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Sample records for random plasma glucose

  1. Random plasma glucose in serendipitous screening for glucose intolerance: screening for impaired glucose tolerance study 2.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Varughese, Rincy M; Tsui, Circe W; Koch, David D; Twombly, Jennifer G; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. This is a cross-sectional study. The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose(110) (IFG(110); fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose < 140 mg/dl). Screening performance was measured by area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AROC). Mean age was 48 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 30.4 kg/m(2); 66% were women, and 52% were black; 5.1% had previously unrecognized diabetes, and 24.0% had any "high-risk" glucose intolerance (diabetes or IGT or IFG(110)). The AROC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.74-0.86) for RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68-0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p < 0.001). Screening performance was generally consistent at different times of the day, regardless of meal status, and across a range of risk factors such as age, BMI, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such "serendipitous screening" could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes.

  2. Random Plasma Glucose in Serendipitous Screening for Glucose Intolerance: Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study 2

    PubMed Central

    Ziemer, David C.; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K.; Weintraub, William S.; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K.; Varughese, Rincy M.; Tsui, Circe W.; Koch, David D.; Twombly, Jennifer G.; Venkat Narayan, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. Measurements RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose110 (IFG110; fasting glucose, 110–125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose < 140 mg/dl). Screening performance was measured by area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AROC). Results Mean age was 48 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 30.4 kg/m2; 66% were women, and 52% were black; 5.1% had previously unrecognized diabetes, and 24.0% had any “high-risk” glucose intolerance (diabetes or IGT or IFG110). The AROC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.74–0.86) for RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68–0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p < 0.001). Screening performance was generally consistent at different times of the day, regardless of meal status, and across a range of risk factors such as age, BMI, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. Conclusions RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such “serendipitous screening” could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:18335280

  3. The "metabolic syndrome" is less useful than random plasma glucose to screen for glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    El Bassuoni, Eman A; Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Rhee, Mary K; Vaccarino, Viola; Tsui, Circe W; Kaufman, Jack M; Osinski, G Eileen; Koch, David D; Narayan, K M Venkat; Weintraub, William S; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-09-01

    To compare the utility of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to random plasma glucose (RPG) in identifying people with diabetes or prediabetes. RPG was measured and an OGTT was performed in 1155 adults. Test performance was measured by area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AROC). Diabetes was found in 5.1% and prediabetes in 20.0%. AROC for MetS with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was 0.80 to detect diabetes, and 0.76 for diabetes or prediabetes--similar to RPG alone (0.82 and 0.72). However, the AROC for MetS excluding fasting plasma glucose was lower: 0.69 for diabetes (p<0.01 vs. both RPG and MetS with FPG), and 0.69 for diabetes or prediabetes. AROCs for MetS with FPG and RPG were comparable and higher for recognizing diabetes in blacks vs. whites, and females vs. males. MetS with FPG was superior to RPG for identifying diabetes only in subjects with age <40 or BMI <25. MetS features can be used to identify risk of diabetes, but predictive usefulness is driven largely by FPG. Overall, to identify diabetes or prediabetes in blacks and whites with varying age and BMI, MetS is no better than RPG--a more convenient and less expensive test.

  4. Evaluation of random plasma glucose for assessment of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ain, Qurratul; Latif, Atif; Jaffar, Syed Raza; Ijaz, Aamir

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of random plasma glucose in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for assessing glycaemic control. This comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted at the chemical pathology department of PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from August 2015 to March 2016, and comprised data of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who reported for evaluation of glycaemic control in non-fasting state. All blood samples were analysed for random plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Random plasma glucose was compared as an index test with glycated haemoglobin considering it as reference standard at a value of less than 7% for good glycaemic control. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 222 subjects, 93(42%) had good glycaemic control. Random plasma glucose showed strong positive correlation with glycated haemoglobin (p=0.000).Area under curve for random plasma glucose as determined by plotting receiver operating characteristic curve against glycated haemoglobin value of 7% was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.849-0.930). Random plasma glucose at cut-off value of 150 mg/dl was most efficient for ruling out poor glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with 90.7% sensitivity and69.9% specificity and Youden's index of 0.606. Random plasma glucose may be used to reflect glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in areas where glycated haemoglobin is not feasible.

  5. Age, BMI, and Race Are Less Important Than Random Plasma Glucose in Identifying Risk of Glucose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ziemer, David C.; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S.; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K.; Caudle, Jane M.; Irving, Jade M.; Koch, David D.; Narayan, K.M. Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age, BMI, and race/ethnicity are used in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines to prompt screening for pre-diabetes and diabetes, but cutoffs have not been evaluated rigorously. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Random plasma glucose (RPG) was measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 1,139 individuals without known diabetes. Screening performance was assessed by logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). RESULTS NIDDK/ADA indicators age >45 years and BMI >25 kg/m2 provided significant detection of both diabetes and dysglycemia (both AROCs 0.63), but screening was better with continuous-variable models of age, BMI, and race and better still with models of age, BMI, race, sex, and family history (AROC 0.78 and 0.72). However, screening was even better with RPG alone (AROCs 0.81 and 0.72). RPG >125 mg/dl could be used to prompt further evaluation with an OGTT. CONCLUSIONS Use of age, BMI, and race/ethnicity in guidelines for screening to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes may be less important than evaluation of RPG. RPG should be investigated further as a convenient, inexpensive screen with good predictive utility. PMID:18310308

  6. Age, BMI, and race are less important than random plasma glucose in identifying risk of glucose intolerance: the Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study (SIGT 5).

    PubMed

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Caudle, Jane M; Irving, Jade M; Koch, David D; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    Age, BMI, and race/ethnicity are used in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines to prompt screening for pre-diabetes and diabetes, but cutoffs have not been evaluated rigorously. Random plasma glucose (RPG) was measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 1,139 individuals without known diabetes. Screening performance was assessed by logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). NIDDK/ADA indicators age >45 years and BMI >25 kg/m(2) provided significant detection of both diabetes and dysglycemia (both AROCs 0.63), but screening was better with continuous-variable models of age, BMI, and race and better still with models of age, BMI, race, sex, and family history (AROC 0.78 and 0.72). However, screening was even better with RPG alone (AROCs 0.81 and 0.72). RPG >125 mg/dl could be used to prompt further evaluation with an OGTT. Use of age, BMI, and race/ethnicity in guidelines for screening to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes may be less important than evaluation of RPG. RPG should be investigated further as a convenient, inexpensive screen with good predictive utility.

  7. Effect of intermittent PTH treatment on plasma glucose in osteoporosis: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Sassi, Francesca; Buondonno, Ilaria; Spertino, Elena; Tamone, Cristina; Piano, Simonetta; Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effect of bone turnover on glucose homeostasis, fat distribution and adipokine production during anabolic treatment with PTH. This is a parallel, randomized controlled, open label, trial. The randomization was done by computer generated tables to allocate treatments. Forty-six postmenopausal osteoporotic non-diabetic women were assigned to treatment with calcium and colecalcipherol with (24) or without (22) PTH 1-84. Patients were recalled after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months of treatment and markers of bone turnover, glucose metabolism, adipokine secretion and fat distribution were analyzed. Markers of bone turnover and adipokines were measured by ELISA. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose load test and insulin resistance and secretion were calculated. Fat and lean mass were evaluated by anthropometric measures. The effect of treatment on measured variables was analyzed by repeated measure test, and its effect on glucose was also evaluated by mediation analysis after correction for possible confounders. Twenty patients in the calcium and vitamin D groups and 19 in the group treated with PTH 1-84 completed the study. There were no significance adverse events. Treatment with PTH increases osteocalcin, both total (OC) and undercarboxylated (uOC), and decreases blood glucose, without influence on insulin secretion, resistance and pancreatic β cell function. Treatment with PTH does not influence fat distribution and adipokine production. The results of the mediation analyses suggest a total effect of PTH on blood glucose, moderately mediated by OC and to a less extent by uOC. Here we suggest that treatment with PTH influences glucose metabolism partially through its effect on bone turnover, without influence on insulin secretion, resistance, pancreatic β cell function and fat mass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Sumio; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21-64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140-187 mg/dl. The subjects consumed placebo or kale-containing food [7 or 14 g; low-dose (active-L) or high-dose (active-H) kale, respectively] together with a high-carbohydrate meal. At 30-120 min after the test meal intake, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were determined. The postprandial plasma glucose levels in subjects with intake of active-L or active-H were significantly lower than those in subjects with intake of placebo, with the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax; 163±24 mg/dl for active-L and 162±23 mg/dl for active-H compared with 176±26 mg/dl for placebo [values presented as means ± standard deviation (SD); P<0.01]. The area under the plasma glucose concentration-time curve for 0-2 h (AUC0-2 h) values (means ± SD) were significantly lower for active-L (268±43 mg/h/dl) and active-H (266±42 mg/h/dl) than for the placebo (284±43 mg/h/dl; P<0.05). No significant differences were identified in the postprandial plasma insulin levels between the three conditions. No adverse events associated with intake of either dose of kale were observed. Our findings suggest that intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose levels at a single dose of 7 g, and that a dose as high as 14 g is safe.

  9. Intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Sumio; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21–64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140–187 mg/dl. The subjects consumed placebo or kale-containing food [7 or 14 g; low-dose (active-L) or high-dose (active-H) kale, respectively] together with a high-carbohydrate meal. At 30–120 min after the test meal intake, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were determined. The postprandial plasma glucose levels in subjects with intake of active-L or active-H were significantly lower than those in subjects with intake of placebo, with the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax; 163±24 mg/dl for active-L and 162±23 mg/dl for active-H compared with 176±26 mg/dl for placebo [values presented as means ± standard deviation (SD); P<0.01]. The area under the plasma glucose concentration-time curve for 0–2 h (AUC0–2 h) values (means ± SD) were significantly lower for active-L (268±43 mg/h/dl) and active-H (266±42 mg/h/dl) than for the placebo (284±43 mg/h/dl; P<0.05). No significant differences were identified in the postprandial plasma insulin levels between the three conditions. No adverse events associated with intake of either dose of kale were observed. Our findings suggest that intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose levels at a single dose of 7 g, and that a dose as high as 14 g is safe. PMID:27882216

  10. Metformin decreases plasma resistin concentrations in pediatric patients with impaired glucose tolerance: a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita A; Talavera, Juan O; Pool, Elsy Canché; Ortiz-Navarrete, Francisco Vianney; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Cruz, Miguel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Wacher, Niels H

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of metformin on the concentrations of resistin and other markers of insulin resistance or inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines, body weight, HbA1c, among others) in minors with glucose intolerance. Patients aged 4 to 17 years with glucose intolerance were studied. They were randomized to receive 850 mg of either metformin or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks, during which all followed an iso-caloric diet and an exercise program. High sensitivity C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL1-beta, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid profile and transaminases were measured at the beginning and at the end of the period. Fifty-two patients were included, 11.9±2.6 years old; 28 (12 males/16 females) received metformin and 24 placebo (11 males/13 females). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (except for body mass index, which in the metformin group was slightly higher). Percentage weight loss was greater in the metformin group (-5.86% vs 2.75%, P<.05). At study end, there were statistically significant differences in resistin concentrations, even after adjusting for confounding variables (F=7.714; P<.006). Also, metformin was associated with a significant decrease in HOMA-IR index (P=.032) and HbA1c levels (P=.001), but no change was observed in the concentration of other markers of inflammation. Metformin resulted in significant reductions of plasma resistin levels in minors with glucose intolerance. This change is independent of its effects on body weight. In contrast, metformin did not alter the concentration of inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidental findings of elevated random plasma glucose in the ED as a prompt for outpatient diabetes screening: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Steven Marc; Vallipuram, Janaki; Baswick, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) collected from patients without known impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in the emergency department (ED) is a useful screen for diabetes or prediabetes. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting ED of a Canadian teaching hospital over 1 month. Participants Adult patients in ED with RPG over 7 mmol/L were recruited for participation. Exclusion criteria included known diabetes, hospital admission and inability to consent. Participants were contacted by mail, encouraged to follow-up with their family physician (FP) for further testing and subsequently interviewed. Outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients in the ED with RPG over 7 mmol/L and no previous diagnosis of IGM who were diagnosed with diabetes or prediabetes after secondary testing by FP with oral glucose tolerance test or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Secondary outcomes included patient characteristics (age, gender, body mass index and language) and (2) compliance with advice to seek an appropriate follow-up care. Results RPG was drawn on approximately one-third (33%, n=1149) of the 3470 patients in the ED in March 2010. RPG over 7 mmol/L was detected in 24% (n=278) of patients, and after first telephone follow-up, 32% (n=88/278) met the inclusion criteria and were advised to seek confirmatory testing. 41% (n=114/278) of patients were excluded for known diabetes. 73% of patients contacted (n=64/88) followed up with their FP. 12.5% (n=11/88) of patients had abnormal FPG, and of these 11% (n=10/88) were encouraged to initiate lifestyle modifications and 1% (n=1/88) was started on an oral hypoglycaemic agent. For 7% (n=6/88) of patients, FP's declined to do follow-up fasting blood work. Conclusions Elevated RPG in the ED is useful for identification of patients at risk for IGM and in need of further diabetic screening. Emergency physicians should advise patients with elevated RPG to consider screening for

  12. Incidental findings of elevated random plasma glucose in the ED as a prompt for outpatient diabetes screening: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Steven Marc; Vallipuram, Janaki; Baswick, Brenda

    2013-12-18

    To determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) collected from patients without known impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in the emergency department (ED) is a useful screen for diabetes or prediabetes. Retrospective cohort study. ED of a Canadian teaching hospital over 1 month. Adult patients in ED with RPG over 7 mmol/L were recruited for participation. Exclusion criteria included known diabetes, hospital admission and inability to consent. Participants were contacted by mail, encouraged to follow-up with their family physician (FP) for further testing and subsequently interviewed. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients in the ED with RPG over 7 mmol/L and no previous diagnosis of IGM who were diagnosed with diabetes or prediabetes after secondary testing by FP with oral glucose tolerance test or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Secondary outcomes included patient characteristics (age, gender, body mass index and language) and (2) compliance with advice to seek an appropriate follow-up care. RPG was drawn on approximately one-third (33%, n=1149) of the 3470 patients in the ED in March 2010. RPG over 7 mmol/L was detected in 24% (n=278) of patients, and after first telephone follow-up, 32% (n=88/278) met the inclusion criteria and were advised to seek confirmatory testing. 41% (n=114/278) of patients were excluded for known diabetes. 73% of patients contacted (n=64/88) followed up with their FP. 12.5% (n=11/88) of patients had abnormal FPG, and of these 11% (n=10/88) were encouraged to initiate lifestyle modifications and 1% (n=1/88) was started on an oral hypoglycaemic agent. For 7% (n=6/88) of patients, FP's declined to do follow-up fasting blood work. Elevated RPG in the ED is useful for identification of patients at risk for IGM and in need of further diabetic screening. Emergency physicians should advise patients with elevated RPG to consider screening for diabetes. For ED screening to be successful, patient education and collaboration with

  13. Comparing point-of-care A1C and random plasma glucose for screening diabetes in migrant farm workers.

    PubMed

    Wensil, Ashley M; Smith, Jennifer D; Pound, Melanie W; Herring, Charles

    2013-01-01

    To compare point-of-care (POC) glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) and random plasma glucose (RPG) as a POC screening tool for prediabetes and diabetes in migrant farm workers of eastern North Carolina. Prospective, observational, single-center study. Federally qualified community health center in eastern North Carolina, from August to October 2011. Migrant farm workers 18 years or older who resided in a migrant camp in eastern North Carolina. Diabetes screening using POC A1C and RPG via fingerstick followed by venipuncture A1C and basic metabolic panel in individuals with a positive screening. Positive predictive value (PPV) of POC A1C and RPG, incidence of positive screening, incidence of confirmed diagnosis, concordance rate of the screening tools, and correlation between POC A1C and laboratory A1C. 206 workers participated in the screenings; screening identified 39 individuals with a POC A1C greater than 5.7% and 1 individual with both an RPG of 200 mg/dL or more and a POC A1C greater than 5.7%. Of the 39 individuals found to have a positive screening, 24 presented to Carolina Family Health Centers, Inc., for follow-up venipuncture; however, 1 participant did not have a venipuncture A1C, leaving 23 individuals with complete data. Two participants were diagnosed with diabetes and 17 with prediabetes. POC A1C had a PPV of 82.6%; however, the PPV of RPG could not be calculated due to the number of participants lost to follow-up. POC A1C correlated well with laboratory A1C regardless of time to follow-up. POC A1C should be considered for diabetes screening in high-risk populations. If the screening had been performed with RPG alone, 38 individuals would have gone undetected. Early identification of individuals with elevated blood glucose will likely decrease the risk of long-term complications.

  14. Random plasma glucose in early pregnancy is a better predictor of gestational diabetes diagnosis than maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Meek, Claire L; Murphy, Helen R; Simmons, David

    2016-03-01

    Asymptomatic pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes (GDM) at 24-28 weeks' gestation. Recent guidelines also recommend screening early in gestation to identify undiagnosed pre-existing overt diabetes. We assessed the performance of random plasma glucose (RPG) testing at antenatal booking in predicting GDM diagnosis later in pregnancy. Data from 25,543 consecutive singleton pregnancies at the Rosie Hospital in Cambridge (UK) were obtained from hospital electronic records as a service evaluation. All women were invited for an antenatal RPG (12-16 weeks) and a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT; 24-28 weeks) with a 75 g OGTT if GCT >7.7 mmol/l (139 mg/dl). At booking, 17,736 women had an RPG that was able to predict GDM (receiver operating characteristic AUC 0.8) according to various diagnostic criteria in common use. A cut-off point of ≥7.5 mmol/l (135 mg/dl) gave a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.90 for GDM diagnosis. Theoretically, using this screening policy, 13.2% of women would have been categorised at high risk (26.3% had GDM) and 86.8% of women at low risk (1.7% had GDM). RPG performed better than maternal age (AUC 0.60) or BMI (AUC 0.65) at predicting GDM diagnosis. RPG at booking has reasonable performance as a screening test and is better than maternal age or BMI for identifying women at high risk of GDM. RPG cannot replace OGTT for diagnosis but it may be useful to exclude women who do not need further investigation for GDM and to identify women who could be prioritised for early diagnosis or lifestyle interventions.

  15. The effects of a nutraceutical combination on plasma lipids and glucose: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Matteo; Mannarino, Massimo Raffaele; Bianconi, Vanessa; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Bagaglia, Francesco; Mannarino, Elmo; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Positive effects of a nutraceutical combination comprising red yeast rice, berberine, policosanol, astaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and folic acid (NComb) on plasma lipid and glucose levels have been reported in some but not all clinical trials. To address this inconsistency, we tried to estimate the size of lipid- and glucose-lowering effects of NComb through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A systematic literature search in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of NComb on plasma lipids and glucose levels. Inverse variance-weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in lipid and glucose levels using a random-effects model. Random-effects meta-regression was performed to assess the effect of putative confounders on plasma lipid and glucose levels. Fourteen trials (1670 subjects in the NComb arm and 1489 subjects in the control arm) met the eligibility criteria for lipid analysis and 10 trials (1014 subjects in the NComb arm and 962 subjects in the control arm) for glucose analysis. Overall, WMDs were significant for the impact of NComb supplementation on plasma levels of total cholesterol (-26.15mg/dL, p<0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-23.85mg/dL, p<0.001), HDL-cholesterol (2.53mg/dL, p<0.001), triglycerides (-13.83mg/dL, p<0.001) and glucose (-2.59mg/dL, p=0.010). NComb-induced amelioration of lipid profile was not affected by duration of supplementation nor by baseline lipid levels; conversely, a greater glucose-lowering effect of NComb was found with higher baseline glucose levels and longer durations of supplementation. In conclusion, the present results suggest that NComb supplementation is associated with improvement of lipid and glucose profile. Short-term beneficial effects of

  16. Association of Random Plasma Glucose Levels With the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Among Chinese Adults Without Known Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Fiona; Li, Liming; Bennett, Derrick; Guo, Yu; Lewington, Sarah; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Yiping; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Zhu, Baoyu; Yin, Jiyuan; Hu, Ximin; Zhou, Liyuan; Pan, Yaxing; Chen, Zhengming

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Substantial uncertainty remains, however, about the relevance to CVD risk for blood glucose levels below the diabetes threshold. To examine the association of random plasma glucose (RPG) levels with the risk for major CVD in Chinese adults without known diabetes. This prospective cohort study included 467 508 men and women aged 30 to 79 years with no history of diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Participants were recruited from 5 urban and 5 rural diverse locations across China from June 25, 2004, to July 15, 2008, and followed up to January 1, 2014. Baseline and usual (longer-term average) RPG level. Cardiovascular deaths, major coronary events (MCE) (including fatal IHD and nonfatal myocardial infarction), ischemic stroke (IS), major occlusive vascular disease (MOVD) (including MCE or IS), and intracerebral hemorrhage. Preliminary validation of stroke and IHD events demonstrated positive predictive values of approximately 90% and 85%, respectively. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for CVD associated with RPG levels. Among the 467 508 participants (41.0% men; 59.0% women; mean [SD] age, 51 [11] years), a significant positive association of baseline RPG levels with CVD risks continued to 4.0 mmol/L (72 mg/dL). After adjusting for regression dilution bias, each 1-mmol/L (18-mg/dL) higher usual RPG level above 5.9 mmol/L (106 mg/dL) was associated with an 11% higher risk for cardiovascular death (6645 deaths; aHR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.10-1.13). Similarly strong positive associations were seen for MCE (3270 events; aHR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.13), IS (19 153 events; aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.07-1.09), and MOVD (22 023 events; aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.07-1.09). For intracerebral hemorrhage, the association was weaker, but also significant (4326 events; aHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07). These associations persisted after excluding participants who

  17. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose and insulin modify dietary weight loss success: results from 3 randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim Hm; Langin, Dominique; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Zohar, Yishai; Astrup, Arne

    2017-08-01

    Background: Which diet is optimal for weight loss and maintenance remains controversial and implies that no diet fits all patients.Objective: We studied concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through diets with different glycemic loads or different fiber and whole-grain content, assessed in 3 randomized trials of overweight participants.Design: After an 8-wk weight loss, participants in the DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity, and Genes) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk a diet with either a high or a low glycemic load. Participants in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) Supermarket intervention (SHOPUS) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk the New Nordic Diet, which is high in fiber and whole grains, or a control diet. Participants in the NUGENOB (Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity) trial consumed a hypocaloric low-fat and high-carbohydrate or a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet for 10 wk. On the basis of FPG before treatment, participants were categorized as normoglycemic (FPG <5.6 mmol/L), prediabetic (FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol/L), or diabetic (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L). Modifications of the dietary effects of FPG and FI before treatment were examined with linear mixed models.Results: In the DiOGenes trial, prediabetic individuals regained a mean of 5.83 kg (95% CI: 3.34, 8.32 kg; P < 0.001) more on the high- than on the low-glycemic load diet, whereas normoglycemic individuals regained a mean of 1.44 kg (95% CI: 0.48, 2.41 kg; P = 0.003) more [mean group difference: 4.39 kg (95% CI: 1.76, 7.02 kg); P = 0.001]. In SHOPUS, prediabetic individuals lost a mean of 6.04 kg (95% CI: 4.05, 8.02 kg; P < 0.001) more on the New Nordic Diet than on the control diet, whereas normoglycemic individuals lost a mean of 2.20 kg (95% CI: 1.21, 3.18 kg; P < 0.001) more [mean group difference: 3.84 kg (95% CI: 1.62, 6.06 kg); P = 0

  18. Longitudinal relationships between fluid status, inflammation, urine volume and plasma metabolites of icodextrin in patients randomized to glucose or icodextrin for the long exchange.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon J; Garcia Lopez, Elvia; Woodrow, Graham; Donovan, Kieron; Plum, Jorg; Williams, Paul; Johansson, Ann Catherine; Bosselmann, Hans-Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Simonsen, Ole; Davenport, Andrew; Lindholm, Bengt; Tranaeus, Anders; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-09-01

    Randomized trials have shown that icodextrin reduces the volume of extra-cellular fluid (ECFv) with variable effects on residual renal function. To explore this fluid shift and its possible mechanisms in more detail, prospectively collected data from one such trial, including measures of inflammation (C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, albumin and low and high molecular weight hyaluronan) ANP (atrial naturetic peptide), an indirect marker of intra-vascular volume, plasma concentrations of icodextrin metabolites and alpha-amylase activity were analysed. 50 patients were randomized to either 2.27% glucose or icodextrin (n = 28) for a long exchange following a month run in. Blood samples were obtained at -1, 0, 3 and 6 months, coincident with measurements of urine volume and fluid status. In both randomized groups, a significant correlation between the fall in ECFv and the decline in urine volume was observed (P = 0.001), although the relative drop in urine volume for patients randomized to icodextrin tended to be less. At baseline, ANP was higher in patients with proportionately more ECFv for a given body water or height. Icodextrin patients had non-significantly higher ANP levels at baseline, whereas by 3 (P = 0.026) and 6 months (P = 0.016) these differed between groups due to divergence. There was a correlation between increasing ANP and reduced ECF at 3 months, r = -0.46, P = 0.007, in patients randomized to icodextrin, but not glucose. There were no relationships between fluid status and any inflammatory markers at any point of the study, with the exception of albumin at baseline, r = -0.39, P = 0.007. Amylase activities at -1 month and baseline were highly correlated, r = 0.89, P < 0.0001. Within patients, concentrations of icodextrin metabolites were highly correlated; the only predictor of between-patient variability on multivariate analysis was body weight. There was no relationship between plasma concentrations of icodextrin metabolites and

  19. Influence of methyltestosterone postmenopausal therapy on plasma lipids, inflammatory factors, glucose metabolism and visceral fat: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Leão, Lenora M Camarate S M; Duarte, Mônica Peres C; Silva, Dalva Margareth B; Bahia, Paulo Roberto V; Coeli, Cláudia Medina; de Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in treating postmenopausal women with androgens. However, hyperandrogenemia in females has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the effects of androgen replacement on cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-seven postmenopausal women aged 42-62 years that had undergone hysterectomy were prospectively enrolled in a double-blind protocol to receive, for 12 months, percutaneous estradiol (E2) (1 mg/day) combined with either methyltestosterone (MT) (1.25 mg/day) or placebo. Along with treatment, we evaluated serum E2, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, lipids, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein; glucose tolerance; insulin resistance; blood pressure; body-mass index; and visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat mass as assessed by computed tomography. A significant reduction in SHBG (P < 0.001) and increase in free testosterone index (P < 0.05; Repeated measures analysis of variance) were seen in the MT group. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lowered to a similar extent by both regimens, but high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased only in the androgen group. MT-treated women showed a modest rise in body weight and gained visceral fat mass relative to the other group (P < 0.05), but there were no significant detrimental effects on fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance. This study suggests that the combination of low-dose oral MT and percutaneous E2, for 1 year, does not result in expressive increase of cardiovascular risk factors. This regimen can be recommended for symptomatic postmenopausal women, although it seems prudent to perform baseline and follow-up lipid profile and assessment of body composition, especially in those at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. The capsaicin analog nonivamide decreases total energy intake from a standardized breakfast and enhances plasma serotonin levels in moderately overweight men after administered in an oral glucose tolerance test: a randomized, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Hochkogler, Christina M; Rohm, Barbara; Hojdar, Karin; Pignitter, Marc; Widder, Sabine; Ley, Jakob P; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Since bolus administration of capsaicin has been shown to reduce appetite and ad libitum energy intake, this study elucidated the satiating effect of the less pungent capsaicin analog, nonivamide, on subjective feelings of hunger, ad libitum food intake, and satiating hormones in moderately overweight male subjects. Following a randomized, crossover design, 24 male subjects (BMI 27.5 ± 1.53 kg/m(2) ) received either 75 g glucose in 300 mL water (control treatment, CT) or the same glucose solution supplemented with 0.15 mg nonivamide (nonivamide treatment, NT). Ratings of hunger were assessed before and 2 h after each intervention by means of visual analog scales. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes from a standardized breakfast 2 h postintervention were calculated. Plasma glucose, insulin, peptide YY (3-36), glucagon-like peptide 1, and serotonin were quantified in blood samples drawn before and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each intervention. NT reduced subjective feelings of hunger and ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes from a standardized breakfast compared to CT. Plasma analysis revealed higher mean plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and serotonin concentrations after NT versus CT. Addition of 0.15 mg nonivamide to a glucose solution reduced ad libitum energy intake from a standardized breakfast in moderately overweight men. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuejun; Cotillard, Aurélie; Vatier, Camille; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Stévant, Marie; Allatif, Omran; Langlois, Clotilde; Bieuvelet, Séverine; Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2015-01-01

    Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24 ± 0.50 vs +0.12 ± 0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685.

