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Sample records for random plasma glucose

  1. Quantifying the extent to which random plasma glucose underestimates diabetes prevalence in the Nauruan population.

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Dowse, G K; Collins, V R; Zimmet, P Z

    1990-10-01

    The extent to which random plasma glucose levels underestimate the true prevalence of diabetes has been determined in Micronesian Nauruans. In 337 individuals who were screened on the basis of their random plasma glucose levels, the age-standardised prevalence based on a cut-off of 11.1 mmol/l underestimated the population prevalence based on a complete oral glucose tolerance test by 42% in males and 63% in females. At a cut-off level of 7.8 mmol/l the true age-standardised prevalence was underestimated by 16 and 38%, in males and females, respectively. The use of random plasma glucose concentrations to determine the prevalence of diabetes, as currently defined, seems inappropriate. Performing oral glucose tolerance tests on smaller representative population samples should provide more accurate data at less expense than through large-scale screening utilizing random glucose levels.

  2. The “Metabolic Syndrome” Is Less Useful than Random Plasma Glucose to Screen for Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    El Bassuoni, Eman A.; Ziemer, David C.; Kolm, Paul; Rhee, Mary K.; Vaccarino, Viola; Tsui, Circe W.; Kaufman, Jack M.; Osinski, G. Eileen; Koch, David D.; Venkat Narayan, K. M.; Weintraub, William S.; Phillips, Lawrence S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To compare the utility of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to random plasma glucose (RPG) in identifying people with diabetes or prediabetes. Methods RPG was measured and an OGTT was performed in 1,155 adults. Test performance was measured by are under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AROC). Results Diabetes was found in 5.1% and prediabetes in 20.0%. AROC for MetS with FPG was 0.80 to detect diabetes, and 0.76 for diabetes or prediabetes – similar to RPG (0.82 and 0.72). However, the AROC for MetS excluding fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was lower: 0.69 for diabetes (p<0.01 vs. both RPG and MetS with FPG), and 0.69 for diabetes or prediabetes. AROCs for MetS with FPG and RPG were comparable and higher for recognizing diabetes in blacks vs. whites, and females vs. males. MetS with FPG was superior to RPG for identifying diabetes only in subjects with age <40 or BMI <25. Conclusions MetS features can be used to identify risk of diabetes, but predictive usefulness is driven largely by FPG. Overall, to identify diabetes or prediabetes in blacks and whites with varying age and BMI, MetS is no better than RPG – a more convenient and less expensive test. PMID:18779039

  3. The effects of a nutraceutical combination on plasma lipids and glucose: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Matteo; Mannarino, Massimo Raffaele; Bianconi, Vanessa; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Bagaglia, Francesco; Mannarino, Elmo; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Positive effects of a nutraceutical combination comprising red yeast rice, berberine, policosanol, astaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and folic acid (NComb) on plasma lipid and glucose levels have been reported in some but not all clinical trials. To address this inconsistency, we tried to estimate the size of lipid- and glucose-lowering effects of NComb through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A systematic literature search in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of NComb on plasma lipids and glucose levels. Inverse variance-weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in lipid and glucose levels using a random-effects model. Random-effects meta-regression was performed to assess the effect of putative confounders on plasma lipid and glucose levels. Fourteen trials (1670 subjects in the NComb arm and 1489 subjects in the control arm) met the eligibility criteria for lipid analysis and 10 trials (1014 subjects in the NComb arm and 962 subjects in the control arm) for glucose analysis. Overall, WMDs were significant for the impact of NComb supplementation on plasma levels of total cholesterol (-26.15mg/dL, p<0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-23.85mg/dL, p<0.001), HDL-cholesterol (2.53mg/dL, p<0.001), triglycerides (-13.83mg/dL, p<0.001) and glucose (-2.59mg/dL, p=0.010). NComb-induced amelioration of lipid profile was not affected by duration of supplementation nor by baseline lipid levels; conversely, a greater glucose-lowering effect of NComb was found with higher baseline glucose levels and longer durations of supplementation. In conclusion, the present results suggest that NComb supplementation is associated with improvement of lipid and glucose profile. Short-term beneficial effects of

  4. Misled by the Morning "Fasting" Plasma Glucose.

    PubMed

    King, Allen B

    2015-11-01

    Because of its ease and simplicity of its measurement, the morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), has been as used a surrogate marker for the entire basal day when titrating once-nightly basal insulin. Common in obese insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes, late and large evening meals elevate the FPG. This has led to dosing of basal insulin well beyond the basal requirements and contributes to hypoglycemia and weight gain seen with this therapy. It is recommended that during basal insulin titration, the evening meal be limited and hypoglycemia be monitored early in the morning, that bewitching time when the "peakless" basal insulin's action is peaking and the predawn phenomenon insulin sensitivity is higher. PMID:25972281

  5. Evaluation of systematic and random factors in measurements of fasting plasma glucose as the basis for analytical quality specifications in the diagnosis of diabetes. 3. Impact of the new WHO and ADA recommendations on diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hyltoft Petersen, P; Brandslund, I; Jørgensen, L; Stahl, M; de Fine Olivarius, N; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2001-05-01

    On behalf of the Danish Society of Clinical Endocrinology and the Danish Society of Clinical Chemistry we were commissioned to evaluate the influence of analytical and pre-analytical systematic and random factors on the diagnosis of diabetes, in order to provide a tool for conclusions on the analytical quality specifications needed to diagnose diabetes. A systems analysis was performed in accordance with the principles for evaluation of analytical quality specifications. The clinical setting was defined--diagnosis of diabetes in accordance with the WHO and ADA criteria with determination of fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPG) > or =7.0 mmol/L in two independent samples--with well-documented data on In (loge)-Gaussian distribution of reference values from a low-risk population and values for within-subject biological variation taken from the literature. An investigation was made of the consequences for the clinical setting of assumed errors related to the measurement of FPG. Four approaches were investigated for a single sampling and measurement and also for two independent samples: one showing the percentage of healthy individuals who had values > or = 7.0 mmol/L, one illustrating the origin of biological set-points for results > or = 7.0 mmol/L, one showing the risk of being measured > or =7.0 mmol/L when the biological set-point is known, and one showing the combined bias and imprecision for assumed percentages of false-positive (FP), defined as measurements > or = 7.0 mmol/L for the low-risk population and false-negative (FN), defined as measurements <6.4 mmol/L (the upper reference limit) for diabetics. This leaves a "grey zone" which includes the upper part of low-risk individuals, and defined by ADA and WHO as "impaired fasting glucose" (IFG). In the analysis, increasing systematic and random errors (combined analytical and pre-analytical) were assumed, and for each error condition the fractions of FP and FN were calculated. This gave plots from which

  6. Plasma glucose kinetics and response of insulin and GIP following a cereal breakfast in female subjects: effect of starch digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Péronnet, F; Meynier, A; Sauvinet, V; Normand, S; Bourdon, E; Mignault, D; St-Pierre, D H; Laville, M; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Vinoy, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Foods with high contents of slowly digestible starch (SDS) elicit lower glycemic responses than foods with low contents of SDS but there has been debate on the underlying changes in plasma glucose kinetics, that is, respective contributions of the increase in the rates of appearance and disappearance of plasma glucose (RaT and RdT), and of the increase in the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) and decrease in endogenous glucose production (EGP). Subjects/Methods: Sixteen young healthy females ingested in random order four types of breakfasts: an extruded cereal (0.3% SDS: Lo-SDS breakfast) or one of three biscuits (39–45% SDS: Hi-SDS breakfasts). The flour in the cereal products was labeled with 13C, and plasma glucose kinetics were measured using [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion, along with the response of plasma glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. Results: When compared with the Lo-SDS breakfast, after the three Hi-SDS breakfasts, excursions in plasma glucose, the response of RaE, RaT and RdT, and the reduction in EGP were significantly lower (P<0.05). The amount of exogenous glucose absorbed over the 4.5-h postprandial period was also significantly lower by ~31% (P<0.001). These differences were associated with lower responses of GIP and insulin concentrations. Conclusions: Substituting extruded cereals with biscuits slows down the availability of glucose from the breakfast and its appearance in peripheral circulation, blunts the changes in plasma glucose kinetics and homeostasis, reduces excursions in plasma glucose, and possibly distributes the glucose ingested over a longer period following the meal. PMID:25852025

  7. Effects of fasting on plasma glucose and prolonged tracer measurement of hepatic glucose output in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Glauber, H.; Wallace, P.; Brechtel, G.

    1987-10-01

    We studied the measurement of hepatic glucose output (HGO) with prolonged (3-/sup 3/H)glucose infusion in 14 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Over the course of 10.5 h, plasma glucose concentration fell with fasting by one-third, from 234 +/- 21 to 152 +/- 12 mg/dl, and HGO fell from 2.35 +/- 0.18 to 1.36 +/- 0.07 mg . kg-1 . min-1 (P less than .001). In the basal state, HGO and glucose were significantly correlated (r = 0.68, P = .03), and in individual patients, HGO and glucose were closely correlated as both fell with fasting (mean r = 0.79, P less than .01). Plasma (3-/sup 3/H)glucose radioactivity approached a steady state only 5-6 h after initiation of the primed continuous infusion, and a 20% overestimate of HGO was demonstrated by not allowing sufficient time for tracer labeling of the glucose pool. Assumption of steady-state instead of non-steady-state kinetics in using Steele's equations to calculate glucose turnover resulted in a 9-24% overestimate of HGO. Stimulation of glycogenolysis by glucagon injection demonstrated no incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H)glucose in hepatic glycogen during the prolonged tracer infusion. In a separate study, plasma glucose was maintained at fasting levels (207 +/- 17 mg/dl) for 8 h with the glucose-clamp technique. Total glucose turnover rates remained constant during this prolonged tracer infusion. However, HGO fell to 30% of the basal value simply by maintaining fasting hyperglycemia in the presence of basal insulin levels.

  8. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  9. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  10. Sourdough-leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Mario; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Sanna, Manuela; Cherchi, Sara; Dettori, Mariella; Manca, Elena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Sourdough bread has been reported to improve glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. In this study postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were evaluated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had a meal containing sourdough bread leavened with lactobacilli, in comparison to a reference meal containing bread leavened with baker yeast. Sixteen IGT subjects (age range 52-75, average BMI 29.9 +/- 4.2 kg/ m2) were randomly given a meal containing sourdough bread (A) and a meal containing the reference bread (B) in two separate occasions at the beginning of the study and after 7 days. Sourdough bread was leavened for 8 h using a starter containing autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several bacilli able to produce a significant amount of D-and L-lactic acid, whereas the reference bread was leavened for 2 h with commercial baker yeast containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at time 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In IGT subjects sourdough bread induced a significantly lower plasma glucose response at 30 minutes (p = 0.048) and a smaller incremental area under curve (AUC) delta 0-30 and delta 0-60 min (p = 0.020 and 0.018 respectively) in comparison to the bread leavened with baker yeast. Plasma insulin response to this type of bread showed lower values at 30 min (p = 0.045) and a smaller AUC delta 0-30 min (p = 0.018). This study shows that in subjects with IGT glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after the consumption of sourdough bread are lower than after the bread leavened with baker yeast. This effect is likely due to the lactic acid produced during dough leavening as well as the reduced availability of simple carbohydrates. Thus, sour-dough bread may potentially be of benefit in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  11. Salacia Extract Improves Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Jeykodi, Shankaranarayanan; Deshpande, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to different doses of Salacia chinensis extract (200 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg SCE) capsules and compared with placebo. It is a placebo controlled randomized crossover design study. Subjects were given oral sucrose solution along with capsules and plasma glucose and insulin responses were analyzed. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after administration. AUC insulin significantly lowered after ingestion of SCE. No significant adverse events were observed. Reducing glucose and insulin is very important in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27803937

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-07-25

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  14. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans.Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations.Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations.Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  15. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Otto, Baerbel; Garcia, Ada L; Wagner, Karen; Mueller, Corinna; Weickert, Martin O; Heldwein, Walter; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre consumption is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary polyphenols have been suggested to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Recently, we reported that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (carob fibre) resulted in lower postprandial acylated ghrelin levels after a liquid meal challenge test compared with a control meal without supplementation. The effects may, however, differ when a different food matrix is used. Thus, we investigated the effects of carob fibre on glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses in healthy humans in combination with a glucose load. In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P < 0.001), and serum insulin by 19.9 and 24.8 % (P < 0.001), compared with the control. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations did not change significantly after the consumption of carob-enriched glucose solution. Total ghrelin decreased only after 10 g carob fibre (P < 0.001) compared with control. In conclusion, we showed that polyphenol-rich carob fibre, administered within a water-glucose solution, increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, suggesting a deterioration in glycaemic control.

  16. Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose and Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Libman, Ingrid M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Bartucci, Andrea; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego; Robertson, Robert; Arslanian, Silva

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether elevated fasting or 2-h plasma glucose and/or insulin better reflects the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers in an overweight pediatric population with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 151 overweight youths (8–17 years old) were evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and measurement of CVD risk factors. The study population was categorized according to quartiles of fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin levels. ANCOVA, adjusted for age, sex, race, Tanner stage, and percent body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), was used to compare metabolic variables between the quartiles of glucose and insulin groups. RESULTS Increasing quartiles of fasting and 2-h insulin were associated with increasing CVD risk factors. Glucose quartiles on the other hand, either fasting or at 2 h, were not. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may be the earliest and/or primary metabolic alteration in childhood associated with risk markers for CVD. Prospective studies are needed. PMID:21115769

  17. Whole Grain Products, Fish and Bilberries Alter Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Randomized, Controlled Trial: The Sysdimet Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Paananen, Jussi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Gylling, Helena; Uusitupa, Matti; Orešič, Matej

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, new dietary solutions are needed to help improve glucose and lipid metabolism in persons at high risk of developing the disease. Herein we investigated the effects of low-insulin-response grain products, fatty fish, and berries on glucose metabolism and plasma lipidomic profiles in persons with impaired glucose metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings Altogether 106 men and women with impaired glucose metabolism and with at least two other features of the metabolic syndrome were included in a 12-week parallel dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into three diet intervention groups: (1) whole grain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish three times a week, and bilberries three portions per day (HealthyDiet group), (2) Whole grain enriched diet (WGED) group, which includes principally the same grain products as group (1), but with no change in fish or berry consumption, and (3) refined wheat breads (Control). Oral glucose tolerance, plasma fatty acids and lipidomic profiles were measured before and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with the diets was good and the body weight remained constant. Within the HealthyDiet group two hour glucose concentration and area-under-the-curve for glucose decreased and plasma proportion of (n-3) long-chain PUFAs increased (False Discovery Rate p-values <0.05). Increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid associated curvilinearly with the improved insulin secretion and glucose disposal. Among the 364 characterized lipids, 25 changed significantly in the HealthyDiet group, including multiple triglycerides incorporating the long chain (n-3) PUFA. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a beneficial effect

  18. A comparison of fasting plasma glucose and glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Poomalar, G K; Rangaswamy, V

    2013-07-01

    Glucose challenge test (GCT) has been used as an effective screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), though it has its own limitations. Hence, we assessed the effectiveness of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a simpler alternative procedure. A prospective study was done in 500 pregnant women with gestational age between 22 and 37 weeks. FPG, GCT and GTT were performed in all patients using the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. The overall sensitivity and specificity of GCT were 75.0% and 92.0%, respectively and the corresponding values for FPG were 88.8% and 95.2%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 42.2% and 97.9% for GCT and 59.2% and 99.1% for FPG, respectively. We conclude that FPG can be used as an effective screening tool for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  19. Effects of 16-Week Consumption of Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Instant Coffee on Glucose Metabolism in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ohnaka, Keizo; Ikeda, Mizuko; Maki, Takako; Okada, Tomoko; Shimazoe, Takao; Adachi, Masahiro; Nomura, Masatoshi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kono, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Observational studies have shown a protective association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus whereas caffeine or caffeinated coffee acutely deteriorates glucose tolerance. We investigated the effects of chronic drinking of instant coffee on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Methods. Overweight men with a mild-to-moderate elevation of fasting plasma glucose were randomly allocated to a 16-week intervention of consuming 5 cups of caffeinated (n = 17) or decaffeinated (n = 15) instant coffee per day or no coffee (n = 13). Results. The caffeinated coffee group showed statistically significant decreases in the 2-hour concentrations and the area under the curve of glucose while neither decaffeinated coffee nor coffee group showed such a change. Waist circumstance decreased in the caffeinated coffee group, increased in the decaffeinated coffee group, and did not change in the noncoffee group (P = 0.002). With adjustment for the change in waist circumference, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption were associated with a modest decrease in the postload glucose levels. Conclusion. Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee may be protective against deterioration of glucose tolerance. PMID:23193459

  20. Risk Factors and Plasma Glucose Profile of Gestational Diabetes in Omani Women

    PubMed Central

    Chitme, Havagiray R; Al Shibli, Sumaiya Abdallah Said; Al-Shamiry, Raya Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to conduct a detailed study on the risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Omani women to determine the actual and applicable risk factors and glucose profile in this population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study using pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Pregnant women without GDM were used as a control group. We collected information related to age, family history, prior history of pregnancy complications, age of marriage, age of first pregnancy, fasting glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results from three hospitals in Oman through face-to-face interviews and hospital records. Results The median age of women with GDM was 33 years old (p < 0.050). A significant risk was noted in women with a history of diabetes (p < 0.001), and those with mothers’ with a history of GDM. A significant (p < 0.010) relationship with a likelihood ratio of 43.9 was observed between the incidence of GDM in women with five or six pregnancies, a history of > 3 deliveries, height < 155 cm, and pregnancy or marriage at age < 18 years (p < 0.010). The mean difference in random plasma glucose, one-hour OGTT, and two-hour OGTT was significantly higher in GDM cases compared to control. Conclusions Glucose profile, family history, anthropometric profile, and age of first pregnancy and marriage should be considered while screening for GDM and determining the care needs of Omani women with GDM.

  1. Risk Factors and Plasma Glucose Profile of Gestational Diabetes in Omani Women

    PubMed Central

    Chitme, Havagiray R; Al Shibli, Sumaiya Abdallah Said; Al-Shamiry, Raya Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to conduct a detailed study on the risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Omani women to determine the actual and applicable risk factors and glucose profile in this population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study using pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Pregnant women without GDM were used as a control group. We collected information related to age, family history, prior history of pregnancy complications, age of marriage, age of first pregnancy, fasting glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results from three hospitals in Oman through face-to-face interviews and hospital records. Results The median age of women with GDM was 33 years old (p < 0.050). A significant risk was noted in women with a history of diabetes (p < 0.001), and those with mothers’ with a history of GDM. A significant (p < 0.010) relationship with a likelihood ratio of 43.9 was observed between the incidence of GDM in women with five or six pregnancies, a history of > 3 deliveries, height < 155 cm, and pregnancy or marriage at age < 18 years (p < 0.010). The mean difference in random plasma glucose, one-hour OGTT, and two-hour OGTT was significantly higher in GDM cases compared to control. Conclusions Glucose profile, family history, anthropometric profile, and age of first pregnancy and marriage should be considered while screening for GDM and determining the care needs of Omani women with GDM. PMID:27602192

  2. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Methods Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. Results In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. Conclusions The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in

  3. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    PubMed Central

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  4. Effects of Cr methionine on glucose metabolism, plasma metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium in Mahabadi goat kids.

    PubMed

    Emami, A; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zali, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) on glucose metabolism, blood metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium (Cr) in Mahabadi goat kids. Thirty-two male kids (16.5 ± 2.8 kg BW, 4-5 months of age) were fed for 90 days in a completely randomized design with four treatments. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg Cr as Cr-Met/animal/daily. Blood samples were collected via heparin tubes from the jugular vein on 0, 21, 42, 63, and 90 days of experiment. On day 70, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted. At the end of the feeding trial, the kids were slaughtered, and the liver, kidney, and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected. Plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were decreased by Cr supplementation (P < 0.05). LD muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased, and plasma and tissue Cr contents increased with increasing supplemental Cr levels (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentrations at 30 and 60 min after glucose infusion were lower in the kids fed 1.5 mg Cr diet than the kids fed control diet (P < 0.05). The IVGTT indicated that the kids supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr had higher glucose clearance rate (K) and lower glucose half-life (T½; P < 0.05). Glucose area under the response curve (AUC) from 0 to 180 min after glucose infusion was decreased linearly (P < 0.01) by supplemental Cr. The results suggested that supplemental Cr may improve glucose utilization and lipid oxidation of meat in fattening kid.

  5. Dynamin 2 regulates biphasic insulin secretion and plasma glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Ji, Chen; Wu, Yumei; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H.; Lou, Xuelin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26413867

  6. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  7. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10–0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04–0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05–0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09–0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population. PMID:27385509

  8. Effect of nitrate supplementation on hepatic blood flow and glucose homeostasis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Anthony I; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Fulford, Jon; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Shore, Angela C; Gilchrist, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nitric oxide alters gastric blood flow, improves vascular function, and mediates glucose uptake within the intestines and skeletal muscle. Dietary nitrate, acting as a source of nitric oxide, appears to be a potential low-cost therapy that may help maintain glucose homeostasis. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 31 young and older adult participants had a standardized breakfast, supplemented with either nitrate-rich beetroot juice (11.91 mmol nitrate) or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as placebo (0.01 mmol nitrate). MRI was used to assess apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), portal vein flux, and velocity. Plasma glucose, incretin, and C-peptide concentrations and blood pressure were assessed. Outcome variables were measured at baseline and hourly for 3 h. Compared with a placebo, beetroot juice resulted in a significant elevation in plasma nitrate and plasma nitrite concentration. No differences were seen for the young or older adult cohorts between placebo and beetroot juice for ADC, or portal vein flux. There was an interaction effect in the young adults between visits for portal vein velocity. Nitrate supplementation did not reduce plasma glucose, active GLP-1, total GLP-1, or plasma C-peptide concentrations for the young or older adult cohorts. Despite a significant elevation in plasma nitrite concentration following an acute dose of (11.91 mmol) nitrate, there was no effect on hepatic blood flow, plasma glucose, C-peptide, or incretin concentration in healthy adults. PMID:27418682

  9. Alcohol, postprandial plasma glucose, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Yuta; Ishiguro, Haruya; Yoshizawa, Kai; Miyazaki, Tamihiro; Itagaki, Munenori; Sutoh, Satoshi; Aizawa, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify factors associated with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after initial therapy. METHODS: A total of 377 HCC patients who were newly treated at Katsushika Medical Center, Japan from January 2000 to December 2009 and followed up for > 2 years, or died during follow-up, were enrolled. The factors related to survival were first analyzed in 377 patients with HCC tumor stage T1-T4 using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A similar analysis was performed in 282 patients with tumor stage T1-T3. Additionally, factors associated with the period between initial and subsequent therapy were examined in 144 patients who did not show local recurrence. Finally, 214 HCC stage T1-T3 patients who died during the observation period were classified into four groups according to their alcohol consumption and postprandial glucose levels, and differences in their causes of death were examined. RESULTS: On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the following were significantly associated with survival: underlying liver disease stage [non-cirrhosis/Child-Pugh A vs B/C, hazard ratio (HR): 0.603, 95% CI: 0.417-0.874, P = 0.0079], HCC stage (T1/T2 vs T3/T4, HR: 0.447, 95% CI: 0.347-0.576, P < 0.0001), and mean postprandial plasma glucose after initial therapy (< 200 vs ≥ 200 mg/dL, HR: 0.181, 95% CI: 0.067-0.488, P = 0.0008). In T1-T3 patients, uninterrupted alcohol consumption after initial therapy (no vs yes, HR: 0.641, 95% CI: 0.469-0.877, P = 0.0055) was significant in addition to underlying liver disease stage (non-cirrhosis/Child-Pugh A vs B/C, HR: 0649, 95% CI: 0.476-0.885, P = 0.0068), HCC stage (T1 vs T2/T3, HR: 0.788, 95% CI: 0.653-0.945, P = 0.0108), and mean postprandial plasma glucose after initial therapy (< 200 mg/dL vs ≥ 200 mg/dL, HR: 0.502, 95% CI: 0.337-0.747, P = 0.0005). In patients without local recurrence, time from initial to subsequent therapy for newly emerging HCC was significantly longer in

  10. Glucose Metabolism Effects of Vitamin D in Prediabetes: The VitDmet Randomized Placebo-Controlled Supplementation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; de Mello, Vanessa D. F.; Schwab, Ursula; Hakumäki, Martti; Pulkki, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for vitamin D in type 2 diabetes prevention. We investigated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on glucose metabolism and inflammation in subjects with prediabetes. A 5-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with three arms (placebo, 40 μg/d, or 80 μg/d vitamin D3) was carried out among sixty-eight overweight (BMI 25–35) and aging (≥60 years) subjects from Finland, with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] < 75 nmol/L and either impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Analyses included 66 subjects who completed the trial. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test-derived indices and glycated hemoglobin. Inflammation was evaluated by high-sensitive C-reactive protein and five cytokines. Although a dose-dependent increase in serum 25(OH)D3 over the supplementation period was observed (P trend < 0.001), there were no other statistically significant differences in changes in the 13 glucose homeostasis indicators between the study groups other than increase in the 120 min glucose concentration (P trend = 0.021) and a decreasing trend both in 30 min plasma insulin (P trend = 0.030) and glycated hemoglobin (P trend = 0.024) concentrations. A borderline statistically significant decreasing trend in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentration was observed (P = 0.070). Vitamin D3 supplementation does not improve glucose metabolism in ageing subjects with prediabetes but may have modest anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26106626

  11. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  12. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice.

  13. Determining diabetes prevalence: a rational basis for the use of fasting plasma glucose concentrations?

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Zimmet, P Z; Alberti, K G

    1990-08-01

    The World Health Organization and the National Diabetes Data Group each recommend a diagnostic cut-off point for diabetes of 7.8 mmol l-1 for fasting plasma glucose concentrations as part of the diagnostic criteria for epidemiological studies. However, this cut-off has been shown to be insensitive compared with a screening test based on 2-h plasma glucose levels. In thirteen Pacific populations, from four ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Melanesian, Micronesian, and Polynesian), we have examined whether a different cut-off point for fasting plasma glucose would be more accurate for obtaining an estimate of the prevalence of diabetes when compared with 2-h levels. A fasting plasma glucose diagnostic cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 gave an estimate of prevalence not significantly different from that based on the 2-h plasma glucose in 12 of the 13 populations (mean difference 0.27, range -1.51 to +2.44,%). On the other hand, when a cut-off of 7.8 mmol l-1 for fasting plasma glucose was used, the resulting prevalence over-estimated the 2-h glucose prevalence in all populations (mean difference 1.91, range 0.14-5.80,%). Thus for Pacific populations, a fasting plasma glucose cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 provides estimates of prevalence that are equivalent to those based on 2-h plasma glucose levels. In epidemiological studies designed to estimate diabetes prevalence, we recommend use of a fasting plasma glucose cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 in preference to a detection level of 7.8 mmol l-1, if glucose loading is not possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Interaction between facilitated diffusion of glucose across the plasma membrane and its metabolism in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    ter Kuile, B H; Müller, M

    1993-06-01

    The parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis transports glucose across the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion. The Km of the transporter for glucose was 1.6 mM. The uptake of labelled glucose in a minimal medium not allowing growth reached saturation only after 2.5 h, indicating the turnover of storage carbohydrate. Organisms grown on glucose showed higher activities both of the transporter and of the subsequent metabolic pathway than organisms grown on maltose. At low external glucose concentrations the transport step was rate limiting, at higher levels a subsequent enzymatic step. The uptake mechanism for glucose of T. vaginalis resembled that of parasitic kinetoplastid protists and Entamoeba histolytica.

  15. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  16. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal. PMID:20018804

  17. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal.

  18. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations in the striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to intense handling stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wanshu

    1992-03-01

    The plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were determined in mature female striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to short term intense handling stress. The results indicated that plasma cortisol levels reached a peak 20 min after stress and declined gradually afterwards. The highest concentration of plasma glucose was observed 30 min after stress. The present study showed that the rise of plasma glucose was associated with the plasma cortisol levels.

  19. Modification of a traditional breakfast leads to increased satiety along with attenuated plasma increments of glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in humans.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Höglund, Peter; Roth, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan

    2016-04-01

    Our hypothesis was that carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of meals affect satiety, glucose homeostasis, and hormone secretion. The objectives of this crossover trial were to examine satiety, glycemic-insulinemic response, and plasma peptide levels in response to 2 different recommended diabetes diets with equivalent energy content. One traditional reference breakfast and one test breakfast, with lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content, were randomly administered to healthy volunteers (8 men, 12 women). Blood samples were collected, and satiety was scored on a visual analog scale before and 3 hours after meals. Plasma glucose was measured, and levels of C-peptide, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and adipokines were analyzed by Luminex. Greater satiety, visual analog scale, and total and delta area under the curve (P < .001), and lower glucose postprandial peak (max) and change from baseline (dmax; P < .001) were observed after test meal compared with reference meal. Postprandial increments of C-peptide, insulin, and GIP were suppressed after test meal compared with reference meal (total delta area under the curve [P = .03, .006, and .004], delta area under the curve [P = .006, .003, and .02], max [P = .01, .007, and .002], and dmax [P = .004, .008, and .007], respectively). Concentrations of other peptides were similar between meals. A lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content provides greater satiety and attenuation of C-peptide, glucose, insulin, and GIP responses compared with the reference breakfast but does not affect adipokines, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. PMID:27001281

  20. Mechanisms Regulating Insulin Response to Intragastric Glucose in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Cajacob, Lucian; Riva, Daniele; Herzog, Raphael; Drewe, Juergen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives The changes in blood glucose concentrations that result from an oral glucose challenge are dependent on the rate of gastric emptying, the rate of glucose absorption and the rate of insulin-driven metabolism that include the incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The rate of insulin-driven metabolism is clearly altered in obese subjects, but it is controversial which of these factors is predominant. We aimed to quantify gastric emptying, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and glucose responses, as well as incretin hormone secretions in obese subjects and healthy controls during increasing glucose loads. Subjects/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial in a hospital research unit. A total of 12 normal weight (6 men and 6 women) and 12 non-diabetic obese (BMI > 30, 6 men and 6 women) participants took part in the study. Subjects received intragastric loads of 10 g, 25 g and 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml tap water. Results Main outcome measures were plasma GLP-1 and GIP, plasma glucagon, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and gastric emptying. The primary findings are: i) insulin resistance (P < 0.001) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001); ii) decreased insulin disposal (P < 0.001); iii) trend for reduced GLP-1 responses at 75 g glucose; and iv) increased fasting glucagon levels (P < 0.001) in obese subjects. Conclusions It seems that, rather than changes in incretin secretion, fasting hyperglucagonemia and consequent hyperglycemia play a role in reduced disposal of insulin, contributing to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01875575 PMID:26942445

  1. Plasma volume expansion from the intravenous glucose tolerance test before and after hip replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperosmotic glucose is injected intravenously when an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) is initiated. The extent and time period of plasma volume expansion that occurs in response to the glucose load has not been studied in the perioperative setting. Methods Twenty-two non-diabetic patients aged between 57 and 76 years (mean 68) underwent an IVGTT, during which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% (1 ml/kg) was injected as a bolus over one minute, one day before and two days after hip replacement surgery. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 minutes from each patient. The turnover of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume was calculated by means of mass balance and volume kinetic analysis. Results The IVGTT raised plasma glucose by 9 mmol/L and the plasma volume by 8%. The extracellular fluid volume increased by 320 (SD 60) ml of which 2/3 could be accounted for in the plasma. The half-life of the exogenous glucose averaged 30 minutes before surgery and 36 minutes postoperatively (P < 0.02). The glucose elimination governed 86% of the decay of the plasma volume expansion, which occurred with a half-life of 12 minutes before to 21 minutes after the surgery (median, P < 0.001). Conclusion Hyperosmotic glucose translocated intracellular water to the plasma volume rather than to the entire extracellular fluid volume. The preferential re-distribution acts to dilute the plasma concentrations used to quantify insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function from an IVGTT. The greater-than-expected plasma dilution lasted longer after than before surgery. PMID:23978219

  2. Block versus Random Amphiphilic Glycopolymer Nanopaticles as Glucose-Responsive Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qianqian; Zhang, Tianqi; An, Jinxia; Wu, Zhongming; Zhao, Yu; Dai, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xinge; Li, Chaoxing

    2015-10-12

    To explore the effect of polymer structure on their self-assembled aggregates and their unique characteristics, this study was devoted to developing a series of amphiphilic block and random phenylboronic acid-based glycopolymers by RAFT polymerization. The amphiphilic glycopolymers were successfully self-assembled into spherically shaped nanoparticles with narrow size distribution in aqueous solution. For block and random copolymers with similar monomer compositions, block copolymer nanoparticles exhibited a more regular transmittance change with the increasing glucose level, while a more evident variation of size and quicker decreasing tendency in I/I0 behavior in different glucose media were observed for random copolymer nanoparticles. Cell viability of all the polymer nanoparticles investigated by MTT assay was higher than 80%, indicating that both block and random copolymers had good cytocompatibility. Insulin could be encapsulated into both nanoparticles, and insulin release rate for random glycopolymer was slightly quicker than that for the block ones. We speculate that different chain conformations between block and random glycopolymers play an important role in self-assembled nanoaggregates and underlying glucose-sensitive behavior. PMID:26397308

  3. Rapid rehydration and moderate plasma glucose elevation by fluid containing enzymatically synthesized glycogen.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Kei; Ishihara, Kengo; Ishida, Mariko; Watanabe, Ai; Fujiwara, Mika; Komatsu, Yuko; Shirai, Mika; Kato, Yoshiho; Takanezawa, Ami; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Seyama, Yousuke

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) has high solubility and its solution has low osmotic pressure. Therefore ESG solution could be rapidly absorbed and could be adequate for water rehydration and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The object of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying time and plasma glucose elevation after an administration of ESG solution in comparison with another carbohydrate solution by using a laboratory animal. Male BALB/c mice were administered 10% w/v solution of glucose, maltodextrin, starch, naturally synthesized glycogen (NSG) and ESG at a dose of 20 µL/g body weight for the measurement of gastric emptying rate (Experiment 1) and 10 µL/g body weight for the measurement of plasma glucose elevation (Experiment 2). The osmolarity of gastric content was lower in the ESG and maltodextrin group than the other carbohydrate group. Weight of gastric fluid was significantly lower in the ESG and water group than the glucose group (p<0.01). Plasma glucose level was significantly lower in the ESG group than the glucose group from 0 to 60 min after administration (p<0.01), whereas plasma glucose level was same from 60 to 120 min for the ESG and glucose group (p=0.948). In Experiment 3, BALB/c mice ran on a treadmill for 2 h and were administered 8% of ESG or glucose solution (1.75, 3.5 or 7.0 µL/g body weight) every 20 min during running. There was no difference in post-exercise muscle glycogen level. These data suggest that 1) ESG beverage does not disturb water absorption because of its short gastric emptying time and 2) ESG slowly elevates plasma glucose level and maintains it for a prolonged time compared to the glucose solution.

  4. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice. PMID:26472183

  5. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  6. Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices.

    PubMed

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Wattimena, J L Darcos; Rietveld, Trinet; van Miert, Joram N I; Sijbrands, Eric J G; de Rooij, Felix W M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.69, P < 0.01), S I (Cau r = -0.51, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.41, P < 0.01), Φ dynamic (Cau r = -0.41, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.57, P < 0.01), and Φ oral (Cau r = -0.61, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.73, P < 0.01). Urinary C-peptide corresponded well to plasma C-peptide AUC (Cau r = 0.45, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion (r = 0.42, P < 0.01). In general, glucose excretion plasma threshold for the presence of glucose in urine was ~10-10.5 mmol L(-1) in non-T2D individuals, but not measurable in T2D individuals. Renal glucose secretion during OGTT did not influence OMM indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0-2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83-0.98; SA 0.75-0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose homeostasis using plasma glucose concentrations. Both C

  7. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  8. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  9. EVOLUTION OF FAST MAGNETOACOUSTIC PULSES IN RANDOMLY STRUCTURED CORONAL PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D.; Li, B.; Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Keppens, R. E-mail: bbl@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of fast magnetoacoustic pulses in randomly structured plasmas, in the context of large-scale propagating waves in the solar atmosphere. We perform one-dimensional numerical simulations of fast wave pulses propagating perpendicular to a constant magnetic field in a low-β plasma with a random density profile across the field. Both linear and nonlinear regimes are considered. We study how the evolution of the pulse amplitude and width depends on their initial values and the parameters of the random structuring. Acting as a dispersive medium, a randomly structured plasma causes amplitude attenuation and width broadening of the fast wave pulses. After the passage of the main pulse, secondary propagating and standing fast waves appear. Width evolution of both linear and nonlinear pulses can be well approximated by linear functions; however, narrow pulses may have zero or negative broadening. This arises because narrow pulses are prone to splitting, while broad pulses usually deviate less from their initial Gaussian shape and form ripple structures on top of the main pulse. Linear pulses decay at an almost constant rate, while nonlinear pulses decay exponentially. A pulse interacts most efficiently with a random medium with a correlation length of about half of the initial pulse width. This detailed model of fast wave pulses propagating in highly structured media substantiates the interpretation of EIT waves as fast magnetoacoustic waves. Evolution of a fast pulse provides us with a novel method to diagnose the sub-resolution filamentation of the solar atmosphere.

  10. Glycaemia regulates the glucose transporter number in the plasma membrane of rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrakoudis, D; Ramlal, T; Rastogi, S; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1992-01-01

    The number of glucose transporters was measured in isolated membranes from diabetic-rat skeletal muscle to determine the role of circulating blood glucose levels in the control of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Three experimental groups of animals were investigated in the post-absorptive state: normoglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic, hyperglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic made normoglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic by phlorizin treatment. Hyperglycaemia caused a reversible decrease in total transporter number, as measured by cytochalasin B binding, in both plasma membranes and internal membranes of skeletal muscle. Changes in GLUT4 glucose transporter protein mirrored changes in cytochalasin B binding in plasma membranes. However, there was no recovery of GLUT4 levels in intracellular membranes with correction of glycaemia. GLUT4 mRNA levels decreased with hyperglycaemia and recovered only partially with correction of glycaemia. Conversely, GLUT1 glucose transporters were only detectable in the plasma membranes; the levels of this protein varied directly with glycaemia, i.e. in the opposite direction to GLUT4 glucose transporters. This study demonstrates that hyperglycaemia, in the absence of hypoinsulinaemia, is capable of down-regulating the glucose transport system in skeletal muscle, the major site of peripheral resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose transport in diabetes. Furthermore, correction of hyperglycaemia causes a complete restoration of the transport system in the basal state (determined by the transporter number in the plasma membrane), but possibly only an incomplete recovery of the transport system's ability to respond to insulin (since there is no recovery of GLUT4 levels in the intracellular membrane insulin-responsive transporter pool). Finally, the effect of hyperglycaemia is specific for glucose transporter isoforms, with GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins varying respectively in parallel and opposite directions to levels of

  11. Evaluation of the serum fructosamine test to monitor plasma glucose concentration in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Sorondo, María L; Cirio, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    The usefulness of the serum fructosamine (Fser) to monitor the retrospective glucose concentrations in transitional dairy cows (n=17) was evaluated. In weekly blood samples (3 weeks before to 5 weeks after calving) concentrations of plasma glucose and serum fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) and total proteins were determined. The observed Fser concentrations (271+/-55 mean value, range 152-423 mumol/l) were within the range reported in the literature, and showed a progressive and significant decrease after calving. Mean plasma glucose concentration was 60.6+/-5.0 (range 39.9-82.2) mg/dl increasing from week 3 before calving to the week of calving and then decreasing during the next 5 weeks of lactation. This decrease was coincident with inverse relationships between plasma glucose and milk yield (P=0.03) and serum beta OHB (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis performed between serum fructosamine and (a) plasma glucose concentration of the same sampling and (b) plasma glucose concentration of 1, 2 and 3 weeks preceding the sampling, did not show significant and systematizing positive correlations. Persistent hypoproteinaemias that could affect the fructosamine concentrations were not found: mean value and range of serum proteins was 6.3+/-1.0 and 4.8-7.8 g/dl, respectively, and no correlation was found between serum proteins and Fser (P=0.26). Results did not support the possibility of retrospective monitoring of the plasma glucose concentration by serum fructosamine in dairy cows in the transition period.

  12. Higher fasting plasma glucose is associated with striatal and hippocampal shape differences: the 2sweet project

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianqi; Shaw, Marnie; Humphries, Jacob; Sachdev, Perminder; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have demonstrated associations between higher normal fasting plasma glucose levels (NFG) (<6.1 mmol/L), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hippocampal atrophy and other cerebral abnormalities. Little is known about the association between plasma glucose and the striatum despite sensorimotor deficits being implicated in T2D. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma glucose levels and striatal and hippocampal morphology using vertex-based shape analysis. Design A population-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia. Participants 287 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age 63 years, 132 female, 273 Caucasian) with (n=261) or without T2D (n=26), selected from 2551 participants taking part in the Personality & Total Health (PATH) Through Life study by availability of glucose data, MRI scan, and absence of gross brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment. Outcome measures Fasting plasma glucose was measured at first assessment, and MRI images were collected 8 years later. Shape differences indicating outward and inward deformation at the hippocampus and the striatum were examined with FMRIB Software Library-Integrated Registration and Segmentation Toolbox (FSL-FIRST) after controlling for sociodemographic and health variables. Results Higher plasma glucose was associated with shape differences indicating inward deformation, particularly at the caudate and putamen, among participants with NFG after controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, smoking and depressive symptoms. Those with T2D showed shape differences indicating inward deformation at the right hippocampus and bilateral striatum, but outward deformation at the left hippocampus, compared with participants with NFG. Conclusions These findings further emphasize the importance of early monitoring and management of plasma glucose levels, even within the normal range, as a risk factor for cerebral atrophy. PMID

  13. Plasma glucose responses in recreational divers with insulin-requiring diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dear, G de L; Pollock, N W; Uguccioni, D M; Dovenbarger, J; Feinglos, M N; Moon, R E

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (IRDM) is commonly described as an absolute contraindication to scuba diving. A 1993 Divers Alert Network survey, however, identified many active IRDM divers. We report on the plasma glucose response to recreational diving in IRDM divers. Plasma glucose values were collected before and after diving in IRDM and healthy control divers. Time/depth profiles of 555 dives in IRDM divers were recorded. IRDM divers had been diving for a mean of almost nine years and had diabetes for a mean of over 15 years. No symptoms or complications related to hypoglycemia were reported (or observed). Post-dive plasma glucose fell below 70 mg x dL(-1) in 7% (37/555) of the IRDM group dives compared to 1% (6/504) of the controls (p<0.05). Moderate levels of hyperglycemia were also noted in 23 divers with IRDM on 84 occasions. While large plasma glucose swings from pre-dive to post-dive were noted, our observations indicate that plasma glucose levels, in moderately-controlled IRDM, can be managed to avoid hypoglycemia during routine recreational dives under ordinary environmental conditions and low risk decompression profiles.

  14. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  15. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  16. Real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitor measurements.

    PubMed

    de Pereda, Diego; Romero-Vivo, Sergio; Ricarte, Beatriz; Rossetti, Paolo; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bondia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitors can measure interstitial glucose concentration in real time for closed-loop glucose control systems, known as artificial pancreas. These control systems use an insulin feedback to maintain plasma glucose concentration within a narrow and safe range, and thus to avoid health complications. As it is not possible to measure plasma insulin concentration in real time, insulin models have been used in literature to estimate them. Nevertheless, the significant inter- and intra-patient variability of insulin absorption jeopardizes the accuracy of these estimations. In order to reduce these limitations, our objective is to perform a real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Hovorka's glucose-insulin model has been incorporated in an extended Kalman filter in which different selected time-variant model parameters have been considered as extended states. The observability of the original Hovorka's model and of several extended models has been evaluated by their Lie derivatives. We have evaluated this methodology with an in-silico study with 100 patients with Type 1 diabetes during 25 h. Furthermore, it has been also validated using clinical data from 12 insulin pump patients with Type 1 diabetes who underwent four mixed meal studies. Real-time insulin estimations have been compared to plasma insulin measurements to assess performance showing the validity of the methodology here used in comparison with that formerly used for insulin models. Hence, real-time estimations for plasma insulin concentration based on subcutaneous glucose monitoring can be beneficial for increasing the efficiency of control algorithms for the artificial pancreas. PMID:26343364

  17. Influence of Acarbose on Plasma Glucose Fluctuations in Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-fei; Xu, Xiao-hua; Fu, Li-yuan; Su, Xiao-fei; Wu, Jin-dan; Lu, Chun-feng; Ye, Lei; Ma, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. To evaluate the effect of adding acarbose on glycemic excursions measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) already on insulin therapy. Materials and Methods. This was an opened and unblended study. 134 patients with T2DM were recruited. After initial rapidly corrected hyperglycaemia by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for 7 d, a 4–6-day premixed insulin titration period subsequently followed. Patients were then randomized 1 : 1 to acarbose plus insulin group or insulin therapy group for 2 weeks. CGMS was used to measure glucose fluctuations for at least 3 days after therapy cessation. Results. Patients in acarbose plus insulin group achieved a significant improvement of MAGE compared to that of insulin therapy only group (5.56 ± 2.16 versus 7.50 ± 3.28 mmol/L, P = 0.044), accompanied by a significant decrease in the incremental AUC of plasma glucose concentration above 10.0 mmol/L (0.5 [0.03, 0.9] versus 0.85 [0.23,1.4]  mmol/L per day, P = 0.037). Conclusions. Add-on acarbose to insulin therapy further improves glucose fluctuation in patients with T2DM. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registration number ChiCTR-TRC-11001218. PMID:26640487

  18. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/l). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the "diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control.

    PubMed

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched (from inception to November 25, 2015) to identify RCTs evaluating the effect of magnesium on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used to compensate for the heterogeneity of studies. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression assessments were conducted using standard methods. The impact of magnesium supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, and HOMA-IR index was assessed in 22, 14, 12 and 10 treatment arms, respectively. A significant effect of magnesium supplementation was observed on HOMA-IR index (WMD: -0.67, 95% CI: -1.20, -0.14, p=0.013) but not on plasma glucose (WMD: -0.20mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.45, 0.05, p=0.119), HbA1c (WMD: 0.018mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.13, p=0.756), and insulin (WMD: -2.22mmol/L, 95% CI: -9.62, 5.17, p=0.556). A subgroup analysis comparing magnesium supplementation durations of <4 months versus ≥4 months, exhibited a significant difference for fasting glucose concentrations (p<0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.001) in favor of the latter subgroup. Magnesium supplementation for ≥4 months significantly improves the HOMA-IR index and fasting glucose, in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The present findings suggest that magnesium may be a beneficial supplement in glucose metabolic disorders. PMID:27329332

  20. Interrelations between cerebrospinal fluid and plasma inorganic ions and glucose in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Pye, I F; Aber, G M

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of inorganic ions and glucose in the plasma and CSF of 11 patients with "steady-state" chronic renal failure have been measured and their CSF: plasma interrelations studied. The results have been compared with the corresponding data from 34 control subjects. In the patients with renal failure, there was a positive correlation between raised CSF and plasma potassium concentrations. In contrast to the impaired potassium homeostasis, normal CSF magnesium and calcium concentrations were observed despite wide variations in the plasma concentrations of these ions. PMID:7085915

  1. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Marlene Coelho; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Bárbara Gastal Borges; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Silveira, Rita C.; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight ≤1,500 g and/or gestational age ≤32 weeks. METHODS: A masked, randomized clinical trial for one dose of 1 ml of oral 25% glucose solution 2 minutes before the first ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was conducted between March 2008 and April 2010. The results were compared to those of a control group that did not receive oral glucose solution. Pain was evaluated using a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale immediately before and immediately after the ophthalmologic examination in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00648687 RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients who were examined for the first time for retinopathy of prematurity were included. Seventy were included in the intervention group and 54 in the control group. The number of patients with pain immediately before the procedure was similar in both groups. The number of patients with pain after ophthalmologic examination was 15.7% in the intervention group and 68.5% in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One ml of oral 25% glucose solution given 2 minutes before an ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was an effective measure for pain relief. PMID:23525316

  2. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  3. Music and 25% glucose pain relief for the premature infant: a randomized clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Farias, Leiliane Martins; de Melo, Gleicia Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the total Premature Infant Pain Profile scores of premature infants undergoing arterial puncture during music and 25% glucose interventions, and to assess their association with neonatal and therapeutic variables. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial with 80 premature infants; 24 in the Experimental Group 1 (music), 33 in the Experimental Group 2 (music and 25% glucose), 23 in the Positive Control Group (25% glucose). All premature infants were videotaped and a lullaby was played for ten minutes before puncture in Experimental Groups 1 and 2; 25% glucose administered in Experimental Group 2 and the Positive Control Group two minutes before puncture. RESULTS: 60.0% of premature infants had moderate or maximum pain; pain scores and intervention groups were not statistically significant. Statistically significant variables: Experimental Group 1: head and chest circumference, Apgar scores, corrected gestational age; Experimental Group 2: chest circumference, Apgar scores, oxygen therapy; Positive Control group: birth weight, head circumference. CONCLUSION: neonatal variables are associated with pain in premature infants. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: UTN: U1111-1123-4821. PMID:25493677

  4. Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose Metabolism and Lipids: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. A systematic review of the effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipid levels. Research Design and Methods. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau. Eligible studies were English language randomized controlled trials of chromium ...

  5. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew A.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A.; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  6. The Unscented Kalman Filter estimates the plasma insulin from glucose measurement.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Claudia; Ament, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the simultaneous interaction within the glucose and insulin homeostasis in real-time is very important for clinical treatment as well as for research issues. Until now only plasma glucose concentrations can be measured in real-time. To support a secure, effective and rapid treatment e.g. of diabetes a real-time estimation of plasma insulin would be of great value. A novel approach using an Unscented Kalman Filter that provides an estimate of the current plasma insulin concentration is presented, which operates on the measurement of the plasma glucose and Bergman's Minimal Model of the glucose insulin homeostasis. We can prove that process observability is obtained in this case. Hence, a successful estimator design is possible. Since the process is nonlinear we have to consider estimates that are not normally distributed. The symmetric Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) will perform best compared to other estimator approaches as the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), the simplex Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), and the Particle Filter (PF). The symmetric UKF algorithm is applied to the plasma insulin estimation. It shows better results compared to the direct (open loop) estimation that uses a model of the insulin subsystem.

