sylvain; Spohn, Herbert
2011-01-01
We consider a (1 + 1)-dimensional directed continuum polymer in a Gaussian delta-correlated spacetime random potential. For this model the moments (= replica) of the partition function, Z(x, t), can be expressed in terms of the attractive δ-Bose gas on the line. Based on a recent study of the structure of the eigenfunctions, we compute the generating function for Z(x1, t), Z(x2, t) under a particular decoupling assumption and thereby extend recent results on the one-point generating function of the free energy to two points. It is established that in the long-time limit the fluctuations of the free energy are governed by the two-point distribution of the Airy process, which further supports that the long-time behavior of the KPZ equation is the same as derived previously for lattice growth models.
Hox, Joop J; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Kluytmans, Anouck; van de Schoot, Rens
2014-01-01
Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen's theory of planned behavior is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioral intention. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is the technique of choice to estimate indirect effects and their significance. However, this is a large sample technique, and its application in a cluster randomized trial assumes a relatively large number of clusters. In practice, the number of clusters in these studies tends to be relatively small, e.g., much less than fifty. This study uses simulation methods to find the lowest number of clusters needed when multilevel SEM is used to estimate the indirect effect. Maximum likelihood estimation is compared to Bayesian analysis, with the central quality criteria being accuracy of the point estimate and the confidence interval. We also investigate the power of the test for the indirect effect. We conclude that Bayes estimation works well with much smaller cluster level sample sizes such as 20 cases than maximum likelihood estimation; although the bias is larger the coverage is much better. When only 5-10 clusters are available per treatment condition even with Bayesian estimation problems occur. PMID:24550881
Random recursive trees and the elephant random walk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kürsten, Rüdiger
2016-03-01
One class of random walks with infinite memory, so-called elephant random walks, are simple models describing anomalous diffusion. We present a surprising connection between these models and bond percolation on random recursive trees. We use a coupling between the two models to translate results from elephant random walks to the percolation process. We calculate, besides other quantities, exact expressions for the first and the second moment of the root cluster size and of the number of nodes in child clusters of the first generation. We further introduce another model, the skew elephant random walk, and calculate the first and second moment of this process.
Random recursive trees and the elephant random walk.
Kürsten, Rüdiger
2016-03-01
One class of random walks with infinite memory, so-called elephant random walks, are simple models describing anomalous diffusion. We present a surprising connection between these models and bond percolation on random recursive trees. We use a coupling between the two models to translate results from elephant random walks to the percolation process. We calculate, besides other quantities, exact expressions for the first and the second moment of the root cluster size and of the number of nodes in child clusters of the first generation. We further introduce another model, the skew elephant random walk, and calculate the first and second moment of this process. PMID:27078296
Zhang, Guang-He; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting
2012-01-01
Wireless body sensor network (WBSN), a key building block for m-Health, demands extremely stringent resource constraints and thus lightweight security methods are preferred. To minimize resource consumption, utilizing information already available to a WBSN, particularly common to different sensor nodes of a WBSN, for security purposes becomes an attractive solution. In this paper, we tested the randomness and distinctiveness of the 128-bit biometric binary sequences (BSs) generated from interpulse intervals (IPIs) of 20 healthy subjects as well as 30 patients suffered from myocardial infarction and 34 subjects with other cardiovascular diseases. The encoding time of a biometric BS on a WBSN node is on average 23 ms and memory occupation is 204 bytes for any given IPI sequence. The results from five U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology statistical tests suggest that random biometric BSs can be generated from both healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients and can potentially be used as authentication identifiers for securing WBSNs. Ultimately, it is preferred that these biometric BSs can be used as encryption keys such that key distribution over the WBSN can be avoided. PMID:22049370
Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R
2016-01-01
Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system. PMID:27171403
Control logic to track the outputs of a command generator or randomly forced target
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trankle, T. L.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.
1977-01-01
A procedure is presented for synthesizing time-invariant control logic to cause the outputs of a linear plant to track the outputs of an unforced (or randomly forced) linear dynamic system. The control logic uses feed-forward of the reference system state variables and feedback of the plant state variables. The feed-forward gains are obtained from the solution of a linear algebraic matrix equation of the Liapunov type. The feedback gains are the usual regulator gains, determined to stabilize (or augment the stability of) the plant, possibly including integral control. The method is applied here to the design of control logic for a second-order servomechanism to follow a linearly increasing (ramp) signal, an unstable third-order system with two controls to track two separate ramp signals, and a sixth-order system with two controls to track a constant signal and an exponentially decreasing signal (aircraft landing-flare or glide-slope-capture with constant velocity).
Fiorillo, Christopher D; Kim, Jaekyung K; Hong, Su Z
2014-01-01
The conventional interpretation of spikes is from the perspective of an external observer with knowledge of a neuron's inputs and outputs who is ignorant of the contents of the "black box" that is the neuron. Here we consider a neuron to be an observer and we interpret spikes from the neuron's perspective. We propose both a descriptive hypothesis based on physics and logic, and a prescriptive hypothesis based on biological optimality. Our descriptive hypothesis is that a neuron's membrane excitability is "known" and the amplitude of a future excitatory postsynaptic conductance (EPSG) is "unknown". Therefore excitability is an expectation of EPSG amplitude and a spike is generated only when EPSG amplitude exceeds its expectation ("prediction error"). Our prescriptive hypothesis is that a diversity of synaptic inputs and voltage-regulated ion channels implement "predictive homeostasis", working to insure that the expectation is accurate. The homeostatic ideal and optimal expectation would be achieved when an EPSP reaches precisely to spike threshold, so that spike output is exquisitely sensitive to small variations in EPSG input. To an external observer who knows neither EPSG amplitude nor membrane excitability, spikes would appear random if the neuron is making accurate predictions. We review experimental evidence that spike probabilities are indeed maintained near an average of 0.5 under natural conditions, and we suggest that the same principles may also explain why synaptic vesicle release appears to be "stochastic". Whereas the present hypothesis accords with principles of efficient coding dating back to Barlow (1961), it contradicts decades of assertions that neural activity is substantially "random" or "noisy". The apparent randomness is by design, and like many other examples of apparent randomness, it corresponds to the ignorance of external macroscopic observers about the detailed inner workings of a microscopic system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Can; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Martorell, Jordi
2013-06-01
We theoretically investigate how phase-only spatial light modulation can enable controlling and focusing the second-harmonic light generated in transparent nonlinear random structures. The studied structures are composed of domains with random sizes and antiparallel polarization, which accurately model widely used ferroelectric crystals such as strontium barium niobate. Using a first-principles Green-function formalism, we account for the effect that spatial light modulation of the fundamental beam introduces into the second-order nonlinear frequency conversion occurring in the considered class of structures. This approach provides a complete description of the physical origin of the second-harmonic light generation in the system, as well as the optimization of the light intensity in any arbitrary direction. Our numerical results show how the second-harmonic light is influenced by both the disorder in the structure and the boundaries of the crystal. Particularly, we find that the net result from the interplay between disorder and boundary effects is strongly dependent on the dimensions of the crystal and the observation direction. Remarkably, our calculations also show that although in general the maximum possible enhancement of the second-order light is the same as the one corresponding to linear light scattering in turbid media, in the Cerenkov phase matching direction the enhancement can exceed the linear limit. The theoretical analysis presented in this work expands the current understanding of light control in complex media and could contribute to the development of a new class of imaging and focusing techniques based on nonlinear frequency mixing in random optical materials.
Natural turbulence electrical power generator. [using wave action or random motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grana, D. C.; Wilem, R. T. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
An energy conversion apparatus is disclosed in which a stator, fixed to a watertight housing, is coupled to a rotor by a helical spring which suspends the rotor from the housing. Natural turbulence of a fluid, such as water or air, causes acceleration of the housing, and hence, acceleration of the stator. Inertia of the rotor, coupled to the stator through the helical spring and the housing, causes relative motion, both longitudinal and rotational, between the stator and the rotor. The rotational motion between the rotor, and the stator is used to generate electrical current.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licznar, Paweł; Łomotowski, Janusz; Rupp, David E.
2011-03-01
Six variations of multiplicative random cascade models for generating fine-resolution (i.e., 5-minute interval) rainfall time series were evaluated for rainfall in Wroclaw, Poland. Of these variations, one included a new beta-normal generator for a microcanonical cascade. This newly proposed model successfully reproduces the statistical behavior of local 5-minute rainfalls, in terms of intermittency as well as variability. In contrast, both the canonical cascade models with either constant or time-scaled parameters and a microcanonical cascade model with a beta generator substantially underestimate 5-minute maximum rainfall intensities. The canonical models also fail to properly reproduce the intermittency of the rainfall process across a range of timescales. New observations are also made concerning the histograms of the breakdown coefficients (BDC). The tendency of the BDC histograms to have values exactly equal to 0.5 is identified and explained by the quality of pluviograph records. Moreover, the hierarchical evolution of BDC histograms from beta-like for long time steps to beta-normal histograms for short time steps is observed for the first time. The potential advantage is shown of synthetic high resolution rainfall time series generated by the revised microcanonical model for use in hydrology, especially hydrodynamic modelling of urban drainage networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furey, P.; Gupta, V. K.; Troutman, B. M.
2013-12-01
Peak flows in individual rainfall-runoff events exhibit spatial scaling in the 21 km2 Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in Mississippi, USA. A nonlinear geophysical theory has been developing to understand how scaling in peak flows for Rainfall-Runoff events arises from solutions of mass and momentum conservation equations in channel networks with self-similar topologies and geometries. The conservation equations are specified at the natural hillslope-link scale. The central hypothesis of the theory is that scaling is an emergent property in the limit of large drainage area. To develop a physical understanding of scaling, runoff generation from each hillslope in the basin is needed. GCEW contains 544 hillslopes, and direct observations of infiltration only exist, at best, at few locations. This situation is typical of all river basins in the world. As a result, representing the spatial and temporal variability of runoff generation throughout any river basin presents a great scientific challenge. Most models use point-scale equations for infiltration and point-scale observations to represent runoff generation at a larger scale, e.g. hillslope scale. We develop a physical-statistical hypothesis, combining both top-down and bottom-up observations, that hillslope water loss is inversely related to a function of a lognormal random variable. We take a top-down approach to develop a new runoff generation model to test our hypothesis. The model is based on the assumption that the probability distributions of a runoff-loss ratio have a space-time rescaling property. For over 100 rainfall-runoff events in GCEW, we found that the spatial probability distributions of a runoff-loss ratio can be rescaled to a new distribution that is common to all events. We interpret that random within-event differences in runoff-loss ratios in the model arise due to soil moisture spatial variability of water loss during events that is supported by observations. As an application of
Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.
2013-01-01
Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.
Addington, Donald E.; Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Davis, Sonia M.; Stroup, Thomas Scott; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.
2016-01-01
Background According to the American Psychiatric Association Clinical Practice Guidelines for schizophrenia, second-generation antipsychotics may be specifically indicated for the treatment of depression in schizophrenia. We examined the impact of these medications on symptoms of depression using the data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE), conducted between January 2001 and December 2004. Method Patients with DSM-IV–defined schizophrenia (N = 1,460) were assigned to treatment with a first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) or one of 4 second-generation drugs (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone) and followed for up to 18 months (phase 1). Patients with tardive dyskinesia were excluded from the randomization that included perphenazine. Depression was assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Mixed models were used to evaluate group differences during treatment with the initially assigned drug. An interaction analysis evaluated differences in drug response by whether patients had a baseline score on the CDSS of ≥ 6, indicative of a current major depressive episode (MDE). Results There were no significant differences between treatment groups on phase 1 analysis, although there was a significant improvement in depression across all treatments. A significant interaction was found between treatment and experiencing an MDE at baseline (P = .05), and further paired comparisons suggested that quetiapine was superior to risperidone among patients who were in an MDE at baseline (P = .0056). Conclusions We found no differences between any second-generation antipsychotic and the first-generation antipsychotic perphenazine and no support for clinical practice recommendations, but we did detect a signal indicating a small potential difference favoring quetiapine over risperidone only in patients with an MDE at baseline. PMID:20868641
Zimmerman, D.A.; Wilson, J.L.
1992-01-01
TUBA is a computer code for the generation of synthetic two-dimensional random fields via the Turning Bands Method. It is primarily used to generate synthetic permeability fields for hydrologic and petroleum engineering applications, but it has applications wherever synthetic random fields are employed. This is version 2.0 of TUBA, a completely redesigned and rewritten code. It generates stationary or non-stationary, isotropic and anisotropic, and point or areal average random fields. Five functional covariance models are available in the code. These are Gaussian, Bessel, Telis, and Generalized Covariance models. The user can supply other forms. The random fields can be generated onto a gridded system (e.g., at the nodes of a point centered finite difference model, or the blocks of a block centered model), or at arbitrary locations in space (e.g., at the Gauss points of a finite element grid). TUBA can be used to generate the field values in local areas at much greater resolution than the original simulated field. The fields can be generated with a normal or a lognormal distribution. The size of the simulation is limited only by the virtual memory capabilities of the computer on which it is run. Random fields with over a million nodes have been generated with TUBA on a 386PC running Xenix. The code has been run on 286 and 386 PC's running DOS, on Sun 3's and 4's using Unix, and on Dec VAX's running VMS.
Zimmerman, D.A.; Wilson, J.L.
1992-01-01
TUBA is a computer code for the generation of synthetic two-dimensional random fields via the Turning Bands Method. It is primarily used to generate synthetic permeability fields for hydrologic and petroleum engineering applications, but it has applications wherever synthetic random fields are employed. This is version 2.0 of TUBA, a completely redesigned and rewritten code. It generates stationary or non-stationary, isotropic and anisotropic, and point or areal average random fields. Five functional covariance models are available in the code. These are Gaussian, Bessel, Telis, and Generalized Covariance models. The user can supply other forms. The random fields can be generated onto a gridded system (e.g., at the nodes of a point centered finite difference model, or the blocks of a block centered model), or at arbitrary locations in space (e.g., at the Gauss points of a finite element grid). TUBA can be used to generate the field values in local areas at much greater resolution than the original simulated field. The fields can be generated with a normal or a lognormal distribution. The size of the simulation is limited only by the virtual memory capabilities of the computer on which it is run. Random fields with over a million nodes have been generated with TUBA on a 386PC running Xenix. The code has been run on 286 and 386 PC`s running DOS, on Sun 3`s and 4`s using Unix, and on Dec VAX`s running VMS.