  2. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuejun; Cotillard, Aurélie; Vatier, Camille; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Fellahi, Soraya; Stévant, Marie; Allatif, Omran; Langlois, Clotilde; Bieuvelet, Séverine; Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue. Objectives Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization. Results Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24±0.50 vs +0.12±0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02), without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (%) increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02). Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement. Conclusions Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685 PMID:26406981

  3. 1-Hour plasma glucose in obese youth.

    PubMed

    Manco, M; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Spreghini, M R; Cappa, M; Perrone, L; Brufani, C; Rustico, C; Morino, G; Caprio, S

    2012-12-01

    Adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) but exaggerated plasma glucose excursion at 1 h (1HPG) following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) have significantly higher risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. Aim of the study will be to characterize the metabolic phenotype of NGT obese youth according to values of 1HPG. To accomplish this aim, obese patients (N = 1,454; 761 men; 79 IGT; BMI z-score 2.56 ± 0.16 SDS; age 11 ± 0.7 years) from two data sets were analyzed. In all patients, empirical parameters of insulin metabolism were calculated in fasting condition and following an OGTT (1.75 mg of glucose per kilogram/body weight). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed in the first group (training set, N = 920) to establish the cutoff value of 1HPG best identifying IGT. The second set (validation set, N = 534) served to verify the goodness of the model and the identified cutoff values. 1HPG ≥ 132.5 mg/dl identified IGT with 80.8% sensitivity and 74.3% specificity in the training set (AUC 0.855, 95% CI 0.808-0.902, p < 0.0001), and 70.3% sensitivity and 80% specificity in the validation set (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.713-0.907, p < 0.0001), respectively. NGT patients with 1HPG ≥ 132.5 mg/dl had a metabolic phenotype (triglycerides, insulin action, and secretion) that was in between those of NGT patients with 1HPG below the threshold and IGT patients (p < 0.0001 for all the comparisons). 1HPG ≥ 132.5 mg/dl seems to be associated with increased metabolic risk in obese youth, identifying patients with lower insulin sensitivity, early secretion, and higher total insulin secretion than in obese mates with lower 1HPG.

  4. A distinct metabolic signature predicts development of fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High blood glucose and diabetes are amongst the conditions causing the greatest losses in years of healthy life worldwide. Therefore, numerous studies aim to identify reliable risk markers for development of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism is so far insufficiently understood. The development of so called 'omics' approaches in the recent years promises to identify molecular markers and to further understand the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Although univariate statistical approaches are often applied, we demonstrate here that the application of multivariate statistical approaches is highly recommended to fully capture the complexity of data gained using high-throughput methods. Methods We took blood plasma samples from 172 subjects who participated in the prospective Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam follow-up study (MESY-BEPO Follow-up). We analysed these samples using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and measured 286 metabolites. Furthermore, fasting glucose levels were measured using standard methods at baseline, and after an average of six years. We did correlation analysis and built linear regression models as well as Random Forest regression models to identify metabolites that predict the development of fasting glucose in our cohort. Results We found a metabolic pattern consisting of nine metabolites that predicted fasting glucose development with an accuracy of 0.47 in tenfold cross-validation using Random Forest regression. We also showed that adding established risk markers did not improve the model accuracy. However, external validation is eventually desirable. Although not all metabolites belonging to the final pattern are identified yet, the pattern directs attention to amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and redox homeostasis. Conclusions We demonstrate that metabolites identified using a high

  5. A distinct metabolic signature predicts development of fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Hische, Manuela; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinský, Antje; Bobbert, Thomas; Assmann, Anke; Catchpole, Gareth S; Pfeiffer, Andreas Fh; Willmitzer, Lothar; Selbig, Joachim; Spranger, Joachim

    2012-02-02

    High blood glucose and diabetes are amongst the conditions causing the greatest losses in years of healthy life worldwide. Therefore, numerous studies aim to identify reliable risk markers for development of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism is so far insufficiently understood. The development of so called 'omics' approaches in the recent years promises to identify molecular markers and to further understand the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Although univariate statistical approaches are often applied, we demonstrate here that the application of multivariate statistical approaches is highly recommended to fully capture the complexity of data gained using high-throughput methods. We took blood plasma samples from 172 subjects who participated in the prospective Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam follow-up study (MESY-BEPO Follow-up). We analysed these samples using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and measured 286 metabolites. Furthermore, fasting glucose levels were measured using standard methods at baseline, and after an average of six years. We did correlation analysis and built linear regression models as well as Random Forest regression models to identify metabolites that predict the development of fasting glucose in our cohort. We found a metabolic pattern consisting of nine metabolites that predicted fasting glucose development with an accuracy of 0.47 in tenfold cross-validation using Random Forest regression. We also showed that adding established risk markers did not improve the model accuracy. However, external validation is eventually desirable. Although not all metabolites belonging to the final pattern are identified yet, the pattern directs attention to amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and redox homeostasis. We demonstrate that metabolites identified using a high-throughput method (GC-MS) perform well in

  6. Effect of acacia polyphenol on glucose homeostasis in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: A randomized multicenter feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, SOSUKE; MATSUMAE, TOMOYUKI; KATAOKA, TAKESHI; YAZAKI, YOSHIKAZU; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro and animal studies, as well as clinical trials have indicated that plant-derived polyphenols exert beneficial effects on glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes. This clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of acacia polyphenol (AP) on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in non-diabetic subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a total of 34 enrolled subjects. The subjects were randomly assigned to the AP-containing dietary supplement (AP supplement; in a daily dose of 250 mg as AP; n=17) or placebo (n=17) and the intervention was continued for 8 weeks. Prior to the start of the intervention (baseline) and after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention, plasma glucose and insulin were measured during a two-hour OGTT. Compared with the baseline, plasma glucose and insulin levels at 90 and/or 120 min, as well as the total area under the curve values during the OGTT (AUC0→2h) for glucose and insulin, were significantly reduced in the AP group, but not in the placebo group after intervention for 8 weeks. The decline from baseline in plasma glucose and insulin at 90 or 120 min of the OGTT for the AP group was significantly greater compared with that of the placebo group after 8 weeks of intervention. No AP supplement-related adverse side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests and anthropometric parameters were observed throughout the study period. The AP supplement may have the potential to improve glucose homeostasis in subjects with IGT. PMID:23837032

  7. Evidence of extensive plasma glucose recycling following a glucose load in seabass.

    PubMed

    Rito, João; Viegas, Ivan; Pardal, Miguel A; Jones, John G

    2017-09-01

    Seabass and other carnivorous fish are highly dependent on gluconeogenesis from dietary amino acids to maintain glycemia. Glucose recycling (glucose→C3-intermediate→glucose) may potentiate the effects of glucose administration in sparing amino acid gluconeogenesis. To date, very few measurements of glucose recycling have been reported in fish. Thus, to determine the extent of glucose recycling following a glycemic challenge, juvenile seabass were given an intraperitoneal glucose load (2gkg(-1)) enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose. (13)C NMR analysis of plasma glucose (13)C-isotopomers was used to determine the fractional contributions of glucose derived directly from the load versus that from glucose recycling at 48h after the load. Both fed and 21-day fasted fish (20 per condition) were studied. In fasted fish, 18±4% of plasma glucose was directly derived from the load while 13±2% was derived from glucose recycling. In fed fish, the load accounted for 6±1% of plasma glucose levels while glucose recycling contributed 16±4%. (13)C NMR analysis of plasma lactate revealed (13)C-isotopomers corresponding to the expected C3-intermediates of peripheral [U-(13)C]glucose catabolism indicating that circulating lactate was a key intermediate in glucose carbon recycling under these conditions. In conclusion, glucose recycling was shown to contribute a significant portion of plasma glucose levels in both fed and fasted seabass 48h after an intraperitoneal glucose challenge and circulating lactate was shown to be an intermediate of this pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Misled by the Morning "Fasting" Plasma Glucose.

    PubMed

    King, Allen B

    2015-05-13

    Because of its ease and simplicity of its measurement, the morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), has been as used a surrogate marker for the entire basal day when titrating once-nightly basal insulin. Common in obese insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes, late and large evening meals elevate the FPG. This has led to dosing of basal insulin well beyond the basal requirements and contributes to hypoglycemia and weight gain seen with this therapy. It is recommended that during basal insulin titration, the evening meal be limited and hypoglycemia be monitored early in the morning, that bewitching time when the "peakless" basal insulin's action is peaking and the predawn phenomenon insulin sensitivity is higher. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Fish Oil Supplements Lower Serum Lipids and Glucose in Correlation with a Reduction in Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 and Prostaglandin E2 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Associated with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Ran, Li; Zeng, Xiang-Long; Wu, Ying; Chen, Jun-Li; Kang, Chao; Shu, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Qian-Yong; Mi, Man-Tian

    2015-01-01

    Fish oil has been used effectively in the treatment of cardiovascular disease via triglyceride reduction and inflammation modulation. This study aimed to assess the effects of fish oil on patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with hyperlipidemia. Eighty participants with NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to consume fish oil (n=40, 4 g/d) or corn oil capsules (n=40, 4 g/d) for 3 months in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Blood levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, liver enzymes, kidney parameters and cytokines at baseline and the end of the study were measured. Seventy people finished the trial. Plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid significantly increased in the fish oil group after intervention. After adjustment for age, gender and BMI, fish oil significantly decreased fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoprotein B and glucose (by (mean±SD) 0.49±0.43 mmol/L, 0.58±0.89 mmol/L, 0.28±0.33 g/L and 0.76±0.56 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05), as well as alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels (by (median (interquartile)) 9.0(0.5, 21.5) and 7.0(2.2, 20.0) IU/L, respectively, P<0.05), significantly increased serum adiponectin levels (by 1.29±0.62 μg/mL, P<0.001), and reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, leukotrienes B4, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), cytokeratin 18 fragment M30 and prostaglandin E2 (by 1.70±1.18 pg/mL, 0.59±0.28 ng/mL, 121±31 pg/mL, 83±60 IU/L and 10.9±2.3 pg/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Corn oil had no effect except for increasing serum creatinine concentrations by 7.7±8.9 μmol/L (P=0.008). The effects of fish oil on lipids, glucose and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were positively correlated with the reductions of serum FGF21 and prostaglandin E2 concentrations after adjustment for age, gender and BMI (r = 0.275 to 0.360 and 0.261 to 0.375, respectively, P<0.05). In

  10. Correlation between plasma and urine glucose in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Morris, L R; McGee, J A; Kitabchi, A E

    1981-04-01

    To determine whether semiquantitative glucose measurements of spot urine specimens accurately reflect prevailing plasma glucose levels, we compared reported levels from 400 second-voided urines to simultaneous plasma determinations from 246 adult diabetics. Quantitative urine levels and plasma glucose levels correlated. However, when semiquantitative urinary determinations were compared to plasma glucose stratified into 0 to 149, 150 to 199, and greater than 200 mg/dL, 75% of the urine samples associated with plasma levels from 150 to 199 mg/dL were negative by Diastix, and 16.5% of samples negative by Diastix were in the 200+ mg/dL plasma range. Only 9% of samples from 0 to 149 mg/dL showed any positive Diastix readings. Because of the low sensitivity of semiquantitative methods, we fell that, except for detection of marked hyperglycemia, spot urine glucose determinations are inadequate as the sole means of clinical assessment for management of diabetic patients. Home glucose monitoring may be a better alternative for follow-up of these patients.

  11. Effects of fasting on plasma glucose and prolonged tracer measurement of hepatic glucose output in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Glauber, H.; Wallace, P.; Brechtel, G.

    1987-10-01

    We studied the measurement of hepatic glucose output (HGO) with prolonged (3-/sup 3/H)glucose infusion in 14 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Over the course of 10.5 h, plasma glucose concentration fell with fasting by one-third, from 234 +/- 21 to 152 +/- 12 mg/dl, and HGO fell from 2.35 +/- 0.18 to 1.36 +/- 0.07 mg . kg-1 . min-1 (P less than .001). In the basal state, HGO and glucose were significantly correlated (r = 0.68, P = .03), and in individual patients, HGO and glucose were closely correlated as both fell with fasting (mean r = 0.79, P less than .01). Plasma (3-/sup 3/H)glucose radioactivity approached a steady state only 5-6 h after initiation of the primed continuous infusion, and a 20% overestimate of HGO was demonstrated by not allowing sufficient time for tracer labeling of the glucose pool. Assumption of steady-state instead of non-steady-state kinetics in using Steele's equations to calculate glucose turnover resulted in a 9-24% overestimate of HGO. Stimulation of glycogenolysis by glucagon injection demonstrated no incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H)glucose in hepatic glycogen during the prolonged tracer infusion. In a separate study, plasma glucose was maintained at fasting levels (207 +/- 17 mg/dl) for 8 h with the glucose-clamp technique. Total glucose turnover rates remained constant during this prolonged tracer infusion. However, HGO fell to 30% of the basal value simply by maintaining fasting hyperglycemia in the presence of basal insulin levels.

  12. Acute altitude-induced hypoxia suppresses plasma glucose and leptin in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen R.; Williamson, David L.; Fealy, Ciarán E.; Kriz, David A.; Krishnan, Raj K.; Huang, Hazel; Ahn, Janice; Loomis, Joseph L.; Kirwan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effects of acute altitude-induced hypoxia on the hormonal and metabolic response to ingested glucose, 8 young, healthy subjects (5 men/3 women; 26±2 yrs; BMI, 23.1±1.0 kg/m2) performed two randomized trials in a hypobaric chamber where a 75 g glucose solution was ingested under simulated altitude (ALT, 4,300m), or ambient (AMB, 362m) conditions. Plasma glucose, insulin, c-peptide, epinephrine, leptin and lactate concentrations were measured at baseline and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose ingestion during both trials. Compared to AMB, the plasma glucose response to glucose ingestion was reduced during the ALT trial (P=0.04). There were no differences in the insulin and c-peptide responses between trials, or in insulin sensitivity based on HOMA-IR. Epinephrine and lactate were both elevated during the ALT trial (P<0.05), while the plasma leptin response was reduced compared to AMB (P<0.05). The data suggest that the plasma glucose response is suppressed at ALT, but this is not due to insulin per se, since insulin and c-peptide levels were similar for both trials. Elevated plasma epinephrine and lactate during ALT is indicative of increased glycogenolysis, which may have masked the magnitude of the reduced glucose response. We conclude that during acute altitude exposure there is a rapid metabolic response that is accompanied by a shift in the hormonal milieu that appears to favor increased glucose utilization. PMID:19765784

  13. Does A1c consistently reflect mean plasma glucose?

    PubMed

    Shrom, David; Sarwat, Samiha; Ilag, Liza; Bloomgarden, Zachary T

    2010-06-01

    A1c, a surrogate measure of glycemic control, is known to have a strong linear correlation with mean plasma glucose (MPG) when analyzed in populations of patients. However, clinically significant intersubject variability in this relationship exists, which suggests that A1c measurements may not reflect actual glycemic control in some patients. In the present study we explored the extent to which A1c accurately represents glycemic control, as measured by MPG, for individual patients. Data were pooled from randomized clinical trials in which A1c and self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) profiles were collected by patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with insulin analog regimens. MPG levels were calculated from SMPG profiles. Distributions of MPG were analyzed for patients within similar ranges of A1c (<6.5%, 6.5%-<7.5%, 7.5%-<8.5%, 8.5%-<9.5%, and ≥9.5%) and distributions of A1c were analyzed in patients within similar ranges of MPG (<6.1, 6.1-<7.8, 7.8-<9.4, 9.4-<11.1, and ≥11.1 mmol/L). Substantial proportions of patients had clinically significant differences between A1c and MPG. For example, among 260 patients with A1c between 6.5% and 7.5%, 10% had MPG levels <6.4 mmol/L, whereas 10% had MPG >9.5 mmol/L. Among the 224 patients with MPG levels ≥6.1 mmol/L and <7.8 mmol/L, 10% had A1c <6% and 10% had A1c >8.1%. In the absence of SMPG, A1c may inadequately represent glycemic control for many diabetic patients. © 2010 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Plasma glucose kinetics and response of insulin and GIP following a cereal breakfast in female subjects: effect of starch digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Péronnet, F; Meynier, A; Sauvinet, V; Normand, S; Bourdon, E; Mignault, D; St-Pierre, D H; Laville, M; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Vinoy, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Foods with high contents of slowly digestible starch (SDS) elicit lower glycemic responses than foods with low contents of SDS but there has been debate on the underlying changes in plasma glucose kinetics, that is, respective contributions of the increase in the rates of appearance and disappearance of plasma glucose (RaT and RdT), and of the increase in the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) and decrease in endogenous glucose production (EGP). Subjects/Methods: Sixteen young healthy females ingested in random order four types of breakfasts: an extruded cereal (0.3% SDS: Lo-SDS breakfast) or one of three biscuits (39–45% SDS: Hi-SDS breakfasts). The flour in the cereal products was labeled with 13C, and plasma glucose kinetics were measured using [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion, along with the response of plasma glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. Results: When compared with the Lo-SDS breakfast, after the three Hi-SDS breakfasts, excursions in plasma glucose, the response of RaE, RaT and RdT, and the reduction in EGP were significantly lower (P<0.05). The amount of exogenous glucose absorbed over the 4.5-h postprandial period was also significantly lower by ~31% (P<0.001). These differences were associated with lower responses of GIP and insulin concentrations. Conclusions: Substituting extruded cereals with biscuits slows down the availability of glucose from the breakfast and its appearance in peripheral circulation, blunts the changes in plasma glucose kinetics and homeostasis, reduces excursions in plasma glucose, and possibly distributes the glucose ingested over a longer period following the meal. PMID:25852025

  15. Plasma glucose kinetics and response of insulin and GIP following a cereal breakfast in female subjects: effect of starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Meynier, A; Sauvinet, V; Normand, S; Bourdon, E; Mignault, D; St-Pierre, D H; Laville, M; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Vinoy, S

    2015-06-01

    Foods with high contents of slowly digestible starch (SDS) elicit lower glycemic responses than foods with low contents of SDS but there has been debate on the underlying changes in plasma glucose kinetics, that is, respective contributions of the increase in the rates of appearance and disappearance of plasma glucose (RaT and RdT), and of the increase in the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) and decrease in endogenous glucose production (EGP). Sixteen young healthy females ingested in random order four types of breakfasts: an extruded cereal (0.3% SDS: Lo-SDS breakfast) or one of three biscuits (39-45% SDS: Hi-SDS breakfasts). The flour in the cereal products was labeled with (13)C, and plasma glucose kinetics were measured using [6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion, along with the response of plasma glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. When compared with the Lo-SDS breakfast, after the three Hi-SDS breakfasts, excursions in plasma glucose, the response of RaE, RaT and RdT, and the reduction in EGP were significantly lower (P<0.05). The amount of exogenous glucose absorbed over the 4.5-h postprandial period was also significantly lower by ~31% (P<0.001). These differences were associated with lower responses of GIP and insulin concentrations. Substituting extruded cereals with biscuits slows down the availability of glucose from the breakfast and its appearance in peripheral circulation, blunts the changes in plasma glucose kinetics and homeostasis, reduces excursions in plasma glucose, and possibly distributes the glucose ingested over a longer period following the meal.

  16. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  17. Sourdough-leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Mario; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Sanna, Manuela; Cherchi, Sara; Dettori, Mariella; Manca, Elena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Sourdough bread has been reported to improve glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. In this study postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were evaluated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had a meal containing sourdough bread leavened with lactobacilli, in comparison to a reference meal containing bread leavened with baker yeast. Sixteen IGT subjects (age range 52-75, average BMI 29.9 +/- 4.2 kg/ m2) were randomly given a meal containing sourdough bread (A) and a meal containing the reference bread (B) in two separate occasions at the beginning of the study and after 7 days. Sourdough bread was leavened for 8 h using a starter containing autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several bacilli able to produce a significant amount of D-and L-lactic acid, whereas the reference bread was leavened for 2 h with commercial baker yeast containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at time 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In IGT subjects sourdough bread induced a significantly lower plasma glucose response at 30 minutes (p = 0.048) and a smaller incremental area under curve (AUC) delta 0-30 and delta 0-60 min (p = 0.020 and 0.018 respectively) in comparison to the bread leavened with baker yeast. Plasma insulin response to this type of bread showed lower values at 30 min (p = 0.045) and a smaller AUC delta 0-30 min (p = 0.018). This study shows that in subjects with IGT glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after the consumption of sourdough bread are lower than after the bread leavened with baker yeast. This effect is likely due to the lactic acid produced during dough leavening as well as the reduced availability of simple carbohydrates. Thus, sour-dough bread may potentially be of benefit in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  18. Glucose plasma levels and pregnancy outcomes in women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Alberico, Salvatore; Tamburrini, Enrica; Pinnetti, Carmela; Bucceri, Anna; Masuelli, Giulia; Viganò, Alessandra; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Antoni, Anna Degli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spinillo, Arsenio; Marocco, Raffaella; Dalzero, Serena; Ravizza, Marina

    2011-01-01

    There is limited information on the relation between glucose levels in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women. To evaluate the potential impact of fasting glucose levels on pregnancy outcomes in a large sample of pregnant women with HIV from a national study, adjusting for potential confounders. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. The main outcomes evaluated in univariate and multivariable analyses were birthweight for gestational age>90th percentile (large for gestational age [LGA]), nonelective cesarean delivery, and preterm delivery. Glucose measurements were considered both as continuous and as categorical variables, following the HAPO study definition. Overall, 1,032 cases were eligible for the analysis. In multivariable analyses, a birthweight>90th percentile was associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per unitary (mg/dL) increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P=.005), a higher body mass index, and parity of 1 or higher. A lower risk of LGA was associated with smoking and African ethnicity. A higher fasting plasma glucose category was significantly associated with LGA occurrence, and AORs for the glucose categories of 90-94 mg/ dL and 95-99 mg/dL were 3.34 (95% CI, 1.09-10.22) and 6.26 (95% CI, 1.82-21.58), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose showed no association with nonelective cesarean section [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02] or preterm delivery [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02]. In pregnant women with HIV, glucose values below the threshold usually defining hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of delivering LGA infants. Other conditions may independently contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in women with HIV and should be considered to identify pregnancies at risk.

  19. Leukocyte telomere length is inversely associated with post-load but not with fasting plasma glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Khalangot, Mykola; Krasnienkov, Dmytro; Vaiserman, Alexander; Avilov, Ivan; Kovtun, Volodymir; Okhrimenko, Nadia; Koliada, Alexander; Kravchenko, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by shorter leukocyte telomere length, but the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and type 2 diabetes mellitus development is rather questioned. Fasting and post-load glycaemia associated with different types of insulin resistance and their relation with leukocyte telomere length remains unknown. We compared leukocyte telomere length and fasting or post-load glucose levels in persons who do not receive glucose lowering treatment. For 82 randomly selected rural residents of Ukraine, aged 45+, not previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the WHO oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements were performed. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by standardized method of quantitative monochrome multiplex polymerase chain reaction in real time. Spearman's or Pearson's rank correlation was used for correlation analysis between fasting plasma glucose or 2-h post-load plasma glucose levels and leukocyte telomere length. Logistical regression models were used to evaluate risks of finding short or long telomeres associated with fasting plasma glucose or 2-h post-load plasma glucose levels. No association of fasting plasma glucose and leukocyte telomere length was revealed, whereas 2-h post-load plasma glucose levels demonstrated a negative correlation ( P < 0.01) with leukocyte telomere length. Waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were negatively related ( P = 0.03) with leukocyte telomere length in men. Oral glucose tolerance test result-based glycemic categories did not show differences between mean leukocyte telomere length in categories of normal fasting plasma glucose and 2-h post-load plasma glucose (NGT, n = 33); diabetes mellitus (DM), n = 18 and impaired fasting glucose/tolerance (IFG/IGT, n = 31) levels. A correlation relationship between leukocyte telomere length and 2-h post-load plasma glucose level in NGT; IFG/IGT and DM groups ( P = 0.027; 0

  20. Lowering of glucose in critical care: a randomized pilot trial.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Joseph; Brozek, Jan; McDonald, Ellen; Clarke, France; Jaeschke, Roman; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Leppert, Ryan; Foss, Anders; Cook, Deborah

    2007-06-01

    Similar to cardiac surgery patients, medical-surgical critically ill patients may benefit from intensive insulin therapy. The objectives of this pilot trial were to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized trial of intensive insulin therapy with respect to (a) achieving target glucose values in the 2 ranges of 5 to 7 and 8 to 10 mmol/L and (b) uncovering problems with the protocol in anticipation of a larger trial. The trial was conducted in a 15-bed medical-surgical university-affiliated intensive care unit (ICU). We included patients older than 18 years, expected to be in ICU for more than 72 hours, with a glucose value of more than 10 mmol/L within 48 hours of ICU admission. Exclusion criteria were diabetic ketoacidosis, severe hepatic failure or hepatic resection, pancreatitis, glucose of less than 2.2 mmol/L on admission to hospital, insulin infusion on admission to ICU, planned withdrawal of life support, and inability to obtain informed consent. Patients underwent concealed random allocation to a target glucose range of 5 to 7 or 8 to 10 mmol/L using pretested algorithms of insulin infusions. Dedicated glucometer measurement of arterial glucose values was calibrated daily to values measured in the laboratory. We enrolled 20 patients with a mean (SD) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of 32 (10.2); 14 were insulin-dependent pre-ICU, and all were medical admissions. Mean glucose values were different in the 2 groups (7.1 +/- 2.6 vs 9.4 +/- 2.1 mmol/L, P < .001). Although the intensive insulin therapy group had more glucose measurements performed than the control group, a similar proportion of values were within the target range (682 [42.4%] of 1607 values in the 5- to 7-mmol/L range; 250 [38.7%] of 660 values in the 8- to 10-mmol/L range, P = .35). Glucose values of less than 2.5 mmol/L developed 7 times in 5 patients, 4 of whom were in the intensive insulin therapy group; however, no adverse consequences were documented. As

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  2. Modeling Plasma-to-Interstitium Glucose Kinetics from Multitracer Plasma and Microdialysis Data

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Dube, Simmi; Slama, Michael; Kudva, Yogish C.; Peyser, Thomas; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Quantitative assessment of the dynamic relationship between plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose and the estimation of the plasma-to-ISF delay are of major importance to determine the accuracy of subcutaneous glucose sensors, an essential component of open- and closed-loop therapeutic systems for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The goal of this work is to develop a model of plasma-to-ISF glucose kinetics from multitracer plasma and interstitium data, obtained by microdialysis, in healthy and T1DM subjects, under fasting conditions. Materials and Methods: A specific experimental design, combining administration of multiple tracers with the microdialysis technique, was used to simultaneously frequently collect plasma and ISF data. Linear time-invariant compartmental modeling was used to describe glucose kinetics from the tracer data because the system is in steady state. Results: A two-compartment model was shown accurate and was identified from both plasma and ISF data. An “equilibration time” between plasma and ISF of 9.1 and 11.0 min (median) in healthy and T1DM subjects, respectively, was calculated. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that, in steady-state condition, the glucose plasma-to-ISF kinetics can be modeled with a linear two-compartment model and that the “equilibration time” between the two compartments can be estimated with precision. Future studies will assess plasma-to-interstitium glucose kinetics during glucose and insulin perturbations in both healthy and T1DM subjects. PMID:26313215

  3. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans. Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations. Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  4. Preliminary validation of an exercise program suitable for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism: inhibitory effects of Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise on plasma glucose elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sachina; Kagawa, Kyoko; Hori, Naohi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There is insufficient evidence related to exercise programs that are safe and efficacious for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise is an exercise program with validated safety and efficacy in improving physical function in the elderly. In this study, we investigated this program’s inhibitory effects on plasma glucose elevation when it was adapted to a pregnancy model. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve 18- to 19-year-old females without a history of pregnancy were randomly assorted into two groups: an intervention group, for which six subjects were outfitted with mock-pregnancy suits and asked to perform Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise, and a control group who did not perform exercise. The intervention group had a mean Borg Scale score of 11.1 ± 0.9 during the exercise. [Results] No significant intragroup differences were observed in fasting, baseline, or post-intervention/observation plasma glucose levels. On the other hand, the intergroup change in plasma glucose levels after intervention/observation was significant when comparing the intervention and control groups: −1.66 ± 7.0 and 9.42 ± 6.57 mg/dl, respectively. [Conclusion] Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise appears to effectively inhibit plasma glucose elevation at intensity and movement levels that can be safely applied to pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:28174463

  5. A Mendelian Randomization Study of Metabolite Profiles, Fasting Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Bert van Klinken, Jan; Semiz, Sabina; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Verhoeven, Aswin; Hankemeier, Thomas; Harms, Amy C; Sijbrands, Eric; Sheehan, Nuala A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Demirkan, Ayşe

    2017-08-28

    Mendelian randomization (MR) provides us the opportunity to investigate the causal paths of metabolites in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis. We developed and tested an MR approach based on genetic risk scoring for plasma metabolite levels, utilizing a pathway-based sensitivity analysis to control for non-specific effects. We focused on 124 circulating metabolites which correlate with fasting glucose in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study (n = 2,564) and tested the possible causal effect of each metabolite with glucose and type 2 diabetes and vice versa. We detected fourteen paths with potential causal effects by MR, following pathway based sensitivity analysis. Our results suggest that elevated plasma triglycerides might be partially responsible for increased glucose level and type 2 diabetes risk, which is consistent with previous reports. Additionally, elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) components i.e. S-HDL-triglycerides might have a causal role of elevating glucose levels. In contrast, large (L) and extra-large (XL) HDL lipid components i.e. XL-HDL-cholesterol, XL-HDL-free cholesterol, XL-HDL-phospholipids, L-HDL-cholesterol and L-HDL-free cholesterol as well as HDL-cholesterol seem to be protective against increasing fasting glucose, but not against type 2 diabetes. Finally, we demonstrate that genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes associates with increased levels of alanine, and decreased levels of phosphatidylcholine alkyl-acyl C42:5 and phosphatidylcholine alkyl-acyl C44:4. Our MR results provide novel insight into promising causal paths to and from glucose and type 2 diabetes and underline the value of additional information from high resolution metabolomics over classical biochemistry. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Otto, Baerbel; Garcia, Ada L; Wagner, Karen; Mueller, Corinna; Weickert, Martin O; Heldwein, Walter; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre consumption is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary polyphenols have been suggested to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Recently, we reported that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (carob fibre) resulted in lower postprandial acylated ghrelin levels after a liquid meal challenge test compared with a control meal without supplementation. The effects may, however, differ when a different food matrix is used. Thus, we investigated the effects of carob fibre on glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses in healthy humans in combination with a glucose load. In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P < 0.001), and serum insulin by 19.9 and 24.8 % (P < 0.001), compared with the control. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations did not change significantly after the consumption of carob-enriched glucose solution. Total ghrelin decreased only after 10 g carob fibre (P < 0.001) compared with control. In conclusion, we showed that polyphenol-rich carob fibre, administered within a water-glucose solution, increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, suggesting a deterioration in glycaemic control.