  7. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (p<0.05) in group A, whereas the FPG, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides were found significantly increased (p<0.05). Group B registered a significant fall (p<0.05) in BMI as well as blood pressure. Fall in FPG level after guava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicating that guava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  8. A Mendelian Randomization Study of Plasma Homocysteine and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Yang; Li, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Zhong-Qian; Teng, Zhi-Mei; Hu, Dao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies have demonstrated an association between elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level and risk of multiple myeloma (MM). However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to evaluate whether genetically increased Hcy level influences the risk of MM. We used the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism as an instrumental variable, which affects the plasma Hcy levels. Estimate of its effect on plasma Hcy level was based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 44,147 individuals, while estimate of its effect on MM risk was obtained through meta-analysis of case-control studies with 2,092 cases and 4,954 controls. By combining these two estimates, we found that per one standard-deviation (SD) increase in natural log-transformed plasma Hcy levels conferred a 2.67-fold increase in risk for MM (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–6.38; P = 2.7 × 10−2). Our study suggests that elevated Hcy levels are causally associated with an increased risk of developing MM. Whether Hcy-lowering therapy can prevent MM merits further investigation in long-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PMID:27126524

  9. GLUCOSE REGULATION IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS (GRASP) TRIAL A RANDOMIZED PILOT TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Karen C; Hall, Christiana E; Kissela, Brett M; Bleck, Thomas P; Conaway, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia is associated with worse outcome in acute stroke patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter, 3 arm trial [tight control (target 70 – 110 mg/dL), loose control (target 70 – 200 mg/dL), and control usual care (70 – 300 mg/dL)] to assess the feasibility and safety of two insulin infusion protocol targets in acute ischemic stroke patients. The planned sample was 72 subjects. Results A total of 74 subjects were enrolled. Seventy two (97%) had data available for the primary analyses and 73 (99%) had three month clinical outcome data. Median age was 67 years, median NIHSS score was 8, median glucose was 163 mg/dL and median time to randomization was 10. 7 hours. Fifty-nine percent of patients were diabetic, 35% received thrombolysis, and 14% of subjects died within 3 months. The loose control and usual care groups had median glucose concentrations of 151 mg/dL. The tight control group had a median glucose concentration of 111 mg/dL. The loose control group spent 90% of the first 24 hours in target and the tight group 44% of time in target. There was only 1 symptomatic hypoglycemic patient in the loose control group (4%) and 0 in the tight control group. The overall rates of hypoglycemia (<55 mg/dL) were 4% in control, 4% in loose and 30% in tight. Exploratory efficacy analysis was conducted. Conclusions Insulin infusion for acute ischemic stroke patients is feasible and safe using the insulin infusion protocol in the GRASP trial. Exploratory efficacy analysis supports further comparative study. PMID:19834016

  10. Secondary Fast Magnetoacoustic Waves Trapped in Randomly Structured Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ding; Li, Bo; Walsh, Robert W.

    2016-09-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves are an important tool for inferring parameters of the solar atmosphere. We numerically simulate the propagation of fast wave pulses in randomly structured plasmas that mimic the highly inhomogeneous solar corona. A network of secondary waves is formed by a series of partial reflections and transmissions. These secondary waves exhibit quasi-periodicities in both time and space. Since the temporal and spatial periods are related simply through the speed of the fast wave, we quantify the properties of secondary waves by examining the dependence of the average temporal period (\\bar{p}) on the initial pulse width (w 0) and studying the density contrast ({δ }ρ ) and correlation length (L c ) that characterize the randomness of the equilibrium density profiles. For small-amplitude pulses, {δ }ρ does not alter \\bar{p} significantly. Large-amplitude pulses, on the other hand, enhance the density contrast when {δ }ρ is small but have a smoothing effect when {δ }ρ is sufficiently large. We found that \\bar{p} scales linearly with L c and that the scaling factor is larger for a narrower pulse. However, in terms of the absolute values of \\bar{p}, broader pulses generate secondary waves with longer periods, and this effect is stronger in random plasmas with shorter correlation lengths. Secondary waves carry the signatures of both the leading wave pulse and the background plasma. Our study may find applications in magnetohydrodynamic seismology by exploiting the secondary waves detected in the dimming regions after coronal mass ejections or extreme ultraviolet waves.

  11. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. Plasma insulin concentrations peaked at 10 min post-exercise and the increase between this time of recovery and the end of the warm-up was also significantly higher in women than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  12. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Donald R.; Galassetti, Pietro R.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ∼100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects. PMID:21467303

  13. Changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels induced by bradykinin in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Damas, Jacques; Hallet, Claude; Lefebvre, Pierre J

    2001-01-01

    The influence of bradykinin (BK) on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels was investigated in anaesthetized rats. Blood glucose level was dose-dependently increased by intravenous infusion of BK. This effect of BK was enhanced by captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), a kinin B1 receptor agonist, did not modify blood glucose levels while the effect of BK was inhibited by Hoe-140, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist. The effect of BK was reduced by the NO-synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. The effect of BK was suppressed by the association of propranolol with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine. It was also reduced by hexamethonium, a ganglion-blocking drug. In adrenalectomized rats, the infusion of BK slightly decreased blood glucose levels. The hyperglycaemic effect of adrenaline was suppressed by propranolol associated with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine, but it was not modified by L-NAME. Infusion of BK did not modify plasma insulin levels. However, after phentolamine and propranolol, BK induced a transient 2 fold rise in plasma insulin levels. The release of insulin was dose-dependent and inhibited by Hoe-140. We conclude that infusion of BK induces, via a stimulation of B2 receptors, the release of NO and of prostanoids. The latter agents activate through a reflex pathway the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. This release increases blood glucose levels and reduces plasma insulin levels. After adrenoceptor inhibition, BK induces a secretion of insulin, via the stimulation of B2 receptors. PMID:11704652

  14. Mechanism of glucose and maltose transport in plasma-membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, P J; van Gompel, A E; Luttik, M A; Pronk, J T; van Leeuwen, C C

    1997-01-01

    Transport of glucose and maltose was studied in plasma-membrane vesicles from Candida utilis. The yeast was grown on a mixture of glucose and maltose in aerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures which enabled transport to be studied for both sugars with the same vesicles. Vesicles were prepared by fusion of isolated plasma membranes with proteoliposomes containing bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive-force-generating system. Addition of reduced cytochrome c generated a proton-motive force, consisting of a membrane potential, negative inside, and a pH gradient, alkaline inside. Energization led to accumulation of glucose and maltose in these vesicles, reaching accumulation ratios of about 40-50. Accumulation also occurred in the presence of valinomycin or nigericin, but was prevented by a combination of the two ionophores or by uncoupler, showing that glucose and maltose transport are dependent on the proton-motive force. Comparison of sugar accumulation with quantitative data on the proton-motive force indicated a 1:1 H+/sugar stoichiometry for both transport systems. Efflux of accumulated glucose was observed on dissipation of the proton-motive force. Exchange and counterflow experiments confirmed the reversible character of the H+-glucose symporter. In contrast, uncoupler or a mixture of valinomycin plus nigericin induced only a slow efflux of accumulated maltose. Moreover under counterflow conditions, the expected transient accumulation was small. Thus the H+-maltose symporter has some characteristics of a carrier that is not readily reversible. It is concluded that in C. utilis the transport systems for glucose and maltose are both driven by the proton-motive force, but the mechanisms are different. PMID:9020885

  15. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16. PMID:26723190

  16. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16.

  17. Taste-induced changes in plasma insulin and glucose turnover in lean and genetically obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, E; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Proietto, J; Rivest, R W; Jeanrenaud, B

    1988-06-01

    Cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR) and the changes in glucose turnover induced by saccharin ingestion were studied in freely moving lean and genetically obese fa/fa rats equipped with chronic catheters for blood sampling. Six-hour-fasted lean and obese rats were trained to drink 1 ml sodium saccharin (0.15%) or 1 ml glucose (70%), and blood samples were taken before and after the stimuli. As early as 1-1.5 min poststimulus, there was a significant increase in CPIR in lean and obese rats. The amplitude of the CPIR induced either by saccharin or by glucose in the obese rats was significantly higher than it was in the lean rats. The effect of saccharin ingestion on the hepatic glucose production (HGP) and the rate of glucose disappearance (Rd) was studied in 6-h-fasted lean and obese rats, under non-steady-state conditions, according to a method previously validated. Saccharin ingestion produced a significant increase in HGP and Rd in lean and obese rats compared with basal values. The saccharin-induced increments in HGP and Rd were higher in the obese than in the lean animals. We conclude that saccharin (through taste) appears to elicit parasympathetic (insulin release) and sympathetic (HGP increase) reflexes in lean and obese rats. These taste-induced changes in plasma insulin and glucose turnover are exaggerated in the obese rats and may participate in obesity and in insulin resistance of the overall syndrome.

  18. The validation of the Z-Scan technique for the determination of plasma glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Sarah I.; Silva, Elaine A. O.; Costa, Simone S.; Sonego, Denise R. N.; Hallack, Maira L.; Coppini, Ornela L.; Rowies, Fernanda; Azzalis, Ligia A.; Junqueira, Virginia B. C.; Pereira, Edimar C.; Rocha, Katya C.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Glucose is the main energy source for the human body. The concentration of blood glucose is regulated by several hormones including both antagonists: insulin and glucagon. The quantification of glucose in the blood is used for diagnosing metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, such as diabetes, idiopathic hypoglycemia and pancreatic diseases. Currently, the methodology used for this determination is the enzymatic colorimetric with spectrophotometric. This study aimed to validate the use of measurements of nonlinear optical properties of plasma glucose via the Z-Scan technique. For this we used samples of calibrator patterns that simulate commercial samples of patients (ELITech ©). Besides calibrators, serum glucose levels within acceptable reference values (normal control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) and also overestimated (pathological control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) were used in the methodology proposal. Calibrator dilutions were performed and determined by the Z-Scan technique for the preparation of calibration curve. In conclusion, Z-Scan method can be used to determinate glucose levels in biological samples with enzymatic colorimetric reaction and also to apply the same quality control parameters used in biochemistry clinical.

  19. Associations between plasma glucose and DSM-III-R cluster B personality traits in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, P; Mattila-Evenden, M; Gustavsson, P J; Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Asberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Associations between personality traits, measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Impulsiveness subscale from the Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness and Empathy (IVE) Inventory, and with self-assessed personality traits and disorders (SCID-II Screen Questionnaire), and plasma insulin, glucagon and glucose, respectively, were explored in a sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients of both sexes. No relationships between the peptide hormones and personality measures were found. However, fasting glucose values, which were all essentially within the normal biological variation, were significantly related to several personality measures. For males, a low blood glucose was associated with low stable general level of functioning, with high IVE Impulsiveness, and with self-assessed histrionic and narcissistic traits. High number of self-assessed personality traits for all cluster B personality disorders was strongly associated with high IVE Impulsiveness. The results of the present study support the generalizability of earlier findings from alcoholic impulsive offenders: in males, low blood glucose is associated with an extrovert and impulsive, acting-out behavior that includes the breaking of societal norms and rules. In contrast, for females a positive relationship between fasting glucose and self-assessed histrionic personality traits was found. Because no association between global level of functioning and glucose was found in women, these personality traits may not necessarily be maladaptive, as was the case for males.

  20. Mediation of beta-endorphin by the isoflavone puerarin to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wang-Chuan; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Su, Hui-Chen; Liu, I-Min; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2004-02-01

    We investigate the mechanism(s) of plasma glucose lowering action of puerarin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Puerarin at the effective dosage to lower higher plasma glucose increased plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) in STZ-diabetic rats. Both effects of puerarin were abolished by the pretreatment with prazosin. Also, puerarin enhanced BER release from isolated rat adrenal medulla in a concentration-dependent manner that can be abolished by prazosin. Moreover, bilateral adrenalectomy in STZ-diabetic rats eliminated the actions of puerarin including the plasma glucose lowering effect and plasma BER elevating effect. In addition, naloxone and naloxonazine inhibited the plasma glucose lowering action of puerarin. Unlike in wild-type diabetic mice, puerarin failed to lower the plasma glucose in opioid micro-receptor knockout diabetic mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that puerarin may activate alpha (1)-adrenoceptors on the adrenal gland to enhance the secretion of beta-endorphin to result in a decrease of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats.

  1. Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-07

    Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.

  2. Glucose-induced activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Brandão, R L; Castro, I M; Passos, J B; Nicoli, J R; Thevelein, J M

    1992-08-01

    Addition of glucose and other sugars to derepressed cells of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum var. lini triggered activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase within 5 min. Glucose was the best activator while galactose and lactose had a lesser effect. The activation was not prevented by previous addition of cycloheximide and it was fully reversible when the glucose was removed. The activation process in vivo also caused changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The non-activated enzyme had an apparent Km of about 3.2 mM for ATP whereas the activated enzyme showed an apparent Km of 0.26 mM. In addition, the pH optimum of the H(+)-ATPase changed from 6.0 to 7.5 upon activation. The activated enzyme was more sensitive to inhibition by vanadate. When F. oxysporum was cultivated in media containing glucose as the major carbon source, enhanced H(+)-ATPase activity was largely confined to the period corresponding to the lag phase, i.e. just before the start of acidification of the medium. This suggests that the activation process might play a role in the onset of extracellular acidification. Addition of glucose to F. oxysporum var. lini cells also caused an increase in the cAMP level. No reliable increase could be demonstrated for the other sugars. Addition of proton ionophores such as DNP and CCCP at pH 5.0 caused both a large increase in the intracellular level of cAMP and in the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Inhibition of the DNP-induced increase in the cAMP level by acridine orange also resulted in inhibition of the activation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Postnatal Stress in Mice: Effects on Body Fat, Plasma Lipids, Glucose and Insulin.

    PubMed

    d'Amore, A; Caiola, S; Maroccia, E; Loizzo, A

    2000-01-01

    Mice pups were exposed to stressful stimuli everyday during the first 3 weeks of life. Body weight, food intake and spontaneous locomotor activity, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, glucose and insulin basal levels, as well as epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume were measured in stressed and control animals. Results indicated that postnatal stressful manipulations induced an increase in body weight, epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume, as well as in insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels, at 4 months of age. No significant changes in food consumption, locomotor activity and phospholipids plasma levels were found. Present data suggest that early stressful manipulations may induce residual effects on lipid and glucid metabolism. PMID:27414054

  4. Spectral analysis of time functions of plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin during intravenous glucose tolerance testing on atherosclerosis and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinov, Igor A.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Brook, Sergey B.

    2000-04-01

    The time functions of plasma glucose and insulin obtained during intravenous glucose tolerance test were approximated by sections of Fourier series. The convincing quantitative and quality distinctions of amplitudes both phases of the first and second harmonics of decomposition of the indicated time functions are obtained. These distinctions were used as a basis of diagnostic algorithm of metabolic violations appropriate for atherosclerosis and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in clinically obvious and preclinical stages.

  5. Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma of euthyroid subjects.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Tatár, P; Angyal, R; Strec, V; Aksamitová, K; Vigas, M; Jánosová, H

    1987-05-01

    The effect of sauna on thyroid function parameters and its modification by glucose was studied in young euthyroid male volunteers. A 30-minute stay in sauna resulted in an increase in plasma TSH; the response was exaggerated if glycemia had been increased by oral glucose intake at the beginning of the experiment. Plasma rT3 also increased in sauna, this response was, however, blunted by the higher glycemia. TSH response to sauna was definitely present in young men (aged 20 to 25) and absent in middle-aged ones (50 to 55). To explore the mechanism of the effect of increased glycemia, TRH tests were performed and dopamine infusions were administered with and without glucose pretreatment. Increased glycemia did not affect TSH and T3 response to TRH in young volunteers; however, 90 minutes after the administration, plasma rT3 levels were significantly lower in glucose pretreated subjects than in those receiving TRH injections after water pretreatment. Simultaneous infusion of glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of dopamine infusion on plasma TSH. It was concluded that glucose directly modulates the effect of sauna on plasma TSH at a suprapituitary level, while the inhibiting effect of glucose on plasma rT3 response to sauna and TRH is probably mediated by the insulin effect on thyroid hormone metabolism. PMID:3106755

  6. Simultaneous quantification of labeled (2)H5-glycerol, (13)C6-glucose, and endogenous D-glucose in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring the level of glucose and glycerol or their labeled derivatives in biological fluid for kinetic studies has always been challenging, especially in mice, because of the limited volume in addition to the complexity of plasma. For such application, we developed a simple, fast, and sensitive method for the simultaneous measurement of absolute concentrations of labeled (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose as well as endogenous D-glucose using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In our study, 15.0 μL of mouse plasma was processed by a one-step protein precipitation, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The quantification of the analytes was carried out by monitoring the product ion scan of their corresponding deprotonated molecular ions and constructing the extracted ion fragmentogram by choosing a specific product ion for each analyte (equivalent to precursor ion to product ion transitions). The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated to be 1.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was observed to be 5.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose in diluted mice plasma that corresponds to 50 μM in plasma or 4.60 and 9.01 mg/dL of glycerol and glucose in plasma, respectively. The extraction recoveries are 81.9 % (CV = 8.1 %) for (2)H5-glycerol and 26.2 % (CV = 13.6 %) for (13)C6-glucose. PMID:26362155

  7. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  8. Glucose ameliorates the metabolic profile and mitochondrial function of platelet concentrates during storage in autologous plasma

    PubMed Central

    Amorini, Angela M.; Tuttobene, Michele; Tomasello, Flora M.; Biazzo, Filomena; Gullotta, Stefano; De Pinto, Vito; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background It is essential that the quality of platelet metabolism and function remains high during storage in order to ensure the clinical effectiveness of a platelet transfusion. New storage conditions and additives are constantly evaluated in order to achieve this. Using glucose as a substrate is controversial because of its potential connection with increased lactate production and decreased pH, both parameters triggering the platelet lesion during storage. Materials and methods In this study, we analysed the morphological status and metabolic profile of platelets stored for various periods in autologous plasma enriched with increasing glucose concentrations (13.75, 27.5 and 55 mM). After 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP), oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid), lactate, pH, mitochondrial function, cell lysis and morphology, were evaluated. Results The data showed a significant dose-dependent improvement of the different parameters in platelets stored with increasing glucose, compared to what detected in controls. Interestingly, this phenomenon was more marked at the highest level of glucose tested and in the period of time generally used for platelet transfusion (0–6 days). Conclusion These results indicate that the addition of glucose during platelet storage ameliorates, in a dose-dependent manner, the biochemical parameters related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Since there was no correspondence between glucose addition, lactate increase and pH decrease in our experiments, it is conceivable that platelet derangement during storage is not directly caused by glucose through an increase of anaerobic glycolysis, but rather to a loss of mitochondrial functions caused by reduced substrate availability. PMID:22682337

  9. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase plasma glucose via reactive oxygen species-induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Wang, Changlin; Ma, Xiao; He, Hongjuan; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2015-10-01

    There have been few reports about the possible toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles on the endocrine system. We explored the endocrine effects of oral administration to mice of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 64 and 320 mg kg(-1) body weight per day to control, low-dose and high-dose groups, respectively, 7 days per week for 14 weeks). TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and their physiological distribution was investigated by inductively coupled plasma. Biochemical analyzes included plasma glucose, insulin, heart blood triglycerides (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related markers (total SOD, GSH and MDA). Phosphorylation of IRS1, Akt, JNK1, and p38 MAPK were analyzed by western blotting. Increased titanium levels were found in the liver, spleen, small intestine, kidney and pancreas. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose significantly increased whereas there was no difference in plasma insulin secretion. Increased ROS levels were found in serum and the liver, as evidenced by reduced total SOD activity and GSH level and increased MDA content. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles induced insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver, shown by increased phosphorylation of IRS1 (Ser307) and reduced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473). The pathway by which TiO2 nanoparticles increase ROS-induced IR were included in the inflammatory response and phosphokinase, as shown by increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased phosphorylation of JNK1 and p38 MAPK in liver. These results show that oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles increases ROS, resulting in IR and increasing plasma glucose in mice.

  10. Mediation of Endogenous β-endorphin by Tetrandrine to Lower Plasma Glucose in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The role of β-endorphin in the plasma glucose-lowering action of tetrandrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats) was investigated. The plasma glucose concentration was assessed by the glucose oxidase method. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the plasma level of β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER). The mRNA levels of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT4) in soleus muscle and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats were detected by Northern blotting analysis. The expressed protein of GLUT4 or PEPCK was characterized by Western blotting analysis. Tetrandrine dose-dependently increased plasma BER in a manner parallel to the decrease of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats. Moreover, the plasma glucose-lowering effect of tetrandrine was inhibited by naloxone and naloxonazine at doses sufficient to block opioid μ-receptors. Further, tetrandrine failed to produce plasma glucose-lowering action in opioid μ-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Bilateral adrenalectomy eliminated the plasma glucose-lowering effect and plasma BER-elevating effect of tetrandrine in STZ-diabetic rats. Both effects were abolished by treatment with hexamethonium or pentolinium at doses sufficient to block nicotinic receptors. Tetrandrine enhanced BER release directly from the isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-diabetic rats and this action was abolished by the blockade of nicotinic receptors. Repeated intravenous administration of tetrandrine (1.0 mg/kg) to STZ-diabetic rats for 3 days resulted in an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of the GLUT4 in soleus muscle, in addition to the lowering of plasma glucose. Similar treatment with tetrandrine reversed the elevated mRNA and protein levels of PEPCK in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats. The obtained results suggest that tetrandrine may induce the activation of nicotinic receptors in adrenal medulla to enhance the secretion of β-endorphin, which could

  11. Effects of 2-, 4- and 12-hour fasting intervals on preoperative gastric fluid pH and volume, and plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis in children.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, N; Mikawa, K; Yaku, H; Nishina, K; Obara, H

    1993-11-01

    We evaluated 105 randomly-selected unpremedicated children aged 1-14 years to determine the effects of a 2-, 4- and 12-h preoperative fasting interval on the preoperative gastric fluid pH and volume, and plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis. Each child undergoing elective surgery ingested a large volume (approximately 10 ml/kg b.w.) of apple juice and then fasted for 2, 4 or 12 h before the estimated induction of anaesthesia. After induction of anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through a large-bore, multiorifice orogastric tube. Plasma concentrations of glucose, total ketone bodies, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triglycerides, and cortisol were measured at the time of induction to evaluate the fasting interval effects on preoperative plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis. There were no significant differences between the three groups in either gastric fluid volume or pH. In addition, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the proportion with a pH < 2.5 and volume > 0.4 ml/kg b.w. Neither plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, nor cortisol at the time of anaesthetic induction differed between the three groups. Both 4 and 12 h nil per os (NPO) caused an increase in lipolysis, which was presumably a compensatory mechanism to maintain normoglycaemia. The plasma NEFA and total ketone bodies concentrations were therefore significantly higher in these two fasting intervals than in 2 h NPO. These data suggest that a 2-h NPO, after a large volume of ingested apple juice, may offer additional benefits by preventing an increase in lipolysis during the fasting interval without either increasing the volume of gastric fluid or decreasing the gastric pH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of an Intensive Behavior Education Program in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Women Designed to Improve Glucose Levels on the 2-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Durnwald, Celeste P; Kallan, Michael J; Allison, Kelly C; Sammel, Mary D; Wisch, Susan; Elovitz, Michal; Parry, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    Objective To evaluate whether women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) enrolled in an intensive behavior education program (IBEP) demonstrate lower mean fasting glucose levels on the 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2-hour OGTT) at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum compared with women who undergo routine GDM management. Study Design A prospective randomized controlled trial of women diagnosed with GDM was conducted. Exclusion criteria were GDM diagnosis ≥ 33 weeks or < 20 weeks. Women were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: (1) routine GDM management or (2) an IBEP. Women underwent a 2-hour OGTT at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. Fisher exact test, t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used as appropriate. Results Of the 101 women randomized, 49 were assigned to IBEP and 52 received routine GDM management. There was no difference in mean fasting and 2-hour glucose levels on the postpartum 2-hour OGTT between the IBEP and routine management group (88.5 ± 22.9 mg/dL vs. 85.2 ± 13.3 mg/dL, p = 0.49 and 109.8 ± 38.5 mg/dL vs. 109.4 ± 40.8 mg/dL, p = 0.97, respectively). Conclusion GDM women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle intervention program did not demonstrate lower glucose values on the postpartum 2-hour OGTT.

  13. Plasma glucose response and glycemic indices in pigs fed diets differing in in vitro hydrolysis indices.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, G; Gallo, A; Masoero, F

    2012-07-01

    Different dietary starch sources can have a great impact in determining starch digestion potential, thus influencing the postprandial blood glucose response. Our objectives were to define: (i) the incremental plasma glucose response in pigs fed diets containing various sources of starch differing in in vitro digestion patterns, (ii) the in vivo glycemic index (GI) values for the same diets, (iii) the possible relationship between in vitro and in vivo data. Diets, formulated with 70% of starch from five heterogeneous sources, were characterized in depth by using two distinct in vitro evaluations. The first one was based on the Englyst-assay for nutritional classification of starch fractions, whereas the second one was based on a time-course multi-enzymatic assay up to 180 min from which the hydrolysis indices (HIs) were calculated and used as a link between the physicochemical properties of starch from diets and the in vivo responses. For the in vivo study, five jugular-catheterized pigs (35.3 ± 1.1 kg body weight) were fed one of the five diets for 6-day periods in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. On day 5, blood was collected for 8 h postprandially for evaluating glucose appearance. On day 6, blood was collected for 3 h postprandially for the estimation of the GI. Starchy diets differed for rapidly digestible starch (from 8.6% to 79.8% of total starch (TS)) and resistant starch contents (from 72.5% to 4.5% of TS). Wide between-diets variations were recorded for all the kinetic parameters and for the HI calculated from the in vitro digestion curves (P < 0.05). On the basis of the obtained HI, diets contained starch with a very low to a very high in vitro digestion potential (ranging from 26.7% to 100.0%; P < 0.05). The glucose response differed among diets (P < 0.05), with marked differences between 15 and 120 min postprandial. Overall, the ranking of incremental glucose appearance among diets agreed with their in vitro HI classification: high HI diets increased

  14. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  15. Effect of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kwon-Il; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Yeo, Jiyoung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice and their age-matched lean non-diabetic db/+ mice. Both db/+ and db/db mice were fed with or without curcumin (0.02%, wt/wt) for 6 wks. Curcumin significantly lowered blood glucose and HbA 1c levels, and it suppressed body weight loss in db/db mice. Curcumin improved homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and elevated the plasma insulin level in db/db mice. Hepatic glucokinase activity was significantly higher in the curcumin-supplemented db/db group than in the db/db group, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities were significantly lower. In db/db mice, curcumin significantly lowered the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase, beta-oxidation, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase, and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase. Curcumin significantly lowered plasma free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations and increased the hepatic glycogen and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase in db/db mice. Curcumin normalized erythrocyte and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthathione peroxidase) in db/db mice that resulted in a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. However, curcumin showed no effect on the blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose regulating enzyme activities in db/+ mice. These results suggest that curcumin seemed to be a potential glucose-lowering agent and antioxidant in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, but had no affect in non-diabetic db/+ mice.

  16. Pharmacodynamic Effects of Canagliflozin, a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, from a Randomized Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Sue; Devineni, Damayanthi; Ghosh, Atalanta; Polidori, David; Hompesch, Marcus; Arnolds, Sabine; Morrow, Linda; Spitzer, Heike; Demarest, Keith; Rothenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending-dose study evaluated the pharmacodynamic effects and safety/tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients (N = 116) discontinued their antihyperglycemic medications 2 weeks before randomization. Patients received canagliflozin 30, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily or 300 mg twice daily, or placebo at 2 study centers in the United States and Germany, or canagliflozin 30 mg once daily or placebo at 1 study center in Korea, while maintaining an isocaloric diet for 2 weeks. On Days –1, 1, and 16, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), plasma glucose (PG), fasting PG (FPG), and insulin were measured. The renal threshold for glucose (RTG) was calculated from UGE, PG, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Safety was evaluated based on adverse event (AE) reports, vital signs, electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory tests, and physical examinations. Results Canagliflozin increased UGE dose-dependently (∼80–120 g/day with canagliflozin ≥100 mg), with increases maintained over the 14-day dosing period with each dose. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased RTG, with maximal reductions to ∼4–5 mM (72–90 mg/dL). Canagliflozin also reduced FPG and 24-hour mean PG; glucose reductions were seen on Day 1 and maintained over 2 weeks. Plasma insulin reductions with canagliflozin were consistent with observed PG reductions. Canagliflozin also reduced body weight. AEs were transient, mild to moderate in intensity, and balanced across groups; 1 canagliflozin-treated female reported an episode of vaginal candidiasis. Canagliflozin did not cause hypoglycemia, consistent with the RTG values remaining above the hypoglycemia threshold. At Day 16, there were no clinically meaningful changes in urine volume, urine electrolyte excretion, renal function, or routine laboratory test values. Conclusions

  17. An acute bout of whole body passive hyperthermia increases plasma leptin, but does not alter glucose or insulin responses in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Crandall, Craig G; Hooper, Philip L; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic hyperthermic treatments in diabetic animal models repeatedly improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute 1h bout of hyperthermic treatment improves glucose, insulin, and leptin responses to an oral glucose challenge (OGTT) in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy humans. Nine obese (45±7.1% fat mass) type 2 diabetics (T2DM: 50.1±12y, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) absent of insulin therapy and nine similar aged (41.1±13.7y) healthy non-obese controls (HC: 33.4±7.8% fat mass, P<0.01; 5.3±0.4% HbA1c, P<0.01) participated. Using a randomized design, subjects underwent either a whole body passive hyperthermia treatment via head-out hot water immersion (1h resting in 39.4±0.4°C water) that increased internal temperature above baseline by ∆1.6±0.4°C or a control resting condition. Twenty-four hours post treatments, a 75g OGTT was administered to evaluate changes in plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and leptin concentrations. Hyperthermia itself did not alter area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide during the OGTT in either group. Fasting absolute and normalized (kg·fat mass) plasma leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01) only after the hyperthermic exposure by 17% in T2DM and 24% in HC groups (P<0.001) when compared to the control condition. These data indicate that an acute hyperthermic treatment does not improve glucose tolerance 24h post treatment in moderate metabolic controlled obese T2DM or HC individuals. PMID:27264884

  18. The Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Post-Partum Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance in Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Majid; Piri, Zahra; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Kamali, Koorosh; Amir Moghadami, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in many observational studies. Objectives We report the first study of the impact of prenatal vitamin D supplementation on postpartum dysglycemia in GDM patients in a randomized clinical trial. Patients and Methods Women with GDM at 12 - 32 weeks of gestation were assigned randomly to either the intervention group (in which serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25OHD] levels were measured immediately, n = 48) or the control group (in which the serum was stored and assayed at 6 - 12 weeks post-partum, n = 48). Participants with initial serum 25OHD < 30 ng/mL in the intervention group were instructed to take a total of 700,000 IU vitamin D3 during pregnancy. The primary outcomes were fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, 2-h post 75 g glucose load plasma glucose (2-hPLG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HbA1C, and 25 OHD at 6 - 12 weeks after delivery. Results The mean ± SD of serum 25OHD in the intervention group raised dramatically from 14.6 ± 6.3 to 32.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL, whereas no significant change occurred in the control group (from 17.7 ± 6.1 to 19.3 ± 9.6 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Thirteen participants developed dysglycemia in each group. Mean FPG, 2-hPLG, and HOMA-IR were not significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups for maternal and neonatal outcomes. Conclusions Although the high vitamin D supplementation dose in the present study (compared to the 400 IU/day dose usually recommended for pregnancy) safely increases the serum 25OHD, in GDM cases, the higher dose does not affect the plasma glucose level or insulin resistance at short term follow-up after delivery. PMID:27679649

  19. Liver glycogen in type 2 diabetic mice is randomly branched as enlarged aggregates with blunted glucose release.

    PubMed

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Ye, Ji-Ming; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2016-02-01

    Glycogen is a vital highly branched polymer of glucose that is essential for blood glucose homeostasis. In this article, the structure of liver glycogen from mice is investigated with respect to size distributions, degradation kinetics, and branching structure, complemented by a comparison of normal and diabetic liver glycogen. This is done to screen for differences that may result from disease. Glycogen α-particle (diameter ∼ 150 nm) and β-particle (diameter ∼ 25 nm) size distributions are reported, along with in vitro γ-amylase degradation experiments, and a small angle X-ray scattering analysis of mouse β-particles. Type 2 diabetic liver glycogen upon extraction was found to be present as large loosely bound, aggregates, not present in normal livers. Liver glycogen was found to aggregate in vitro over a period of 20 h, and particle size is shown to be related to rate of glucose release, allowing a structure-function relationship to be inferred for the tissue specific distribution of particle types. Application of branching theories to small angle X-ray scattering data for mouse β-particles revealed these particles to be randomly branched polymers, not fractal polymers. Together, this article shows that type 2 diabetic liver glycogen is present as large aggregates in mice, which may contribute to the inflexibility of interconversion between glucose and glycogen in type 2 diabetes, and further that glycogen particles are randomly branched with a size that is related to the rate of glucose release.

  20. Liver glycogen in type 2 diabetic mice is randomly branched as enlarged aggregates with blunted glucose release.

    PubMed

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Ye, Ji-Ming; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2016-02-01

    Glycogen is a vital highly branched polymer of glucose that is essential for blood glucose homeostasis. In this article, the structure of liver glycogen from mice is investigated with respect to size distributions, degradation kinetics, and branching structure, complemented by a comparison of normal and diabetic liver glycogen. This is done to screen for differences that may result from disease. Glycogen α-particle (diameter ∼ 150 nm) and β-particle (diameter ∼ 25 nm) size distributions are reported, along with in vitro γ-amylase degradation experiments, and a small angle X-ray scattering analysis of mouse β-particles. Type 2 diabetic liver glycogen upon extraction was found to be present as large loosely bound, aggregates, not present in normal livers. Liver glycogen was found to aggregate in vitro over a period of 20 h, and particle size is shown to be related to rate of glucose release, allowing a structure-function relationship to be inferred for the tissue specific distribution of particle types. Application of branching theories to small angle X-ray scattering data for mouse β-particles revealed these particles to be randomly branched polymers, not fractal polymers. Together, this article shows that type 2 diabetic liver glycogen is present as large aggregates in mice, which may contribute to the inflexibility of interconversion between glucose and glycogen in type 2 diabetes, and further that glycogen particles are randomly branched with a size that is related to the rate of glucose release. PMID:26521055

  1. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  2. Plasma glucose, lactate, sodium, and potassium levels in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tõnisson, Mailis; Tillmann, Vallo; Kuudeberg, Anne; Väli, Marika

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our research was to study prevalence of changes in plasma levels of lactate, potassium, glucose, and sodium in relation to alcohol concentration in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Data from 194 under 18-year-old children hospitalized to the two only children's hospital in Estonia over a 2-year period were analyzed. The pediatrician on call filled in a special form on the clinical symptoms of AAI; a blood sample was drawn for biochemical tests, and a urine sample taken to exclude narcotic intoxication. The most common finding was hyperlactinemia occurring in 66% of the patients (n=128) followed by hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) in 50% (n=97), and glucose above of reference value (>6.1 mmol/L) in 40.2% of the children (n=78). Hypernatremia was present in five children. In conclusion, hyperlactinemia, hypokalemia, and glucose levels above of reference value are common biochemical findings in children hospitalized with acute AAI. PMID:20846615

  3. Multilayer film analysis for glucose in 1-microL samples of plasma.

    PubMed

    Neeley, W E; Zettner, A

    1983-12-01

    With the ultramicroanalytical system described here we can measure glucose in 1 microL of plasma or serum. The sample is placed on a dry, multilayer film element (Eastman Kodak), where a colored spot about 3.5 mm in diameter develops. The reflectance of these spots is measured with a reflectance digital matrix photometer that was conceived, designed, and constructed in our laboratory. The spot is illuminated with monochromatic light and its image is projected by a camera lens onto the photosensitive surface of a linear photodiode array containing 512 individual photodetectors. The photodetector signals are processed by a computer to obtain the reflectance and diameter of the spot. The latter is proportional to sample volume. Because the reflectance of the spot does not depend greatly on sample volume, accurate pipetting is not required. The coefficients of variation of repeatable glucose analyses were, for 400, 3000, and 5120 mg/L, 1.7, 2.3, and 2.8%, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between glucose analyses by our method (y) and with the Ektachem 400 (x) was 0.9918; the regression equation was y = 1.07x - 94.3 mg/L. PMID:6640910

  4. One-Hour Postload Plasma Glucose Levels Are Associated with Kidney Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Lugarà, Marina; Grembiale, Alessandro; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Caruso, Vittoria; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Perticone, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: A cutoff of 155 mg/dl for 1-hour postload plasma glucose (1hPG) during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify patients who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes and vascular atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine whether individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl are also at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Atherosclerosis risk factors, OGTT, and estimated GFR by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation were analyzed in 1075 white individuals without diabetes. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 1hPG was the highest (0.700) compared with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0, 30-minute, and 2-hour glucose concentrations. Individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl had a worse cardiometabolic risk profile, exhibiting significantly higher body mass index, BP, triglycerides, and fasting insulin levels and lower HDL, IGF-1 levels, and insulin sensitivity, than individuals with 1hPG <155 mg/dl. Estimated GFR was significantly lower in individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age and gender, individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl showed an increased risk for CKD compared with individuals with 1hPG <155 mg/dl. When the logistic regression analysis was restricted to individuals who had normal glucose tolerance, those with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl showed a higher risk for CKD compared with individuals with 1hPG <155 mg/dl. Conclusions: These data suggest that a cutoff point of 155 mg/dl for the 1hPG during OGTT may be helpful in the identification of individuals who are at increased risk for CKD. PMID:20595688

  5. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bertato, Marina P; Oliveira, Carolina P; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L; Lerario, Antonio C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE) labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and 3H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the 3H-free- cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in atherogenic

  6. Effects of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 selective inhibitor, ipragliflozin, on the diurnal profile of plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: A study using continuous glucose monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hitomi; Yoshinobu, Satoko; Kawano, Seiko; Tsuruta, Munehisa; Nohara, Masayuki; Hasuo, Rika; Akasu, Shoko; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Wada, Nobuhiko; Hirao, Saori; Iwata, Shinpei; Kaku, Hiroo; Tajiri, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To assess the effects of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor therapy on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods We administered ipragliflozin to 21 inpatients with type 2 diabetes for 7 days, and analyzed the diurnal profiles of plasma glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. A total of 21 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched diabetic patients served as controls. Results Continuous glucose monitoring showed that the 24-h glucose curve was shifted downward without hypoglycemia by the administration of ipragliflozin. The average glucose level was reduced from 182 ± 54 mg/dL to 141 ± 33 mg/dL (P < 0.0001). The magnitude of the reduction was highly correlated with the baseline average glucose level. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was decreased, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was increased during the treatment. Urinary glucose excretion was correlated with the average glucose level both on day 0 and on day 7, although the regression line was steeper and shifted leftward on day 7. The ipragliflozin-treated patients lost more weight than the control patients (1.4 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.6 kg, P < 0.0001). Plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate were significantly increased with peaks before breakfast and before dinner. Patient age and bodyweight loss were negatively and positively correlated with the peak levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate on day 7, respectively. Conclusions The ipragliflozin treatment improved the 24-h glucose curve without causing hypoglycemia. The close correlation between the magnitude of glucose reduction and the baseline plasma glucose concentration suggests that the risk of hypoglycemia is likely low. It might be prudent to monitor ketone body levels in younger patients and in patients with rapid weight loss. PMID:26543545

  7. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles.

    PubMed

    Yokogoshi, H; Roberts, C H; Caballero, B; Wurtman, R J

    1984-07-01

    Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanylmethyl ester; 200 mg/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and tyrosine, and enhanced the increments caused by the aspartame, nearly doubling the rise in brain phenylalanine. Each animal's brain phenylalanine or tyrosine levels were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.99, respectively) with its plasma phenylalanine or tyrosine ratios, affirming that aspartame's effects on the brain amino acids result from the changes it produces in plasma composition. As described previously, glucose consumption increased brain tryptophan levels, and consequently, brain levels of the 5-hydroxyindoles serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Aspartame alone had no effect on these compounds but completely blocked the changes in 5-hydroxyindoles caused by glucose. Each animal's brain level of tryptophan (r = 0.89) and 5-hydroxyindoles (r = 0.74) was also significantly correlated with its plasma tryptophan ratio, affirming that the effects of glucose or aspartame on these brain constituents also result from the changes they produce in plasma composition. The aspartame-glucose combination also reduced brain levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to a significantly greater extent than aspartame or glucose alone. These observations indicate that high aspartame doses can generate major neurochemical changes in rats, especially when consumed along with carbohydrate-containing foods. However, they should not in any way be interpreted as demonstrating that aspartame significantly affects the human brain.

  9. Temporal effects of infused corticosterone and aldosterone on plasma glucose levels in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Broughton, R E; deRoos, R

    1984-02-01

    The effects of a single infusion of corticosterone or aldosterone on plasma glucose levels were compared in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The corticoids were administered, and serial blood samples were collected, via a cannula placed in the common iliac artery. Plasma glucose was estimated by the glucose oxidase method. Plasma glucose levels were essentially unchanged from the time-zero levels at 3 hr after the infusion of 1.0 mg/100 g body wt of corticosterone. The levels subsequently increased to maxima that were approximately 45% greater than the time-zero levels at 9 through 24 hr and then declined to approximately the initial levels by 48 hr after treatment. Infusion of 0.24 mg/100 g body wt of aldosterone did not significantly alter plasma glucose levels. The results suggest that elevated circulating corticosterone is not involved in the primary hyperglycemic response to a stress, but may function synergistically and sequentially with elevated circulating catecholamines in subsequent compensatory adjustments.

  10. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF BEAM–PLASMA INTERACTION IN RANDOMLY INHOMOGENEOUS PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Voshchepynets, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Artemyev, A.; Volokitin, A.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new model that describes beam–plasma interaction in the presence of random density fluctuations with a known probability distribution. We use the property that, for the given frequency, the probability distribution of the density fluctuations uniquely determines the probability distribution of the phase velocity of waves. We present the system as discrete and consisting of small, equal spatial intervals with a linear density profile. This approach allows one to estimate variations in wave energy density and particle velocity, depending on the density gradient on any small spatial interval. Because the characteristic time for the evolution of the electron distribution function and the wave energy is much longer than the time required for a single wave–particle resonant interaction over a small interval, we determine the description for the relaxation process in terms of averaged quantities. We derive a system of equations, similar to the quasi-linear approximation, with the conventional velocity diffusion coefficient D and the wave growth rate γ replaced by the average in phase space, by making use of the probability distribution for phase velocities and by assuming that the interaction in each interval is independent of previous interactions. Functions D and γ are completely determined by the distribution function for the amplitudes of the fluctuations. For the Gaussian distribution of the density fluctuations, we show that the relaxation process is determined by the ratio of beam velocity to plasma thermal velocity, the dispersion of the fluctuations, and the width of the beam in the velocity space.

  11. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia.

  12. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia. PMID:23514230

  13. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  14. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. PMID:24095723

  15. Amperometric biosensor based on glucose dehydrogenase and plasma-polymerized thin films.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Atsunori; Fujisawa, Kohta; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2008-04-01

    A novel design is described for an amperometric biosensor based on NAD(P)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) combined with a plasma-polymerized thin film (PPF). The GDH is sandwiched between several nanometer thick acetonitrile PPFs on a sputtered gold electrode (PPF/GDH/PPF/Au). The lower PPF layer plays the role as an interface between enzyme and electrode because it is extremely thin, adheres well to the substrate (electrode), has a flat surface and a highly-crosslinked network structure, and is hydrophilic in nature. The upper PPF layer (overcoating) was directly deposited on immobilized GDH. The optimized amperometric biosensor characteristics covered 2.5-26 mM glucose concentration at +0.6 V of applied potential; the least-squares slope was 320 nA mM(-1) cm(-2) and the correlation coefficient was 0.990. Unlike conventional wet-chemical processes that are incompatible with mass production techniques, this dry-chemistry procedure has great potential for enabling high-throughput production of bioelectronic devices.

  16. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation.

  17. Glucose metabolism in the amygdala in depression: relationship to diagnostic subtype and plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Drevets, Wayne C; Price, Joseph L; Bardgett, Mark E; Reich, Theodore; Todd, Richard D; Raichle, Marcus E

    2002-03-01

    In a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study of major depression, we demonstrated that cerebral blood flow was increased in the left amygdala in unipolar depressives with familial pure depressive disease (FPDD) relative to healthy controls [J. Neurosci. 12 (1992) 3628.]. These measures were obtained from relatively low-resolution PET images using a stereotaxic method based upon skull X-ray landmarks. The current experiments aimed to replicate and extend these results using higher-resolution glucose metabolism images and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. The specificity of this finding to FPDD was also investigated by assessing depressed samples with bipolar disorder (BD-D) and depression spectrum disease (DSD). Finally, the relationship between amygdala metabolism and plasma cortisol levels obtained during the scanning procedure was assessed. Glucose metabolism was measured using PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) in healthy control (n=12), FPDD (n=12), DSD (n=9) and BD-D (n=7) samples in the amygdala and the adjacent hippocampus. The left amygdala metabolism differed across groups (P<.001), being increased in both the FPDD and BD-D groups relative to the control group. The left amygdala metabolism was positively correlated with stressed plasma cortisol levels in both the unipolar (r=.69; P<.005) and the bipolar depressives (r=0.68;.1plasma cortisol were evident in post hoc analyses of metabolism in the right amygdala or the hippocampus. Preliminary assessment of BD subjects imaged during remission suggested that amygdala metabolism is also elevated in remitted subjects who are not taking mood-stabilizing drugs, but within the normal range in subjects taking mood stabilizers. These data confirm our previous finding that neurophysiological activity is abnormally increased in FPDD, and extend it to BD-D. These

  18. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Polyviou, Thelma P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R.; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. PMID:26167296

  19. Effects of clozapine administration on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in male C57BL/6 mice: A parallel controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Yan; Liang, Hai-Xia; Liang, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Li, Huan-De

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clozapine has been associated with metabolic adverse events (AEs) (eg, elevated body weight, blood glucose concentrations, cholesterol, triglycerides [TG]), all of which have deleterious effects on health and medication compliance. However, little focus has been directed toward finding a suitable experimental model to study the metabolic AEs associated with clozapine. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clozapine administration for 28 days on body weight, glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, and insulin in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were grouped and treated with clozapine 2 or 10 mg/kg or vehicle intraperitoneally QD for 28 days. Body weight was assessed on days 0 (baseline), 7, 14, 21, and 28, and glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentrations, insulin (calculated by insulin resistance index [IRI]), and plasma lipids (including total cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed on day 29. Results: Sixty 10-week-old, male C57BL/6 mice were included in the study and were divided into 3 groups (20 mice per group). The body weight significantly decreased in the clozapine 10-mg-treated group on days 14, 21, and 28 compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD] body weight: 21.61 [1.05] vs 22.79 [1.11], 22.53 [1.05] vs 24.17 [1.24], and 22.21 [1.07] vs 24.99 [1.39] g, respectively; all, P < 0.05). In the clozapine 10-mg/kg group, blood glucose concentrations significantly increased 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration compared with the vehicle group (mean [SD]: 6.67 [1.25], 25.34 [5.85], 12.68 [3.39], and 7.52 [1.45] mmol/L, respectively, vs 4.61 [0.78], 21.54 [6.55], 11.46 [3.46], and 6.55 [1.42] mmol/L, respectively; all P < 0.05). The clozapine 10-mg/kg group also had significant increases in plasma insulin concentrations compared with the vehicle group (12.70 [5.27] vs 7.62 [4.54] μIU/mL; P < 0.05) and

  20. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  1. The effect of low zinc (Zn) intake on the plasma Zn response to a meal or glucose load

    SciTech Connect

    Hambidge, K.M.; Mellman, D.; Westcott, J.L. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the post-prandial net efflux of Zn from the plasma compartment is greater following a period of acute Zn deprivation. For 8 days, 5 healthy adults received their normal diet plus a 15 mg Zn supplement, following which they were fed a liquid synthetic egg albumin, high phytate diet providing less than 1 mg Zn per day for 8 days. On the 7th day on each diet, subjects were fed the low Zn liquid breakfast providing 240-400 kcal according to body weight. On the 8th day on each diet, subjects received an isocaloric quantity of glucose. Blood samples were collected before and for 6 hrs after both the test breakfast and glucose load. Post-prandial changes in plasma Zn were analyzed by a two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures. Mean fasting plasma Zn did not change after a week of severe dietary Zn restriction. Post glucose decline in plasma Zn did not change significantly, but post-breakfast decline in plasma Zn was consistently greater across the 6 hr period. The maximal post-prandial decline was 11.6 {plus minus} 6.1 ug/dl in the control period and 19.3 {plus minus} 2.6 ug/dl in the Zn restricted period. It is concluded that the plasma Zn response is greater with a meal than with an equicaloric glucose load and that plasma Zn is more sensitive to a Zn restricted diet post-prandially than in the fasting state.

  2. Elevation of plasma glucose, alanine, and urea levels by mammalian ACTH in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E J; deRoos, R

    1985-08-01

    The effects of a single infusion of mammalian ACTH on plasma glucose, alanine, urea, and lactate were determined in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The ACTH (10 U/250 g body wt) was administered, and serial blood samples were collected via a nonocclusive cannula chronically placed in the right truncus arteriosus. Plasma metabolite levels were estimated by standard enzymatic techniques. The plasma metabolites declined following the surgery to levels that were relatively stable by postoperative Day 2. The levels did not vary significantly for the remainder of the 3- or 4-day pretreatment period and in the control bullfrogs during the 48-hr experiments. Plasma glucose levels were essentially unchanged from the time-zero levels at 6 hr following ACTH infusion. Plasma glucose levels subsequently increased to levels that were approximately 24% greater than the control levels by 24 hr and then declined to near control levels by 48 hr. Plasma alanine increased to levels that were approximately 60% greater than the control levels by 12 hr after ACTH treatment and returned to essentially the time-zero levels by 24 hr. Plasma urea rose to levels that were approximately 110% greater than the control levels by 45 min after ACTH infusion, but urea returned to essentially the time-zero levels by 1.5 through 3 hr. Plasma urea increased again to levels that were approximately 90% greater than the control levels by 6 hr and returned to essentially the initial levels by 24 hr. Plasma lactate levels were not significantly influenced by ACTH treatment. The results suggest that a function of the bullfrog hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is to regulate gluconeogenesis from alanine, and probably other glucogenic amino acids.