Lee, Kwang Man; Hwang, Hai-Li; Park, Seong-Yeol; Sorn, Sungbin; Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Kwang Gi; Yoon, Woong-Bae; Bae, Joon Seol; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Seoh, Ju-Young; Kim, Jong-Il; Hong, Kyeong-Man
2014-01-01
Background The concept of the utilization of rearranged ends for development of personalized biomarkers has attracted much attention owing to its clinical applicability. Although targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for recurrent rearrangements has been successful in hematologic malignancies, its application to solid tumors is problematic due to the paucity of recurrent translocations. However, copy-number breakpoints (CNBs), which are abundant in solid tumors, can be utilized for identification of rearranged ends. Method As a proof of concept, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing at copy-number breakpoints (TNGS-CNB) in nine colon cancer cases including seven primary cancers and two cell lines, COLO205 and SW620. For deduction of CNBs, we developed a novel competitive single-nucleotide polymorphism (cSNP) microarray method entailing CNB-region refinement by competitor DNA. Result Using TNGS-CNB, 19 specific rearrangements out of 91 CNBs (20.9%) were identified, and two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplifiable rearrangements were obtained in six cases (66.7%). And significantly, TNGS-CNB, with its high positive identification rate (82.6%) of PCR-amplifiable rearrangements at candidate sites (19/23), just from filtering of aligned sequences, requires little effort for validation. Conclusion Our results indicate that TNGS-CNB, with its utility for identification of rearrangements in solid tumors, can be successfully applied in the clinical laboratory for cancer-relapse and therapy-response monitoring. PMID:24937453
Fiorillo, Christopher D.; Kim, Jaekyung K.; Hong, Su Z.
2014-01-01
The conventional interpretation of spikes is from the perspective of an external observer with knowledge of a neuron’s inputs and outputs who is ignorant of the contents of the “black box” that is the neuron. Here we consider a neuron to be an observer and we interpret spikes from the neuron’s perspective. We propose both a descriptive hypothesis based on physics and logic, and a prescriptive hypothesis based on biological optimality. Our descriptive hypothesis is that a neuron’s membrane excitability is “known” and the amplitude of a future excitatory postsynaptic conductance (EPSG) is “unknown”. Therefore excitability is an expectation of EPSG amplitude and a spike is generated only when EPSG amplitude exceeds its expectation (“prediction error”). Our prescriptive hypothesis is that a diversity of synaptic inputs and voltage-regulated ion channels implement “predictive homeostasis”, working to insure that the expectation is accurate. The homeostatic ideal and optimal expectation would be achieved when an EPSP reaches precisely to spike threshold, so that spike output is exquisitely sensitive to small variations in EPSG input. To an external observer who knows neither EPSG amplitude nor membrane excitability, spikes would appear random if the neuron is making accurate predictions. We review experimental evidence that spike probabilities are indeed maintained near an average of 0.5 under natural conditions, and we suggest that the same principles may also explain why synaptic vesicle release appears to be “stochastic”. Whereas the present hypothesis accords with principles of efficient coding dating back to Barlow (1961), it contradicts decades of assertions that neural activity is substantially “random” or “noisy”. The apparent randomness is by design, and like many other examples of apparent randomness, it corresponds to the ignorance of external macroscopic observers about the detailed inner workings of a microscopic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahbaralam, Maryam; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier
2015-12-01
Random walk particle tracking methods are a computationally efficient family of methods to solve reactive transport problems. While the number of particles in most realistic applications is in the order of 106-109, the number of reactive molecules even in diluted systems might be in the order of fractions of the Avogadro number. Thus, each particle actually represents a group of potentially reactive molecules. The use of a low number of particles may result not only in loss of accuracy, but also may lead to an improper reproduction of the mixing process, limited by diffusion. Recent works have used this effect as a proxy to model incomplete mixing in porous media. In this work, we propose using a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) of the concentrations that allows getting the expected results for a well-mixed solution with a limited number of particles. The idea consists of treating each particle as a sample drawn from the pool of molecules that it represents; this way, the actual location of a tracked particle is seen as a sample drawn from the density function of the location of molecules represented by that given particle, rigorously represented by a kernel density function. The probability of reaction can be obtained by combining the kernels associated to two potentially reactive particles. We demonstrate that the observed deviation in the reaction vs time curves in numerical experiments reported in the literature could be attributed to the statistical method used to reconstruct concentrations (fixed particle support) from discrete particle distributions, and not to the occurrence of true incomplete mixing. We further explore the evolution of the kernel size with time, linking it to the diffusion process. Our results show that KDEs are powerful tools to improve computational efficiency and robustness in reactive transport simulations, and indicates that incomplete mixing in diluted systems should be modeled based on alternative mechanistic models and not on a
Watt-level supercontinuum generation in As2Se3 fibers pumped by a 2-micron random fiber laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yulong; Li, Feng; Xu, Jianqiu
2016-05-01
Chalcogenide fibers are good candidates for generating supercontinuum (SC) radiation due to their large nonlinear refractive indices and high mid-infrared transmission, but their low damage thresholds hamper the SC power scaling, thereby limiting the ultimately achieved SC brightness. Here, we report an As2Se3 fiber SC system pumped by a novel random Q-switched 2 μm Tm3+ fiber laser. The maximum SC output power is 1.09 W with slope efficiency of 24%, and the SC spans from ~1980 to ~2500 nm with a spectral width of ~500 nm at the -20 dB points. The spectral power density is ~2 mW nm-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power and spectral density SC emission ever achieved in chalcogenide fibers.
Randomness: Quantum versus classical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-05-01
Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory has led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g. quantum random generators. This development had stimulated a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is the elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of a quantum state. Closely related problem is the clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review, we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. We also discuss briefly “digital philosophy”, its role in physics (classical and quantum) and its coupling to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM).
Bixler, N.E.; Schaperow, J.H.
1998-06-01
VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS. A recently completed independent peer review of VICTORIA, while confirming the overall adequacy of the code, recommended a number of modeling improvements. One of these recommendations, to model three rather than a single condensed phase, is the focus of the work reported here. The recommendation has been implemented as an option so that either a single or three condensed phases can be treated. Both options have been employed in the study of fission product behavior during an induced steam generator tube rupture sequence. Differences in deposition patterns and mechanisms predicted using these two options are discussed.
Liu, Biao; Morrison, Carl D.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Qin, Maochun; Conroy, Jeffrey C.; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song
2013-01-01
Accurate detection of somatic copy number variations (CNVs) is an essential part of cancer genome analysis, and plays an important role in oncotarget identifications. Next generation sequencing (NGS) holds the promise to revolutionize somatic CNV detection. In this review, we provide an overview of current analytic tools used for CNV detection in NGS-based cancer studies. We summarize the NGS data types used for CNV detection, decipher the principles for data preprocessing, segmentation, and interpretation, and discuss the challenges in somatic CNV detection. This review aims to provide a guide to the analytic tools used in NGS-based cancer CNV studies, and to discuss the important factors that researchers need to consider when analyzing NGS data for somatic CNV detections. PMID:24240121
Liu, Biao; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Qin, Maochun; Conroy, Jeffrey C; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song
2013-11-01
Accurate detection of somatic copy number variations (CNVs) is an essential part of cancer genome analysis, and plays an important role in oncotarget identifications. Next generation sequencing (NGS) holds the promise to revolutionize somatic CNV detection. In this review, we provide an overview of current analytic tools used for CNV detection in NGS-based cancer studies. We summarize the NGS data types used for CNV detection, decipher the principles for data preprocessing, segmentation, and interpretation, and discuss the challenges in somatic CNV detection. This review aims to provide a guide to the analytic tools used in NGS-based cancer CNV studies, and to discuss the important factors that researchers need to consider when analyzing NGS data for somatic CNV detections.
Moura, André L; Carreño, Sandra J M; Pincheira, Pablo I R; Fabris, Zanine V; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B
2016-01-01
Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the (4)F3/2 → (4)I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd(3+)), was achieved by exciting the Nd(3+) with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the (4)F9/2, ((4)F7/2,(4)S3/2), ((4)F5/2,(2)H9/2), and (4)F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission. PMID:27250647
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.
2016-06-01
Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission.
Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.
2016-01-01
Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission. PMID:27250647
Morita, Kei-ichi; Naruto, Takuya; Tanimoto, Kousuke; Yasukawa, Chisato; Oikawa, Yu; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Inazawa, Johji; Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki
2015-01-01
Gorlin syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes affected individuals to developmental defects and tumorigenesis, and caused mainly by heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations. Despite exhaustive analysis, PTCH1 mutations are often unidentifiable in some patients; the failure to detect mutations is presumably because of mutations occurred in other causative genes or outside of analyzed regions of PTCH1, or copy number alterations (CNAs). In this study, we subjected a cohort of GS-affected individuals from six unrelated families to next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis for the combined screening of causative alterations in Hedgehog signaling pathway-related genes. Specific single nucleotide variations (SNVs) of PTCH1 causing inferred amino acid changes were identified in four families (seven affected individuals), whereas CNAs within or around PTCH1 were found in two families in whom possible causative SNVs were not detected. Through a targeted resequencing of all coding exons, as well as simultaneous evaluation of copy number status using the alignment map files obtained via NGS, we found that GS phenotypes could be explained by PTCH1 mutations or deletions in all affected patients. Because it is advisable to evaluate CNAs of candidate causative genes in point mutation-negative cases, NGS methodology appears to be useful for improving molecular diagnosis through the simultaneous detection of both SNVs and CNAs in the targeted genes/regions. PMID:26544948
Lozenge Tilings and Hurwitz Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novak, Jonathan
2015-10-01
We give a new proof of the fact that, near a turning point of the frozen boundary, the vertical tiles in a uniformly random lozenge tiling of a large sawtooth domain are distributed like the eigenvalues of a GUE random matrix. Our argument uses none of the standard tools of integrable probability. In their place, it uses a combinatorial interpretation of the Harish-Chandra/Itzykson-Zuber integral as a generating function for desymmetrized Hurwitz numbers.
Small number preference in guiding attention.
Cai, Yong-Chun; Li, Shuang-Xia
2015-02-01
Healthy individuals are usually biased toward small numbers when they are asked to mentally bisect number intervals or generate number sequences. Number magnitude may be represented spatially along a left-to-right mental number line. The preference for small numbers is believed to reflect the leftward spatial bias of this numerical representation. This study examined whether small numbers captured visual attention more than larger numbers. Participants were asked to detect a target pre-cued by a small or a large number. We found that the response was faster when the target was pre-cued by a small number than when pre-cued by a large number, suggesting that visual attention is preferentially allocated to small numbers. In addition, this attentional preference for small numbers was distinct for participants of different educational backgrounds. For science or engineering participants, this small number preference was enhanced by left-hand responding and was positively correlated with the small number preference in a random number generation task, suggesting that the small number preference was attributable to a leftward bias of the spatial representation. For liberal arts participants, however, left-hand responding did not enhance the small number preference and no correlations were found between the attention task and the random number generation task, suggesting that non-spatial processing mediated the small number preference. Our findings show that the small number preference occurs as early as the perceptual processing stage and distinct mechanisms underlie the preference for small numbers for participants with different educational backgrounds.
Han, Ya; Liu, Yan-Ge; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhi; Guo, Jun-Qi; Luo, Ming-Ming
2016-07-25
A refractive index (RI) tunable functional materials infiltrated side-hole ring fiber (SHRF) is proposed to generate 10 LP OAM states with 6 topology numbers. On the basis of perturbation theory, the basis of the SHRF is demonstrated to be the LP modes. After a fixed propagation distance of 0.03 m, 0.009 m and 0.012 m, the phase difference between the odd and even LP_{11}x, LP_{21}x,y, LP_{31}x,y modes in the SHRF accumulate to ± π/2 respectively with na ranging from 1.412 to 1.44. Correspondingly, the output states are OAM _{± 1}x, OAM _{± 2}x,y, OAM _{± 3}x,y with a bandwidth of 380 nm, 100 nm and 80 nm respectively. The proposed fiber is easy to be fabricated with the mature fiber drawing technology and could facilitate the realization of all fiber based OAM system. PMID:27464176
Asymmetric Prefrontal Cortex Functions Predict Asymmetries in Number Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bachmann, Valerie; Fischer, Martin H.; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Brugger, Peter
2010-01-01
Little is known about the neuropsychological factors that contribute to individual differences in the asymmetric orientation along the mental number line. The present study documents healthy subjects' preference for small numbers over large numbers in a random number generation task. This preference, referred to as "small-number bias" (SNB),…
Coyte, Peter C; Bhatia, R Sacha; Semple, John L
2015-01-01
Background Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, Canada, offers specialized ambulatory surgical procedures. Patients often travel great distances to undergo surgery. Most patients receiving ambulatory surgery have a low rate of postoperative events necessitating clinic visits. However, regular follow-up is still considered important in the early postoperative phase. Increasingly, telemedicine is used to overcome the distance patients must travel to receive specialized care. Telemedicine data suggest that mobile monitoring and follow-up care is valued by patients and can reduce costs to society. Women’s College Hospital has used a mobile app (QoC Health Inc) to complement in-person postoperative follow-up care for breast reconstruction patients. Preliminary studies suggest that mobile app follow-up care is feasible, can avert in-person follow-up care, and is cost-effective from a societal and health care system perspective. Objective We hope to expand the use of mobile app follow-up care through its formal assessment in a randomized controlled trial. In postoperative ambulatory surgery patients at Women’s College Hospital (WCH), can we avert in-person follow-up care through the use of mobile app follow-up care compared to conventional, in-person follow-up care in the first 30 days after surgery. Methods This will be a pragmatic, single-center, open, controlled, 2-arm parallel-group superiority randomized trial comparing mobile app and in-person follow-up care over the first month following surgery. The patient population will comprise all postoperative ambulatory surgery patients at WCH undergoing breast reconstruction. The intervention consists of a postoperative mobile app follow-up care using the quality of recovery-9 (QoR9) and a pain visual analog scale (VAS), surgery-specific questions, and surgical site photos submitted daily for the first 2 weeks and weekly for the following 2 weeks. The primary outcome is the total number of physician visits related to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, X. I. A.; Meneveau, C.; Marusic, I.; Biferale, L.