  7. Distribution of fasting plasma glucose and prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in the Mexican paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Violante, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2009-07-01

    Published data on the distribution of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in children are scarce. We therefore set out to examine the distribution of FPG and determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2-DM) in Mexican children aged 6-18 years in a community-based cross-sectional study. A total of 1534 apparently healthy children were randomly enrolled and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. IFG was defined by an FPG value between >or=100 and <126 mg/dL, IGT by glucose concentration 2-h post-load between >or=140 and <200 mg/dL, and T2-DM by glucose concentration 2-h post-load >or=200 mg/dL. The FPG level at the 75(th) percentile of distribution was 98.0, 100.0 and 99.0 mg/dL for children aged 6-9, 10-14 and 15-18 years, respectively; the 95(th) percentile of FPG was greater than 100 mg/dL for all the age strata. In the population overall, the prevalences of IFG, IGT, and T2-DM were 18.3%, 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. Among obese children and adolescents, the prevalences of IFG, IGT, IFG + IGT and T2-DM were 19.1%, 5.7%, 2.5% and 1.3%. Our study shows a high prevalence of prediabetes and is the first that reports the distribution of FPG in Mexican children and adolescents.

  8. Plasma Metanephrines Are Associated With Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqing; Mu, Liangshan; Su, Tingwei; Ye, Lei; Jiang, Yiran; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    There is a high incidence of glucose intolerance in essential hypertension. Overactivation of the sympathetic system is one of important causes of essential hypertension. Whether sympathetic system affects glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension has never been reported previously. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the sympathetic system activity and glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 202 essential hypertension inpatients without diabetes were recruited from Shanghai Ruijin Hospital between February 2006 and August 2013. Activity of sympathetic system was quantified by plasma metanephrines (MNs) levels. All subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose increased significantly across the quartiles of plasma MNs. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that plasma MNs were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose. The area under curve of plasma glucose increased significantly from the lowest plasma MNs quartile across to the highest quartile. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of plasma MNs was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-13.86). Plasma MNs levels are positively associated with plasma glucose in patients with essential hypertension. Patients with high plasma MNs levels had an increased risk of prediabetes.

  9. Plasma Metanephrines Are Associated With Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiqing; Mu, Liangshan; Su, Tingwei; Ye, Lei; Jiang, Yiran; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is a high incidence of glucose intolerance in essential hypertension. Overactivation of the sympathetic system is one of important causes of essential hypertension. Whether sympathetic system affects glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension has never been reported previously. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the sympathetic system activity and glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 202 essential hypertension inpatients without diabetes were recruited from Shanghai Ruijin Hospital between February 2006 and August 2013. Activity of sympathetic system was quantified by plasma metanephrines (MNs) levels. All subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose increased significantly across the quartiles of plasma MNs. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that plasma MNs were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose. The area under curve of plasma glucose increased significantly from the lowest plasma MNs quartile across to the highest quartile. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of plasma MNs was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 1.16–13.86). Plasma MNs levels are positively associated with plasma glucose in patients with essential hypertension. Patients with high plasma MNs levels had an increased risk of prediabetes. PMID:26376391

  10. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Tholén; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-11-30

    Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. NCT01086189.

  11. Salacia Extract Improves Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Jeykodi, Shankaranarayanan; Deshpande, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to different doses of Salacia chinensis extract (200 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg SCE) capsules and compared with placebo. It is a placebo controlled randomized crossover design study. Subjects were given oral sucrose solution along with capsules and plasma glucose and insulin responses were analyzed. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after administration. AUC insulin significantly lowered after ingestion of SCE. No significant adverse events were observed. Reducing glucose and insulin is very important in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:27803937

  12. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P < .001) and in Kruskal-Wallis test the mean CAC score differed by FPG group (P < .001). After adjustment for other factors in a multiple logistic regression analysis, those subjects with FPG >=110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  13. The Effect of Insulin on the Distribution of Glucose between the Blood Plasma and the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Hetenyi, G.; Arbus, G. S.

    1962-01-01

    In normal fasted rats whole liver tissue contains as much glucose as the blood plasma, i.e., the ratio of the concentrations is about unity. The concentration of glucose in hepatic intracellular water is about 1.2 times higher than in plasma water. In rats injected with insulin the concentration of glucose in the liver falls to a lesser extent than in the plasma: resulting in a ratio of concentrations higher than unity. If insulin hypoglycemia is prevented by the ingestion of glucose the concentration ratio is less than in hypoglycemic rats but still significantly above unity. In normal rats the specific activities of plasma and hepatic glucose do not differ significantly at 7.5, 15, and 30 minutes after the intravenous injection of C14-labeled glucose. In rats injected with insulin the specific activity of glucose is higher in the plasma than in the liver at 7.5 and 15 minutes, but not at 30 minutes following the injection of tracer. In insulin-treated hypoglycemic rats considerably higher concentrations of labeled glucose are found in hepatic intracellular than in plasma water. The penetration of C14-glucose from plasma into hepatic intracellular water is found to be fast. Excess insulin causes an accumulation of glucose within the liver cells by retaining newly formed glucose and by the taking up of glucose from the plasma against an existing concentration gradient. PMID:13907027

  14. Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Yeong; Brunt, Ardith

    2011-05-09

    Obesity leads to an increase in inflammation and insulin resistance. This study determined antioxidant activity of flaxseed and its role in inflammation and insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people. Using a randomized crossover design, nine obese glucose intolerant people consumed 40 g ground flaxseed or 40 g wheat bran daily for 12 weeks with a 4-week washout period. Plasma inflammation biomarkers (CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6), glucose, insulin, and thiobaribituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were measured before and after of each supplementation. Flaxseed supplementation decreased TBARS (p = 0.0215) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.0382). Flaxseed or wheat bran supplementation did not change plasma inflammatory biomarkers. A positive relationship was found between TBARS and HOMA-IR (r = 0.62, p = 0.0003). The results of the study weakly support that decreased insulin resistance might have been secondary to antioxidant activity of flaxseed. However, the mechanism(s) of decreased insulin resistance by flaxseed should be further determined using flaxseed lignan.

  15. Gastrointestinal Microbiome Modulator Improves Glucose Tolerance in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J.; Burton, Jeffrey; Heiman, Mark; Greenway, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a gastrointestinal microbiome modulator (GIMM) containing inulin, β-glucan, blueberry anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols on metabolic parameters, fecal markers of gut microbiota, and satiety. Design and Methods Thirty overweight or obese individuals aged 18 to 70 years, were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Participants consumed the test product or placebo daily for four weeks. Stool samples were collected and blood was drawn at baseline and week four for assessments of gut microbiota, satiety hormones, glucose control, and lipid measures. Subjective satiety was assessed weekly. Linear models were used to compare differences from baseline to week four. Results GIMM consumption improved blood glucose tolerance (p = 0.008), and increased satiety (p = 0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in insulin sensitivity, fecal markers of gut microbiota, plasma satiety hormones, or serum lipid concentrations between the groups. However, plasma satiety hormones and fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations increased in the test group compared to the placebo. Conclusions GIMM consumption for four weeks, increases satiety, and improves glucose tolerance possibly through insulin-independent pathways. PMID:26424589

  16. Impact of prandial status on the comparison of capillary glucose meter and venous plasma glucose measurements in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Akhilesh; Lunt, Helen; Chang, Winston S J; Logan, Florence J; Frampton, Christopher M A; Florkowski, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    There is a negative glucose gradient between the capillary and venous systems, produced by glucose uptake into peripheral tissues. This gradient is augmented by oral glucose ingestion in healthy volunteers; thus prandial status may impact on capillary glucose meter performance. Our primary aim was to investigate whether the (capillary-venous plasma) glucose difference changed in relation to prandial status, in healthy volunteers. Glucose was measured fasting and also one hour after an ad libitum breakfast, in 103 healthy volunteers. Duplicate capillary (finger stick) measurements were undertaken at both time points, using both the FreeStyle Lite and AccuChek Performa meters. Simultaneous venous (antecubital fossa) samples were centrifuged immediately after collection and plasma glucose was measured using the laboratory hexokinase method. Results were compared by Bland-Altman difference analysis. The mean (95% CI) pre- and postprandial (capillary-plasma) glucose differences (mmol/L) were calculated for each meter. For the Freestyle Lite, the preprandial difference was -0.51 (-0.58 to -0.45) and postprandial difference was 0.81 (0.69-0.94). Corresponding differences for the Performa were -0.13 (-0.20 to -0.06) and 1.19 (1.07-1.31), respectively. T-test comparison of participants' paired pre- and postprandial (capillary-plasma) glucose differences confirmed a significant meal-related change in glucose estimation for both meters (P < 0.0001). Also, both meters read highest at lower glucose concentrations. In healthy volunteers, both glucose meters showed a systematic positive bias one hour after breakfast. The significance of this finding in diabetes remains to be determined.

  17. Dynamin 2 regulates biphasic insulin secretion and plasma glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Ji, Chen; Wu, Yumei; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H.; Lou, Xuelin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26413867

  18. Whole Grain Products, Fish and Bilberries Alter Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Randomized, Controlled Trial: The Sysdimet Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Paananen, Jussi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Gylling, Helena; Uusitupa, Matti; Orešič, Matej

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, new dietary solutions are needed to help improve glucose and lipid metabolism in persons at high risk of developing the disease. Herein we investigated the effects of low-insulin-response grain products, fatty fish, and berries on glucose metabolism and plasma lipidomic profiles in persons with impaired glucose metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings Altogether 106 men and women with impaired glucose metabolism and with at least two other features of the metabolic syndrome were included in a 12-week parallel dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into three diet intervention groups: (1) whole grain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish three times a week, and bilberries three portions per day (HealthyDiet group), (2) Whole grain enriched diet (WGED) group, which includes principally the same grain products as group (1), but with no change in fish or berry consumption, and (3) refined wheat breads (Control). Oral glucose tolerance, plasma fatty acids and lipidomic profiles were measured before and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with the diets was good and the body weight remained constant. Within the HealthyDiet group two hour glucose concentration and area-under-the-curve for glucose decreased and plasma proportion of (n-3) long-chain PUFAs increased (False Discovery Rate p-values <0.05). Increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid associated curvilinearly with the improved insulin secretion and glucose disposal. Among the 364 characterized lipids, 25 changed significantly in the HealthyDiet group, including multiple triglycerides incorporating the long chain (n-3) PUFA. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a beneficial effect

  19. Effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance, increased risk of type II diabetes, and cardiovascular pathology. Recently, investigators hypothesized that decreased vagus nerve activity may be the underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome including obesity, elevated glucose levels, and high blood pressure. Methods In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we compared the efficacy of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) and sham taVNS on patients with IGT. 72 participants with IGT were single-blinded and were randomly allocated by computer-generated envelope to either taVNS or sham taVNS treatment groups. In addition, 30 IGT adults were recruited as a control population and not assigned treatment so as to monitor the natural fluctuation of glucose tolerance in IGT patients. All treatments were self-administered by the patients at home after training at the hospital. Patients were instructed to fill in a patient diary booklet each day to describe any side effects after each treatment. The treatment period was 12 weeks in duration. Baseline comparison between treatment and control group showed no difference in weight, BMI, or measures of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG), or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Results 100 participants completed the study and were included in data analysis. Two female patients (one in the taVNS group, one in the sham taVNS group) dropped out of the study due to stimulation-evoked dizziness. The symptoms were relieved after stopping treatment. Compared with sham taVNS, taVNS significantly reduced the two-hour glucose tolerance (F(2) = 5.79, p = 0.004). In addition, we found that taVNS significantly decreased (F(1) = 4.21, p = 0.044) systolic blood pressure over time compared with sham taVNS. Compared with the no-treatment control group, patients

  20. Effects of Cr methionine on glucose metabolism, plasma metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium in Mahabadi goat kids.

    PubMed

    Emami, A; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zali, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) on glucose metabolism, blood metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium (Cr) in Mahabadi goat kids. Thirty-two male kids (16.5 ± 2.8 kg BW, 4-5 months of age) were fed for 90 days in a completely randomized design with four treatments. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg Cr as Cr-Met/animal/daily. Blood samples were collected via heparin tubes from the jugular vein on 0, 21, 42, 63, and 90 days of experiment. On day 70, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted. At the end of the feeding trial, the kids were slaughtered, and the liver, kidney, and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected. Plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were decreased by Cr supplementation (P < 0.05). LD muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased, and plasma and tissue Cr contents increased with increasing supplemental Cr levels (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentrations at 30 and 60 min after glucose infusion were lower in the kids fed 1.5 mg Cr diet than the kids fed control diet (P < 0.05). The IVGTT indicated that the kids supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr had higher glucose clearance rate (K) and lower glucose half-life (T½; P < 0.05). Glucose area under the response curve (AUC) from 0 to 180 min after glucose infusion was decreased linearly (P < 0.01) by supplemental Cr. The results suggested that supplemental Cr may improve glucose utilization and lipid oxidation of meat in fattening kid.

  1. Glycolysis Controls Plasma Membrane Glucose Sensors To Promote Glucose Signaling in Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Cairey-Remonnay, Amélie; Deffaud, Julien; Wésolowski-Louvel, Micheline; Lemaire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sensing of extracellular glucose is necessary for cells to adapt to glucose variation in their environment. In the respiratory yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, extracellular glucose controls the expression of major glucose permease gene RAG1 through a cascade similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf3/Rgt2/Rgt1 glucose signaling pathway. This regulation depends also on intracellular glucose metabolism since we previously showed that glucose induction of the RAG1 gene is abolished in glycolytic mutants. Here we show that glycolysis regulates RAG1 expression through the K. lactis Rgt1 (KlRgt1) glucose signaling pathway by targeting the localization and probably the stability of Rag4, the single Snf3/Rgt2-type glucose sensor of K. lactis. Additionally, the control exerted by glycolysis on glucose signaling seems to be conserved in S. cerevisiae. This retrocontrol might prevent yeasts from unnecessary glucose transport and intracellular glucose accumulation. PMID:25512610

  2. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Canagliflozin lowers postprandial glucose and insulin by delaying intestinal glucose absorption in addition to increasing urinary glucose excretion: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R

    2013-08-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, (3)H-glucose, (14)C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0-2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0-6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition.

  4. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  5. Effects of red wine polyphenols and alcohol on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Ros, Emilio; Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Guillén, Marisa; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that moderate red wine consumption reduces cardiovascular mortality and the incidence of diabetes. However, whether these effects are due to ethanol or to non-alcoholic components of red wine still remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of red wine, dealcoholized red wine, and gin on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile. Sixty-seven men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized in a crossover trial. After a run-in period, all received each of red wine (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine, and gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 week periods, in a randomized order. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), plasma lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and adipokines were determined at baseline and after each intervention. Fasting glucose remained constant throughout the study, while mean adjusted plasma insulin and HOMA-IR decreased after red wine and dealcoholized red wine. HDL cholesterol, Apolipoprotein A-I and A-II increased after red wine and gin. Lipoprotein(a) decreased after the red wine intervention. These results support a beneficial effect of the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine (mainly polyphenols) on insulin resistance, conferring greater protective effects on cardiovascular disease to red wine than other alcoholic beverages. www.isrctn.org: ISRCTN88720134. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal.

  7. Supplementation of cheonggukjang and red ginseng cheonggukjang can improve plasma lipid profile and fasting blood glucose concentration in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Jeong, Yong-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Choi, Ji-Young; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the plasma lipid profile and blood glucose-lowering effects of cheonggukjang (CH) and red ginseng CH (RGCH) in 45 subjects (men:women = 27:18; mean age, 44.9 ± 3.1 years) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: control (starch, 2 g/day), CH (20 g/day), and RGCH (20 g/day). Each volunteer received his or her daily doses for 8 weeks. The supplementation with CH and RGCH significantly decreased the plasma total cholesterol about 30.0 mg/mL and 37.7 mg/mL, respectively, compared to the initial value. The plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was also significantly reduced by 29.66% and 23.42% in the CH and RGCH groups, respectively, compared to the initial value. The concentration of plasma non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (107.9 mg/mL) was significantly lowered in the RGCH group compared to the initial value (139.1 mg/mL). The level of erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was significantly lowered in the CH (6.5 nmol/mL) and RGCH (6.6 nmol/mL) groups compared to the initial value (7.9 nmol/mL and 8.0 nmol/mL, respectively). The ratio of apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-1 concentrations (2.5) was significantly reduced in the CH group compared to the initial value (3.0). The concentration of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was significantly lower in the CH- and RGCH-supplemented groups compared to the initial value. These results suggest that CH and RGCH can lower the FBG concentration and improve the plasma lipid profile in subjects with IFG.

  8. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.; Vitzel, K.F.; Monteiro, I.C.C.R.; Lima, T.I.; Queiroz, A.N.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Hirabara, S.M.; Ceccatto, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min) compared to the sedentary group (27th min). Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27783805

  9. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P; Vitzel, K F; Monteiro, I C C R; Lima, T I; Queiroz, A N; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Hirabara, S M; Ceccatto, V M

    2016-10-24

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min) compared to the sedentary group (27th min). Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations in the striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to intense handling stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wanshu

    1992-03-01

    The plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were determined in mature female striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to short term intense handling stress. The results indicated that plasma cortisol levels reached a peak 20 min after stress and declined gradually afterwards. The highest concentration of plasma glucose was observed 30 min after stress. The present study showed that the rise of plasma glucose was associated with the plasma cortisol levels.

  11. Elevated Fasting Plasma Glucose before Liver Transplantation is Associated with Lower Post-Transplant Survival

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Emi; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu; Miuma, Satoshi; Shibata, Hidetaka; Honda, Takuya; Hidaka, Masaaki; Soyama, Akihiko; Takeshima, Fuminao; Eguchi, Susumu; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of liver cirrhosis is higher among individuals with diabetes mellitus, and a cirrhotic patient with diabetes may have a poorer prognosis after liver transplantation compared to a patient without diabetes. Thus, we evaluated whether fasting plasma glucose prior to receiving a liver transplant was a prognostic factor for post-transplant survival. Material/Methods Ninety-one patients received a living donor liver transplant between November 2005 and December 2012. Patients were considered diabetic if they were prescribed diabetes medications or had impaired glucose tolerance as measured by an oral glucose tolerance test. Each patient was monitored through December 31, 2013, to evaluate prognosis. Results Fasting plasma glucose of at least 100 mg/dL significantly decreased survival following transplant (52% in the high FPG group compared to 78% in the control group, p=0.04), while postprandial hyperglycemia had no effect on survival. Additionally, overall mortality and the incidence of vascular disease were significantly higher among patients with uncontrolled plasma glucose. Impaired fasting plasma glucose was significantly and inversely associated with overall survival in the univariate and multivariate analyses, while creatinine (at least 1 mg/dL) was inversely associated with survival in the univariate analysis. Conclusions Elevated fasting plasma glucose prior to liver transplantation was inversely associated with post-transplant survival. This effect may be due to underlying microangiopathy as a result of uncontrolled diabetes before transplantation. Our data demonstrated the importance of controlled blood glucose prior to liver transplantation. PMID:27909287

  12. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT-1 h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P < 0.0001) in a multivariate regression analysis model including several atherosclerosis risk factors. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between blood viscosity and 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  13. Modification of a traditional breakfast leads to increased satiety along with attenuated plasma increments of glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in humans.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Höglund, Peter; Roth, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan

    2016-04-01

    Our hypothesis was that carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of meals affect satiety, glucose homeostasis, and hormone secretion. The objectives of this crossover trial were to examine satiety, glycemic-insulinemic response, and plasma peptide levels in response to 2 different recommended diabetes diets with equivalent energy content. One traditional reference breakfast and one test breakfast, with lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content, were randomly administered to healthy volunteers (8 men, 12 women). Blood samples were collected, and satiety was scored on a visual analog scale before and 3 hours after meals. Plasma glucose was measured, and levels of C-peptide, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and adipokines were analyzed by Luminex. Greater satiety, visual analog scale, and total and delta area under the curve (P < .001), and lower glucose postprandial peak (max) and change from baseline (dmax; P < .001) were observed after test meal compared with reference meal. Postprandial increments of C-peptide, insulin, and GIP were suppressed after test meal compared with reference meal (total delta area under the curve [P = .03, .006, and .004], delta area under the curve [P = .006, .003, and .02], max [P = .01, .007, and .002], and dmax [P = .004, .008, and .007], respectively). Concentrations of other peptides were similar between meals. A lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content provides greater satiety and attenuation of C-peptide, glucose, insulin, and GIP responses compared with the reference breakfast but does not affect adipokines, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

  14. [Designing and implementation of a web-based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement in multicenter population study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Limin; Pang, Richard; Mo, Nanxun; Hu, Yan; Deng, Qian; Hu, Zhaohui

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the designing and implementation of a web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system to assess the analytical quality of plasma glucose measurements in multicenter population study and provide evidence for the future studies. In the chronic non-communicable disease and related factor surveillance in China, a web based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement was established to conduct evaluation on plasma glucose monitoring quality and effectiveness in 302 surveillance centers, including quality control data entry, transmission and feedback. The majority of the surveillance centers met the quality requirements and passed the evaluation of reproducibility and precision of plasma glucose measurement, only a few centers required intensive training and re-assessment. In order to ensure the completeness and reliability of plasma glucose measurement in the surveillance centers, the establishment of web-based plasma glucose measurement quality control system can facilitate the identification of the qualified surveillance centers and evaluation of plasma glucose measurement quality in different regions. Communication and training are important in ensuring plasma glucose measurement quality. It is necessary to further improve this web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system in the future to reduce the method specific plasma glucose measurement bias.

  15. Effect of acipimox on plasma lipids and glucose/insulin in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vera, I; Bonet, B; Viana, M; Herrera, E; Indart, A

    2002-01-01

    To determine how a reduction in maternal hypertriglyceridemia during late pregnancy may affect glucose/insulin relationships, pregnant and virgin rats were orally treated with acipimox, a potent antilipolytic agent. In 20-day pregnant rats receiving 80 mg of acipimox, plasma triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and glycerol decreased more than in virgin rats shortly after the drug (up to 7 hours), when compared with animals treated with distilled water, whereas plasma glucose level was unaffected by the treatment in either group of rats. When acipimox was given every 12 hours from day 17 to day 20 of pregnancy, plasma TG, FFA, and glycerol levels progressively increased, whereas they either decreased or did not change in virgin rats receiving the same treatment, with no effect in plasma glucose levels in either group. Fetal body weight was lower than in controls in 20-day pregnant rats that received acipimox for 3 days. On day 20 of pregnancy, 3 hours after receiving acipimox or distilled water, rats received a 2 g glucose/kg oral load and it was found that the change in plasma glucose was similar in both groups, whereas the increase in plasma insulin was greater in pregnant rats treated with acipimox. However, no difference was found in either variable after the oral glucose load in virgin rats receiving acipimox or distilled water. No differences in plasma glucose levels were found after intravenous (i.v.) administration of insulin in pregnant rats treated or not treated with acipimox. In conclusion, present results show that administration of acipimox during the last days of gestation inhibited lipolysis and decreased fetal weight. Over a short period of time, in pregnant rats, reductions of plasma FFA and TG after acipimox treatment improved the glucose-induced insulin release, but did not seem to have any effect in peripheral insulin resistance.

  16. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  17. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend <0.001). After adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerols, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, creatinine, fatty liver, family history of diabetes, alcohol consumption, and current smoking, uric acid levels were positively associated with onset of impaired fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  18. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  19. Randomized Pilot Study of Cabergoline, a Dopamine Receptor Agonist: Effects on Body Weight and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Charlisa D.; Karmally, Wahida; McMahon, Donald J.; Wardlaw, Sharon L.; Korner, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Aim Dopaminergic hypofunction and hyperprolactinemia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and glucose intolerance. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of cabergoline, a dopamine receptor agonist, on body weight and glucose tolerance in obese non-diabetic persons with normal plasma prolactin levels. Materials and Methods This 16-week double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study randomized non- diabetic obese adults (BMI 30-42 kg/m2) to placebo or cabergoline (0.25 mg twice weekly for 4 weeks followed by 0.5 mg twice weekly for the next 12 weeks). Of 40 subjects enrolled, 29 completed 16 weeks: 16 randomized to placebo, 13 to cabergoline. All subjects were counseled on a 500 kcal/day calorie deficit diet. A 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Results As expected, prolactin levels decreased after cabergoline (P<0.001). Weight loss was similar after placebo compared with cabergoline treatment: 1.0 vs 1.2% body weight, respectively. Fasting glucose levels did not differ between groups after treatment, however, 90 minute post-prandial glucose and insulin decreased in the cabergoline group only (P = 0.029). HOMA-IR increased by 40% after placebo, and 1.5% after cabergoline treatment. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that cabergoline therapy may improve glucose tolerance independent of weight loss, however, a larger, longer term study of dopamine receptor agonist therapy in obese individuals is warranted to confirm this finding. PMID:22074059

  20. Effect of glucose ingestion in plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: analysis of 16 plasma markers from oral glucose tolerance test samples of normal and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Soon Young; Hong, Won Kyung; Jung, Seung Eun; Kang, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2013-02-01

    Sixteen plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured during OGTT in 54 subjects. Leptin, RBP4, CRP, OPN, ANG, MDC, and MCSF concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT (P<0.05). IL6, IL8, and MCP3 concentrations significantly increased during OGTT (P<0.05). These results provide evidence that glucose ingestion affects systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.