  3. Stable isotope models of sugar intake using hair, red blood cells, and plasma, but not fasting plasma glucose, predict sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population.

    PubMed

    Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measured biomarkers will help to resolve the controversial role of sugar intake in the etiology of obesity and related chronic diseases. We recently validated a dual-isotope model based on RBC carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope ratios that explained a large percentage of the variation in self-reported sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population. Stable isotope ratios can easily be measured from many tissues, including RBCs, plasma, and hair; however, it is not known how isotopic models of sugar intake compare among these tissues. Here, we compared self-reported sugar intake with models based on RBCs, plasma, and hair δ(13)C and δ(15)N in Yup'ik people. We also evaluated associations of sugar intake with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C. Finally, we evaluated relations between δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in hair, plasma, RBCs, and fasting plasma glucose to allow comparison of isotope ratios across tissue types. Models using RBCs, plasma, or hair isotope ratios explained similar amounts of variance in total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (∼53%, 48%, and 34%, respectively); however, the association with δ(13)C was strongest for models based on RBCs and hair. There were no associations with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C (R(2) = 0.03). The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of RBCs, plasma, and hair showed strong, positive correlations; the slopes of these relations did not differ from 1. This study demonstrates that RBC, plasma, and hair isotope ratios predict sugar intake and provides data that will allow comparison of studies using different sample types.

  4. Six weeks' sebacic acid supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and glucose tolerance in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Membrez, M; Chou, C J; Raymond, F; Mansourian, R; Moser, M; Monnard, I; Ammon-Zufferey, C; Mace, K; Mingrone, G; Binnert, C

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact of chronic ingestion of sebacic acid (SA), a 10-carbon medium-chain dicarboxylic acid, on glycaemic control in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Three groups of 15 db/db mice were fed for 6 weeks either a chow diet (Ctrl) or a chow diet supplemented with 1.5 or 15% (SA1.5% and SA15%, respectively) energy from SA. Fasting glycaemia was measured once a week and HbA1c before and after supplementation. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the end of the supplementation. Gene expression was determined by transcriptomic analysis on the liver of the Ctrl and SA15% groups. Results: After 42 days of supplementation, fasting glycaemia and HbA1c were ∼70 and 25% lower in the SA15% group compared with the other groups showing a beneficial effect of SA on hyperglycaemia. During OGTT, plasma glucose area under the curve was reduced after SA15% compared with the other groups. This effect was associated with a tendency for an improved insulin response. In the liver, Pck1 and FBP mRNA were statistically decreased in the SA15% compared with Ctrl suggesting a reduced hepatic glucose output induced by SA. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of SA largely improves glycaemic control in a mouse model of T2D. This beneficial effect may be due to (i) an improved glucose-induced insulin secretion and (ii) a reduced hepatic glucose output. PMID:20977585

  5. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  6. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  7. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  8. Effects of dietary D-psicose on diurnal variation in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Izumori, Ken

    2006-09-01

    The effects of supplemental D-psicose in the diet on diurnal variation in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were investigated in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Each group except for the control group was fed a diet of 5% D-fructose, D-psicose, or psico-rare sugar (3:1 mixture of D-fructose and D-psicose) for 8 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were lower and plasma insulin levels were higher at all times of day in the psicose and psico-rare sugar groups than in the control and fructose groups. Weight gain was significantly lower in the psicose group than in the control and fructose groups. Liver glycogen content, both before and after meals was higher in the psicose group than in the control and fructose groups. These results suggest that supplemental D-psicose can lower plasma glucose levels and reduce body fat accumulation. Hence, D-psicose might be useful in preventing postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.

  9. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jung Yu, Dae; Kim, Kihong

    2013-12-15

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region.

  10. The Influence of Long Term Hydrochlorothiazide Administration on the Relationship between Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Activity and Plasma Glucose in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xu; Du, Hong-jun; Hu, Wei-jian; Shaw, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To observe the relationship between changes in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity and blood plasma glucose after administration of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) for one year in patients with hypertension. Methods. 108 hypertensive patients were given 12.5 mg HCTZ per day for one year. RAAS activity, plasma glucose levels, and other biochemical parameters, as well as plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, were measured and analyzed at baseline, six weeks, and one year after treatment. Results. After one year of treatment, the reduction in plasma glucose observed between the elevated plasma renin activity (PRA) group (−0.26 ± 0.26 mmol/L) and the nonelevated PRA group (−1.36 ± 0.23 mmol/L) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The decrease of plasma glucose in the elevated Ang II group (−0.17 ± 0.18 mmol/L) compared to the nonelevated Ang II group (−1.07 ± 0.21 mmol/L) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The proportion of patients with elevated plasma glucose in the elevated Ang II group (40.5%) was significantly higher than those in the nonelevated Ang II group (16.3%) (P < 0.05). The relative oxLDL level was not affected by the treatment. Conclusions. Changes in RAAS activity were correlated with changes in plasma glucose levels after one year of HCTZ therapy. PMID:24349612

  11. Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily

    PubMed Central

    Brambillasca, Sebastián; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, José L.; Cajarville, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P < 0.001). The feeding schedule had no effect on plasma glucose and urea. Neither feeding frequency nor food × frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied. PMID:20440906

  12. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  13. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of powdered Brassica rapa ethanol extract on alteration of body composition and plasma lipid and adipocytokine profiles in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seon-Min; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Su-Kyung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Jung, Un Ju; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Chung, Hae-Gon; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of Brassica rapa ethanol extract (BREE) on body composition and plasma lipid profiles through a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial in overweight subjects. Fifty-eight overweight participants (age 20-50 years, body mass index23.0-24.9) were randomly assigned to two groups and served BREE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. Body compositions, nutrients intake, plasma lipids, adipocytokines, and hepatotoxicity biomarkers were assessed in all subjects at baseline and after 10 weeks of supplementation. The plasma total cholesterol (total-C) concentration was significantly increased after 10 weeks compared to the baseline in both groups. However, BREE supplementation significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and significantly reduced the total-C/HDL-C ratio, free fatty acid, and adipsin levels after 10 weeks. No significant differences were observed in body compositions, fasting blood glucose, plasma adipocytokines except adipsin, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities between before and after trial within groups as well as between the two groups. The supplementation of BREE partially improves plasma lipid metabolism in overweight subjects without adverse effects.

  14. Insulin-stimulated plasma membrane fusion of Glut4 glucose transporter-containing vesicles is regulated by phospholipase D1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Altshuller, Yelena M; Hou, June Chunqiu; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Frohman, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by mobilizing Glut4 glucose transporters from intracellular membrane storage sites to the plasma membrane. This process requires the trafficking of Glut4-containing vesicles toward the cell periphery, docking at exocytic sites, and plasma membrane fusion. We show here that phospholipase D (PLD) production of the lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) is a key event in the fusion process. PLD1 is found on Glut4-containing vesicles, is activated by insulin signaling, and traffics with Glut4 to exocytic sites. Increasing PLD1 activity facilitates glucose uptake, whereas decreasing PLD1 activity is inhibitory. Diminished PA production does not substantially hinder trafficking of the vesicles or their docking at the plasma membrane, but it does impede fusion-mediated extracellular exposure of the transporter. The fusion block caused by RNA interference-mediated PLD1 deficiency is rescued by exogenous provision of a lipid that promotes fusion pore formation and expansion, suggesting that the step regulated by PA is late in the process of vesicle fusion. PMID:15772157

  15. Plasma treatment of electrospun PCL random nanofiber meshes (NFMs) for biological property improvement.

    PubMed

    Yan, D; Jones, J; Yuan, X Y; Xu, X H; Sheng, J; Lee, J C-M; Ma, G Q; Yu, Q S

    2013-04-01

    In this article, the plasma surface modification effects on the chemical, mechanical, and biological properties of electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) random nanofiber meshes (NFMs) were investigated by adjusting plasma chemistry, that is, using glow discharges of N(2) +H(2), NH(3) +O(2), and Ar+O(2) gas mixtures. The surface property changes of electrospun PCL NFMs after those plasma treatments were examined by water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the plasma treatments introduced polar groups onto the surfaces and thus increased the surface hydrophilicity. From tensile test data, plasma treatment had limited effect on the mechanical properties of PCL random NFMs. The biological properties of the plasma-treated PCL NFMs were examined by cell proliferation assays using mouse osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1). It was found that the plasma-treated PCL NFMs gave a higher proliferation rate and improved cell adhesion properties as compared with the untreated controls. PMID:22965926

  16. The serum insulin and plasma glucose responses to milk and fruit products in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gannon, M C; Nuttall, F Q; Krezowski, P A; Billington, C J; Parker, S

    1986-11-01

    The plasma glucose and serum insulin responses were determined in untreated Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients following the ingestion of foods containing sucrose, glucose, fructose or lactose in portions that contained 50 g of carbohydrate. The results were compared to those obtained following the ingestion of pure fructose, sucrose, glucose + fructose and lactose. The objectives were to determine 1) if the glucose response to naturally occurring foods could be explained by the known carbohydrate content, and 2) whether the insulin response could be explained by the glucose response. The glucose response was essentially the same whether the carbohydrate was given as a pure substance, or in the form of a naturally occurring food. The glucose response to each type of carbohydrate was that expected from the known metabolism of the constituent monosaccharides. The glucose areas following the ingestion of the foods were: Study 1: glucose 11.7, orange juice 7.3, sucrose 5.2, glucose + fructose 6.3, and fructose 0.7 mmol X h/l; Study 2: glucose 14.6, orange juice 7.3, apples 5.5, and apple juice 4.7 mmol X h/l; Study 3: glucose 12.6, ice cream 8.1, milk 3.7, and lactose 4.1 mmol X h/l. The insulin response was greater than could be explained by the glucose response for all meals except apples. Milk was a particularly potent insulin secretagogue; the observed insulin response was approximately 5-fold greater than would be anticipated from the glucose response. In summary, the plasma glucose response to ingestion of fruits and milk products can be predicted from the constituent carbohydrate present. The serum insulin response cannot.

  17. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  18. Plasma glucose response to recreational diving in novice teenage divers with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pollock, N W; Uguccioni, D M; Dear, G deL; Bates, S; Albushies, T M; Prosterman, S A

    2006-01-01

    A growing number of individuals with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (IRDM) dive, but data on plasma glucose (PG) response to diving are limited, particularly for adolescents. We report on seven 16-17 year old novice divers with IRDM participating in a tropical diving camp who had recent at least moderate PG control (HbA1c 7.3 +/- 1.1%) (mean +/- SD). PG was measured at 60, 30 and 10 min pre-dive and immediately following 42 dives. Maximum depth (17 +/- 6 msw) and total underwater times (44 +/- 14 min) were not extreme. Pre-dive PG exceeded 16.7 mmol x L(-1) (300 mg x dL(-1)) in 22% of dives. Males had significantly higher pre-dive levels (15.4 +/- 5.6 mmol x L(-1) [277 +/- 100 mg x dL(-1)] vs. 12.8 +/- 2.9 mmol x L(-1) [230 +/- 52 mg x dL(-1)], respectively) and greater pre-post-dive changes (-4.3 +/- 4.4 mmol x L(-1) [-78 +/- 79 mg x dL(-1)] vs. -0.5 +/- 4.3 mmol x L(-1) [-9 +/- 77 mg x dL(-1)], respectively). Post-dive PG was < 4.4 mmol x L(-1) [< 80 mg x dL(-1)] in two dives by two different males (3.4 and 3.9 mmol x L(-1) [61 and 70 mg x dL(-1)]). No symptoms or complications of hypoglycemia were reported. These data show that in a closely monitored situation, and with benign diving conditions, some diabetic adolescents with good control and no secondary complications may be able to dive safely. The impact of purposeful elevation of PG to protect against hypoglycemia during diving remains to be determined.

  19. Changes in plasma non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and alpha-amino nitrogen and their relationship with body weight and plasma growth hormone in growing buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mondal, M; Prakash, B S

    2004-06-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the changes of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and alpha-amino nitrogen and their relationship with age, body weight (BW) and plasma growth hormone (GH) in growing buffaloes. For the purpose, six growing female Murrah buffalo calves of 6-8 months of age were selected on the basis of their BW and fed according to Kearl standard (Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries, International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah State University, Utah, USA, 1982, p. 89) for growing buffaloes (target growth rate 500 g/day) to meet energy and protein requirement of the animals. Blood samples collected at fortnight intervals for 1 year were analysed for plasma NEFA, glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen and GH. The animals were also weighed at fortnight intervals. Plasma NEFA and glucose levels were found to decrease (p < 0.01) with age. Unlike plasma NEFA and glucose, plasma alpha-amino nitrogen level increased (p < 0.01) as the buffaloes become older. Plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations in growing buffaloes were found to be positively correlated with plasma GH (r = 0.379 and 0.420 respectively), but these were non-significant (p > 0.01). However, plasma NEFA and glucose showed a good correlation (p < 0.01; r = 0.780 and 0.652 respectively) with plasma GH per 100 kg live weight. Plasma alpha-amino nitrogen exhibited non-significant (p > 0.01) negative correlation (r = -0.295) with plasma GH but a negative correlation (p < 0.01; r = -0.641) with GH per 100 kg BW. So, plasma metabolites showed a definite pattern of change during growth and these have a significant (p < 0.01) correlation with plasma GH per 100 kg BW than GH. PMID:15189427

  20. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Ogata, Yasumichi; Sato, Yukari; Sano, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and [1-13C]leucine (Leu) was conducted to evaluate the effects of rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses (RSUM-diet) on plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates in sheep. Nitrogen (N) balance, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Four sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH-diet), or a RSUM-diet with a crossover design for two 21 days period. Feed allowance was computed on the basis of metabolizable energy at maintenance level. The isotope dilution method was performed as the primed-continuous infusion on day 21 of each dietary period. Nitrogen intake was lower (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet and N digestibility did not differ (p = 0.57) between diets. Concentrations of rumen total volatile fatty acids tended to be higher (p = 0.09) for the RSUM-diet than the MH-diet. Acetate concentration in the rumen did not differ (p = 0.38) between diets, whereas propionate concentration was higher (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. Turnover rates as well as concentrations of plasma glucose and Leu did not differ between diets. It can be concluded that kinetics of plasma glucose and Leu metabolism were comparable between the RSUM-diet and the MH-diet, and rumen fermentation characteristics were improved in sheep fed the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. PMID:26949953

  1. A randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Marie-Eve; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the impact of brown seaweed on post-load plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in men and women. Twenty-three participants (11 men, 12 women) aged 19-59 years were recruited in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. The test product consisted of a commercially available blend of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) with known inhibitory action on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities (InSea²). Two 250 mg seaweed capsules and 2 placebo capsules were consumed on each occasion 30 min prior to the consumption of 50 g of carbohydrates from bread. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured over a period of 3 h postcarbohydrate ingestion at predetermined time points. Both treatments were separated by a 1-week washout period. Data were analysed using mixed models for repeated measures. Compared with placebo, consumption of seaweed was associated with a 12.1% reduction in the insulin incremental area under the curve (p = 0.04, adjusted for baseline) and a 7.9% increase in the Cederholm index of insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). The single ingestion of 500 mg of brown seaweed had no significant effect on the glucose response (p = 0.24, adjusted for baseline). Glucose and insulin responses were similar between men and women. Consumption of the seaweed capsules was not associated with any adverse event. These data suggest that brown seaweed may alter the insulin homeostasis in response to carbohydrate ingestion. PMID:22087795

  2. Comparison of several insulin sensitivity indices derived from basal plasma insulin and glucose levels with minimal model indices.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, D A; Araújo-Vilar, D; Fiestras-Janeiro, G; Saavedra-González, A; Cabezas-Cerrato, J

    2003-01-01

    Some techniques for the evaluation of insulin resistance (IR), such as the clamp technique, are not viable for the study of large populations; and for this reason, alternative approaches based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and plasma insulin (FPI) have been proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the IR calculations obtained from FPI and FPG values with the insulin sensitivity (IS) index derived from the minimal model. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a wide range of body mass index (18 - 44 kg x m -2) and 16 DM2 non-obese patients were included in the study. All of the patients underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT), and the minimal model of glucose was used for the estimation of insulin sensitivity (IS MINIMAL ). The HOMA-IR index, the Avignon index, and the quotient FPG/FPI were used to calculate basal steady-state IR. The basal IR value that best correlated with IS was Log (1/HOMA-IR) (r = 0.70, p < 0.001). All of the basal indices showed a high correlation with each other. In conclusions, insulin sensitivity indices as determined from the basal glycaemia and insulinemia values are not good estimators for metabolic reality from the perspective of the minimal model. Nevertheless, they might well have an IR screening value for epidemiological studies, as long as there is no pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. PMID:12669265

  3. Analogies between random matrix ensembles and the one-component plasma in two-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Peter J.

    2016-03-01

    The eigenvalue PDF for some well known classes of non-Hermitian random matrices - the complex Ginibre ensemble for example - can be interpreted as the Boltzmann factor for one-component plasma systems in two-dimensional domains. We address this theme in a systematic fashion, identifying the plasma system for the Ginibre ensemble of non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrices G, the spherical ensemble of the product of an inverse Ginibre matrix and a Ginibre matrix G1- 1 G2, and the ensemble formed by truncating unitary matrices, as well as for products of such matrices. We do this when each has either real, complex or real quaternion elements. One consequence of this analogy is that the leading form of the eigenvalue density follows as a corollary. Another is that the eigenvalue correlations must obey sum rules known to characterise the plasma system, and this leads us to an exhibit of an integral identity satisfied by the two-particle correlation for real quaternion matrices in the neighbourhood of the real axis. Further random matrix ensembles investigated from this viewpoint are self dual non-Hermitian matrices, in which a previous study has related to the one-component plasma system in a disk at inverse temperature β = 4, and the ensemble formed by the single row and column of quaternion elements from a member of the circular symplectic ensemble.

  4. Plasma levels of sex hormone-binding globulin, corticosteroid-binding globulin and cortisol in overweight subjects who develop impaired fasting glucose: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Shand, B I; Frampton, C M; Elder, P A; Scott, R S

    2009-03-01

    Circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and total and calculated free cortisol were measured in 206 overweight subjects to investigate whether or not they were markers of insulin resistance. Measurements were carried out on two occasions 36 months apart and subjects were grouped according to fasting plasma glucose. Fifty-one subjects, with a normal basal fasting glucose (<5.6 mmol/l) developed impaired fasting glucose 3 years later (> or = 5.6 mmol/l). Analysis either in toto or based on gender showed a highly significant increase in fasting insulin and insulin resistance, a modest increase in body mass index (BMI), but importantly no change in plasma SHBG, CBG, or cortisol concentrations. Subjects (n=101) with a normal fasting glucose both at baseline (<5.6 mmol/l) and at 36 months showed no significant change in fasting insulin, insulin resistance, SHBG, CBG, cortisol, or BMI. Cross-sectional analysis of the study population showed that plasma SHBG correlated negatively with insulin resistance both in men and women. Overall SHBG at baseline was not predictive of changes in fasting glucose. In females, plasma CBG correlated negatively with BMI. The major finding is that overweight subjects who developed impaired fasting glucose showed no significant change in plasma SHBG, CBG or cortisol, and therefore these indices are probably not early markers of insulin resistance in overweight subjects.

  5. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon Nanotube-Plasma Polymer-Based Amperometric Biosensors: Enzyme-Friendly Platform for Ultrasensitive Glucose Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Matsui, Yasunori; Shibayama, Yu

    2007-09-01

    An amperometric enzyme biosensor fabricated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and plasma-polymerized thin films (PPFs) is reported. A mixture of the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and a CNT film is sandwiched with 10-nm-thick acetonitrile PPFs. Under PPF layer was deposited onto a sputtered gold electrode. To facilitate the electrochemical communication between the CNT layer and GOD, CNT was treated with oxygen plasma. The device with single-walled CNTs showed a sensitivity higher than that of multiwalled CNTs. The glucose biosensor showed ultrasensitivity (a sensitivity of 40 μA mM-1 cm-2, a correlation coefficient of 0.992, a linear response range of 0.025-1.9 mM, a detection limit of 6.2 μM at S/N = 3, +0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl), and a rapid response (< 4 s in reaching 95% of maximum response). This high performance is attributed to the fact that CNTs have excellent electrocatalytic activity and enhance electron transfer, and that PPFs and/or the plasma process for CNTs are the enzyme-friendly platform, i.e., a suitable design of the interface between GOD and CNTs.

  7. Scattering of diffracting beams of electron cyclotron waves by random density fluctuations in inhomogeneous plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Hannes; Maj, Omar; Poli, Emanuele

    2015-03-01

    The physics and first results of the new WKBeam code for electron cyclotron beams in tokamak plasmas are presented. This code is developed on the basis of a kinetic radiative transfer model which is general enough to account for the effects of diffraction and density fluctuations on the beam. Our preliminary numerical results show a significant broadening of the power deposition profile in ITER due to scattering from random density fluctuations at the plasma edge, while such scattering effects are found to be negligible in medium-size tokamaks like ASDEX upgrade.

  8. Nonlinear propagation of a randomized laser beam through an expanding plasma.

    PubMed

    Myatt, J; Pesme, D; Hüller, S; Maximov, A; Rozmus, W; Capjack, C E

    2001-12-17

    We present simulations of the interaction of a random phase plate laser beam with an underdense, expanding plasma for conditions typical of recent LULI experiments. We use a new code that describes the paraxial propagation of the laser, accounting for the nonlinear evolution of the plasma in an isothermal fluid description with weakly collisional electrons. The transmitted light, in excellent agreement with experiment, is shown to be strongly redshifted as a result of self-phase modulation due to self-focusing. PMID:11736585

  9. Chronic growth hormone treatment in normal rats reduces post-prandial skeletal muscle plasma membrane GLUT1 content, but not glucose transport or GLUT4 expression and localization.

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, R; Cittadini, A; Chow, J C; Hirshman, M F; Smith, R J; Douglas, P S; Horton, E S

    1996-01-01

    Whether skeletal muscle glucose transport system is impaired in the basal, post-prandial state during chronic growth hormone treatment is unknown. The current study was designed to determine whether 4 weeks of human growth hormone (hGH) treatment (3.5 mg/kg per day) would impair glucose transport and/or the number of glucose transporters in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from hindlimb skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats under basal, post-prandial conditions. hGH treatment was shown to have no effect on glucose influx (Vmax or K(m)) determined under equilibrium exchange conditions in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Plasma membrane glucose transporter number (Ro) measured by cytochalasin B binding was also unchanged by hGH treatment. Consequently, glucose transporter turnover number (Vmax/Ro), a measure of average glucose transporter intrinsic activity, was similar in hGH-treated and control rats. hGH did not change GLUT4 protein content in whole muscle or in the plasma membrane, and muscle content of GLUT4 mRNA also was unchanged. In contrast, GLUT1 protein content in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly reduced by hGH treatment. This was associated with a modest, although not significant, decrease in muscle content of GLUT1 mRNA. In conclusion, high-dose hGH treatment for 4 weeks did not alter post-prandial skeletal muscle glucose transport activity. Neither the muscle level nor the intracellular localization of GLUT4 was changed by the hormone treatment. On the contrary, the basal post-prandial level of GLUT1 in the plasma membrane was reduced by hGH. The mRNA data suggest that this reduction might result from a decrease in the synthesis of GLUT1. PMID:8645183

  10. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Levinger, Itamar; Mousa, Aya; Howlett, Kirsten; de Courten, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism. However, previous findings are contradictory and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We examined the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin sensitivity, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventeen healthy adults (Body mass index: 26 ± 4; Age: 30 ± 12 years) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and resting skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. In this cohort, the plasma 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.19, p = 0.56). However, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations correlated with lower phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) αSer21 and βSer9 in skeletal muscle (r = −0.66, p = 0.015 and r = −0.53, p = 0.06, respectively) and higher GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 phosphorylation in adipose tissue (r = 0.82, p < 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.042, respectively). Furthermore, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with greater phosphorylation of both protein kinase-B (AktSer473) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1Ser312) (r = 0.71, p = 0.01) in adipose tissue. No associations were found between plasma 25(OH)D concentration and IRS-1Tyr612 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The divergent findings between muscle and adipose tissue with regard to the association between 25(OH)D and insulin signaling proteins may suggest a tissue-specific interaction with varying effects on glucose homeostasis. Further research is required to elucidate the physiological relevance of 25(OH)D in each tissue. PMID:27754361

  11. Nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in a plasma containing random irregularities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of propagation of finite-amplitude electromagnetic waves in a plasma containing random irregularities is studied. Using a recently developed perturbation technique, a general equation for finite amplitude coherent waves is derived. Included in this equation are both the effects of quasi-harmonic nonlinear heating of electrons and random scattering by irregularities. The equation is solved in general by the equivalent linearization procedure. The amplitude of the coherent wave is found to be attenuated by collision and scattering. Both attenuation are affected by the nonlinear heating of the electrons. Curves showing the results for a specific example will be presented.

  12. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ruifeng; Yang, Wenqing; Xue, Qiang; Gao, Liang; Huo, Junli; Ren, Dongqing; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-15

    Rutin exhibits antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes rutin an attractive candidate for diabetic complications. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. After induction of diabetic neuropathy, rutin (5mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) were daily given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks. At the end of rutin administration, rutin produced a significant inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as partial restoration of nerve conduction velocities in diabetic rats. Furthermore, rutin significantly increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in sciatic nerves and decreased caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). In addition, rutin significantly decreased plasma glucose, attenuated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Further studies showed that rutin significantly increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in DRG. The evidences suggest the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, insulin (2 IU) and BG-12 (15mg/kg) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Insulin achieved lower plasma glucose and BG-12 achieved comparable Nrf2 expression than/to rutin (50mg/kg), respectively. In contrast, the beneficial effect of insulin and BG-12 was inferior to that of rutin (50mg/kg), suggesting that both lowered plasma glucose and Nrf2 signaling contribute to the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Glucose generates sub-plasma membrane ATP microdomains in single islet beta-cells. Potential role for strategically located mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H J; Pouli, A E; Ainscow, E K; Jouaville, L S; Rizzuto, R; Rutter, G A

    1999-05-01

    Increases in the concentration of free ATP within the islet beta-cell may couple elevations in blood glucose to insulin release by closing ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels and activating Ca2+ influx. Here, we use recombinant targeted luciferases and photon counting imaging to monitor changes in free [ATP] in subdomains of single living MIN6 and primary beta-cells. Resting [ATP] in the cytosol ([ATP]c), in the mitochondrial matrix ([ATP]m), and beneath the plasma membrane ([ATP]pm) were similar ( approximately 1 mM). Elevations in extracellular glucose concentration (3-30 mM) increased free [ATP] in each domain with distinct kinetics. Thus, sustained increases in [ATP]m and [ATP]pm were observed, but only a transient increase in [ATP]c. However, detectable increases in [ATP]c and [ATP]pm, but not [ATP]m, required extracellular Ca2+. Enhancement of glucose-induced Ca2+ influx with high [K+] had little effect on the apparent [ATP]c and [ATP]m increases but augmented the [ATP]pm increase. Underlying these changes, glucose increased the mitochondrial proton motive force, an effect mimicked by high [K+]. These data support a model in which glucose increases [ATP]m both through enhanced substrate supply and by progressive Ca2+-dependent activation of mitochondrial enzymes. This may then lead to a privileged elevation of [ATP]pm, which may be essential for the sustained closure of KATP channels. Luciferase imaging would appear to be a useful new tool for dynamic in vivo imaging of free ATP concentration.

  14. Deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I ablates the pharmacological effects of metformin on plasma glucose homeostasis and hepatic lipid deposition.

    PubMed

    Karavia, Eleni A; Hatziri, Aikaterini; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Papachristou, Nikolaos I; Xepapadaki, Eva; Constantinou, Caterina; Natsos, Anastasios; Petropoulou, Peristera-Ioanna; Sasson, Shlomo; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2015-11-01

    Recently, we showed that deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) sensitizes mice to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and NAFLD. Here we investigated the potential involvement of ApoA-I in the pharmacological effects of metformin on glucose intolerance and NAFLD development. Groups of apoa1-deficient (apoa1(-/-)) and C57BL/6 mice fed western-type diet were either treated with a daily dose of 300 mg/kg metformin for 18 weeks or left untreated for the same period. Then, histological and biochemical analyses were performed. Metformin treatment led to a comparable reduction in plasma insulin levels in both C57BL/6 and apoa1(-/-) mice following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. However, only metformin-treated C57BL/6 mice maintained sufficient peripheral insulin sensitivity to effectively clear glucose following the challenge, as indicated by a [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake assay in isolated soleus muscle. Similarly, deficiency in ApoA-I ablated the effect of metformin on hepatic lipid deposition and NAFLD development. Gene expression analysis indicated that the effects of ApoA-I on metformin treatment may be independent of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and de novo lipogenesis. Interestingly, metformin treatment reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function only in apoa1(-/-) mice. Our data show that the role of ApoA-I in diabetes extends to the modulation of the pharmacological actions of metformin, a common drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial: Design, rationale and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, Sarah; Tilley, Barbara C.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Fox, Erin E.; van Belle, Gerald; Wade, Charles E.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Beeler, Angela M.; Hess, John R.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Inaba, Kenji; Fabian, Timothy C.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Miller, Christopher N.; Rizoli, Sandro; Scalea, Thomas M.; O’Keeffe, Terence; Brasel, Karen J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Muskat, Peter; Holcomb, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Forty percent of in-hospital deaths among injured patients involve massive truncal hemorrhage. These deaths may be prevented with rapid hemorrhage control and improved resuscitation techniques. The Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial was designed to determine if there is a difference in mortality between subjects who received different ratios of FDA approved blood products. This report describes the design and implementation of PROPPR. Study Design PROPPR was designed as a randomized, two-group, Phase III trial conducted in subjects with the highest level of trauma activation and predicted to have a massive transfusion. Subjects at 12 North American level 1 trauma centers were randomized into one of two standard transfusion ratio interventions: 1:1:1 or 1:1:2, (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells). Clinical data and serial blood samples were collected under Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) regulations. Co-primary mortality endpoints of 24 hours and 30 days were evaluated. Results Between August 2012 and December 2013, 680 patients were randomized. The overall median time from admission to randomization was 26 minutes. PROPPR enrolled at higher than expected rates with fewer than expected protocol deviations. Conclusion PROPPR is the largest randomized study to enroll severely bleeding patients. This study showed that rapidly enrolling and successfully providing randomized blood products to severely injured patients in an EFIC study is feasible. PROPPR was able to achieve these goals by utilizing a collaborative structure and developing successful procedures and design elements that can be part of future trauma studies. PMID:24996573

  16. Applicability of random sequential adsorption algorithm for simulation of surface plasma polishing kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minárik, Stanislav; Vaňa, Dušan

    2015-11-01

    Applicability of random sequential adsorption (RSA) model for the material removal during a surface plasma polishing is discussed. The mechanical nature of plasma polishing process is taken into consideration in modified version of RSA model. During the plasma polishing the surface layer is aligned such that molecules of material are removed from the surface mechanically as a consequence of the surface deformation induced by plasma particles impact. We propose modification of RSA technique to describe the reduction of material on the surface provided that sequential character of molecules release from the surface is maintained throughout the polishing process. This empirical model is able to estimate depth profile of material density on the surface during the plasma polishing. We have shown that preliminary results obtained from this model are in good agreement with experimental results. We believe that molecular dynamics simulation of the polishing process, possibly also other types of surface treatment, can be based on this model. However influence of material parameters and processing conditions (including plasma characteristics) must be taken into account using appropriate model variables.

  17. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675. PMID:27648290

  18. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675.

  19. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  20. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S.; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  1. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  2. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Jonna C.; Björck, Inger M. E.; Nilsson, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Method Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5–13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. Results With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0–120 min, P<0.001), GLP-1 (0–90 min, P<0.05) and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05), compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0–120 min, P = 0.001), serum insulin response (0–120 min, P<0.05) and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05). Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05), and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001), indicating increased colonic fermentation activity. Conclusion The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in

  3. Making thawed universal donor plasma available rapidly for massively bleeding trauma patients: Experience from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Deborah J.; Bai, Yu; Cooke, Rhonda K.; Marques, Marisa B.; Fontaine, Magali J.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Carey, Patricia M.; Scanlan, Richard M.; Fiebig, Eberhard W.; Shulman, Ira A.; Nelson, Janice M.; Flax, Sherri; Duncan, Veda; Daniel-Johnson, Jennifer A.; Callum, Jeannie L.; Holcomb, John B.; Fox, Erin E.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Tilley, Barbara C.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Inaba, Kenji; Rizoli, Sandro; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Hess, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial was a randomized clinical trial comparing survival after transfusion of 2 different blood component ratios for emergency resuscitation of traumatic massive hemorrhage. Transfusion services supporting the study were expected to provide thawed plasma, platelets and red blood cells within 10 minutes of request. Study Design and Methods At the 12 Level 1 trauma centers participating in PROPPR, blood components transfused and delivery times were tabulated, with a focus on universal donor (UD) plasma management. The adequacy of site plans was assessed by comparing the bedside blood availability times to study goals and the new American College of Surgeons (ACS) guidelines. Results Eleven of 12 sites were able to consistently deliver 6 units of thawed UD plasma to their trauma receiving unit within 10 minutes, and 12 units in 20 minutes. Three sites used blood group A plasma instead of AB for massive transfusion without complications. Approximately 4700 units of plasma were given to the 680 patients enrolled in the trial. No site experienced shortages of AB plasma that limited enrollment. Two of 12 sites reported wastage of thawed AB plasma approaching 25% of AB plasma prepared. Conclusion Delivering UD plasma to massively hemorrhaging patients was accomplished consistently, rapidly and without excessive wastage in high-volume trauma centers. The ACS Trauma Quality Improvement Program guidelines for massive transfusion protocol UD plasma availability are practicable in large academic trauma centers. Use of group A plasma in trauma resuscitation needs further study. PMID:25823522

  4. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg) were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM) or with quercetin (GBMQ). In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW) in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW) animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:24847478

  5. Change in fasting plasma glucose and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Asgari, Samaneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a cohort of the Iranian population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) to investigate the association between change in FPG between baseline examination (1999–2001) and the second visit (2002–2005) with incident T2D. Participants A total of 3981 non-diabetic participants aged ≥20 years. Outcome measure T2D was defined if the participant was using antidiabetic drugs or if FPG was ≥7 mmol/L or if the 2 h post-challenge plasma glucose (2-hPCG) was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Results During a median follow-up of 6.17 years, after the second examination, 288 new cases of T2D were identified. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis using age as timescale, we presented a simple model including FPG change (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.33) and baseline waist circumference (WC) (HR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.008) with a discriminative power (C-index) of 72%. Furthermore, we showed that the highest quartile of FPG change enhanced the T2D risk to 1.65 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.27) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend=0.004).The independent risk of FPG change resisted further adjustment with 2-hPCG change. Adding the 2-hPCG change only slightly increased the discriminative power of the model including FPG change and baseline value of WC (0.73% vs 0.72%). After the study population had been limited to those with normal fasting glucose/normal glucose tolerance, FPG change remained an independent predictor (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.88). Conclusions Two measurements of FPG obtained about 3 years apart can help to identify populations at risk of incident T2D independently of important traditional risk factors and their changes, including 2-hPCG change. PMID:27217283

  6. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with weight (r

  7. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    SciTech Connect

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  8. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  9. Blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to fat-free milk and low-lactose fat-free milk in young type 1 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Marks, V; Salminen, S

    1987-12-01

    The blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to test milk samples were studied in eight insulin-dependent diabetics. After an overnight fast, the subjects (aged 20-45 years) were given a breakfast containing two Weetabix biscuits (20 g carbohydrate) with 500 ml of either regular (S) fat-free milk (25 g lactose) or 500 ml of a new low-lactose (D) fat-free milk (3.75 g lactose and 4.25 g fructose). The regular morning insulin dose was omitted. Mean basal plasma glucose level was slightly higher before S milk (11.4 vs. 10.1 mmol/l). The peak increment in plasma glucose was higher in S milk (9.4 vs. 6.6 mmol/l). The rise was 83% above basal (S) vs. 65% (D). Although the final mean plasma glucose concentration was not significantly higher 3 h after S milk compared with D milk (17.9 vs. 14.3 mmol/l) the incremental area under the plasma glucose curve was much greater (p less than 0.001) with S milk than with D milk (1266 +/- 295 units vs. 909 +/- 242 units). No galactose was detectable in any sample and there was no difference in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate levels. The results suggest that the low-lactose fat-free milk (D) may be suitable for diabetic diets and weight reducing diets due to the lower contribution of energy. The results suggest that fat-free milk does not exert a fast action on blood glucose concentration and therefore fat-free milk and especially low-lactose fat-free milk may also prove to be suitable for diabetic diets.

  10. Comparative effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and a gentle handling stress on plasma lactate, glucose, and hematocrit levels in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    MbangKollo, D; deRoos, R

    1983-02-01

    The effects of a single infusion of epinephrine or norepinephrine and of a 2-min handling stress on plasma lactate, glucose, and hematocrit levels were compared in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The catecholamines were administered, and serial blood samples were collected, via a cannula placed in the truncus arteriosus. Plasma lactate was estimated by the lactate dehydrogenase method and glucose by the glucose oxidase method. Dose-dependent increases occurred in plasma lactate, glucose, and hematocrit levels after the infusion of 50 and 500 micrograms/kg body weight of epinephrine. Norepinephrine infusion resulted in dose-dependent increases in hematocrit levels, but plasma lactate and glucose levels were not increased significantly by 50 micrograms/kg body weight of norepinephrine. The infusion of 500 micrograms/kg body weight of norepinephrine caused a lactacidemia that was similar to that which occurred with the same dose of epinephrine, but the hyperglycemia was less. The plasma lactate increases after handling were similar to those that occurred after treatment with 500 micrograms/kg body weight of the catecholamines; however, the hematocrit elevations were less and the glucose levels were not increased significantly. In addition, the plasma lactate and hematocrit responses to handling were more rapid than those that occurred after the catecholamines. The results suggest that immediate physiological adjustments to a sudden threat are mediated in the bullfrog by direct nervous stimulation of the relevant organs. Catecholamines and corticoids secreted by the adrenal glands probably function synergistically and sequentially when a stress is more severe and/or more prolonged than the brief, gentle handling employed in this study.

  11. L-asparaginase-induced abnormality in plasma glucose level in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia admitted to a tertiary care hospital of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Mousumee; Swain, Trupti Rekha; Jena, Rabindra Kumar; Panigrahi, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate any abnormal change in plasma glucose levels in patients treated with L-asparaginase (L-Asp)-based chemotherapy regimen in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods: This retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted in patients of ALL, admitted to the Clinical Haematology Department of a tertiary care hospital of Odisha from August 2014 to July 2015. Indoor records of 146 patients on multi-centered protocol-841 were evaluated for any alteration in plasma glucose level, time of onset of hypo/hyperglycemia, and persistence of plasma glucose alteration. Results: Twenty-one percent of patients showed abnormal plasma glucose level. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group, whereas a majority of higher age group patients developed hyperglycemia. In majority of the cases, abnormal glucose developed after three doses of L-Asp. Hypoglycemia subsided whereas hyperglycemia persisted till the end of our observation period. Conclusions: L-Asp produces more incidences of hypoglycemia than hyperglycemia in a good number of ALL patients towards which clinicians should be more vigilant. However, hyperglycemia persists for a longer duration than hypoglycemia. PMID:27721550

  12. Effect of chromium-enriched yeast on fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Sindberg, C D; Moesgaard, S; Mainz, Josef; Fabry, Jaroslav; Müller, Luděk; Rácová, Katarína

    2013-10-01

    Chromium is required for a normal insulin function, and low levels have been linked with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to follow the effect of chromium supplementation on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) on insulin therapy. Eleven randomly selected patients with DM2 on insulin therapy were supplemented with a daily dose of 100 μg chromium yeast for the first supplementation period of 2 weeks. In the second supplementation period, the chromium dose was doubled and continued for the next 6 weeks. The third phase was a 6-week washout period. After each period, the levels of FPG and HbA1c were compared with the corresponding values at the end of the previous period. Serum triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterol values after supplementation were compared with the baseline values. FPG decreased significantly after the first period of chromium supplementation (p < 0.001), and a tendency to a further reduction was observed after the second supplementation period. Similarly, HbA1c decreased significantly in both periods (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Eight weeks after withdrawal of chromium supplementation, both FPG and HbA1c levels returned to their pre-intervention values. The serum lipid concentrations were not significantly influenced by chromium supplementation. Chromium supplementation could be beneficial in patients with DM2 treated with insulin, most likely due to lowered insulin resistance leading to improved glucose tolerance. This finding needs to be confirmed in a larger study.

  13. Plasma Lactate Levels Increase during Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Clamp and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Daboul, Nour; Al-Janabi, Wissam; Msallaty, Zaher; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique K; Yi, Zhengping; Diamond, Michael P; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Seyoum, Berhane

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is an early indicator that heralds the occurrence of T2D. It is imperative to understand the metabolic changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of circulating lactate levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HIEC) study in normal nondiabetic subjects. Lactate and glycerol were determined every 30 minutes during OGTT and HIEC on 22 participants. Lactate progressively increased throughout the HIEC study period (P < 0.001). Participants with BMI < 30 had significantly higher mean M-values compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 at baseline (P < 0.05). This trend also continued throughout the OGTT. In addition, those with impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) had significantly higher mean lactate levels compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that lactate increased during HIEC study, which is a state of hyperinsulinemia similar to the metabolic milieu seen during the early stages in the development of T2D. PMID:25961050

  14. Overcoming Clinical Inertia: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Telehealth Remote Monitoring Intervention Using Paired Glucose Testing in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Blozis, Shelley A; Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Quinn, Charlene C

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide challenge. Practice guidelines promote structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) for informing health care providers about glycemic control and providing patient feedback to increase knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior change. Paired glucose testing—pairs of glucose results obtained before and after a meal or physical activity—is a method of structured SMBG. However, frequent access to glucose data to interpret values and recommend actions is challenging. A complete feedback loop—data collection and interpretation combined with feedback to modify treatment—has been associated with improved outcomes, yet there remains limited integration of SMBG feedback in diabetes management. Incorporating telehealth remote monitoring and asynchronous electronic health record (EHR) feedback from certified diabetes educators (CDEs)—specialists in glucose pattern management—employ the complete feedback loop to improve outcomes. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate a telehealth remote monitoring intervention using paired glucose testing and asynchronous data analysis in adults with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim was change in glycated hemoglobin (A1c)—a measure of overall glucose management—between groups after 6 months. The secondary aims were change in self-reported Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), Diabetes Empowerment Scale, and Diabetes Knowledge Test. Methods A 2-group randomized clinical trial was conducted comparing usual care to telehealth remote monitoring with paired glucose testing and asynchronous virtual visits. Participants were aged 30-70 years, not using insulin with A1c levels between 7.5% and 10.9% (58-96 mmol/mol). The telehealth remote monitoring tablet computer transmitted glucose data and facilitated a complete feedback loop to educate participants, analyze actionable glucose data, and provide feedback. Data from paired glucose testing were analyzed

  15. Development of diagnotors based on time-average values of plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels during intravenous glucose tolerance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinov, Igor A.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Brook, Sergey B.

    2000-04-01

    The diagnostic algorithm of glucose-insulinic violations for the patients with a clinically obvious atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and persons with the heritable predisposition to these forms of pathology was designed. The realization of intravenous glucose tolerance test in specially fitted groups of patients served as basis of the algorithm.

  16. Deoxyandrographolide promotes glucose uptake through glucose transporter-4 translocation to plasma membrane in L6 myotubes and exerts antihyperglycemic effect in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arha, Deepti; Pandeti, Sukanya; Mishra, Akansha; Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Narender, Tadigoppula; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the principal site for postprandial glucose utilization and augmenting the rate of glucose utilization in this tissue may help to control hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. Here, we explored the effect of Deoxyandrographolide (DeoAn) isolated from the Andrographis paniculata Nees on glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and investigated its antihyperglycemic effect in vivo in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and genetically diabetic db/db mice. In L6 myotubes, DeoAn dose-dependently stimulated glucose uptake by enhancing the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell surface, without affecting the total cellular GLUT4 and GLUT1 content. These effects of DeoAn were additive to insulin. Further analysis revealed that DeoAn activated PI-3-K- and AMPK-dependent signaling pathways, account for the augmented glucose transport in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, DeoAn lowered postprandial blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and also suppressed the rises in the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol levels of db/db mice. These findings suggest the therapeutic efficacy of the DeoAn for type 2 diabetes mellitus and can be potential phytochemical for its management.

  17. Effects of Pistachio Nut Supplementation on Blood Glucose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Mahmoud; Heidari, Saeide; Khorramirad, Ashraf; Hozoori, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Bakhtyari, Lida; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating, and often fatal disease. Dietary strategies to reduce postprandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Nuts are rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may reduce hyperglycemia and improve metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of pistachio nut supplementation on glycemic and inflammatory measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 48 diabetic patients were equally assigned to groups A and B. Patients in group A received a snack of 25 g pistachio nuts twice a day for 12 weeks and group B received a control meal without nuts. After 12 weeks of intervention, the patients had an 8-week washout. Then the groups were displaced, and group B received the same amount of pistachios for 12 weeks. RESULTS: With respect to the total change in variables over both phases, there was a marked decrease in HbA1c (-0.4%) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations (-16 mg/dl) in the pistachio group compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.001 for both). There was no overall significant change in BMI, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Analysis of the two phases separately showed a decrease in FBG by 14 mg/dl and in HbA1c by 0.45% in the treatment group (A) after 12 weeks, while no significant differences were seen in group B (control group). In the second phase, FBG decreased from 151.36 ± 39.22 to 137.28 ± 28.65 mg/dl (-14 mg/dl) and HbA1c decreased from 7.42 ± 0.97 to 7.15 ± 0.68 mg/dl (-0.28%, p = 0.013 and p = 0.033, respectively) in the pistachio group (B). Pistachio consumption reduced systolic blood pressure (p = 0.007), BMI (p = 0.011), and CRP (p = 0.002) in patients from the treatment groups, but not insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary consumption of pistachio nuts as a snack has beneficial effects on glycemic control, blood

  18. HbA1c, fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose in current-, ex-, and non-smokers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H; Lange, Celine; Lee, Crystal MY; Colagiuri, Stephen; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Magliano, Dianna; Ferreira, Sandra RS; Dong, Yanghu; Zhang, Lei; Jorgensen, Torben; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Mohan, Viswanathan; Christensen, Dirk L; Kaduka, Lydia; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Lantieri, Olivier; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Leonetti, Donna L; McNeely, Marguerite J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Boyko, Edward J; Vistisen, Dorte; Balkau, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    Aim The relations between smoking and glycaemic parameters are not well explored. We compare HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current-, ex- and never-smokers. Methods This meta-analysis used individual data from 16 886 men and 18 539 women without known diabetes, in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French D.E.S.I.R. and TELECOM studies. Means of the three glycaemic parameters in current-, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random factor. The I2 statistic evaluated heterogeneity among studies. Results HbA1c was 0.10 (95%CI:0.08,0.12) % [1.1 (0.9,1.3) mmol/mol] higher in current-smokers and 0.03 (0.01,0.05) % [0.3 (0.1,0.5) mmol/l] higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG, there was no significant difference between current- and never-smokers: −0.004 (−0.03,0.02) mmol/l but FPG was higher in ex-smokers: 0.12 (0.09,0.14) mmol/l. In comparison to never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower: −0.44 (−0.52,−0.37) mmol/l in current-smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers: 0.02 (−0.06,0.09) mmol/l. There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I2 always higher than 50%: after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI, I2 changed little. In this study population, current-smokers had a prevalence of diabetes as screened by HbA1c, 1.30% higher and that screened by 2H-PG, 0.52% lower than in comparison to never-smokers. Conclusion Current-smokers had a higher HbA1c and a lower 2H-PG than never-smokers, across this heterogeneous group of studies; this will effect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes. PMID:24065153

  19. A novel fiber composite ingredient incorporated into a beverage and bar blunts postprandial serum glucose and insulin responses: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-03-01

    Previous research supports that consumption of resistant starch and guar gum independently influences insulin-mediated glucose responses to meals. This research assessed a novel co-processed fiber composite (FC) ingredient comprising whole-grain high-amylose maize flour and viscous guar gum on glucose and insulin responses to co-consumed and subsequent meals in humans. It was hypothesized that a smoothie-type beverage or a cold-pressed snack bar containing the FC would blunt and sustain serum glucose and insulin postprandial responses compared with maltodextrin (MD). The beverage and bar were assessed in 2 separate studies using identical protocols. Young, nondiabetic, nonobese adults participated in 2 testing days (randomized crossover design) separated by at least 1 week for both food forms. On each testing day, the FC or MD product was consumed with a low-fiber standardized breakfast followed by a low-fiber standardized lunch (with no FC or MD) 4 hours later. Blood samples were collected at baseline and incrementally throughout the 8-hour testing day. One-tailed paired t tests were performed to compare treatment areas under the curve, and a doubly repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to compare treatment responses at individual time points (P< .05, Bonferroni corrected). The FC blunted the postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with MD, including a robust glucose and insulin response reduction after breakfast and a continued modest glycemic second-meal reduction after lunch in both the beverage and the bar. These findings support the use of this novel whole-grain FC ingredient in a beverage or bar for insulin-mediated glucose control in young healthy adults.

  20. Comparison of the clinical characteristics of diabetes mellitus diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sangmo; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Lee, Seong Jin; Lee, Chang Beom; Ihm, Sung-Hee

    2016-03-01

    We compared the characteristics of a Korean adult population diagnosed with diabetes using only a fasting plasma glucose criterion or an HbA1c criterion. The single difference between these two groups was age. Further studies should be undertaken to clarify whether age-specific diagnostic criteria would be appropriate in Korean populations.

  1. Effect of altered eating pattern on serum fructosamine: total protein ratio and plasma glucose level.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, S L; Cheah, S H; Husain, R; Duncan, M T

    1989-05-01

    The effect of alteration of eating pattern during Ramadan on body mass index (BMI), serum fructosamine: total protein ratio (F/TP), and glucose level in 18 healthy male Asiatic Moslems were studied. The results showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) in F/TP at the second week of Ramadan in 11 subjects who experienced continuous decrease in BMI throughout Ramadan. The remaining 7 subjects showed no significant changes in BMI and F/TP. No evidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in the subjects during the study. Serum fructosamine: total protein ratio in subjects with altered eating pattern preferably should be interpreted along with the change in body mass index.