2016-08-01
In wall-bounded turbulence, the moment generating functions (MGFs) of the streamwise velocity fluctuations
You, Peng; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Hongqiang; Wei, Xizhang; Li, Xiang
2014-01-01
Compressed sensing has been applied to achieve high resolution range profiles (HRRPs) using a stepped-frequency radar. In this new scheme, much fewer pulses are required to recover the target's strong scattering centers, which can greatly reduce the coherent processing interval (CPI) and improve the anti-jamming capability. For practical applications, however, the required number of pulses is difficult to determine in advance and any reduction of the transmitted pulses is attractive. In this paper, a dynamic compressed sensing strategy for HRRP generation is proposed, in which the estimated HRRP is updated with sequentially transmitted and received pulses until the proper stopping rules are satisfied. To efficiently implement the sequential update, a complex-valued fast sequential homotopy (CV-FSH) algorithm is developed based on group sparse recovery. This algorithm performs as an efficient recursive procedure of sparse recovery, thus avoiding solving a new optimization problem from scratch. Furthermore, the proper stopping rules are presented according to the special characteristics of HRRP. Therefore, the optimal number of pulses required in each CPI can be sought adapting to the echo signal. The results using simulated and real data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the established dynamic strategy is more suitable for uncooperative targets. PMID:24815679
Statistical estimation of π using random vectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloch, S. C.; Dressler, R.
1999-04-01
We present a simple application of a spreadsheet to estimate π using random vector ensembles. The worksheet, combining elements of the works of Archimedes, Liu Hui, and Buffon, can be used as a brief introductory tutorial on the Monte Carlo method, random number generators, and the logical IF function. Complete instructions are given for composing the worksheet.
Curcó, David; Alemán, Carlos
2004-04-30
The performance of a recently developed method to generate representative atomistic models of amorphous polymers has been investigated. This method, which is denoted SuSi, can be defined as a random generator of energy minima. The effects produced by different parameters used to define the size of the system and the characteristics of the generation algorithm have been examined. Calculations have been performed on poly(L,D-lactic) acid (rho = 1.25 g/cm3) and nylon 6 (rho = 1.084 g/cm(3)), which are important commercial polymers.
Yu, Zheng; Haage, Kristina; Streit, Verena E; Gierl, Alfons; Ruiz, Ramón A Torres
2009-04-01
Arabidopsis thaliana has, in conjunction with A. arenosa, developed into a system for the molecular analysis of alloplolyploidy. However, there are very few Arabidopsis lines available to study autopolyploidy. In order to investigate polyploidy on a reliable basis, we have optimised conventional methodologies and developed a novel strategy for the rapid generation and identification of polyploids based on trichome branching patterns. The analysis of more than two dozen independently induced Arabidopsis lines has led to interesting observations concerning the relationship between cell size and ploidy levels and on the relative stability of tetraploidy in Arabidopsis over at least three consecutive generations. The most important finding of this work is that neo-tetraploid lines exhibit considerable stability through all the generations tested. The systematic generation of tetraploid collections through this strategy as well as the lines generated in this work will help to unravel the consequences of polyploidy, particularly tetraploidy, on the genome, on gene expression and on natural diversity in Arabidopsis. PMID:19205656
Dotsenko, I.; Haroche, S.; Mirrahimi, M.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J.-M.; Rouchon, P.
2009-07-15
We propose a quantum feedback scheme for the preparation and protection of photon-number states of light trapped in a high-Q microwave cavity. A quantum nondemolition measurement of the cavity field provides information on the photon-number distribution. The feedback loop is closed by injecting into the cavity a coherent pulse adjusted to increase the probability of the target photon number. The efficiency and reliability of the closed-loop state stabilization is assessed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We show that, in realistic experimental conditions, the Fock states are efficiently produced and protected against decoherence.
Wang, Li; Bordi, Peter L.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hill, Alison M.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.
2015-01-01
Background Avocados are a nutrient‐dense source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) that can be used to replace saturated fatty acids (SFA) in a diet to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C). Well‐controlled studies are lacking on the effect of avocado consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Results A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was conducted with 45 overweight or obese participants with baseline LDL‐C in the 25th to 90th percentile. Three cholesterol‐lowering diets (6% to 7% SFA) were fed (5 weeks each): a lower‐fat diet (LF: 24% fat); 2 moderate‐fat diets (34% fat) provided similar foods and were matched for macronutrients and fatty acids: the avocado diet (AV) included one fresh Hass avocado (136 g) per day, and the moderate‐fat diet (MF) mainly used high oleic acid oils to match the fatty acid content of one avocado. Compared with baseline, the reduction in LDL‐C and non‐high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on the AV diet (−13.5 mg/dL, −14.6 mg/dL) was greater (P<0.05) than the MF (−8.3 mg/dL, −8.7 mg/dL) and LF (−7.4 mg/dL, −4.8 mg/dL) diets. Furthermore, only the AV diet significantly decreased LDL particle number (LDL‐P, −80.1 nmol/L, P=0.0001), small dense LDL cholesterol (LDL3+4, −4.1 mg/dL, P=0.04), and the ratio of LDL/HDL (−6.6%, P<0.0001) from baseline. Conclusions Inclusion of one avocado per day as part of a moderate‐fat, cholesterol‐lowering diet has additional LDL‐C, LDL‐P, and non‐HDL‐C lowering effects, especially for small, dense LDL. Our results demonstrate that avocados have beneficial effects on cardio‐metabolic risk factors that extend beyond their heart‐healthy fatty acid profile. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01235832. PMID:25567051
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Descartes, R.; Rota, G.-C.; Euler, L.; Bernoulli, J. D.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2011-03-01
Quantum-statistics Dichotomy: Fermi-Dirac(FDQS) Versus Bose-Einstein(BEQS), respectively with contact-repulsion/non-condensation(FDCR) versus attraction/ condensationBEC are manifestly-demonstrated by Taylor-expansion ONLY of their denominator exponential, identified BOTH as Descartes analytic-geometry conic-sections, FDQS as Elllipse (homotopy to rectangle FDQS distribution-function), VIA Maxwell-Boltzmann classical-statistics(MBCS) to Parabola MORPHISM, VS. BEQS to Hyperbola, Archimedes' HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY, and as well generating-functions[Abramowitz-Stegun, Handbook Math.-Functions--p. 804!!!], respectively of Euler-numbers/functions, (via Riemann zeta-function(domination of quantum-statistics: [Pathria, Statistical-Mechanics; Huang, Statistical-Mechanics]) VS. Bernoulli-numbers/ functions. Much can be learned about statistical-physics from Euler-numbers/functions via Riemann zeta-function(s) VS. Bernoulli-numbers/functions [Conway-Guy, Book of Numbers] and about Euler-numbers/functions, via Riemann zeta-function(s) MORPHISM, VS. Bernoulli-numbers/ functions, visa versa!!! Ex.: Riemann-hypothesis PHYSICS proof PARTLY as BEQS BEC/BEA!!!
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Booth, E., Jr.; Yu, J. C.
1986-01-01
An experimental investigation of two dimensional blade vortex interaction was held at NASA Langley Research Center. The first phase was a flow visualization study to document the approach process of a two dimensional vortex as it encountered a loaded blade model. To accomplish the flow visualization study, a method for generating two dimensional vortex filaments was required. The numerical study used to define a new vortex generation process and the use of this process in the flow visualization study were documented. Additionally, photographic techniques and data analysis methods used in the flow visualization study are examined.
Gerrits, Thomas; Glancy, Scott; Clement, Tracy S.; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Knill, Emanuel; Miller, Aaron J.; Migdall, Alan L.
2010-09-15
We have created heralded coherent-state superpositions (CSSs) by subtracting up to three photons from a pulse of squeezed vacuum light. To produce such CSSs at a sufficient rate, we used our high-efficiency photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor to detect the subtracted photons. This experiment is enabled by and utilizes the full photon-number-resolving capabilities of this detector. The CSS produced by three-photon subtraction had a mean-photon number of 2.75{sub -0.24}{sup +0.06} and a fidelity of 0.59{sub -0.14}{sup +0.04} with an ideal CSS. This confirms that subtracting more photons results in higher-amplitude CSSs.
2012-01-01
Background Tandemly arranged nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), exhibit concerted evolution, a pattern thought to result from the homogenisation of rDNA arrays. However rDNA homogeneity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level has not been detailed in organisms with more than a few hundred copies of the rDNA unit. Here we study rDNA complexity in species with arrays consisting of thousands of units. Methods We examined homogeneity of genic (18S) and non-coding internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) regions of rDNA using Roche 454 and/or Illumina platforms in four angiosperm species, Nicotiana sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis, N. otophora and N. kawakamii. We compared the data with Southern blot hybridisation revealing the structure of intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences and with the number and distribution of rDNA loci. Results and Conclusions In all four species the intragenomic homogeneity of the 18S gene was high; a single ribotype makes up over 90% of the genes. However greater variation was observed in the ITS1 region, particularly in species with two or more rDNA loci, where >55% of rDNA units were a single ribotype, with the second most abundant variant accounted for >18% of units. IGS heterogeneity was high in all species. The increased number of ribotypes in ITS1 compared with 18S sequences may reflect rounds of incomplete homogenisation with strong selection for functional genic regions and relaxed selection on ITS1 variants. The relationship between the number of ITS1 ribotypes and the number of rDNA loci leads us to propose that rDNA evolution and complexity is influenced by locus number and/or amplification of orphaned rDNA units at new chromosomal locations. PMID:23259460
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wheeler, Marc E.; Keller, Thomas E.; DuBois, David L.
2010-01-01
Between 2007 and 2009, reports were released on the results of three separate large-scale random assignment studies of the effectiveness of school-based mentoring programs for youth. The studies evaluated programs implemented by Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) affiliates (Herrera et al., 2007), Communities In Schools of San Antonio,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, David; Zertuche, Federico
2007-08-01
We determine the average number ϑ(N,K) of NK-Kauffman networks that give rise to the same binary function. We show that for N ≫1, there exists a connectivity critical value Kc such that ϑ(N,K)≈eφN (φ >0) for K
Churkin, D V; El-Taher, A E; Vatnik, I D; Babin, Sergei A
2012-09-30
The longitudinal distribution of the Stokes-component power in a Raman fibre laser with a random distributed feedback and unidirectional pumping is measured. The fibre parameters (linear loss and Rayleigh backscattering coefficient) are calculated based on the distributions obtained. A numerical model is developed to describe the lasing power distribution. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)
Yu, Yang; Wang, Yu-yi; Wang, Yi-qin; Wang, Xia; Liu, Yan-Yang; Wang, Jian-Tao; Du, Chi; Wang, Li; Li, Mei; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Ming
2016-01-01
Antiangiogenic therapy is becoming a promising option for cancer treatment. However, many investigations have recently indicated that these therapies may have limited efficacy, and the cancers in most patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies. There is considerable recently acquired evidence for an association of such resistance with cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). Here, we used xenograft tumor murine models to further suggest that antiangiogenic agents actually increase the invasive and metastatic properties of lung cancer cells. In our experiments with murine lung cancer xenografts, we found that the antiangiogenic agent endostatin increased the population of ALDH+ cells, and did so by generating intratumoral hypoxia in the xenografts. We further showed endostatin to cause an increase in the CSLC population by accelerating the generation of tumor hypoxia and by recruiting TAMs, MDSCs and Treg cells, which are inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells and which can secrete cytokines and growth factors such as IL-6, EGF, and TGF-β into the tumor microenvironment. All these factors are related with increased CSLC population in tumors. These results imply that improving the clinical efficacy of antiangiogenic treatments will require the concurrent use of CSLC-targeting agents. PMID:27703219
Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Papaseit, Esther; Pujadas, Mitona; Fitó, Montserrat; Robledo, Patricia; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Cheynier, Véronique; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Escudier, Jean-Louis; de la Torre, Rafael
2015-06-01
In humans, urinary hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) concentrations have been associated to alcohol and wine consumption. To explore the role of wine components on promoting an endogenous OHTyr generation we performed a cross-over, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial (n = 28 healthy volunteers). Ethanol (wine and vodka), dealcoholized wine, and placebo were administered. Alcohol, dealcoholized wine, and particularly wine promoted a de novo OHTyr generation in vivo in humans. Potential OHTyr precursors (tyrosine, tyrosol, tyramine) were investigated in rats. Tyrosol was metabolized to OHTyr. Collating both studies, it is postulated that an increased Tyr bioavailability, a shift to a reductive pathway in dopamine and tyramine oxidative metabolism, and the biotransformation of Tyr to OHTyr were mechanisms involved in the OHTyr endogenous generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pederzani, Jean-Noel; Haj-Hariri, Hossein
2012-11-01
An embedded-boundary (or cut-cell) method for complex geometry with moving boundaries is used to solve the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equation around a self-propelling manta swimming at moderately high Reynolds numbers. The motion of the ray is prescribed using a kinematic model fitted to actual biological data. The dependence of thrust production mechanism on Strouhal and Reynolds numbers is investigated. The vortex core structures are accurately plotted and a correlation between wake structures and propulsive performance is established. This insight is critical in understanding the key flow features that a bio-inspired autonomous vehicle should reproduce in order to swim efficiently. The solution method is implemented, on a block-structured Cartesian grid using a cut-cell approach enabling the code to correctly evaluate the wall shear-stress, a key feature necessary at higher Reynolds. To enhance computational efficiency, a parallel adaptive mesh refinement technique is used. The present method is validated against published experimental results. Supported by ONR MURI.