  1. Predictive ability of fasting plasma glucose for a diabetic 2-h postload glucose value in oral glucose tolerance test: spectrum effect.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Jale; Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan; Harmanci, Ayla; Karaagaoglu, Ergun; Gurlek, Alper

    2007-01-01

    The performance of diagnostic tests may vary according to patient characteristics. The aim of this study is to find out the factors, if any, that may affect the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to predict a diabetic 2-h postload glucose level (> or =200 mg/dl) in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). One hundred ninety-six patients with known risk factors for diabetes mellitus to whom OGTT was applied were included. Factors that may have an effect on the performance of FPG in prediction of a diabetic value in OGTT were determined by using logistic regression and likelihood ratios (LRs). The cutoff of FPG predicting a 2-h postload glucose of > or =200 mg/dl was calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve as 110 mg/dl (sensitivity, 76.7%; specificity, 75.9%). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) influenced sensitivity, whereas age, family history, and presence of hyperlipidemia affected specificity of FPG. Significant factors for positive LR were age and hyperlipidemia, whereas sex, smoking, hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, WHR, and BMI influenced negative LR. Fasting plasma glucose performance as a diagnostic test can be affected by many factors that are clearly stated as risk factors for diabetes mellitus. These data emphasize how the interpretation of a diagnostic test varies as the patient characteristics vary; the criteria that we confidently rely on may not be that reliable, changing between just two different patients.

  2. Postprandial serum C-peptide to plasma glucose concentration ratio correlates with oral glucose tolerance test- and glucose clamp-based disposition indexes.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yoko; Komada, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Hashimoto, Naoko; Hirota, Yushi; Ogawa, Wataru; Seino, Susumu

    2013-10-01

    The C-peptide index (CPI), a ratio of serum C-peptide to plasma glucose levels, is a readily measured index of β-cell function. The difference in the physiological features reflected by the index measured under fasting (F-CPI) or postprandial (PP-CPI) conditions has remained unclear, however. We investigated the relationship of the two CPIs to indexes of insulin secretion measured with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or with hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analyses as well as to disposition indexes (indexes of insulin secretion adjusted for insulin sensitivity) calculated from OGTT- or clamp-based analyses. We also examined the relationship between glucose tolerance and the clamp-based disposition index. The clamp-based disposition index declined progressively from normal glucose tolerance to impaired glucose tolerance to Type 2 diabetes, and it strongly correlated with the 2-h plasma glucose level during an OGTT. For patients with Type 2 diabetes, both F-CPI and PP-CPI correlated with indexes of insulin secretion including HOMA-β, the insulinogenic index, the ratio of the area under the insulin curve to that under the glucose curve during an OGTT, the serum C-peptide level after glucagon challenge, as well as early and total insulin secretion measured with a hyperglycemic clamp. PP-CPI, but not F-CPI, was significantly correlated with clamp-based and OGTT-based disposition indexes. F-CPI was correlated only with unadjusted indexes of insulin secretion, whereas PP-CPI was correlated with such indexes as well as with those adjusted for insulin sensitivity. The better clinical utility of PP-CPI might be attributable to these physiological characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal and child nutritional supplementation are inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose concentration in young Guatemalan adults.

    PubMed

    Conlisk, Andrea J; Barnhart, Huiman X; Martorell, Reynaldo; Grajeda, Ruben; Stein, Aryeh D

    2004-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes may be programmed early in life by abnormal development associated with undernutrition. We investigated whether maternal nutritional status (MNS; height, pregnancy weight gain, nonpregnant BMI, and prenatal supplementation) or childhood nutritional status (CNS; birth weight, length, ponderal index, height-for-age Z-score at 24 mo, and supplementation from 0 to 24 mo) were related to fasting plasma glucose levels in rural-born Guatemalan adults. We studied 209 men and 220 women (mean age 24.4 y) who were involved in a randomized trial of nutritional supplementation of their mothers during pregnancy and during their early childhoods, conducted from 1969 to 1977. In 2 villages, residents were offered Atole (3.8 MJ and 64 g protein/L); 2 other villages were offered Fresco (1.4 MJ/L, no protein). No associations were observed between anthropometric measures of MNS or CNS and fasting plasma glucose levels. In subgroup analyses, inverse associations (all P < 0.15) with birth size were found among women born to fatter mothers, women with low supplement intake, men born to short mothers, and men more severely stunted at 24 mo. Prenatal supplementation was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose among women [-0.40 +/- 0.17 mmol/(L. MJ. d), P = 0.02]. Among men, postnatal intake of supplementation of 0.10 to 0.20 MJ/d was associated with up to a 0.56 mmol/L reduction in fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.03), but intake in excess of 0.20 MJ/d provided no added benefit. Among women, the benefit of postnatal supplementation was restricted to those born thin (test for interaction P = 0.10). Improving the nutritional status of undernourished women and children may have positive long-term consequences.

  4. The effect of glycemic index on plasma glucose and lactate levels during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Stannard, S R; Constantini, N W; Miller, J C

    2000-03-01

    Consumption of low glycemic index (GI) foods before submaximal endurance exercise may be beneficial to performance. To test whether this may also be true for high intensity exercise, 10 trained cyclists began an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 65 min after consuming equal carbohydrate portions of glucose (HGI), pasta (LGI), and a noncarbohydrate control (PL). Time to fatigue did not differ significantly (p = 0.05) between treatments. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after LGI vs. HGI from 15 to 45 min of rest postprandial. During exercise, plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after HGI vs. LGI from 200 W until exhaustion. Plasma lactate concentration following HGI was significantly higher than PL from 30 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 200-W workload. Plasma lactate concentration following LGI was significantly lower than after HGI from 45 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 100-W workload. At higher exercise intensities, there was no significant difference in plasma lactate levels between treatments. These findings suggest that a high GI carbohydrate meal (1 g/kg body wt) 65 min prior to exercise decreases plasma glucose and increases plasma lactate levels compared to a low GI meal, but not enough to be detrimental to incremental exercise performance.

  5. Relationship between plasma glucose and insulin concentration, glucose production, and glucose disposal in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y D; Jeng, C Y; Hollenbeck, C B; Wu, M S; Reaven, G M

    1988-01-01

    The changes in hepatic glucose production (Ra), tissue glucose disposal (Rd), and plasma glucose and insulin concentration that took place over a 16-h period from 10 to 2 p.m. were documented in 14 individuals; 8 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 6 with normal glucose tolerance. Values for Ra were higher than normal in patients with NIDDM at 10 p.m. (4.73 +/- 0.41 vs. 3.51 +/- 0.36 mg/kg per min, P less than 0.001), but fell at a much faster rate throughout the night than that seen in normal subjects. As a consequence, the difference between Ra in normal individuals and patients with NIDDM progressively narrowed, and by 2 p.m., had ceased to exist (1.75 +/- 0.61 vs. 1.67 +/- 0.47 mg/kg per min, P = NS). Plasma glucose concentration also declined in patients with NIDDM over the same period of time, but they remained quite hyperglycemic, and the value of 245 +/- 27 mg/dl at 2 p.m. was about three times greater than in normal individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations also fell progressively from 10 to 2 p.m., and were similar in both groups throughout most of the 16-h study period. Thus, the progressive decline in Ra in patients with NIDDM occurred despite concomitant falls in both plasma glucose and insulin concentration. Glucose disposal rates also fell progressively in both groups, but the magnitude of the fall was greater in patients with NIDDM. Consequently, Rd in patients with NIDDM was higher at 10 p.m. (3.97 +/- 0.48 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.13 mg/kg per min, P less than 0.001) and lower the following day at 2 p.m. (1.64 +/- 0.21 vs. 1.97 +/- 0.35 mg/kg per min, P less than 0.01). These results indicate that a greatly expanded pool size can exist in patients with NIDDM at a time when values for Ra are identical to those in normal subjects studied under comparable conditions, which suggests that fasting hyperglycemia in NIDDM is not simply a function of an increase in Ra. PMID:3292584

  6. Inhibition of sweet chemosensory receptors alters insulin responses during glucose ingestion in healthy adults: a randomized crossover interventional study.

    PubMed

    Karimian Azari, Elnaz; Smith, Kathleen R; Yi, Fanchao; Osborne, Timothy F; Bizzotto, Roberto; Mari, Andrea; Pratley, Richard E; Kyriazis, George A

    2017-04-01

    Background: Glucose is a natural ligand for sweet taste receptors (STRs) that are expressed on the tongue and in the gastrointestinal tract. Whether STRs directly contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis in response to glucose ingestion is unclear.Objective: We sought to determine the metabolic effects of the pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in response to an oral glucose load in healthy lean participants.Design: Ten healthy lean participants with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22.4 ± 0.8 were subjected to an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) on 4 separate days with the use of a randomized crossover design. Ten minutes before the 75-g OGTT, participants consumed a preload solution of either 300 parts per million (ppm) saccharin or water with or without the addition of 500 ppm lactisole, a human-specific inhibitor of STRs. When present, lactisole was included in both the preload and OGTT solutions. We assessed plasma responses of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2, gastric inhibitory peptide, acetaminophen, and 3-O-methylglucose. With the use of mathematical modeling, we estimated gastric emptying, glucose absorption, β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and clearance, and the portal insulin:glucagon ratio.Results: The addition of lactisole to the OGTT caused increases in the plasma responses of insulin (P = 0.012), C-peptide (P = 0.004), and the insulin secretory rate (P = 0.020) compared with the control OGTT. The addition of lactisole also caused a slight reduction in the insulin sensitivity index independent of prior saccharin consumption (P < 0.025). The ingestion of saccharin before the OGTT did not alter any of the measured variables but eliminated the effects of lactisole on the OGTT.Conclusion: The pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in the gastrointestinal tract alters insulin responses during an oral glucose challenge in lean healthy participants. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  7. Higher fasting plasma glucose is associated with striatal and hippocampal shape differences: the 2sweet project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianqi; Shaw, Marnie; Humphries, Jacob; Sachdev, Perminder; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between higher normal fasting plasma glucose levels (NFG) (<6.1 mmol/L), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hippocampal atrophy and other cerebral abnormalities. Little is known about the association between plasma glucose and the striatum despite sensorimotor deficits being implicated in T2D. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma glucose levels and striatal and hippocampal morphology using vertex-based shape analysis. A population-based, cross-sectional study. Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia. 287 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age 63 years, 132 female, 273 Caucasian) with (n=261) or without T2D (n=26), selected from 2551 participants taking part in the Personality & Total Health (PATH) Through Life study by availability of glucose data, MRI scan, and absence of gross brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment. Fasting plasma glucose was measured at first assessment, and MRI images were collected 8 years later. Shape differences indicating outward and inward deformation at the hippocampus and the striatum were examined with FMRIB Software Library-Integrated Registration and Segmentation Toolbox (FSL-FIRST) after controlling for sociodemographic and health variables. Higher plasma glucose was associated with shape differences indicating inward deformation, particularly at the caudate and putamen, among participants with NFG after controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, smoking and depressive symptoms. Those with T2D showed shape differences indicating inward deformation at the right hippocampus and bilateral striatum, but outward deformation at the left hippocampus, compared with participants with NFG. These findings further emphasize the importance of early monitoring and management of plasma glucose levels, even within the normal range, as a risk factor for cerebral atrophy.

  8. Effect of glycemia on plasma incretins and the incretin effect during oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Marzieh; Aulinger, Benedict; D'Alessio, David A

    2012-11-01

    The incretin effect, reflecting the enhancement of postprandial insulin secretion by factors including the intestinal hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, increases in proportion to meal size. However, it is unknown whether the incretin effect is dependent on ambient glucose. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of plasma glycemia on the incretin effect. Thirteen healthy subjects consumed 50 g oral glucose solution mixed with d-xylose during fixed hyperglycemia at 8 and 10.5 mmol/L, on 3 separate days, twice at lower glycemia (LOW) and once at higher values (HIGH). The relative increase in insulin release after glucose ingestion at fixed hyperglycemia, a surrogate for the incretin effect, was similar among all three studies. The GLP-1 response to oral glucose was significantly lower at higher plasma glycemia, as was the appearance of d-xylose after the meal. Between the two LOW studies, the reproducibility of insulin release in response to intravenous glucose alone and intravenous plus ingested glucose was similar. These findings indicate that the incretin contribution to postprandial insulin release is independent of glycemia in healthy individuals, despite differences in GLP-1 secretion. The incretin effect is a reproducible trait among humans with normal glucose tolerance.

  9. Rotation of the anatomic regions used for insulin injections and day-to-day variability of plasma glucose in type I diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bantle, J P; Weber, M S; Rao, S M; Chattopadhyay, M K; Robertson, R P

    1990-04-04

    Treatment of type I diabetes mellitus is hindered by the often large fluctuations in blood glucose concentration experienced by affected individuals. To determine to what extent day-to-day variation in blood glucose levels can be reduced if insulin is injected in the same anatomic region rather than in different regions using a rotational scheme, as is commonly recommended, 12 type I diabetic subjects were studied. Insulin injections were given in the abdomen for 3 days and rotated among arms, abdomen, and thighs for 3 days using a crossover design with random assignment of treatment order. Blood samples for measurement of plasma glucose levels were obtained at nine scheduled times on each day. Insulin dose, diet, and physical activity were held constant for each subject. During the abdominal injection period, the mean SD of plasma glucose levels and the mean variance of plasma glucose levels were both less at all nine time points than during the rotating injection period. Overall values for the SD of plasma glucose levels were 2.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/L for the abdominal injection period and 3.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/L for the rotating injection period. Overall values for the variance of plasma glucose levels were 9.2 +/- 1.4 mmol2/L2 for the abdominal injection period and 17.4 +/- 2.2 mmol2/L2 for the rotating injection period. We conclude that the common clinical practice of rotating the anatomic regions used for insulin injections increases day-to-day variation in blood glucose concentration. Use of a single anatomic region, eg, the abdomen, for all insulin injections may reduce this variation and allow greater precision in the adjustment of insulin doses.

  10. Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Cai, Jing; Liu, Shujuan; Huang, Mingwei; Chen, Yao; Lai, Xiaolan; Chen, Yuyu; Zhao, Zhongwen; Wu, Fangzhen; Wu, Dongmei; Miu, Haiyan; Lai, Shenghan; Chen, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women. For 1058 pregnant women enrolled in our hospital at pregnancy weeks 22-30, fasting plasma glucose, neonatal birth weight and prenatal blood pressure, as well as dystocia conditions, were examined. We analysed the correlations between the following: gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight; prenatal blood pressure and gestational fasting plasma glucose as well as dystocia rate and gestational fasting plasma glucose group. A modest correlation was observed between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight (r = 0.093, p = 0.003). The macrosomia rate was smallest when the gestational fasting plasma glucose was in the range 3.51-5.5 mmol/L. Prenatal blood pressure increased linearly with increasing gestational fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.000). There was a significant difference between the dystocia rates in different fasting plasma glucose groups (chi-squared = 13.015, p = 0.043). The results showed that the dystocia rate significantly increased when gestational fasting plasma glucose was >4.9 mmol/L; p = 0.03, OR = 2.156 (95% CI, 1.077-4.318). We suggest that the optimal range of gestational fasting plasma glucose for pregnant Chinese women is in the range 3.5-4.9 mmol/L. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Impact of Different Plasma Glucose Levels on Heart Rate in Experimental Rats With Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guo-Zhong; Xie, Jing; Tian, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Shi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different plasma glucose levels on heart rate (HR) in experimental rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods One hundred and twenty-one male Wistar rats were randomly divided into AMI group (n = 70) and sham-operation group (n = 51). Both groups had low, normal and high glucose levels, respectively. In the former group, hypertonic glucose was injected into the rats to make their blood glucose levels above 16 mmol/L and insulin below 3.3 mmol/L; then, the left anterior descending artery was ligated. In the later group, the models of different blood glucose levels were the same as the former ones, but false operations, thread without ligating, were given to the rats. Electrocardiogram and troponin I (TnI) confirmed that the models were prepared successfully. Electrocardiogram expression of AMI was the formation of Q-wave in over three adjacent leads and abnormal elevation of TnI. Results The HR of the rats in the hypoglycemic group is higher than that of the hyperglycemic group and normal blood glucose group before AMI (P < 0.05). The HR of the hyperglycemic rats is higher than that of the hypoglycemic group and normal blood glucose group after AMI (P < 0.05). In the hypoglycemic group, the HR of the rats who suffered from AMI was lower than that of the rats of the sham group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Hypoglycemia allows faster HR and the HR in the rats with hyperglycemia is higher than that in the rats with hypoglycemia among the AMI rats. PMID:28197283

  12. Effects of sitagliptin on plasma incretin concentrations after glucose administration through an esophagostomy tube or feeding in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Nishii, N; Takashima, S; Iguchi, A; Murahata, Y; Matsuu, A; Hikasa, Y; Kitagawa, H

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effect of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on plasma incretin concentrations after glucose administration through an esophagostomy tube or feeding in healthy cats. Six cats were used for the glucose administration experiment and 5 cats were used for the feeding experiment. Glucose administration through an esophagostomy tube increased plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations by 6-fold, whereas plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations did not change. Feeding increased both plasma GLP-1 concentrations by 1.5-fold and GIP concentrations by 4.6-fold. Sitagliptin was administered through an esophagostomy tube (25 and 50 mg per cat) in the glucose administration experiment and orally (25 mg per cat) in the feeding experiment. Sitagliptin treatment potentiated the GLP-1 response to glucose by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05). In addition, postprandial plasma GLP-1 concentration was higher by 2-fold when sitagliptin was administered (P < 0.05). In contrast, administration of sitagliptin did not affect plasma GIP concentrations after glucose administration or feeding. Sitagliptin enhanced insulin secretion following glucose administration by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05); however, it did not influence the plasma glucose concentration. Furthermore, sitagliptin had no effect on the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. In conclusion, this study provides no evidence that sitagliptin is beneficial for management of feline diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms Regulating Insulin Response to Intragastric Glucose in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Cajacob, Lucian; Riva, Daniele; Herzog, Raphael; Drewe, Juergen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives The changes in blood glucose concentrations that result from an oral glucose challenge are dependent on the rate of gastric emptying, the rate of glucose absorption and the rate of insulin-driven metabolism that include the incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The rate of insulin-driven metabolism is clearly altered in obese subjects, but it is controversial which of these factors is predominant. We aimed to quantify gastric emptying, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and glucose responses, as well as incretin hormone secretions in obese subjects and healthy controls during increasing glucose loads. Subjects/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial in a hospital research unit. A total of 12 normal weight (6 men and 6 women) and 12 non-diabetic obese (BMI > 30, 6 men and 6 women) participants took part in the study. Subjects received intragastric loads of 10 g, 25 g and 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml tap water. Results Main outcome measures were plasma GLP-1 and GIP, plasma glucagon, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and gastric emptying. The primary findings are: i) insulin resistance (P < 0.001) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001); ii) decreased insulin disposal (P < 0.001); iii) trend for reduced GLP-1 responses at 75 g glucose; and iv) increased fasting glucagon levels (P < 0.001) in obese subjects. Conclusions It seems that, rather than changes in incretin secretion, fasting hyperglucagonemia and consequent hyperglycemia play a role in reduced disposal of insulin, contributing to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01875575 PMID:26942445

  14. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  15. Factors predictive of macrosomia in pregnancies with a positive oral glucose challenge test: importance of fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Legardeur, H; Girard, G; Journy, N; Ressencourt, V; Durand-Zaleski, I; Mandelbrot, L

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the factors associated with fetal macrosomia following a positive oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). In this retrospective single-centre study of 1268 pregnancies with positive 50-g OGCTs (plasma glucose≥130mg/dL, or 7.2mmol/L), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG)≥95mg/dL (5.3mmol/L) and/or postprandial glucose (PPG)≥120mg/dL (6.7mmol/L). In GDM pregnancies, the odds ratios adjusted for confounders (age, BMI, ethnicity, parity and weight gain) were 2.02 for macrosomia (Z score≥1.28) and 2.62 for severe macrosomia (Z score≥1.88). For each 10-mg/dL increase in FPG, the mean birth-weight increase was 60g. Macrosomia risk did not differ between GDM patients with normal FPG (<95mg/dL, or 5.3mmol/L) and non-diabetics, but increased significantly in cases of FPG≥95mg/dL and regardless of the level of PPG. In our study population, birth-weight and macrosomia risk were strongly correlated with FPG, suggesting that it is a simple and efficient marker for the risk of macrosomia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults.

    PubMed

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35-65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed.

  17. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  18. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-10-12

    Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.

  19. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Glucose intolerance in fluorosis areas and when fluoride is administered for the treatment of osteoporosis has been reported. Controlled fluoridation of drinking water is regarded as a safe and effective measure to control dental caries. However, the effect on glucose homeostasis was not studied so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intake of fluoridated water supply on glucose metabolism in rats with normal and deficient renal function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of four rats. Renal insufficiency was induced in four groups (NX) which received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm F (NaF) for 60 days. Four groups with simulated surgery acted as controls. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test between controls and NX rats and among rats with different intakes of fluoride. However, plasma insulin level increased as a function of fluoride concentration in drinking water, both in controls and in NX rats. It is concluded that the consumption of fluoridated water from water supply did not affect plasma glucose levels even in cases of animals with renal disease. However, a resistance to insulin action was demonstrated.

  20. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327 PMID:20937162

  1. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/l). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the "diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  2. Interrelations between cerebrospinal fluid and plasma inorganic ions and glucose in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Pye, I F; Aber, G M

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of inorganic ions and glucose in the plasma and CSF of 11 patients with "steady-state" chronic renal failure have been measured and their CSF: plasma interrelations studied. The results have been compared with the corresponding data from 34 control subjects. In the patients with renal failure, there was a positive correlation between raised CSF and plasma potassium concentrations. In contrast to the impaired potassium homeostasis, normal CSF magnesium and calcium concentrations were observed despite wide variations in the plasma concentrations of these ions. PMID:7085915

  3. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew A.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A.; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  4. Effects of rice bran oil on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, N; Andrews, F M; Elliott, S B; Lew, J; Boston, R C

    2005-11-01

    Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics were measured and compared between mares fed diets containing added water, corn oil (CO), refined rice bran oil (RR), or crude rice bran oil (CR) to test the hypothesis that rice bran oil lowers plasma lipid concentrations, alters lipoprotein composition, and improves insulin sensitivity in mares. Eight healthy adult mares received a basal diet fed at 1.5 times the DE requirement for maintenance and each of the four treatments according to a repeated 4 x 4 Latin square design consisting of four 5-wk feeding periods. Blood samples were collected for lipid analysis after mares were deprived of feed overnight at 0 and 5 wk. Glucose dynamics were assessed at 0 and 4 wk in fed mares by combined intravenous glucose-insulin tolerance tests. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, and estimated values of insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness, and net insulin response were obtained using the minimal model. Mean BW increased (P = 0.014) by 29 kg (range = 10 to 50 kg) over 5 wk. Mean plasma concentrations of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P < 0.001) by 55, 30, and 39%, respectively, and plasma high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) by 15 and 12%, respectively, over 5 wk. Changes in plasma NEFA (r = 0.58; P < 0.001) and TC (r = 0.44; P = 0.013) concentrations were positively correlated with weight gain over 5 wk. Lipid components of VLDL decreased (P < 0.001) in abundance over 5 wk, whereas the relative protein content of VLDL increased by 39% (P < 0.001). Addition of oil to the basal diet instead of water lowered plasma NEFA and TG concentrations further (P = 0.002 and 0.020, respectively) and increased plasma TC concentrations by a greater magnitude (P = 0.072). However, only plasma TG concentrations and VLDL free cholesterol content were affected (P = 0.024 and 0.009, respectively

  5. The Unscented Kalman Filter estimates the plasma insulin from glucose measurement.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Claudia; Ament, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the simultaneous interaction within the glucose and insulin homeostasis in real-time is very important for clinical treatment as well as for research issues. Until now only plasma glucose concentrations can be measured in real-time. To support a secure, effective and rapid treatment e.g. of diabetes a real-time estimation of plasma insulin would be of great value. A novel approach using an Unscented Kalman Filter that provides an estimate of the current plasma insulin concentration is presented, which operates on the measurement of the plasma glucose and Bergman's Minimal Model of the glucose insulin homeostasis. We can prove that process observability is obtained in this case. Hence, a successful estimator design is possible. Since the process is nonlinear we have to consider estimates that are not normally distributed. The symmetric Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) will perform best compared to other estimator approaches as the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), the simplex Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), and the Particle Filter (PF). The symmetric UKF algorithm is applied to the plasma insulin estimation. It shows better results compared to the direct (open loop) estimation that uses a model of the insulin subsystem.

  6. Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Raynold V; Phung, Olivia J

    2015-02-13

    Chromium (Cr) is a trace element involved in glucose homeostasis. We aim to evaluate and quantify the effects of Cr supplementation on A1C and FPG in patients with T2DM. A systematic literature search of Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library (from database inception to 11/2014) with no language restrictions sought RCTs or cohort studies evaluating Cr supplementation in T2DM vs control and reporting either change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Meta-analysis was conducted on each subtype of Cr supplement separately, and was analyzed by random effects model to yield the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed by using the I(2) statistic. A total of 14 RCTs (n=875 participants, mean age range: 30 to 83 years old, 8 to 24 weeks of follow-up) were identified (Cr chloride: n=3 study, Cr picolinate: n=5 study, brewer's yeast: n=4 study and Cr yeast: n=3 study). Compared with placebo, Cr yeast, brewer's yeast and Cr picolinate did not show statistically significant effects on A1C. Furthermore, compared to control, Cr chloride, Cr yeast and Cr picolinate showed no effect on FPG, however, brewer's yeast showed a statistically significant decrease in FPG -19.23 mg/dL (95% CI=-35.30 to -3.16, I(2)=21%, n=137). Cr supplementation with brewer's yeast may provide marginal benefits in lowering FPG in patients with T2DM compared to placebo however it did not have any effect on A1C.

  7. Comparison of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin in predicting the neurological outcome of acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Chen, Chin-I; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yih-Ru; Wu, Hsin-Chiao; Chan, Lung; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Hu, Han-Hwa; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia is a known predictor of negative outcomes in stroke. Several glycemic measures, including admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), have been associated with bad neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke, particularly in nondiabetic patients. However, the predictive power of these glycemic measures is yet to be investigated. Methods This retrospective study enrolled 484 patients with acute ischemic stroke from January 2009 to March 2013, and complete records of initial stroke severity, neurological outcomes at three months, and glycemic measures were evaluated. We examined the predictive power of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and HbA1c for neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and patients with diabetes were performed separately. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that admission random glucose and fasting glucose were significant predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas HbA1c was not (areas under the ROC curve (AUCs): admission random glucose = 0.564, p = 0.026; fasting glucose = 0.598, p = 0.001; HbA1c = 0.510, p = 0.742). Subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes revealed that only fasting glucose predicts neurological outcomes in patients with diabetes, and the AUCs of these three glycemic measures did not differ between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the study patients indicated that only age, initial stroke severity, and fasting glucose were independent predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas admission random glucose and HbA1c were not (adjusted odds ratio: admission random glucose = 1.002, p = 0.228; fasting glucose = 1.005, p = 0.039; HbA1c = 1.160, p = 0.076). Furthermore, subgroup multivariate logistic regression analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes indicated that none of the three glycemic

  8. Blood glucose and schizophrenia: a systematic review of prospective randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bushe, Chris J; Leonard, Brian E

    2007-11-01

    Most of the data evaluating the potential relationship between diabetes, schizophrenia, and anti-psychotics currently derive from retrospective analysis. Relevant confounders of such data include screening and selection bias. Prospective data collected from randomized controlled trials may reduce such biases. As no single trial has glucose comparisons as a primary endpoint, we undertook a systematic review of available data. Embase, HealthStar, MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases were searched online for relevant articles. Abstracts from major congresses held between January 2000 and April 2006 were included. Search terms included all currently available antipsychotics: olanzapine, risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and zotepine. Prospective clinical trials involving schizophrenia patients with no stated previous glucose abnormalities randomly assigned to cohorts receiving active or placebo comparator antipsychotic medications were included with no restrictions on study length. 16 studies were from peer-reviewed publications, 4 were from posters at major congresses, and 2 were available only on Internet-based sites. Glucose parameters reported included fasting and random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. Data reported included mean changes and categorical reports of abnormal levels. Data were available in 6329 patients from 22 trials. The most common comparator agents were aripiprazole and olanzapine in 4 studies including 1432 patients. 14 studies reported fasting and 9 studies reported nonfasting data. 15 studies were a minimum of 5 months, with 8 studies of at least 1 year's duration. No consistent significant glucose differences were found between any comparator antipsychotics or placebo in any trial. In contrast to some of the retrospective data, an analysis of prospective data from randomized clinical trials showed no consistent significant differences in the incidence of treatment

  9. Fasting plasma glucose test at the first prenatal visit as a screen for gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sacks, David A; Chen, Wansu; Wolde-Tsadik, Girma; Buchanan, Thomas A

    2003-06-01

    To determine whether the fasting plasma glucose test administered at the first prenatal visit could serve as an efficient screen for gestational diabetes. A total of 5557 women not known to have diabetes were offered a fasting plasma glucose test at their first prenatal visit. Results less than 100 mg/dL were blinded. A glucose tolerance test was requested immediately of those whose screening test result was 100-125 mg/dL and of all women not identified as having diabetes by their 23rd gestational week. A total of 4507 women (81%) complied with the protocol. Of the 302 women found to have gestational diabetes, 46 (15%) were detected before 24 weeks. A false-positive rate of 57% was found at a threshold fasting glucose concentration giving a sensitivity of 80% for the detection of gestational diabetes. The fasting plasma glucose screening test at the first prenatal visit has good patient compliance. However, its poor specificity (high false-positive rate) makes it an inefficient screening test for gestational diabetes.