  2. Effects of pentobarbital on plasma glucose and free fatty acids in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furner, R. L.; Neville, E. D.; Talarico, K. S.; Feller, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypolipemia were observed in rats after the injection of sodium pentobarbital. The observed changes were independent of whether the blood was collected by decapitation or by needle puncture of the aorta. The hyperglycemic response was caused by two factors including the stress of the injection per se and the pharmacological action of the drug. Hyperlipemia was observed at 5 min postinjection. However, pentobarbital decreased plasma free fatty acids by 15 min postinjection. Both the hyperglycemia and hypolipemia responses were dose dependent.

  3. Is fresh frozen plasma clinically effective? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Stanworth, S J; Brunskill, S J; Hyde, C J; McClelland, D B L; Murphy, M F

    2004-07-01

    Summary Randomized controlled trials of good quality are a recognized means to robustly assess the efficacy of interventions in clinical practice. A systematic identification and appraisal of all randomized trials involving fresh frozen plasma (FFP) has been undertaken in parallel to the drafting of the updated British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines on the use of FFP. A total of 57 trials met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Most clinical uses of FFP, currently recommended by practice guidelines, are not supported by evidence from randomized trials. In particular, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of the prophylactic use of FFP. Many published trials on the use of FFP have enrolled small numbers of patients, and provided inadequate information on the ability of the trial to detect meaningful differences in outcomes between the two patient groups. Other concerns about the design of the trials include the dose of FFP used, and the potential for bias. No studies have taken adequate account of the extent to which adverse effects might negate the clinical benefits of treatment with FFP. There is a need to consider how best to develop new trials to determine the efficacy of FFP in different clinical scenarios to provide the evidence base to support national guidelines for transfusion practice. Trials of modified FFP (e.g. pathogen inactivated) are of questionable value when there is little evidence that the standard product is an effective treatment. PMID:15198745

  4. Mass spectrometry-based microassay of (2)H and (13)C plasma glucose labeling to quantify liver metabolic fluxes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hasenour, Clinton M; Wall, Martha L; Ridley, D Emerson; Hughey, Curtis C; James, Freyja D; Wasserman, David H; Young, Jamey D

    2015-07-15

    Mouse models designed to examine hepatic metabolism are critical to diabetes and obesity research. Thus, a microscale method to quantitatively assess hepatic glucose and intermediary metabolism in conscious, unrestrained mice was developed. [(13)C3]propionate, [(2)H2]water, and [6,6-(2)H2]glucose isotopes were delivered intravenously in short- (9 h) and long-term-fasted (19 h) C57BL/6J mice. GC-MS and mass isotopomer distribution (MID) analysis were performed on three 40-μl arterial plasma glucose samples obtained during the euglycemic isotopic steady state. Model-based regression of hepatic glucose and citric acid cycle (CAC)-related fluxes was performed using a comprehensive isotopomer model to track carbon and hydrogen atom transitions through the network and thereby simulate the MIDs of measured fragment ions. Glucose-6-phosphate production from glycogen diminished, and endogenous glucose production was exclusively gluconeogenic with prolonged fasting. Gluconeogenic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) remained stable, whereas that from glycerol modestly increased from short- to long-term fasting. CAC flux [i.e., citrate synthase (VCS)] was reduced with long-term fasting. Interestingly, anaplerosis and cataplerosis increased with fast duration; accordingly, pyruvate carboxylation and the conversion of oxaloacetate to PEP were severalfold higher than VCS in long-term fasted mice. This method utilizes state-of-the-art in vivo methodology and comprehensive isotopomer modeling to quantify hepatic glucose and intermediary fluxes during physiological stress in mice. The small plasma requirements permit serial sampling without stress and the affirmation of steady-state glucose kinetics. Furthermore, the approach can accommodate a broad range of modeling assumptions, isotope tracers, and measurement inputs without the need to introduce ad hoc mathematical approximations.

  5. Evaluation of a Novel Continuous Glucose Monitoring-Based Method for Mealtime Insulin Dosing—the iBolus—in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ampudia-Blasco, F. Javier; Laguna, Alejandro; Revert, Ana; Vehì, Josep; Ascaso, Juan F.; Bondia, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Prandial insulin dosing is an empirical practice associated frequently with poor reproducibility in postprandial glucose response. Based on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), a method for prandial insulin administration (iBolus) is presented and evaluated for people with type 1 diabetes using CSII therapy. Subjects and Methods An individual patient's model for a 5-h postprandial period was obtained from 6-day ambulatory CGM and used for iBolus calculation in 12 patients with type 1 diabetes. In a double-blind, crossover study each patient underwent four meal tests with 40 g or 100 g of carbohydrates (CHOs), both on two occasions. For each meal, the iBolus or the traditional bolus (tBolus) was given before mealtime (t0) in a randomized order. We measured the postprandial glycemic response as the area under the curve of plasma glucose (AUC-PG0–5h) and variability as the individual coefficient of variation (CV) of AUC-PG0–5h. The contribution of the insulin-to-CHO ratio, CHO, plasma glucose at t0 (PGt0), and insulin dose to AUC-PG0–5h and its CV was also investigated. Results AUC-PG0–5h was similar with either bolus for 40-g (iBolus vs. tBolus, 585.5±127.5 vs. 689.2±180.7 mg/dL·h) or 100-g (752.1±237.7 vs. 760.0±263.2 mg/dL·h) CHO meals. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant model only for the tBolus, with PGt0 being the best predictor of AUC-PG0–5h explaining approximately 50% of the glycemic response. Observed variability was greater with the iBolus (CV, 16.7±15.3% vs. 10.1±12.5%) but independent of the factors studied. Conclusions A CGM-based algorithm for calculation of prandial insulin is feasible, although it does not reduce unpredictability of individual glycemic responses. Causes of variability need to be identified and analyzed for further optimization of postprandial glycemic control. PMID:23003329

  6. Plasma levels of glucose, ketone bodies, lactate, and alanine in the vascular supply to and from the brain of the adult American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Gibbs, S R; deRoos, R M

    1991-04-01

    Serial, paired blood samples were collected via cannulae chronically placed in the common carotid artery (A) to and the internal jugular vein (V) from the brain of the fasted adult American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Plasma glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, lactate, and alanine levels were measured by standard enzymatic procedures. Cannula failure ended sampling after 1-2 days in most animals. The common carotid artery plasma metabolite levels were greatest at the time of surgery and subsequently declined to relatively stable levels. The summarized data indicated glucose uptake and alanine release by the brain, but no significant beta-hydroxybutyrate or lactate A-V percentage changes. Initially, acetoacetate levels also were measured, but were discontinued in favor of continued beta-hydroxybutyrate determinations when no significant A-V percentage changes occurred. Separate analysis of the metabolite levels during the surgery and recovery period (less than or equal to 24 hr) and the "normal" under the experimental conditions period (greater than 24 hr) revealed that summarizing the data masked important A-V percentage changes during the two different physiological conditions. Glucose was the only metabolite extracted by the brain during the less than or equal to 24 hr period of elevated and subsequently declining metabolite levels. In contrast, glucose uptake did not occur during the greater than 24 hr period of stable levels, but there was lactate release. If the bullfrog brain stores substantial glycogen as do the other ectothermic vertebrates studied, glucose uptake when plasma levels are elevated, for example after feeding, may serve both to fuel the brain and to replenish endogenous glycogen reserves that may be mobilized to provide glucose for the brain after plasma glucose levels return to normal. Assuming that mammalian and bullfrog metabolic pathways are the same, the release of lactate and alanine by the brain, possibly to remove excess

  7. Short communication: plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may regulate milk energy production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, A E; Crompton, L A; Loerch, S C; Reynolds, C K

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows, an increase in plasma concentration of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with an increase in metabolizable energy intake, but the role of GIP in energy partitioning of dairy cattle is not certain. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma GIP concentrations and energy partitioning toward milk production. Four mid-lactation, primiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a control diet of 55% forage and 45% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis] in a 4×4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods. The 4 treatments were (1) control diet fed at 1000 and 1600h, and (2) once-daily (1000h) feeding, (3) twice-daily (1000 and 1600h) feeding, and (4) 4 times/d (1000, 1600, 2200 and 0400h) feeding of the control diet plus 1 dose (1.75kg on a DM basis at 0955h) into the rumen of supplemental vegetable proteins (Amino Green; SCA NuTec Ltd., Thirsk, UK). Measurements of respiratory exchange and energy balance were obtained over 4d during the last week of each period while cows were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers. Blood was collected from the jugular vein every 30min for 12h, using indwelling catheters, starting at 0800h on d 20 of each period. Plasma GIP concentration was measured in samples pooled over each 5 consecutive blood samplings. The relationships between plasma GIP, DM intake, heat production, respiratory quotient (RQ), milk yield, and milk energy output were analyzed using linear correlation procedures, with metabolizable intake as a partial variant. Plasma GIP concentration was not correlated with heat production, or milk yield, but was positively correlated with milk energy yield (correlation coefficient=0.67) and negatively correlated with RQ (correlation coefficient=-0.72). The correlations between GIP with RQ and milk energy output do not imply causality, but support a role for GIP in the regulation of energy metabolism in dairy cows.

  8. The effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Dastani, Mostafa; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Abnous, Khalil; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl) randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and lipids profile were checked before and after the intervention. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were done using the SPSS 11.5 software. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. (RCT registration code: IRCT2013081114330N1) Results: Mean age, BMI, FBG, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL, HDL, HbA1c , and sex and had no significant difference at the baseline between the groups. In Nano-curcumin group, a significant decrease was found in HbA1C, FBG, TG, and BMI comparing results of each subject before and after the treatment (p<0.05). By comparing pre- and post-treatment values among the groups, HbA1c, eAG, LDL-C, and BMI variables showed significant differences (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest an HbA1c lowering effect for Nano-curcumin in type-2 diabetes; also, it is partially decrease in serum LDL-C and BMI. PMID:27761427

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensive Versus Conservative Glucose Control in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: GLUCO-CABG Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Saumeth; Pasquel, Francisco; Jacobs, Sol; Peng, Limin; Unigwe, Michael; Newton, Christopher A.; Smiley-Byrd, Dawn; Vellanki, Priyathama; Halkos, Michael; Puskas, John D.; Guyton, Robert A.; Thourani, Vinod H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The optimal level of glycemic control needed to improve outcomes in cardiac surgery patients remains controversial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomized patients with diabetes (n = 152) and without diabetes (n = 150) with hyperglycemia to an intensive glucose target of 100–140 mg/dL (n = 151) or to a conservative target of 141–180 mg/dL (n = 151) after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) surgery. After the intensive care unit (ICU), patients received a single treatment regimen in the hospital and 90 days postdischarge. Primary outcome was differences in a composite of complications, including mortality, wound infection, pneumonia, bacteremia, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, and major cardiovascular events. RESULTS Mean glucose in the ICU was 132 ± 14 mg/dL (interquartile range [IQR] 124–139) in the intensive and 154 ± 17 mg/dL (IQR 142–164) in the conservative group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the composite of complications between intensive and conservative groups (42 vs. 52%, P = 0.08). We observed heterogeneity in treatment effect according to diabetes status, with no differences in complications among patients with diabetes treated with intensive or conservative regimens (49 vs. 48%, P = 0.87), but a significant lower rate of complications in patients without diabetes treated with intensive compared with conservative treatment regimen (34 vs. 55%, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS Intensive insulin therapy to target glucose of 100 and 140 mg/dL in the ICU did not significantly reduce perioperative complications compared with target glucose of 141 and 180 mg/dL after CABG surgery. Subgroup analysis showed a lower number of complications in patients without diabetes, but not in patients with diabetes treated with the intensive regimen. Large prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26180108

  10. Analysis of rapid oscillations of glucose and free fatty acids in plasma.

    PubMed

    Brodan, V; Hájek, M; Kuhn, E; Andĕl, M

    1979-07-01

    The authors analyzed rapid oscillations of blood sugar (GL) and free fatty acid levels (FFA) in serum of healthy subjects. They investigated a series of blood samples taken under conditions of absolute rest from the cubital vein at 15-s intervals for a period of 6 min. In addition to common statistical parameters, they calculated the course of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions and periodograms. The magnitude of oscillations is significantly higher than the error of the biochemical methods. In some sequences periodicities were detected which were statistically significant in 23.8% of GL and in 38.1% of FFA. 24-point series of GL collected in parallel from both arms correlate in 36.3% positively, in 27.3% negatively, and in 36.4% they do not correlate. Series of FFA and GL collected simultaneously from one site correlate mutaually in almost all instances either positively or negatively, frequently with a time shift. The oscillations may be due to (a) feedback regulations of the levels of the two metabolites, (b) permanent mutual interaction between the FFA and glucose level and (c) an uneven concentration of the two metabolites in different parts of the circulation. The above factors may combine, and the list of possible factors may not be complete.

  11. Determinants of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin among low income Latinos with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Vega-López, Sonia; Pérez, Sofia Segura; Damio, Grace; Calle, Mariana C; D'Agostino, Darrin; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic, socio-economic, acculturation, lifestyle, sleeping pattern, and biomedical determinants of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), among Latinos with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Latino adults (N = 211) with T2D enrolled in the DIALBEST trial were interviewed in their homes. Fasting blood samples were also collected in the participants' homes. Because all participants had poor glucose control, above-median values for FPG (173 mg/dl) and HbA1c (9.2%) were considered to be indicative of poorer glycemic control. Multivariate analyses showed that receiving heating assistance (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 0.96-4.96), and having a radio (3.11, 1.16-8.35), were risk factors for higher FPG levels, and lower income (10.4, 1.54-69.30) was a risk factor for higher HbA1c levels. Lower carbohydrate intake during the previous day (0.04; 0.005-0.37), as well as regular physical activity (0.30; 0.13-0.69), breakfast (2.78; 1.10-6.99) and dinner skipping (3.9; 1.03-14.9) during previous week were significantly associated with FPG concentrations. Being middle aged (2.24, 1.12-4.47), 30-60 min of sleep during the day time (0.07, 0.01-0.74) and having medical insurance (0.31, 0.10-0.96) were predictors of HbA1c. Results suggest that contemporaneous lifestyle behaviors were associated with FPG and contextual biomedical factors such as health care access with HbA1c. Lower socio-economic status indicators were associated with poorer FPG and HbA1c glycemic control.

  12. Numerical Modeling of High Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Propagation through Ionospheric Plasma with Randomly Distributed Flute Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplinger, J.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Wallerstein, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    A three dimensional numerical ray-tracing algorithm based on a Hamilton-Jacobi geometric optics approximation is used to analyze propagation of high frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves through a plasma with randomly distributed vortex structures having a spatial dependence in the plane perpendicular to earth's magnetic field. This spatial dependence in density is elongated and uniform along the magnetic field lines. Similar vortex structures may appear in the equatorial spread F region and in the Auroral zone of the ionosphere. The diffusion coefficient associated with wave vector deflection from a propagation path can be approximated by measuring the average deflection angle of the beam of rays. Then, the beam broadening can be described statistically using the Fokker-Planck equation. Visualizations of the ray propagation through generated density structures along with estimated and analytically calculated diffusion coefficients will be presented.

  13. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c < 6.5% were more likely to be older (64 ± 15 versus 60 ± 15 years old, P = 0.01, mean ± STD), female (53.2% versus 38.2%, P = 0.008), leaner (29.7 ± 6.1 versus 33.0 ± 6.6 kg/m2, P = 0.000005), and less likely to be current smokers (18.1% versus 29.1%, P = 0.02) as compared to those with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained.

  14. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration.

    PubMed

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Ou, Horng-Yih; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chiu, Ken C; Samoa, Raynald

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c < 6.5% were more likely to be older (64 ± 15 versus 60 ± 15 years old, P = 0.01, mean ± STD), female (53.2% versus 38.2%, P = 0.008), leaner (29.7 ± 6.1 versus 33.0 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.000005), and less likely to be current smokers (18.1% versus 29.1%, P = 0.02) as compared to those with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained. PMID:27597979

  15. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. Methods The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2–3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Results Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Conclusion Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects. PMID:26844086

  16. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c < 6.5% were more likely to be older (64 ± 15 versus 60 ± 15 years old, P = 0.01, mean ± STD), female (53.2% versus 38.2%, P = 0.008), leaner (29.7 ± 6.1 versus 33.0 ± 6.6 kg/m2, P = 0.000005), and less likely to be current smokers (18.1% versus 29.1%, P = 0.02) as compared to those with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained. PMID:27597979

  17. Postprandial effects on plasma lipids and satiety hormones from intake of liposomes made from fractionated oat oil: two randomized crossover studies

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Lena; Rosenquist, Anna; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Härröd, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The composition and surface structure of dietary lipids influence their intestinal degradation. Intake of liposomes made of fractionated oat oil (LOO) is suggested to affect the digestion process and postprandial lipemia and also induce satiety. Objective In the present study, the metabolic effects on plasma lipids and gut hormones related to satiety were investigated in healthy individuals after intake of LOO, with dairy lipids as placebo. Design Two blinded randomized studies with crossover design were performed. In the first study, 19 subjects consumed 35 g lipids from LOO or yoghurt in a breakfast meal. In a follow-up study, 15 women consumed 14 or 1.8 g lipids from LOO mixed in yoghurt. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, insulin, glucose, and intestinal hormones CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and GLP-2 before and four times after the meal. Subjective analysis of satiety was measured using a visual analog scale questionnaire. Participants recorded their food intake during the rest of the day. Results Intake of 35 and 14 g lipids from LOO significantly increased plasma concentrations of CCK, GLP-1, GLP-2, and PYY postprandially. This coincided with a prolonged elevation of triglycerides and large cholesterol-containing particles. Non-esterified fatty acids decreased after intake of 14 and 1.8 g lipids from LOO. The subjective sensation of satiety in women was increased 7 h after intake of 35 g lipids from LOO without any difference in food intake. Our results indicate that intake of 14 g lipids from LOO at breakfast substantially reduced energy intake during the rest of the day. Conclusions This study suggests that intake of LOO prolong lipid digestion, affect postprandial plasma lipids and have an effect on satiety. The effect of LOO on GLP-2 indicates that intake of LOO also improve gut health. PMID:25317122

  18. High Fasting Plasma Glucose Mortality Effect: A Comparative Risk Assessment in 25–64 Years Old Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Peykari, Niloofar; Saeedi, Moghaddam Sahar; Djalalinia, Shirin; Kasaeian, Amir; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: High fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is one of the main leading risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). We estimated population attributable fraction (PAF) and attributed death of these fatal outcomes of high FPG at national and subnational levels in 25–64 years old Iranian adult. Methods: We used national and subnational data of the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey for exposure to risk factors in 2005 and 2011 among Iranian adults of 25–64 years old. For estimating the attributed death, using the death registration system data of Iran, we multiply the cause-specific PAFs by the number of outcome-specific deaths. Results: In Iran, high FPG was responsible for about 31% of attributed total deaths of IHD, stroke, and CKD in 2011. The related attributed deaths had increased from 2005 to 2011. In females, the PAFs for the effect of high FPG on IHD, stroke, and CKD were higher in 2011 than 2005 in all age groups. In males, this increase has occurred in over 45 years old. The highest PAFs of high FPG outcomes mostly related to central provinces of Iran. The central region of Iran had the highest and the southeast of the country had the lowest levels of attributed deaths. Conclusions: Considering the global 25 × 25 targets for noncommunicable disease mortality reduction, high FPG as a leading risk factor of fatal outcomes should be more targeted through the dietary, behavioral, and pharmacological interventions in Iran. PMID:27280011

  19. Evaluating the transferability of 15 European-derived fasting plasma glucose SNPs in Mexican children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Christine; Abadi, Arkan; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Alyass, Akram; Suarez, Fernando; Gomez-Zamudio, Jaime; Burguete-Garcia, Ana I.; Yazdi, Fereshteh T.; Cruz, Miguel; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in adult European populations. The contribution of these SNPs to FPG in non-Europeans and children is unclear. We studied the association of 15 GWAS SNPs and a genotype score (GS) with FPG and 7 metabolic traits in 1,421 Mexican children and adolescents from Mexico City. Genotyping of the 15 SNPs was performed using TaqMan Open Array. We used multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index standard deviation score, and recruitment center. We identified significant associations between 3 SNPs (G6PC2 (rs560887), GCKR (rs1260326), MTNR1B (rs10830963)), the GS and FPG level. The FPG risk alleles of 11 out of the 15 SNPs (73.3%) displayed significant or non-significant beta values for FPG directionally consistent with those reported in adult European GWAS. The risk allele frequencies for 11 of 15 (73.3%) SNPs differed significantly in Mexican children and adolescents compared to European adults from the 1000G Project, but no significant enrichment in FPG risk alleles was observed in the Mexican population. Our data support a partial transferability of European GWAS FPG association signals in children and adolescents from the admixed Mexican population. PMID:27782183

  20. GLYCEMIC CONTROL AFTER HOSPITAL DISCHARGE IN INSULIN-TREATED TYPE 2 DIABETES: A RANDOMIZED PILOT STUDY OF DAILY REMOTE GLUCOSE MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nancy J.; Nathan, David M.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients treated with insulin in the high-risk period between hospital discharge and follow-up. We sought to assess the impact of remote glucose monitoring on postdischarge glycemic control and insulin titration. Methods We randomly assigned 28 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients who were discharged home on insulin therapy to routine specialty care (RSC) or RSC with daily remote glucose monitoring (RGM). We compared the primary outcome of mean blood glucose and exploratory outcomes of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia rates, change in hemoglobin A1c and glycated albumin, and insulin titration frequency between groups. Results Mean blood glucose was not significantly different between the treatment arms (144 ± 34 mg/dL in the RSC group and 172 ± 41 mg/dL in the RGM group; not significant), nor were there significant differences in any of the other measures of glycemia during the month after discharge. Hypoglycemia (glucometer reading <60 mg/dL) was common, occurring in 46% of subjects, with no difference between groups. In as-treated analysis, insulin dose adjustments (29% with an increase and 43% with decrease in insulin dose) occurred more frequently in the patients who used RGM (average of 2.8 vs. 1.2 dose adjustments; P = .03). Conclusion In this pilot trial in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, RGM did not affect glycemic control after hospital discharge; however, the high rate of hypoglycemia in the postdischarge transition period and the higher frequency of insulin titration in patients who used RGM suggest a safety role for such monitoring in the transition from hospital to home. PMID:25148814

  1. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Eggels, Leslie; Rijnsburger, Merel; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Kalsbeek, Andries; Denys, Damiaan; Fliers, Eric; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc) influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of 1 h. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity- dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients. PMID:24339800

  2. The seasonal glucocorticoid response of male Rufous-winged Sparrows to acute stress correlates with changes in plasma uric acid, but neither glucose nor testosterone.

    PubMed

    Deviche, Pierre; Valle, Shelley; Gao, Sisi; Davies, Scott; Bittner, Stephanie; Carpentier, Elodie

    2016-09-01

    We sought to clarify functional relationships between baseline and acute stress-induced changes in plasma levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and the reproductive hormone testosterone (T), and those of two main metabolites, uric acid (UA) and glucose (GLU). Acute stress in vertebrates generally stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, which in birds is primarily CORT. This stimulation is thought to promote behavioral and metabolic changes, including increased glycemia. However, limited information in free-ranging birds supports the view that acutely elevated plasma CORT stimulates glycemia. Acute stress also often decreases the secretion of reproductive hormones (e.g., T in males), but the role of CORT in this decrease and the contribution of T to the regulation of plasma GLU remain poorly understood. We measured initial (pre-stress) and acute stress-induced plasma CORT and T as well as GLU in adult male Rufous-winged Sparrows, Peucaea carpalis, sampled during the pre-breeding, breeding, post-breeding molt, and non-breeding stages. Stress increased plasma CORT and the magnitude of this increase did not differ across life history stages. The stress-induced elevation of plasma CORT was consistently associated with decreased plasma UA, suggesting a role for CORT in the regulation of plasma UA during stress. During stress plasma GLU either increased (pre-breeding), did not change (breeding), or decreased (molt and non-breeding), and plasma T either decreased (pre-breeding and breeding) or did not change (molt and non-breeding). These data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that CORT secretion during acute stress exerts a hyperglycemic action or is responsible for the observed decrease in plasma T taking place at certain life history stages. They also do not support the hypothesis that rapid changes in plasma T influence glycemia. PMID:27292791

  3. The effect of random Alfven waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves in a finite-beta plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu

    1990-01-01

    Using first-order smoothing theory, Fourier analysis and perturbation methods, the evolution equation of the wave spectrum as well as the nonlinear forces generated by random Alfven waves in a finite-beta plasma with phenomenological Landau-damping effects are obtained. The effect of microscale random Alfven waves on the propagation of large-scale hydromagnetic waves is also investigated by solving the mean-field equations. It is shown that parallel-propagating random Alfven waves are modulationally stable and that obliquely propagating random Alfven waves can be modulationally unstable when the energy of random waves is converted to slow magnetoacoustic waves that can be Landau-damped, providing a dissipation mechanism for the Alfven waves.

  4. Determinants of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Among Low Income Latinos with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Vega-LÓpez, Sonia; Pérez, Sofia Segura; Damio, Grace; Calle, Mariana C.; D’Agostino, Darrin; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic, socio-economic, acculturation, lifestyle, sleeping pattern, and biomedical determinants of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), among Latinos with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Latino adults (N = 211) with T2D enrolled in the DIALBEST trial were interviewed in their homes. Fasting blood samples were also collected in the participants’ homes. Because all participants had poor glucose control, above-median values for FPG (173 mg/dl) and HbA1c (9.2%) were considered to be indicative of poorer glycemic control. Multivariate analyses showed that receiving heating assistance (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 0.96–4.96), and having a radio (3.11, 1.16–8.35), were risk factors for higher FPG levels, and lower income (10.4, 1.54–69.30) was a risk factor for higher HbA1c levels. Lower carbohydrate intake during the previous day (0.04; 0.005–0.37), as well as regular physical activity (0.30; 0.13–0.69), breakfast (2.78; 1.10–6.99) and dinner skipping (3.9; 1.03–14.9) during previous week were significantly associated with FPG concentrations. Being middle aged (2.24, 1.12–4.47), 30–60 min of sleep during the day time (0.07, 0.01–0.74) and having medical insurance (0.31, 0.10–0.96) were predictors of HbA1c. Results suggest that contemporaneous lifestyle behaviors were associated with FPG and contextual biomedical factors such as health care access with HbA1c. Lower socio-economic status indicators were associated with poorer FPG and HbA1c glycemic control. PMID:21181446

  5. The Association of Retinopathy and Plasma Glucose and HbA1c: A Validation of Diabetes Diagnostic Criteria in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Simin

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload plasma glucose (2hPG), and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in a Chinese population. Materials and Methods. A total of 3124 participants, identified from a population-based survey in Pinggu district, were examined by retinal photography (45°). DR was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. FPG, 2hPG, and HbA1c were tested and categorized by deciles, with the prevalence of DR calculated in each decile. Results. The prevalence of DR increased sharply in the 10th deciles, when FPG exceeded 7.03 mmol/L and HbA1c exceeded 6.4%. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal cutoffs for detecting DR were 6.52 mmol/L and 5.9% for FPG and HbA1c, respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for diagnosing diabetes showed high specificity (90.5–99.5%) and low sensitivity (35.3–65.0%). Further, 6 individuals with retinopathy had normal plasma glucose; however, their characteristics did not differ from those without retinopathy. Conclusions. Thresholds of FPG and HbA1c for detecting DR were observed, and the WHO criteria of diagnosing diabetes were shown to have high specificity and low sensitivity in this population. PMID:27807545

  6. Glycemic load effect on fasting and post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in a randomized, controlled feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Runchey, Shauna S.; Pollak, Michael N.; Valsta, Liisa M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Breymeyer, Kara L.; Wang, Chiachi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Lampe, Johanna W.; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The effect of a low glycemic load (GL) diet on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration is still unknown but may contribute to lower chronic disease risk. We aimed to assess the impact of GL on concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. Subjects/Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled crossover feeding trial in 84 overweight-obese and normal weight healthy individuals using two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-GL diets. Measures were fasting and post-prandial concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. 20 participants completed post-prandial testing by consuming a test breakfast at the end of each feeding period. We used paired t-tests for diet-component and linear mixed models for biomarker analyses. Results The 28-day low-GL diet led to 4% lower fasting concentrations of IGF-1 (10.6 ng/mL, p=0.04) and a 4% lower ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (0.24, p=0.01) compared to the high-GL diet. The low-GL test breakfast led to 43% and 27% lower mean post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, respectively; mean incremental areas under the curve for glucose and insulin, respectively, were 64.3±21.8 (mmol/L/240min) (p<0.01) and 2253±539 (μU/mL/240min) (p<0.01) lower following the low- compared to the high-GL test meal. There was no effect of GL on mean HOMA-IR or on mean integrated post-prandial concentrations of glucose-adjusted insulin, IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. We did not observe modification of the dietary effect by adiposity. Conclusions Low-GL diets resulted in 43% and 27% lower post-prandial responses of glucose and insulin, respectively, and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 concentrations. Further intervention studies are needed to weigh the impact of dietary GL on risk for chronic disease. PMID:22892437

  7. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study on the effect of Diabetinol® on glycemic control of subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Malkanthi; Judy, William V; Wilson, Dale; Rumberger, John A; Guthrie, Najla

    2015-01-01

    Background This study investigated the efficacy of Diabetinol® in people with diabetes on medication but not meeting the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid targets. Subjects and methods Fifty subjects, aged 18–75 years, with fasting blood glucose ≤15.4 mmol/L, hemoglobin A1c levels ≤12%, and a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m2, were enrolled in a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Diabetinol® or placebo was administered as 2×525 mg capsules/day. Results In the Diabetinol® group, 14.3% versus 0% in the placebo group, 33.3% versus 15.4% in placebo, 20.0% versus 12.5% in placebo, and 83.3% versus 60% in placebo achieved the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association targets for hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure, respectively. There was no difference in the maximum concentration (Cmax) of serum glucose or area under the curve (AUC)0–240 minutes. The time to Cmax was longer for participants on Diabetinol® than placebo group at week 12 (P=0.01). Fasting blood glucose increased from baseline to week 24 in both groups; however, this increase was 14.3 mg/dL lower in the Diabetinol® group versus placebo. The Diabetinol® group showed an increase of 5.53 mg/dL in fasting insulin at week 12 (P=0.09) and 3.2 mg/dL at week 24 (P=0.41) over and above the placebo group. A decrease of 1.5% in total cholesterol, 5.8% in low-density lipoprotein, and a 1.6% increase in high-density lipoprotein concentrations were seen in the Diabetinol® group. Diabetinol® improved 6-month oral glucose tolerance test and 2-hour postprandial glucose profiles in participants between 40 and 60 years of age. Conclusion The current study suggests a role for Diabetinol® as an adjunctive therapy for glycemic maintenance and for decreasing the risk of diabetes

  8. Glucose control.

    PubMed

    Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related hyperglycemia is a common finding in acutely ill patients, and is related to the severity and outcome of the critical illness. The pathophysiology of stress hyperglycemia includes hormonal and neural signals, leading to increased production of glucose by the liver and peripheral insulin resistance mediated by the translocation of transmembrane glucose transporters. In one pioneering study, tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients was associated with improved survival. However, this major finding was not confirmed in several other prospective randomized controlled trials. The reasons underlying the discrepancy between the first and the subsequent studies could include nutritional strategy (amount of calories provided, use of parenteral nutrition), case-mix, potential differences in the optimal blood glucose level (BG) in different types of patients, hypoglycemia and its correction, and the magnitude of glucose variability. Therefore, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of glycemic regulation during acute illness is needed. Safe and effective glucose control will need improvement in the definition of optimal BG and in the measurement techniques, perhaps including continuous monitoring of insulin algorithms and closed-loop systems. PMID:23075589

  9. Performance improvement of gadolinium oxide resistive random access memory treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jer-Chyi Hsu, Chih-Hsien; Ye, Yu-Ren; Ai, Chi-Fong; Tsai, Wen-Fa

    2014-03-15

    Characteristics improvement of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub x}O{sub y}) resistive random access memories (RRAMs) treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was investigated. With the hydrogen PIII treatment, the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs exhibited low set/reset voltages and a high resistance ratio, which were attributed to the enhanced movement of oxygen ions within the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} films and the increased Schottky barrier height at Pt/Gd{sub x}O{sub y} interface, respectively. The resistive switching mechanism of Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs was dominated by Schottky emission, as proved by the area dependence of the resistance in the low resistance state. After the hydrogen PIII treatment, a retention time of more than 10{sup 4} s was achieved at an elevated measurement temperature. In addition, a stable cycling endurance with the resistance ratio of more than three orders of magnitude of the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs can be obtained.

  10. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: prospective randomized controlled trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Evandro Pereira; Schiavetti, Rafael Ramos; Kanematsu, Maiara; Ikeda, Tiago Moreno; Mizobuchi, Roberto Ryuiti; Galbiatti, José Antônio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration in patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, through analysis of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaires. Methods Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow were prospectively randomized and evaluated after receiving infiltration of three milliliters of PRP, or 0.5% neocaine, or dexamethasone. For the scoring process, the patients were asked to fill out the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires on three occasions: on the day of infiltration and 90 and 180 days afterwards. Results Around 81.7% of the patients who underwent the treatment presented some improvement of the symptoms. The statistical tests showed that there was evidence that the cure rate was unrelated to the substance applied (p = 0.62). There was also intersection between the confidence intervals of each group, thus demonstrating that the proportions of patients whose symptoms improved were similar in all the groups. Conclusion At a significance level of 5%, there was no evidence that one treatment was more effective than another, when assessed using the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires. PMID:26962506

  11. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Golbon; Angoorani, Pooneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Tabibi, Hadi; Kimiagar, Masoud; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Materials and methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years), T2D were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A (PJ, n=22) and group B (Placebo, n=22). At the baseline and the end of 12-week intervention, biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, and AGE markers including carboxy methyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine were assayed. Results At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels between the two groups, but malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased levels were significantly different (P<0.001). After 12 weeks of intervention, TAC increased (P<0.05) and MDA decreased (P<0.01) in the PJ group when compared with the placebo group. However, no significant differences were observed in plasma concentration of CML and pentosidine between the two groups. Conclusions The study showed that PJ decreases lipid peroxidation. Therefore, PJ consumption may delay onset of T2D complications related to oxidative stress. PMID:26355954

  12. Multiple Functional Polymorphisms in the G6PC2 Gene Contribute to the Association with Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Baerenwald, D. A.; Bonnefond, A.; Bouatia-Naji, N.; Flemming, B. P.; Umunakwe, O. C.; Oeser, J. K.; Pound, L. D.; Conley, N. L.; Cauchi, S.; Lobbens, S.; Eury, E.; Balkau, B.; Lantieri, O.; Dadi, P. K.; Jacobson, D. A.; Froguel, P.; O’Brien, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We previously identified the G6PC2 locus as a strong determinant of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and showed that a common G6PC2 intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs560887) and two common G6PC2 promoter SNPs (rs573225 and rs13431652) are highly associated with FPG. However, these promoter SNPs have complex effects on G6PC2 fusion gene expression, and our data suggested that only rs13431652 is a potentially causative SNP. Here we examine the effect of rs560887 on G6PC2 pre-mRNA splicing and the contribution of an additional common G6PC2 promoter SNP, rs2232316, to the association signal. Methods Mini-gene analyzes characterized the effect of rs560887 on G6PC2 pre-mRNA splicing. Fusion gene and gel retardation analyses characterized the effect of rs2232316 on G6PC2 promoter activity and transcription factor binding. The genetic association of rs2232316 with FPG variation was assessed using regression adjusted for age, gender and body mass index in 4,220 Europeans with normal FPG. Results & Conclusions The rs560887-G allele was shown to enhance G6PC2 pre-mRNA splicing while the rs2232316-A allele enhanced G6PC2 transcription by promoting Foxa2 binding. Genetic analyses provide evidence for association of the rs2232316-A allele with increased FPG (β=0.04 mmol/l; P=4.3×10−3) as part of the same signal as rs560887, rs573225 and rs13431652. As with rs13431652 the in situ functional data with rs560887 and rs2232316 are in accord with the putative function of G6PC2 in pancreatic islets and suggest that all three are potentially causative SNPs that contribute to the association between G6PC2 and FPG. PMID:23508304

  13. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Moosa; Kazemi, Asma; Hasan Zadeh, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day) on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed before and after the investigation for fasting blood sugar (FBS), two-hour post-prandial glucose (2hPP), insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, and molondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Results: HbA1c (P=0.00) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.04) values decreased significantly in the 6 isocaloric meal pattern compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in fasting serum glucose (P=0.09), insulin (P=0.65), total cholesterol (P=0.32), LDL-C (P=0.43), HDL-C (P=0.40) cholesterol, triglyceride (P=0.40), MDA (P=0.13) and 2hPP serum glucose (P=0.30) concentrations between the 6 isocaloric meal and tradition meal pattern. Conclusion: Six isocaloric meal pattern in comparison with the current meal pattern led to weight loss and improved glycemic control. Serum lipid profile and MDA did not change significantly. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201205179780N1 PMID:25242841

  14. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P<0.01). Mean ambulatory 24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, P<0.01 and diastolic BP, P<0.05), and albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced from 0.73 mg/mmol (0.5-1.5) to 0.64 mg/mmol (0.3-1.1; P<0.05). There was no significant change in fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, or insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, to approximately the amount recommended in public health guidelines, leads to significant and clinically relevant falls in BP in individuals who are early on in the progression of diabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. PMID:27160199

  15. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P<0.01). Mean ambulatory 24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, P<0.01 and diastolic BP, P<0.05), and albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced from 0.73 mg/mmol (0.5-1.5) to 0.64 mg/mmol (0.3-1.1; P<0.05). There was no significant change in fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, or insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, to approximately the amount recommended in public health guidelines, leads to significant and clinically relevant falls in BP in individuals who are early on in the progression of diabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP.

  16. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  17. Non-thermal plasma with 2-deoxy-D-glucose synergistically induces cell death by targeting glycolysis in blood cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Neha; Lee, Su Jae; Choi, Tae Gyu; Baik, Ku Youn; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we show the selective and efficient anti-cancer effects of plasma (at a low dose) when cell metabolic modifiers are also included. 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, was used with effective doses of non-thermal plasma, synergistically attenuating cell metabolic viability and inducing caspase-dependent and independent cell death. The combination treatment decreased the intracellular ATP and lactate production in various types of blood cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that 2-DG enhances the efficacy and selectivity of plasma and induces the synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth by targeting glycolysis and apoptosis. Specifically, this treatment strategy demonstrated an enhanced growth inhibitory effect of plasma in the presence of a metabolic modifier that was selective against cancer cells, not non-malignant cells. This is the first study to report the advantage of combining plasma with 2-DG to eradicate blood cancer cells. Finally, we conclude that 2-DG with non-thermal plasma may be used as a combination treatment against blood cancer cells.

  18. Effect of aspartame and protein, administered in phenylalanine-equivalent doses, on plasma neutral amino acids, aspartate, insulin and glucose in man.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E

    1991-05-01

    Six human males each received 0.56 g phenylalanine (Phe) in the form of 1.0 g aspartame or 12.2 g bovine albumin in 200 ml water or water alone. Venous blood samples collected before consumption and during the following 4 hr were assayed for plasma levels of large, neutral amino acids (LNAA), aspartate, insulin and glucose. The area under the curve for plasma Phe was 40% greater, although not significant, after aspartame compared with albumin intake. The indicated increased clearance rate of plasma Phe after albumin may be caused by the significant increase of insulin, on which aspartame had no effect. There was a significant main effect of aspartame for plasma tyrosine but not for tryptophan, valine, isoleucine or leucine. Plasma aspartate was significantly increased at 0.25 hr after the aspartame intake. The percentage Phe/LNAA decreased slightly in response to albumin but increased 55% after aspartame and remained significantly increased for 2 hr. Tyrosine/LNAA increased and tryptophan/LNAA decreased modestly after aspartame intake. The study showed that the intake of aspartame in a not unrealistically high dose produced a marked and persistent increase of the availability of Phe to the brain, which was not observed after protein intake. The study indicated, furthermore, that Phe was cleared faster from the plasma after consumption of protein compared with aspartame.

  19. Statin therapy and plasma cortisol concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Rathouska, Jana; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Nachtigal, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to calculate the effect size of statin therapy in changing plasma cortisol concentrations. Following a systematic search in Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases (by up to March 01, 2015), 7 eligible RCTs were selected. Random-effects meta-analysis suggested a significant increase in plasma cortisol concentrations following statin therapy (WMD: 6.34%, 95% CI: 1.80, 10.87, p=0.006). Subgroup analysis confirmed the significance of the effect with lipophilic statins comprising atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin (WMD: 7.00%, 95% CI: 2.21, 11.79, p=0.004) but not with hydrophilic statins (rosuvastatin and pravastatin) (WMD: 0.60%, 95% CI: -13.46, 14.66, p=0.933). In the meta-regression analysis, changes in plasma cortisol concentrations following statin therapy were found to be independent of treatment duration. Results of this meta-analysis of RCTs suggest a significant elevation in plasma cortisol levels following statin therapy. PMID:26546969

  20. Changes in glucose tolerance and plasma insulin during lipid-lowering treatment with diet, clofibrate and niceritrol.

    PubMed

    Lithell, H; Vessby, B; Hellsing, K

    1982-06-01

    In an effort to reduce serum lipids in patients with atherosclerotic manifestations, a combined treatment with a conventional lipid-lowering diet, clofibrate and niceritrol was used. The effect on glucose metabolism of such treatment was studied. Among the 106 patients 66 took the full dose of both drugs and of these 51 were weight-stable and non-diabetic. The effects of the diet and the drugs were evaluated in this subsample. Diet had no effect on fasting blood glucose concentration, the K value of an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and concentrations of serum insulin. Niceritrol treatment was associated with increased blood glucose, decreased K value, elevated fasting serum insulin and serum insulin at 60 min during IVGTT. Clofibrate had the opposite effects to niceritrol and when both drugs were combined, carbohydrate metabolism was unchanged compared with the pre-treatment state. PMID:7052096

  1. Associations between meal size, gastric emptying and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in meal-fed cats.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Filippich, L J; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are increased for 12-24 h in healthy cats following moderate- to high-carbohydrate meals. This study investigated associations between gastric emptying time and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in cats fed an extruded dry, high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, low-protein diet (51, 28, 21% metabolizable energy, respectively) once daily by varying meal volume. Eleven healthy, non-obese, neutered adult cats were enrolled in a prospective study and fed to maintain body weight. Ultrasound examinations were performed for up to 26 h, and blood collections over 24 h after eating meals containing approximately 100% and 50% of the cats' daily caloric intake (209 and 105 kJ/kg BW, respectively). Gastric emptying time was increased after a meal of 209 kJ/kg BW compared with 105 kJ/kg BW (median gastric emptying times 24 and 14 h, respectively; p = 0.03). Time for glucose to return to fasting was longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal (median 20 h; 25th and 75th percentiles 15 and 23 h, respectively) than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (13, 12 and 14 h; p < 0.01); however, peak glucose was not higher after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal compared with the 105 kJ/kg BW meal [(mean ± SD) 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.8 ± 1.2 mmol/l, respectively, p = 0.07]. Times for insulin to return to fasting were not significantly longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (p = 0.29). d- and l-lactate concentrations were not associated with gastric emptying time or post-prandial blood glucose and insulin. Based on results obtained, prolonged gastric emptying contributes to prolonged post-prandial hyperglycemia in cats meal fed a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, dry diet and fasting times for cats' meal-fed diets of similar composition should be 14-26 h, depending on meal size.

  2. Association of Roadway Proximity with Fasting Plasma Glucose and Metabolic Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in a Cross-Sectional Study of Cardiac Catheterization Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, William E.; Blach, Colette; Haynes, Carol S.; Dowdy, Elaine; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Devlin, Robert B.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Cascio, Wayne E.; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Stallings, Casson; Smith, Luther A.; Gregory, Simon G.; Shah, Svati H.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Neas, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease needs to be better understood in order to address the adverse impact of air pollution on human health. Objective We examined associations between roadway proximity and traffic exposure zones, as markers of TRAP exposure, and metabolic biomarkers for cardiovascular disease risk in a cohort of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 2,124 individuals residing in North Carolina (USA). Roadway proximity was assessed via distance to primary and secondary roadways, and we used residence in traffic exposure zones (TEZs) as a proxy for TRAP. Two categories of metabolic outcomes were studied: measures associated with glucose control, and measures associated with lipid metabolism. Statistical models were adjusted for race, sex, smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status (SES). Results An interquartile-range (990 m) decrease in distance to roadways was associated with higher fasting plasma glucose (β = 2.17 mg/dL; 95% CI: –0.24, 4.59), and the association appeared to be limited to women (β = 5.16 mg/dL; 95% CI: 1.48, 8.84 compared with β = 0.14 mg/dL; 95% CI: –3.04, 3.33 in men). Residence in TEZ 5 (high-speed traffic) and TEZ 6 (stop-and-go traffic), the two traffic zones assumed to have the highest levels of TRAP, was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; β = 8.36; 95% CI: –0.15, 16.9 and β = 5.98; 95% CI: –3.96, 15.9, for TEZ 5 and 6, respectively). Conclusion Proxy measures of TRAP exposure were associated with intermediate metabolic traits associated with cardiovascular disease, including fasting plasma glucose and possibly HDL-C. Citation Ward-Caviness CK, Kraus WE, Blach C, Haynes CS, Dowdy E, Miranda ML, Devlin RB, Diaz-Sanchez D, Cascio WE, Mukerjee S, Stallings C, Smith LA, Gregory SG, Shah SH, Hauser ER, Neas LM. 2015. Association of roadway

  3. Detection of orally administered inositol stereoisomers in mouse blood plasma and their effects on translocation of glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Yamaoka, Masaru; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-22

    Simple pharmacological studies on inositol stereoisomers are presented in this study. Male ICR mice were orally administered 1 g/kg BW of three inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol (MI), d-chiro-inositol (DCI), and scyllo-inositol (SI), and blood plasma samples and skeletal muscle fractions were prepared after an hour. The plasma samples were subjected to gas chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) analysis. None of the three stereoisomers was seen in untreated samples, but substantial amounts ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mM were detected only after administration, indicating that orally administered inositol stereoisomers were readily absorbed and their levels elevated in the bloodstream. In addition, plasma of SI-administered animals contained substantial MI, suggesting a possible metabolic conversion of SI to MI. In the skeletal muscle fractions, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) content in the plasma membrane increased, indicating that inositol stereoisomers stimulated GLUT4 translocation.

  4. COMBAT: Initial experience with a randomized clinical trial of plasma-based resuscitation in the field for traumatic hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Michael P.; Moore, Ernest E.; Chin, Theresa L; Ghasabyan, Arsen; Chandler, James; Stringham, John; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Moore, Hunter B.; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The existing evidence shows great promise for plasma as the first resuscitation fluid in both civilian and military trauma. We embarked on the Control of Major Bleeding After Trauma (COMBAT) trial with the support of the Department of Defense, in order to determine if plasma-first resuscitation yields hemostatic and survival benefits. The methodology of the COMBAT study represents not only three years of development work, but the integration of nearly two-decades of technical experience with the design and implementation of other clinical trials and studies. Herein, we describe the key features of the study design, critical personnel and infrastructural elements, and key innovations. We will also briefly outline the systems engineering challenges entailed by this study. COMBAT is a randomized, placebo controlled, semi-blinded prospective Phase IIB clinical trial, conducted in a ground ambulance fleet based at a Level I trauma center, and part of a multicenter collaboration. The primary objective of COMBAT is to determine the efficacy of field resuscitation with plasma first, compared to standard of care (normal saline). To date we have enrolled 30 subjects in the COMBAT study. The ability to achieve intervention with a hemostatic resuscitation agent in the closest possible temporal proximity to injury is critical and represents an opportunity to forestall the evolution of the “bloody vicious cycle”. Thus, the COMBAT model for deploying plasma in first response units should serve as a model for RCTs of other hemostatic resuscitative agents. PMID:25784527

  5. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  6. Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship Between Mean Plasma Glucose and HbA1c Following Antidiabetic Treatments.

    PubMed

    Møller, J B; Overgaard, R V; Kjellsson, M C; Kristensen, N R; Klim, S; Ingwersen, S H; Karlsson, M O

    2013-01-01

    Late-phase clinical trials within diabetes generally have a duration of 12-24 weeks, where 12 weeks may be too short to reach steady-state glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The main determinant for HbA1c is blood glucose, which reaches steady state much sooner. In spite of this, few publications have used individual data to assess the time course of both glucose and HbA1c, for predicting HbA1c. In this paper, we present an approach for predicting HbA1c at end-of-trial (24-28 weeks) using glucose and HbA1c measurements up to 12 weeks. The approach was evaluated using data from 4 trials covering 12 treatment arms (oral antidiabetic drug, glucagon-like peptide-1, and insulin treatment) with measurements at 24-28 weeks to evaluate predictions vs. observations. HbA1c percentage was predicted for each arm at end-of-trial with a mean prediction error of 0.14% [0.01;0.24]. Furthermore, end points in terms of HbA1c reductions relative to comparator were accurately predicted. The proposed model provides a good basis to optimize late-stage clinical development within diabetes.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2013) 2, e82; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.58; advance online publication 30 October 2013. PMID:24172651

  7. Regional cerebral incorporation of plasma (/sup 14/C)palmitate, and cerebral glucose utilization, in water-deprived Long-Evans and Brattleboro rats

    SciTech Connect

    Noronha, J.G.; Larson, D.M.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1989-03-01

    Regional rates of incorporation into brain of intravenously administered (/sup 14/C)palmitate and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) were measured in water-provided (WP) and water-deprived (WD) homozygous (DI) and heterozygous (HZ) Brattleboro rats, a mutant strain unable to synthesize vasopressin, and in the parent Long-Evans (LE) strain. Following 15 h or 4 days of water deprivation, rCMRglc was elevated threefold in the pituitary neural lobe of LE-WD and DI-WD as compared with LE-WP rats, and in the paraventricular nucleus of LE-WD, and the supraoptic nucleus of DI-WD rats. However, incorporation of (/sup 14/C)palmitate into these regions was not specifically altered. The results indicate that water deprivation for up to 4 days increases rCMRglc in some brain regions involved with vasopressin, but does not alter (/sup 14/C)palmitate incorporation into these regions. Incorporation of plasma (/sup 14/C)palmitate is independent of unlabeled plasma palmitate at brain regions which have an intact blood-brain barrier, but at nonbarrier regions falls according to saturation kinetics as cold plasma concentration rises, with a mean half-saturation constant (Km) equal to 0.136 mumol.ml-1.