Small number preference in guiding attention.
Cai, Yong-Chun; Li, Shuang-Xia
2015-02-01
Healthy individuals are usually biased toward small numbers when they are asked to mentally bisect number intervals or generate number sequences. Number magnitude may be represented spatially along a left-to-right mental number line. The preference for small numbers is believed to reflect the leftward spatial bias of this numerical representation. This study examined whether small numbers captured visual attention more than larger numbers. Participants were asked to detect a target pre-cued by a small or a large number. We found that the response was faster when the target was pre-cued by a small number than when pre-cued by a large number, suggesting that visual attention is preferentially allocated to small numbers. In addition, this attentional preference for small numbers was distinct for participants of different educational backgrounds. For science or engineering participants, this small number preference was enhanced by left-hand responding and was positively correlated with the small number preference in a random number generation task, suggesting that the small number preference was attributable to a leftward bias of the spatial representation. For liberal arts participants, however, left-hand responding did not enhance the small number preference and no correlations were found between the attention task and the random number generation task, suggesting that non-spatial processing mediated the small number preference. Our findings show that the small number preference occurs as early as the perceptual processing stage and distinct mechanisms underlie the preference for small numbers for participants with different educational backgrounds. PMID:25354972
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Alex R.; Lawrence, Joshua F.; Snow, Catherine E.; Taylor, Karen S.
2016-01-01
Communicative self-efficacy serves as an important link between discussing controversial issues and civic engagement because confidence in one's discourse skills is important to managing conflicting perspectives and developing solutions to community-based problems. Freely available to schools, "Word Generation" is a cross-content…
Chambers, David W
2005-01-01
Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137
Wood, Henry M; Belvedere, Ornella; Conway, Caroline; Daly, Catherine; Chalkley, Rebecca; Bickerdike, Melissa; McKinley, Claire; Egan, Phil; Ross, Lisa; Hayward, Bruce; Morgan, Joanne; Davidson, Leslie; MacLennan, Ken; Ong, Thian K; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Cook, Ian; Adams, David J; Taylor, Graham R; Rabbitts, Pamela
2010-08-01
The use of next-generation sequencing technologies to produce genomic copy number data has recently been described. Most approaches, however, reply on optimal starting DNA, and are therefore unsuitable for the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, which largely precludes the analysis of many tumour series. We have sought to challenge the limits of this technique with regards to quality and quantity of starting material and the depth of sequencing required. We confirm that the technique can be used to interrogate DNA from cell lines, fresh frozen material and FFPE samples to assess copy number variation. We show that as little as 5 ng of DNA is needed to generate a copy number karyogram, and follow this up with data from a series of FFPE biopsies and surgical samples. We have used various levels of sample multiplexing to demonstrate the adjustable resolution of the methodology, depending on the number of samples and available resources. We also demonstrate reproducibility by use of replicate samples and comparison with microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and digital PCR. This technique can be valuable in both the analysis of routine diagnostic samples and in examining large repositories of fixed archival material.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leybold, H. A.
1971-01-01
Random numbers were generated with the aid of a digital computer and transformed such that the probability density function of a discrete random load history composed of these random numbers had one of the following non-Gaussian distributions: Poisson, binomial, log-normal, Weibull, and exponential. The resulting random load histories were analyzed to determine their peak statistics and were compared with cumulative peak maneuver-load distributions for fighter and transport aircraft in flight.
Ozerov, M Y; Himberg, M; Aykanat, T; Sendek, D S; Hägerstrand, H; Verliin, A; Krause, T; Olsson, J; Primmer, C R; Vasemägi, A
2015-05-01
Divergent selection at ecologically important traits is thought to be a major factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. To elucidate the role of different evolutionary processes shaping the variation in gill raker number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus sensu lato) in the Baltic Sea basin, we assessed the relationships between genetic and phenotypic variation among and within three whitefish ecotypes (sea spawners, river spawners and lake spawners). To generate expected neutral distribution of FST and to evaluate whether highly variable microsatellite loci resulted in deflated FST estimates compared to less variable markers, we performed population genetic simulations under finite island and hierarchical island models. The genetic divergence observed among (FCT = 0.010) and within (FST = 0.014-0.041) ecotypes was rather low. The divergence in gill raker number, however, was substantially higher between sea and river spawners compared to observed microsatellite data and simulated neutral baseline (PCT > FCT ). This suggests that the differences in gill raker number between sea and river spawners are likely driven by divergent natural selection. We also found strong support for divergent selection on gill raker number among different populations of sea spawners (PST > FST ), most likely caused by highly variable habitat use and diverse diet. The putative role of divergent selection within lake spawners initially inferred from empirical microsatellite data was not supported by simulated FST distributions. This work provides a first formal test of divergent selection on gill raker number in Baltic whitefish, and demonstrates the usefulness of population genetic simulations to generate informative neutral baselines for PST -FST analyses helping to disentangle the effects of stochastic evolutionary processes from natural selection.
Ojeda, Natalia
2014-01-01
Cognitive remediation improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia, but its effect on other relevant factors such as negative symptoms and functional outcome has not been extensively studied. In this hospital-based study, 84 inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited from Alava Hospital (Spain). All of the subjects underwent a baseline and a 3-month assessment that examined neurocognition, clinical symptoms, insight, and functional outcome according to the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and Disability Assessment Schedule from World Health Organization (DAS-WHO). In addition to receiving standard treatment, patients were randomly assigned either to receive neuropsychological rehabilitation (REHACOP) or to a control group. REHACOP is an integrative program that taps all basic cognitive functions. The program included experts’ latest suggestions about positive feedback and activities of daily living in the patients’ environment. The REHACOP group showed significantly greater improvements at 3 months in the areas of neurocognition, negative symptoms, disorganization, and emotional distress compared with the control group (Cohen’s effect size for these changes ranged from d = 0.47 for emotional distress to d = 0.58 for disorganization symptoms). The REHACOP group also improved significantly in both the GAF (d = 0.61) and DAS-WHO total scores (d = 0.57). Specifically, the patients showed significant improvement in vocational outcomes (d = 0.47), family contact (d = 0.50), and social competence (d = 0.56). In conclusion, neuropsychological rehabilitation may be useful for the reduction of negative symptoms and functional disability in schizophrenia. These findings support the integration of neuropsychological rehabilitation into standard treatment programs for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23686130
Martinez, Loïc; Morvan, Bruno; Izbicki, Jean Louis
2004-04-01
A new 4D space-time-wave number-frequency representation Z(x,t,k,f) is introduced. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation is used for processing 2D space-time signal collection issued from wave propagation along a 1D medium. This representation is an extension along the time dimension of the space-wave number-frequency representation. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation is obtained by short time-space 2D Fourier transforming the space-time collection. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation allows the characterization transient aspects of wave generation and propagation in both space and time dimensions. The Z(x,t,k,f) representation is used to experimentally investigate Lamb wave generation and propagation around a cylindrical shell (relative thickness is equal to 0.03) surrounded by water and excited by a pulse (0.1 micros duration with 1-5 MHz transducers). Three kinds of fluids have been used inside the shell: air, water, propanol. In all the cases, the Z(x,t,k,f) analysis clearly identify the reflected field on the insonified side of the shell and it allows the measurement of the local reflection coefficients R(x,t,k,f). The generation and the propagation of Lamb waves are also quantified. For the liquid filled shells, the multiple internal reflections are revealed by Z(x,t,k,f) analysis: the local transmission coefficients T(x,t,k,f) are also measured. When local matching conditions allows Lamb wave generation, the multiple regeneration of Lamb wave is observed. Based on these results, a link is establish toward the theoretical results obtained by steady state approach and Sommerfeld-Watson transform.
Randomness and degrees of irregularity.
Pincus, S; Singer, B H
1996-01-01
The fundamental question "Are sequential data random?" arises in myriad contexts, often with severe data length constraints. Furthermore, there is frequently a critical need to delineate nonrandom sequences in terms of closeness to randomness--e.g., to evaluate the efficacy of therapy in medicine. We address both these issues from a computable framework via a quantification of regularity. ApEn (approximate entropy), defining maximal randomness for sequences of arbitrary length, indicating the applicability to sequences as short as N = 5 points. An infinite sequence formulation of randomness is introduced that retains the operational (and computable) features of the finite case. In the infinite sequence setting, we indicate how the "foundational" definition of independence in probability theory, and the definition of normality in number theory, reduce to limit theorems without rates of convergence, from which we utilize ApEn to address rates of convergence (of a deficit from maximal randomness), refining the aforementioned concepts in a computationally essential manner. Representative applications among many are indicated to assess (i) random number generation output; (ii) well-shuffled arrangements; and (iii) (the quality of) bootstrap replicates. PMID:11607637
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonetti, Marco; López, Cefe
2012-06-01
A random laser is formed by a haphazard assembly of nondescript optical scatters with optical gain. Multiple light scattering replaces the optical cavity of traditional lasers and the interplay between gain, scattering and size determines its unique properties. Random lasers studied till recently, consisted of irregularly shaped or polydisperse scatters, with some average scattering strength constant across the gain frequency band. Photonic glasses can sustain scattering resonances that can be placed in the gain window, since they are formed by monodisperse spheres [1]. The unique resonant scattering of this novel material allows controlling the lasing color via the diameter of the particles and their refractive index. Thus a random laser with a priori set lasing peak can be designed [2]. A special pumping scheme that enables to select the number of activated modes in a random laser permits to prepare RLs in two distinct regimes by controlling directionality through the shape of the pump [3]. When pumping is essentially unidirectional, few (barely interacting) modes are turned on that show as sharp, uncorrelated peaks in the spectrum. By increasing angular span of the pump beams, many resonances intervene generating a smooth emission spectrum with a high degree of correlation, and shorter lifetime. These are signs of a phaselocking transition, in which phases are clamped together so that modes oscillate synchronously.
Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.
1993-01-01
In coal samples, published recommendations based on statistical methods suggest 100 measurements are needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rv-r) to within ??2%. Our survey of published thermal maturation studies indicates that those using dispersed organic matter (DOM) mostly have an objective of acquiring 50 reflectance measurements. This smaller objective size in DOM versus that for coal samples poses a statistical contradiction because the standard deviations of DOM reflectance distributions are typically larger indicating a greater sample size is needed to accurately estimate Rv-r in DOM. However, in studies of thermal maturation using DOM, even 50 measurements can be an unrealistic requirement given the small amount of vitrinite often found in such samples. Furthermore, there is generally a reduced need for assuring precision like that needed for coal applications. Therefore, a key question in thermal maturation studies using DOM is how many measurements of Rv-r are needed to adequately estimate the mean. Our empirical approach to this problem is to compute the reflectance distribution statistics: mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis in increments of 10 measurements. This study compares these intermediate computations of Rv-r statistics with a final one computed using all measurements for that sample. Vitrinite reflectance was measured on mudstone and sandstone samples taken from borehole M-25 in the Cerro Prieto, Mexico geothermal system which was selected because the rocks have a wide range of thermal maturation and a comparable humic DOM with depth. The results of this study suggest that after only 20-30 measurements the mean Rv-r is generally known to within 5% and always to within 12% of the mean Rv-r calculated using all of the measured particles. Thus, even in the worst case, the precision after measuring only 20-30 particles is in good agreement with the general precision of one decimal place recommended for mean Rv
Abbasinia, Mohammad; Irajpour, Alireza; Babaii, Atye; Shamali, Mehdi; Vahdatnezhad, Jahanbakhsh
2014-01-01
Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient's trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea. PMID:25276759
Garate, Zita; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Crane, Ana M.; Olivier, Emmanuel; Poirot, Laurent; Galetto, Roman; Kosinski, Penelope; Hill, Collin; Kung, Charles; Agirre, Xabi; Orman, Israel; Cerrato, Laura; Alberquilla, Omaira; Rodriguez-Fornes, Fatima; Fusaki, Noemi; Garcia-Sanchez, Felix; Maia, Tabita M.; Ribeiro, Maria L.; Sevilla, Julian; Prosper, Felipe; Jin, Shengfang; Mountford, Joanne; Guenechea, Guillermo; Gouble, Agnes; Bueren, Juan A.; Davis, Brian R.; Segovia, Jose C.
2015-01-01
Summary Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a rare erythroid metabolic disease caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. Erythrocytes from PKD patients show an energetic imbalance causing chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, as pyruvate kinase defects impair ATP production in erythrocytes. We generated PKD induced pluripotent stem cells (PKDiPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) of PKD patients by non-integrative Sendai viral vectors. PKDiPSCs were gene edited to integrate a partial codon-optimized R-type pyruvate kinase cDNA in the second intron of the PKLR gene by TALEN-mediated homologous recombination (HR). Notably, we found allele specificity of HR led by the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism. High numbers of erythroid cells derived from gene-edited PKDiPSCs showed correction of the energetic imbalance, providing an approach to correct metabolic erythroid diseases and demonstrating the practicality of this approach to generate the large cell numbers required for comprehensive biochemical and metabolic erythroid analyses. PMID:26549847
Garate, Zita; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Crane, Ana M; Olivier, Emmanuel; Poirot, Laurent; Galetto, Roman; Kosinski, Penelope; Hill, Collin; Kung, Charles; Agirre, Xabi; Orman, Israel; Cerrato, Laura; Alberquilla, Omaira; Rodriguez-Fornes, Fatima; Fusaki, Noemi; Garcia-Sanchez, Felix; Maia, Tabita M; Ribeiro, Maria L; Sevilla, Julian; Prosper, Felipe; Jin, Shengfang; Mountford, Joanne; Guenechea, Guillermo; Gouble, Agnes; Bueren, Juan A; Davis, Brian R; Segovia, Jose C
2015-12-01
Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a rare erythroid metabolic disease caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. Erythrocytes from PKD patients show an energetic imbalance causing chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, as pyruvate kinase defects impair ATP production in erythrocytes. We generated PKD induced pluripotent stem cells (PKDiPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) of PKD patients by non-integrative Sendai viral vectors. PKDiPSCs were gene edited to integrate a partial codon-optimized R-type pyruvate kinase cDNA in the second intron of the PKLR gene by TALEN-mediated homologous recombination (HR). Notably, we found allele specificity of HR led by the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism. High numbers of erythroid cells derived from gene-edited PKDiPSCs showed correction of the energetic imbalance, providing an approach to correct metabolic erythroid diseases and demonstrating the practicality of this approach to generate the large cell numbers required for comprehensive biochemical and metabolic erythroid analyses.