  10. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  11. An amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid buffered with bicarbonate versus glucose/bicarbonate and glucose/lactate solutions: an intraindividual randomized study.

    PubMed

    Plum, J; Erren, C; Fieseler, C; Kirchgessner, J; Passlick-Deetjen, J; Grabensee, B

    1999-01-01

    In order to study acute metabolic changes and peritoneal transport, amino acids as osmotic agent and bicarbonate as buffer were tested as new agents in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. In a prospective, cross-over, randomized, intraindividual study, we investigated the acute metabolic changes following the application of three different PD fluids: (1) a 1% amino acid-based PD solution buffered with bicarbonate (34 mmol/L) (Amino/Bic); (2) a 1.5% glucose anhydrous-containing bicarbonate-buffered solution (34 mmol/L) (Glu/Bic); and (3) a conventional 1.5% glucose anhydrous-based dialysis solution with lactate (35 mmol/L) (Glu/Lac). University medical center. Ten nondiabetic patients stable on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (time on dialysis, 42.5 +/- 21.5 months) were treated and monitored with the test solutions over a 6-hour dwell. Three different study days followed in a randomized order for each patient (interval of 1-3 weeks). Blood and dialysate samples were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Immediately after the 1-hr dwell (and after sampling), the patients received a standardized breakfast, thereby simulating usual food intake. Following the application of Amino/Bic a significant increase in plasma amino acids occurred, with peak levels (maximum 250% increase) after either the 1-hr or the 2-hr dwell. Before taking the standard meal (0.5 hr, 1 hr), the mean serum glucose level with Amino/Bic was 8% +/- 13% lower than with Glu/Bic (p = 0.06) and 14% +/- 8% lower than with Glu/Lac (p < 0.01). This difference was still significant after the standard breakfast and also for the whole dwell (average serum glucose 0.5-6 hr: Amino/Bic, 91 +/- 6 mg/dL; Glu/Bic, 100 +/- 8 mg/dL; Glu/Lac, 102 +/- 7 mg/dL; p < 0.01 MANOVA). The serum insulin profiles did not differ between the fluids. A transperitoneal protein- and amino acid-related nitrogen loss of 0.49 +/- 0.18 g and 0.48 +/- 0.12 g per dwell was measured using Glu/Bic and Glu/Lac, while a

  12. Studies of blood glucose and plasma insulin in "normal" women using mechanical contraception for 6 months.

    PubMed

    Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A

    1975-12-15

    A prospective study of carbohydrate metabolism was done with 56 "normal" women who were 4 to 11 weeks post partum. Each had a 3 hour oral glucose tolerance test performed before and after 6 months of using an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). The results showed only slight changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels between the two tests. There were elevations of the fasting and 0.5 hour glucose values and the 2 hour plasma insulin value at the 6 month test. These data provide a further understanding of the changing metabolic parameters associated with pregnancy and they also give the "control" baseline information for comparison with other postpartum studies on the metabolic effects of contraceptive steriods.

  13. Changes of the plasma metabolome during an oral glucose tolerance test: is there more than glucose to look at?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinjie; Peter, Andreas; Fritsche, Jens; Elcnerova, Michaela; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    The oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) is a common tool to provoke a metabolic challenge for scientific purposes, as well as for diagnostic reasons, to monitor the kinetics of glucose and insulin. Here, we aimed to follow the variety of physiological changes of the whole metabolic pattern in plasma during an oGTT in healthy subjects in a nontargeted reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometric metabolomics approach. We detected 11,500 metabolite ion masses/individual. Applying multivariate data analysis, four major groups of metabolites have been detected as the most discriminating oGTT biomarkers: free fatty acids (FFA), acylcarnitines, bile acids, and lysophosphatidylcholines. We found in detail 1) a strong decrease of all saturated and monounsaturated FFA studied during the oGTT; 2) a significant faster decline of palmitoleate (C16:1) and oleate (C18:1) FFA levels than their saturated counterparts; 3) a strong relative increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fatty acid pattern at 120 min; and 4) a clear decrease in plasma C10:0, C12:0, and C14:1 acylcarnitine levels. These data reflect the switch from beta-oxidation to glycolysis and fat storage during the oGTT. Moreover, the bile acids glycocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid were highly discriminative, showing a biphasic kinetic with a maximum of a 4.5- to 6-fold increase at 30 min after glucose ingestion, a significant decrease over the next 60 min followed by an increase until the end of the oGTT. Lysophosphatidylcholines were also increased significantly. The findings of our metabolomics study reveal detailed insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an oGTT offering novel perspectives of this widely used procedure.

  14. Glucose-independent inhibition of yeast plasma-membrane H+-ATPase by calmodulin antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, I; Maldonado, A M; Eraso, P

    1997-01-01

    Glucose metabolism causes activation of the yeast plasma-membrane H+-ATPase. The molecular mechanism of this regulation is not known, but it is probably mediated by phosphorylation of the enzyme. The involvement in this process of several kinases has been suggested but their actual role has not been proved. The physiological role of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in glucose-induced activation was investigated by studying the effect of specific calmodulin antagonists on the glucose-induced ATPase kinetic changes in wild-type and two mutant strains affected in the glucose regulation of the enzyme. Preincubation of the cells with calmidazolium or compound 48/80 impeded the increase in ATPase activity by reducing the Vmax of the enzyme without modifying the apparent affinity for ATP in the three strains. In one mutant, pma1-T912A, the putative calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-phosphorylatable Thr-912 was eliminated, and in the other, pma1-P536L, H+-ATPase was constitutively activated, suggesting that the antagonistic effect was not mediated by a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and not related to glucose regulation. This was corroborated when the in vitro effect of the calmodulin antagonists on H+-ATPase activity was tested. Purified plasma membranes from glucose-starved or glucose-fermenting cells from both pma1-P890X, another constitutively activated ATPase mutant, and wild-type strains were preincubated with calmidazolium or melittin. In all cases, ATP hydrolysis was inhibited with an IC50 of approximately 1 microM. This inhibition was reversed by calmodulin. Analysis of the calmodulin-binding protein pattern in the plasma-membrane fraction eliminates ATPase as the calmodulin target protein. We conclude that H+-ATPase inhibition by calmodulin antagonists is mediated by an as yet unidentified calmodulin-dependent membrane protein. PMID:9148755

  15. Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. The causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis B in one case, hepatitis C in 20 cases, alcohol in 15 cases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in eight cases, and other conditions in four cases. The Child-Pugh classes were A in 24 cases, B in 23 cases, and C in one case. The indication for BRTO was gastric varices in 40 cases and hepatic encephalopathy in eight cases. Testing was conducted before and 1 month after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of a clinically significant decline in ammonia levels after BRTO. Occlusion of PSS resulted in a clinically significant decrease in ammonia levels accompanied by increased portal venous flow and improved Child-Pugh score. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in ammonia levels due to BRTO was significantly related to lower plasma glucose levels, higher RBC counts, and higher hemoglobin concentration before the treatment. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative plasma glucose level as the strongest independent predictor of a significant ammonia reduction in response to BRTO. In addition, although BRTO resulted in significantly declined ammonia levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance before the procedure, ammonia levels were not significantly decreased after shunt occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance before BRTO, according to 75-g oral glucose tolerance test results. Preoperative plasma glucose level is a useful predictor of clinically significant ammonia reduction resulting from occlusion of PSS in patients with cirrhosis. Even if PSS are present, control

  16. Plasma epinephrine predicts fasting glucose in centrally obese African-American women.

    PubMed

    Surwit, Richard S; Williams, Redford B; Lane, James D; Feinglos, Mark N; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Georgiades, Anastasia

    2010-09-01

    The high prevalence of diabetes in African-American (AA) women has been widely assumed to be related to the greater prevalence of obesity in this group. Catecholamine release acting on central adipose tissue has been proposed to be a contributing factor. The aim of this article was to examine the interaction of plasma catecholamines and central adiposity on fasting and nonfasting glucose levels in two separate samples. In both studies, the women were healthy, nondiabetic of similar age. In addition, both studies assessed plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NOREPI) levels collected at three time points. In study 1, catecholamines were measured during a standardized laboratory mental stress task and in study 2, they were measured during the initial phase (10 min) of an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Results from both studies revealed significant effects of EPI on fasting glucose in the obese women. In study 1, mean EPI levels were significantly related to fasting glucose in AA women with high trunk fat (beta = 0.60, P < 0.001). Because high BMI was associated with high trunk fat in women, we used BMI >30 as a proxy for high trunk fat (>32%) in study 2. In study 2, EPI response to the glucose bolus was a strong predictor of fasting glucose in AA women with BMI >30 (beta = 0.75, P < 0.003). We conclude that the effect of central adiposity on fasting glucose may be moderated by plasma EPI. This suggests that adrenal medullary activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Dietary flaxseed lignan extract lowers plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Yi; Tian, Haimei; Flickinger, Brent; Empie, Mark W; Sun, Sam Z

    2008-06-01

    Lignans, derived from flaxseed, are phyto-oestrogens being increasingly studied for their health benefits. An 8-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in fifty-five hypercholesterolaemic subjects, using treatments of 0 (placebo), 300 or 600 mg/d of dietary secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from flaxseed extract to determine the effect on plasma lipids and fasting glucose levels. Significant treatment effects were achieved (P < 0.05 to < 0.001) for the decrease of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose concentrations, as well as their percentage decrease from baseline. At weeks 6 and 8 in the 600 mg SDG group, the decreases of TC and LDL-C concentrations were in the range from 22.0 to 24.38 % respectively (all P < 0.005 compared with placebo). For the 300 mg SDG group, only significant differences from baseline were observed for decreases of TC and LDL-C. A substantial effect on lowering concentrations of fasting plasma glucose was also noted in the 600 mg SDG group at weeks 6 and 8, especially in the subjects with baseline glucose concentrations > or = 5.83 mmol/l (lowered 25.56 and 24.96 %; P = 0.015 and P = 0.012 compared with placebo, respectively). Plasma concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone were all significantly raised in the groups supplemented with flaxseed lignan. The observed cholesterol-lowering values were correlated with the concentrations of plasma SECO and ED (r 0.128-0.302; P < 0.05 to < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary flaxseed lignan extract decreased plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.

  18. Clofibrate-induced reduction of plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations impairs glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Shunsuke; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    It has been reported that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration stimulates glucose uptake into muscles and whole body glucose oxidation in rats. The authors examined the effect of decreased plasma BCAA concentrations induced by clofibrate treatment on glucose tolerance in rats. Since clofibrate, a drug for hyperlipidemia (high serum triglyceride concentration), is a potent inhibitor of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase, clofibrate treatment (0.2 g/kg body weight) activated the hepatic branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, resulting in decreased plasma BCAA concentrations by 30% to 50% from the normal level. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted after clofibrate administration, and the results showed that peak plasma glucose concentration and the area under the curve of glucose concentration during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were significantly higher in clofibrate-treated rats than in control rats. This impaired glucose tolerance in the clofibrate-treated rats was ameliorated by administration of BCAAs (0.45 g/kg body weight, leucine:isoleucine:valine = 2:1:1), which kept plasma BCAA concentrations at normal levels during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. These results suggest that plasma BCAAs play an important role in maintaining normal glucose tolerance in rats.

  19. In vitro study of the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives against oxidation of plasma components.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. Since the endogenous antioxidant defense may be not adequate to counteract the enhanced generation of oxidants, a growing interest in research for exogenous nutrients has been observed. The present study was designed to assess in vitro the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives: calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate (0.5-3 mM) in the protection of plasma proteins and lipids, against the damage caused by 0.1 mM peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻). Exposure of plasma to ONOO⁻ resulted in carbonyl groups increase, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, reduction in thiol groups, and enhanced lipid peroxidation. D-gluconic acid lactone and sodium D-gluconate effectively decreased 3-NT formation; the antinitrative action of calcium D-glucarate was less effective. In plasma samples incubated with ONOO⁻ and tested compounds, the level of carbonyl groups was decreased in comparison to plasma samples treated only with ONOO⁻. The level of protein -SH groups and glutathione was significantly higher in the presence of glucose derivatives than in plasma samples treated with ONOO⁻ only. All the tested compounds had the inhibitory effect on the peroxynitrite-induced plasma lipids peroxidation. The results obtained from our work indicate that calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate may partly protect plasma proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-induced damages.

  20. Effect of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Muhammad Mazhar; Khan, Muhammad Alamgir; Ahmad, Tausif

    2013-03-01

    To compare the effects of combined and individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, between October 2010 and April 2011. It comprised 80 healthy Sprague Dawley rats who were divided into four groups (n = 20 each). Rats were fed high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. group I served as diabetic control; group II was given cholecalciferol; group III; levo carnitine; and group IV was administered cholecalciferol and levo carnitine together. After 6 days of supplementation, terminal intracardiac blood extraction was done and samples were analysed for fasting plasma glucose and plasma insulin. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the combined supplementation group compared to the diabetic control and individual supplementation groups. Combined supplementation showed a significant increase in fasting plasma insulin levels when compared with diabetic control and levo carnitine groups (p < 0.001), and the effect of combined supplementation on ameliorating insulin resistance was significantly better (p < 0.001) as compared to the individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine. The combined supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine for 6 days markedly improved the glycaemic control, insulin secretion and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats on high-fat diet A prolonged supplementation by both the compounds along with caloric restriction may yield a more promising outcome.

  1. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  2. Modest decrements in plasma glucose concentration cause early impairment in cognitive function and later activation of glucose counterregulation in the absence of hypoglycemic symptoms in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    De Feo, P; Gallai, V; Mazzotta, G; Crispino, G; Torlone, E; Perriello, G; Ventura, M M; Santeusanio, F; Brunetti, P; Bolli, G B

    1988-01-01

    To establish the glycemic threshold for onset of neuroglycopenia (impaired cognitive function, measured by the latency of the P300 wave), activation of hormonal counterregulation and hypoglycemic symptoms, 12 normal subjects were studied either under conditions of insulin-induced, glucose-controlled plasma glucose decrements, or during maintenance of euglycemia. A decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 88 +/- 3 to 80 +/- 1 mg/dl for 150 min did not result in changes in the latency of the P300 wave nor in an activation of counterregulatory hormonal response. In contrast, a greater decrement in plasma glucose concentration from 87 +/- 3 to 72 +/- 1 mg/dl for 120 min caused an increase in the latency of the P300 wave (from 301 +/- 12 to 348 +/- 20 ms, P less than 0.01), a subsequent increase in all counterregulatory hormones but no hypoglycemic symptoms. Finally, when plasma glucose concentration was decreased in a stepwise manner from 88 +/- 2 to 50 +/- 1 mg/dl within 75 min, the increase in the latency of the P300 wave was correlated with the corresponding plasma glucose concentration (r = -0.76, P less than 0.001). The glycemic threshold for hypoglycemic symptoms was 49 +/- 2 mg/dl. Thus, in normal man the glycemic threshold for neuroglycopenia (72 +/- 1 mg/dl) is greater than currently thought; the hormonal counterregulation follows the onset of neuroglycopenia; the hypoglycemic symptoms are a late indicator of advanced neuroglycopenia. PMID:3403713

  3. EVOLUTION OF FAST MAGNETOACOUSTIC PULSES IN RANDOMLY STRUCTURED CORONAL PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D.; Li, B.; Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Keppens, R. E-mail: bbl@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of fast magnetoacoustic pulses in randomly structured plasmas, in the context of large-scale propagating waves in the solar atmosphere. We perform one-dimensional numerical simulations of fast wave pulses propagating perpendicular to a constant magnetic field in a low-β plasma with a random density profile across the field. Both linear and nonlinear regimes are considered. We study how the evolution of the pulse amplitude and width depends on their initial values and the parameters of the random structuring. Acting as a dispersive medium, a randomly structured plasma causes amplitude attenuation and width broadening of the fast wave pulses. After the passage of the main pulse, secondary propagating and standing fast waves appear. Width evolution of both linear and nonlinear pulses can be well approximated by linear functions; however, narrow pulses may have zero or negative broadening. This arises because narrow pulses are prone to splitting, while broad pulses usually deviate less from their initial Gaussian shape and form ripple structures on top of the main pulse. Linear pulses decay at an almost constant rate, while nonlinear pulses decay exponentially. A pulse interacts most efficiently with a random medium with a correlation length of about half of the initial pulse width. This detailed model of fast wave pulses propagating in highly structured media substantiates the interpretation of EIT waves as fast magnetoacoustic waves. Evolution of a fast pulse provides us with a novel method to diagnose the sub-resolution filamentation of the solar atmosphere.

  4. Radiation inactivation target size of rat adipocyte glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and intracellular pools

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, D.B.; Berenski, C.J.; Spangler, R.A.; Jung, C.Y.

    1987-06-15

    The in situ assembly states of the glucose transport carrier protein in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular (microsomal) storage pool of rat adipocytes were assessed by studying radiation-induced inactivation of the D-glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding activities. High energy radiation inactivated the glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding of each of these membrane preparations by reducing the total number of the binding sites without affecting the dissociation constant. The reduction in total number of binding sites was analyzed as a function of radiation dose based on target theory, from which a radiation-sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When the plasma membranes of insulin-treated adipocytes were used, a target size of approximately 58,000 daltons was obtained. For adipocyte microsomal membranes, we obtained target sizes of approximately 112,000 and 109,000 daltons prior to and after insulin treatment, respectively. In the case of microsomal membranes, however, inactivation data showed anomalously low radiation sensitivities at low radiation doses, which may be interpreted as indicating the presence of a radiation-sensitive inhibitor. These results suggest that the adipocyte glucose transporter occurs as a monomer in the plasma membrane while existing in the intracellular reserve pool either as a homodimer or as a stoichiometric complex with a protein of an approximately equal size.

  5. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Minh, Timothy D C; Oliver, Stacy R; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2011-06-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ~100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects.

  6. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. Plasma insulin concentrations peaked at 10 min post-exercise and the increase between this time of recovery and the end of the warm-up was also significantly higher in women than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  7. Mechanism of glucose and maltose transport in plasma-membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, P J; van Gompel, A E; Luttik, M A; Pronk, J T; van Leeuwen, C C

    1997-01-01

    Transport of glucose and maltose was studied in plasma-membrane vesicles from Candida utilis. The yeast was grown on a mixture of glucose and maltose in aerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures which enabled transport to be studied for both sugars with the same vesicles. Vesicles were prepared by fusion of isolated plasma membranes with proteoliposomes containing bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive-force-generating system. Addition of reduced cytochrome c generated a proton-motive force, consisting of a membrane potential, negative inside, and a pH gradient, alkaline inside. Energization led to accumulation of glucose and maltose in these vesicles, reaching accumulation ratios of about 40-50. Accumulation also occurred in the presence of valinomycin or nigericin, but was prevented by a combination of the two ionophores or by uncoupler, showing that glucose and maltose transport are dependent on the proton-motive force. Comparison of sugar accumulation with quantitative data on the proton-motive force indicated a 1:1 H+/sugar stoichiometry for both transport systems. Efflux of accumulated glucose was observed on dissipation of the proton-motive force. Exchange and counterflow experiments confirmed the reversible character of the H+-glucose symporter. In contrast, uncoupler or a mixture of valinomycin plus nigericin induced only a slow efflux of accumulated maltose. Moreover under counterflow conditions, the expected transient accumulation was small. Thus the H+-maltose symporter has some characteristics of a carrier that is not readily reversible. It is concluded that in C. utilis the transport systems for glucose and maltose are both driven by the proton-motive force, but the mechanisms are different. PMID:9020885

  8. Mechanism of glucose and maltose transport in plasma-membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, P J; van Gompel, A E; Luttik, M A; Pronk, J T; van Leeuwen, C C

    1997-01-15

    Transport of glucose and maltose was studied in plasma-membrane vesicles from Candida utilis. The yeast was grown on a mixture of glucose and maltose in aerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures which enabled transport to be studied for both sugars with the same vesicles. Vesicles were prepared by fusion of isolated plasma membranes with proteoliposomes containing bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase as a proton-motive-force-generating system. Addition of reduced cytochrome c generated a proton-motive force, consisting of a membrane potential, negative inside, and a pH gradient, alkaline inside. Energization led to accumulation of glucose and maltose in these vesicles, reaching accumulation ratios of about 40-50. Accumulation also occurred in the presence of valinomycin or nigericin, but was prevented by a combination of the two ionophores or by uncoupler, showing that glucose and maltose transport are dependent on the proton-motive force. Comparison of sugar accumulation with quantitative data on the proton-motive force indicated a 1:1 H+/sugar stoichiometry for both transport systems. Efflux of accumulated glucose was observed on dissipation of the proton-motive force. Exchange and counterflow experiments confirmed the reversible character of the H+-glucose symporter. In contrast, uncoupler or a mixture of valinomycin plus nigericin induced only a slow efflux of accumulated maltose. Moreover under counterflow conditions, the expected transient accumulation was small. Thus the H+-maltose symporter has some characteristics of a carrier that is not readily reversible. It is concluded that in C. utilis the transport systems for glucose and maltose are both driven by the proton-motive force, but the mechanisms are different.

  9. Associations between plasma glucose and DSM-III-R cluster B personality traits in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, P; Mattila-Evenden, M; Gustavsson, P J; Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Asberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Associations between personality traits, measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Impulsiveness subscale from the Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness and Empathy (IVE) Inventory, and with self-assessed personality traits and disorders (SCID-II Screen Questionnaire), and plasma insulin, glucagon and glucose, respectively, were explored in a sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients of both sexes. No relationships between the peptide hormones and personality measures were found. However, fasting glucose values, which were all essentially within the normal biological variation, were significantly related to several personality measures. For males, a low blood glucose was associated with low stable general level of functioning, with high IVE Impulsiveness, and with self-assessed histrionic and narcissistic traits. High number of self-assessed personality traits for all cluster B personality disorders was strongly associated with high IVE Impulsiveness. The results of the present study support the generalizability of earlier findings from alcoholic impulsive offenders: in males, low blood glucose is associated with an extrovert and impulsive, acting-out behavior that includes the breaking of societal norms and rules. In contrast, for females a positive relationship between fasting glucose and self-assessed histrionic personality traits was found. Because no association between global level of functioning and glucose was found in women, these personality traits may not necessarily be maladaptive, as was the case for males.

  10. The validation of the Z-Scan technique for the determination of plasma glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Sarah I.; Silva, Elaine A. O.; Costa, Simone S.; Sonego, Denise R. N.; Hallack, Maira L.; Coppini, Ornela L.; Rowies, Fernanda; Azzalis, Ligia A.; Junqueira, Virginia B. C.; Pereira, Edimar C.; Rocha, Katya C.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Glucose is the main energy source for the human body. The concentration of blood glucose is regulated by several hormones including both antagonists: insulin and glucagon. The quantification of glucose in the blood is used for diagnosing metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, such as diabetes, idiopathic hypoglycemia and pancreatic diseases. Currently, the methodology used for this determination is the enzymatic colorimetric with spectrophotometric. This study aimed to validate the use of measurements of nonlinear optical properties of plasma glucose via the Z-Scan technique. For this we used samples of calibrator patterns that simulate commercial samples of patients (ELITech ©). Besides calibrators, serum glucose levels within acceptable reference values (normal control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) and also overestimated (pathological control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) were used in the methodology proposal. Calibrator dilutions were performed and determined by the Z-Scan technique for the preparation of calibration curve. In conclusion, Z-Scan method can be used to determinate glucose levels in biological samples with enzymatic colorimetric reaction and also to apply the same quality control parameters used in biochemistry clinical.

  11. Benefits of blinded continuous glucose monitoring during a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Muchmore, Douglas; Sharp, Melissa; Vaughn, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Real-time, personal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a validated technology that can help patients improve glycemic control. Blinded CGM is a promising technology for obtaining retrospective data in clinical research where the quantity and quality of blood glucose information is important. This study was designed to investigate the use of novel procedures to enhance data capture from blinded CGM. Following a 4-week run-in, 46 patients with type 1 diabetes were randomized to one of two prandial insulins for a 12-week treatment period, after which they were crossed over to the alternate treatment for 12 weeks. Continuous glucose monitoring was implemented at the end of run-in (practice only) and during the last 2 weeks of each treatment period. Eighty percent of 288 possible daily glucose values were required for at least three days. Continuous glucose monitoring was extended for an additional week if these criteria were not met, and patients were allowed to insert sensors at home when necessary. Continuous glucose monitoring results were compared to reference eight-point self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Higher than expected sensor failure rate was approximately 25%. During run-in, 12 of 45 attempted profiles failed adequacy criteria. However, treatment periods had only 1 of 82 attempted profiles considered inadequate (6 cases required an additional week of CGM). Using SMBG as reference, 93.7% of 777 CGM values were in Clarke error grid zones A+B. With appropriate training, adequate practice, and opportunity to repeat blinded CGM as needed, nearly 100% of attempted profiles can be obtained successfully. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. A 12-week randomized clinical trial investigating the potential for sucralose to affect glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Grotz, V Lee; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Porte, Daniel; Roberts, Ashley; Richard Trout, J

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of gut sweet taste receptors has led to speculations that non-nutritive sweeteners, including sucralose, may affect glucose control. A double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial, reported here and previously submitted to regulatory agencies, helps to clarify the role of sucralose in this regard. This was primarily an out-patient study, with 4-week screening, 12-week test, and 4-week follow-up phases. Normoglycemic male volunteers (47) consumed ∼333.3 mg encapsulated sucralose or placebo 3x/day at mealtimes. HbA1c, fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured weekly. OGTTs were conducted in-clinic overnight, following overnight fasting twice during screening phase, twice during test phase, and once at follow-up. Throughout the study, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c levels were within normal range. No statistically significant differences between sucralose and placebo groups in change from baseline for fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide and HbA1c, no clinically meaningful differences in time to peak levels or return towards basal levels in OGTTs, and no treatment group differences in mean glucose, insulin, or C-peptide AUC change from baseline were observed. The results of other relevant clinical trials and studies of gastrointestinal sweet taste receptors are compared to these findings. The collective evidence supports that sucralose has no effect on glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Heartland Food Products Group. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16.

  14. Plasma corticosterone, insulin and glucose changes induced by brief exposure to isoflurane, diethyl ether and CO2 in male rats.