  8. Comparison of measurements of canine plasma creatinine, glucose, proteins, urea, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase obtained with Spotchem SP 4430 and Vitros 250 analyzers.

    PubMed

    Trumel, C; Diquélou, A; Germain, C; Palanché, F; Braun, J P

    2005-12-01

    The suitability of the Spotchem 4430 benchtop biochemistry analyzer for canine blood samples was tested for creatinine, glucose, proteins, urea, alkaline phosphatases and alanine aminotransferase. Results obtained from whole blood and corresponding heparin plasma were identical except for proteins which were higher in plasma (n=10). Between series imprecision (n=10) was <5% for substrates and <10% for enzymes. Comparison of results from 100 Li-heparin samples with those measured with a Vitros 250 analyzer showed good correlation (r>0.93). The slopes of the Passing-Bablock's regression ranged from 0.90 to 1.20 and intercepts were low. The mean biases were low, except for creatinine for which the results obtained by Spotchem (Jaffe reaction) were about 20 micromol/L higher than with the Vitros (enzymatic reaction). The results of this study show that the Spotchem analyzer is suitable for use in canine whole blood or plasma when small numbers of tests are to be performed and large analyzers are not available. PMID:16054888

  9. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials for plasma exchange in the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, S J; Tusold, A; Benjamin, S; Stanworth, S J; Murphy, M F

    2007-02-01

    The mainstay of treatment for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is plasma exchange (PE). A systematic review was undertaken to summarize the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence, to date, on PE as treatment for TTP. Seven randomized RCTs were identified till May 2005. A statistical reduction in mortality was found in patients receiving PE compared with patients receiving plasma infusion (relative risk 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.79). No statistical difference in mortality was found in trials comparing different replacement fluids for PE. There were few differences in the response to treatment and the resolution of the presenting signs of TTP in any trial. Lack of data prevented a full assessment of the incidence of adverse events. None of the studies included measured patients' quality of life. Further research is required to determine the benefits and side effects associated with different replacement fluids for PE. It is recommended that there should be consistency in the diagnostic criteria, measurement of clinical outcomes and length of follow up. Continued support of existing TTP patient registries and establishment of new registries would facilitate this. PMID:17266701

  10. Bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes versus cold-knife transurethral incision for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture: a prospective, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wansong; Chen, Zhiyuan; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Xiangxin; Liu, Xiuheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficiency and safety of bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture. Compare the outcomes following bipolar plasma vaporization with conventional cold-knife urethrotomy. METHODS: A randomized trial was performed to compare patient outcomes from the bipolar and cold-knife groups. All patients were assessed at 6 and 12 months postoperatively via urethrography and uroflowmetry. At the end of the first postoperative year, ureteroscopy was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The mean follow-up time was 13.9 months (range: 12 to 21 months). If re-stenosis was not identified by both urethrography and ureteroscopy, the procedure was considered “successful”. RESULTS: Fifty-three male patients with posterior urethral strictures were selected and randomly divided into two groups: bipolar group (n=27) or cold-knife group (n=26). Patients in the bipolar group experienced a shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife group (23.45±7.64 hours vs 33.45±5.45 hours, respectively). The 12-month postoperative Qmax was faster in the bipolar group than in the cold-knife group (15.54±2.78 ml/sec vs 18.25±2.12 ml/sec, respectively). In the bipolar group, the recurrence-free rate was 81.5% at a mean follow-up time of 13.9 months. In the cold-knife group, the recurrence-free rate was 53.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The application of bipolar plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and reliable method that minimizes the morbidity of urethral stricture resection. The advantages include a lower recurrence rate and shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife technique. PMID:26872076

  11. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering from a randomized laser beam in large inhomogeneous collisional plasmas. I. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, J.; Labaune, C.; Depierreux, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Baldis, H. A.

    2000-11-01

    Experiments have been conducted at the LULI (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses) multibeam laser facility to study in detail stimulated Brillouin (SBS) and Raman (SRS) scattering from an intense (mean average intensity up to 1014W/cm2) long (600 ps full width at half-maximum) laser beam interacting with thin exploded plastic foils. The plasmas are well characterized and the vacuum laser intensity distribution is well known due to using either random phase plates or polarization smoothing. Direct and simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of the associated plasma waves allow us to obtain detailed information about the SBS and SRS temporal evolution and spatial localization. These data are being used to benchmark a statistical model of SBS and SRS from self-focused speckles. The results of this comparison will be presented in a companion paper. The analysis shows that both SBS and SRS are originated from self-focused speckles and reveals that plasma heating has an important effect on speckle self-focusing.

  12. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). Following the pizza meal (155 min), yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in FI or appetite. This trial supports the use of pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  13. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R

    2012-12-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7-12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life. PMID:27625828

  14. Effects of Topical Anesthetics on Behavior, Plasma Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose Levels after Tail Biopsy of C57BL/6NHSD Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Johnson, Robert A; French, DeAnne C; Boivin, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2.5% lidocaine-2.5% prilocaine cream applied to the distal tail tip at 5 or 60 min before biopsy, immersion of the tail tip for 10 seconds in ice-cold 70% ethanol just prior to biopsy, and immersion of the tail tip in 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 s after biopsy. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone, and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning. Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old. PMID:27423152

  15. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7–12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life.

  16. Rapid Preparation of a Plasma Membrane Fraction: Western Blot Detection of Translocated Glucose Transporter 4 from Plasma Membrane of Muscle and Adipose Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Norio; Yamashita, Yoko; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Nishiumi, Shin; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins account for 70% to 80% of all pharmaceutical targets, indicating their clinical relevance and underscoring the importance of identifying differentially expressed membrane proteins that reflect distinct disease properties. The translocation of proteins from the bulk of the cytosol to the plasma membrane is a critical step in the transfer of information from membrane-embedded receptors or transporters to the cell interior. To understand how membrane proteins work, it is important to separate the membrane fraction of cells. This unit provides a protocol for rapidly obtaining plasma membrane fractions for western blot analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27479506

  17. One-hour postload plasma glucose and risks of fatal coronary heart disease and stroke among nondiabetic men and women: the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) Study.

    PubMed

    Orencia, A J; Daviglus, M L; Dyer, A R; Walsh, M; Greenland, P; Stamler, J

    1997-12-01

    Associations of baseline one-hour postload plasma glucose with 22-year coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and all cause mortality were assessed in five age-specific cohorts of nondiabetic men and women from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry: 10,269 men ages 18-39 years; 7993 men ages 40-59 years; 1240 men ages 60-74 years; 6319 women ages 40-59 years; and 932 women ages 60-74 years. Plasma glucose was determined one hour after a 50-gram oral glucose load. Cox regression analyses were used to control for age and other covariates. Generally, higher glucose was significantly associated with mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and all cause mortality in men and women. This large longitudinal study provides evidence that one-hour postload plasma glucose in the absence of clinical diabetes at baseline apparently is an independent risk factor for fatal coronary heart disease and stroke in middle-aged and older nondiabetic men and women, and also for cardiovascular diseases and for all cause mortality. PMID:9449940

  18. Comparison of Plasma Glucose and Gut Hormone Levels Between Drinking Enteral Formula Over a Period of 5 and 20 Minutes in Japanese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamiko, Kazunari; Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Background A fast eating speed is reportedly associated with obesity, fatty liver, and metabolic syndrome. As a comparison of postprandial glucose levels after eating quickly or slowly has not been previously reported for Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the impact of the fast or slow ingestion of an enteral formula (liquid meal) on glucose metabolism. Methods Ten Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who had been hospitalized at our hospital were enrolled. All the subjects received an enteral formula for breakfast. The study was performed over a 2-day period in each subject (day 1: enteral formula was consumed over a 5-minute period; day 2: enteral formula was consumed over a 20-minute period). The subjects were requested to fast for at least 12 hours before eating breakfast, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the start of breakfast. Results The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), plasma total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and serum total peptide YY (PYY) levels were not significantly changed by intake over a 5-minute or 20-minute period. Conclusions Eating quickly per se probably does not affect postprandial glucose excursions, but the increased energy intake resulting from eating quickly may increase the body weight and increase insulin resistance. Eating quickly may increase energy intake and worsen long-term metabolic parameters.

  19. Comparison of Plasma Glucose and Gut Hormone Levels Between Drinking Enteral Formula Over a Period of 5 and 20 Minutes in Japanese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamiko, Kazunari; Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Background A fast eating speed is reportedly associated with obesity, fatty liver, and metabolic syndrome. As a comparison of postprandial glucose levels after eating quickly or slowly has not been previously reported for Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the impact of the fast or slow ingestion of an enteral formula (liquid meal) on glucose metabolism. Methods Ten Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who had been hospitalized at our hospital were enrolled. All the subjects received an enteral formula for breakfast. The study was performed over a 2-day period in each subject (day 1: enteral formula was consumed over a 5-minute period; day 2: enteral formula was consumed over a 20-minute period). The subjects were requested to fast for at least 12 hours before eating breakfast, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the start of breakfast. Results The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), plasma total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and serum total peptide YY (PYY) levels were not significantly changed by intake over a 5-minute or 20-minute period. Conclusions Eating quickly per se probably does not affect postprandial glucose excursions, but the increased energy intake resulting from eating quickly may increase the body weight and increase insulin resistance. Eating quickly may increase energy intake and worsen long-term metabolic parameters. PMID:27635181

  20. Does vitamin D supplementation alter plasma adipokines concentrations? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Madalina; Serban, Maria-Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Blüher, Matthias; Gurban, Camelia; Penson, Peter; Michos, Erin D; Hernandez, Adrian V; Jones, Steven R; Banach, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin D supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). The search included PUBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar through July 1st, 2015. Finally we identified 9 RCTs and 484 participants. Meta-analysis of data from 7 studies did not find a significant change in plasma adiponectin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation (mean difference [MD]: 4.45%, 95%CI: -3.04, 11.93, p=0.244; Q=2.18, I(2)=0%). In meta-regression, changes in plasma adiponectin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation were found to be independent of treatment duration (slope: 0.25; 95%CI: -0.69, 1.19; p=0.603) and changes in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels (slope: -0.02; 95%CI: -0.15, 0.12; p=0.780). Meta-analysis of data from 6 studies did not find a significant change in plasma leptin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation (MD: -4.51%, 95%CI: -25.13, 16.11, p=0.668; Q=6.41, I(2)=21.97%). Sensitivity analysis showed that this effect size is sensitive to one of the studies; removing it resulted in a significant reduction in plasma leptin levels (MD: -12.81%, 95%CI: -24.33, -1.30, p=0.029). In meta-regression, changes in plasma leptin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation were found to be independent of treatment duration (slope: -1.93; 95%CI: -4.08, 0.23; p=0.080). However, changes in serum 25(OH)D were found to be significantly associated with changes in plasma leptin levels following vitamin D supplementation (slope: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.08, 2.02; p=0.033). In conclusion, current data did not indicate a significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on adiponectin and leptin levels. PMID:27038530

  1. Does vitamin D supplementation alter plasma adipokines concentrations? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Madalina; Serban, Maria-Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Blüher, Matthias; Gurban, Camelia; Penson, Peter; Michos, Erin D; Hernandez, Adrian V; Jones, Steven R; Banach, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin D supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). The search included PUBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar through July 1st, 2015. Finally we identified 9 RCTs and 484 participants. Meta-analysis of data from 7 studies did not find a significant change in plasma adiponectin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation (mean difference [MD]: 4.45%, 95%CI: -3.04, 11.93, p=0.244; Q=2.18, I(2)=0%). In meta-regression, changes in plasma adiponectin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation were found to be independent of treatment duration (slope: 0.25; 95%CI: -0.69, 1.19; p=0.603) and changes in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels (slope: -0.02; 95%CI: -0.15, 0.12; p=0.780). Meta-analysis of data from 6 studies did not find a significant change in plasma leptin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation (MD: -4.51%, 95%CI: -25.13, 16.11, p=0.668; Q=6.41, I(2)=21.97%). Sensitivity analysis showed that this effect size is sensitive to one of the studies; removing it resulted in a significant reduction in plasma leptin levels (MD: -12.81%, 95%CI: -24.33, -1.30, p=0.029). In meta-regression, changes in plasma leptin concentrations following vitamin D supplementation were found to be independent of treatment duration (slope: -1.93; 95%CI: -4.08, 0.23; p=0.080). However, changes in serum 25(OH)D were found to be significantly associated with changes in plasma leptin levels following vitamin D supplementation (slope: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.08, 2.02; p=0.033). In conclusion, current data did not indicate a significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on adiponectin and leptin levels.

  2. Role of exercise intensity on GLUT4 content, aerobic fitness and fasting plasma glucose in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Verusca Najara; de Paula Lima, Mérica; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; de Andrade, Rosangela Vieira; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Araujo, Ronaldo Carvalho; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia; Lewis, John E; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) results in several metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, clinically characterized by hyperglycaemia due to lower glucose uptake and oxidation. Physical exercise is an effective intervention for glycaemic control. However, the effects of exercising at different intensities have not yet been addressed. The present study analysed the effects of 8 weeks of training performed at different exercise intensities on type 4 glucose transporters (GLUT4) content and glycaemic control of T2D (ob/ob) and non-diabetic mice (ob/OB). The animals were divided into six groups, with four groups being subjected either to low-intensity (ob/obL and ob/OBL: 3% body weight, three times/week/40 min) or high-intensity (ob/obH and ob/OBH: 6% body weight, three times per week per 20 min) swimming training. An incremental swimming test was performed to measure aerobic fitness. After the training intervention period, glycaemia and the content of GLUT4 were quantified. Although both training intensities were beneficial, the high-intensity regimen induced a more significant improvement in GLUT4 levels and glycaemic profile compared with sedentary controls (p < 0.05). Only animals in the high-intensity exercise group improved aerobic fitness. Thus, our study shows that high-intensity training was more effective for increasing GLUT4 content and glycaemia reduction in insulin-resistant mice, perhaps because of a higher metabolic demand imposed by this form of exercise.

  3. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans. PMID:27440535

  4. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans.

  5. Comparison of the performance of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose in identifying dysglycaemic status in Chinese high-risk subjects.

    PubMed

    Du, Ting-Ting; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Dan; Shi, Wei; Yu, Xue-Feng

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in identifying dysglycaemic status among Chinese participants. Fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c were measured in 2318 subjects with at least one risk factor for diabetes but without being previously diagnosed with diabetes. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes resulted in the same classification as FPG for 90.5% of the study participants, with 21.0% (n = 487) classified as having diabetes by both FPG and HbA1c and 69.5% (n = 1610) classified as not having diabetes by both FPG and HbA1c. The kappa (κ) coefficient of the FPG criterion with the HbA1c criterion for diabetes was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.78). The overlap index regarding diabetes diagnosed by FPG or HbA1c was 68.8%. Of 1610 subjects with FPG < 126 mg/dL and HbA1c < 6.5%, 220 (13.7%) had FPG ≥ 100 mg/dL and HbA1c < 5.7%, whereas 277 (17.2%) had FPG < 100 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. The κ coefficient of the FPG criterion with the HbA1c criterion for prediabetes was 0.30 (95% CI 0.25-0.35). The overlap index between subjects diagnosed as having prediabetes by FPG of 100-125 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose (IFG)) or HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (increased HbA1c (IGH)) was 35.9%. The HbA1c criterion demonstrates reasonable concordance with the FPG criterion for diabetes. Hence, HbA1c and FPG can be used for the diagnosis of diabetes. However, the IGH shows limited overlap with IFG for prediabetes. Introduction of the IGH criterion in addition to IFG for the screening of prediabetes could lead to the identification of more people with this condition.

  6. Probabilistic model of beam-plasma interaction in the randomly inhomogeneous solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Voshchepynets, Andrii

    2015-04-01

    We apply the probabilistic model of beam plasma interaction proposed before to electron beams propagating in the interplanetary plasma taking into account known properties of the density fluctuations in the solar wind measured aboard ISEE. The new element here with respect to previous work consists in the calculation of the probability density for density fluctuations having power law spectra, while previously we used Gaussian probability distribution. We use the property that for the given frequency the probability distribution of density fluctuations uniquely determines the probability distribution of phase velocity of wave. We present the system as discrete consisting of small equal spatial intervals and the density profile on each small interval is linear. The model is based on general description of the wave particle interaction on any of these small spatial intervals with linear profile. We solve equations of motion of a particle under the action of the wave with the given amplitude and phase in the beginning of the interval. This approach allows one to estimate variations of the wave's energy density and particle's velocity, depending on the density gradient. The presence of the plasma inhomogeneity results in the variation of the phase velocity of the wave having known frequency and causes a spreading of the width of the resonance in the velocity space. Since the characteristic time of the evolution of the electron distribution function and wave energy is much longer than the time of the single wave-particle resonant interaction on a given small interval, we can proceed to the description of the relaxation process in terms of averaged quantities. We derive a system of equations, similar to the quasi-linear approximation, but conventional velocity diffusion coefficient Dand the wave's growth rate γ are replaced by averaged in phase space making use the probability distribution of phase velocities and assuming that the interaction on each interval is

  7. Optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose for two-step strategy in estimating prevalence and screening undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chundan; Zhang, Dianfeng; Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition.

  8. Optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose for two-step strategy in estimating prevalence and screening undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chundan; Zhang, Dianfeng; Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition. PMID:25785585

  9. Optimal Cut-Off Points of Fasting Plasma Glucose for Two-Step Strategy in Estimating Prevalence and Screening Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Harbin, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition. PMID:25785585

  10. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  11. In Alzheimer's Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [(11)C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [(18)F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  12. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  13. Targeted plasma metabolome response to variations in dietary glycemic load in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Sally; Navarro, Sandi L.; Buas, Matthew F.; Y, Schwarz; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Raftery, Daniel; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Low versus high glycemic load (GL) diet patterns are inversely associated with obesity and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These associations persist beyond the protection afforded by increased fiber alone, representing an important gap in our understanding of the metabolic effects of GL. We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial of two 28-day diet periods of high and low GL. Using LC-MS, targeted metabolomics analysis of 155 metabolites was performed on plasma samples from 19 healthy adults aged 18-45 years. Fourteen metabolites differed significantly between diets (P<0.05), with kynurenate remaining significant after Bonferroni correction (P<4×10-4). Metabolites with the largest difference in abundance were kynurenate and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), both significantly higher after consumption of the low GL diet. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed clear separation between the two diets; however no specific pathway was identified in pathway analyses. We found significant differences in 14 plasma metabolites suggesting a differing metabolic response to low and high GL diets. Kynurenate is associated with reduced inflammation, and may be one mechanism through which protective effects of a low GL diet are manifested and warrants further evaluation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00622661. PMID:26165375

  14. Does platelet-rich plasma enhance healing in the idiopathic bone cavity? A single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, R; Karagah, T; Shahidi, S; Zare, N

    2015-09-01

    The presence of an idiopathic bone cavity (IBC) is usually identified during routine dental radiographic examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone healing in the idiopathic bone cavity. This was a single-blind randomized clinical trial. Twenty-four subjects were assigned randomly to two groups. Subjects in group 1 received PRP through a buccal window approach, and those in group 2 underwent conventional management via the creation of a window on the buccal wall and curettage of the walls of the defect. Subjects were followed up at 3, 6, and 9 months after the intervention. The amount of bone formation as determined on panoramic radiographs was divided into four categories: stage 1: ≤25% of the defect showed opacity; stage 2: 25-50% of the defect showed opacity; stage 3: 50-75% of the defect showed opacity; and stage 4: >75% of the defect showed opacity. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to the various healing stages at the three time points (P<0.05). When compared with conventional management of the idiopathic bone cavity, the use of PRP may enhance bone formation. PMID:26074365

  15. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in Japanese adults with type 1 diabetes using basal and mealtime insulin: glucose control and hypoglycaemia in a randomized controlled trial (EDITION JP 1)

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, M.; Cheng, X.; Takahashi, Y.; Riddle, M. C.; Bolli, G. B.; Hirose, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla‐300) with that of insulin glargine 100 U/ml (Gla‐100) in Japanese adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods The EDITION JP 1 study (NCT01689129) was a 6‐month, multicentre, open‐label, phase III study. Participants (n = 243) were randomized to Gla‐300 or Gla‐100 while continuing mealtime insulin. Basal insulin was titrated with the aim of achieving a fasting self‐monitored plasma glucose target of 4.4–7.2 mmol/l. The primary endpoint was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) over 6 months. Safety measures included hypoglycaemia and change in body weight. Results Gla‐300 was non‐inferior to Gla‐100 for the primary endpoint of HbA1c change over the 6‐month period {least squares [LS] mean difference 0.13 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) −0.03 to 0.29]}. The annualized rate of confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemic events was 34 % lower with Gla‐300 than with Gla‐100 at night [rate ratio 0.66 (95 % CI 0.48–0.92)] and 20 % lower at any time of day [24 h; rate ratio 0.80 (95 % CI 0.65–0.98)]; this difference was most pronounced during the first 8 weeks of treatment. Severe hypoglycaemia was infrequent. The basal insulin dose increased in both groups (month 6 dose: Gla‐300 0.35 U/kg/day, Gla‐100 0.29 U/kg/day). A between‐treatment difference in body weight change over 6 months favouring Gla‐300 was observed [LS mean difference −0.6 kg (95 % CI −1.1 to −0.0); p = 0.035]. Adverse event rates were comparable between the groups. Conclusions In Japanese adults with type 1 diabetes using basal plus mealtime insulin, less hypoglycaemia was observed with Gla‐300 than with Gla‐100, particularly during the night, while glycaemic control did not differ. PMID:26662964

  16. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin and oral antihyperglycaemic drugs: glucose control and hypoglycaemia in a randomized controlled trial (EDITION JP 2)

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, M.; Cheng, X.; Takahashi, Y.; Riddle, M. C.; Bolli, G. B.; Hirose, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla‐300) with glargine 100 U/ml (Gla‐100) in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin plus oral antihyperglycaemic drug(s) [OAD(s)]. Methods The EDITION JP 2 study (NCT01689142) was a 6‐month, multicentre, open‐label, phase III study. Participants (n = 241, male 61%, mean diabetes duration 14 years, mean weight 67 kg, mean body mass index 25 kg/m2, mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.02 %, mean basal insulin dose 0.24 U/kg/day) were randomized to Gla‐300 or Gla‐100, while continuing OAD(s). Basal insulin was titrated to target fasting self‐monitored plasma glucose 4.4−5.6 mmol/l. The primary efficacy endpoint was HbA1c change over 6 months. Safety endpoints included hypoglycaemia and weight change. Results Gla‐300 was non‐inferior to Gla‐100 for HbA1c reduction [least squares (LS) mean difference 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.08, 0.27) %]. The mean HbA1c at month 6 was 7.56 and 7.52 % with Gla‐300 and Gla‐100, respectively. Nocturnal confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemia risk was 38% lower with Gla‐300 versus Gla‐100 [relative risk 0.62 (95% CI 0.44, 0.88)]; annualized rates were 55% lower at night [rate ratio 0.45 (95% CI 0.21, 0.96)] and 36% lower at any time [24 h; rate ratio 0.64 (95% CI 0.43, 0.96)]. Severe hypoglycaemia was infrequent. A significant between‐treatment difference in weight change favoured Gla‐300 [LS mean difference −1.0 (95% CI −1.5, −0.5) kg; p = 0.0003]. Adverse event rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin plus OAD(s) experienced less hypoglycaemia with Gla‐300 than with Gla‐100, while glycaemic control did not differ. PMID:26662838

  17. The Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Linagliptin Preserves Endothelial Function in Mesenteric Arteries from Type 1 Diabetic Rats without Decreasing Plasma Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Salheen, Salheen M.; Panchapakesan, Usha; Pollock, Carol A.; Woodman, Owen L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin on the mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries from STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both normal and diabetic animals received linagliptin (2 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage for a period of 4 weeks. To measure superoxide generation in mesenteric arteries, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence was used. ACh-induced relaxation of mesenteric arteries was assessed using organ bath techniques and Western blotting was used to investigate protein expression. Pharmacological tools (1μM TRAM-34, 1μM apamin, 100 nM Ibtx, 100 μM L-NNA, 10 μM ODQ) were used to distinguish between NO and EDH-mediated relaxation. Linagliptin did not affect plasma glucose, but did decrease vascular superoxide levels. Diabetes reduced responses to ACh but did not affect endothelium-independent responses to SNP. Linagliptin improved endothelial function indicated by a significant increase in responses to ACh. Diabetes impaired the contribution of both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) to endothelium-dependent relaxation and linagliptin treatment significantly enhanced the contribution of both relaxing factors. Western blotting demonstrated that diabetes also increased expression of Nox2 and decreased expression and dimerization of endothelial NO synthase, effects that were reversed by linagliptin. These findings demonstrate treatment of type 1 diabetic rats with linagliptin significantly reduced vascular superoxide levels and preserved both NO and EDH-mediated relaxation indicating that linagliptin can improve endothelial function in diabetes independently of any glucose lowering activity. PMID:26618855

  18. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults: The 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data.Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years' old) who participated in the 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥ 3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90  mg/dL), NFG 2 (90-99  mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100-110  mg/dL), IFG 2 (111-125  mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126  mg/dL).Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3-26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group

  19. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Regular coffee consumption significantly lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Coffee contains thousands of compounds; however, the specific component(s) responsible for this reduced risk is unknown. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) found in brewed coffee inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in vitro. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which CGA acts to mediate blood glucose response in vivo. Conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically catheterized and gavage-fed a standardized meal (59% carbohydrate, 25% fat, 12% protein), administered with or without CGA (120 mg·kg(-1)), in a randomized crossover design separated by a 3-day washout period. Acetaminophen was co-administered to assess the effects of CGA on gastric emptying. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. GLP-1 response in the presence of glucose and CGA was further examined, using the human colon cell line NCI-H716. Total area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose was significantly attenuated in rats fed CGA (p < 0.05). Despite this, no differences in plasma insulin or nonesterified fatty acids were observed, and gastric emptying was not altered. Plasma GIP response was blunted in rats fed CGA, with a lower peak concentration and AUC up to 180 min postprandially (p < 0.05). There were no changes in GLP-1 secretion in either the in vivo or in vitro study. In conclusion, CGA treatment resulted in beneficial effects on blood glucose response, with alterations seen in GIP concentrations. Given the widespread consumption and availability of coffee, CGA may be a viable prevention tool for T2D. PMID:21977912

  20. SPECIAL ISSUE DEVOTED TO MULTIPLE RADIATION SCATTERING IN RANDOM MEDIA: Optical clearing of the eye sclera in vivo caused by glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Sinichkin, Yu P.; Tuchin, Valerii V.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in the optical properties of the eye sclera of a laboratory animal (rabbit) caused by the noninvasive administration of an immersion agent (aqueous glucose solution) into sclera are studied experimentally in vivo by the method of reflection spectroscopy and simulated numerically. The diffusion coefficients of glucose and water in sclera are estimated from simulations of optical clearing within the framework of the developed model as h(5.4±0.1)×10-7 and (5.8±0.2)×10-7 cm2 s-1, respectively. Experiments showed that the application of the glucose solution on the sclera allows the efficient control of its optical properties, which makes it possible to deliver the laser energy to internal eye tissues without considerable attenuation and distortions of its spatial distribution in laser diagnostics and therapy.

  1. Impact of Vitamin D Replacement on Markers of Glucose Metabolism and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Women with Former Gestational Diabetes--A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Lim, Shueh Lin; Hor, Chee Peng; Khir, Amir S; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Pacini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and vitamin D deficiency are related to insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function, with heightened risk for future development of diabetes. We evaluated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on markers of glucose metabolism and cardio metabolic risk in Asian women with former GDM and hypovitaminosis D. In this double blind, randomized controlled trial, 26 participants were randomized to receive either daily 4000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo capsules. 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and biochemistry profiles were performed at baseline and 6 month visits. Mathematical models, using serial glucose, insulin and C peptide measurements from OGTT, were employed to calculate insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Thirty three (76%) women with former GDM screened had vitamin D level of <50 nmol/L at baseline. Supplementation, when compared with placebo, resulted in increased vitamin D level (+51.1 nmol/L vs 0.2 nmol/L, p<0.001) and increased fasting insulin (+20% vs 18%, p = 0.034). The vitamin D group also demonstrated a 30% improvement in disposition index and an absolute 0.2% (2 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c. There was no clear change in insulin sensitivity or markers of cardio metabolic risk. This study highlighted high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Asian women with former GDM. Six months supplementation with 4000 IU of vitamin D3 safely restored the vitamin D level, improved basal pancreatic beta-cell function and ameliorated the metabolic state. There was no effect on markers of cardio metabolic risk. Further mechanistic studies exploring the role of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis among different ethnicities may be needed to better inform future recommendations for these women with former GDM at high risk of both hypovitaminosis D and future diabetes. PMID:26057782

  2. Impact of Vitamin D Replacement on Markers of Glucose Metabolism and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Women with Former Gestational Diabetes--A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Lim, Shueh Lin; Hor, Chee Peng; Khir, Amir S; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Pacini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and vitamin D deficiency are related to insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function, with heightened risk for future development of diabetes. We evaluated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on markers of glucose metabolism and cardio metabolic risk in Asian women with former GDM and hypovitaminosis D. In this double blind, randomized controlled trial, 26 participants were randomized to receive either daily 4000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo capsules. 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and biochemistry profiles were performed at baseline and 6 month visits. Mathematical models, using serial glucose, insulin and C peptide measurements from OGTT, were employed to calculate insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Thirty three (76%) women with former GDM screened had vitamin D level of <50 nmol/L at baseline. Supplementation, when compared with placebo, resulted in increased vitamin D level (+51.1 nmol/L vs 0.2 nmol/L, p<0.001) and increased fasting insulin (+20% vs 18%, p = 0.034). The vitamin D group also demonstrated a 30% improvement in disposition index and an absolute 0.2% (2 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c. There was no clear change in insulin sensitivity or markers of cardio metabolic risk. This study highlighted high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Asian women with former GDM. Six months supplementation with 4000 IU of vitamin D3 safely restored the vitamin D level, improved basal pancreatic beta-cell function and ameliorated the metabolic state. There was no effect on markers of cardio metabolic risk. Further mechanistic studies exploring the role of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis among different ethnicities may be needed to better inform future recommendations for these women with former GDM at high risk of both hypovitaminosis D and future diabetes.

  3. Valacyclovir Decreases Plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2 Seronegative Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Bassit, Leda C.; Kauffman, Robert C.; Sanchez, Jorge; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Lederman, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Margolis, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acyclovir (ACV), a highly specific anti-herpetic drug, acts as a DNA chain terminator for several human herpesviruses (HHVs), including HHV-2 (HSV-2), a common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 co-pathogen. Several trials demonstrated that HSV-2 suppressive therapy using ACV or its prodrug valacyclovir (valACV) reduced plasma HIV-1 viral load (VL) in HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected persons, and this was proposed to be due to a decrease in generalized immune activation. Recently, however, we found that ACV directly suppresses HIV-1 ex vivo in tissues free of HSV-2 but endogenously coinfected with other HHVs. Here, we asked whether valACV suppresses VL in HIV-1 infected HSV-2-seronegative persons. Methods. Eighteen HIV-1 infected HSV-2-seronegative individuals were randomly assigned in a double blind placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Eligible participants had CD4 cell counts of ≥500 cells/µL and were not taking antiretroviral therapy. Subjects in group A received 12 weeks of valACV 500 mg given twice daily by mouth followed by 2 weeks of a no treatment washout and then 12 weeks of placebo; subjects in group B received 12 weeks of placebo followed by 2 weeks of no treatment washout and then 12 weeks of valACV 500 mg twice daily. Results. HIV-1 VL in plasma of patients treated with valACV 500 mg twice daily for 12 weeks was reduced on average by 0.37 log10 copies/mL. Conclusions. These data indicate that the effects of valACV on HIV-1 replication are not related to the suppression of HSV-2-mediated inflammation and are consistent with a direct effect of ACV on HIV-1 replication. PMID:25740794

  4. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    Digestion of food in the intestines converts the compacted storage carbohydrates, starch and glycogen, to glucose. After each meal, a flux of glucose (> 200 g) passes through the blood pool (4-6 g) in a short period of 2 h, keeping its concentration ideally in the range of 80-120 mg/100 mL. Tissue-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs) aid in the distribution of glucose to all tissues. The balance glucose after meeting the immediate energy needs is converted into glycogen and stored in liver (up to 100 g) and skeletal muscle (up to 300 g) for later use. High blood glucose gives the signal for increased release of insulin from pancreas. Insulin binds to insulin receptor on the plasma membrane and activates its autophosphorylation. This initiates the post-insulin-receptor signal cascade that accelerates synthesis of glycogen and triglyceride. Parallel control by phos-dephos and redox regulation of proteins exists for some of these steps. A major action of insulin is to inhibit gluconeogensis in the liver decreasing glucose output into blood. Cases with failed control of blood glucose have alarmingly increased since 1960 coinciding with changed life-styles and large scale food processing. Many of these turned out to be resistant to insulin, usually accompanied by dysfunctional glycogen storage. Glucose has an extended stay in blood at 8 mM and above and then indiscriminately adds on to surface protein-amino groups. Fructose in common sugar is 10-fold more active. This random glycation process interferes with the functions of many proteins (e.g., hemoglobin, eye lens proteins) and causes progressive damage to heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Some compounds are known to act as insulin mimics. Vanadium-peroxide complexes act at post-receptor level but are toxic. The fungus-derived 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone derivative is the first one known to act on the insulin receptor. The safe herbal products in use for centuries for glucose control have multiple active principles and

  5. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    Digestion of food in the intestines converts the compacted storage carbohydrates, starch and glycogen, to glucose. After each meal, a flux of glucose (> 200 g) passes through the blood pool (4-6 g) in a short period of 2 h, keeping its concentration ideally in the range of 80-120 mg/100 mL. Tissue-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs) aid in the distribution of glucose to all tissues. The balance glucose after meeting the immediate energy needs is converted into glycogen and stored in liver (up to 100 g) and skeletal muscle (up to 300 g) for later use. High blood glucose gives the signal for increased release of insulin from pancreas. Insulin binds to insulin receptor on the plasma membrane and activates its autophosphorylation. This initiates the post-insulin-receptor signal cascade that accelerates synthesis of glycogen and triglyceride. Parallel control by phos-dephos and redox regulation of proteins exists for some of these steps. A major action of insulin is to inhibit gluconeogensis in the liver decreasing glucose output into blood. Cases with failed control of blood glucose have alarmingly increased since 1960 coinciding with changed life-styles and large scale food processing. Many of these turned out to be resistant to insulin, usually accompanied by dysfunctional glycogen storage. Glucose has an extended stay in blood at 8 mM and above and then indiscriminately adds on to surface protein-amino groups. Fructose in common sugar is 10-fold more active. This random glycation process interferes with the functions of many proteins (e.g., hemoglobin, eye lens proteins) and causes progressive damage to heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Some compounds are known to act as insulin mimics. Vanadium-peroxide complexes act at post-receptor level but are toxic. The fungus-derived 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone derivative is the first one known to act on the insulin receptor. The safe herbal products in use for centuries for glucose control have multiple active principles and

  6. Models for plasma glucose, HbA1c, and hemoglobin interrelationships in patients with type 2 diabetes following tesaglitazar treatment.

    PubMed

    Hamrén, B; Björk, E; Sunzel, M; Karlsson, Mo

    2008-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was applied to understand and quantitate the interplay between tesaglitazar (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist) exposure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin (Hb), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetic patients. Data originated from a 12-week dose-ranging study with tesaglitazar. The primary objective was to develop a mechanism-based PD model for the FPG-HbA1c relationship. The secondary objective was to investigate possible mechanisms for the tesaglitazar effect on Hb. Following initiation of tesaglitazar therapy, time to new FPG steady state was approximately 9 weeks, and tesaglitazar potency in females was twice that in males. The model included aging of red blood cells (RBCs) using a transit compartment approach. The RBC life span was estimated to 135 days. The transformation from RBC to HbA1c was modeled as an FPG-dependent process. The model indicated that the tesaglitazar effect on Hb was caused by hemodilution of RBCs.

  7. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care. PMID:27649232

  8. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.

  9. Sustaining Effect of Intensive Nutritional Intervention Combined with Health Education on Dietary Behavior and Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care. PMID:27649232

  10. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice: a community-based feasibility study from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M.; Qvist, Vibeke; Palmore, Randall; Gesko, David; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing, and both undiagnosed patients and poor disease control among those already diagnosed are widely reported. We conducted a feasibility study of blood glucose screening in “The Dental Practice-Based Research Network” (DPBRN) as a potential strategy to detect undiagnosed DM, or poorly controlled DM among those with diagnosed disease. Methods Practitioners and staff were trained to use the glucose meter. Consecutive patients ≥19 years old were enrolled at each practice until 15 qualified and consented. Qualifying patients had at least one risk factor for DM according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Perceived barriers and benefits to testing were reported using patient and dentist/staff questionnaires. Results Twenty-eight practices enrolled 498 subjects. Glucose testing lasted <2min, 2–5min, or >5 min/patient in 29%, 64% and 7% of the practices, respectively. Twenty-six of 28 dentists (93%) considered testing necessary; 85% agreed it was beneficial; 75% agreed that testing may help identify patients at risk for periodontitis. Fifteen of 67 dental office personnel (22%) who returned questionnaires thought testing was time-consuming but 58% did not; 4% found the test too expensive (51% did not) and 4% thought that testing may open practices to liability (72% did not). Among subjects, 83% thought testing in dental practice was a good idea, 85% found it was easy and 62% said the test made them more likely to recommend their dentist to others. Discussion Glucose testing was well-received by patients and practitioners. These results should dispel the belief that glucose testing is time consuming, expensive and poorly accepted by patients. PMID:22383207

  12. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C.; Strasma, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non–critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost. PMID:26078254

  13. Hip Osteoarthritis in Dogs: A Randomized Study Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue and Plasma Rich in Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Belen; Rubio, Monica; Sopena, Joaquin; Dominguez, Juan Manuel; Vilar, Jose; Morales, Manuel; Cugat, Ramón; Carrillo, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intra-articular injection of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) versus plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a treatment for reducing symptoms in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel group. Thirty-nine dogs with symptomatic hip OA were assigned to one of the two groups, to receive aMSCs or PRGF. The primary outcome measures were pain and function subscales, including radiologic assessment, functional limitation and joint mobility. The secondary outcome measures were owners’ satisfaction questionnaire, rescue analgesic requirement and overall safety. Data was collected at baseline, then, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Results: OA degree did not vary within groups. Functional limitation, range of motion (ROM), owner’s and veterinary investigator visual analogue scale (VAS), and patient’s quality of life improved from the first month up to six months. The aMSCs group obtained better results at 6 months. There were no adverse effects during the study. Our findings show that aMSCs and PRGF are safe and effective in the functional analysis at 1, 3 and 6 months; provide a significant improvement, reducing dog’s pain, and improving physical function. With respect to basal levels for every parameter in patients with hip OA, aMSCs showed better results at 6 months. PMID:25089877

  14. Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kavadar, Gulis; Demircioglu, Demet Tekdos; Celik, Memet Yusuf; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effects of different numbers of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applications on pain and physical function in grade 3 knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 102 patients with grade 3 knee OA were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 received a single injection of PRP, Group 2 received two injections of PRP two weeks apart, Group 3 received three injections of PRP at 2-weeks intervals. All patients were evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Timed-Up and Go test (TUG) before the treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 months after the treatment. [Results] Ninety-eight patients (15 males, 83 females) completed the study. The mean ages of the patients were 53.5±6.6, 54.9±5.3, and 55.1±5.6 years in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were noted in all of the evaluated measures in all of the groups. The mean differences of Group 1-Group 2 and Group 1-Group 3 WOMAC total, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC function scores were statistically significant. [Conclusion] PRP is an effective treatment for functional status and pain in moderate knee osteoarthritis and a minimum of two injections is appropriate. PMID:26834369

  15. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  16. Weight and Glucose Reduction Observed with a Combination of Nutritional Agents in Rodent Models Does Not Translate to Humans in a Randomized Clinical Trial with Healthy Volunteers and Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Rebecca J.; Paulik, Mark A.; Walker, Ann; Boucheron, Joyce A.; McMullen, Susan L.; Gillmor, Dawn S.; Nunez, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutritional agents have modest efficacy in reducing weight and blood glucose in animal models and humans, but combinations are less well characterized. GSK2890457 (GSK457) is a combination of 4 nutritional agents, discovered by the systematic assessment of 16 potential components using the diet-induced obese mouse model, which was subsequently evaluated in a human study. Nonclinical Results In the diet-induced obese mouse model, GSK457 (15% w/w in chow) given with a long-acting glucagon-like peptide -1 receptor agonist, exendin-4 AlbudAb, produced weight loss of 30.8% after 28 days of treatment. In db/db mice, a model of diabetes, GSK457 (10% w/w) combined with the exendin-4 AlbudAb reduced glucose by 217 mg/dL and HbA1c by 1.2% after 14 days. Clinical Results GSK457 was evaluated in a 6 week randomized, placebo-controlled study that enrolled healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes to investigate changes in weight and glucose. In healthy subjects, GSK457 well tolerated when titrated up to 40 g/day, and it reduced systemic exposure of metformin by ~ 30%. In subjects with diabetes taking liraglutide 1.8 mg/day, GSK457 did not reduce weight, but it slightly decreased mean glucose by 0.356 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.409, 0.698) and HbAlc by 0.065% (95% CI: -0.495, 0.365), compared to placebo. In subjects with diabetes taking metformin, weight increased in the GSK457-treated group [adjusted mean % increase from baseline: 1.26% (95% CI: -0.24, 2.75)], and mean glucose and HbA1c were decreased slightly compared to placebo [adjusted mean glucose change from baseline: -1.22 mmol/L (95% CI: -2.45, 0.01); adjusted mean HbA1c change from baseline: -0.219% (95% CI: -0.910, 0.472)]. Conclusions Our data demonstrate remarkable effects of GSK457 in rodent models of obesity and diabetes, but a marked lack of translation to humans. Caution should be exercised with nutritional agents when predicting human efficacy from rodent models of obesity and diabetes. Trial

  17. The effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Shin, Dong Yeob; Kwon, Young-In; Oh, Chen-Gum; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with prediabetes. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects with prediabetes were randomly assigned to the GO2KA1 intervention group or the placebo group for 12 weeks. We assessed the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide by a 2 hour value in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and plasma adiponectin at baseline and after the 12 week intervention. The treatment group showed a significant decrease in the serum glucose level at 30 min (p = 0.013) and at 60 min (p = 0.028). The change of the serum glucose level at 60 min was significant in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.030). Also, the plasma level of HbA1c (p = 0.023) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were reduced and plasma adiponectin was increased in the GO2KA1 intervention group after the 12 week treatment. However, the placebo group did not show any significant changes in these biomarkers. In subjects with prediabetes, 12 week supplement with GO2KA1 may help control postprandial glucose compared with control.

  18. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and glucose management.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2011-09-01

    Although metabolic abnormalities have been linked with poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage, there are limited data addressing the impact of glycemic control or benefits of glucose management after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A systematic literature search was conducted of English-language articles describing original research on glycemic control in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case reports and case series were excluded. A total of 22 publications were selected for this review. Among the 17 studies investigating glucose as an outcome predictor, glucose levels during hospitalization were more likely to predict outcome than admission glucose. In general, hyperglycemia was linked to worse outcome. While insulin therapy in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was shown to effectively control plasma glucose levels, plasma glucose control was not necessarily reflective of cerebral glucose such that very tight glucose control may lead to neuroglycopenia. Furthermore, tight glycemic control was associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia which was linked to worse outcome. PMID:21850563

  19. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is upregulated in epicardial fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and correlates with glucose and triglyceride plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Nasarre, L; Juan-Babot, O; Gastelurrutia, P; Llucia-Valldeperas, A; Badimon, L; Bayes-Genis, A; Llorente-Cortés, V

    2014-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptor expression plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of adipose tissue in in vivo models of diabetes. However, there are no studies in diabetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze (a) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression in epicardial and subcutaneous fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with nondiabetic patients and (b) the possible correlation between the expression of these receptors and plasmatic parameters. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained from diabetic (n = 54) and nondiabetic patients (n = 22) undergoing cardiac surgery before the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Adipose LRP1 and VLDLR expression was analyzed at mRNA level by real-time PCR and at protein level by Western blot analysis. Adipose samples were also subjected to lipid extraction, and fat cholesterol ester, triglyceride, and free cholesterol contents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. LRP1 expression was higher in epicardial fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients (mRNA 17.63 ± 11.37 versus 7.01 ± 4.86; P = 0.02; protein 11.23 ± 7.23 versus 6.75 ± 5.02, P = 0.04). VLDLR expression was also higher in epicardial fat from diabetic patients but only at mRNA level (231.25 ± 207.57 versus 56.64 ± 45.64, P = 0.02). No differences were found in the expression of LRP1 or VLDLR in the subcutaneous fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Epicardial LRP1 and VLDLR mRNA overexpression positively correlated with plasma triglyceride levels (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01 and R(2) = 0.44, P = 0.03, respectively) and epicardial LRP1 also correlated with plasma glucose levels (R(2) = 0.33, P = 0.03). These results suggest that epicardial overexpression of certain lipoprotein receptors such as LRP1 and VLDLR expression may play a key role in the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Maturation of spermatozoa from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sex-reversed females using artificial seminal plasma or glucose-methanol extender.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Nynca, Joanna; Dobosz, Stefan; Krom, Janusz

    2015-04-15

    Masculinized females (sex-reversed females) produce only homogametic spermatozoa (X) for fertilization which is desired for the production of all-female rainbow trout populations. The milt of sex-reversed females is of low quality and must be matured through extension in maturation solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of glucose-methanol (GM) extender with artificial seminal plasma (ASP) extender for the maturation of milt of sex-reversed female rainbow trout. Milt suspensions were incubated at 4 °C for either 15 minutes (GM extender) or 120 minutes (ASP extender). Incubation of milt diluted in either the GM or ASP extender caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of sperm motility to 76.1 ± 10.9% and 74.7 ± 18.6% for GM and ASP, respectively, but no differences between both the extenders were found. Incubation also increased the average path velocity, straight line velocity, and linearity values of spermatozoa diluted with the GM extender; at the same time, none of the other parameters changed for ASP suspensions. Sperm diluted with ASP was characterized by higher curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement values. Percentage of eyed embryos produced by fertilization using milt diluted in the GM extender amounted to 63.6 ± 16.4% and 67.2 ± 11.9% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively and was lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of ASP extender (79.5 ± 5.8% and 80.3 ± 4.7% for sperm-to-egg ratio of 300,000:1 or 600,000:1, respectively). The results of our study clearly report that the mechanism of sperm maturation by the GM extender differs from that based on ASP. PMID:25638350

  1. Risk of Future Diabetes in Japanese People with High-normal Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels: A 4-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoh; Eto, Tanenao; Taniguchi, Shotaro; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is no definite consensus regarding the treatment and guidance for individuals with high-normal fasting plasma glucose levels (FPG;100-109 mg/dL). The present study aimed to determine the risk factors for future diabetes in Japanese people with high-normal FPG. Methods Retrospective cohort studies were conducted from 2008 to 2012, including 15,097 individuals who underwent medical examinations. First, the participants were divided into normal FPG (n=13,065) and high-normal FPG (n=2,032) groups to compare the diabetes incidence. Second, the high FPG group was divided into diabetes onset (n=133) and non-diabetes onset (n=1,899) groups to compare the baseline values. Third, to determine the risk factors for future diabetes in the high-normal FPG group, multivariate analyses were conducted. Results The cumulative incidence during the mean follow-up of 4 years was 94/13,065 (0.72%) and 133/2,032 (6.55%) in the normal FPG and high-normal FPG groups, respectively. Within the high-normal FPG group, the baseline body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, FPG, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower in the diabetes onset group than in the non-diabetes onset group. Obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high ALT were significant risk factors for diabetes according to a multivariate analysis. Conclusion The high-normal FPG group had a higher risk of diabetes than the normal FPG group, particularly when accompanied with obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high ALT. Thus, this high risk group should receive appropriate guidance for lifestyle changes to avoid developing diabetes at an early stage. PMID:27580535

  2. Randomized Trial of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplementation on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Plasma Proteomics Profiles in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; White, Emily; Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Zhang, Yuzheng; Rho, Junghyun; Song, Xiaoling; Milne, Ginger L.; Lampe, Paul D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucosamine and chondroitin are popular non-vitamin dietary supplements used for osteoarthritis. Long-term use is associated with lower incidence of colorectal and lung cancers and with lower mortality; however, the mechanism underlying these observations is unknown. In vitro and animal studies show that glucosamine and chondroitin inhibit NF-kB, a central mediator of inflammation, but no definitive trials have been done in healthy humans. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to assess the effects of glucosamine hydrochloride (1500 mg/d) plus chondroitin sulfate (1200 mg/d) for 28 days compared to placebo in 18 (9 men, 9 women) healthy, overweight (body mass index 25.0–32.5 kg/m2) adults, aged 20–55 y. We examined 4 serum inflammatory biomarkers: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II; a urinary inflammation biomarker: prostaglandin E2-metabolite; and a urinary oxidative stress biomarker: F2-isoprostane. Plasma proteomics on an antibody array was performed to explore other pathways modulated by glucosamine and chondroitin. Results Serum CRP concentrations were 23% lower after glucosamine and chondroitin compared to placebo (P = 0.048). There were no significant differences in other biomarkers. In the proteomics analyses, several pathways were significantly different between the interventions after Bonferroni correction, the most significant being a reduction in the “cytokine activity” pathway (P = 2.6 x 10-16), after glucosamine and chondroitin compared to placebo. Conclusion Glucosamine and chondroitin supplementation may lower systemic inflammation and alter other pathways in healthy, overweight individuals. This study adds evidence for potential mechanisms supporting epidemiologic findings that glucosamine and chondroitin are associated with reduced risk of lung and colorectal cancer. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01682694 PMID

  3. Low glycaemic index diets improve glucose tolerance and body weight in women with previous history of gestational diabetes: a six months randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and weight management is recommended to reduce the risk. Conventional dietary recommendations (energy-restricted, low fat) have limited success in women with previous GDM. The effect of lowering Glycaemic Index (GI) in managing glycaemic variables and body weight in women post-GDM is unknown. Objective To evaluate the effects of conventional dietary recommendations administered with and without additional low-GI education, in the management of glucose tolerance and body weight in Asian women with previous GDM. Method Seventy seven Asian, non-diabetic women with previous GDM, between 20- 40y were randomised into Conventional healthy dietary recommendation (CHDR) and low GI (LGI) groups. CHDR received conventional dietary recommendations only (energy restricted, low in fat and refined sugars, high-fibre). LGI group received advice on lowering GI in addition. Fasting and 2-h post-load blood glucose after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2HPP) were measured at baseline and 6 months after intervention. Anthropometry and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, three and six months after intervention. The study is registered at the Malaysian National Medical Research Register (NMRR) with Research ID: 5183. Results After 6 months, significant reductions in body weight, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were observed only in LGI group (P<0.05). Mean BMI changes were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: -0.6 vs. 0 kg/m2, P= 0.03). More subjects achieved weight loss ≥5% in LGI compared to CHDR group (33% vs. 8%, P=0.01). Changes in 2HPP were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: median (IQR): -0.2(2.8) vs. +0.8 (2.0) mmol/L, P=0.025). Subjects with baseline fasting insulin≥2 μIU/ml had greater 2HPP reductions in LGI group compared to those in the CHDR group (−1.9±0.42 vs. +1.31±1.4 mmol/L, P<0.001). After 6 months, LGI group diets showed significantly lower

  4. Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M D; Scott, R

    1980-01-01

    The results of analysis of blood specimens from randomly selected adults aged 19-88 years in the new town of Cumbernauld were used to establish age- and sex-related reference ranges by the centile method (central 95%) for plasma calcium, phosphate, total protein, albumin, globulins, urea, creatinine, and urate. The possible existence of a subpopulation with a higher reference range for urea is mooted. PMID:7400337

  5. Acute hyperglycemia alters von Willebrand factor but not the fibrinolytic system in elderly subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Ludovico; Coppola, Antonino; Grassia, Antonio; Mastrolorenzo, Luigia; Lettieri, Biagio; De Lucia, Domenico; De Nanzio, Annarita; Gombos, Giorgio

    2004-10-01

    To assess whether acute hyperglycemia affects fibrinolytic balance in elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 40 non-obese elderly subjects (20 NGT, age 68 +/- 8 years; and 20 IGT, age 69 +/- 11 years) were studied. On two experimental days, randomly allocated and spaced 1 week apart, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured in each subject at baseline (0) and 30, 60, 90, 120 min after the ingestion of 75 g glucose or a similarly sweet dose of aspartame (250 mg) (control test). In both NGT and IGT elderly subjects, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and fibrinogen plasma levels did not significantly change after both oral aspartame and glucose load. In IGT subjects, vWF plasmatic levels decreased after glucose (not aspartame) oral load, reaching the minimum level at 90 min after load (82.7 +/- 7.8 versus 93.7 +/- 10.2, P <0.01). These results demonstrate that acute hyperglycemia does not modify plasma fibrinolysis in elderly subjects. The decrease of plasma concentration of vWF in IGT elderly subjects requires cautious interpretation and further extensive investigations.