Sinha, Rituparna; Samaddar, Sandip; De, Rajat K
2015-01-01
Copy number variation (CNV) is a form of structural alteration in the mammalian DNA sequence, which are associated with many complex neurological diseases as well as cancer. The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology provides us a new dimension towards detection of genomic locations with copy number variations. Here we develop an algorithm for detecting CNVs, which is based on depth of coverage data generated by NGS technology. In this work, we have used a novel way to represent the read count data as a two dimensional geometrical point. A key aspect of detecting the regions with CNVs, is to devise a proper segmentation algorithm that will distinguish the genomic locations having a significant difference in read count data. We have designed a new segmentation approach in this context, using convex hull algorithm on the geometrical representation of read count data. To our knowledge, most algorithms have used a single distribution model of read count data, but here in our approach, we have considered the read count data to follow two different distribution models independently, which adds to the robustness of detection of CNVs. In addition, our algorithm calls CNVs based on the multiple sample analysis approach resulting in a low false discovery rate with high precision. PMID:26291322
Garate, Zita; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Crane, Ana M; Olivier, Emmanuel; Poirot, Laurent; Galetto, Roman; Kosinski, Penelope; Hill, Collin; Kung, Charles; Agirre, Xabi; Orman, Israel; Cerrato, Laura; Alberquilla, Omaira; Rodriguez-Fornes, Fatima; Fusaki, Noemi; Garcia-Sanchez, Felix; Maia, Tabita M; Ribeiro, Maria L; Sevilla, Julian; Prosper, Felipe; Jin, Shengfang; Mountford, Joanne; Guenechea, Guillermo; Gouble, Agnes; Bueren, Juan A; Davis, Brian R; Segovia, Jose C
2015-12-01
Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a rare erythroid metabolic disease caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. Erythrocytes from PKD patients show an energetic imbalance causing chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, as pyruvate kinase defects impair ATP production in erythrocytes. We generated PKD induced pluripotent stem cells (PKDiPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) of PKD patients by non-integrative Sendai viral vectors. PKDiPSCs were gene edited to integrate a partial codon-optimized R-type pyruvate kinase cDNA in the second intron of the PKLR gene by TALEN-mediated homologous recombination (HR). Notably, we found allele specificity of HR led by the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism. High numbers of erythroid cells derived from gene-edited PKDiPSCs showed correction of the energetic imbalance, providing an approach to correct metabolic erythroid diseases and demonstrating the practicality of this approach to generate the large cell numbers required for comprehensive biochemical and metabolic erythroid analyses. PMID:26549847
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, J.; Corlett, J.; Mitchell, C. E.; Papadopoulos, C. F.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R. D.; Sannibale, F.; Sun, C.; Venturini, M.; Emma, P.; Reiche, S.
2014-03-01
In this paper we report on start-to-end simulation of a next generation light source based on a high repetition rate free electron laser (FEL) driven by a CW superconducting linac. The simulation integrated the entire system in a seamless start-to-end model, including birth of photoelectrons, transport of electron beam through 600 m of the accelerator beam delivery system, and generation of coherent x-ray radiation in a two-stage self-seeding undulator beam line. The entire simulation used the real number of electrons (˜2 billion electrons/bunch) to capture the details of the physical shot noise without resorting to artificial filtering to suppress numerical noise. The simulation results shed light on several issues including the importance of space-charge effects near the laser heater and the reliability of x-ray radiation power predictions when using a smaller number of simulation particles. The results show that the microbunching instability in the linac can be controlled with 15 keV uncorrelated energy spread induced by a laser heater and demonstrate that high brightness and flux 1 nm x-ray radiation (˜1012 photons/pulse) with fully spatial and temporal coherence is achievable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vyas, Manan; Kota, V. K. B.
2012-12-01
Following the earlier studies on embedded unitary ensembles generated by random two-body interactions [EGUE(2)] with spin SU(2) and spin-isospin SU(4) symmetries, developed is a general formulation, for deriving lower order moments of the one- and two-point correlation functions in eigenvalues, that is valid for any EGUE(2) and BEGUE(2) ("B" stands for bosons) with U(Ω)⊗SU(r) embedding and with two-body interactions preserving SU(r) symmetry. Using this formulation with r = 1, we recover the results derived by Asaga et al. [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 297, 344 (2002)], 10.1006/aphy.2002.6248 for spinless boson systems. Going further, new results are obtained for r = 2 (this corresponds to two species boson systems) and r = 3 (this corresponds to spin 1 boson systems).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ježek, I.; Katrašnik, T.; Westerdahl, D.; Močnik, G.
2015-06-01
The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF) of black carbon (BC), particle number (PN) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years, decreased by 60 and 47% from those in use for 5-10 years, respectively, the median NOx and PN EFs, of goods vehicles that were in use for less than five years, decreased from those in use for 5-10 years by 52 and 67%, respectively. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25% of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61% of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements with sophisticated post processing individual vehicles EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and monitor how the numerous emission reduction approaches are reflected in on-road driving conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ježek, I.; Katrašnik, T.; Westerdahl, D.; Močnik, G.
2015-10-01
The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF) of black carbon (BC), particle number (PN) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote-sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years decreased by 60 and 47 % from those in use for 5-10 years, respectively; the median NOx and PN EFs of goods vehicles that were in use for less than 5 years decreased from those in use for 5-10 years by 52 and 67 %, respectively. Surprisingly, we found an increase of BC EFs in the newer goods vehicle fleet compared to the 5-10-year old one. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally, a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25 % of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61 % of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements and sophisticated post processing, individual vehicle EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and
Khoshkholgh, Roghaie; Keshavarz, Tahereh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Asadi, Nasrin; Zare, Najaf
2016-01-01
Objective: To compare the effects of two auditory methods by mother and fetus on the results of NST in 2011-2012. Materials and methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, 213 pregnant women with gestational age of 37-41 weeks who had no pregnancy complications were randomly divided into 3 groups (auditory intervention for mother, auditory intervention for fetus, and control) each containing 71 subjects. In the intervention groups, music was played through the second 10 minutes of NST. The three groups were compared regarding baseline fetal heart rate and number of accelerations in the first and second 10 minutes of NST. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and paired T-test. Results: The results showed no significant difference among the three groups regarding baseline fetal heart rate in the first (p = 0.945) and second (p = 0.763) 10 minutes. However, a significant difference was found among the three groups concerning the number of accelerations in the second 10 minutes. Also, a significant difference was observed in the number of accelerations in the auditory intervention for mother (p = 0.013) and auditory intervention for fetus groups (p < 0.001). The difference between the number of accelerations in the first and second 10 minutes was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Music intervention was effective in the number of accelerations which is the indicator of fetal health. Yet, further studies are required to be conducted on the issue. PMID:27385971
Quantum randomness certified by the uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallone, Giuseppe; Marangon, Davide G.; Tomasin, Marco; Villoresi, Paolo
2014-11-01
We present an efficient method to extract the amount of true randomness that can be obtained by a quantum random number generator (QRNG). By repeating the measurements of a quantum system and by swapping between two mutually unbiased bases, a lower bound of the achievable true randomness can be evaluated. The bound is obtained thanks to the uncertainty principle of complementary measurements applied to min-entropy and max-entropy. We tested our method with two different QRNGs by using a train of qubits or ququart and demonstrated the scalability toward practical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Zhiwen; Chen, Jiajie; Ho, Ho-Pui
2016-05-01
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) typically requires hot-spots generated in nano-fabricated plasmonic structures. Here we report a highly versatile approach based on the use of random gold nano-island substrates (AuNIS). Hot spots are produced through the entrapment of colloidal plasmonic nano-crystals at the interface between AuNIS and a microbubble, which is generated from the localized plasmonic absorption of a focused laser beam. The entrapment strength is strongly dependent on the shape of the microbubble, which is in turn affected by the surface wetting characteristics of the AuNIS with respect to the solvent composition. The laser power intensity required to trigger microbubble-induced SERS is as low as 200 μW μm-2. Experimental results indicate that the SERS limit of detection (LOD) for molecules of 4-MBA (with -SH bonds) is 10-12 M, R6G or RhB (without -SH bonds) is 10-7 M. The proposed strategy has potential applications in low-cost lab-on-chip devices for the label-free detection of chemical and biological molecules.
Kang, Zhiwen; Chen, Jiajie; Ho, Ho-Pui
2016-05-21
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) typically requires hot-spots generated in nano-fabricated plasmonic structures. Here we report a highly versatile approach based on the use of random gold nano-island substrates (AuNIS). Hot spots are produced through the entrapment of colloidal plasmonic nano-crystals at the interface between AuNIS and a microbubble, which is generated from the localized plasmonic absorption of a focused laser beam. The entrapment strength is strongly dependent on the shape of the microbubble, which is in turn affected by the surface wetting characteristics of the AuNIS with respect to the solvent composition. The laser power intensity required to trigger microbubble-induced SERS is as low as 200 μW μm(-2). Experimental results indicate that the SERS limit of detection (LOD) for molecules of 4-MBA (with -SH bonds) is 10(-12) M, R6G or RhB (without -SH bonds) is 10(-7) M. The proposed strategy has potential applications in low-cost lab-on-chip devices for the label-free detection of chemical and biological molecules.
Cogné, C; Labouret, S; Peczalski, R; Louisnard, O; Baillon, F; Espitalier, F
2016-01-01
In the preceding paper (part 1), the pressure and temperature fields close to a bubble undergoing inertial acoustic cavitation were presented. It was shown that extremely high liquid water pressures but quite moderate temperatures were attained near the bubble wall just after the collapse providing the necessary conditions for ice nucleation. In this paper (part 2), the nucleation rate and the nuclei number generated by a single collapsing bubble were determined. The calculations were performed for different driving acoustic pressures, liquid ambient temperatures and bubble initial radius. An optimal acoustic pressure range and a nucleation temperature threshold as function of bubble radius were determined. The capability of moderate power ultrasound to trigger ice nucleation at low undercooling level and for a wide distribution of bubble sizes has thus been assessed on the theoretical ground. PMID:26384898
Randomness in quantum mechanics - nature's ultimate cryptogram?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erber, T.; Putterman, S.
1985-11-01
The possibility that a single atom irradiated by coherent light will be equivalent to an infinite computer with regard to its ability to generate random numbers is addressed. A search for unexpected patterns of order by crypt analysis of the telegraph signal generated by the on/off time of the atom's fluorescence is described. The results will provide new experimental tests of the fundamental principles of quantum theory.
Nakagawa, Masaki; Togashi, Yuichi
2016-01-01
Cell activities primarily depend on chemical reactions, especially those mediated by enzymes, and this has led to these activities being modeled as catalytic reaction networks. Although deterministic ordinary differential equations of concentrations (rate equations) have been widely used for modeling purposes in the field of systems biology, it has been pointed out that these catalytic reaction networks may behave in a way that is qualitatively different from such deterministic representation when the number of molecules for certain chemical species in the system is small. Apart from this, representing these phenomena by simple binary (on/off) systems that omit the quantities would also not be feasible. As recent experiments have revealed the existence of rare chemical species in cells, the importance of being able to model potential small-number phenomena is being recognized. However, most preceding studies were based on numerical simulations, and theoretical frameworks to analyze these phenomena have not been sufficiently developed. Motivated by the small-number issue, this work aimed to develop an analytical framework for the chemical master equation describing the distributional behavior of catalytic reaction networks. For simplicity, we considered networks consisting of two-body catalytic reactions. We used the probability generating function method to obtain the steady-state solutions of the chemical master equation without specifying the parameters. We obtained the time evolution equations of the first- and second-order moments of concentrations, and the steady-state analytical solution of the chemical master equation under certain conditions. These results led to the rank conservation law, the connecting state to the winner-takes-all state, and analysis of 2-molecules M-species systems. A possible interpretation of the theoretical conclusion for actual biochemical pathways is also discussed. PMID:27047384
Klambauer, Günter; Schwarzbauer, Karin; Mayr, Andreas; Clevert, Djork-Arné; Mitterecker, Andreas; Bodenhofer, Ulrich; Hochreiter, Sepp
2012-05-01
Quantitative analyses of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, such as the detection of copy number variations (CNVs), remain challenging. Current methods detect CNVs as changes in the depth of coverage along chromosomes. Technological or genomic variations in the depth of coverage thus lead to a high false discovery rate (FDR), even upon correction for GC content. In the context of association studies between CNVs and disease, a high FDR means many false CNVs, thereby decreasing the discovery power of the study after correction for multiple testing. We propose 'Copy Number estimation by a Mixture Of PoissonS' (cn.MOPS), a data processing pipeline for CNV detection in NGS data. In contrast to previous approaches, cn.MOPS incorporates modeling of depths of coverage across samples at each genomic position. Therefore, cn.MOPS is not affected by read count variations along chromosomes. Using a Bayesian approach, cn.MOPS decomposes variations in the depth of coverage across samples into integer copy numbers and noise by means of its mixture components and Poisson distributions, respectively. The noise estimate allows for reducing the FDR by filtering out detections having high noise that are likely to be false detections. We compared cn.MOPS with the five most popular methods for CNV detection in NGS data using four benchmark datasets: (i) simulated data, (ii) NGS data from a male HapMap individual with implanted CNVs from the X chromosome, (iii) data from HapMap individuals with known CNVs, (iv) high coverage data from the 1000 Genomes Project. cn.MOPS outperformed its five competitors in terms of precision (1-FDR) and recall for both gains and losses in all benchmark data sets. The software cn.MOPS is publicly available as an R package at http://www.bioinf.jku.at/software/cnmops/ and at Bioconductor.