    PubMed

    Zardooz, H; Rostamkhani, F; Zaringhalam, J; Faraji Shahrivar, F

    2010-01-01

    The impact of anesthetic agents on endocrine and metabolic factors is an important issue. The present study has compared the effects of a short-term exposure to diethyl ether, isoflurane, or CO2 on plasma corticosterone, insulin and glucose concentrations since the duration of anesthetic exposure may have an effect on those factors. Male rats were divided into fed and fasted groups. The experimental rats were briefly exposed to diethyl ether, isoflurane, or CO2 (the degree of anesthesia was identical), while a control group was not exposed to the anesthetics. In the fed rats, diethyl ether exposure increased the levels of plasma glucose. CO2 exposure decreased plasma corticosterone and increased plasma glucose levels. Isoflurane exposure caused no changes in plasma corticosterone, glucose, or insulin levels. In the fasted rats, diethyl ether exposure increased plasma corticosterone and reduced plasma insulin levels. The plasma corticosterone and insulin levels were significantly increased by CO2) exposure. Isoflurane exposure decreased plasma insulin levels. A brief exposure to either diethyl ether or CO2 changed the plasma corticosterone, glucose, and insulin levels in fed and/or fasted rats. However, isoflurane exposure had the least effect on the concentration of these factors in both the fed and fasted states.

  15. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Effect of malnutrition during the first year of life on adult plasma insulin and glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    González-Barranco, J; Ríos-Torres, J M; Castillo-Martínez, L; López-Alvarenga, J C; Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Bouchard, C; Deprès, J P; Tremblay, A

    2003-08-01

    There is evidence linking intrauterine growth retardation with increased cardiovascular risk and diabetes mellitus (DM) later in life. However, little is known about the association between malnutrition during the first year of life and metabolic abnormalities in adulthood. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of documented malnutrition during the first year of life on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, lipid profile, and blood pressure in early adulthood, as well as to assess the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and malnutrition on these variables. A study group of young men with a documented history of malnutrition during their first year of life was recruited from 4 pediatric hospitals in Mexico City and compared with a control group. Subjects included were 52 men, aged 20.2 +/- 3.6 years, with a mean birth weight of 3.0 +/- 0.7 kg and documented malnutrition in their first year of life; controls were 50 men, aged 23.3 +/- 1.8 years, with a mean birth weight of 3.2 +/- 0.5 kg. Insulin and glucose concentrations, fasting and in response to an oral glucose load, plasma lipids, blood pressure, and an insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were measured. The areas under the curves of glucose (AUCG) and insulin (AUCI) were significantly higher in cases (P =.012 and <.002, respectively), independent of birth weight, BMI, or age. BMI was significantly associated with fasting plasma insulin (FPI), AUCI, ISI, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations in cases, but not in controls. These data suggest that early malnutrition in extrauterine life, independently of birth weight, has an adverse effect on insulin metabolism and glucose tolerance in young men, and it worsens as body mass increases even within the normal range of BMI. Therefore, it is advisable to prevent obesity in individuals exposed to early malnutrition.

  17. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  18. Feasibility of fully automated closed-loop glucose control using continuous subcutaneous glucose measurements in critical illness: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; English, Shane W; Thabit, Hood; Caldwell, Karen; Allen, Janet M; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Nodale, Marianna; Mangat, Jasdip; Evans, Mark L; Burnstein, Rowan; Hovorka, Roman

    2013-07-24

    Closed-loop (CL) systems modulate insulin delivery according to glucose levels without nurse input. In a prospective randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the feasibility of an automated closed-loop approach based on subcutaneous glucose measurements in comparison with a local sliding-scale insulin-therapy protocol. Twenty-four critically ill adults (predominantly trauma and neuroscience patients) with hyperglycemia (glucose, ≥10 mM) or already receiving insulin therapy, were randomized to receive either fully automated closed-loop therapy (model predictive control algorithm directing insulin and 20% dextrose infusion based on FreeStyle Navigator continuous subcutaneous glucose values, n = 12) or a local protocol (n = 12) with intravenous sliding-scale insulin, over a 48-hour period. The primary end point was percentage of time when arterial blood glucose was between 6.0 and 8.0 mM. The time when glucose was in the target range was significantly increased during closed-loop therapy (54.3% (44.1 to 72.8) versus 18.5% (0.1 to 39.9), P = 0.001; median (interquartile range)), and so was time in wider targets, 5.6 to 10.0 mM and 4.0 to 10.0 mM (P ≤ 0.002), reflecting a reduced glucose exposure >8 and >10 mM (P ≤ 0.002). Mean glucose was significantly lower during CL (7.8 (7.4 to 8.2) versus 9.1 (8.3 to 13.0] mM; P = 0.001) without hypoglycemia (<4 mM) during either therapy. Fully automated closed-loop control based on subcutaneous glucose measurements is feasible and may provide efficacious and hypoglycemia-free glucose control in critically ill adults. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT01440842.

  19. Spectral analysis of time functions of plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin during intravenous glucose tolerance testing on atherosclerosis and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinov, Igor A.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Brook, Sergey B.

    2000-04-01

    The time functions of plasma glucose and insulin obtained during intravenous glucose tolerance test were approximated by sections of Fourier series. The convincing quantitative and quality distinctions of amplitudes both phases of the first and second harmonics of decomposition of the indicated time functions are obtained. These distinctions were used as a basis of diagnostic algorithm of metabolic violations appropriate for atherosclerosis and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in clinically obvious and preclinical stages.

  20. Population meta-analysis of low plasma glucose thresholds in full-term normal newborns.

    PubMed

    Alkalay, Arie L; Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Elashoff, Janet D; Farber, Sergio J; Simmons, Charles F

    2006-02-01

    There is extreme variation in the definition of low plasma glucose levels in newborn infants in the first postnatal days, ranging from < 30 to < or = 60 mg/dL. The goal of the present study was to define low thresholds (< or = 5th percentile) of plasma glucose concentrations in full-term normal newborns during the first 72 hours of life. Population meta-analysis was performed on published studies of neonatal hypoglycemia ascertained by MedLine search. One-way analysis of variance was computed across the studies for each of the following four postnatal time periods: 1 to 2 (physiological nadir), 3 to 23, 24 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours. The estimated < or = 5th percentiles of neonatal hypoglycemia during 1 to 2, 3 to 23, 24 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours after birth were < or = 28, < or = 40, < or = 41, and < or = 48 mg/dL, respectively. Based on this statistical definition, we recommend that low thresholds of plasma glucose levels of 28, 40, and 48 mg/dL be adopted in full-term normal newborns at 1 to 2, 3 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours of life, respectively.

  1. Determinants of plasma glucose level and diabetic status in a northern Canadian Indian population.

    PubMed Central

    Young, T K; Sevenhuysen, G P; Ling, N; Moffatt, M E

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 704 Indians aged 20 to 64 years in six remote communities in northern Ontario and Manitoba to determine the factors associated with the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and diabetic status, defined by past history and current fasting plasma glucose level. Multivariate analyses for the 671 subjects with complete data showed that triglyceride level, age and body mass index (BMI) were significant predictors of the log fasting plasma glucose level and the log glycosylated hemoglobin level; for the latter, waist/hip ratio, history of diabetes mellitus among first-degree relatives and low level of education were additional predictors. Significant risk factors for diabetes as a dichotomous variable included triglyceride level, age, BMI and family history of diabetes. Although energy intake per unit of body weight was lower among subjects with diabetes than those without diabetes, possibly reflecting the lower physical activity level of diabetic subjects, the former consumed significantly more "calorie-adjusted" protein and less carbohydrate than the latter. The findings are consistent with studies in other populations. Further study is needed to determine the natural history of diabetes and its metabolic consequences and to assess the effect of dietary alteration and promotion of physical activity on the incidence of the disease. PMID:2322914

  2. Impaired glucose tolerance after brief heat exposure: a randomized crossover study in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    A high demand on thermoregulatory processes may challenge homoeostasis, particularly regarding glucose regulation. This has been understudied, although it might concern millions of humans. The objective of this project was to examine the isolated and combined effects of experimental short-term mild heat exposure and metabolic level on glucoregulation. Two experimental randomized crossover studies were conducted. Ten healthy young men participated in study A, which comprises four sessions in a fasting state at two metabolic levels [rest and exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2) for 40 min] in two environmental temperatures (warm: 31°C and control: 22°C). Each session ended with an ad libitum meal, resulting in similar energy intake across sessions. In study B, 12 healthy young men underwent two 3 h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in warm and control environmental temperatures. Venous blood was sampled at several time points. In study A, repeated measure ANOVAs revealed higher postprandial serum glucose and insulin levels with heat exposure. Glycaemia following the OGTT was higher in the warm temperature compared with control. The kinetics of the serum glucose response to the glucose load was also affected by the environmental temperature (temperature-by-time interaction, P=0.030), with differences between the warm and control conditions observed up to 90 min after the glucose load (all P<0.033). These studies provide evidence that heat exposure alters short-term glucoregulation. The implication of this environmental factor in the physiopathology of Type 2 diabetes has yet to be investigated.

  3. Simultaneous quantification of labeled (2)H5-glycerol, (13)C6-glucose, and endogenous D-glucose in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring the level of glucose and glycerol or their labeled derivatives in biological fluid for kinetic studies has always been challenging, especially in mice, because of the limited volume in addition to the complexity of plasma. For such application, we developed a simple, fast, and sensitive method for the simultaneous measurement of absolute concentrations of labeled (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose as well as endogenous D-glucose using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In our study, 15.0 μL of mouse plasma was processed by a one-step protein precipitation, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The quantification of the analytes was carried out by monitoring the product ion scan of their corresponding deprotonated molecular ions and constructing the extracted ion fragmentogram by choosing a specific product ion for each analyte (equivalent to precursor ion to product ion transitions). The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated to be 1.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was observed to be 5.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose in diluted mice plasma that corresponds to 50 μM in plasma or 4.60 and 9.01 mg/dL of glycerol and glucose in plasma, respectively. The extraction recoveries are 81.9 % (CV = 8.1 %) for (2)H5-glycerol and 26.2 % (CV = 13.6 %) for (13)C6-glucose.

  4. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase plasma glucose via reactive oxygen species-induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Wang, Changlin; Ma, Xiao; He, Hongjuan; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2015-10-01

    There have been few reports about the possible toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles on the endocrine system. We explored the endocrine effects of oral administration to mice of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 64 and 320 mg kg(-1) body weight per day to control, low-dose and high-dose groups, respectively, 7 days per week for 14 weeks). TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and their physiological distribution was investigated by inductively coupled plasma. Biochemical analyzes included plasma glucose, insulin, heart blood triglycerides (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related markers (total SOD, GSH and MDA). Phosphorylation of IRS1, Akt, JNK1, and p38 MAPK were analyzed by western blotting. Increased titanium levels were found in the liver, spleen, small intestine, kidney and pancreas. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose significantly increased whereas there was no difference in plasma insulin secretion. Increased ROS levels were found in serum and the liver, as evidenced by reduced total SOD activity and GSH level and increased MDA content. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles induced insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver, shown by increased phosphorylation of IRS1 (Ser307) and reduced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473). The pathway by which TiO2 nanoparticles increase ROS-induced IR were included in the inflammatory response and phosphokinase, as shown by increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased phosphorylation of JNK1 and p38 MAPK in liver. These results show that oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles increases ROS, resulting in IR and increasing plasma glucose in mice.

  5. Music and 25% glucose pain relief for the premature infant: a randomized clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Farias, Leiliane Martins; de Melo, Gleicia Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the total Premature Infant Pain Profile scores of premature infants undergoing arterial puncture during music and 25% glucose interventions, and to assess their association with neonatal and therapeutic variables. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial with 80 premature infants; 24 in the Experimental Group 1 (music), 33 in the Experimental Group 2 (music and 25% glucose), 23 in the Positive Control Group (25% glucose). All premature infants were videotaped and a lullaby was played for ten minutes before puncture in Experimental Groups 1 and 2; 25% glucose administered in Experimental Group 2 and the Positive Control Group two minutes before puncture. RESULTS: 60.0% of premature infants had moderate or maximum pain; pain scores and intervention groups were not statistically significant. Statistically significant variables: Experimental Group 1: head and chest circumference, Apgar scores, corrected gestational age; Experimental Group 2: chest circumference, Apgar scores, oxygen therapy; Positive Control group: birth weight, head circumference. CONCLUSION: neonatal variables are associated with pain in premature infants. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: UTN: U1111-1123-4821. PMID:25493677

  6. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Marlene Coelho; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Bárbara Gastal Borges; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Silveira, Rita C.; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight ≤1,500 g and/or gestational age ≤32 weeks. METHODS: A masked, randomized clinical trial for one dose of 1 ml of oral 25% glucose solution 2 minutes before the first ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was conducted between March 2008 and April 2010. The results were compared to those of a control group that did not receive oral glucose solution. Pain was evaluated using a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale immediately before and immediately after the ophthalmologic examination in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00648687 RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients who were examined for the first time for retinopathy of prematurity were included. Seventy were included in the intervention group and 54 in the control group. The number of patients with pain immediately before the procedure was similar in both groups. The number of patients with pain after ophthalmologic examination was 15.7% in the intervention group and 68.5% in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One ml of oral 25% glucose solution given 2 minutes before an ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was an effective measure for pain relief. PMID:23525316

  7. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  8. Plasma glucose after stomach or jejunum glucose infusion in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients--a possible implication for early satiety mechanism.

    PubMed

    Czupryniak, L; Pawłowski, M; Szymański, D; Olejniczak, W; Saryusz-Wolska, M; Loba, J; Strzelczyk, J

    2011-03-01

    Morbidly obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery experience early satiety soon after the surgery; the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. As blood glucose concentration plays a role in appetite regulation in humans, we hypothesized that after gastric bypass surgery glucose absorbed mainly in jejunum leads to a greater rise in plasma glucose that if it is ingested in stomach. 24 non-diabetes morbidly obese patients (15 women, 9 men, mean age [± SD] 35.6 ± 11.9 years, body weight 140.7 ± 33.1 kg, BMI 46.8 ± 8.3 kg/m²) undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were given 10 ml of 40% glucose solution to the stomach before its size reduction and to the jejunum after gastro-jejunal anastomosis was formed. After jejunal infusion blood glucose increased more rapidly and was ∼30% higher than after stomach infusion. Moreover, this increase was less pronounced in more obese patients. In patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery glucose absorbed in jejunum leads to greater rise in plasma glucose concentration than if it is ingested in stomach. This phenomenon may help explain satiety feeling occurring early in gastric bypass surgery patients. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Randomized controlled clinical trial of Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT III) in Switzerland and Germany.

    PubMed

    Schachinger, Hartmut; Hegar, Karin; Hermanns, Norbert; Straumann, Madeleine; Keller, Ulrich; Fehm-Wolfsdorf, Gabriele; Berger, Willi; Cox, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Although both diabetes and the efficacy of medical management are international issues, psycho-educational interventions might be culturally bound. Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT) is a psycho-educational program for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is focused on improving recognition and management of extreme blood glucose levels, and is the best documented American psycho-educational program for this purpose. A randomized controlled clinical trial of BGAT's long-term benefits in a non-American setting has been lacking. One hundred and eleven adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus from Switzerland and Germany participated. After a 6 months baseline assessment, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 2 months of BGAT (n = 56) or a physician-guided self-help control intervention (n = 55). BGAT improved recognition of low (p = 0.008), high (p = .03), and overall blood glucose (p = 0.001), and reduced frequency of severe hypoglycemia (p = 0.04), without compromising metabolic control. BGAT reduced both the external locus of control (p < 0.02) and fear of hypoglycemia (p < 0.02). BGAT was efficacious in reducing adverse clinical events and achieving clinically desirable goals in a European, as well as American setting.

  10. Plasma triglycerides after oral glucose load specifically associate with metabolic risk markers in healthy type 2 diabetes offspring.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Michaela; Tödter, Klaus; Altenburg, Christiane; Beisiegel, Ulrike; Scheja, Ludger

    2011-07-01

    To assess the potential of plasma triglycerides measured after glucose load as biomarker for insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, n=91) was performed in healthy type 2 diabetes offspring. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and hormones were quantified in fasting and post-challenge samples. During the OGTT total plasma triglycerides decreased in most subjects, however, they increased in some individuals and this increase was strongly associated with metabolic risk factors. Subjects with increasing triglycerides (n=18) were more obese and insulin resistant than those with the most pronounced triglyceride decrease (n=18), as indicated by higher HOMA-IR, BMI and waist circumference. Correlation analysis (n=91) demonstrated that the changes of total plasma and VLDL-associated triglycerides between 0 h and 2 h (Δ-TG, Δ-VLDL-T) were strongly associated with risk factors. Δ-TG, and especially Δ-VLDL-T, correlated better than fasting triglycerides with waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and fasting glucose. The correlations remained significant after adjustment for gender, age and HDL cholesterol. The observed increase of triglycerides after glucose load in subjects with signs of insulin resistance and obesity suggests that post-glucose triglyceride change is a potential novel biomarker for early detection of metabolic risk. The specific association of post-glucose triglyceride change with abdominal obesity and fasting glucose suggests a link to hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of plasma membrane cholesterol depletion on glucose transport regulation in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Zambonin, Laura; Prata, Cecilia; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Hakim, Gabriele; Hrelia, Silvana; Fiorentini, Diana

    2012-01-01

    GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To this purpose, the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) on both GLUT1 activity and trafficking was compared to that of the cytokine Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results show that, like SCF, MBCD led to an increased glucose transport rate and caused a subcellular redistribution of GLUT1, recruiting intracellular transporter molecules to the plasma membrane. Due to the role of caveolae/lipid rafts in GLUT1 stimulation in response to many stimuli, we have also investigated the GLUT1 distribution along the fractions obtained after non ionic detergent treatment and density gradient centrifugation, which was only slightly changed upon MBCD treatment. The data suggest that MBCD exerts its action via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism that ultimately results in augmented GLUT1 translocation. Moreover, cholesterol depletion triggers GLUT1 translocation without the involvement of c-kit signalling pathway, in fact MBCD effect does not involve Akt and PLCγ phosphorylation. These data, together with the observation that the combined MBCD/SCF cell treatment caused an additive effect on glucose uptake, suggest that the action of SCF and MBCD may proceed through two distinct mechanisms, the former following a signalling pathway, and the latter possibly involving a novel cholesterol dependent mechanism.

  12. Pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, from a randomized study in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sue; Devineni, Damayanthi; Ghosh, Atalanta; Polidori, David; Hompesch, Marcus; Arnolds, Sabine; Morrow, Linda; Spitzer, Heike; Demarest, Keith; Rothenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending-dose study evaluated the pharmacodynamic effects and safety/tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients (N = 116) discontinued their antihyperglycemic medications 2 weeks before randomization. Patients received canagliflozin 30, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily or 300 mg twice daily, or placebo at 2 study centers in the United States and Germany, or canagliflozin 30 mg once daily or placebo at 1 study center in Korea, while maintaining an isocaloric diet for 2 weeks. On Days -1, 1, and 16, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), plasma glucose (PG), fasting PG (FPG), and insulin were measured. The renal threshold for glucose (RTG) was calculated from UGE, PG, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Safety was evaluated based on adverse event (AE) reports, vital signs, electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory tests, and physical examinations. Canagliflozin increased UGE dose-dependently (,80-120 g/day with canagliflozin $100 mg), with increases maintained over the 14-day dosing period with each dose. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased RTG, with maximal reductions to ,4-5 mM (72-90 mg/dL). Canagliflozin also reduced FPG and 24-hour mean PG; glucose reductions were seen on Day 1 and maintained over 2 weeks. Plasma insulin reductions with canagliflozin were consistent with observed PG reductions. Canagliflozin also reduced body weight. AEs were transient, mild to moderate in intensity, and balanced across groups; 1 canagliflozin-treated female reported an episode of vaginal candidiasis. Canagliflozin did not cause hypoglycemia, consistent with the RTG values remaining above the hypoglycemia threshold. At Day 16, there were no clinically meaningful changes in urine volume, urine electrolyte excretion, renal function, or routine laboratory test values. Canagliflozin increased UGE and decreased RTG, leading to reductions

  13. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (p<0.05) in group A, whereas the FPG, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides were found significantly increased (p<0.05). Group B registered a significant fall (p<0.05) in BMI as well as blood pressure. Fall in FPG level after guava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicating that guava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  14. Randomized, controlled trial of glucose-sparing peritoneal dialysis in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Philip K T; Culleton, Bruce F; Ariza, Amaury; Do, Jun-Young; Johnson, David W; Sanabria, Mauricio; Shockley, Ty R; Story, Ken; Vatazin, Andrey; Verrelli, Mauro; Yu, Alex W; Bargman, Joanne M

    2013-11-01

    Glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions may exacerbate metabolic abnormalities and increase cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Here, we examined whether a low-glucose regimen improves metabolic control in diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to the control group (dextrose solutions only) or to the low-glucose intervention group (IMPENDIA trial: combination of dextrose-based solution, icodextrin and amino acids; EDEN trial: a different dextrose-based solution, icodextrin and amino acids) and followed for 6 months. Combining both studies, 251 patients were allocated to control (n=127) or intervention (n=124) across 11 countries. The primary endpoint was change in glycated hemoglobin from baseline. Mean glycated hemoglobin at baseline was similar in both groups. In the intention-to-treat population, the mean glycated hemoglobin profile improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group (0.5% difference between groups; 95% confidence interval, 0.1% to 0.8%; P=0.006). Serum triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B levels also improved in the intervention group. Deaths and serious adverse events, including several related to extracellular fluid volume expansion, increased in the intervention group, however. These data suggest that a low-glucose dialysis regimen improves metabolic indices in diabetic patients receiving peritoneal dialysis but may be associated with an increased risk of extracellular fluid volume expansion. Thus, use of glucose-sparing regimens in peritoneal dialysis patients should be accompanied by close monitoring of fluid volume status.

  15. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucose-responsive insulin and glucagon delivery (dual-hormone artificial pancreas) in adults with type 1 diabetes: a randomized crossover controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, Ahmad; Legault, Laurent; Dallaire, Maryse; Alkhateeb, Ammar; Coriati, Adèle; Messier, Virginie; Cheng, Peiyao; Millette, Maude; Boulet, Benoit; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most patients with type 1 diabetes do not achieve their glycemic targets. We aimed to assess the efficacy of glucose-responsive insulin and glucagon closed-loop delivery for controlling glucose levels in adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover trial involving 15 adults with type 1 diabetes, comparing standard insulin-pump therapy with dual-hormone, closed-loop delivery. Patients were admitted twice to a clinical research facility and received, in random order, both treatments. Each 15-hour visit (from 1600 to 0700) included an evening exercise session, followed by a medium-sized meal, a bedtime snack and an overnight stay. During visits that involved closed-loop delivery, basal insulin and glucagon miniboluses were delivered according to recommendations based on glucose sensor readings and a predictive dosing algorithm at 10-minute intervals. During visits involving standard insulin-pump therapy (control visits), patients used conventional treatment. Results: Dual-hormone closed-loop delivery increased the percentage of time for which patients’ plasma glucose levels were in the target range (median 70.7% [interquartile range (IQR) 46.1%–88.4%] for closed-loop delivery v. 57.3% [IQR 25.2%–71.8%] for control, p = 0.003) and decreased the percentage of time for which plasma glucose levels were in the low range (bottom of target range [< 4.0 mmol/L], 0.0% [IQR 0.0%–3.0%] for closed-loop delivery v. 10.2% [IQR 0.0%–13.0%] for control, p = 0.01; hypoglycemia threshold [< 3.3 mmol/L], 0.0% [IQR 0.0%–0.0%] for closed-loop delivery v. 2.8% [IQR 0.0%–5.9%] for control, p = 0.006). Eight participants (53%) had at least 1 hypoglycemic event (plasma glucose < 3.0 mmol/L) during standard treatment, compared with just 1 participant (7%) during closed-loop treatment (p = 0.02). Interpretation: Dual-hormone, closed-loop delivery guided by advanced algorithms improved short-term glucose control and reduced the risk of

  17. Glucose-responsive insulin and glucagon delivery (dual-hormone artificial pancreas) in adults with type 1 diabetes: a randomized crossover controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Ahmad; Legault, Laurent; Dallaire, Maryse; Alkhateeb, Ammar; Coriati, Adèle; Messier, Virginie; Cheng, Peiyao; Millette, Maude; Boulet, Benoit; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2013-03-05

    Most patients with type 1 diabetes do not achieve their glycemic targets. We aimed to assess the efficacy of glucose-responsive insulin and glucagon closed-loop delivery for controlling glucose levels in adults with type 1 diabetes. We conducted a randomized crossover trial involving 15 adults with type 1 diabetes, comparing standard insulin-pump therapy with dual-hormone, closed-loop delivery. Patients were admitted twice to a clinical research facility and received, in random order, both treatments. Each 15-hour visit (from 1600 to 0700) included an evening exercise session, followed by a medium-sized meal, a bedtime snack and an overnight stay. During visits that involved closed-loop delivery, basal insulin and glucagon miniboluses were delivered according to recommendations based on glucose sensor readings and a predictive dosing algorithm at 10-minute intervals. During visits involving standard insulin-pump therapy (control visits), patients used conventional treatment. Dual-hormone closed-loop delivery increased the percentage of time for which patients' plasma glucose levels were in the target range (median 70.7% [interquartile range (IQR) 46.1%-88.4%] for closed-loop delivery v. 57.3% [IQR 25.2%-71.8%] for control, p = 0.003) and decreased the percentage of time for which plasma glucose levels were in the low range (bottom of target range [< 4.0 mmol/L], 0.0% [IQR 0.0%-3.0%] for closed-loop delivery v. 10.2% [IQR 0.0%-13.0%] for control, p = 0.01; hypoglycemia threshold [< 3.3 mmol/L], 0.0% [IQR 0.0%-0.0%] for closed-loop delivery v. 2.8% [IQR 0.0%-5.9%] for control, p = 0.006). Eight participants (53%) had at least 1 hypoglycemic event (plasma glucose < 3.0 mmol/L) during standard treatment, compared with just 1 participant (7%) during closed-loop treatment (p = 0.02). Dual-hormone, closed-loop delivery guided by advanced algorithms improved short-term glucose control and reduced the risk of hypoglycemia in a group of 15 adults with type 1 diabetes

  18. The Effect of a Breakfast Rich in Slowly Digestible Starch on Glucose Metabolism: A Statistical Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Vinoy, Sophie; Meynier, Alexandra; Goux, Aurélie; Jourdan-Salloum, Nathalie; Normand, Sylvie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brack, Olivier; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Péronnet, François; Laville, Martine

    2017-03-23

    Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism, after healthy subjects consumed cereal products that differed in SDS content. Three randomized controlled clinical trials that included a total of 79 subjects were identified. Using binary classification for the variables (high versus low levels, more than 12 g of SDS per portion, and less than 1 g of SDS per portion, respectively), we found that there was a 15-fold higher chance of having a low rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) after consumption of a high-SDS product. A high SDS content was also associated with a 12-fold and 4-fold higher chance of having a low rate of disappearance of exogenous glucose (RdE) and rate of disappearance of total plasma glucose (RdT), respectively. The RaE kinetics were further analyzed by modeling the contribution of SDS content to the different phases of the RaE response. We show that the higher the SDS content per portion of cereal product, the higher its contribution to the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the RaE response after 165 min. Using the association rule technique, we found that glycemic iAUC and insulinemic iAUC values vary in the same direction. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms the effect of the SDS level in cereal products on the metabolic response, and shows for the first time that the degree to which SDS affects the RaE response differs depending on the SDS content of the food product, as well as the phase of the postprandial period.

  19. A Mendelian Randomization Study of Plasma Homocysteine and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Yang; Li, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Zhong-Qian; Teng, Zhi-Mei; Hu, Dao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies have demonstrated an association between elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level and risk of multiple myeloma (MM). However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to evaluate whether genetically increased Hcy level influences the risk of MM. We used the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism as an instrumental variable, which affects the plasma Hcy levels. Estimate of its effect on plasma Hcy level was based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 44,147 individuals, while estimate of its effect on MM risk was obtained through meta-analysis of case-control studies with 2,092 cases and 4,954 controls. By combining these two estimates, we found that per one standard-deviation (SD) increase in natural log-transformed plasma Hcy levels conferred a 2.67-fold increase in risk for MM (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–6.38; P = 2.7 × 10−2). Our study suggests that elevated Hcy levels are causally associated with an increased risk of developing MM. Whether Hcy-lowering therapy can prevent MM merits further investigation in long-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PMID:27126524

  20. Breakfast, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, body mass index and academic performance in children from Extremadura, Spain.