  6. Modelling the Relative Contribution of Fasting and Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose to HbA1c in Healthy and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Richard L.; Luzio, Steven D.; Owens, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is regarded as the gold standard of glucose homeostasis assessment in diabetes. There has been much discussion in recent medical literature of experimental results concerning the relative contribution of fasting and post-prandial glucose levels to the value of HbA1c. A mathematical model of haemoglobin glycation is…

  7. Impact of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Soh; Williams, Phillip; Jabbour, Kareem; Ueda, Takeo; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Baier, Shawn; Flakoll, Paul J

    2005-11-01

    The interaction of glutamine availability and glucose homeostasis during and after exercise was investigated, measuring whole body glucose kinetics with [3-3H]glucose and net organ balances of glucose and amino acids (AA) during basal, exercise, and postexercise hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp periods in six multicatheterized dogs. Dogs were studied twice in random treatment order: once with glutamine (12 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1); Gln) and once with saline (Con) infused intravenously during and after exercise. Plasma glucose fell by 7 mg/dl with exercise in Con (P < 0.05), but it did not fall with Gln. Gln further stimulated whole body glucose production and utilization an additional 24% above a normal exercise response (P < 0.05). Net hepatic uptake of glutamine and alanine was greater with Gln than Con during exercise (P < 0.05). Net hepatic glucose output was increased sevenfold during exercise with Gln (P < 0.05) but not with Con. Net hindlimb glucose uptake was increased similarly during exercise in both groups (P < 0.05). During the postexercise hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic period, glucose production decreased to near zero with Con, but it did not decrease below basal levels with Gln. Gln increased glucose utilization by 16% compared with Con after exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, net hindlimb glucose uptake in the postexercise period was increased approximately twofold vs. basal with Gln (P < 0.05) but not with Con. Net hepatic uptake of glutamine during the postexercise period was threefold greater for Gln than Con (P < 0.05). In conclusion, glutamine availability modulates glucose homeostasis during and after exercise, which may have implications for postexercise recovery. PMID:16037406

  8. A UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, and ligustrazine in rat plasma, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies of Shenxiong glucose injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Gong, Zipeng; Lu, Yuan; Xie, Yumin; Huang, Yong; Liu, Yue; Lan, Yanyu; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yonglin

    2015-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the four major active ingredients, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, and ligustrazine, in the traditional Chinese medicine Shenxiong glucose injection in rat plasma. Acidified and alkalized plasma samples were extracted using ethyl acetate, and separated on a Waters C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) by using a gradient mobile phase system of acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid and luteoloside as an internal standard. Electrospray ionization in the positive-ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring were used to identify and quantitate the active components. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.994) over the concentration range, with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) between 0.02 and 0.21μg/mL. The precision of the in vivo study was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and the percentage of relative standard deviation was within 15%. Moreover, satisfactory extraction efficiency was obtained (between 83.94 and 117.81%) by liquid-liquid extraction. The validated method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study in rats after intravenous administration of Shenxiong glucose injection. The results showed that the four bioactive ingredients in Shenxiong glucose injection have linear pharmacokinetic properties in rats after intravenous injection within the administered dose range and partially different ones compared to single ingredient.

  9. The effect on plasma lipids of the isoenergetic replacement of table sucrose by dried glucose syrup (maize-syrup solids) in the normal diet of adult men over a period of 1 year.

    PubMed

    Lock, S; Ford, M A; Bagley, R; Green, L F

    1980-03-01

    1. Eighteen males (31-62 years) who habitually consumed significant amounts of table sucrose (approximately 25% of total carbohydrate intake) were supplied with their usual intake of sucrose for consumption in conjunction with their normal diet for 1 year, and a record kept of the amount consumed. The sucrose was then replaced isoenergetically by dried glucose syrup (55 D.E.) which contained saccharin to equate the sweetness to that of sucrose. 2. Fasting blood samples were taken every 4 weeks during the 2 years, and the plasma analysed for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipid-P by automated colorimetric methods. Dietary questionnaires were issued every 3 months to confirm the subjects were not substantially altering their diets. 3. In subjects whose weight remained unchanged and in those who lost weight there was a significant fall in cholesterol (P less than 0.025) and phospholipid.P (P less than 0.025) in the glucose-syrup period compared with the sucrose period; triglycerides did not change. In subjects who gained weight there was a significant increase in triglycerides (P less than 0.05), but no change in cholesterol; phospholipid-P fell significantly (P less than 0.0005). 4. The dietary modification in this experiment was sufficiently long to ensure that subjects had adapted, and the results obtained show stable changes in blood lipids which may be attributed to the isoenergetic replacement of table sucrose by glucose syrup.

  10. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children Aged 4 to <10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy; Xing, Dongyuan; Ruedy, Katrina; Buckingham, Bruce; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Tamborlane, William; Kollman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes but less so in children. We designed a study to assess CGM benefit in young children aged 4 to 9 years with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a run-in phase, 146 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 7.5 ± 1.7 years, 64% on pumps, median diabetes duration 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to CGM or to usual care. The primary outcome was reduction in HbA1c at 26 weeks by ≥0.5% without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS The primary outcome was achieved by 19% in the CGM group and 28% in the control group (P = 0.17). Mean change in HbA1c was −0.1% in each group (P = 0.79). Severe hypoglycemia rates were similarly low in both groups. CGM wear decreased over time, with only 41% averaging at least 6 days/week at 26 weeks. There was no correlation between CGM use and change in HbA1c (rs = −0.09, P = 0.44). CGM wear was well tolerated, and parental satisfaction with CGM was high. However, parental fear of hypoglycemia was not reduced. CONCLUSIONS CGM in 4- to 9-year-olds did not improve glycemic control despite a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM. We postulate that this finding may be related in part to limited use of the CGM glucose data in day-to-day management and to an unremitting fear of hypoglycemia. Overcoming the barriers that prevent integration of these critical glucose data into day-to-day management remains a challenge. PMID:22210571

  11. Grain sorghum muffin reduces glucose and insulin responses in men.

    PubMed

    Poquette, Nicole M; Gu, Xuan; Lee, Sun-Ok

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes and obesity have sparked interest in identifying healthy, dietary carbohydrates as functional ingredients for controlling blood glucose and insulin levels. Grain sorghum has been known to be a slowly digestible cereal; however, research is limited on its health effects in humans. The objectives of this study were to measure the contents of functional starch fractions, SDS (slowly-digestible starch) and RS (resistant starch), and to investigate the effects of grain sorghum on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels in 10 healthy men. A whole-wheat flour muffin (control) was compared with the grain sorghum muffin with both muffins containing 50 g of total starch. Using a randomized-crossover design, male subjects consumed treatments within a one-week washout period, and glucose and insulin levels were observed at 15 minutes before and 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180 minutes after consumption. The mean glucose responses reduced after consuming grain sorghum, particularly at 45-120 minute intervals, and mean insulin responses reduced at 15-90 minute intervals compared to control (P < 0.05). The mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lowered for plasma glucose responses about an average of 35% from 3863 ± 443 to 2871 ± 163 mg (∼3 h) dL(-1) (P < 0.05). Insulin responses also reduced significantly from 3029 ± 965 μU (∼3 h) L(-1) for wheat to 1357 ± 204 with sorghum (P < 0.05). Results suggest that grain sorghum is a good functional ingredient to assist in managing glucose and insulin levels in healthy individuals.

  12. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the

  13. RANDOMNESS of Numbers DEFINITION(QUERY:WHAT? V HOW?) ONLY Via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-Statistics(MBCS) Hot-Plasma VS. Digits-Clumping Log-Law NON-Randomness Inversion ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-Statistics(BEQS) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!

  14. Comparable Postprandial Glucose Reductions with Viscous Fiber Blend Enriched Biscuits in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Acute Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Jenkins, David J.A.; Wolever, Thomas M.S.; Rogovik, Alexander L.; Jovanovski, Elena; Božikov, Velimir; Rahelić, Dario; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the blood glucose-lowering effect of a highly viscous fiber blend (VFB) added to a starchy snack on postprandial glycemia between healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus. Methods Ten healthy participants (4 men and 6 women, aged 28 ± 2.6 years, body mass index [BMI], 24.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2) and 9 participants with diabetes mellitus type 2 (3 men and 6 women, aged 68 ± 3.8 years, BMI 28.8 ± 1.2 kg/m2) on four separate occasions took either 50 g available carbohydrates as control biscuits, biscuits with 10 g of highly viscous fiber blend, white bread with 12 g of margarine, or white bread alone. Postprandial blood glucose response, glycemic index (GI), and palatability were determined. Results Mean (95% confidence interval) GI values of the viscous fiber blend biscuits were 26 (16-36) and 37 (27-47) GI units for healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of white bread, white bread with 12 g of margarine, and control biscuits (P < 0.001, paired t test) both in healthy participants (GI 100, 108 [57-159], and 101 [44-158], respectively) and participants with diabetes mellitus (GI 100, 103 [79-127], and 94 [78-110], respectively). Viscous fiber blend significantly reduced the glycemic index by 74% (7.4 GI units/g of fiber) in healthy participants and by 63% (6.3 GI units/g of fiber) in participants with diabetes. The GI did not differ between control meals in both healthy participants and participants with diabetes. There were no significant differences in palatability among the types of meals, although participants with diabetes found the viscous fiber blend biscuits more palatable (P = 0.002, t test). Conclusion Viscous fiber blend is a very potent and palatable soluble fiber addition to a starchy snack, which is able to reduce the glycemic response to a similar extent in both healthy participants and individuals with diabetes

  15. A randomized, open-label, multicentre study to evaluate plasma atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and arteriosclerosis obliterans when treated with Probucol and Cilostazol

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Guo, Xiao-Hui; Xiao, Xin-Hua; Guo, Li-Xin; Lv, Xiao-Feng; Li, Quan-Min; Gao, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the plasma atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and arteriosclerosis obliteran (ASO) when treated with Probucol plus Cilostazol in combination and individually. Methods In this open-label study, patients aged 40–75 years were randomized to receive conventional therapy alone, or with Cilostazol 100 mg bid, or with Probucol 250 mg bid, or with both in combination. Endpoints included changes in plasma biomarker and safety at 12 weeks. Results Of the 200 randomized patients, 165 for per-protocol and 160 for the safety (QTc intervals) were set, respectively. Probucol significantly reduced total cholesterol (P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), (P = 0.01), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001) compared with conventional therapy. Cilostazol was effective in increasing HDL-C (P = 0.002) and reducing triglycerides levels (P < 0.01) compared with conventional therapy. A trend towards significance was observed for the difference between conventional therapy alone and Probucol plus Cilostazol group for the change in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL, P = 0.065). No significant effects on the majority of the remaining biomarkers were found across the treatment groups. Conclusions We have confirmed that Ox-LDL could be a possible plasma atherosclerotic biomarker among the evaluated biomarkers, which reflected the synergetic effect of Cilostazol plus Probucol in patients with T2DM and ASO shown previously in preclinical studies. PMID:23097651

  16. Effect of Functional Bread Rich in Potassium, γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism and Endothelial Function: A Double-blind Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Quilez, Joan; Merino, Jordi; Ferré, Raimon; Díaz-López, Andrés; Bulló, Mònica; Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Palau-Galindo, Antoni; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Because it has been suggested that food rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) peptides have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, we tested the effects of low-sodium bread, but rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides on 24-hour BP, glucose metabolism, and endothelial function.A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 30 patients with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension, comparing three 4-week nutritional interventions separated by 2-week washout periods. Patients were randomly assigned to consume 120 g/day of 1 of the 3 types of bread for each nutritional intervention: conventional wheat bread (CB), low-sodium wheat bread enriched in potassium (LSB), and low-sodium wheat bread rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides (LSB + G). For each period, 24-hour BP measurements, in vivo endothelial function, and biochemical samples were obtained.After LSB + G consumption, 24-hour ambulatory BP underwent a nonsignificant greater reduction than after the consumption of CB and LSB (0.26 mm Hg in systolic BP and -0.63 mm Hg in diastolic BP for CB; -0.71 mm Hg in systolic BP and -1.08 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB; and -0.75 mm Hg in systolic BP and -2.12 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB + G, respectively). Diastolic BP at rest decreased significantly during the LSB + G intervention, although there were no significant differences in changes between interventions. There were no significant differences between interventions in terms of changes in in vivo endothelial function, glucose metabolism, and peripheral inflammatory parameters.Compared with the consumption of CB or LSB, no greater beneficial effects on 24-hour BP, endothelial function, or glucose metabolism were demonstrated after the consumption of LSB + G in a population with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of GABA on BP

  17. Effect of Functional Bread Rich in Potassium, γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism and Endothelial Function: A Double-blind Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Quilez, Joan; Merino, Jordi; Ferré, Raimon; Díaz-López, Andrés; Bulló, Mònica; Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Palau-Galindo, Antoni; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Because it has been suggested that food rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) peptides have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, we tested the effects of low-sodium bread, but rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides on 24-hour BP, glucose metabolism, and endothelial function.A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 30 patients with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension, comparing three 4-week nutritional interventions separated by 2-week washout periods. Patients were randomly assigned to consume 120 g/day of 1 of the 3 types of bread for each nutritional intervention: conventional wheat bread (CB), low-sodium wheat bread enriched in potassium (LSB), and low-sodium wheat bread rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides (LSB + G). For each period, 24-hour BP measurements, in vivo endothelial function, and biochemical samples were obtained.After LSB + G consumption, 24-hour ambulatory BP underwent a nonsignificant greater reduction than after the consumption of CB and LSB (0.26 mm Hg in systolic BP and -0.63 mm Hg in diastolic BP for CB; -0.71 mm Hg in systolic BP and -1.08 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB; and -0.75 mm Hg in systolic BP and -2.12 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB + G, respectively). Diastolic BP at rest decreased significantly during the LSB + G intervention, although there were no significant differences in changes between interventions. There were no significant differences between interventions in terms of changes in in vivo endothelial function, glucose metabolism, and peripheral inflammatory parameters.Compared with the consumption of CB or LSB, no greater beneficial effects on 24-hour BP, endothelial function, or glucose metabolism were demonstrated after the consumption of LSB + G in a population with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of GABA on BP

  18. The difference between oats and beta-glucan extract intake in the management of HbA1c, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    He, Li-xia; Zhao, Jian; Huang, Yuan-sheng; Li, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Increasing oats and beta-glucan extract intake has been associated with improved glycemic control, which is associated with the reduction in the development of diabetes. This study aims to assess the different effects between oat (whole and bran) and beta-glucan extract intake on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. PubMed, Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched up to February 2014. We included randomized controlled trials with interventions that lasted at least four weeks that compared oats and beta-glucan (extracted from oats or other sources) intake with a control. A total of 1351 articles were screened for eligibility, and relevant data were extracted from 18 studies (n = 1024). Oat product dose ranged from 20 g d(-1) to 136 g d(-1), and beta-glucan extract dose ranged from 3 g d(-1) to 10 g d(-1). Compared with the control, oat intake resulted in a greater decrease in fasting glucose and insulin of subjects (P < 0.05), but beta-glucan extract intake did not. Furthermore, oat intake resulted in a greater decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (P < 0.001, I(2) = 0%) and fasting glucose (P < 0.001, I(2) = 68%) after removing one study using a concentrate and a different design and fasting insulin of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (P < 0.001, I(2) = 0%). The intake of oats and beta-glucan extracted from oats were effective in decreasing fasting glucose (P = 0.007, I(2) = 91%) and fasting insulin of T2D (P < 0.001, I(2) = 0%) and tented to lower HbA1c (P = 0.09, I(2) = 92%). Higher consumption of whole oats and oat bran, but not oat or barley beta-glucan extracts, are associated with lower HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin of T2D, hyperlipidaemic and overweight subjects, especially people with T2D, which supports the need for clinical trials to evaluate the potential role of oats in approaching to the management of glycemic control and insulin sensitivity of diabetes or metabolic syndrome subjects.

  19. Serum leptin concentrations are not related to dietary patterns but are related to sex, age, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, serum insulin, and plasma glucose in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R; McCarthy, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptin is known to play a role in food intake regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns and demographic, lifestyle, and health factors in the US population. Methods Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 were used to study the association between fasting serum leptin and dietary patterns, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, age, energy and alcohol intakes, body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and serum insulin in 4009 individuals. Factor analysis was used to derive three principle factors and these were labeled as Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat, Western, and Mixed dietary patterns. Results Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat (8.5 fg/L) and Mixed patterns (8.0 fg/L) compared to Western pattern (6.29 fg/L) (P < 0.0001). When analysis was adjusted for confounding variables, no significant association was observed between serum leptin and dietary patterns (P = 0.22). Multivariate adjusted serum leptin concentrations were significantly associated with sex (higher in women than in men; β = -1.052; P < 0.0001), age (direct relation, β = 0.006, P < 0.0001), BMI, (direct relation, β = 0.082, P < 0.0001), fasting plasma glucose (inverse relation, β = -0.024, P = 0.0146), serum triacylglycerol (direct relation, β = 0.034, P = 0.0022), and serum insulin (direct relation, β = 0.003, P < 0.0001) but not with race-ethnicity (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.20), energy intake (P = 0.42), and alcohol intake (P = 0.73). Conclusion In this study, serum leptin was not independently associated with dietary patterns. Sex, age, BMI, serum triacylglycerol, plasma glucose, and serum insulin are independent predictors of serum leptin concentrations. PMID:19144201

  20. Preoperative administration of polysaccharide Kureha and reduced plasma transforming growth factor-β in patients with advanced gastric cancer: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHITA, KEISHI; SAKURAMOTO, SHINICHI; MIENO, HIROAKI; NEMOTO, MASAYUKI; SHIBATA, TOMOTAKA; KATADA, NATSUYA; OHTSUKI, SHIGEAKI; SAKAMOTO, YASUTOSHI; HOSHI, KEIKA; WANG, GUOQIN; HEMMI, OSAMU; SATOH, TOSHIHIKO; KIKUCHI, SHIRO; WATANABE, MASAHIKO

    2015-01-01

    Systemic abrogation of TGF-β signaling results in tumor reduction through cytotoxic T lymphocytes activity in a mouse model. The administration of polysaccharide-Kureha (PSK) into tumor-bearing mice also showed tumor regression with reduced TGF-β. However, there have been no studies regarding the PSK administration to cancer patients and the association with plasma TGF-β. PSK (3 g/day) was administered as a neoadjuvant therapy for 2 weeks before surgery. In total, 31 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients were randomly assigned to group A (no neoadjuvant PSK; n=14) or B (neoadjuvant PSK therapy; n=17). Plasma TGF-β was measured pre- and postoperatively. The allocation factors were clinical stage (cStage) and gender. Plasma TGF-β ranged from 1.85–43.5 ng/ml (average, 9.50 ng/ml) in AGC, and 12 patients (38.7%) had a high value, >7.0 ng/ml. These patients were largely composed of poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with pathological stage III/IV. All the six elevated cases in group B showed a significant reduction of plasma TGF-β (from 21.6 to 4.5 ng/ml, on average), whereas this was not exhibited in group A. The cases within the normal limits of TGF-β remained unchanged irrespective of PSK treatment. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant reduction in the difference of plasma TGF-β between groups A and B (P=0.019). PSK reduced the plasma TGF-β in AGC patients when the levels were initially high. The clinical advantage of PSK may, however, be restricted to specific histological types of AGC. Perioperative suppression of TGF-β by PSK may antagonize cancer immune evasion and improve patient prognosis in cases of AGC. PMID:26137253

  1. Postprandial glucose and insulin profiles following a glucose-loaded meal in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    Data from intravenous (i.v.) glucose tolerance tests suggest that glucose clearance from the blood is slower in cats than in dogs. Since different physiological pathways are activated following oral administration compared with i.v. administration, we investigated the profiles of plasma glucose and insulin in cats and dogs following ingestion of a test meal with or without glucose. Adult male and female cats and dogs were fed either a high-protein (HP) test meal (15 g/kg body weight; ten cats and eleven dogs) or a HP + glucose test meal (13 g/kg body-weight HP diet + 2 g/kg body-weight D-glucose; seven cats and thirteen dogs) following a 24 h fast. Marked differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles were observed in cats and dogs following ingestion of the glucose-loaded meal. In cats, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 120 min (10.2, 95 % CI 9.7, 10.8 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 240 min, but no statistically significant change in plasma insulin concentration was observed. In dogs, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 60 min (6.3, 95 % CI 5.9, 6.7 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 90 min, while plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher than pre-meal values from 30 to 120 min following the glucose-loaded meal. These results indicate that cats are not as efficient as dogs at rapidly decreasing high blood glucose levels and are consistent with a known metabolic adaptation of cats, namely a lack of glucokinase, which is important for both insulin secretion and glucose uptake from the blood. PMID:22005400

  2. Insulin Signaling in the Control of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    A continuous supply of glucose is necessary to ensure proper function and survival of all organs. Plasma glucose levels are thus maintained in a narrow range around 5 mM, which is considered the physiological set point. Glucose homeostasis is controlled primarily by the liver, fat, and skeletal muscle. Following a meal, most glucose disposals occur in the skeletal muscle, whereas fasting plasma glucose levels are determined primarily by glucose output from the liver. The balance between the utilization and production of glucose is primarily maintained at equilibrium by two opposing hormones, insulin and glucagon. In response to an elevation in plasma glucose and amino acids (after consumption of a meal), insulin is released from the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When plasma glucose falls (during fasting or exercise), glucagon is secreted by α cells, which surround the beta cells in the pancreas. Both cell types are extremely sensitive to glucose concentrations, can regulate hormone synthesis, and are released in response to small changes in plasma glucose levels. At the same time, insulin serves as the major physiological anabolic agent, promoting the synthesis and storage of glucose, lipids, and proteins and inhibiting their degradation and release back into the circulation. This chapter will focus mainly on signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin exerts its plethora of effects in liver, muscle, and fat cells, focusing on those pathways that are crucial in the control of glucose and lipid homeostasis.

  3. Effects of randomization to intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in type 2 diabetes ACCORD Memory in Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Lenore J; Miller, Michael E; Williamson, Jeff D; Lazar, Ron M; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Murray, Ann M; Sullivan, Mark; Horowitz, Karen R; Ding, Jingzhong; Marcovina, Santica; Lovato, Laura C; Lovato, James; Margolis, Karen L; O’Connor, Patrick; Lipkin, Edward W; Hirsh, Joy; Coker, L; Maldjian, Joseph; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Truwit, Charles; Davatzikos, Christos; Bryan, R Nick

    2012-01-01

    Background Persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at risk for cognitive impairment and brain atrophy. The ACCORD Memory in Diabetes (MIND) Study investigated whether persons randomized to an intensive glycaemic therapeutic strategy targeting HbA1c to <6% had better cognitive function and a larger brain volume at 40 months than persons randomized to a standard strategy targeting HbA1c to 7%–7.9%. Methods ACCORD MIND was a double 2×2 factorial parallel group randomised trial conducted in 52 clinical sites in North America. Participants [age 55 – <80 years] with T2D, high HbA1c concentrations (>7.5%), and at high risk for cardiovascular events were randomised to treatment groups using a centralized web-based system. Clinic staff and participants were not blinded to treatment arm. The cognitive primary outcome, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score, was assessed at baseline, 20 and 40 months. Total brain volume (TBV), the primary brain structure outcome, was assessed with MRI at baseline and 40 months in a sub-set of 632 participants. All participants with follow-up data were included in the primary analyses. In February, 2008, increased mortality risk led to the termination of the intensive therapy and transition of those participants to standard glycaemic treatment. Results Randomised patients (n=2977; mean age 62.3 years) were consecutively enrolled; the final analysis included 1358 intensive and 1416 standard arm participants with a 20 or 40 month DSST score. Of the 614 with a baseline MRI, 230 intensive and 273 standard therapy participants were included in the analysis. There was no treatment difference in the DSST score. The intensive group had a greater TBV than the standard group (difference, 4.62; 95% CI 2.0 to7.3 cm3; p=0.0007). Interpretation Although significant differences in TBV favored the intensive therapy, cognitive outcomes were not different. Combined with the unfavorable effects on other ACCORD outcomes, MIND findings do not support

  4. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 < 29) were randomly assigned to three groups and administered tablets containing EGML (2 g/day), GCE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition, plasma cholesterol and diet were assessed. Blood analysis was also conducted to examine plasma lipoproteins, triglycerides, adipocytokines and antioxidants. Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). EGML and GCE had no effect on triglycerides, non-HDL-C, adipocytokines or antioxidants when compared to placebo supplementation. However, HDL-C was higher in the EGML group (p < 0.001) after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group. Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:21936892

  5. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. Methods Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or

  6. Effects of Unfermented and Fermented Whole Grain Rye Crisp Breads Served as Part of a Standardized Breakfast, on Appetite and Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses: A Randomized Cross-over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Daniel P; Lee, Isabella; Risérus, Ulf; Langton, Maud; Landberg, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products. Methods In a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m2, were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB), fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB) or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB), Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy. Results Reported fullness was 16% higher (P<0.001), and hunger 11% and 12% lower (P<0.05) after ingestion of uRCB and RCB, respectively, compared with WCB. Postprandial glucose response did not differ significantly between treatments. Postprandial insulin was 10% lower (P<0.007) between 0-120 min but not significantly lower between 0-230 min for RCB compared with WCB. uRCB induced 13% (P<0.002) and 17% (P<0.001) lower postprandial insulin response between 0-230 min compared with RCB and WCB respectively. Conclusion Whole grain rye crisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be

  7. A UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, and ligustrazine in rat plasma, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies of Shenxiong glucose injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Gong, Zipeng; Lu, Yuan; Xie, Yumin; Huang, Yong; Liu, Yue; Lan, Yanyu; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yonglin

    2015-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the four major active ingredients, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, and ligustrazine, in the traditional Chinese medicine Shenxiong glucose injection in rat plasma. Acidified and alkalized plasma samples were extracted using ethyl acetate, and separated on a Waters C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) by using a gradient mobile phase system of acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid and luteoloside as an internal standard. Electrospray ionization in the positive-ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring were used to identify and quantitate the active components. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.994) over the concentration range, with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) between 0.02 and 0.21μg/mL. The precision of the in vivo study was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and the percentage of relative standard deviation was within 15%. Moreover, satisfactory extraction efficiency was obtained (between 83.94 and 117.81%) by liquid-liquid extraction. The validated method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study in rats after intravenous administration of Shenxiong glucose injection. The results showed that the four bioactive ingredients in Shenxiong glucose injection have linear pharmacokinetic properties in rats after intravenous injection within the administered dose range and partially different ones compared to single ingredient. PMID:26118621

  8. Unpredictable feeding impairs glucose tolerance in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H; Landon-Lane, Nina; Matthews, Samuel J; Harding, Jane E; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2013-01-01

    Irregular eating is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disease in adults but may affect young, growing children differently. We investigated the metabolic effects of unpredictable feeding in female juvenile lambs randomly assigned to receive, for six weeks, maintenance feed given twice daily in equal portions (Control Group, C; n = 24) or the same weekly feed amount in aliquots of variable size at unpredictable times (Unpredictable Group, U; n = 21). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), insulin tolerance tests (ITT), and measurement of diurnal plasma cortisol concentrations were performed pre and post the dietary intervention. Groups were compared using t test and RM ANOVA. Weight gain was similar in both groups (C 18 ± 2%; U 16 ± 2% of initial body weight). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was unchanged in C (AUC pre 818 ± 34, post 801 ± 33 mmol.min.l(-1)), but increased by 20% in U (pre 830 ± 25, post 1010 ± 19 mmol.min.l(-1); p<0.0001), with an inadequate insulin response to glucose load (log(AUC insulin first 40 minutes) post intervention C 1.49 ± 0.04 vs U 1.36 ± 0.04 ng.min.ml(-1); p = 0.03). Insulin tolerance and diurnal variation of plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Unpredictable feeding impairs insulin response to glucose in growing lambs despite high quality food and normal weight gain. Irregular eating warrants investigation as a potentially remediable risk factor for disordered glucose metabolism.

  9. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bundy, Rafe; Walker, Ann F; Middleton, Richard W; Wallis, Carol; Simpson, Hugh C R

    2008-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the chief causes of death in the UK, and are associated with high circulating levels of total cholesterol in the plasma. Artichoke leaf extracts (ALEs) have been reported to reduce plasma lipids levels, including total cholesterol, although high quality data is lacking. The objective of this trial was to assess the effect of ALE on plasma lipid levels and general well-being in otherwise healthy adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. 131 adults were screened for total plasma cholesterol in the range 6.0-8.0 mmol/l, with 75 suitable volunteers randomised onto the trial. Volunteers consumed 1280 mg of a standardised ALE, or matched placebo, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in the treatment group by an average of 4.2% (from 7.16 (SD 0.62) mmol/l to 6.86 (SD 0.68) mmol/l) and increased in the control group by an average of 1.9% (6.90 (SD 0.49) mmol/l to 7.03 (0.61) mmol/l), the difference between groups being statistically significant (p=0.025). No significant differences between groups were observed for LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. General well-being improved significantly in both the treatment (11%) and control groups (9%) with no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, ALE consumption resulted in a modest but favourable statistically significant difference in total cholesterol after 12 weeks. In comparison with a previous trial, it is suggested that the apparent positive health status of the study population may have contributed to the modesty of the observed response.

  10. Nigella sativa (black seed) effects on plasma lipid concentrations in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Nobili, Valerio; Bo, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The effects of Nigella sativa (NS) on plasma lipid concentrations are controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to obtain a conclusive result in humans. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up to August 2015) to identify RCTs investigating the impact of NS on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides concentrations. A random-effects model and the generic inverse variance weighting method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Meta-regression, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessments were performed using standard methods. A total of 17 RCTs examining the effects of NS on plasma lipid concentrations were included. Meta-analysis suggested a significant association between NS supplementation and a reduction in total cholesterol (weighed-mean-difference [WMD]: -15.65mg/dL, 95% CI: -24.67, -6.63, p=0.001), LDL-C (WMD: -14.10mg/dL, 95% CI: -19.32, -8.88, p<0.001), and triglyceride levels (WMD: -20.64mg/dL, 95% CI: -30.29, -11.00, p<0.001). No significant effect on HDL-C concentrations (WMD: 0.28mg/dL, 95% CI: -1.96, 2.53, p=0.804) was found. A greater effect of NS seed oil versus seed powder was observed on serum total cholesterol and LDL-C levels, and an increase in HDL-C levels was found only after NS seed powder supplementation. NS has a significant impact on plasma lipid concentrations, leading to lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG levels while increased HDL-C is associated with NS powder only. Further RCTs are needed to explore the NS benefits on cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26875640

  11. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    PubMed

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p < 0.001) and in LDL-C (15.6%, p < 0.001), no significant differences were found between the treatment groups in a repeated measures analysis of variance for TC (p = 0.0525), LDL-C (p = 0.2356), HDL-C (p = 0.8293) or TAGs (p = 0.3749). Furthermore, HPO consumption had similar effects on plasma lipids to EVOO, thus providing additional support for the concept that hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil".

  12. Cereal Processing Influences Postprandial Glucose Metabolism as Well as the GI Effect

    PubMed Central

    Vinoy, Sophie; Normand, Sylvie; Meynier, Alexandra; Sothier, Monique; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Brand-Miller, Jeannie; Laville, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Technological processes may influence the release of glucose in starch. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response and the kinetics of appearance of exogenous glucose from 2 cereal products consumed at breakfast. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men were submitted to a randomized, open, crossover study that was divided into 2 parts: 12 of the 25 subjects were included in the “isotope part,” and the 13 other subjects were included in the “glycemic part.” On test days, subjects received biscuits (low glycemic index [GI], high slowly available glucose [SAG]) or extruded cereals (medium GI, low SAG) as part of a breakfast similar in terms of caloric and macronutrient content. The postprandial phase lasted 270 minutes. Results: The rate of appearance (RaE) of exogenous glucose was significantly lower after consumption of biscuits in the first part of the morning (90–150 minutes) than after consumption of extruded cereals (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, at 210 minutes, it was significantly higher with biscuits (p ≤ 0.01). For the first 2 hours, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly lower after biscuits during the glycemic part. C-peptide plasma concentrations were significantly lower at 90, 120, and 150 minutes after ingestion of the biscuits (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The consumption of biscuits with a high content of slowly digestible starch reduces the appearance rate of glucose in the first part of the morning and prolongs this release in the late phase of the morning (210 minutes). Our results also emphasize that modulation of glucose availability at breakfast is an important factor for metabolic control throughout the morning in healthy subjects due to the lowering of blood glucose and insulin excursions. PMID:24015715

  13. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  14. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Karlander, S.; Roovete, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S.

    1986-11-01

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of (2-/sup 3/H)- and (6-/sup 3/H)glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing (3-/sup 3/H)- and (6-/sup 3/H)glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment (2-/sup 3/H)- and (6-/sup 3/H)glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only (3-/sup 3/H)glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use (6-/sup 3/H)glucose rather than (3-/sup 3/H)glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle.

  15. HypoDE: Research Design and Methods of a Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating the Impact of Real-Time CGM Usage on the Frequency of CGM Glucose Values <55 mg/dl in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Problematic Hypoglycemia Treated With Multiple Daily Injections.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Deiss, Dorothee; Hermanns, Norbert; Graham, Claudia; Kaltheuner, Matthias; Liebl, Andreas; Price, David

    2015-05-01

    Systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have been available for a number of years, and numerous clinical studies have been performed with them. Interestingly, in many of these studies patients with an increased risk of hypoglycemic events were excluded. In addition, in most studies subjects were using a pump for insulin delivery. Therefore our knowledge about the benefit of CGM in patients employing multiple daily injections (MDI) of insulin is limited, especially when it comes to a reduction in the risk of low glucose events in high-risk individuals. We are planning to run a 26-week randomized controlled study in Germany (HypoDE, Hypoglycemia in Deutschland) that is focused on evaluating if such a reduction can be observed in patients on MDI with an increased risk of low glucose events. In all, 160 patients will participate in the study, randomized into the intervention group and control group. Ideally one would study if the frequency of severe hypoglycemic events is different between both groups. However, this would require such a large sample size and study duration, so for pragmatic reasons we will use low glucose levels <55 mg/dl (measured by CGM) for at least 20 minutes as a risk marker for severe hypoglycemic events. The results from the HypoDE study shall help determine the advantage of using CGM in subjects with type 1 diabetes with an increased risk of low glucose events treated with MDI. PMID:25759183

  16. HypoDE: Research Design and Methods of a Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating the Impact of Real-Time CGM Usage on the Frequency of CGM Glucose Values <55 mg/dl in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Problematic Hypoglycemia Treated With Multiple Daily Injections.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Deiss, Dorothee; Hermanns, Norbert; Graham, Claudia; Kaltheuner, Matthias; Liebl, Andreas; Price, David

    2015-05-01

    Systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have been available for a number of years, and numerous clinical studies have been performed with them. Interestingly, in many of these studies patients with an increased risk of hypoglycemic events were excluded. In addition, in most studies subjects were using a pump for insulin delivery. Therefore our knowledge about the benefit of CGM in patients employing multiple daily injections (MDI) of insulin is limited, especially when it comes to a reduction in the risk of low glucose events in high-risk individuals. We are planning to run a 26-week randomized controlled study in Germany (HypoDE, Hypoglycemia in Deutschland) that is focused on evaluating if such a reduction can be observed in patients on MDI with an increased risk of low glucose events. In all, 160 patients will participate in the study, randomized into the intervention group and control group. Ideally one would study if the frequency of severe hypoglycemic events is different between both groups. However, this would require such a large sample size and study duration, so for pragmatic reasons we will use low glucose levels <55 mg/dl (measured by CGM) for at least 20 minutes as a risk marker for severe hypoglycemic events. The results from the HypoDE study shall help determine the advantage of using CGM in subjects with type 1 diabetes with an increased risk of low glucose events treated with MDI.

  17. Impaired glucose metabolism treatment and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    MATYSZEWSKI, ARTUR; CZARNECKA, ANNA; KAWECKI, MACIEJ; KORZEŃ, PIOTR; SAFIR, ILAN J.; KUKWA, WOJCIECH; SZCZYLIK, CEZARY

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism disorders increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus alters numerous physiological processes that may encourage cancer growth. However, treating impaired glucose homeostasis may actually promote neoplasia; maintaining proper glucose plasma concentrations reduces metabolic stresses, however, certain medications may themselves result in oncogenic effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that metformin reduces the cancer risk. However, the use of sulfonylurea derivatives correlates with an increased risk of developing a malignancy. Another form of treatment, insulin therapy, involves using various forms of insulin that differ in pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and efficacy. Previous studies have indicated that certain insulin variants also affect the cancer risk. The results from analyses that address the safety of long-lasting insulin types raise the most concern regarding the increased risk of malignancy. Rapid development of novel diabetic medications and their widespread use carries the risk of potentially increased rates of cancer, unnoticeable in limited, randomized, controlled trials. In the present review, the results of clinical and epidemiological studies are evaluated to assess the safety of anti-hyperglycemic medications and their effect on cancer risk and outcomes. PMID:26622538

  18. Effect of NR-Salacia on post-prandial hyperglycemia: A randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Koteshwar, Pravina; Raveendra, Kadur Ramamurthy; Allan, Joseph Joshua; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Venkateshwarlu, Kudiganti; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis) is widely distributed in India and Sri Lanka. Most of the species of genus Salacia are known to have effects on blood glucose levels; however, the effects of S. chinensis on glucose levels are seldom reported. Objective: To evaluate the oral hypoglycemic activity of NR- Salacia (1000 mg extract of S. chinensis) in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Single dose of NR-Salacia (1000 mg extract of Salacia chinensis) and placebo were administered before carbohydrate-rich diet. A 6-point plasma glucose profile was performed at different time intervals up to 180 min. Results: NR-Salacia treatment significantly lowered plasma glucose level at 90 min, and the percentage reduction in glucose concentration was found to be 13.32 as compared to placebo group. A 33.85% decrease in the plasma glucose positive incremental area under curve (AUC) (0 to 180 min) was observed in comparison to placebo. No adverse events were recorded throughout the study period, except for some mild cases of abdominal discomforts like cramping and distention, vomiting, and headache in both placebo and NR-Salacia-treated groups. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that NR-Salacia lowered the post-prandial plasma glucose levels after a carbohydrate-rich meal and can be used as an oral hypoglycemic agent. PMID:24124287

  19. Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Novak, L C; Stegink, L D; Brummel, M C; Persoon, T J; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E; Krause, W L

    1990-04-01

    Seven subjects homozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU) and seven normal subjects were administered four beverage regimens after an overnight fast: unsweetened beverage, beverage providing carbohydrate (CHO), beverage providing aspartame (APM), and beverage providing APM plus CHO. The APM dose (200 mg) was the amount provided in 12 oz of diet beverage; the CHO was partially hydrolyzed starch (60 g). Plasma amino acid concentrations were determined after dosing and the molar plasma phenylalanine (Phe) to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratio calculated. APM administration without CHO did not increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects (5.48 +/- 0.85 and 150 +/- 23.0 mumols/dL, respectively). Similarly, the Phe/LNAA did not increase significantly. Ingestion of beverage providing APM and CHO did not significantly increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects. However, ingestion of beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) significantly decreased plasma levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine 1.5 to 4 hours after dosing in both normal and PKU subjects, thereby increasing the Phe/LNAA ratio significantly. These data indicate that changes noted in Phe/LNAA values after ingestion of beverage providing APM plus CHO were due to CHO. The plasma insulin response to beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) was significantly higher in PKU subjects than in normals.

  20. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane glucose-responsive regulator (AtPGR) expression by A. thaliana storekeeper-like transcription factor, AtSTKL, modulates glucose response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moon-Soo; Lee, Sungbeom; Min, Ji-Hee; Huang, Ping; Ju, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2016-07-01

    Biochemical, genetic, physiological, and molecular research in plants has demonstrated a central role of glucose (Glc) in the control of plant growth, metabolism, and development, and has revealed networks that integrate light, stresses, nutrients, and hormone signaling. Previous studies have reported that AtPGR protein as potential candidates for Glc signaling protein. In the present study, we characterized transcription factors that bind to the upstream region of the AtPGR gene isolated using the yeast one-hybrid screening with an Arabidopsis cDNA library. One of the selected genes (AtSTKL) appeared to confer elevated sensitivity to Glc response. Overexpression of AtSTKLs (AtSTKL1 and AtSTKL2) increased the sensitivity to Glc during the post-germination stages. In contrast, atstkl1 and atstkl2 antisense lines displayed reduced sensitivity to high Glc concentration during the early seedling stage. Furthermore, we showed that the two AtSTKLs bind to the 5'-GCCT-3' element of the upstream promoter region of the AtPGR gene in vitro and repress the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in AtPGR promoter-GUS (P999-GUS) transgenic plants. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged AtSTKLs were localized in the nuclei of transgenic Arabidopsis cells. Collectively, these results suggest that AtSTKL1 and AtSTKL2 function both as repressors of AtPGR transcription and as novel transcription factors in the Glc signaling pathway. PMID:27031427

  1. Oxytocin increases extrapancreatic glucagon secretion and glucose production in pancreatectomized dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Altszuler, N.; Puma, F.; Winkler, B.; Fontan, N.; Saudek, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    Infusion of oxytocin into normal dogs increases plasma levels of insulin and glucagon and glucose production and uptake. To determine whether infused oxytocin also increases glucagon secretion from extrapancreatic sites, pancreatectomized dogs, off insulin of 18 hr, were infused with oxytocin and plasma glucagon, and glucose production and uptake were measured using the (6-/sup 3/H)glucose primer-infusion technique. The diabetic dogs, in the control period, had elevated plasma glucose and glucagon levels, an increased rate of glucose production, and a relative decrease in glucose uptake (decreased clearance). Infusion of oxytocin (500 ..mu..U/kg/min) caused a rise in plasma glucagon and glucose levels, increased glucose production, and further decreased glucose clearance. it is concluded that oxytocin can stimulate secretion of extrapancreatic glucagon, which contributes to the increased glucose production.

  2. A randomized 3x3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The behavioral outcome of food ingestion is a complex process that involves psychological and biological factors. Avocados are nutrient dense with properties that may favorably impact energy balance. This study sought to evaluate if incorporating approximately one half of a Hass avocado by addition or inclusion into a lunch meal will influence post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin response, and subsequent energy intake among overweight adults. Methods This was a randomized 3x3 single-blind crossover design study with 26 healthy overweight adults (mean ±SD age 40.8±11.0 years and BMI 28.1±2.4 kg/m2). Participants consumed a standardized breakfast followed by 1 of 3 lunch test meals [Control (C), avocado-free; Avocado Inclusive (AI); and, Avocado Added (AA)]. Participants rated five appetite sensations using a visual analog scale (VAS) before lunch and at specific intervals over 5 hours following the start of the test meal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured before lunch and at specific intervals over 3 hours following the start of the test meal. Mixed models were used to compare differences among the 3 test meals, and the area under the curve (AUC0-xh) was computed for the VAS and biological measures. Results There were significant differences in the AUC(0-5h) for the self-reported feelings of satisfaction (P=0.04) and desire to eat (P=0.05) in the mixed model analysis. Compared to the C test meal, the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 23% (P=0.05) and decreased the desire to eat by 28% (P=0.04) for the AUC(0-5h). For the AUC(0-3h), the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 26% (P=0.02) and decreased the desire to eat by 40% (P=0.01) as compared to the C test meal. Compared to the AI meal, the AUC(0-3h) for blood insulin was higher in the C and AA meals (P=0.04 and P=0.05, respectively). Conclusions The addition of approximately one half of a Hass avocado at a lunch meal can influence post-ingestive satiety over a subsequent 3 and 5

  3. Noninvasive glucose sensing by transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Bechtel, Kate L.; Rebec, Mihailo V.

    2015-05-01

    We present the development of a transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy system and analysis algorithm for noninvasive glucose sensing. The instrument and algorithm were tested in a preclinical study in which a dog model was used. To achieve a robust glucose test system, the blood levels were clamped for periods of up to 45 min. Glucose clamping and rise/fall patterns have been achieved by injecting glucose and insulin into the ear veins of the dog. Venous blood samples were drawn every 5 min and a plasma glucose concentration was obtained and used to maintain the clamps, to build the calibration model, and to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the utility of the simultaneously acquired Raman spectra to be used to determine the plasma glucose values during the 8-h experiment. We obtained prediction errors in the range of ˜1.5-2 mM. These were in-line with a best-case theoretical estimate considering the limitations of the signal-to-noise ratio estimates. As expected, the transition regions of the clamp study produced larger predictive errors than the stable regions. This is related to the divergence of the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma glucose values during those periods. Two key contributors to error beside the ISF/plasma difference were photobleaching and detector drift. The study demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy in noninvasive applications and provides areas where the technology can be improved in future studies.