Nakagawa, Masaki; Togashi, Yuichi
2016-01-01
Cell activities primarily depend on chemical reactions, especially those mediated by enzymes, and this has led to these activities being modeled as catalytic reaction networks. Although deterministic ordinary differential equations of concentrations (rate equations) have been widely used for modeling purposes in the field of systems biology, it has been pointed out that these catalytic reaction networks may behave in a way that is qualitatively different from such deterministic representation when the number of molecules for certain chemical species in the system is small. Apart from this, representing these phenomena by simple binary (on/off) systems that omit the quantities would also not be feasible. As recent experiments have revealed the existence of rare chemical species in cells, the importance of being able to model potential small-number phenomena is being recognized. However, most preceding studies were based on numerical simulations, and theoretical frameworks to analyze these phenomena have not been sufficiently developed. Motivated by the small-number issue, this work aimed to develop an analytical framework for the chemical master equation describing the distributional behavior of catalytic reaction networks. For simplicity, we considered networks consisting of two-body catalytic reactions. We used the probability generating function method to obtain the steady-state solutions of the chemical master equation without specifying the parameters. We obtained the time evolution equations of the first- and second-order moments of concentrations, and the steady-state analytical solution of the chemical master equation under certain conditions. These results led to the rank conservation law, the connecting state to the winner-takes-all state, and analysis of 2-molecules M-species systems. A possible interpretation of the theoretical conclusion for actual biochemical pathways is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Kenichi; Fujisawa, Takafumi; Teramoto, Akinobu; Watabe, Shunichi; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro
2009-04-01
Random telegraph signal (RTS) noise in small gate area metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors occurs frequently and causes serious problems in the field of flash memories and complementary MOS (CMOS) image sensors. The trap in the gate insulator, which is considered the origin of RTS, varies widely in terms of spatial location and energy level, so that RTS characteristics including the amplitude and time constants have large variability by nature and statistical analysis of RTS should become indispensable. In this paper, we propose a high-speed RTS measurement system with a newly developed test circuit and discuss the drain current and temperature dependences of RTS amplitude distributions. Moreover, we expand the sampling frequency between 0.47 Hz-3.0 MHz and the observation length up to about 4 h and can thereby observe some anomalous RTSs such as ones with long time constants, ones generated abruptly, and ones disappearing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre
2016-11-01
The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.
46 CFR 16.230 - Random testing requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... computer-based random number generator that is matched with crewmembers' Social Security numbers, payroll... considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain additional information or reports... under the reporting requirements of 46 CFR 16.500 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that...
Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimojima, Keiko; Ondo, Yumiko; Imai, Katsumi; Chong, Pin Fee; Kira, Ryutaro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Akira; Okamoto, Nobuhiko
2016-01-01
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is widely used for the detection of disease-causing nucleotide variants. The challenges associated with detecting copy number variants (CNVs) using NGS analysis have been reported previously. Disease-related exome panels such as Illumina TruSight One are more cost-effective than whole-exome sequencing (WES) because of their selective target regions (~21% of the WES). In this study, CNVs were analyzed using data extracted through a disease-related exome panel analysis and the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM). Samples from 61 patients with undiagnosed developmental delays and 52 healthy parents were included in this study. In the preliminary study to validate the constructed XHMM system (microarray-first approach), 34 patients who had previously been analyzed by chromosomal microarray testing were used. Among the five CNVs larger than 200 kb that were considered as non-pathogenic CNVs and were used as positive controls, four CNVs was successfully detected. The system was subsequently used to analyze different samples from 27 patients (NGS-first approach); 2 of these patients were successfully diagnosed as having pathogenic CNVs (an unbalanced translocation der(5)t(5;14) and a 16p11.2 duplication). These diagnoses were re-confirmed by chromosomal microarray testing and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. The NGS-first approach generated no false-negative or false-positive results for pathogenic CNVs, indicating its high sensitivity and specificity in detecting pathogenic CNVs. The results of this study show the possible clinical utility of pathogenic CNV screening using disease-related exome panel analysis and XHMM. PMID:27579173
Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimojima, Keiko; Ondo, Yumiko; Imai, Katsumi; Chong, Pin Fee; Kira, Ryutaro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Akira; Okamoto, Nobuhiko
2016-01-01
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is widely used for the detection of disease-causing nucleotide variants. The challenges associated with detecting copy number variants (CNVs) using NGS analysis have been reported previously. Disease-related exome panels such as Illumina TruSight One are more cost-effective than whole-exome sequencing (WES) because of their selective target regions (~21% of the WES). In this study, CNVs were analyzed using data extracted through a disease-related exome panel analysis and the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM). Samples from 61 patients with undiagnosed developmental delays and 52 healthy parents were included in this study. In the preliminary study to validate the constructed XHMM system (microarray-first approach), 34 patients who had previously been analyzed by chromosomal microarray testing were used. Among the five CNVs larger than 200 kb that were considered as non-pathogenic CNVs and were used as positive controls, four CNVs was successfully detected. The system was subsequently used to analyze different samples from 27 patients (NGS-first approach); 2 of these patients were successfully diagnosed as having pathogenic CNVs (an unbalanced translocation der(5)t(5;14) and a 16p11.2 duplication). These diagnoses were re-confirmed by chromosomal microarray testing and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. The NGS-first approach generated no false-negative or false-positive results for pathogenic CNVs, indicating its high sensitivity and specificity in detecting pathogenic CNVs. The results of this study show the possible clinical utility of pathogenic CNV screening using disease-related exome panel analysis and XHMM. PMID:27579173
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Elliott, Katherine E.; Farr, Andrew G.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Clark, John I.; Sage, E. Helene
2000-01-01
Quantitative analysis of vascular generational branching demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), a multifunctional cytokine and angiogenic regulator, strongly inhibited angiogenesis in the arterial tree of the developing quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) by inhibition of the normal increase in the number of new, small vessels. The cytokine was applied uniformly in solution at embryonic day 7 (E7) to the CAMs of quail embryos cultured in petri dishes. After 24 h the rate of arterial growth was inhibited by as much as 105% as a function of increasing TGF-beta1 concentration. Inhibition of the rate of angiogenesis in the arterial tree by TGF-beta1 relative to controls was measured in digital images by three well-correlated, computerized methods. The first computerized method, direct measurement by the computer code VESGEN of vascular morphological parameters according to branching generations G(sub 1) through G(sub greater than or equal to 5), revealed that TGF-beta1 selectively inhibited the increase in the number density of small vessels, N(sub v greater than or equal to 5), (382 plus or minus 85 per square centimeter) for specimens treated with 1 microgram TGF-beta1/CAM for 24 h, compared to 583 plus or minus 99 per square centimeter for controls), but did not significantly affect other parameters such as average vessel length or vessel diameter. The second and third methods, the fractal dimension (D(sub f)) and grid intersection (rho (sub v)), are statistical descriptors of spatial pattern and density. According to D(sub f) and rho(sub v), arterial density increased in control specimens from 1.382 plus or minus 0.007 and 662 plus or minus 52 per square centimeters at E7 (0 h) to 1.439 plus or minus 0.013 and 884 plus or minus 55 per square centimeters at E8 (24 h), compared to 1.379 plus or minus 0.039 and 650 plus or minus 111 per square centimeter for specimens treated with 1 microgram TGF-beta1/CAM for 24 h. TGF-beta1 therefore
Evans, Joseph; Kim, Jeongwoon; Childs, Kevin L; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Crisovan, Emily; Nandety, Aruna; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Richmond, Todd A; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Casler, Michael D; Buell, C Robin
2014-01-01
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a polyploid, outcrossing grass species native to North America and has recently been recognized as a potential biofuel feedstock crop. Significant phenotypic variation including ploidy is present across the two primary ecotypes of switchgrass, referred to as upland and lowland switchgrass. The tetraploid switchgrass genome is approximately 1400 Mbp, split between two subgenomes, with significant repetitive sequence content limiting the efficiency of re-sequencing approaches for determining genome diversity. To characterize genetic diversity in upland and lowland switchgrass as a first step in linking genotype to phenotype, we designed an exome capture probe set based on transcript assemblies that represent approximately 50 Mb of annotated switchgrass exome sequences. We then evaluated and optimized the probe set using solid phase comparative genome hybridization and liquid phase exome capture followed by next-generation sequencing. Using the optimized probe set, we assessed variation in the exomes of eight switchgrass genotypes representing tetraploid lowland and octoploid upland cultivars to benchmark our exome capture probe set design. We identified ample variation in the switchgrass genome including 1 395 501 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 8173 putative copy number variants and 3336 presence/absence variants. While the majority of the SNPs (84%) detected was bi-allelic, a substantial number was tri-allelic with limited occurrence of tetra-allelic polymorphisms consistent with the heterozygous and polyploid nature of the switchgrass genome. Collectively, these data demonstrate the efficacy of exome capture for discovery of genome variation in a polyploid species with a large, repetitive and heterozygous genome. PMID:24947485
Neutron monitor generated data distributions in quantum variational Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kussainov, A. S.; Pya, N.
2016-08-01
We have assessed the potential applications of the neutron monitor hardware as random number generator for normal and uniform distributions. The data tables from the acquisition channels with no extreme changes in the signal level were chosen as the retrospective model. The stochastic component was extracted by fitting the raw data with splines and then subtracting the fit. Scaling the extracted data to zero mean and variance of one is sufficient to obtain a stable standard normal random variate. Distributions under consideration pass all available normality tests. Inverse transform sampling is suggested to use as a source of the uniform random numbers. Variational Monte Carlo method for quantum harmonic oscillator was used to test the quality of our random numbers. If the data delivery rate is of importance and the conventional one minute resolution neutron count is insufficient, we could always settle for an efficient seed generator to feed into the faster algorithmic random number generator or create a buffer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, S. H.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Asher, W.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Pankow, J. F.; Barsanti, K. C.
2012-12-01
A major weakness in current air quality and climate models is the ability to simulate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) levels and physiochemical properties accurately. A new approach to model SOA formation is the carbon number (nc) polarity grid (CNPG) framework. The CNPG framework makes use of a nc vs. polarity grid for representing relevant organic compounds and their time-dependent concentrations. The nc vs polarity grid is well suited for modeling SOA because nc together with some suitable measure of total molecular polarity provides the minimum yet sufficient formation for estimating the parameters required to calculate partitioning coefficients. Furthermore, CNPG allows consideration of the effects of variation in the activity coefficients of the partitioning compounds, variation in the mean molecular weight of the absorbing organic phase, water uptake, and the possibility of phase separation in the organic aerosol phase. In this work, we use the GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) chemistry mechanism to produce the chemical structures of SOA precursor oxidization products and their time-dependent concentrations. The SIMPOL group contribution method is used to calculate the enthalpy of vaporization ΔHvap for each product. The total molecular polarity is then calculated as ΔHvap,diff, the difference between each compound's ΔHvap and that of its carbon-number equivalent straight-chain hydrocarbon. The gas- and particle-phase concentrations of each compound are mapped onto the nc vs polarity grid as a function of time to evaluate the time evolution of SOA-relevant oxidation products and to help guide lumping strategies for reducing complexity. In addition to using ΔHvap,diff, use of other measures of polarity will also be explored. Initial SOA precursor studies include toluene (C7) + n-heptadecane (C17) and α-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions. Results will be discussed in the context of the
Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Zhou, Dunjin; Zhou, Wang; Gong, Jie; Li, Shiyue; Stanton, Bonita
2015-01-01
Background Mobile populations and men who have sex with men (MSM) play an increasing role in the current HIV epidemic in China and across the globe. While considerable research has addressed both of these at-risk populations, more effective HIV control requires accurate data on the number of MSM at the population level, particularly MSM among migrant populations. Methods Survey data from a random sample of male rural-to-urban migrants (aged 18-45, n=572) in Wuhan, China were analyzed and compared with those of randomly selected non-migrant urban (n=566) and rural counterparts (580). The GIS/GPS technologies were used for sampling and the survey estimation method was used for data analysis. Results HIV-related risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants were similar to those among the two comparison groups. The estimated proportion of MSM among migrants [95% CI] was 5.8% [4.7, 6.8], higher than 2.8% [1.2, 4.5] for rural residents and 1.0% [0.0, 2.4] for urban residents, respectively. Among these migrants, the MSM were more likely than non-MSM to be older in age, married, and migrated to more cities. They were also more likely to co-habit with others in rental properties located in new town and neighborhoods with fewer old acquaintances and more entertainment establishments. In addition, they were more likely to engage in commercial sex and less likely to consistently use condoms. Conclusion Findings of this study indicate that compared to rural and urban populations, the migrant population in Wuhan consists of a higher proportion of MSM who also exhibit higher levels of HIV-related risk behaviors. More effective interventions should target this population with a focus on neighborhood factors, social capital and collective efficacy for risk reduction. PMID:26241900
Eguale, Tewodros; Buckeridge, David L; Huang, Allen; Hanley, James; Reidel, Kristen; Shi, Sherry; Winslade, Nancy
2012-01-01
Context Computerized drug alerts for psychotropic drugs are expected to reduce fall-related injuries in older adults. However, physicians over-ride most alerts because they believe the benefit of the drugs exceeds the risk. Objective To determine whether computerized prescribing decision support with patient-specific risk estimates would increase physician response to psychotropic drug alerts and reduce injury risk in older people. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial of 81 family physicians and 5628 of their patients aged 65 and older who were prescribed psychotropic medication. Intervention Intervention physicians received information about patient-specific risk of injury computed at the time of each visit using statistical models of non-modifiable risk factors and psychotropic drug doses. Risk thermometers presented changes in absolute and relative risk with each change in drug treatment. Control physicians received commercial drug alerts. Main outcome measures Injury risk at the end of follow-up based on psychotropic drug doses and non-modifiable risk factors. Electronic health records and provincial insurance administrative data were used to measure outcomes. Results Mean patient age was 75.2 years. Baseline risk of injury was 3.94 per 100 patients per year. Intermediate-acting benzodiazepines (56.2%) were the most common psychotropic drug. Intervention physicians reviewed therapy in 83.3% of visits and modified therapy in 24.6%. The intervention reduced the risk of injury by 1.7 injuries per 1000 patients (95% CI 0.2/1000 to 3.2/1000; p=0.02). The effect of the intervention was greater for patients with higher baseline risks of injury (p<0.03). Conclusion Patient-specific risk estimates provide an effective method of reducing the risk of injury for high-risk older people. Trial registration number clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00818285. PMID:22246963
Sultana, Tahmina; Nakayama, Emi E; Tobita, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Seki, Yohei; Saito, Akatsuki; Nomaguchi, Masako; Adachi, Akio; Akari, Hirofumi; Sato, Hironori; Shioda, Tatsuo
2016-04-01
Old World monkey TRIM5α strongly suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. A fusion protein comprising cynomolgus macaque (CM) TRIM5 and cyclophilin A (CM TRIMCyp) also potently suppresses HIV-1 replication. However, CM TRIMCyp fails to suppress a mutant HIV-1 that encodes a mutant capsid protein containing a SIVmac239-derived loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5). There are seven amino acid differences between L4/5 of HIV-1 and SIVmac239. Here, we investigated the minimum numbers of amino acid substitutions that would allow HIV-1 to evade CM TRIMCyp-mediated suppression. We performed random PCR mutagenesis to construct a library of HIV-1 variants containing mutations in L4/5, and then we recovered replication-competent viruses from CD4+ MT4 cells that expressed high levels of CM TRIMCyp. CM TRIMCyp-resistant viruses were obtained after three rounds of selection in MT4 cells expressing CM TRIMCyp and these were found to contain four amino acid substitutions (H87R, A88G, P90D and P93A) in L4/5. We then confirmed that these substitutions were sufficient to confer CM TRIMCyp resistance to HIV-1. In a separate experiment using a similar method, we obtained novel CM TRIM5α-resistant HIV-1 strains after six rounds of selection and rescue. Analysis of these mutants revealed that V86A and G116E mutations in the capsid region conferred partial resistance to CM TRIM5α without substantial fitness cost when propagated in MT4 cells expressing CM TRIM5α. These results confirmed and further extended the previous notion that CM TRIMCyp and CM TRIM5α recognize the HIV-1 capsid in different manners. PMID:26795727
Randomness versus deterministic chaos: Effect on invasion percolation clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Chung-Kang; Prakash, Sona; Herrmann, Hans J.; Stanley, H. Eugene
1990-10-01
What is the difference between randomness and chaos \\? Although one can define randomness and one can define chaos, one cannot easily assess the difference in a practical situation. Here we compare the results of these two antipodal approaches on a specific example. Specifically, we study how well the logistic map in its chaotic regime can be used as quasirandom number generator by calculating pertinent properties of a well-known random process: invasion percolation. Only if λ>λ*1 (the first reverse bifurcation point) is a smooth extrapolation in system size possible, and percolation exponents are retrieved. If λ≠1, a sequential filling of the lattice with the random numbers generates a measurable anisotropy in the growth sequence of the clusters, due to short-range correlations.