    PubMed

    Torres, M D; Carmona, I; Campillo, C; Pérez, G; Campillo, J E

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional aspects of breakfast, plasma levels of glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, body mass index and academic performance have been studied in urban and rural children (Extremadura, Spain). Representative samples of schoolchildren (3 to 12 years old, random cluster-sampling in schools). Children's mean caloric intake with breakfast was 331 kcal. Rural population ingested more carbohydrates (46,9 +/- 12,3% versus 43,3 +/- 13,2% of the total caloric intake) and fewer lipids (40,5 +/- 11,8% versus 43,9 +/- 12,8% of the total caloric intake) than the urban population. Academic performance was significantly better in the children inhabiting the rural zone than in those of the urban zone. The glycaemia was higher in the urban than in the rural children, and that the contrary was the case for the beta-hydroxybutyrate values. Neither glucose nor beta-hydroxybutyrate levels were correlated with academic performance values. BMI was significantly increased in the urban versus rural children. The present results emphasize the importance of breakfast and life style in the weight and the academic performance of children.

  1. Dietary glucose increases plasma insulin and decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenic activity in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Nei, Y M; Romsos, D R

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether consumption of a high glucose diet would increase plasma insulin concentrations and decrease brown adipose tissue metabolism in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice previously fed a high starch diet. Male sham-operated and adrenalectomized ob/ob and lean mice were fed a high starch diet for 12 d, then switched to a high glucose diet for the last 2 or 4 d of the 14- or 16-d feeding trials. Adrenalectomized ob/ob mice consumed 16% more energy and gained 50% more weight without an increase in oxygen consumption when switched from a high starch diet to a high glucose diet. Within 2 d after the switch to the high glucose diet, plasma insulin concentrations increased by 70% without any change in plasma glucose concentrations; brown adipose tissue metabolism, as assessed by GDP binding to brown adipose tissue mitochondria, was decreased by 26% 4 d after the diet switch. Sham-operated ob/ob and lean mice and adrenalectomized lean mice were minimally affected by the switch to the high glucose diet. The increase in plasma insulin concentrations in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice induced by the high glucose diet may contribute to the observed depression in brown adipose tissue metabolism.

  2. Seasonal variations in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose loading in the edible dormouse (Glis glis L.).

    PubMed

    Castex, C; Donnio, R; Sutter, B C

    1979-01-01

    Glucose tolerance tests made in the Edible dormouse showed annual variations in B cell secretory capacity, associated with glucose tolerance changes. 1. During autumn and winter, the B cell is sensitive to glucose, and insulin regulates the high peripheral consumption of this hexose. 2. At the beginning of spring, insulin secretion decreases and glucose tolerance is impaired. In June, the B cell response si low or absent and a poor tolerance to glucose still persists. 3. The variations in B cell activity can be related to changing energy requirements during the year.

  3. Diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance using direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lokhov, Petr G; Trifonova, Oxana P; Maslov, Dmitry L; Balashova, Elena E; Archakov, Alexander I; Shestakova, Ekaterina A; Shestakova, Marina V; Dedov, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30) and patients with IGT (n = 20) were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%). The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay.

  4. Diagnosing Impaired Glucose Tolerance Using Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometry of Blood Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Lokhov, Petr G.; Trifonova, Oxana P.; Maslov, Dmitry L.; Balashova, Elena E.; Archakov, Alexander I.; Shestakova, Ekaterina A.; Shestakova, Marina V.; Dedov, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30) and patients with IGT (n = 20) were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%). The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay. PMID:25202985

  5. Effects of profound acidemia on the dynamic glucose and insulin response and plasma potassium and phosphorus concentrations during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Trefz, F M; Lorenz, I; Constable, P D

    2017-09-06

    Acidemia and electrolyte imbalances such as hyperkalemia are common in neonatal calves with diarrhea. Acidemia negatively affects the cellular response to insulin and may therefore result in deranged glucose, potassium, and phosphorus homeostasis. The primary aim of this study was to compare indices that characterize the dynamic glucose and insulin response between acidemic and nonacidemic neonatal diarrheic calves and a healthy control group during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) that consisted of i.v. administration of 0.3 g of glucose per kg of body weight. Secondary aims were to characterize the associated changes in plasma potassium and phosphorus concentrations. The effect of correction of profound acidemia with a sodium bicarbonate containing infusion on these parameters was also assessed. Thirty calves (age ≤21 d) were purposively assigned to one of the following groups: 10 calves with diarrhea and profound acidemia (venous blood pH <7.20) where an IVGTT was performed before and after treatment with sodium bicarbonate, 10 calves with diarrhea and minimal acid-base disturbance (venous blood pH >7.35), and 10 healthy control calves. Profoundly acidemic diarrheic calves (jugular venous blood pH 6.99 ± 0.10) had a similar initial increase in plasma insulin concentration to that in healthy control calves or nonacidemic calves with diarrhea. However, insulin concentrations remained relatively stable in acidemic calves between 15 and 60 min after the start of the IVGTT, whereas a marked decrease in plasma insulin concentrations occurred in all other groups during the same period of time. We conclude that acidemia does not alter cell glucose availability or the dynamic response of glucose, phosphorus, and potassium to insulin; however, acidemia markedly prolongs plasma insulin concentrations following an IVGTT through an unidentified mechanism. Results of this study emphasize the importance of correcting acidemia and metabolic acidosis in neonatal

  6. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces post-meal glucose excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes by a non-renal mechanism: results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stein, Peter; Berg, Jolene K; Morrow, Linda; Polidori, David; Artis, Eunice; Rusch, Sarah; Vaccaro, Nicole; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2014-10-01

    Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor approved for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated renal and non-renal effects of canagliflozin on postprandial plasma glucose (PG) excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Patients (N=37) were randomized to a four-period crossover study with 3-day inpatient stays in each period and 2-week wash-outs between periods. Patients received Treatments (A) placebo/placebo, (B) canagliflozin 300 mg/placebo, (C) canagliflozin 300 mg/canagliflozin 300 mg, or (D) canagliflozin 300 mg/canagliflozin 150 mg on Day 2/Day 3 in one of four treatment sequences (similar urinary glucose excretion [UGE] expected for Treatments B-D). A mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) was given 20 minutes post-dose on Day 3 of each period. A single dose of canagliflozin 300 mg reduced both fasting and postprandial PG compared with placebo, with generally similar effects on fasting PG and UGE observed for Treatments B-D. An additional dose of canagliflozin 300 mg (Treatment C), but not 150 mg (Treatment D), prior to the MMTT on Day 3 provided greater postprandial PG reduction versus placebo (difference in incremental glucose AUC0-2h, -7.5% for B vs A; -18.5% for C vs A; -12.0% [P = 0.012] for C vs B), leading to modestly greater reductions in total glucose AUC0-2h with Treatment C versus Treatment B or D. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated. These findings suggest that a non-renal mechanism (ie, beyond UGE) contributes to glucose lowering for canagliflozin 300 mg, but not 150 mg. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fasting plasma glucose as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh M; Dhatt, Gurdeep S

    2007-02-01

    Although debated, most preeminent expert panels recommend routine screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Among the many tests that have been used and evaluated for the screening of GDM, the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) remains very appealing. It is easy to administer, well tolerated, inexpensive, reproducible and patient friendly. However attractive, the FPG has given varied results in different populations and its use as a screening test for GDM remains uncertain. This review will objectively assess the available studies to find the real value of FPG as a screening test for GDM.

  8. Improvement of fasting plasma glucose level after ingesting moderate amount of dietary fiber in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.

    PubMed

    Kobayakawa, Akira; Suzuki, Tomoo; Ikami, Takao; Saito, Morio; Yabe, Daisuke; Seino, Yutaka

    2013-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake on fasting plasma glucose level and physical characteristics in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity. Thirty men with mild hyperglycemia (>5.6 mmol/L) and visceral fat accumulation (>100 cm²) ingested 7.5 g/day of dietary fiber for 12 weeks. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed at baseline and at week 12. Blood was drawn every 4 weeks. In the test food group, fasting plasma glucose level was reduced with time, and the difference between the test food group and placebo group was statistically significant at week 12. Body weight and body mass index were also reduced with time, but visceral and subcutaneous fat areas did not change significantly during the study period. The results suggest that even a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake may be beneficial for managing the fasting plasma glucose level concomitant with insulin resistance, body weight, and body mass index in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of icodextrin versus glucose containing peritoneal dialysis fluid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aiwu; Qian, Jiaqi; Li, Xiaomei; Yu, Xueqing; Liu, Wenhu; Sun, Yang; Chen, Nan; Mei, Changlin

    2009-11-01

    While peritoneal dialysis with icodextrin is commonly used in patients with poor peritoneal membrane characteristics, the data on the usefulness of this solution in patients with lower transport characteristics are limited. The study was designed to compare icodextrin to glucose in Chinese prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients of different peritoneal transport characteristics (PET) categories. This was a randomized, double-blind, perspective control study. Stable prevalent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were randomized to either 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 2.5% glucose (GLU) solution for 4 wk. Peritoneal membrane function was measured to define PET category in baseline. Creatinine clearance (Ccr), urea nitrogen clearance (C(BUN)), ultrafiltration (UF) during the long night dwell, dialysate, and metabolic biomarkers were measured at baseline, 2, and 4 wk. UF, Ccr, and C(BUN) were compared among different PET categories. A total of 201 CAPD patients were enrolled in the study. There were no baseline differences between the groups. Following 2 and 4 wk of therapy, Ccr, C(BUN,) and UF were all significantly higher in the ICO versus the GLU group. Additionally, switching to ICO resulted in a significant increase in UF in high, high-average, and low-average transporters as compared with baseline. The extent of increased UF was more obvious in higher transporters. Blood cholesterol level in the ICO group decreased significantly than that in the GLU group. Compared with glucose-based solution, 7.5% icodextrin significantly improved UF and small solute clearance, even in patients with low-average peritoneal transport.

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of Icodextrin versus Glucose Containing Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Aiwu; Li, Xiaomei; Yu, Xueqing; Liu, Wenhu; Sun, Yang; Chen, Nan; Mei, Changlin

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: While peritoneal dialysis with icodextrin is commonly used in patients with poor peritoneal membrane characteristics, the data on the usefulness of this solution in patients with lower transport characteristics are limited. The study was designed to compare icodextrin to glucose in Chinese prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients of different peritoneal transport characteristics (PET) categories. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a randomized, double-blind, perspective control study. Stable prevalent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were randomized to either 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 2.5% glucose (GLU) solution for 4 wk. Peritoneal membrane function was measured to define PET category in baseline. Creatinine clearance (Ccr), urea nitrogen clearance (CBUN), ultrafiltration (UF) during the long night dwell, dialysate, and metabolic biomarkers were measured at baseline, 2, and 4 wk. UF, Ccr, and CBUN were compared among different PET categories. Results: A total of 201 CAPD patients were enrolled in the study. There were no baseline differences between the groups. Following 2 and 4 wk of therapy, Ccr, CBUN, and UF were all significantly higher in the ICO versus the GLU group. Additionally, switching to ICO resulted in a significant increase in UF in high, high-average, and low-average transporters as compared with baseline. The extent of increased UF was more obvious in higher transporters. Blood cholesterol level in the ICO group decreased significantly than that in the GLU group. Conclusion: Compared with glucose-based solution, 7.5% icodextrin significantly improved UF and small solute clearance, even in patients with low-average peritoneal transport. PMID:19808224

  11. Autoregressive Modeling of Drift and Random Error to Characterize a Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tony; Dickson, Jennifer L; Geoffrey Chase, J

    2017-07-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices have been effective in managing diabetes and offer potential benefits for use in the intensive care unit (ICU). Use of CGM devices in the ICU has been limited, primarily due to the higher point accuracy errors over currently used traditional intermittent blood glucose (BG) measures. General models of CGM errors, including drift and random errors, are lacking, but would enable better design of protocols to utilize these devices. This article presents an autoregressive (AR) based modeling method that separately characterizes the drift and random noise of the GlySure CGM sensor (GlySure Limited, Oxfordshire, UK). Clinical sensor data (n = 33) and reference measurements were used to generate 2 AR models to describe sensor drift and noise. These models were used to generate 100 Monte Carlo simulations based on reference blood glucose measurements. These were then compared to the original CGM clinical data using mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and a Trend Compass. The point accuracy MARD was very similar between simulated and clinical data (9.6% vs 9.9%). A Trend Compass was used to assess trend accuracy, and found simulated and clinical sensor profiles were similar (simulated trend index 11.4° vs clinical trend index 10.9°). The model and method accurately represents cohort sensor behavior over patients, providing a general modeling approach to any such sensor by separately characterizing each type of error that can arise in the data. Overall, it enables better protocol design based on accurate expected CGM sensor behavior, as well as enabling the analysis of what level of each type of sensor error would be necessary to obtain desired glycemic control safety and performance with a given protocol.

  12. A Fall in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) level activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis independent of plasma glucose: evidence for brain sensing of circulating FFA.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug; Youn, Jang H

    2012-08-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels.

  13. Plasma glucagon and insulin in rat pregnancy. Roles in glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Saudek, C D; Finkowski, M; Knopp, R H

    1975-01-01

    To determine if pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones can be implicated in the glucose fall of pregnancy, we have measured plasma immunoreactive insulin and glucagon (IRI and IRG) in rats. Fed rats in midgestation show a rise in IRI without a corresponding increase in IRG. In late gestation, IRG rises significantly, but only enough to keep pace with a further rise in IRI. On a molar basis, IRI remains the predominant hormone despite a marked fall in blood glucose. After a 48-h fast IRI falls to comparably low levels in pregnant and virgin rats. A small rise in IRG is seen in virgin but not in pregnant rats despite frank hypoglycemia in the latter. Thus, IRG secretion in pregnancy is diminished relative to IRI in the fed state and fails to increase in the fasted state despite the stimulus of a lower glucose in both instances. To evaluate IRG secretory reserve, the IRG response to i.v. alanine was assessed in late gestation. In fed rats a greater IRG increase is seen in pregnancy; after fasting no difference is seen between pregnant and virgin rats. These results preclude an absolute deficiency in glucagon secretion. Pancreas hormone stores were alos measured in an effort to explain the altered secretory state. We find reciprocal changes in IRI and IRG content favoring IRG in midgestation and IRI in late gestation. Thus, pancreas hormone storage is altered in pregnancy but does not account for the changes in hormone secretion. Rather, pregnancy exerts an effect on the islet secretory process itself. Release of IRI is enhanced relative to IRG regardless of the blood sugar level. These observations suggest that in the pregnant rat circulating levels of insulin and glucagon may act to limit hepatic glucose output. Available evidence from the literature supports the concept of restrained glucose production. It is proposed that a lower blood glucose production. It is proposed that a lower blood glucose in rat pregnancy may be a lesser liability teleologically than would be

  14. Release of beta-endorphin by prostaglandin E2 to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J T; Liu, I M; Chi, T C; Tzeng, T F

    2001-07-01

    In the present study, Wistar rats, which received a streptozotocin injection to induce diabetes (STZ-diabetic rats), a model similar to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1 diabetes mellitus, were used to investigate the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 on plasma glucose. Intravenous injection of PGE2 produced a dose-dependent lowering of plasma glucose level in fasting STZ-diabetic rats after 60 min. In addition to the blockade of this hypoglycemic effect by guanethidine (a noradrenergic nerve terminal-blocking agent), prazosin at a dose effective to block alpha1-adrenoceptors abolished the action of PGE2. An increase of plasma norepinephrine (NE) was also observed in STZ-diabetic rats receiving PGE2 injections. Participation of sympathetic stimulation by PGE2 may thus be speculated. Also, the plasma glucose-lowering effect of PGE2 was also blocked by pretreatment with naloxone or naloxonazine at doses sufficient to block opioid mu-receptor. Injection of PGE2 increased plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) in STZ-diabetic rats, and this action was abolished by prazosin. Bilateral adrenalectomy resulted in the loss of this PGE2 effect, and no increase was seen in plasma BER with PGE2 in STZ-diabetic rats. Therefore, beta-endorphin from the adrenal gland appears to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats by PGE2 through an increase of NE release to activate alpha1-adrenoceptors.

  15. Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Levels Are Decreased in Chinese Subjects With Impaired Fasting Glucose and Inversely Associated With Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qichen; Li, Huating; Song, Qianqian; Yang, Wenjing; Hou, Xuhong; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Xu, Aimin; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a hormone secreted from the small intestine, has recently been shown to stimulate glycogen synthesis and inhibit gluconeogenesis through insulin-independent pathways. This study investigated the change of FGF19 in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explored the association of serum FGF19 levels with parameters of glucose metabolism in Chinese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting serum FGF19 levels were determined by ELISA in 81 normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 91 impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 93 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 104 newly diagnosed T2DM subjects, and their association with parameters of glucose metabolism was studied. An ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed in subjects with NGT, IFG, and T2DM. Serum FGF19 levels at 2 h after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the different glucose tolerance categories were studied in a subgroup. RESULTS Fasting serum FGF19 levels in subjects with IFG (210 pg/mL [142–327]) (median [interquartile range]) and T2DM (196 pg/mL [137–280]) were significantly lower than those in NGT subjects (289 pg/mL [224–393]) (both P < 0.001). However, no significant difference in fasting FGF19 levels was observed between IGT (246 pg/mL [138–379]) and NGT subjects. Fasting serum FGF19 levels were negatively associated with fasting plasma glucose and independently associated with the deterioration of glucometabolic status from NGT to IFG and T2DM. CONCLUSIONS Fasting serum FGF19 levels were decreased in Chinese subjects with IFG and inversely associated with fasting glucose levels. PMID:23628619

  16. Hemoglobin A1c and mean glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes: analysis of data from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Darrell M; Xing, Dongyuan; Beck, Roy W; Block, Jennifer; Bode, Bruce; Fox, Larry A; Hirsch, Irl; Kollman, Craig; Laffel, Lori; Ruedy, Katrina J; Steffes, Michael; Tamborlane, William V

    2011-03-01

    To determine the relationship between mean sensor glucose concentrations and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) values measured in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications laboratory at the University of Minnesota in a cohort of subjects with type 1 diabetes from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring randomized trial. Near-continuous glucose sensor data (≥ 4 days/week) were collected for 3 months before a central laboratory-measured HbA(1c) was performed for 252 subjects aged 8-74 years, the majority of whom had stable HbA(1c) values (77% within ± 0.4% of the patient mean). The slope (95% CI) for mean sensor glucose concentration (area under the curve) versus a centrally measured HbA(1c) was 24.4 mg/dL (22.0-26.7) for each 1% change in HbA(1c), with an intercept of -16.2 mg/dL (-32.9 to 0.6). Although the slope did not vary with age or sex, there was substantial individual variability, with mean sensor glucose concentrations ranging from 128 to 187 mg/dL for an HbA(1c) of 6.9-7.1%. The root mean square of the errors between the actual mean sensor glucose concentration versus the value calculated using the regression equation was 14.3 mg/dL, whereas the median absolute difference was 10.1 mg/dL. There is substantial individual variability between the measured versus calculated mean glucose concentrations. Consequently, estimated average glucose concentrations calculated from measured HbA(1c) values should be used with caution.

  17. Comparison of jet injector and insulin pen in controlling plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lixin; Xiao, Xinhua; Sun, Xue; Qi, Cuijuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of an insulin jet injector and an insulin pen in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with rapid-acting insulin (regular insulin) and insulin analog (insulin aspart) using the jet injector and the pen in 4 successive test cycles. Postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in blood were measured over time. Areas under curves of glucose and the insulin were calculated, and efficacy of 2 injection methods in treatment of the diabetes was compared. Regular insulin and insulin aspart administration by the jet injector showed significant decreases in plasma glucose levels as compared to the pen injection (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma glucose excursions at the time points of 0.5 to 3 hours were obviously lower in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Area under the glucose curve in the pen-treated patients was significantly increased as compared to the jet-treated ones (P < 0.01). Efficacy of the insulin jet injector in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients is obviously superior to the insulin pen in regulating plasma glucose and insulin levels. PMID:28072690

  18. Comparison of jet injector and insulin pen in controlling plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lixin; Xiao, Xinhua; Sun, Xue; Qi, Cuijuan

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of an insulin jet injector and an insulin pen in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with rapid-acting insulin (regular insulin) and insulin analog (insulin aspart) using the jet injector and the pen in 4 successive test cycles. Postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in blood were measured over time. Areas under curves of glucose and the insulin were calculated, and efficacy of 2 injection methods in treatment of the diabetes was compared. Regular insulin and insulin aspart administration by the jet injector showed significant decreases in plasma glucose levels as compared to the pen injection (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma glucose excursions at the time points of 0.5 to 3 hours were obviously lower in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in the jet-treated patients than the pen-treated ones (P < 0.05). Area under the glucose curve in the pen-treated patients was significantly increased as compared to the jet-treated ones (P < 0.01). Efficacy of the insulin jet injector in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients is obviously superior to the insulin pen in regulating plasma glucose and insulin levels.

  19. Effects of nutrient restriction of bovine dams during early gestation on postnatal growth and regulation of plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Long, N M; Prado-Cooper, M J; Krehbiel, C R; Wettemann, R P

    2010-10-01

    Angus x Hereford heifers (15 mo and AI to a single sire) were used to evaluate the effect of prenatal nutritional restriction on postnatal growth and regulation of glucose in plasma. Dams (d 32 of gestation) were stratified by BW and BCS and allotted to low [LN, 55% of NRC (1996) requirements, n = 7] or moderate nutrition [MN, 100% of NRC (1996) requirements, n = 7]. After 83 d of feeding, dams were commingled and received a diet in excess of requirements. Dams were allowed to calve naturally, and bull calves were castrated at birth. Dams and calves were maintained as a group until weaning, and calves were maintained as a group after weaning. Calves (15 mo of age) were adapted to a similar diet during 2 wk; catheters were placed in both jugular veins; and calves were confined in stalls. Two days later, calves were subjected to an intravenous glucose challenge and the next day to an insulin challenge. Dams had similar (P = 0.31) BW at the beginning of the experiment. At the end of restriction, LN dams weighed less (P ≤ 0.01) and had less BCS (P < 0.001) compared with MN dams. Length of gestation was not affected by prenatal nutritional treatment. Nutrient restriction during gestation did not influence birth weight or postnatal growth. Concentrations of glucose (P = 0.49) and insulin (P = 0.29) were not different in plasma of LN and MN calves before glucose infusion. Plasma concentrations of glucose, after intravenous administration of glucose, decreased more rapidly (P = 0.05) in LN compared with MN calves. Concentrations of glucose (P = 0.68) and insulin (P = 0.55) in plasma of LN and MN calves were similar after infusion of insulin. Nutritional restriction of dams during early gestation did not influence postnatal growth, but altered clearance of glucose after a bolus infusion of glucose.

  20. The effect of magnesium supplements on early post-transplantation glucose metabolism: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Van Laecke, Steven; Nagler, Evi Vanessa; Taes, Youri; Van Biesen, Wim; Peeters, Patrick; Vanholder, Raymond

    2014-09-01

    Post-transplantation hypomagnesemia is common and predicts diabetes. Magnesium improves glycemic control in diabetics and insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant subjects. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of oral magnesium for improving glycemic control and insulin sensitivity at 3 months post-transplantation. We conducted a single-center, open-label, randomized parallel group study. We included adults with serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dl within 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. We randomized participants to 450 mg magnesium oxide up to three times daily or no treatment. The primary endpoint was the mean difference in fasting glycemia. Secondary endpoints were the mean difference in area under the curve (AUC) of glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance measured by Homeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Analyses were on intention-to-treat basis. In patients randomized to magnesium oxide (N = 27) versus no treatment (N = 27), fasting glycemia on average was 11.5 mg/dl lower (95% CI 1.7 to 21.3; P = 0.02). There was no difference between the two groups neither for 2 h AUC, where the mean value was 1164 mg/dl/min (95% CI -1884 to 4284; P = 0.45) lower in the treatment group nor for HOMA-IR. Magnesium supplements modestly improved fasting glycemia without effect on insulin resistance. Higher baseline glycemia among patients in the control group may have driven the positive outcome (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01889576).

  1. Plasma glucose, lactate, sodium, and potassium levels in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tõnisson, Mailis; Tillmann, Vallo; Kuudeberg, Anne; Väli, Marika

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our research was to study prevalence of changes in plasma levels of lactate, potassium, glucose, and sodium in relation to alcohol concentration in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Data from 194 under 18-year-old children hospitalized to the two only children's hospital in Estonia over a 2-year period were analyzed. The pediatrician on call filled in a special form on the clinical symptoms of AAI; a blood sample was drawn for biochemical tests, and a urine sample taken to exclude narcotic intoxication. The most common finding was hyperlactinemia occurring in 66% of the patients (n=128) followed by hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) in 50% (n=97), and glucose above of reference value (>6.1 mmol/L) in 40.2% of the children (n=78). Hypernatremia was present in five children. In conclusion, hyperlactinemia, hypokalemia, and glucose levels above of reference value are common biochemical findings in children hospitalized with acute AAI.

  2. Early advancing age alters plasma glucose and glucoregulatory hormones in response to supramaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Zouhal, Hassane; Vincent, Sophie; Moussa, Elie; Botcazou, Maïtel; Delamarche, Paul; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2009-11-01

    After the age of 60, the decrease in physical activity and the increase in fat mass (FM) are two essential factors contributing to the alteration of glucose, insulin, and catecholamines responses induced by exercise. To discard these two factors, we compared the glucoregulatory responses in three different groups of men between the ages 21 and 34, and matched pairs: trained groups (T34 and T21) were matched for training level; T21 and U21 (U for untrained) were matched for age; T34 and U21 were matched for FM. The glucoregulatory responses were determined by venous plasma concentrations of glucose ([GLU]), insulin ([INS]), and catecholamines (adrenaline: [A], noradrenaline: [NA]) before and after a Wingate test. [GLU], [INS], and [A] did not differ between T21 and U21, indicating that high-level training had no effects on these parameters. On the other hand, T34 compared to T21 and U21, had higher GLU associated with lower INS post-exercise concentrations. Moreover, [A(max)] was significantly lower in this group. Consequently, T34 only exhibited a significant alteration in glucose and glucoregulatory responses after a Wingate test, which could not be explained by the usual decrease in physical activity and/or the increase in FM. Therefore, aging alone seems to be one main factor of this deterioration.

  3. Noninvasive measurement of glucose in artificial plasma with near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jintao; Chen, Han; Xiong, Dongmei; Huang, Guo; Ai, Hong; Liang, Yan; Yan, Xinyu; Gan, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Chao, Ruobing; Ye, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop a method for noninvasive blood glucose assay. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, two more promising techniques compared to other methods, were investigated in two kinds of artificial plasma (AP). Calibration models were generated by performing partial least squares (PLS) regression and optimized individually by considering spectral range, spectral pretreatment methods, and number of model factors. The two spectroscopic models were validated for the determination of glucose, and the results show that the two spectroscopic models established are robust, accurate, and repeatable. Compared to Raman spectroscopy, the performance of NIR spectroscopy was much better, with lower root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.128 and 0.094 mg/ml, lower root mean square errors of validation (RMSEP) of 0.061 and 0.046 mg/ml, higher correlation coefficients (R) of 99.15% and 99.55%, and higher residual predictive deviations (RPD) of 10.8 and 15.0 for artificial plasma I and II, respectively.

  4. Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-07

    Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.