  4. Noninvasive glucose sensing by transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Bechtel, Kate L.; Rebec, Mihailo V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present the development of a transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy system and analysis algorithm for noninvasive glucose sensing. The instrument and algorithm were tested in a preclinical study in which a dog model was used. To achieve a robust glucose test system, the blood levels were clamped for periods of up to 45 min. Glucose clamping and rise/fall patterns have been achieved by injecting glucose and insulin into the ear veins of the dog. Venous blood samples were drawn every 5 min and a plasma glucose concentration was obtained and used to maintain the clamps, to build the calibration model, and to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the utility of the simultaneously acquired Raman spectra to be used to determine the plasma glucose values during the 8-h experiment. We obtained prediction errors in the range of ∼1.5−2  mM. These were in-line with a best-case theoretical estimate considering the limitations of the signal-to-noise ratio estimates. As expected, the transition regions of the clamp study produced larger predictive errors than the stable regions. This is related to the divergence of the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma glucose values during those periods. Two key contributors to error beside the ISF/plasma difference were photobleaching and detector drift. The study demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy in noninvasive applications and provides areas where the technology can be improved in future studies. PMID:25688542

  5. Use of platelet rich plasma to treat plantar fasciitis: design of a multi centre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background If conservative treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis fails, often a corticosteroid injection is given. Corticosteroid injection gives temporarily pain reduction, but no healing. Blood platelets initiate the natural healing rate. GPS® gives an eightfold concentrate platelets of patients own blood. Injection of these platelets in the attachment of the fascia to the os calcis might induce a healing rate. Methods and design A randomized controlled multi centre trial will be performed. The study population consists of 120 patients of 18 years and older. Patients with chronic plantar fasciitis will be allocated randomly to have a steroid injection or an autologous platelet concentrate injections. Data will be collected before the procedure, 4,8,12,26 weeks and 1 year after the procedure. The main outcome measures of this study are pain and function measured with questionnaires. Conclusion Recent literature show positive effects for the treatment of tendinosis with autologous platelet injections. The forthcoming trial will compare treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis with a steroid injection versus an autologous platelet injection. Our results will be published as soon as they become available. Trial Registration Trial registration number: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00758641. PMID:20398269

  6. Mechanisms of Glucose Lowering of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin When Used Alone or With Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Triplitt, Curtis; Garduno-Garcia, Jose de Jesús; Adams, John; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Cersosimo, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess glucose-lowering mechanisms of sitagliptin (S), metformin (M), and the two combined (M+S). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomized 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to four 6-week treatments with placebo (P), M, S, and M+S. After each period, subjects received a 6-h meal tolerance test (MTT) with [14C]glucose to calculate glucose kinetics. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin, C-peptide (insulin secretory rate [ISR]), fasting plasma glucagon, and bioactive glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and gastrointestinal insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. RESULTS FPG decreased from P, 160 ± 4 to M, 150 ± 4; S, 154 ± 4; and M+S, 125 ± 3 mg/dL. Mean post-MTT plasma glucose decreased from P, 207 ± 5 to M, 191 ± 4; S, 195 ± 4; and M+S, 161 ± 3 mg/dL (P < 0.01). The increase in mean post-MTT plasma insulin and in ISR was similar in P, M, and S and slightly greater in M+S. Fasting plasma glucagon was equal (∼65–75 pg/mL) with all treatments, but there was a significant drop during the initial 120 min with S 24% and M+S 34% (both P < 0.05) vs. P 17% and M 16%. Fasting and mean post-MTT plasma bioactive GLP-1 were higher (P < 0.01) after S and M+S vs. M and P. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) fell from P 2.0 ± 0.1 to S 1.8 ± 0.1 mg/kg ⋅ min, M 1.8 ± 0.2 mg/kg ⋅ min (both P < 0.05 vs. P), and M+S 1.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg ⋅ min (P < 0.01 vs. P). Although the EGP slope of decline was faster in M and M+S vs. S, all had comparable greater post-MTT EGP inhibition vs. P (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS M+S combined produce additive effects to 1) reduce FPG and postmeal plasma glucose, 2) augment GLP-1 secretion and β-cell function, 3) decrease plasma glucagon, and 4) inhibit fasting and postmeal EGP compared with M or S monotherapy. PMID:23579178

  7. A Prospective Randomized Experimental Study to Investigate the Eradication Rate of Endometriosis after Surgical Resection versus Aerosol Plasma Coagulation in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Rothmund, Ralf; Scharpf, Marcus; Tsaousidis, Christos; Planck, Constanze; Enderle, Markus Dominik; Neugebauer, Alexander; Kroeker, Kristin; Nuessle, Daniela; Fend, Falko; Brucker, Sara; Kraemer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the eradication rate of endometriosis after surgical resection (SR) vs. thermal ablation with aerosol plasma coagulation (AePC) in a rat model. Methods In this prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded animal study endometriosis was induced on the abdominal wall of 34 female Wistar rats. After 14 days endometriosis was either removed by SR or ablated by AePC. 14 days later the rats were euthanized to evaluate the eradication rate histopathologically. Intervention times were recorded. Results Eradication rate of endometriosis after 14 days did not significantly differ between AePC and SR (p=0.22). Intervention time per endometrial lesion was 22.1 s for AePC and 51.8 s for SR (p<0.0001). Conclusions This study compares the eradication rate of the new aerosol plasma coagulation device versus standard surgical resection of endometriosis in a rat model. Despite being a thermal method, AePC showed equality towards SR regarding eradication rate but with significantly shorter intervention time. PMID:26941579

  8. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Amy; Hollands, Wendy; Casgrain, Amelie; Saha, Shikha; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R; Venema, Dini P; Hollman, Peter C; Rein, Maarit J; Nelson, Rebecca; Williamson, Gary; Kroon, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and 100mg epicatechin (low and high flavanol apple puree, respectively) and aspirin (75 mg) in random order. Measurements were made at baseline, acutely after treatment (2, 6 and 24 h), and after 14 d of treatment. Low flavanol apple puree significantly attenuated ADP and epinephrine-induced integrin-β3 expression 2 h and 6 h after consumption and ADP and epinephrine-induced P-selectin expression within 2h of consumption. High flavanol apple puree attenuated epinephrine and ADP-induced integrin-β3 expression after 2 and 6h. ADP and epinephrine-induced integrin-β3 expression was significantly attenuated 2, 6 and 24 h after consumption of aspirin, whilst 14 d aspirin consumption attenuated collagen-induced P-selectin expression only. The plasma total nitric oxide metabolite conc. was significantly increased 6h after consumption of both low and high flavanol apple purees. In conclusion, consumption of apple purees containing ⩾25 or 100 mg flavanols transiently attenuated ex vivo integrin-β3 and P-selectin expression and increased plasma nitric oxide metabolite conc. in healthy subjects, but the effect was not enhanced for the high flavanol apple puree. PMID:24929184

  9. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered Insulin Signalling in Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, Ayodele O; Ajiboye, Kolawole I; Oludare, Gabriel O; Samuel, Titilola A

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were exposed to one of the four different restraint stressors; 1 h, twice daily for a period of 7 days (S7D), 14 days (S14D) and 28 days (S28D). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated following the final stress exposure. ELISA were performed to assess the level of insulin and adiponectin as well as expression of INSR and GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle. Plasma corticosterone level was also determined as a marker of stress exposure. Restraint stress for 7 days caused transient glucose intolerance, while S14D rats demonstrated increased glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. However, restraint stress for 28 days had no effect on glucose tolerance, but did cause an increase in glucose response to insulin challenge. The serum level of adiponectin was significantly (p< 0.05) lower compared with the control value while insulin remained unchanged except at in S28D rats that had a significant (p<0.05) increase. The expression of INSR and GLUT4 receptors were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased in the skeletal muscle of restraint stress exposed rats. There was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in the plasma corticosterone level of the stress rats compared with their control counterparts. Restraint stress caused glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which becomes accommodated with prolonged exposure and was likely related to the blunted insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. PMID:27574760

  10. Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma as an adjunctive material to bone graft: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pocaterra, A; Caruso, S; Bernardi, S; Scagnoli, L; Continenza, M A; Gatto, R

    2016-08-01

    The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become a strategic therapy in tissue regeneration medicine. PRP represents a good source of growth factors. Due to this property, it has been considered a reliable adjunctive material in bone augmentation procedures, such as the sinus lift technique. The aim of this review was to assess the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of PRP as an adjunctive material in the sinus floor elevation technique. The following databases were searched for relevant published studies: Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, and SCOPUS. Only randomized controlled clinical trials comparing a group receiving PRP as an adjunctive material to a control group without PRP, involving adult human subjects (age >18 years) with no systemic disease, were included. Of the studies identified, only one reported a significant difference in bone augmentation in favour of the adjunctive use of PRP, while four studies did not find any significant difference. None of the studies included reported a significant difference in the implant survival rate. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to clarify the effectiveness of adjunctive PRP.

  11. A Common Missense Variant in the Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Gene (GCKR) Is Associated with Increased Plasma Triglyceride and C-Reactive Protein but Lower Fasting Glucose Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE-Using the genome-wide-association approach, we recently identified the glucokinase regulatory protein gene (GCKR, rs780094) region as a novel quantitative trait locus for plasma triglyceride concentration in Europeans. Here, we sought to study the association of GCKR variants with metaboli...

  12. Effect of combined treatment with immunoadsorption and membrane filtration on plasma coagulation--Results of a randomized controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Biesenbach, Peter; Eskandary, Farsad; Ay, Cihan; Wiegele, Marion; Derfler, Kurt; Schaden, Eva; Haslacher, Helmuth; Oberbauer, Rainer; Böhmig, Georg A

    2016-02-01

    The combined use of immunoadsorption (IA) and membrane filtration (MF) may markedly enhance removal of IgM and complement component C1q, supporting its use as an element of recipient desensitization in antibody-incompatible transplantation. However, coagulation factor removal may contribute to altered hemostasis, posing a risk of bleeding in the perioperative setting. This secondary endpoint analysis of standard coagulation assays and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) was performed in the context of a randomized controlled crossover study designed to assess the effect of combined IA (GAM-146-peptide) and MF on levels of ABO antigen-specific IgM. Fourteen patients with autoimmune disorders were randomized to a single treatment with IA+MF followed by IA alone, or vice versa. MF was found to markedly enhance fibrinogen depletion (57% vs. 28% median decrease after IA alone, P < 0.001), whereby four patients showed post-treatment fibrinogen concentrations below 100 mg dL(-1). In support of a critical contribution of fibrinogen depletion to impaired coagulation, extrinsically activated ROTEM(®) analysis revealed a marked reduction in fibrinogen-dependent clot formation upon IA+MF (59% median decrease in FIBTEM mean clot firmness (MCF) as compared to 24% after IA alone, P < 0.001). Moreover, the addition of MF led to a substantial prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, possibly due to depletion of macromolecular coagulation factors contributing to intrinsically activated coagulation. Our study demonstrates substantial effects of combined IA+MF on clot formation, which may be mainly attributable to fibrinogen depletion. We suggest that the use of combined apheresis in the setting of transplant surgery may necessitate a careful monitoring of coagulation.

  13. Effects of resveratrol supplementation on plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-12-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence was conducted to obtain a conclusive result on the lipid-modulating effects of resveratrol. Seven randomized controlled trials with a total of 282 subjects (141 in each group) met the eligibility criteria. Overall, resveratrol supplementation had no significant effect on any of the lipid parameters assessed: total cholesterol (weighted mean difference [WMD] -8.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -21.54-4.14; P = 0.18), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD -3.22; 95% CI -12.56-6.12); P = 0.50), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD -0.26; 95% CI -4.25-3.73; P = 0.90), and triglycerides (WMD -4.30; 95% CI -20.22-11.63; P = 0.60). These results were robust in sensitivity analysis and were not dependent on the resveratrol dose, the duration of supplementation, or the cardiovascular risk status of the population studied. While future large-scale, well-designed trials are warranted, the current evidence suggests that mechanisms other than hypolipidemic effects account for the established cardioprotective properties of resveratrol.

  14. Fast-induced changes in plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid concentration compared in rats during the night and day.

    PubMed

    Larue-Achagiotis, C; Le Magnen, J

    1983-01-01

    Changes in PG, PI and PFFA were examined and compared in fed rats or after 0 to 12 hours of fasting, during the night or during the day. At night, a progressive decrease in PG and PI and an increase in PFFA were induced by 0 to 12 hours of food deprivation. During the light period a decrease in PG occurred only from the 6th hour of fasting. A slight, progressive increase in PFFA levels was induced from 0 to 12 hours of fasting, while no significant variation of PI levels was observed. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between blood glucose, PFFA levels, and food intake in control rats over the circadian cycle.

  15. Dietary effects in the early recovery phase of kwashiorkor. Plasma levels of triglycerides, FFA, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glucose and insulin.

    PubMed

    Persson, B; Habte, D; Sterky, G

    1976-05-01

    The fatty liver often found in untreated kwashiorkor has been associated with highly variable concentration of circulating lipids. The effect on lipid metabolism of two isocaloric diets--one synthetic monomolecular (Vivonex) and one standard (Casilan)--which both initiated satisfactory clinical improvement was studied in 21 Ethiopian children with kwashiorkor during the first weeks of rehabilitation. Before treatment mean fasting values of all biochemical parameters were within normal ranges except for moderately elevated triglycerides--an unexpected finding-and low insulin. Individual values varied greatly; triglyceride between 0.39 and 3.49 mmol/1. FFA correlated both to glycerol, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate and triglyceride values. During treatment insulin, glucose and glycerol remained essentially unchanged and were similar in both dietary groups. In the Vivonex group only there was an initial marked, parallel fall of FFA and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate suggesting greater availability of carbohydrate and enhanced glucose utilization. This pattern of response seemed to occur without comparable inhibition of lipolysis. Triglycerides--like serum albumin--increased faster in the Casilan group. The highest mean triglyceride value was reached by day 8 in the Casilan group and by day 15 in the Vivonex group. Ten minutes following heparin injection triglycerides declined, FFA and glycerol increased indicating release of in vivo active lipase. LPL activity assayed in vitro was similar and unaffected by 2 weeks of dietary treatment in both groups. LPL activity was inversely correlated to triglycerides providing--beside the type of diet--another possible explanation for the wide variations seen in circulatory triglycerides. PMID:1274567

  16. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-03-05

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc.

  17. A validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, in a lower volume of rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Yano, Kyoka; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of canagliflozin in a lower volume of rat plasma (0.1 mL) was established and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Following liquid-liquid extraction by tert-butyl methyl ether, chromatographic separation of canagliflozin was performed on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1 mm i.d. × 150 mm, 5 µm size) using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was carried out using an API 3200 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Selected ion monitoring transitions of m/z = 462.0 [M + NH4 ](+)  → 191.0 for canagliflozin and m/z = 451.2 [M + H](+)  → 71.0 for empagliflozin (internal standard) were obtained. The validation of the method was investigated, and it was found to be of sufficient specificity, accuracy and precision. Canagliflozin in rat plasma was stable under the analytical conditions used. This validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in rats using 0.1 mL rat plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postprandial Improvement in Glucose Disposal and Insulin Sensitivity in Prediabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Jiang, Boyi; Breton, Marc; Patrie, James; Barrett, Eugene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A single bout of exercise improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic patients; however, the impact of exercise intensity is not well understood. The present study compared the effects of acute isocaloric moderate (MIE) and high-intensity (HIE) exercise on glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic adults. Methods: Subjects (n = 18; age 49 ± 14 y; fasting glucose 105 ± 11 mg/dL; 2 h glucose 170 ± 32 mg/dL) completed a peak O2 consumption/lactate threshold (LT) protocol plus three randomly assigned conditions: 1) control, 1 hour of seated rest, 2) MIE (at LT), and 3) HIE (75% of difference between LT and peak O2 consumption). One hour after exercise, subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were sampled at 5- to 10-minute intervals at baseline, during exercise, after exercise, and for 3 hours after glucose ingestion. Total, early-phase, and late-phase area under the glucose and insulin response curves were compared between conditions. Indices of insulin sensitivity (SI) were derived from OGTT data using the oral minimal model. Results: Compared with control, SI improved by 51% (P = .02) and 85% (P < .001) on the MIE and HIE days, respectively. No differences in SI were observed between the exercise conditions (P = .62). Improvements in SI corresponded to significant reductions in the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide area under the curve values during the late phase of the OGTT after HIE (P < .05), with only a trend for reductions after MIE. Conclusion: These results suggest that in prediabetic adults, acute exercise has an immediate and intensity-dependent effect on improving postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PMID:24243632

  19. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  20. Insulin Control of Glucose Metabolism in Man

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Paul A.; Liljenquist, John E.; Tobin, Jordan D.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Watkins, Paul; Andres, Reubin; Berman, Mones

    1975-01-01

    Analyses of the control of glucose metabolism by insulin have been hampered by changes in bloog glucose concentration induced by insulin administration with resultant activation of hypoglycemic counterregulatory mechanisms. To eliminate such mechanisms, we have employed the glucose clamp technique which allows maintenance of fasting blood glucose concentration during and after the administration of insulin. Analyses of six studies performed in young healthy men in the postabsorptive state utilizing the concurrent administration of [14C]glucose and 1 mU/kg per min (40 mU/m2 per min) porcine insulin led to the development of kinetic models for insulin and for glucose. These models account quantitatively for the control of insulin on glucose utilization and on endogenous glucose production during nonsteady states. The glucose model, a parallel three-compartment model, has a central compartment (mass = 68±7 mg/kg; space of distribution = blood water volume) in rapid equilibrium with a smaller compartment (50±17 mg/kg) and in slow equilibrium with a larger compartment (96±21 mg/kg). The total plasma equivalent space for the glucose system averaged 15.8 liters or 20.3% body weight. Two modes of glucose loss are introduced in the model. One is a zero-order loss (insulin and glucose independent) from blood to the central nervous system; its magnitude was estimated from published data. The other is an insulin-dependent loss, occurring from the rapidly equilibrating compartment and, in the basal period, is smaller than the insulin-independent loss. Endogenous glucose production averaged 1.74 mg/kg per min in the basal state and enters the central compartment directly. During the glucose clamp experiments plasma insulin levels reached a plateau of 95±8 μU/ml. Over the entire range of insulin levels studied, glucose losses were best correlated with levels of insulin in a slowly equilibrating insulin compartment of a three-compartment insulin model. A proportional control

  1. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    PubMed Central

    Færch, Kristine; Pacini, Giovanni; Nolan, John J.; Hansen, Torben; Tura, Andrea; Vistisen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS With validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorption were estimated from 12-point, 3-h, 75-g OGTTs in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs. RESULTS More rapid glucose absorption (P ≤ 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P ≤ 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body size were taken into account (P > 0.28). Faster glucose absorption was related to higher fasting (P = 0.001) and lower 2-h (P = 0.001) glucose levels and to greater height and fat-free mass (P < 0.001). All OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, but only one of three measures of β-cell function, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests. CONCLUSIONS Glucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when estimating β-cell function from OGTTs in epidemiological studies. PMID:24062321

  2. Role for the pineal and melatonin in glucose homeostasis: pinealectomy increases night-time glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    la Fleur, S E; Kalsbeek, A; Wortel, J; van der Vliet, J; Buijs, R M

    2001-12-01

    The effects of melatonin on glucose metabolism are far from understood. In rats, the biological clock generates a 24-h rhythm in plasma glucose concentrations, with declining concentrations in the dark period. We hypothesized that, in the rat, melatonin enhances the dark signal of the biological clock, decreasing glucose concentrations in the dark period. We measured 24-h rhythms of plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin in pinealectomized rats fed ad libitum and subjected to a scheduled feeding regimen with six meals equally distributed over the light/dark cycle and compared them with previous data of intact rats. Pinealectomy dampened the amplitude of the 24-h rhythm in plasma glucose concentrations in rats fed ad libitum, and abolished it completely in rats subjected to the scheduled feeding regimen, while plasma insulin concentrations did not change under both conditions. Pinealectomy abolished the nocturnal decline in plasma glucose concentrations irrespective of whether rats were fed ad libitum or subjected to the scheduled feeding regimen. Melatonin replacement restored 24-h mean plasma glucose concentrations in pinealectomized rats that were subjected to the scheduled feeding regimen but, interestingly, it did not restore the 24-h rhythm. Melatonin treatment also resulted in higher meal-induced insulin responses, probably mediated via an increased sensitivity of the beta-cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the pineal hormone, melatonin, influences both glucose metabolism and insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cell. The present study also demonstrates that removal of the pineal gland cannot be compensated by mimicking plasma melatonin concentrations only.

  3. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  4. Norbixin ingestion did not induce any detectable DNA breakage in liver and kidney but caused a considerable impairment in plasma glucose levels of rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana C.S.; Almeida, Carla A.; Albano, Franco; Laranja, Gustavo A.T.; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Lage, Celso L.S.; de Sa, Cristiano C.N.F.; Moura, Anibal S.; Kovary, Karla

    2002-07-01

    From the seeds of Bixa orellana are extracted the carotenoids bixin and norbixin that have been widely used for coloring food. In this study, the toxicity of norbixin, purified or not (annatto extract containing 50% norbixin), was investigated in mice and rats after 21 days of ingestion through drinking water. Mice were exposed to doses of 56 and 351 mg/kg (annatto extract) and 0.8, 7.6, 66 and 274 mg/kg (norbixin). Rats were exposed to doses of 0.8, 7.5 and 68 mg/kg (annatto extract) and 0.8, 8.5 and 74 mg/kg (norbixin). In rats, no toxicity was detected by plasma chemistry. In mice, norbixin induced an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT) while both norbixin and annatto extract induced a decrease in plasma total protein and globulins (P < 0.05). However, no signs of toxicity were detected in liver by histopathological analysis. No enhancement in DNA breakage was detected in liver or kidney from mice treated with annatto pigments, as evaluated by the comet assay. Nevertheless, there was a remarkable effect of norbixin on the glycemia of both rodent species. In rats, norbixin induced hyperglycemia that ranged from 26.9% (8.5 mg/kg norbixin, to 52.6% (74 mg/kg norbixin, P < 0.01) above control levels. In mice, norbixin induced hypoglycemia that ranged from 14.4% (0.8 mg/kg norbixin, P < 0.05) to 21.5% (66 mg/kg norbixin, P < 0.001) below control levels. Rats and mice treated with annatto pigments showed hyperinsulinemia and hypoinsulinemia, respectively indicating that pancreatic beta-cells were functional. More studies should be performed to fully understand of how species-related differences influences the biological fate of norbixin. PMID:12121828

  5. Is Platelet-rich plasma superior to whole blood in the management of chronic tennis elbow: one year randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral humeral epicondylitis, or ‘tennis elbow’, is a common condition with a variety of treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Autologous Whole Blood (AWB) represent new therapeutic options for chronic tendinopathies including tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the long term effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in patients with chronic tennis elbow. Methods Seventy six patients with chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis with duration of symptoms more than 3 months were included in this study and randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous leukocyte rich PRP (4.8 times of plasma) and group 2 with 2 mL of AWB. Tennis elbow strap, stretching and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS), Mayo score (modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 0, 4, 8 weeks and 6 and 12 months. Results All pain variables including VAS, PPT and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups at each follow up intervals compared to baseline. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain, functional scores and treatment success rates in all follow up examinations (P >0/05). Conclusion PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective methods to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis and their efficacy persisted during long term follow up. PRP was not superior to AWB in long term follow up. PMID:24635909

  6. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  7. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  8. Effects of Platelet Rich Plasma on Healing Rate of Long Bone Non-union Fractures: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Shahrezaei, Mostafa; Dehghankhalili, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of platelet rich plasma PRP on healing rates of long bone non-union fracture. Method: This was a randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial being performed in a 12-month period. We included 75 adult (>18 years) patients suffering from long bone (Femur, Tibia, Humerus and Ulna) non-union fracture who were randomly assigned to receive 5mL PRP (n=37) or 5mL normal saline as placebo (n=38) in the site of fracture after intramedullary nailing or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) along with autologous bone graft. Patients were followed each 45 days till 9 months and were evaluated both clinically and radiologically in each visit. The healing rate, failure rate, incidence of infection, mal-union and limb shortening were recorded and compared between groups after 9 months of follow-up. Results: The healing rate was significantly higher in PRP group compared to placebo (81.1% vs. 55.3%; p=0.025). The limb shortening was significantly higher in those who received placebo (2.61±1.5 vs. 1.88±1.2mm; p=0.030). Injection of PRP was also associated with lower pain scores ( p=0.003) and shorter healing duration ( p=0.046). The surgical site infection ( p=0.262) and mal-union rate ( p=0.736) were comparable between groups. Conclusion: Application of PRP along with autologous bone graft in the site of non-union of long bone after intramedullary nailing or ORIF results in higher cure rate, shorter healing duration, lower limb shortening and less postoperative pain. Higher infection rate might be a complication of PRP application. Clinical Trial Registry: This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT201208262445N1; www.irct.ir). PMID:27540547

  9. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy for Treating Degenerative Tendinopathies: A Randomized Control Trial with Synchronous Observational Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni; Defreitas, Terry; Bredy, Heather; Pothier, Louisa; Qin, Ziling; McKillop, Ashley B.; Gross, Douglas P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This pilot study aimed to inform future research evaluating the effectiveness of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection for tendinopathy. Design Randomized control trial (RCT) and synchronous observational cohort studies. For the RCT, consecutive consenting patients treated at an academic sports medicine clinic were randomly assigned to either a PRP or placebo control group. Setting The Glen Sather Sport Medicine Clinic, Edmonton, Canada. Patients The RCT included 9 participants with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The cohort study included 178 participants with a variety of tendinopathies. Interventions Patients receiving PRP were injected with 4 ml of platelets into the supraspinatus and/or infraspinatus, while patients in the placebo group were injected with 4ml of saline. All participants undertook a 3-month standardized, home-based, daily exercise program. Main Outcome Measures Participants in the RCT were re-evaluated 3, and 6 months post-injection. Change scores before and after injection on pain, disability and MRI-documented pathology outcomes were compared. In the cohort study, pain and disability were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months post-injection. Results For the RCT, 7 participants received PRP and 2 received placebo injections. Patients receiving PRP reported clinically important improvements in pain (>1.5/10 on VAS), disability (>15 point DASH change), and tendon pathology while those receiving placebo injections did not. In the observational cohort, statistically and clinically significant improvements in pain and disability were observed. Conclusion This pilot study provides information for planning future studies of PRP effectiveness. Preliminary results indicate intratendinous, ultrasound-guided PRP injection may lead to improvements in pain, function, and MRI-documented tendon pathology. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68341698 PMID:26849812

  10. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69) or no Vitamin D (n = 68). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4%) in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%). Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7) and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16) were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25) at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels. PMID:25932396

  11. Study Design for the IMMEDIATE (Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency Care) Trial: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Intravenous Glucose, Insulin, and Potassium (GIK) for Acute Coronary Syndromes in Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Selker, Harry P.; Beshansky, Joni R.; Griffith, John L.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Udelson, James E.; Rashba, Eric J.; Ruthazer, Robin; Sheehan, Patricia R.; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Rosenberg, Yves D.; Atkins, James M.; Sayah, Assaad J.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Rackley, Charles E.; Opie, Lionel H.; Lambrew, Costas T.; Cobb, Leonard A.; MacLeod, Bruce A.; Ingwall, Joanne S.; Zalenski, Robert J.; Apstein, Carl S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental studies suggest that metabolic myocardial support by intravenous (IV) glucose, insulin, and potassium (GIK) reduces ischemia-induced arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, mortality, progression from unstable angina pectoris (UAP) to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and MI size. However, trials of hospital administration of IV GIK to patients with ST elevation MI (STEMI) have generally not shown favorable effects, possibly due to the GIK intervention taking place many hours after ischemic symptom onset. A trial of GIK used in the very first hours of ischemia has been needed, consistent with the timing of benefit seen in experimental studies. Objective The Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency care (IMMEDIATE) Trial tested whether, if given very early, GIK could have the impact seen in experimental studies. Accordingly, distinct from prior trials, IMMEDIATE tested the impact of GIK 1) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), rather than only AMI or STEMI, and 2) administered in prehospital emergency medical service (EMS) settings, rather than later, in hospitals, following emergency department evaluation. Design IMMEDIATE was an EMS-based randomized placebo-controlled clinical effectiveness trial conducted in 13 cities across the US which enrolled 911 participants. Eligible were patients age 30 or older for whom a paramedic performed a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG)to evaluate chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of ACS for whom electrocardiograph-based ACI-TIPI (acute cardiac ischemia time-insensitive predictive instrument) indicated a > 75% probability of ACS, and/or the TPI (thrombolytic predictive instrument) indicated presence of a STEMI, or if local criteria for STEMI notification of receiving hospitals were met. Prehospital IV GIK or placebo was started immediately. Pre-specified were the primary endpoint of progression of ACS to infarction, and as major secondary endpoints

  12. Fructose modifies the hormonal response and modulates lipid metabolism during aerobic exercise after glucose supplementation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan M; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Ruano-Ruíz, Juan A; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Túnez-Fiñana, Isaac; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic response when aerobic exercise is performed after the ingestion of glucose plus fructose is unclear. In the present study, we administered two beverages containing GluF (glucose+fructose) or Glu (glucose alone) in a randomized cross-over design to 20 healthy aerobically trained volunteers to compare the hormonal and lipid responses provoked during aerobic exercise and the recovery phase. After ingesting the beverages and a 15-min resting period, volunteers performed 30 min of moderate aerobic exercise. Urinary and blood samples were taken at baseline (t(-15)), during the exercise (t(0), t(15) and t(30)) and during the recovery phase (t(45), t(75) and t(105)). Plasma insulin concentrations were higher halfway through the exercise period and during acute recuperation (t(15) and t(75); P<0.05) following ingestion of GluF than after Glu alone, without any differences between the effects of either intervention on plasma glucose concentrations. Towards the end of the exercise period, urinary catecholamine concentrations were lower following GluF (t(45); P<0.05). Plasma triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations were higher after the ingestion of GluF compared with Glu (t(15), t(30), t(45) and t(105); P<0.05). Furthermore, with GluF, we observed higher levels of lipoperoxides (t(15), t(30), t(45) and t(105); P<0.05) and oxidized LDL (low-density lipoprotein; t(30); P<0.05) compared with after the ingestion of Glu alone. In conclusion, hormonal and lipid alterations are provoked during aerobic exercise and recovery by the addition of a dose of fructose to the pre-exercise ingestion of glucose.

  13. Randomized controlled study of endoscopic band ligation and argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of gastric antral and fundal vascular ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Mosaad, Samah; Alkhalawany, Walaa; Abo-Ali, Lobna; Enaba, Mohamed; Elsaka, Aymen; Elfert, Asem A

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is characterized by mucosal and submucosal vascular ectasia causing recurrent hemorrhage and thus, chronic anemia, in patients with cirrhosis. Treatment with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective and safe method, but requires multiple sessions of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) was found to be a good alternative for APC as a treatment for GAVE, especially in refractory cases. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EBL, as compared to APC, in the treatment of GAVE and gastric fundal vascular ectasia (GFVE). Patients and methods A total of 88 cirrhotic patients with GAVE were prospectively randomized to endoscopic treatment with either EBL or APC, every 2 weeks until complete obliteration was accomplished; then they were followed up endoscopically after 6 months, plus they had monthly measurement of hemoglobin levels during that period. Results We describe the presence of mucosal and submucosal lesions in the gastric fundal area that were similar to those found in GAVE in 13 patients (29.5%) of the EBL group and 9 patients (20.5%) of the APC group; we named this GFVE. In these cases, we treated the fundal lesions with the same techniques we had used for treating GAVE, according to the randomization. We found that EBL significantly decreased the number of sessions required for complete obliteration of the lesions (2.98 sessions compared to 3.48 sessions in the APC group (p < 0.05)). Hemoglobin levels increased significantly after obliteration of the lesions in both groups, compared to pretreatment values (p < 0.05), but with no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05); however, the EBL group of patients required a significantly smaller number of units of blood transfusion than the APC group of patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse events nor complications between the

  14. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by an oral glucose load.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Lauren K; Restaino, Robert M; Neuringer, Martha; Manrique, Camila; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycaemia leads to a transient impairment in endothelial function; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous work in cell culture models demonstrate that high glucose results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and, in animal studies, ER stress has been implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acute oral administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 1500 mg), a chemical chaperone known to alleviate ER stress, would prevent hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In 12 young healthy subjects (seven men, five women), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed at baseline, and at 60 and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge. Subjects were tested on two separate visits in a single-blind randomized cross-over design: after oral ingestion of TUDCA or placebo capsules. FMD was reduced from baseline during hyperglycaemia under the placebo condition (-32% at 60 min and -28% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P<0.05 from baseline) but not under the TUDCA condition (-4% at 60 min and +0.3% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P>0.05 from baseline). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin were not altered by TUDCA ingestion. Plasma oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) remained unaltered throughout the oral glucose challenge in both conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction can be mitigated by oral administration of TUDCA, thus supporting the hypothesis that ER stress may contribute to endothelial dysfunction during postprandial hyperglycaemia.

  15. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma in comparison with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus exercise: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Angoorani, Hooman; Mazaherinezhad, Ali; Marjomaki, Omid; Younespour, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is a disabling musculoskeletal disease with no definite treatment. This study compared the effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) plus exercise in the treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 54 eligible patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated into two groups. (IRCT2012110611382N) Group A (27 patients) received 2 injections of PRP (4 weeks apart) and group B (27 patients) received 10 sessions of TENS as well as exercise during the study period. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) questionnaire before the treatment, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after that the treatment. Pain was also assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Time to an intolerable knee pain during treadmill workout was also evaluated using an objective test. Results: In the PRP group, the mean KOOS symptom score improved significantly from baseline to the end of study, while the change was not significant over this period for the group B. In both groups, significant reductions were observed in VAS scores from baseline till the end of study. The mean time to feel intolerable knee pain during treadmill work out of PRP group increased significantly from baseline to week 4, but no significant changes were found in this parameter over the time of study in the group B. Conclusion: Intraarticular injection of PRP is an effective, safe method for short-term treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. PMID:26478881

  16. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Bayat, Masume; Rahimi, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS), modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P > 0.05). At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion. PMID:24579044

  17. Plasma leptin, ghrelin and indexes of glucose and lipid metabolism in relation to the appearance of post-weaning oestrus in Mediterranean obese sows (Iberian pig).

    PubMed

    Torres-Rovira, L; Pallares, P; Vigo, E; Gonzalez-Añover, P; Sanchez-Sanchez, R; Mallo, F; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2011-06-01

    Iberian pig is the most abundant Mediterranean swine. The lack of knowledge of the reproductive physiology of Mediterranean genotypes, with predisposition to obesity, led us to evaluate the influence of body condition and metabolic status at weaning on the resumption of follicular growth and the appearance of post-weaning oestrus. Females failing to display post-weaning oestrus showed a high decrease in backfat mass during lactation; backfat depth at weaning was therefore lower than in sows becoming in oestrus. Females not bearing oestrus behaviour showed lower plasma leptin levels and higher ghrelin concentrations at weaning. Moreover, these sows evidenced dyslipidemic profile (increased triglyceridemia and cholesterolemia) and mobilization of fat reserves. Hence, changes in metabolic regulation of Iberian pigs may originate large effects on the resumption of ovulatory activity after weaning.

  18. Intermittent hypoxia and diet-induced obesity: effects on oxidative status, sympathetic tone, plasma glucose and insulin levels, and arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Olea, Elena; Agapito, Maria Teresa; Gallego-Martin, Teresa; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Obeso, Ana; Gonzalez, Constancio; Yubero, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of sleep-related repetitive obstructions of upper airways that generate episodes of recurrent or intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA commonly generates cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies defining the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Literature usually links OSA-associated pathologies to IH episodes that would cause an oxidative status and a carotid body-mediated sympathetic hyperactivity. Because cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies in obese patients and those with OSAS are analogous, we used models (24-wk-old Wistar rats) of IH (applied from weeks 22 to 24) and diet-induced obesity (O; animals fed a high-fat diet from weeks 12 to 24) to define the effect of each individual maneuver and their combination on the oxidative status and sympathetic tone of animals, and to quantify cardiovascular and metabolic parameters and their deviation from normality. We found that IH and O cause an oxidative status (increased lipid peroxides and diminished activities of superoxide dismutases), an inflammatory status (augmented C-reactive protein and nuclear factor kappa-B activation), and sympathetic hyperactivity (augmented plasma and renal artery catecholamine levels and synthesis rate); combined treatments worsened those alterations. IH and O augmented liver lipid content and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, glycemia, insulin levels, and HOMA index, and caused hypertension; most of these parameters were aggravated when IH and O were combined. IH diminished ventilatory response to hypoxia, and hypercapnia and O created a restrictive ventilatory pattern; a combination of treatments led to restrictive hypoventilation. Data demonstrate that IH and O cause comparable metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies via misregulation of the redox status and sympathetic hyperactivity. PMID:25103975

  19. General aspects of muscle glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Rafael O; Cheuhen, Marcel R; Machado, Silmara R; Sousa, André Gustavo P; Santos, Paulo C J L

    2015-03-01

    Glucose uptake in peripheral tissues is dependent on the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. Studies have shown the existence of two major signaling pathways that lead to the translocation of GLUT4. The first, and widely investigated, is the insulin activated signaling pathway through insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The second is the insulin-independent signaling pathway, which is activated by contractions. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle due to the phenomenon of insulin resistance. However, those individuals have normal glucose uptake during exercise. In this context, physical exercise is one of the most important interventions that stimulates glucose uptake by insulin-independent pathways, and the main molecules involved are adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide, bradykinin, AKT, reactive oxygen species and calcium. In this review, our main aims were to highlight the different glucose uptake pathways and to report the effects of physical exercise, diet and drugs on their functioning. Lastly, with the better understanding of these pathways, it would be possible to assess, exactly and molecularly, the importance of physical exercise and diet on glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it would be possible to assess the action of drugs that might optimize glucose uptake and consequently be an important step in controlling the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, in addition to being important to clarify some pathways that justify the development of drugs capable of mimicking the contraction pathway.

  20. Diurnal Variation in Response to Intravenous Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Whichelow, Margaret J.; Sturge, R. A.; Keen, H.; Jarrett, R. J.; Stimmler, L.; Grainger, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (25 g) were performed in the morning and afternoon on 13 apparently normal persons. The individual K values (rate of decline of blood sugar) were all higher in the morning tests, and the mean values were significantly higher in the morning. Fasting blood sugar levels were slightly lower in the afternoon. There was no difference between the fasting morning and afternoon plasma insulin levels, but the levels after glucose were lower in the afternoon. Growth hormone levels were low at all times in non-apprehensive subjects and unaffected by glucose. The results suggest that the impaired afternoon intravenous glucose tolerance, like oral glucose tolerance, is associated with impaired insulin release and insulin resistance. PMID:4817160

  1. Measurement of lactate formation from glucose using (6- sup 3 H)- and (6- sup 14 C)glucose in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Virkamaeki, A.P.; Puhakainen, I.; Nurjhan, N.; Gerich, J.E.; Yki-Jaervinen, H. )

    1990-09-01

    To assess the validity of determining the origin of plasma lactate from the ratio of lactate and glucose specific activities (SA) during infusion of labeled glucose, normal subjects received infusions of (6-3H)- and (6-14C)glucose for 4 h after a 12 h fast, and, on another day, cold glucose labeled with both tracers during 4-6 h of hyperinsulinemia (approximately 650 microU/ml). Basally, less lactate was derived from plasma glucose when measured with (6-3H)glucose (27 +/- 2%) than with (6-14C)glucose (40 +/- 2%, P less than 0.001). Insulin did not increase the percent of lactate derived from plasma glucose when measured with (6-3H)glucose (29 +/- 2%) but did increase when measured with (6-14C)glucose (60 +/- 4%). The arterialized blood (A) (3H)lactate SA was 30-40% higher (P less than 0.01) than deep venous blood (V) (3H)lactate SA, whereas A and V (14C)lactate SA were similar. During conversion of alanine to lactate with glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, 32 +/- 2% of 3H in (3-3H)alanine was found in water and 68 +/- 2% in lactate. During infusion of (6-3H)- and (6-14C)glucose, the ratio of (14C)alanine to lactate SA (0.88 +/- 0.05) was less than the ratio of (3H)alanine to lactate SA (0.31 +/- 0.03, P less than 0.001). In conclusion (1) loss of 3H relative to 14C from position 6 in glucose occurs during lactate formation in extrahepatic tissues possibly due to the GPT reaction (alanine conversion to pyruvate), and (2) even under supraphysiologic hyperinsulinemic conditions not all of plasma lactate originates from plasma glucose.

  2. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure.

  3. Direct vs. indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis as a function of glucose infusion rate

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Johnson, J.L.; Blakesly, H.L.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    This study was initiated to determine the influence of the rate of exogenous glucose administration on liver glycogen synthesis by the direct (glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen) vs the indirect pathway (glucose degradation to 3-carbon intermediates, e.g., lactate, prior to incorporation into glycogen). Catheterized rats were fasted 2 days prior to receiving a 3 hr infusion of glucose at rates of 0 to 230 ..mu..mol/min/kg containing tracer (6-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose. Plasma glucose (r = 0.80), insulin (r = 0.90) and lactate (r = 0.84) were correlated with glucose infusion rate. The rate of liver glycogen deposition (0.46 +/- 0.03 ..mu..mol/min/g) did not differ between a glucose infusion rate of 20 and 230 ..mu..mol/min/kg. At the lowest and highest glucose infusion rates hepatic glycogenesis accounted for 87 +/- 6 and 9 +/- 1% of the total glucose load, respectively. The percent contribution of the direct pathways to glycogen deposition ((/sup 3/H) specific activity in hepatic glycogen/(/sup 3/H) specific activity in plasma glucose) increased from 16 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 5% from lowest to highest glucose infusion rates (prevailing plasma glucose concentrations: 9 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 2 mM, respectively). The results indicate that the relative contribution of the direct and indirect pathways of glucogen synthesis are dependent upon the glucose load or plasma glucose concentration.

  4. Mechanism for underestimation of isotopically determined glucose disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.C.; Consoli, A.; Nurjhan, N.; Young, A.A.; Gerich, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    Use of (3H)glucose and a one-compartment model to determine glucose kinetics frequently underestimates the rate of glucose production (Ra). To assess to what extent an isotope effect, a tracer contaminant, or inadequacy of the model was responsible, we measured glucose Ra and forearm clearance of tracer and unlabeled glucose at various concentrations of plasma insulin (approximately 50, approximately 160, and approximately 1800 microU/ml) and plasma glucose (approximately 90, approximately 160, approximately 250, and approximately 400 mg/dl) under steady-state and non-steady-state conditions. Under isotopic steady-state conditions, the clearances of tracer and unlabeled glucose across the forearm were identical, and exogenous glucose infusion rates did not differ significantly from the isotopically determined glucose Ra (10.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 10.5 +/- 1.0 mg.kg-1 fat-free mass.min-1, respectively). However, under isotopic non-steady-state conditions, the isotopically determined Ra was significantly lower than the glucose infusion rate (11.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 13.7 +/- 1.5 mg.kg-1 fat-free mass.min-1, respectively, P less than .001), and the underestimation was related to the deviation from the isotopic steady state. When (3H)glucose specific activity of plasma samples from experiments with the greatest underestimation of Ra was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, less than 7% of the underestimation could be accounted for by a contaminant. These results indicate that inadequacy of the one-compartment model is responsible for underestimation of glucose Ra under non-steady-state conditions and that there is no detectable isotopic effect or appreciable contaminant of (3-3H)glucose. We conclude that under isotopic steady-state conditions, (3-3H)glucose is a reliable tracer for glucose kinetic studies in humans.

  5. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  6. CSF glucose test

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal ... or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  7. Higher plasma betatrophin/ANGPTL8 level in Type 2 Diabetes subjects does not correlate with blood glucose or insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Abubaker, Jehad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Noronha, Fiona; Hu, Frank B.; Behbehani, Kazem; Elkum, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Betatrophin/ANGPTL8 is a newly identified hormone produced in liver and adipose tissue that has been shown to be induced as a result of insulin resistance and regulates lipid metabolism. Little is known about betatrophin level in humans and its association with T2D and metabolic risk factors. Plasma level of betatrophin was measured by ELISA in 1603 subjects: 1047 non-diabetic and 556 T2D subjects and its associations with metabolic risk factors in both non-diabetic and T2D were also studied. Our data show a significant difference in betatrophin levels between non-diabetic (731.3 (59.5–10625.0) pg/ml) and T2D (1710.5 (197.4–12361.1) p < 0.001. Betatrophin was positively correlated with age, BMI, waist/hip ratio, FBG, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and TG in the non-diabetic subjects. However, no association was observed with BMI, FBG, HbA1C or HOMA-IR in T2D subjects. TC and LDL showed negative association with betatrophin in T2D subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects in the highest tertile of betatrophin had higher odds of having T2D (odd ratio [OR] = 6.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = (3.15 – 12.01). Our data show strong positive associations between betatrophin and FBG and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects. However, correlations with FBG and insulin resistance were diminished in T2D subjects. PMID:26077345

  8. A Novel Insulin Resistance Index to Monitor Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance: the ACT NOW Study

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Devjit; Cobb, Jeff E.; Gall, Walter; Adam, Klaus-Peter; George, Tabitha; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Clement, Stephen C.; Henry, Robert R.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E.; Stentz, Frankie B.; Reaven, Peter D.; Musi, Nicolas; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to test the clinical utility of Quantose MQ to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone therapy in prediabetic subjects. Quantose MQ is derived from fasting measurements of insulin, α-hydroxybutyrate, linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, and oleate, three nonglucose metabolites shown to correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Research Design and Methods: Participants were 428 of the total of 602 ACT NOW impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/d) or placebo and followed for 2.4 years. At baseline and study end, fasting plasma metabolites required for determination of Quantose, glycated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance test with frequent plasma insulin and glucose measurements to calculate the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity were obtained. Results: Pioglitazone treatment lowered IGT conversion to diabetes (hazard ratio = 0.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.13–0.50; P < .0001). Although glycated hemoglobin did not track with insulin sensitivity, Quantose MQ increased in pioglitazone-treated subjects (by 1.45 [3.45] mg·min−1·kgwbm−1) (median [interquartile range]) (P < .001 vs placebo), as did the Matsuda index (by 3.05 [4.77] units; P < .0001). Quantose MQ correlated with the Matsuda index at baseline and change in the Matsuda index from baseline (rho, 0.85 and 0.79, respectively; P < .0001) and was progressively higher across closeout glucose tolerance status (diabetes, IGT, normal glucose tolerance). In logistic models including only anthropometric and fasting measurements, Quantose MQ outperformed both Matsuda and fasting insulin in predicting incident diabetes. Conclusions: In IGT subjects, Quantose MQ parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose MQ may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in

  9. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

  10. Sleep restriction acutely impairs glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pawan K; Foppen, Ewout; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sleep curtailment in humans has been related to impairment of glucose metabolism. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on glucose tolerance in rats. A group of rats was challenged by 4-h sleep deprivation in the early rest period, leading to prolonged (16 h) wakefulness. Another group of rats was allowed to sleep during the first 4 h of the light period and sleep deprived in the next 4 h. During treatment, food was withdrawn to avoid a postmeal rise in plasma glucose. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed immediately after the sleep deprivation period. Sleep deprivation at both times of the day similarly impaired glucose tolerance and reduced the early-phase insulin responses to a glucose challenge. Basal concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, and corticosterone remained unchanged after sleep deprivation. Throughout IVGTTs, plasma corticosterone concentrations were not different between the control and sleep-deprived group. Together, these results demonstrate that independent of time of day and sleep pressure, short sleep deprivation during the resting phase favors glucose intolerance in rats by attenuating the first-phase insulin response to a glucose load. In conclusion, this study highlights the acute adverse effects of only a short sleep restriction on glucose homeostasis. PMID:27354542

  11. Atorvastatin delays the glucose clearance rate in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daxin; Wang, Yanli; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Wentao; Bai, Liang; Cheng, Gong; Chu, Yonglie; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-05-01

    The administration of statin might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypercholesterolemic patients based on the recent clinical evidence. However, the causal relationship must be clarified and confirmed in animal experiments. Therefore, we mimicked hypercholesterolemia by feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and performed 16 weeks of atorvastatin administration to investigate the effect of statin on glucose metabolism. The intravenous glucose tolerance test showed that plasma glucose levels in the statin-treated rabbits were consistently higher and that there was a slower rate of glucose clearance from the blood than in HCD rabbits. The incremental area under the curve for glucose in the statin-treated rabbits was also significantly larger than in the HCD rabbits. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the intravenous insulin tolerance test. The glucose-lowering ability of exogenous insulin was not impaired by statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The administration of a single dose of statin did not affect glucose metabolism in normal rabbits. The statin also significantly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits, whereas it did not affect plasma levels of glucose and insulin. The current results showed that atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant delay of glucose clearance in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and this rabbit model could be suitable for studying the effects of statin on glucose metabolism.

  12. Effect of Probiotics on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Chen, Fangyao; Chen, Rongping; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous clinical trials indicate that probiotic consumption may improve blood glucose control, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent. Objective To investigate the effects of probiotics on glycemic control in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrial.gov through October 2014. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2). Results Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included, in which 17 fasting blood glucose (n = 1105), 11 fasting plasma insulin (n = 788), 8 homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (n = 635) comparisons were reported. Probiotic consumption, compared with placebo, significantly reduced fasting glucose (MD = -0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.56, 0.06; p = 0.02), fasting plasma insulin (MD = -1.29 μU/mL; 95% CI -2.17, -0.41; p = 0.004), and HOMA-IR (MD = 0.48; 95% CI -0.83, -0.13; p = 0.007). Conclusions Probiotic consumption may improve glycemic control modestly. Modification of gut microbiota by probiotic supplementation may be a method for preventing and control hyperglycemia in clinical practice. PMID:26161741

  13. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.

  14. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  15. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  16. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  17. Glucose, memory, and aging.

    PubMed

    Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-04-01

    Circulating glucose concentrations regulate many brain functions, including learning and memory. Much of the evidence for this view comes from experiments assessing stress-related release of epinephrine with subsequent increases in blood glucose concentrations. One application of this work has been to investigate whether age-related memory impairments result from dysfunctions in the neuroendocrine regulation of the brain processes responsible for memory. Like humans, aged rodents exhibit some memory impairments that can be reversed by administration of epinephrine or glucose. In elderly humans, ingestion of glucose enhances some cognitive functions, with effects best documented thus far on tests of verbal contextual and noncontextual information. Glucose also effectively enhances cognition in persons with Alzheimer disease or Down syndrome. Although earlier evidence suggested that glucose does not enhance cognitive function in healthy young adults, more recent findings suggest that glucose is effective in this population, provided the tests are sufficiently difficult. In college students, glucose consumption significantly enhanced memory of material in a paragraph. Glucose also appeared to enhance attentional processes in these students. Neither face and word recognition nor working memory was influenced by treatment with glucose. The neurobiological mechanisms by which glucose acts are under current investigation. Initial evidence suggests that glucose or a metabolite may activate release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in rats when they are engaged in learning. Consequently, the issue of nutrition and cognition becomes increasingly important in light of evidence that circulating glucose concentrations have substantial effects on brain and cognitive functions.

  18. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chess, James; Do, Jun-Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Lee, Hi-Bahl; Kim, Yong-Lim; Summers, Angela; Williams, Paul Ford; Davison, Sara; Dorval, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism. Methods and Materials We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a prospective, observational cohort study initiated in 2002. A subset of 10 centres from 3 countries with high data quality were selected (368 incident and 272 prevalent non-diabetic patients), with multilevel, multivariable analysis of the reciprocal of random glucose levels, and a stratified-by-centre Cox survival analysis. Results The median follow up was 5.6 and 6.4 years respectively in incident and prevalent patients. On multivariate analysis, serum glucose increased with age (β = -0.007, 95%CI -0.010, -0.004) and decreased with higher serum sodium (β = 0.002, 95%CI 0.0005, 0.003) in incident patients and increased with dialysate glucose (β = -0.0002, 95%CI -0.0004, -0.00006) in prevalent patients. Levels suggested undiagnosed diabetes in 5.4% of prevalent patients. Glucose levels predicted death in unadjusted analyses of both incident and prevalent groups but in an adjusted survival analysis they did not (for random glucose 6–10 compared with <6, Incident group HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.58, 1.46, Prevalent group HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.86, 2.34). Conclusions In prevalent non-diabetic patients, random glucose levels at a diabetic level are under-recognised and increase with dialysate glucose load. Random glucose levels predict mortality in unadjusted analyses, but this association has not been proven in adjusted analyses. PMID:27249020

  19. Impact of Reduced Meal Frequency Without Caloric Restriction on Glucose Regulation in Healthy, Normal Weight Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Olga; Martin, Bronwen; Stote, Kim S.; Golden, Erin; Maudsley, Stuart; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K.; Longo, Dan L.; Rumpler, William V.; Baer, David J.; Egan, Josephine; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects. The study was a randomized cross-over design, with 2 eight-week treatment periods (with an intervening 11 week off-diet period) in which subjects consumed all of their calories for weight maintenance distributed in either 3 meals or 1 meal per day (consumed between 17:00 and 21:00). Energy metabolism was evaluated at designated time points throughout the study by performing morning oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and measuring levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Subjects consuming 1 meal/d exhibited higher morning fasting plasma glucose levels, greater and more sustained elevations of plasma glucose concentrations and a delayed insulin response in the OGTT compared to subjects consuming 3 meal/d. Levels of ghrelin were elevated in response to the 1 meal/d regimen. Fasting levels of insulin, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and BDNF were not significantly affected by meal frequency. Subjects consuming a single large daily meal exhibit elevated fasting glucose levels, and impaired morning glucose tolerance associated with a delayed insulin response, during a 2 month diet period compared to those consuming 3 meals/day. The impaired glucose tolerance was reversible and was not associated with alterations in the levels of adipokines or BDNF. PMID:17998028

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  1. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  2. Glucose-lowering effects of intestinal bile acid sequestration through enhancement of splanchnic glucose utilization.