Probabilistic Evaluation of Wind Power Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhamad Razali, N. M.; Misbah, Muizzuddin
2013-06-01
The power supplied by wind turbine generators (WTG) is widely random following the stochastic nature of weather conditions. For planning and decision making purposes, understanding and evaluation of the behaviour and distribution of WTG's output power are crucial. Monte Carlo simulation enables the realization of artificial futures by generating a huge number of sample paths of outcomes to perform this analysis. The paper presents an algorithm developed for a random wind speed generator governed by the probability density function of Weibull distribution and evaluates the WTG's output by using the power curve of wind turbines. The method may facilitate assessment of suitable turbine site as well as generator selection and sizing.
A Random Variable Transformation Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheuermann, Larry
1989-01-01
Provides a short BASIC program, RANVAR, which generates random variates for various theoretical probability distributions. The seven variates include: uniform, exponential, normal, binomial, Poisson, Pascal, and triangular. (MVL)
Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness
Wang, Moran; Kang, Qinjun
2008-01-01
We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.
Sunspot random walk and 22-year variation
Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua
2012-01-01
We examine two stochastic models for consistency with observed long-term secular trends in sunspot number and a faint, but semi-persistent, 22-yr signal: (1) a null hypothesis, a simple one-parameter random-walk model of sunspot-number cycle-to-cycle change, and, (2) an alternative hypothesis, a two-parameter random-walk model with an imposed 22-yr alternating amplitude. The observed secular trend in sunspots, seen from solar cycle 5 to 23, would not be an unlikely result of the accumulation of multiple random-walk steps. Statistical tests show that a 22-yr signal can be resolved in historical sunspot data; that is, the probability is low that it would be realized from random data. On the other hand, the 22-yr signal has a small amplitude compared to random variation, and so it has a relatively small effect on sunspot predictions. Many published predictions for cycle 24 sunspots fall within the dispersion of previous cycle-to-cycle sunspot differences. The probability is low that the Sun will, with the accumulation of random steps over the next few cycles, walk down to a Dalton-like minimum. Our models support published interpretations of sunspot secular variation and 22-yr variation resulting from cycle-to-cycle accumulation of dynamo-generated magnetic energy.
Sunspot random walk and 22-year variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua
2012-05-01
We examine two stochastic models for consistency with observed long-term secular trends in sunspot number and a faint, but semi-persistent, 22-yr signal: (1) a null hypothesis, a simple one-parameter log-normal random-walk model of sunspot-number cycle-to-cycle change, and, (2) an alternative hypothesis, a two-parameter random-walk model with an imposed 22-yr alternating amplitude. The observed secular trend in sunspots, seen from solar cycle 5 to 23, would not be an unlikely result of the accumulation of multiple random-walk steps. Statistical tests show that a 22-yr signal can be resolved in historical sunspot data; that is, the probability is low that it would be realized from random data. On the other hand, the 22-yr signal has a small amplitude compared to random variation, and so it has a relatively small effect on sunspot predictions. Many published predictions for cycle 24 sunspots fall within the dispersion of previous cycle-to-cycle sunspot differences. The probability is low that the Sun will, with the accumulation of random steps over the next few cycles, walk down to a Dalton-like minimum. Our models support published interpretations of sunspot secular variation and 22-yr variation resulting from cycle-to-cycle accumulation of dynamo-generated magnetic energy.
Leadership statistics in random structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.
2004-01-01
The largest component ("the leader") in evolving random structures often exhibits universal statistical properties. This phenomenon is demonstrated analytically for two ubiquitous structures: random trees and random graphs. In both cases, lead changes are rare as the average number of lead changes increases quadratically with logarithm of the system size. As a function of time, the number of lead changes is self-similar. Additionally, the probability that no lead change ever occurs decays exponentially with the average number of lead changes.
On Convergent Probability of a Random Walk
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Y.-F.; Ching, W.-K.
2006-01-01
This note introduces an interesting random walk on a straight path with cards of random numbers. The method of recurrent relations is used to obtain the convergent probability of the random walk with different initial positions.
Experimental evidence of quantum randomness incomputability
Calude, Cristian S.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Dumitrescu, Monica; Svozil, Karl
2010-08-15
In contrast with software-generated randomness (called pseudo-randomness), quantum randomness can be proven incomputable; that is, it is not exactly reproducible by any algorithm. We provide experimental evidence of incomputability--an asymptotic property--of quantum randomness by performing finite tests of randomness inspired by algorithmic information theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rich, Andrew
2008-01-01
The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.
USER S GUIDE FOR THE RANDOM DRUG SCREENING SYSTEM
McNeany, Karen I
2013-12-01
The Random Drug Screening System (RDSS) is a desktop computing application designed to assign nongameable drug testing dates to each member in a population of employees, within a specific time line. The program includes reporting capabilities, test form generation, unique test ID number assignment, and the ability to flag high-risk employees for a higher frequency of drug testing than the general population.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Bruzda, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol
2009-09-01
Ensembles of random stochastic and bistochastic matrices are investigated. While all columns of a random stochastic matrix can be chosen independently, the rows and columns of a bistochastic matrix have to be correlated. We evaluate the probability measure induced into the Birkhoff polytope of bistochastic matrices by applying the Sinkhorn algorithm to a given ensemble of random stochastic matrices. For matrices of order N = 2 we derive explicit formulae for the probability distributions induced by random stochastic matrices with columns distributed according to the Dirichlet distribution. For arbitrary N we construct an initial ensemble of stochastic matrices which allows one to generate random bistochastic matrices according to a distribution locally flat at the center of the Birkhoff polytope. The value of the probability density at this point enables us to obtain an estimation of the volume of the Birkhoff polytope, consistent with recent asymptotic results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reese, Willard Francis
Compared were inductive and deductive sequencing of stimulus material to produce two single concept films. The concept developed was "The longer the pendulum's arm, the more slowly the pendulum swings." Each film contained the same number of identical scenes; only the sequencing of their order of presentation was altered to provide the two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi
2011-01-01
This study examined age-group corresponding relationships of the controlled force exertion based on sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 175 right-handed male adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects were divided into 3 groups based on age-level: 53 young (mean age 24.6, SD = 3.3 years), 71 middle aged (mean age 44.3, SD = 8.7 years), and 51…
Kusi, Kwadwo A; Faber, Bart W; Riasat, Vanessa; Thomas, Alan W; Kocken, Clemens H M; Remarque, Edmond J
2010-11-03
There is increasing interest in multi-allele vaccines to overcome strain-specificity against polymorphic vaccine targets such as Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1). These have been shown to induce broad inhibitory antibodies in vitro and formed the basis for the design of three Diversity-Covering (DiCo) proteins with similar immunological effects. The antibodies produced are to epitopes that are shared between vaccine alleles and theoretically, increasing the number of component AMA1 alleles is expected to broaden the antibody response. A plateau effect could however impose a limit on the number of alleles needed to achieve the broadest specificity. Moreover, production cost and the vaccine formulation process would limit the number of component alleles. In this paper, we compare rabbit antibody responses elicited with multi-allele vaccines incorporating seven (three DiCos and four natural AMA1 alleles) and three (DiCo mix) antigens for gains in broadened specificity. We also investigate the effect of three adjuvant platforms on antigen specificity and antibody functionality. Our data confirms a broadened response after immunisation with DiCo mix in all three adjuvants. Higher antibody titres were elicited with either CoVaccine HT™ or Montanide ISA 51, resulting in similar in vitro inhibition (65-82%) of five out of six culture-adapted P. falciparum strains. The antigen binding specificities of elicited antibodies were also similar and independent of the adjuvant used or the number of vaccine component alleles. Thus neither the four extra antigens nor adjuvant had any observable benefits with respect to specificity broadening, although adjuvant choice influenced the absolute antibody levels and thus the extent of parasite inhibition. Our data confirms the feasibility and potential of multi-allele PfAMA1 formulations, and highlights the need for adjuvants with improved antibody potentiation properties for AMA1-based vaccines.
Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.
2012-01-01
Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…
Scale-invariant geometric random graphs.
Xie, Zheng; Rogers, Tim
2016-03-01
We introduce and analyze a class of growing geometric random graphs that are invariant under rescaling of space and time. Directed connections between nodes are drawn according to influence zones that depend on node position in space and time, mimicking the heterogeneity and increased specialization found in growing networks. Through calculations and numerical simulations we explore the consequences of scale invariance for geometric random graphs generated this way. Our analysis reveals a dichotomy between scale-free and Poisson distributions of in- and out-degree, the existence of a random number of hub nodes, high clustering, and unusual percolation behavior. These properties are similar to those of empirically observed web graphs. PMID:27078369
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, P.; Talkner, P.
2010-09-01
A simple way to convert a purely random sequence of events into a signal with a strong periodic component is proposed. The signal consists of those instants of time at which the length of the random sequence exceeds an integer multiple of a given number. The larger this number the more pronounced the periodic behavior becomes.
Dell, G.F.
1993-01-01
Aperture determinations from 100 particles tracked for 1000 turns using randomly selected initial coordinates are compared with results from 10[sup 6] turn runs when initial coordinates are defined by [epsilon][sub x] = [epsilon][sub y] and X[sub i][prime] = Y[sub i][prime] = 0. Measurements were made with ten distributions of magnetic field errors. The results from tracking 100 particles for 10[sup 3] turns are equivalent to those from 10[sup 6] turn runs, have a distribution of considerably less width, and require only one tenth the computer time.
Dell, G.F.
1993-06-01
Aperture determinations from 100 particles tracked for 1000 turns using randomly selected initial coordinates are compared with results from 10{sup 6} turn runs when initial coordinates are defined by {epsilon}{sub x} = {epsilon}{sub y} and X{sub i}{prime} = Y{sub i}{prime} = 0. Measurements were made with ten distributions of magnetic field errors. The results from tracking 100 particles for 10{sup 3} turns are equivalent to those from 10{sup 6} turn runs, have a distribution of considerably less width, and require only one tenth the computer time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrera, Terese A.
2004-01-01
This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number…
Randomness versus Nonlocality and Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acín, Antonio; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano
2012-03-01
The outcomes obtained in Bell tests involving two-outcome measurements on two subsystems can, in principle, generate up to 2 bits of randomness. However, the maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality guarantees the generation of only 1.23 bits of randomness. We prove here that quantum correlations with arbitrarily little nonlocality and states with arbitrarily little entanglement can be used to certify that close to the maximum of 2 bits of randomness are produced. Our results show that nonlocality, entanglement, and randomness are inequivalent quantities. They also imply that device-independent quantum key distribution with an optimal key generation rate is possible by using almost-local correlations and that device-independent randomness generation with an optimal rate is possible with almost-local correlations and with almost-unentangled states.
Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke
2015-11-01
Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity.
Zhang, Zhongyang; Hao, Ke
2015-01-01
Cancer genomes exhibit profound somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). Studying tumor SCNAs using massively parallel sequencing provides unprecedented resolution and meanwhile gives rise to new challenges in data analysis, complicated by tumor aneuploidy and heterogeneity as well as normal cell contamination. While the majority of read depth based methods utilize total sequencing depth alone for SCNA inference, the allele specific signals are undervalued. We proposed a joint segmentation and inference approach using both signals to meet some of the challenges. Our method consists of four major steps: 1) extracting read depth supporting reference and alternative alleles at each SNP/Indel locus and comparing the total read depth and alternative allele proportion between tumor and matched normal sample; 2) performing joint segmentation on the two signal dimensions; 3) correcting the copy number baseline from which the SCNA state is determined; 4) calling SCNA state for each segment based on both signal dimensions. The method is applicable to whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) as well as SNP array data in a tumor-control study. We applied the method to a dataset containing no SCNAs to test the specificity, created by pairing sequencing replicates of a single HapMap sample as normal/tumor pairs, as well as a large-scale WGS dataset consisting of 88 liver tumors along with adjacent normal tissues. Compared with representative methods, our method demonstrated improved accuracy, scalability to large cancer studies, capability in handling both sequencing and SNP array data, and the potential to improve the estimation of tumor ploidy and purity. PMID:26583378
Fast Magnetic Micropropellers with Random Shapes
2015-01-01
Studying propulsion mechanisms in low Reynolds number fluid has implications for many fields, ranging from the biology of motile microorganisms and the physics of active matter to micromixing in catalysis and micro- and nanorobotics. The propulsion of magnetic micropropellers can be characterized by a dimensionless speed, which solely depends on the propeller geometry for a given axis of rotation. However, this dependence has so far been only investigated for helical propeller shapes, which were assumed to be optimal. In order to explore a larger variety of shapes, we experimentally studied the propulsion properties of randomly shaped magnetic micropropellers. Surprisingly, we found that their dimensionless speeds are high on average, comparable to previously reported nanofabricated helical micropropellers. The highest dimensionless speed we observed is higher than that of any previously reported propeller moving in a low Reynolds number fluid, proving that physical random shape generation can be a viable optimization strategy. PMID:26383225
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Re, R. J.; Capone, F. J.
1977-01-01
The canard panels had 5 deg of dihedral and were deflected differentially or individually over an incidence range from 10 deg to -10 deg and a model angle-of-attack range from -4 deg to 15 deg. Significant side forces were generated in a transonic tunnel by differential and single canard-panel deflections over the Mach number and angle-of-attack ranges. The yawing moment resulting from the forward location of the generated side force would necessitate a vertical tail/rudder trim force which would augment the forebody side force and be of comparable magnitude. Incremental side forces, yawing moments, lift, and pitching moments due to single canard-panel deflections were additive; that is, their sums were essentially the same as the forces and moments produced by differential canard-panel deflections of the same magnitude. Differential and single canard-panel deflections produced negligible rolling moments over the Mach number and angle-of-attack ranges.
Hentschel, Julia; Tatun, Dana; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Kurth, Ingo; Schimmel, Bettina; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Bertzbach, Sabine; Peters, Hartmut; Beetz, Christian
2016-09-15
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder of tooth development which is due to aberrant deposition or composition of enamel. Both syndromic and isolated forms exist; they may be inherited in an X-linked, autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant manner. WDR72 is one of ten currently known genes for recessive isolated AI; nine WDR72 mutations affecting single nucleotides have been described to date. Based on whole exome sequencing in a large consanguineous AI pedigree, we obtained evidence for presence of a multi-exonic WDR72 deletion. A home-made multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay was used to confirm the aberration, to narrow its extent, and to identify heterozygous carriers. Our study extends the mutational spectrum for WDR72 to include large deletions, and supports a relevance of the previously proposed loss-of-function mechanism. It also introduces an easy-to-use and highly sensitive tool for detecting WDR72 copy number alterations.
All square chiliagonal numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aṣiru, Muniru A.
2016-10-01
A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers. The study revealed that the determination of square chiliagonal numbers naturally leads to a generalized Pell equation x2 - Dy2 = N with D = 1996 and N = 9962, and has six fundamental solutions out of which only three yielded integer values for use as indices of chiliagonal numbers. The crossing/independent recurrence relations satisfied by each class of indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers are obtained. Finally, the generating functions serve as a clothesline to hang up the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers for easy display and this was used to obtain the first few sequence of square chiliagonal numbers.
Random matrix approach to the distribution of genomic distance.
Alexeev, Nikita; Zograf, Peter
2014-08-01
The cycle graph introduced by Bafna and Pevzner is an important tool for evaluating the distance between two genomes, that is, the minimal number of rearrangements needed to transform one genome into another. We interpret this distance in topological terms and relate it to the random matrix theory. Namely, the number of genomes at a given 2-break distance from a fixed one (the Hultman number) is represented by a coefficient in the genus expansion of a matrix integral over the space of complex matrices with the Gaussian measure. We study generating functions for the Hultman numbers and prove that the two-break distance distribution is asymptotically normal.
Random Matrix Approach to the Distribution of Genomic Distance
Alexeev, Nikita
2014-01-01
Abstract The cycle graph introduced by Bafna and Pevzner is an important tool for evaluating the distance between two genomes, that is, the minimal number of rearrangements needed to transform one genome into another. We interpret this distance in topological terms and relate it to the random matrix theory. Namely, the number of genomes at a given 2-break distance from a fixed one (the Hultman number) is represented by a coefficient in the genus expansion of a matrix integral over the space of complex matrices with the Gaussian measure. We study generating functions for the Hultman numbers and prove that the two-break distance distribution is asymptotically normal. PMID:24650202
Random matrix approach to the distribution of genomic distance.
Alexeev, Nikita; Zograf, Peter
2014-08-01
The cycle graph introduced by Bafna and Pevzner is an important tool for evaluating the distance between two genomes, that is, the minimal number of rearrangements needed to transform one genome into another. We interpret this distance in topological terms and relate it to the random matrix theory. Namely, the number of genomes at a given 2-break distance from a fixed one (the Hultman number) is represented by a coefficient in the genus expansion of a matrix integral over the space of complex matrices with the Gaussian measure. We study generating functions for the Hultman numbers and prove that the two-break distance distribution is asymptotically normal. PMID:24650202
A New Model that Generates Lotka's Law.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huber, John C.
2002-01-01
Develops a new model for a process that generates Lotka's Law. Topics include measuring scientific productivity through the number of publications; rate of production; career duration; randomness; Poisson distribution; computer simulations; goodness-of-fit; theoretical support for the model; and future research. (Author/LRW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kathotia, Vinay
2009-01-01
This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thelin, John R.
2013-01-01
What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sezin, Fatin
2009-01-01
It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…
Randomness Of Amoeba Movements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.
2005-11-01
Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.
Contouring randomly spaced data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kibler, J. F.; Morris, W. D.; Hamm, R. W.
1977-01-01
Computer program using triangulation contouring technique contours data points too numerous to fit into rectangular grid. Using random access procedures, program can handle up to 56,000 data points and provides up to 20 contour intervals for multiple number of parameters.
EDITORIAL: Nano and random lasers Nano and random lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiersma, Diederik S.; Noginov, Mikhail A.
2010-02-01
The field of extreme miniature sources of stimulated emission represented by random lasers and nanolasers has gone through an enormous development in recent years. Random lasers are disordered optical structures in which light waves are both multiply scattered and amplified. Multiple scattering is a process that we all know very well from daily experience. Many familiar materials are actually disordered dielectrics and owe their optical appearance to multiple light scattering. Examples are white marble, white painted walls, paper, white flowers, etc. Light waves inside such materials perform random walks, that is they are scattered several times in random directions before they leave the material, and this gives it an opaque white appearance. This multiple scattering process does not destroy the coherence of the light. It just creates a very complex interference pattern (also known as speckle). Random lasers can be made of basically any disordered dielectric material by adding an optical gain mechanism to the structure. In practice this can be achieved with, for instance, laser dye that is dissolved in the material and optically excited by a pump laser. Alternative routes to incorporate gain are achieved using rare-earth or transition metal doped solid-state laser materials or direct band gap semiconductors. The latter can potentially be pumped electrically. After excitation, the material is capable of scattering light and amplifying it, and these two ingredients form the basis for a random laser. Random laser emission can be highly coherent, even in the absence of an optical cavity. The reason is that random structures can sustain optical modes that are spectrally narrow. This provides a spectral selection mechanism that, together with gain saturation, leads to coherent emission. A random laser can have a large number of (randomly distributed) modes that are usually strongly coupled. This means that many modes compete for the gain that is available in a random
Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data
Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.
2006-10-16
We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruzda, Wojciech; Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Życzkowski, Karol
2009-01-01
We define a natural ensemble of trace preserving, completely positive quantum maps and present algorithms to generate them at random. Spectral properties of the superoperator Φ associated with a given quantum map are investigated and a quantum analogue of the Frobenius-Perron theorem is proved. We derive a general formula for the density of eigenvalues of Φ and show the connection with the Ginibre ensemble of real non-symmetric random matrices. Numerical investigations of the spectral gap imply that a generic state of the system iterated several times by a fixed generic map converges exponentially to an invariant state.
Full randomness from arbitrarily deterministic events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallego, Rodrigo; Masanes, Lluis; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Dhara, Chirag; Aolita, Leandro; Acín, Antonio
2013-10-01
Do completely unpredictable events exist? Classical physics excludes fundamental randomness. Although quantum theory makes probabilistic predictions, this does not imply that nature is random, as randomness should be certified without relying on the complete structure of the theory being used. Bell tests approach the question from this perspective. However, they require prior perfect randomness, falling into a circular reasoning. A Bell test that generates perfect random bits from bits possessing high—but less than perfect—randomness has recently been obtained. Yet, the main question remained open: does any initial randomness suffice to certify perfect randomness? Here we show that this is indeed the case. We provide a Bell test that uses arbitrarily imperfect random bits to produce bits that are, under the non-signalling principle assumption, perfectly random. This provides the first protocol attaining full randomness amplification. Our results have strong implications onto the debate of whether there exist events that are fully random.
Golden Ratio Versus Pi as Random Sequence Sources for Monte Carlo Integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sen, S. K.; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences is not judged directly based on the outcome of all known tests for the randomness of a sequence. Instead, it is determined implicitly by the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration in a statistical sense. Since our main motive of using a random sequence is to solve real world problems, it is more desirable if we compare the quality of the sequences based on their performances for these problems in terms of quality/accuracy of the output. We also compare these sources against those generated by a popular pseudo-random generator, viz., the Matlab rand and the quasi-random generator ha/ton both in terms of error and time complexity. Our study demonstrates that consecutive blocks of digits of each of these numbers produce a good random sequence source. It is observed that randomly chosen blocks of digits do not have any remarkable advantage over consecutive blocks for the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration. Also, it reveals that pi is a better source of a random sequence than theta when the accuracy of the integration is concerned.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip
2010-01-01
Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.
Decoherence in optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Chao; Bao, Wan-Su; Wang, Xiang; Fu, Xiang-Qun
2015-08-01
This paper investigates the effects of decoherence generated by broken-link-type noise in the hypercube on an optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm. When the hypercube occurs with random broken links, the optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm with decoherence is depicted through defining the shift operator which includes the possibility of broken links. For a given database size, we obtain the maximum success rate of the algorithm and the required number of iterations through numerical simulations and analysis when the algorithm is in the presence of decoherence. Then the computational complexity of the algorithm with decoherence is obtained. The results show that the ultimate effect of broken-link-type decoherence on the optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm is negative. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002).
A random spatial network model based on elementary postulates
Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.
1989-01-01
In contrast to the random topology model, this model ascribes a unique spatial specification to generated drainage networks, a distinguishing property of some network growth models. The simplicity of the postulates creates an opportunity for potential analytic investigations of the probabilistic structure of the drainage networks, while the spatial specification enables analyses of spatially dependent network properties. In the random topology model all drainage networks, conditioned on magnitude (number of first-order streams), are equally likely, whereas in this model all spanning trees of a grid, conditioned on area and drainage density, are equally likely. As a result, link lengths in the generated networks are not independent, as usually assumed in the random topology model. -from Authors
Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.
García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián
2014-08-01
Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vickers, F. D.
1973-01-01
A brief description of a test generating program which generates questions concerning the Fortran programming language in a random but guided fashion and without resorting to an item bank.'' (Author/AK)
Effective thermal conductivity of a thin, randomly oriented composite material
Phelan, P.E.; Niemann, R.C.
1997-10-01
The thermal conductivity of a randomly oriented composite material is modeled using a probabilistic approach in order to determine if a size effect exists for the thermal conductivity at small composite thicknesses. The numerical scheme employs a random number generator to position the filler elements, which have a relatively high thermal conductivity, within a matrix having a relative low thermal conductivity. The results indicate that, below some threshold thickness, the composite thermal conductivity is independent of thickness. The threshold thickness increases for increasing filler fraction and increasing k{sub f}/k{sub m}, the ratio between the filler and matrix thermal conductivities.
Asymmetric Variate Generation via a Parameterless Dual Neural Learning Algorithm
Fiori, Simone
2008-01-01
In a previous work (S. Fiori, 2006), we proposed a random number generator based on a tunable non-linear neural system, whose learning rule is designed on the basis of a cardinal equation from statistics and whose implementation is based on look-up tables (LUTs). The aim of the present manuscript is to improve the above-mentioned random number generation method by changing the learning principle, while retaining the efficient LUT-based implementation. The new method proposed here proves easier to implement and relaxes some previous limitations. PMID:18483612