    PubMed

    Prawitt, Janne; Caron, Sandrine; Staels, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal bile acid (BA) sequestration efficiently lowers plasma glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Because BAs act as signaling molecules via receptors, including the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 and the nuclear receptor FXR (farnesoid X receptor), to regulate glucose homeostasis, BA sequestration, which interrupts the entero-hepatic circulation of BAs, constitutes a plausible action mechanism of BA sequestrants. An increase of intestinal L-cell glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion upon TGR5 activation is the most commonly proposed mechanism, but recent studies also argue for a direct entero-hepatic action to enhance glucose utilization. We discuss here recent findings on the mechanisms of sequestrant-mediated glucose lowering via an increase of splanchnic glucose utilization through entero-hepatic FXR signaling.

  3. Catecholamine stimulation, substrate competition, and myocardial glucose uptake in conscious dogs assessed with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Merhige, M E; Ekas, R; Mossberg, K; Taegtmeyer, H; Gould, K L

    1987-11-01

    Uptake of radiolabelled deoxyglucose out of proportion to reduced coronary flow demonstrated by positron emission tomography has been used to identify reversibly ischemic, viable myocardium. For this concept to be applied reliably in the clinical setting, factors that may depress glucose availability independent of tissue viability, such as adrenergic stimulation and substrate competition, must be examined. Accordingly, we studied the effect of catecholamine stimulation by dopamine on myocardial glucose uptake in vivo using chronically instrumented, intact dogs and positron emission tomography. We measured myocardial activity of [2-18F]-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 82Rb in glucose-loaded animals randomly studied during dopamine infusion, during insulin infusion, and then during their combined infusion. Myocardial FDG uptake was significantly decreased when animals were treated with dopamine, compared with treatment in the same animals with insulin. When insulin was added to the dopamine infusion, myocardial FDG uptake was restored. In contrast, myocardial activity of 82Rb, which is taken up in proportion to coronary flow, was similar under all three experimental conditions. Plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and lactate concentrations were determined before and during each infusion. The depression of myocardial FDG activity seen during dopamine infusion and its reversal with addition of insulin can be explained on the basis of effects of these hormones on substrate availability and competition.

  4. Identification of glucose transporters in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, João Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and -E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  5. A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of statin therapy on plasma lipid concentrations in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Dinca, Madalina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Serban, Maria-Corina; Howard, George; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nicholls, Stephen; Lip, Gregory Y H; Glasser, Stephen; Martin, Seth S; Muntner, Paul; Rysz, Jacek; Toth, Peter P; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-09-01

    Statin therapy may lower plasma lipid concentrations, but the evidence in HIV-infected patients is still unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of statin therapy on plasma lipid concentrations through a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The literature search included PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar up to October 30, 2015. The meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed-effects or random-effect model according to I(2) statistic. Effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Two investigators independently reviewed the title or abstract, further reviewed the full-texts and extracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Meta-analysis of 12 RCTs with 697 participants suggested significant reductions in plasma concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (WMD: -0.72mmol/L [-27.8mg/dL], 95%CI: -1.04, -0.39, p<0.001; I(2)=85.7%), total cholesterol (WMD: -1.03mmol/L [-39.8mg/dL], 95%CI: -1.42, -0.64, p<0.001; I(2)=94.7%) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (WMD: -0.81mmol/L [-31.3mg/dl], 95%CI: -1.32, -0.30, p=0.002; I(2)=76.5%), and elevations in HDL-C (WMD: 0.072mmol/L [2.8mg/dL], 95%CI: 0.053, 0.092, p<0.001; I(2)=0%) following treatment with statins (mostly of moderate-intensity). No significant alteration in plasma triglycerides (TG) concentrations was found (WMD: -0.16mmol/L [-14.2mg/dL], 95%CI: -0.61, 0.29, p=0.475; I(2)=90.2%). All these effects were robust in sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the computed effect is not driven by any single study. In subgroup analysis, no significant difference was found among different statins in terms of changing plasma concentrations of LDL-C, HDL-C and TG. However, atorvastatin was found to be more efficacious in reducing plasma total cholesterol concentrations (p<0.001). In conclusion, the meta

  6. A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of statin therapy on plasma lipid concentrations in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Dinca, Madalina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Serban, Maria-Corina; Howard, George; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nicholls, Stephen; Lip, Gregory Y H; Glasser, Stephen; Martin, Seth S; Muntner, Paul; Rysz, Jacek; Toth, Peter P; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-09-01

    Statin therapy may lower plasma lipid concentrations, but the evidence in HIV-infected patients is still unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of statin therapy on plasma lipid concentrations through a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The literature search included PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar up to October 30, 2015. The meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed-effects or random-effect model according to I(2) statistic. Effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Two investigators independently reviewed the title or abstract, further reviewed the full-texts and extracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Meta-analysis of 12 RCTs with 697 participants suggested significant reductions in plasma concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (WMD: -0.72mmol/L [-27.8mg/dL], 95%CI: -1.04, -0.39, p<0.001; I(2)=85.7%), total cholesterol (WMD: -1.03mmol/L [-39.8mg/dL], 95%CI: -1.42, -0.64, p<0.001; I(2)=94.7%) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (WMD: -0.81mmol/L [-31.3mg/dl], 95%CI: -1.32, -0.30, p=0.002; I(2)=76.5%), and elevations in HDL-C (WMD: 0.072mmol/L [2.8mg/dL], 95%CI: 0.053, 0.092, p<0.001; I(2)=0%) following treatment with statins (mostly of moderate-intensity). No significant alteration in plasma triglycerides (TG) concentrations was found (WMD: -0.16mmol/L [-14.2mg/dL], 95%CI: -0.61, 0.29, p=0.475; I(2)=90.2%). All these effects were robust in sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the computed effect is not driven by any single study. In subgroup analysis, no significant difference was found among different statins in terms of changing plasma concentrations of LDL-C, HDL-C and TG. However, atorvastatin was found to be more efficacious in reducing plasma total cholesterol concentrations (p<0.001). In conclusion, the meta

  7. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dangardt, Frida; Chen, Yun; Gronowitz, Eva; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Friberg, Peter; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 months each with a six-week washout period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipids were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed, and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3 PUFA in muscle phospholipids increased in both sexes. In the females, omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation improved glucose tolerance by 39% (P = 0.04) and restored insulin concentration by 34% (P = 0.02) during IVGTT. Insulin sensitivity improved 17% (P = 0.07). In males, none of these parameters was influenced by omega-3 supplementation. Thus, three months of supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA improved glucose and insulin homeostasis in obese girls without influencing body weight. PMID:22523671

  8. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  9. Insulin and glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2002-08-01

    Abnormally high or low blood glucose and insulin concentrations after standardized glucose tolerance tests can reflect disorders such as pituitary dysfunction, polysaccharide storage myopathies, and other clinical disorders. Glucose and insulin responses, however, are modified by the diet to which the animal has adapted, time since it was last fed, and what it was fed. Body fat (obesity), fitness level, physiologic status, and stress also alter glucose and insulin metabolism. Therefore, it is important to consider these factors when evaluating glucose and insulin tests, especially if only one sample it taken. This article describes the factors affecting glucose and insulin metabolism in horses and how they might influence the interpretation of standardized tests of glucose tolerance.

  10. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia.

  11. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia. PMID:27319094

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of the effect of an sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor, phlorizin, on renal glucose transport in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Kato, Motohiro; Suzuki, Masayuki; Asanuma, Kimie; Aso, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Sachiya; Ishigai, Masaki

    2011-10-01

    A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for the inhibitory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors on renal glucose reabsorption was developed to predict in vivo efficacy. First, using the relationship between renal glucose clearance and plasma glucose level in rats and both the glucose affinity and transport capacity obtained from in vitro vesicle experiments, a pharmacodynamic model analysis was performed based on a nonlinear parallel tube model to express the renal glucose transport mediated by SGLT1 and SGLT2. This model suitably expressed the relationship between plasma glucose level and renal glucose excretion. A PK-PD model was developed next to analyze the inhibitory effect of phlorizin on renal glucose reabsorption. The PK-PD model analysis was performed using averaged concentrations of both the drug and glucose in plasma and the corresponding renal glucose clearance. The model suitably expressed the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of phlorizin on renal glucose reabsorption. The in vivo inhibition constants of phlorizin for SGLT in rats were estimated to be 67 nM for SGLT1 and 252 nM for SGLT2, which are similar to the in vitro data reported previously. This suggests that the in vivo efficacy of SGLT inhibitors could be predicted from an in vitro study based on the present PK-PD model. The present model is based on physiological and biochemical parameters and, therefore, would be helpful in understanding individual differences in the efficacy of an SGLT inhibitor.

  13. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  14. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  15. Glucose turnover in 48-hour-fasted running rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sonne, B.; Mikines, K.J.; Galbo, H.

    1987-03-01

    In fed rats, hyperglycemia develops during exercise. This contrasts with the view based on studies of fasted human and dog that euglycemia is maintained in exercise and glucose production (R/sub a/) controlled by feedback mechanisms. Forty-eight-hour-fasted rats (F) were compared to fed rats (C) and overnight food-restricted (FR) rats. (3-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)glucose were infused and blood and tissue sampled. During running (21 m/min, 0% grade) R/sub a/ increased most in C and least in F and only in F did R/sub a/ not significantly exceed glucose disappearance. Plasma glucose increased more in C (3.3 mmol/1) than in FR (1.6 mmol/l) and only modestly (0.6 mmol/l) and transiently in F. Resting liver glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and similar in FR and F. Resting muscle glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and lowest in F. During running, lactate production and gluconeogenesis were higher in FR than in F. At least in rats, responses of production and plasma concentration of glucose to exercise depend on size of liver and muscle glycogen stores; glucose production matches increase in clearance better in fasted than in fed states. Probably glucose production is stimulated by feedforward mechanisms and feedback mechanisms are added if plasma glucose decreases.

  16. Acute Effects of a Spinach Extract Rich in Thylakoids on Satiety: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J.; Chu, Jessica; Beyl, Robbie; Edwall, Dan; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Greenway, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By retarding fat digestion, thylakoids, the internal photosynthetic membrane system of green plants, promote the release of satiety hormones. This study examined the effect of consuming a single dose of concentrated extract of thylakoids from spinach on satiety, food intake, lipids, and glucose compared to a placebo. Design: Sixty overweight and obese individuals enrolled in a double-blind randomized crossover study consumed the spinach extract or placebo in random order at least a week apart. Blood was drawn for assessments of lipids and glucose before a standard breakfast meal, followed 4 hours later by a 5 g dose of the extract and a standard lunch. Visual analog scales were administered before lunch and at intervals until an ad libitum pizza dinner served 4 hours later. Two hours after lunch a second blood draw was conducted. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes. Results: Compared to placebo, consuming the spinach extract reduced hunger (p < 0.01) and longing for food over 2 hours (p < 0.01) and increased postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (p < 0.01). There were no differences in plasma lipids and energy intake at dinner, but males showed a trend toward decreased energy intake (p = 0.08). Conclusions: At this dose, the spinach extract containing thylakoids increases satiety over a 2-hour period compared to a placebo. Thylakoid consumption may influence gender-specific food cravings. PMID:26029978

  17. Hourly analysis of cerebrospinal fluid glucose shows large diurnal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Marcel M; Leen, Wilhelmina G; Willemsen, Michèl A; Slats, Diane; Claassen, Jurgen A

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is important in the diagnostics of many neurological disorders. Since the influence of food intake on the cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio is largely unknown, we studied fluctuations in these parameters in healthy adult volunteers during a period of 36 h. Our observations show large physiological fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid glucose and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio, and their relation to food intake. These findings provide novel insights into the physiology of cerebral processes dependent on glucose levels such as energy formation (e.g. glycolysis), enzymatic reactions (e.g. glycosylation), and non-enzymatic reactions (e.g. advanced endproduct glycation).

  18. Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, several oral antidiabetic drugs with new mechanisms of action have become available, expanding the number of treatment options. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs with an insulin-independent mechanism promoting urinary glucose excretion. We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Results Overall, 229 patients were included in the full analysis set (placebo: n = 56; tofogliflozin 10 mg: n = 57; tofogliflozin 20 and 40 mg: n = 58 each). The least squares (LS) mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 was −0.028% (−0.192 to 0.137) in the placebo group, compared with −0.797% (−0.960 to −0.634) in the tofogliflozin 10 mg group, −1.017% (−1.178 to −0.856) in the tofogliflozin 20 mg group, and −0.870% (−1.031 to −0.709) in the tofogliflozin 40 mg group (p < 0.0001 for the LS mean differences in all tofogliflozin groups vs placebo). There were also prominent decreases in fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and body weight in all tofogliflozin groups compared with the placebo group. The main adverse events were hyperketonemia, ketonuria, and pollakiuria. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low. Furthermore, most adverse events were

  19. Metabolic and hormonal responses during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise: effects of pre-exercise glucose ingestion.

    PubMed

    Wouassi, D; Mercier, J; Ahmaidi, S; Brun, J F; Mercier, B; Orsetti, A; Préfaut, C

    1997-01-01

    We investigated metabolic and hormonal responses during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise (a force-velocity test; Fv test) and examined the effect of glucose ingestion on these responses and on exercise performance. The test was performed twice by seven subjects [27 (2) years] according to a double-blind randomized crossover protocol. During the experimental trial (GLU), the subjects ingested 500 ml of glucose polymer solution containing 25 g glucose 15 min before starting the exercise. During the control trial (CON), the subjects received an equal volume of sweet placebo (aspartame). Exercise performance was assessed by calculating peak anaerobic power (W(an,peak)). Venous plasma lactate concentration increased significantly during the Fv test (P < 0.001), but no difference was found between CON and GLU. Blood glucose first decreased significantly from the beginning of exercise up to the 6-kg load (P < 0.001) and then increased significantly at W(an,peak) and for up to 10 min during the recovery period (P < 0.001) in both CON and GLU. Insulin concentrations decreased significantly in both groups, but were higher at W(an,peak) in GLU compared with CON (P < 0.05). Glucagon and epinephrine did not change significantly in either group, but epinephrine was significantly lower in GLU after glucose ingestion (P < 0.05) and at W(an,peak) (P < 0.05). W(an,peak) was not significantly different between CON and GLU. In conclusion, blood glucose and insulin concentrations decreased during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise, while blood lactate concentration increased markedly without any significant change in glucagon and epinephrine concentrations. Glucose ingestion altered metabolic and hormonal responses during the Fv test, but the performance as measured by W(an,peak) was not changed.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-dependent hydrogen peroxide production is involved in the regulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiporter protein in salt-stressed callus from Carex moorcroftii.

    PubMed

    Li, Jisheng; Chen, Guichen; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yanli; Jia, Honglei; Bi, Yurong

    2011-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is important for the activation of plant resistance to environmental stresses, and ion homeostasis is the physiological foundation for living cells. In this study, we investigated G6PDH roles in modulating ion homeostasis under salt stress in Carex moorcroftii callus. G6PDH activity increased to its maximum in 100 mM NaCl treatment and decreased with further increased NaCl concentrations. K+/Na+ ratio in 100 mM NaCl treatment did not exhibit significant difference compared with the control; however, in 300 mM NaCl treatment, it decreased. Low-concentration NaCl (100 mM) stimulated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities as well as Na+/H+ antiporter protein expression, whereas high-concentration NaCl (300 mM) decreased their activity and expression. When G6PDH activity and expression were reduced by glycerol treatments, PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities, Na+/H+ antiporter protein level and K+/Na+ ratio dramatically decreased. Simultaneously, NaCl-induced hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) accumulation was abolished. Exogenous application of H₂O₂ increased G6PDH, PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities, Na+/H+ antiporter protein expression and K+/Na+ ratio in the control and glycerol treatments. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, which counteracted NaCl-induced H₂O₂ accumulation, decreased G6PDH, PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities, Na+/H+ antiporter protein level and K+/Na+ ratio. Western blot result showed that G6PDH expression was stimulated by NaCl and H₂O₂, and blocked by DPI. Taken together, G6PDH is involved in H₂O₂ accumulation under salt stress. H₂O₂, as a signal, upregulated PM H+-ATPase activity and Na+/H+ antiporter protein level, which subsequently resulted in the enhanced K+/Na+ ratio. G6PDH played a central role in the process.

  1. Jejunal administration of glucose enhances acyl ghrelin suppression in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Sidani, Reem M; Garcia, Anna E; Antoun, Joseph; Isbell, James M; Albaugh, Vance L; Abumrad, Naji N

    2016-07-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates hunger and worsens glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin is decreased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this change is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that jejunal nutrient exposure plays a significant role in ghrelin suppression after RYGB. Feeding tubes were placed in the stomach or jejunum in 13 obese subjects to simulate pre-RYGB or post-RYGB glucose exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, respectively, without the confounding effects of caloric restriction, weight loss, and surgical stress. On separate study days, the plasma glucose curves obtained with either gastric or jejunal administration of glucose were replicated with intravenous (iv) infusions of glucose. These "isoglycemic clamps" enabled us to determine the contribution of the GI tract and postabsorptive plasma glucose to acyl ghrelin suppression. Plasma acyl ghrelin levels were suppressed to a greater degree with jejunal glucose administration compared with gastric glucose administration (P < 0.05). Jejunal administration of glucose also resulted in a greater suppression of acyl ghrelin than the corresponding isoglycemic glucose infusion (P ≤ 0.01). However, gastric and isoglycemic iv glucose infusions resulted in similar degrees of acyl ghrelin suppression (P > 0.05). Direct exposure of the proximal jejunum to glucose increases acyl ghrelin suppression independent of circulating glucose levels. The enhanced suppression of acyl ghrelin after RYGB may be due to a nutrient-initiated signal in the jejunum that regulates ghrelin secretion. PMID:27279247

  2. Effects of lifestyle intervention and meal replacement on glycaemic and body-weight control in Chinese subjects with impaired glucose regulation: a 1-year randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan-Feng; Sun, Jian-Qin; Chen, Min; Chen, Yan-Qiu; Xie, Hua; Sun, Wei-Jia; Lin, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Sun, Wei; Chen, Ai-Fang; Tang, Qian-Ru

    2013-02-14

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group (-1·8 (SEM 0·35) v. -0·6 (SEM 0·40) 2·5 kg, P<0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P<0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P<0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P=0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.

  3. Effects of the New Dual PPARα/δ Agonist GFT505 on Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Abdominally Obese Patients With Combined Dyslipidemia or Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cariou, Bertrand; Zaïr, Yassine; Staels, Bart; Bruckert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated the metabolic effects and tolerability of GFT505, a novel dual peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α/δ agonist, in abdominally obese patients with either combined dyslipidemia or prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The S1 study was conducted in 94 patients with combined dyslipidemia while the S2 study was conducted in 47 patients with prediabetes. Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to GFT505 at 80 mg/day or placebo for 28 (S1) or 35 (S2) days. Primary efficacy end points were changes from baseline at week 4 in both fasting plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol in the S1 group and 2-h glucose upon oral glucose tolerance test in the S2 group. RESULTS In comparison with placebo, GFT505 significantly reduced fasting plasma triglycerides (S1: least squares means −16.7% [95% one-sided CI −∞ to −5.3], P = 0.005; S2: −24.8% [−∞ to −10.5], P = 0.0003) and increased HDL cholesterol (S1: 7.8% [3.0 to ∞], P = 0.004; S2: 9.3% [1.7 to ∞], P = 0.009) in both studies, whereas LDL cholesterol only decreased in S2 (−11.0% [ −∞ to −3.5], P = 0.002). In S2, GFT505 did not reduce 2-h glucose (−0.52 mmol/L [−∞ to 0.61], P = 0.18) but led to a significant decrease of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (−31.4% [−∞ to 12.5], P = 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (−0.37 mmol/L [−∞ to −0.10], P = 0.01) and fructosamine (−3.6% [−∞ to −0.20], P = 0.02). GFT505 also reduced γ glutamyl transferase levels in both studies (S1: −19.9% [−∞ to −12.8], P < 0.0001; S2: −15.1% [−∞ to −1.1], P = 0.004). No specific adverse safety signals were reported during the studies. CONCLUSIONS GFT505 may be considered a new drug candidate for the treatment of lipid and glucose disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21816979

  4. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    Pentobarbital is a common anesthetic agent used in animal research that is known to alter sympathetic function and may also affect carbohydrate metabolism. The in vivo effects of iv pentobarbital on glucose homeostasis were studied in chronically catheterized fasted rats. Whole body glucose kinetics, assessed by the constant iv infusion of (6-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose, were determined in all rats in the conscious state. Thereafter, glucose metabolism was followed over the next 4 hr in 3 subgroups of rats; conscious, anesthetized with body temperature maintained, and anesthetized with body temperature not maintained. Hypothermia (a 5/sup 0/C decrease) developed spontaneously in anesthetized rats kept at ambient temperature (22/sup 0/C). No differences were seen in MABP and heart rate between conscious and normothermic anesthetized rats; however, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a decrease in MABP (20%) and heart rate (35%). Likewise, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations, the rate of glucose appearance (Ra), recycling and metabolic clearance (MCR) did not differ between conscious and normothermic anesthetized animals. In contrast, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a 50% reduction in plasma lactate, a 40% drop in glucose Ra, and a 30-40% decrease in glucose recycling and MCR. Thus, pentobarbital does not appear to alter in vivo glucose kinetics, compared to unanesthetized controls, provided that body temperature is maintained.

  5. Glucose metabolism in the newborn rat. Temporal studies in vivo.

    PubMed

    Snell, K; Walker, D G

    1973-04-01

    1. The concentrations of plasma d-glucose, l-lactate, free fatty acids and ketone bodies and of liver glycogen were measured in caesarian-delivered newborn rats at time-intervals up to 4h after delivery. Glucose and lactate concentrations decreased markedly during the first hours after delivery, but there was a delay of 60-90min before significant glycogen mobilization occurred. 2. The specific radioactivity of plasma d-glucose was measured as a function of time for up to 75min after the intraperitoneal injection of d-[6-(14)C]glucose and d-[6-(3)H]glucose into caesarian-delivered rats at 0, 1 and 2h after delivery. Calculations revealed that there was an appreciable rate of glucose formation at all ages studied, but immediately after delivery this was exceeded by the rate of glucose utilization. Around 2h post partum the rate of glucose utilization decreased dramatically and this coincided with a reversal of the immediately postnatal hypoglycaemia. 3. The specific radioactivity of plasma l-lactate and the incorporation of (14)C into plasma d-glucose and liver glycogen was measured as a function of time after the intraperitoneal injection of l-[U-(14)C]lactate into rats immediately after delivery. The logarithm of the specific radioactivity of plasma l-[U-(14)C]lactate decreased linearly with time for at least 60min after injection and the calculated rate of lactate utilization exceeded the rate of lactate formation. 4. (14)C incorporation into plasma d-glucose was maximal from 30-60min after injection of l-[U-(14)C]lactate and the amount incorporated at 60min was 23% of that present in plasma lactate. Although (14)C was also incorporated into liver glycogen the amount was always less than 3% of that present in plasma glucose. 5. The results are discussed in relationship to the adaptation of the newly born rat to the extra-uterine environment and the possible involvement of gluconeogenesis at this time before feeding is established.

  6. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  7. Direct measurement of brain glucose concentrations in humans by sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetter, R.; Novotny, E.J.; Boulware, S.D.; Rothman, D.L.; Mason, G.F.; Shulman, G.I.; Shulan, R.G.; Tamborlane, W.V. )

    1992-02-01

    Glucose is the main fuel for energy metabolism in the normal human brain. It is generally assumed that glucose transport into the brain is not rate-limiting for metabolism. Since brain glucose concentrations cannot be determined directly by radiotracer techniques, the authors used {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy after infusing enriched D-(1-{sup 13}C)glucose to measure brain glucose concentrations at euglycemia and at hyperglycemia in six healthy children. Brain glucose concentrations averaged 1.0 {plus minus} 0.1 {mu}mol/ml at euglycemia and 1.8-2.7 {mu}mol/ml at hyperglycemia. Michaelis-Menten parameters of transport were calculated from the relationship between plasma and brain glucose concentrations. The brain glucose concentrations and transport constants are consistent with transport not being rate-limiting for resting brain metabolism at plasma levels >3 mM.

  8. Control of carbon content in amorphous GeTe films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) for phase-change random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoukar, M.; Szkutnik, P. D.; Jourde, D.; Pelissier, B.; Michallon, P.; Noé, P.; Vallée, C.

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous and smooth GeTe thin films are deposited on 200 mm silicon substrates by plasma enhanced—metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) using the commercial organometallic precursors TDMAGe and DIPTe as Ge and Te precursors, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show a stoichiometric composition of the deposited GeTe films but with high carbon contamination. Using information collected by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and XPS, the origin of carbon contamination is determined and the dissociation mechanisms of Ge and Te precursors in H2 + Ar plasma are proposed. As a result, carbon level is properly controlled by varying operating parameters such as plasma radio frequency power, pressure and H2 rate. Finally, GeTe films with carbon level as low as 5 at. % are obtained.

  9. Analysis of glucose metabolism in farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) using deuterated water.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Ivan; Mendes, Vera M; Leston, Sara; Jarak, Ivana; Carvalho, Rui A; Pardal, Miguel Â; Manadas, Bruno; Jones, John G

    2011-11-01

    Glucose metabolism in free-swimming fasted and fed seabass was studied using deuterated water ((2)H(2)O). After transfer to seawater enriched with 4.9% (2)H(2)O for 6-h or for 72-h, positional and mole percent enrichment (MPE) of plasma glucose and water were quantified by (2)H NMR and ESI-MS/MS. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment reached that of seawater within 6h. In both fasted and fed fish, plasma glucose MPE increased asymptotically attaining ~55% of plasma water enrichment by 72 h. The distribution of (2)H-enrichment between the different glucose positions was relatively uniform. The gluconeogenic contribution to glucose that was synthesized during (2)H(2)O administration was estimated from the ratio of position 5 and 2 glucose enrichments. For both fed and fasted fish, gluconeogenesis accounted for 98±1% of the glucose that was produced during the 72-h (2)H(2)O administration period. For fasted fish, gluconeogenic contributions measured after 6h were identical to 72-h values (94±3%). For fed fish, the apparent gluconeogenic contribution at 6-h was significantly lower compared to 72-h (79±5% versus 98±1%, p<0.05). This may reflect a brief augmentation of gluconeogenic flux by glycogenolysis after feeding and/or selective enrichment of plasma glucose position 2 via futile glucose-glucose-6-phosphate cycling. PMID:21777686

  10. Glucose: detection and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also pla...

  11. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  12. Platelet-activating factor-induced increases in glucose kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Dobrescu, C.; Hargrove, D.M.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J. )

    1988-02-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a postulated mediator of many of the early hemodynamic effects of endotoxin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether in vivo administration of PAF could produce alterations in whole-body glucose metabolism that would mimic those seen during endotoxemia. Glucose kinetics were assessed in chronically catheterized conscious rats by the constant infusion of (6-{sup 3}H)- and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose before and for 4 h after either a bolus injection or a constant infusion of PAF. The bolus injection of PAF elevated the rate of glucose appearance (R{sub a}; 44%) for 1.5 h. The lower PAF infusion rate decreased blood pressure 11% to 104 mmHg, whereas the higher infusion rate decreased pressure 34% to 77 mmHg. Both PAF infusion rates produced elevations in plasma glucose and glucose R{sub a} throughout the 4-h infusion period in a dose-related manner. The PAF infusions also induced dose-related increases in plasma glucagon and catecholamine levels throughout the infusion period. Because the constant infusion of PAF did stimulate many of the hemodynamic and metabolic alterations produced by endotoxin, this study provides additional support for the potential importance of PAF as a mediator of the early hemodynamic and metabolic sequela of endotoxin shock. Furthermore, the PAF-induced changes in glucose metabolism appear to be mediated by the resultant elevation in plasma catecholamines.

  13. Effect of anesthesia on glucose production and utilization in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Penicaud, L.; Ferre, P.; Kande, J.; Leturque, A.; Issad, T.; Girard, J.

    1987-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of pentobarbital anesthesia (50 mg/kg ip) on glucose kinetics and individual tissue glucose utilization in vivo, in chronically catheterized rats. Glucose turnover studies were carried out using (3-/sup 3/H) glucose as tracer. A transient hyperglycemia and an increased glucose production were observed 3 min after induction of anesthesia. However, 40 min after induction of anesthesia, glycemia returned to the level observed in awake animals, whereas glucose turnover was decreased by 30% as compared with unanesthetized rats. These results are discussed with regard to the variations observed in plasma insulin, glucagon, and catecholamine levels. Glucose utilization by individual tissues was studied by the 2-(1-/sup 3/H) deoxyglucose technique. A four- to fivefold decrease in glucose utilization was observed in postural muscles (soleus and adductor longus), while in other nonpostural muscles (epitrochlearis, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm) and other tissues (white and brown adipose tissues) anesthesia did not modify the rate of glucose utilization. A decrease in glucose utilization was also observed in the brain.

  14. Accuracy of a Novel Noninvasive Multisensor Technology to Estimate Glucose in Diabetic Subjects During Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Sandra I.; Chomentowski, Peter J.; Vyas, Nisarg; Andre, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an approach of multisensor technology with integrated data analysis in an armband system (SenseWear® Pro Armband, SWA) can provide estimates of plasma glucose concentration in diabetes. In all, 41 subjects with diabetes participated. On day 1 subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and on day 2 a 60-minute treadmill test (TT). SWA plasma glucose estimates were compared against reference peripheral venous glucose concentrations. A continuous glucose monitoring device (CGM) was also placed on each subject to serve as a reference for clinical comparison. Pearson coefficient, Clarke error grid (CEG), and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) analyses were used to compare the performance of plasma glucose estimation. There were significant correlations between plasma glucose concentrations estimated by the SWA and the reference plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT (r = .65, P < .05) and the TT (r = .91, P < .05). CEG analysis revealed that during the OGTT, 93% of plasma glucose concentration readings were in the clinically acceptable zone A+B for the SWA and 95% for the CGM. During the TT, the SWA had 96% of readings in zone A+B, compared to 97% for the CGM. During OGTTs, MARDs for the SWA and CGM were 26% and 18%, respectively. During TTs, MARDs were 16% and 12%, respectively. Plasma glucose concentration estimation by the SWA’s noninvasive multisensor approach appears to be feasible and its performance in estimating glucose approaches that of a CGM. The success of this pilot study suggests that multisensor technology holds promising potential for the development of a wearable, noninvasive, painless glucose monitor. PMID:24876538

  15. SY 10-1 RENAL GLUCOSE HANDLING AND SGLT2.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Resham

    2016-09-01

    The kidneys maintain glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption. Glucose is freely filtered and reabsorbed in order to retain energy essential between meals. The amount of glucose reabsorbed by the kidneys is equivalent to the amount entering the filtration system. With a daily glomerular filtration rate of 180 L, approximately 180 g (180 L/day × 100 mg/dL) of glucose must be reabsorbed each day to maintain an average fasting plasma glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL). The reabsorption increases with increase in plasma glucose concentration up to approximately 11 mmol/L (198 mg/dL). At this threshold level, the system becomes saturated and the maximal resabsorption rate-the glucose transport maximum (Tm G ) is reached. No more glucose can be absorbed, and the kidneys begin excreting it in the urine-the beginning of glycosuria. Reabsorption of glucose occurs mainly in the proximal tubule and is mediated by 2 different transport proteins, Sodium Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT)1 and SGLT2. SGLT1, which are found in the straight section of the proximal tubule (S3), are responsible for approximately 10% of glucose reabsorption. The other 90% of filtered glucose is reabsorbed through by SGLT2, which are located in the convoluted section on the proximal tubule (S1). The SGLT2 are located on the luminal side of the early proximal tubule S1 segment. Absorption of sodium across the cell membrane creates an energy gradient that in turn allows glucose to be absorbed. On the other side of the cell, sodium is reabsorbed through sodium-potassium ATPase pump into the bloodstream. The concentration gradient within the cell, resulting from this exchange drives glucose reabsorption into the bloodstream via the Glucose transporter (GLUT) 2. The role of kidneys in glucose regulation has been well recognized in the recent years, and inhibition of glucose reabsorption by SGLT2 inhibitors has evolved as a promising target for

  16. Ketosis proportionately spares glucose utilization in brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifan; Kuang, Youzhi; Xu, Kui; Harris, Donald; Lee, Zhenghong; LaManna, Joseph; Puchowicz, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, as occurs with fasting, starvation, or chronic feeding of a ketogenic diet. The relationship between changes in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) and degree or duration of ketosis remains uncertain. To investigate if CMRglc decreases with chronic ketosis, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination with positron emission tomography, was applied in anesthetized young adult rats fed 3 weeks of either standard or ketogenic diets. Cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (μmol/min per 100 g) was determined in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum using Gjedde-Patlak analysis. The average CMRglc significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex (23.0±4.9 versus 32.9±4.7) and cerebellum (29.3±8.6 versus 41.2±6.4) with increased plasma ketone bodies in the ketotic rats compared with standard diet group. The reduction of CMRglc in both brain regions correlates linearly by ∼9% for each 1 mmol/L increase of total plasma ketone bodies (0.3 to 6.3 mmol/L). Together with our meta-analysis, these data revealed that the degree and duration of ketosis has a major role in determining the corresponding change in CMRglc with ketosis.

  17. Diagnostic value of fasting capillary glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin in detecting diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities compared to oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Herdzik, E; Safranow, K; Ciechanowski, K

    2002-04-01

    New diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus recommend lowering of the fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol/l. In contrast to recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), WHO recommends using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in clinical practice. In this study. based on OGTT results and WHO 1998 criteria, we determined if measuring fasting capillary glycaemia (FCG) along with fructosamine and/or glycosylated haemoglobin allows the detection of glucose tolerance abnormalities better than FCG alone. OGTT was performed in 538 patients. Serum fructosamine was determined in 480 of the patients, and glycosylated haemoglobin in 234 of the patients. According to WHO 1998 criteria, the patients were divided into groups due to glucose tolerance abnormalities. Fructosamine correlated stronger with 2-h post-load glucose concentrations than with FCG. HbAlc correlated stronger with FCG than with 2-h post-load glucose. Combined use of fructosamine and FCG predicted 2-h post-load glucose better than combined use of FCG and HbA1c. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that FCG was the best criterion in discriminating diabetes. Combined use of FCG and fructosamine slightly improved the ability to discriminate glucose tolerance abnormalities from normal glucose tolerance. FCG is the most effective predictor of 2-h post-load glucose and the best criterion for discriminating diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities from normal glucose tolerance. Fructosamine is a potentially useful post-load glycaemia index. OGTT is irreplaceable in identification of patients with high post-load glycaemia.

  18. A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, D E; Prevost, A T; Whichelow, M J; Cox, B D; Day, N E; Wareham, N J

    2000-03-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated relationships between individual nutrients and glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, but the association with the overall pattern of dietary intake has not previously been described. In order to characterize this association, 802 subjects aged 40-65 years were randomly selected from a population-based sampling frame and underwent a 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test. Principal component analysis was used to identify four dietary patterns explaining 31.7% of the dietary variation in the study cohort. These dietary patterns were associated with other lifestyle factors including socio-economic group, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. Component 1 was characterized by a healthy balanced diet with a frequent intake of raw and salad vegetables, fruits in both summer and winter, fish, pasta and rice and low intake of fried foods, sausages, fried fish, and potatoes. This component was negatively correlated with central obesity, fasting plasma glucose, 120 min non-esterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol. It therefore appears to be protective for the metabolic syndrome. Component 1 was negatively associated with the risk of having undiagnosed diabetes, and this association was independent of age, sex, smoking and obesity. The findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are associated with other lifestyle factors and with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. The results provide further evidence for the recommendation of a healthy balanced diet as one of the main components of chronic disease prevention.

  19. Glucose and glycerol concentrations and their tracer enrichment measurements using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bornø, Andreas; Foged, Lene; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-10-01

    The present study describes a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for high-throughput quantification of glucose and glycerol in human plasma using stable isotopically labeled internal standards and is suitable for simultaneous measurements of glucose and glycerol enrichments in connection to in vivo metabolic studies investigating glucose turnover and lipolytic rate. Moreover, in order to keep up with this new fast analysis, simple derivatization procedures have been developed. Prior to analysis, glucose and glycerol were derivatized using benzoyl chloride in order to form benzoylated derivatives via new simplified fast procedures. For glucose, two internal standards were evaluated, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and for glycerol, [U-(13) C(3), D(8)]glycerol was used. The method was validated by means of calibration curves, quality control samples, and plasma samples spiked with [6,6-D(2)]glucose, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose, and [1,1,2,3,3-D(5)]glycerol in order to test accuracy, precision, and recovery of the method. Moreover, post preparative and freeze-thaw sample stability were tested. The correlation of calibration curves for the glucose concentration were r(2) = 0.9998 for [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and r(2) = 0.9996 for [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and r(2) = 0.9995 for the glycerol concentration. Interday accuracy for glucose using [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and glycerol determined in spiked plasma were respectively 103.5% and 106.0%, and the coefficients of variation were 2.0% and 9.7%, respectively. After derivatization, plasma samples were stable for at least 14 days. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a novel, accurate, and sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of glucose and glycerol concentrations and enrichment of infused tracers most commonly used in human metabolic kinetic studies.

  20. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Galindo, C; Larsen, M; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used to study the effects of supplementing AA on milk lactose secretion, whole-body rate of appearance (WB-Ra) of glucose, and tissue metabolism of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and β-OH-butyrate (BHBA) in postpartum dairy cows according to a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures in time. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and were allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (n=4) or abomasal infusion of free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to the same basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half the maximal dose at 1 d in milk (DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d from DIM 2 to 29 to cover the estimated essential AA deficit. On DIM 5, 15, and 29, D[6,6-(2)H2]-glucose (23.7 mmol/h) was infused into a jugular vein for 5h, and 6 blood samples were taken from arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary sources at 45-min intervals, starting 1h after the initiation of the D[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion. Trans-organ fluxes were calculated as veno-arterial differences times plasma flow (splanchnic: downstream dilution of deacetylated para-aminohippurate; mammary: Fick principle using Phe+Tyr). Energy-corrected milk and lactose yields increased on average with AA-CN by 6.4 kg/d and 353 g/d, respectively, with no DIM × treatment interaction. Despite increased AA supply and increased demand for lactose secretion with AA-CN, net hepatic release of glucose remained unchanged, but WB-Ra of glucose tended to increase with AA-CN. Portal true flux of glucose increased with AA-CN and represented, on average, 17% of WB-Ra. Splanchnic true flux of glucose was unaltered by treatments and was numerically equivalent to WB-Ra, averaging 729 and 741 mmol/h, respectively. Mammary glucose utilization increased with AA-CN infusion, averaging 78% of WB-Ra, and increased

  1. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Galindo, C; Larsen, M; Ouellet, D R; Maxin, G; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2015-11-01

    Nine Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used to study the effects of supplementing AA on milk lactose secretion, whole-body rate of appearance (WB-Ra) of glucose, and tissue metabolism of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and β-OH-butyrate (BHBA) in postpartum dairy cows according to a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures in time. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and were allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (n=4) or abomasal infusion of free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to the same basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half the maximal dose at 1 d in milk (DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d from DIM 2 to 29 to cover the estimated essential AA deficit. On DIM 5, 15, and 29, D[6,6-(2)H2]-glucose (23.7 mmol/h) was infused into a jugular vein for 5h, and 6 blood samples were taken from arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary sources at 45-min intervals, starting 1h after the initiation of the D[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion. Trans-organ fluxes were calculated as veno-arterial differences times plasma flow (splanchnic: downstream dilution of deacetylated para-aminohippurate; mammary: Fick principle using Phe+Tyr). Energy-corrected milk and lactose yields increased on average with AA-CN by 6.4 kg/d and 353 g/d, respectively, with no DIM × treatment interaction. Despite increased AA supply and increased demand for lactose secretion with AA-CN, net hepatic release of glucose remained unchanged, but WB-Ra of glucose tended to increase with AA-CN. Portal true flux of glucose increased with AA-CN and represented, on average, 17% of WB-Ra. Splanchnic true flux of glucose was unaltered by treatments and was numerically equivalent to WB-Ra, averaging 729 and 741 mmol/h, respectively. Mammary glucose utilization increased with AA-CN infusion, averaging 78% of WB-Ra, and increased

  2. Optimized [1-13C]glucose infusion protocol for 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla of human brain glucose metabolism under euglycemic and hypoglycemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Kim C.C.; van der Graaf, Marinette; Tack, Cees J.J.; Klomp, Dennis W.J.; Heerschap, Arend; de Galan, Bastiaan E.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on cerebral glucose metabolism is largely unknown. 13C MRS is a unique tool to study cerebral glucose metabolism, but the concurrent requirement for [1-13C]glucose administration limits its use under hypoglycemic conditions. To facilitate 13C MRS data analysis we designed separate [1-13C]glucose infusion protocols for hyperinsulinemic euglycemic and hypoglycemic clamps in such a way that plasma isotopic enrichment of glucose was stable and comparable under both glycemic conditions. 13C MR spectra were acquired with optimized 13C MRS measurement techniques to obtain high quality 13C MR spectra with these protocols. PMID:19913052

  3. A Kinetic Model of Whole-Body Glucose Metabolism with Reference to the Domestic Dog (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Shoveller, Anna K; Lopez, Secundino; France, James

    2015-01-01

    A new two-pool model to describe glucose kinetics in the steady state is presented. The pools are plasma glucose, Q 1, and tissue glucose, Q 2 (both µmol). The flows (all µmol/min) into the plasma pool (Pool 1) are absorbed glucose entry from dietary sources, labelled glucose infusion, and hepatic glucose production. There is one flow out of Pool 1, glucose uptake by the tissues. Inflows to the tissues pool (Pool 2) are from plasma and glycogenolysis. Outflows from Pool 2 are to plasma, glucose oxidation, and glycogenesis and other metabolism. Application of the model was illustrated using experimental data derived from healthy adult Labrador Retrievers in the fasted and fed (repeated meal feeding) states. In general, model derived estimates of glucose kinetics were representative of normal glucose metabolism, where rates of glucose production and uptake are similar and act to maintain blood glucose concentrations. Furthermore, estimates of within tissue glucose cycling indicated glycogenolysis in fasting and glycogenesis when fed. In the fasted state, model outputs were consistent with those reported in the canine literature derived using a single pool model.

  4. Effect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Thusgaard, Marianne; Christensen, Jesper H; Mørn, Birgitte; Andersen, Tina S; Vige, Runar; Arildsen, Hanne; Schmidt, Erik B; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Patients on antiretroviral therapy are reported to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. We randomized 51 patients in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to receive either 2 capsules of Omacor twice daily or 2 capsules of placebo. Compliance was measured by determining levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neutrophils. Plasma triglycerides were reduced in the n-3 PUFA group by 0.14 mmol/l after 12 weeks of treatment (n=26), while plasma triglycerides increased by 0.36 mmol/l in the control group (n=25). The difference between groups was significant, p=0.03. No significant effect of treatment was found for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or apolipoproteins. There was a significant increase in leukotriene B5 (LTB5) and LTB5/LTB4 ratio in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. Baseline values for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were comparable at baseline, and the intervention did not change these parameters significantly. The present study showed that treatment with n-3 PUFA slightly decreased plasma triglycerides and induced anti-inflammatory effects by increasing formation of anti-inflammatory LTB5. PMID:19685375

  5. Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive responses to food cues and decisions for food rewards.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shan; Monterosso, John R; Sarpelleh, Kayan; Page, Kathleen A

    2015-05-19

    Prior studies suggest that fructose compared with glucose may be a weaker suppressor of appetite, and neuroimaging research shows that food cues trigger greater brain reward responses in a fasted relative to a fed state. We sought to determine the effects of ingesting fructose versus glucose on brain, hormone, and appetitive responses to food cues and food-approach behavior. Twenty-four healthy volunteers underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions with ingestion of either fructose or glucose in a double-blinded, random-order cross-over design. fMRI was performed while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods and nonfood items using a block design. After each block, participants rated hunger and desire for food. Participants also performed a decision task in which they chose between immediate food rewards and delayed monetary bonuses. Hormones were measured at baseline and 30 and 60 min after drink ingestion. Ingestion of fructose relative to glucose resulted in smaller increases in plasma insulin levels and greater brain reactivity to food cues in the visual cortex (in whole-brain analysis) and left orbital frontal cortex (in region-of-interest analysis). Parallel to the neuroimaging findings, fructose versus glucose led to greater hunger and desire for food and a greater willingness to give up long-term monetary rewards to obtain immediate high-calorie foods. These findings suggest that ingestion of fructose relative to glucose results in greater activation of brain regions involved in attention and reward processing and may promote feeding behavior.

  6. Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive responses to food cues and decisions for food rewards.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shan; Monterosso, John R; Sarpelleh, Kayan; Page, Kathleen A

    2015-05-19

    Prior studies suggest that fructose compared with glucose may be a weaker suppressor of appetite, and neuroimaging research shows that food cues trigger greater brain reward responses in a fasted relative to a fed state. We sought to determine the effects of ingesting fructose versus glucose on brain, hormone, and appetitive responses to food cues and food-approach behavior. Twenty-four healthy volunteers underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions with ingestion of either fructose or glucose in a double-blinded, random-order cross-over design. fMRI was performed while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods and nonfood items using a block design. After each block, participants rated hunger and desire for food. Participants also performed a decision task in which they chose between immediate food rewards and delayed monetary bonuses. Hormones were measured at baseline and 30 and 60 min after drink ingestion. Ingestion of fructose relative to glucose resulted in smaller increases in plasma insulin levels and greater brain reactivity to food cues in the visual cortex (in whole-brain analysis) and left orbital frontal cortex (in region-of-interest analysis). Parallel to the neuroimaging findings, fructose versus glucose led to greater hunger and desire for food and a greater willingness to give up long-term monetary rewards to obtain immediate high-calorie foods. These findings suggest that ingestion of fructose relative to glucose results in greater activation of brain regions involved in attention and reward processing and may promote feeding behavior. PMID:25941364

  7. Acidosis effects on insulin response during glucose tolerance tests in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Bigner, D R; Goff, J P; Faust, M A; Burton, J L; Tyler, H D; Horst, R L

    1996-12-01

    The effect of metabolic alkalosis and acidosis on insulin response to glucose tolerance tests was determined for cows fed a high cation diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The anion diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The glucose tolerance test (500 mg of glucose/kg of BW infused i.v. over 10 min) caused a rapid increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Plasma glucose concentrations were highest, and plasma insulin concentrations were lowest, during metabolic acidosis. These results suggest that insulin secretion is impaired during metabolic acidosis, which may reduce tissue uptake of glucose. Correction of metabolic acidosis by oral administration of sodium bicarbonate prior to glucose tolerance testing increased blood pH and bicarbonate concentrations and partially restored insulin response to the glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, sodium bicarbonate also caused an elevation in plasma cortisol concentrations. We concluded that glucose utilization is altered in cows with metabolic acidosis. The correction of acidosis associated with diseases such as diarrhea and ketosis may improve the therapeutic benefit of glucose infusions used to treat these diseases.

  8. Effects of body composition and exercise capacity on glucose tolerance, insulin, and lipoprotein lipids in healthy older men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal intervention study.

    PubMed

    Coon, P J; Bleecker, E R; Drinkwater, D T; Meyers, D A; Goldberg, A P

    1989-12-01

    The relationships of age, body composition, and physical conditioning status to glucose tolerance, insulin, and lipoprotein levels were examined in 77 healthy, nonsmoking white male volunteers, aged 46 to 73 years with no evidence of coronary artery or endocrine-metabolic disease. The men had a wide range of body fat (13% to 39%), indexed as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, 0.84 to 1.08), and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max, 17 to 48 mL/kg.min). Multiple regression analysis with age, VO2max, WHR, and percent body fat as independent variables demonstrated that fasting plasma insulin, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were independently related to both percent body fat and WHR. In contrast, fasting plasma glucose levels and insulin responses during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) correlated independently with percent body fat, and glucose responses to OGTT correlated only with WHR. Although fasting plasma TG and HDL-C correlated with glucose and insulin levels, in multiple regression analyses only percent body fat and WHR were the significant independent variables. Fasting total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol values were not related to these variables. To test the effects of weight loss and exercise training on these relationships, 20 obese men of comparable age, percent body fat, WHR, and VO2max were randomly assigned to weight loss or aerobic exercise training programs. A 12% +/- 3% loss in body weight (P less than .01, mean +/- SD) resulted in a 19% +/- 9% decline in body fat (P less than .01) with no change in fat free mass, WHR, or VO2max.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Study rationale and protocol: prospective randomized comparison of metal ion concentrations in the patient's plasma after implantation of coated and uncoated total knee prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Lützner, Jörg; Dinnebier, Gerd; Hartmann, Albrecht; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Kirschner, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Background Any metal placed in a biological environment undergoes corrosion. Thus, with their large metallic surfaces, TKA implants are particularly prone to corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions into the human body which may cause local and systemic toxic effects and hypersensitivity reactions, and increase cancer risk. To address this problem, a new 7-layer zirconium coating developed especially for cobalt-chrome orthopaedic implants was tested biomechanically and found to lower metal ion release. The purpose of the proposed clinical trial is to compare the metal ion concentration in patients' plasma before and after implantation of a coated or uncoated TKA implant. Methods/Design In this randomised controlled trial, 120 patients undergoing primary TKA will be recruited at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of the University Hospital in Dresden, Germany, and randomised to either the coated or uncoated prosthesis. Outcome assessments will be conducted preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 5 years postoperatively. The primary clinical endpoint will be the chromium ion concentration in the patient's plasma after 1 and 5 years. Secondary outcomes include cobalt, molybdenum and nickel ion concentrations after 1 and 5 years, allergy testing for hypersensitivity against one of these metals, the Knee Society Score to assess clinical and physical function of the knee joint, the self-assessment Oxford Score and the Short Form 36 quality of live questionnaire. Discussion The metal ion concentration in the patient's plasma has been shown to increase after TKA, its eventual adverse effects being widely debated. In the light of this discussion, ways to reduce metal ion release from orthopaedic