  5. Engineered glucagon-like peptide-1-producing hepatocytes lower plasma glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Michael J; Lee, Corinna Wai Kwan; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2009-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is an incretin hormone with well-characterized antidiabetic properties, including glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion and enhancement of beta-cell mass. GLP-1 agonists have recently been developed and are now in clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Rapid degradation of GLP-1 by enzymes including dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-IV and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) 24.11, along with renal clearance, contribute to a short biological half-life, necessitating frequent injections to maintain therapeutic efficacy. Gene therapy may represent a promising alternative approach for achieving long-term increases in endogenous release of GLP-1. We have developed a novel strategy for glucose-regulated production of GLP-1 in hepatocytes by expressing a DPP-IV-resistant GLP-1 peptide in hepatocytes under control of the liver-type pyruvate kinase promoter. Adenoviral delivery of this construct to hepatocytes in vitro resulted in production and secretion of bioactive GLP-1 as measured by a luciferase-based bioassay developed to detect the NH2-terminally modified GLP-1 peptide engineered for this study. Transplantation of encapsulated hepatocytes into CD-1 mice resulted in an increase in plasma GLP-1 levels that was accompanied by a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose levels. The results from this study demonstrate that a gene therapy approach designed to induce GLP-1 production in hepatocytes may represent a novel strategy for long-term secretion of bioactive GLP-1 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    PubMed Central

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (∼800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (∼530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but the total energy provided was the same as control (800 kcal), with the “missing” fat (∼30 g) provided via an intravenous lipid infusion]. All three meals contained [13C]glucose (3 mg/kg body wt) to assess the bioavailability of ingested glucose. During the 5-h period after each meal, we measured the recovery of [13C]glucose in plasma, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. We also measured plasma concentration of the gastrointestinal peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). The recovery of the ingested [13C]glucose in the hour after ingestion was greater (P < 0.05) after the low-fat than after the control meal [area under the curve (AUC): 1,206 ± 252 and 687 ± 161 μM·h, respectively]. However, removing dietary fat from the meal did not affect the plasma concentration of glucose or insulin. Importantly, [13C]glucose recovery was not different during the low-fat and lipid infusion trials (AUC: 1,206 ± 252 and 1,134 ± 247 μM·h, respectively), indicating that the accelerated delivery of exogenous glucose found after removing fat from the meal is due exclusively to the reduction of fat in the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel with these findings, the reduction in fat calories from the meal reduced plasma concentration of GIP, GLP-1, and PYY3-36. In summary, these data suggest that removing fat from the diet expedited exogenous glucose delivery into the systemic circulation

  7. Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power. PMID:23013243

  8. Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ness, Andrew R; Gunnell, David; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Lewis, Sarah J

    2012-09-27

    In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child's intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child's IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power.

  9. One-Hour Postload Plasma Glucose Levels Are Associated with Kidney Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Lugarà, Marina; Grembiale, Alessandro; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Caruso, Vittoria; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Perticone, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: A cutoff of 155 mg/dl for 1-hour postload plasma glucose (1hPG) during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify patients who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes and vascular atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine whether individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl are also at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Atherosclerosis risk factors, OGTT, and estimated GFR by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation were analyzed in 1075 white individuals without diabetes. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 1hPG was the highest (0.700) compared with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0, 30-minute, and 2-hour glucose concentrations. Individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl had a worse cardiometabolic risk profile, exhibiting significantly higher body mass index, BP, triglycerides, and fasting insulin levels and lower HDL, IGF-1 levels, and insulin sensitivity, than individuals with 1hPG <155 mg/dl. Estimated GFR was significantly lower in individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age and gender, individuals with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl showed an increased risk for CKD compared with individuals with 1hPG <155 mg/dl. When the logistic regression analysis was restricted to individuals who had normal glucose tolerance, those with 1hPG ≥155 mg/dl showed a higher risk for CKD compared with individuals with 1hPG <155 mg/dl. Conclusions: These data suggest that a cutoff point of 155 mg/dl for the 1hPG during OGTT may be helpful in the identification of individuals who are at increased risk for CKD. PMID:20595688

  10. Dose-dependent effects of diallyl disulfide on plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Yoko; Shirato, Ken; Sato, Shogo; Matsumoto, Akiko; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The acute effects of oral administration of diallyl disulfide (DADS), the major organosulfur compound of garlic, on plasma glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations were examined in rats. Male, 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into DADS-free and DADS-administered (dose = 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg body weight [BW]) groups. Plasma samples were prepared from whole blood drawn from the tail vein 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hr after administration. The stomachs were isolated, and the contents were measured 8 hr after administration. In DADS-administered groups, plasma glucose concentrations were increased in a dose-dependent manner 1 hr after the administration. The increase was transient, except in groups administered 40 mg/kg BW of DADS, in which plasma glucose levels remained significantly higher than the DADS-free levels throughout the experimental period. Similar patterns were observed in the plasma FFA concentrations, although the significant differences were lower than those observed in the plasma glucose concentrations. The gastric contents were dose-dependently elevated after DADS administration. The increase was significant when 20 or 40 mg/kg BW of DADS was administered. These results suggest that oral administration of DADS can mobilize energy substrates into the blood, although a higher dose of DADS slows gastric emptying.

  11. Type 2 diabetes, glucose, insulin, BMI, and ischemic stroke subtypes: Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Scott, Robert A; Traylor, Matthew; Langenberg, Claudia C; Hindy, George; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Seshadri, Sudha; Wareham, Nicholas J; Markus, Hugh S

    2017-08-01

    To implement a mendelian randomization (MR) approach to determine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) are causally associated with specific ischemic stroke subtypes. MR estimates of the association between each possible risk factor and ischemic stroke subtypes were calculated with inverse-variance weighted (conventional) and weighted median approaches, and MR-Egger regression was used to explore pleiotropy. The number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) used as instrumental variables was 49 for T2D, 36 for fasting glucose, 18 for fasting insulin, and 77 for BMI. Genome-wide association study data of SNP-stroke associations were derived from METASTROKE and the Stroke Genetics Network (n = 18,476 ischemic stroke cases and 37,296 controls). Conventional MR analysis showed associations between genetically predicted T2D and large artery stroke (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.40, p = 3.3 × 10(-7)) and small vessel stroke (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.33, p = 8.9 × 10(-5)) but not cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.15, p = 0.17). The association of T2D with large artery stroke but not small vessel stroke was consistent in a sensitivity analysis using the weighted median method, and there was no evidence of pleiotropy. Genetically predicted fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels and BMI were not statistically significantly associated with any ischemic stroke subtype. This study provides support that T2D may be causally associated with large artery stroke. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Postprandial glucose response to selected tropical fruits in normal glucose-tolerant Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Edo, A; Eregie, A; Adediran, O; Ohwovoriole, A; Ebengho, S

    2011-01-01

    The glycemic response to commonly eaten fruits in Nigeria has not been reported. Therefore, this study assessed the plasma glucose response to selected fruits in Nigeria. Ten normal glucose-tolerant subjects randomly consumed 50 g carbohydrate portions of three fruits: banana (Musa paradisiaca), pineapple (Ananus comosus), and pawpaw (Carica papaya), and a 50-g glucose load at 1-week intervals. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and half-hourly over a 2-h period post-ingestion of the fruits or glucose. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose concentrations. Plasma glucose responses were assessed by the peak plasma glucose concentration, maximum increase in plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level, and incremental area under the glucose curve and glycemic index (GI). The results showed that the blood glucose response to these three fruits was similar in terms of their incremental areas under the glucose curve, maximum increase in plasma glucose, and glycemic indices (GIs). The 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level of banana was significantly higher than that of pineapple, P < 0.025. The mean ± SEM GI values were as follows: pawpaw; 86 ± 26.8%; banana, 75.1 ± 21.8%; pineapple, 64.5 ± 11.3%. The GI of glucose is taken as 100. The GI of pineapple was significantly lower than that of glucose (P < 0.05). Banana, pawpaw, and pineapple produced a similar postprandial glucose response. Measured portions of these fruits may be used as fruit exchanges with pineapple having the most favorable glycemic response.

  13. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bertato, Marina P; Oliveira, Carolina P; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L; Lerario, Antonio C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE) labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and 3H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the 3H-free- cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in atherogenic

  14. [The titration of double bonds in fatty acids of blood plasma in patients in testing of glucose tolerance].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N; Evteeva, N M; Aripovskiĭ, A V; Tkhagalizhokova, E M

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with per oral glucose tolerance test applied to 20 patients with arterial hypertension. The blood plasma was analyzed to detect content of individual fatty acids, double bounds, glucose, insulin and metabolites of fatty acids. In patients with different resistance to insulin content of non-etherized fatty acids decreased approximatively up to 3 times. Without insulin resistance secretion of insulin in 2 hours after glucose load increased up to 3 times and content of individual fatty acids decreases in greater extent. Under insulin resistance secretion of insulin increases up to 8 times and decreasing of content of fatty acids is less expressed. The decrease in blood plasma of content of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and double bounds reflects effectiveness of effect of insulin--blockade of hydrolysis of triglycerides in subcutaneous adipocytes. The concentration of insulin positively correlates with initial content of palmitic fatty acid in the pool of lipids of blood plasma.

  15. Effect of Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) on Nocturnal Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Catalogna, Merav; Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Sagi, Roi; Abu-Hamad, Ramzia; Nevo, Uri; Efrati, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulation of hepatic glucose production has been a target for antidiabetic drug development, due to its major contribution to glucose homeostasis. Previous pre-clinical study demonstrated that peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) may stimulate glucose utilization and improve hepatic insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and the glucose-lowering effect of this approach in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Twelve patients with T2DM were recruited for an open label, interventional, randomized trial. Eleven patients underwent, in a crossover design, an active, and a no-intervention control periods, separated with a two-week washout phase. During the active period, the patients received a daily lower extremity PES treatment (1.33Hz/16Hz burst mode), for 14 days. Study endpoints included changes in glucose levels, number of hypoglycemic episodes, and other potential side effects. Endpoints were analyzed based on continuous glucose meter readings, and laboratory evaluation. Results We found that during the active period, the most significant effect was on nocturnal glucose control (P < 0.0004), as well as on pre-meal mean glucose levels (P < 0.02). The mean daily glucose levels were also decreased although it did not reach clinical significance (P = 0.07). A reduction in serum cortisol (P < 0.01) but not in insulin was also detected after 2 weeks of treatment. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions These results indicate that repeated PES treatment, even for a very short duration, can improve blood glucose control, possibly by suppressing hepatic glucose production. This effect may be mediated via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02727790 PMID:27997608

  16. Effect of Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) on Nocturnal Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Catalogna, Merav; Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Sagi, Roi; Abu-Hamad, Ramzia; Nevo, Uri; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Efrati, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of hepatic glucose production has been a target for antidiabetic drug development, due to its major contribution to glucose homeostasis. Previous pre-clinical study demonstrated that peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) may stimulate glucose utilization and improve hepatic insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and the glucose-lowering effect of this approach in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Twelve patients with T2DM were recruited for an open label, interventional, randomized trial. Eleven patients underwent, in a crossover design, an active, and a no-intervention control periods, separated with a two-week washout phase. During the active period, the patients received a daily lower extremity PES treatment (1.33Hz/16Hz burst mode), for 14 days. Study endpoints included changes in glucose levels, number of hypoglycemic episodes, and other potential side effects. Endpoints were analyzed based on continuous glucose meter readings, and laboratory evaluation. We found that during the active period, the most significant effect was on nocturnal glucose control (P < 0.0004), as well as on pre-meal mean glucose levels (P < 0.02). The mean daily glucose levels were also decreased although it did not reach clinical significance (P = 0.07). A reduction in serum cortisol (P < 0.01) but not in insulin was also detected after 2 weeks of treatment. No adverse events were recorded. These results indicate that repeated PES treatment, even for a very short duration, can improve blood glucose control, possibly by suppressing hepatic glucose production. This effect may be mediated via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02727790.

  17. Postprandial response of plasma ghrelin levels to various test meals in relation to food intake, plasma insulin, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Johannes; Töpsch, Robert; Lippl, Florian; Gussmann, Philipp; Schusdziarra, Volker

    2004-06-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric hormone that decreases in peripheral blood after carbohydrate-rich meals but increases after protein ingestion. In the present study plasma ghrelin was determined together with hunger and satiety ratings and with insulin and glucose concentrations after the ingestion of satiating quantities of carbohydrate-, fat-, protein-, fruit-, and vegetable-rich meals in 14 healthy subjects. Four hours later, standardized sandwiches were consumed. After carbohydrate, ghrelin decreased, whereas fat, protein, fruit, and vegetable ingestion significantly increased ghrelin levels. Considering all test meals, no significant correlation existed between changes of ghrelin levels and satiety ratings (r = 0.05; not significant), whereas a significant inverse relationship was observed between plasma ghrelin and insulin levels (r = -0.44; P < 0.001). During the second meal, sandwich consumption was significantly greater after the preceding fruit and vegetable meals, which was significantly correlated with the fourth-hour increase of ghrelin (r = 0.44; P < 0.001). In conclusion, after an overnight fast, ghrelin release depends on the ingested macronutrients and is most likely not a major regulator of acute food intake, although it is of greater importance for the recurrence of hunger and subsequent meal size.

  18. Does glucose variability influence the relationship between mean plasma glucose and HbA1c levels in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients?

    PubMed

    Kuenen, Judith C; Borg, Rikke; Kuik, Dirk J; Zheng, Hui; Schoenfeld, David; Diamant, Michaela; Nathan, David M; Heine, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    The A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study demonstrated a linear relationship between HbA(1c) and mean plasma glucose (MPG). As glucose variability (GV) may contribute to glycation, we examined the association of several glucose variability indices and the MPG-HbA(1c) relationship. Analyses included 268 patients with type 1 diabetes and 159 with type 2 diabetes. MPG during 3 months was calculated from 7-point self-monitored plasma glucose and continuous glucose monitoring. We calculated three different measures of GV and used a multiple-step regression model to determine the contribution of the respective GV measures to the MPG-HbA(1c) relationship. GV, as reflected by SD and continuous overlapping net glycemic action, had a significant effect on the MPG-HbA(1c) relationship in type 1 diabetic patients so that high GV led to a higher HbA(1c) level for the same MPG. In type 1 diabetes, the impact of confounding and effect modification of a low versus high SD at an MPG level of 160 mg/dL on the HbA(1c) level is 7.02 vs. 7.43 and 6.96 vs. 7.41. All GV measures showed the same tendency. In only type 1 diabetic patients, GV shows a significant interaction with MPG in the association with HbA(1c). This effect is more pronounced at higher HbA(1c) levels. However, the impact of GV on the HbA(1c) level in type 1 diabetes is modest, particularly when HbA(1c) is close to the treatment target of 7%.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance development after gestational diabetes: A three-year, prospective, randomized, clinical-based, Mediterranean lifestyle interventional study with parallel groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Del Valle, Laura; Torrejón, Maria José; Barca, Idoya; Calvo, María Isabel; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel A; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2015-08-01

    Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in later life. The study aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for the prevention of glucose disorders (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or DM2) in women with prior GDM. A total of 260 women with prior GDM who presented with normal fasting plasma glucose at six to twelve weeks postpartum were randomized into two groups: a Mediterranean lifestyle intervention group (n = 130) who underwent an educational program on nutrition and a monitored physical activity program and a control group (n = 130) with a conventional follow-up. A total of 237 women completed the three-year follow-up (126 in the intervention group and 111 in the control group). Their glucose disorders rates, clinical and metabolic changes and rates of adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle were analyzed. Less women in the intervention group (42.8%) developed glucose disorders at the end of the three-year follow-up period compared with the control group (56.75%), p < 0.05. The multivariate analysis indicated a reduction in the rate of glucose disorders with a BMI of less than 27 kg/m(2) (OR 0.28; 0.12-0.65; p < 0.003), low fat intake pattern (OR 0.30; 0.13-0.70; p < 0.005), low saturated fat pattern (OR 0.30; 0.13-0.69; p < 0.005) and healthy fat pattern (OR 0.34; 0.12-0.94; p < 0.04). Lifestyle intervention was effective for the prevention of glucose disorders in women with prior GDM. Body weight gain and an unhealthy fat intake pattern were found to be the most predictive factors for the development of glucose disorders. Current Controlled trials: ISRCTN24165302. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/pf/24165302. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of miglitol, sitagliptin or their combination on plasma glucose, insulin and incretin levels in non-diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Masuda, Kiyomi; Miyazaki, Takashi; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (alphaGIs) increase active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and reduce the total glucosedependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels, but their ability to prevent diabetes remains uncertain. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, such as sitagliptin, increase active GLP-1 and GIP levels and improve hyperglycemia in a glucose-dependent fashion. However, the effectiveness of their combination in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is uncertain. The present study evaluated the effect of miglitol, sitagliptin, and their combination on glucose, insulin and incretin levels in non-diabetic men. Miglitol and sitagliptin were administered according to four different intake schedules (C: no drug, M: miglitol; S: sitagliptin, M+S: miglitol and sitagliptin). The plasma glucose levels were significantly lower for M, S and M+S than for the control. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the plasma active GLP-1 level in the M, S, and M+S groups were significantly greater than that in the control group. The AUC of the plasma active GLP-1 level was significantly greater for M+S group than for the M and S groups. The AUC of the plasma total GIP level was significantly smaller for M+S group than for the control and M and S groups. The results of our study suggest that miglitol, sitagliptin, or their combination contributes to the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels. PMID:28212346

  2. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  3. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Diabetes, plasma glucose and incidence of pancreatic cancer: A prospective study of 0.5 million Chinese adults and a meta-analysis of 22 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuanjie; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Guo, Yu; Bragg, Fiona; Yang, Ling; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Yiping; Iona, Andri; Millwood, Iona Y; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Chen, Junshi; Li, Liming; Holmes, Michael V; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-04-15

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in Western populations. Uncertainty remains, however, about the relevance of plasma glucose for PC among people without diabetes and about the associations of diabetes and high blood glucose with PC in China where the increase in diabetes prevalence has been very recent. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study recruited 512,000 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas of China during 2004-2008, recording 595 PC cases during 8 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PC associated with diabetes (previously diagnosed or screen-detected) and, among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, with levels of random plasma glucose (RPG). These were further meta-analysed with 22 published prospective studies. Overall 5.8% of CKB participants had diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was associated with almost twofold increased risk of PC (adjusted HR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.48-2.37), with excess risk higher in those with longer duration since diagnosis (p for trend = 0.01). Among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher usual RPG was associated with a HR of 1.12 (1.04-1.21). In meta-analysis of CKB and 22 other studies, previously diagnosed diabetes was associated with a 52% excess risk (1.52, 1.43-1.63). Among those without diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher blood glucose was associated with a 15% (1.15, 1.09-1.21) excess risk. In Chinese and non-Chinese populations, diabetes and higher blood glucose levels among those without diabetes are associated with an increased risk of PC. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  5. Diabetes, plasma glucose and incidence of pancreatic cancer: A prospective study of 0.5 million Chinese adults and a meta‐analysis of 22 cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuanjie; Guo, Yu; Bragg, Fiona; Yang, Ling; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Yiping; Iona, Andri; Millwood, Iona Y; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Chen, Junshi; Li, Liming; Holmes, Michael V; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in Western populations. Uncertainty remains, however, about the relevance of plasma glucose for PC among people without diabetes and about the associations of diabetes and high blood glucose with PC in China where the increase in diabetes prevalence has been very recent. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study recruited 512,000 adults aged 30‐79 years from 10 diverse areas of China during 2004‐2008, recording 595 PC cases during 8 years of follow‐up. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PC associated with diabetes (previously diagnosed or screen‐detected) and, among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, with levels of random plasma glucose (RPG). These were further meta‐analysed with 22 published prospective studies. Overall 5.8% of CKB participants had diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was associated with almost twofold increased risk of PC (adjusted HR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.48‐2.37), with excess risk higher in those with longer duration since diagnosis (p for trend = 0.01). Among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher usual RPG was associated with a HR of 1.12 (1.04‐1.21). In meta‐analysis of CKB and 22 other studies, previously diagnosed diabetes was associated with a 52% excess risk (1.52, 1.43‐1.63). Among those without diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher blood glucose was associated with a 15% (1.15, 1.09‐1.21) excess risk. In Chinese and non‐Chinese populations, diabetes and higher blood glucose levels among those without diabetes are associated with an increased risk of PC. PMID:28063165

  6. Impact of maternal chromium restriction on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and oxidative stress in WNIN rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Raghunath, Manchala

    2011-12-01

    Robust evidence suggests that nutritional insult during fetal development could program the offspring to glucose intolerance, impaired insulin response and insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, this study determined the effect of maternal Cr restriction (CrR) on glucose metabolism and plasma insulin in Wistar/NIN (WNIN) rat offspring and the associated biochemical and/or molecular mechanisms. Female, weanling WNIN rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet or the same with 65% restriction of Cr and mated with control males. Some of the Cr-restricted dams were rehabilitated from conception or parturition and their pups weaned on to control diet. At the time of weaning, half of the Cr restricted offspring were rehabilitated to control diet while others continued on Cr-restricted diet. Maternal CrR increased fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of IR, and area under the curve of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test in the offspring. Expression and activity of rate-limiting enzymes of glucose metabolism were comparable among different groups and expression of genes involved in insulin secretion was increased albeit in male offspring whereas antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in offspring of both genders. Rehabilitation, in general, corrected the changes albeit partially. Maternal dietary CrR induced IR, impaired glucose tolerance in WNIN rat offspring and was associated with increased oxidative stress, which may predispose them to type 2 diabetes in their later life.

  7. Impaired Increase of Plasma Abscisic Acid in Response to Oral Glucose Load in Type 2 Diabetes and in Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F.; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8–12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8–12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control. PMID:25723556

  8. Impaired increase of plasma abscisic Acid in response to oral glucose load in type 2 diabetes and in gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8-12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8-12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control.

  9. Effects of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 selective inhibitor, ipragliflozin, on the diurnal profile of plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: A study using continuous glucose monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hitomi; Yoshinobu, Satoko; Kawano, Seiko; Tsuruta, Munehisa; Nohara, Masayuki; Hasuo, Rika; Akasu, Shoko; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Wada, Nobuhiko; Hirao, Saori; Iwata, Shinpei; Kaku, Hiroo; Tajiri, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To assess the effects of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor therapy on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods We administered ipragliflozin to 21 inpatients with type 2 diabetes for 7 days, and analyzed the diurnal profiles of plasma glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. A total of 21 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched diabetic patients served as controls. Results Continuous glucose monitoring showed that the 24-h glucose curve was shifted downward without hypoglycemia by the administration of ipragliflozin. The average glucose level was reduced from 182 ± 54 mg/dL to 141 ± 33 mg/dL (P < 0.0001). The magnitude of the reduction was highly correlated with the baseline average glucose level. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was decreased, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was increased during the treatment. Urinary glucose excretion was correlated with the average glucose level both on day 0 and on day 7, although the regression line was steeper and shifted leftward on day 7. The ipragliflozin-treated patients lost more weight than the control patients (1.4 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.6 kg, P < 0.0001). Plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate were significantly increased with peaks before breakfast and before dinner. Patient age and bodyweight loss were negatively and positively correlated with the peak levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate on day 7, respectively. Conclusions The ipragliflozin treatment improved the 24-h glucose curve without causing hypoglycemia. The close correlation between the magnitude of glucose reduction and the baseline plasma glucose concentration suggests that the risk of hypoglycemia is likely low. It might be prudent to monitor ketone body levels in younger patients and in patients with rapid weight loss. PMID:26543545

  10. Sustained high plasma mannose less sensitive to fluctuating blood glucose in glycogen storage disease type Ia children.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Yorifuji, Tohru; Bandsma, Robert H J; Takatani, Tomozumi; Asano, Hisaki; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Mayuko; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Inui, Ayano; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Komatsu, Haruki; Hiejima, Eitaro; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Miida, Takashi; Ohtake, Akira; Taguchi, Tadao; Miwa, Ichitomo

    2013-01-01

    Plasma mannose is suggested to be largely generated from liver glycogen-oriented glucose-6-phosphate. This study examined plasma mannose in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) lacking conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the liver. We initially examined fasting--and postprandial 2 h--plasma mannose and other blood carbohydrates and lipids for seven GSD Ia children receiving dietary interventions using cornstarch and six healthy age-matched children. Next, one-day successive intra-individual parameter changes were examined for six affected and two control children. Although there were no significant differences in fasting--and postprandial 2 h--glucose and insulin levels, the mannose level of the affected group was invariably much higher than that of the control group (p < 0.001): the fasting level of the affected group was about two-fold that of the control group; the postprandial-2 h level remained almost unchanged in the affected group, although it was one-half of the fasting level in the control group. Inter-individual analyses revealed that the GSD Ia group mannose level was significantly and positively correlated with lactate and triglycerides levels at both time points (p < 0.01). In each control, mannose levels fluctuated greatly, maintaining strong and significant negative correlations with glucose and insulin levels (p < 0.001). Correlations were lower or nonexistent in GSD Ia children. In individuals with high lactate and triglycerides levels, strikingly high mannose levels never changed against glucose and insulin fluctuations. Plasma mannose is less sensitive to blood glucose and insulin in GSD Ia children. Its basal level and the fluctuation pattern differ by their metabolic activity.

  11. Latinas with Elevated Fasting Plasma Glucose: An Analysis Using NHANES 2009–2010 Data

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Vega, Marlena; Clayton-Jeter, Helene D.; Deren, Sherry; Rosedale, Mary; Rindskopf, David M.

    2017-01-01

    For Latinas with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in the pre-diabetes and diabetes ranges, early detection can support steps to optimize their health. Data collected in 2009–2010 indicate that 36.7% of Latinas in the U.S. had elevated FPG levels. Latinas with elevated FPG who were unaware of their diabetes status were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women to have seen a health care provider in the past year (75.8%, 92.9%, and 90.2%, respectively; p = .018). With almost 1 million Latinas in the U.S. with elevated FPG unaware of their diabetes risk, and less likely than other at-risk women to see health care providers, there is an urgent need to establish alternate sites of opportunity for their diabetes screening. PMID:24865436

  12. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia.

  13. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation.

  14. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  15. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  16. Regulation of plasma glucose and sulfate excretion in Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii is not mediated by 11-deoxycortisol.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Alexander M; Bury, Nicolas R; Schultz, Aaron G; Ede, James D; Goss, Brendan L; Goss, Greg G

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify whether Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) possess glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid responses and to examine the potential role(s) of four key steroids in these responses. Pacific hagfish were injected with varying amounts of cortisol, corticosterone or 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) using coconut oil implants and plasma glucose and gill total-ATPase activity were monitored as indices of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid responses. Furthermore, we also monitored plasma glucose and 11-deoxycortisol (11-DOC) levels following exhaustive stress (30 min of agitation) or following repeated infusion with SO4(2-). There were no changes in gill total-ATPase following implantation with any steroid, with only very small statistical increases in plasma glucose noted in hagfish implanted with either DOC (at 20 and 200mgkg(-1) at 7 and 4days post-injection, respectively) or corticosterone (at 100mgkg(-1) at 7days post-injection). Following exhaustive stress, hagfish displayed a large and sustained increase in plasma glucose. Repeated infusion of SO4(2-) into hagfish caused increases in both plasma glucose levels and SO4(2-) excretion rate suggesting a regulated glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid response. However, animals under either condition did not show any significant increases in plasma 11-DOC concentrations. Our results suggest that while there are active glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid responses in hagfish, 11-DOC does not appear to be involved and the identity and primary function of the steroid in hagfish remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term effects of daily postprandial physical activity on blood glucose: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Håvard; Grindaker, Eirik; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that a bout of moderate or light postprandial physical activity effectively blunts the postprandial increase in blood glucose. The objective of this study was to test whether regular light postprandial physical activity can improve glycemia in persons with hyperglycemia or with a high risk of hyperglycemia. We randomized 56 participants to an intervention or a control group. They were diagnosed as hyperglycemic, not using antidiabetics, or were categorized as high-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes. The intervention group was instructed to undertake a minimum 30 min of daily light physical activity, starting a maximum of 30 min after a meal in addition to their usual physical activity for 12 weeks. The control group maintained their usual lifestyle. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-test. Forty participants completed the study and are included in the results. The self-reported increase in daily physical activity from before to within the study period was higher in the intervention group compared with control (41 ± 25 vs. 2 ± 16 min, p < 0.001). Activity diaries and accelerometer recordings supported this observation. The activity in the intervention group started earlier after the last meal compared with control (30 ± 13 vs. 100 ± 57 min, p = 0.001). There were no within- or between-group differences in any glycemic variable from pre- to post-test. In conclusion, the present study does not seem to support the notion that regular light postprandial physical activity improves blood glucose in the long term in persons with hyperglycemia or with high risk of hyperglycemia.

  18. Resveratrol Supplementation in Schizophrenia Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Serum Glucose and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zortea, Karine; Franco, Viviane C.; Francesconi, Lenise P.; Cereser, Keila M. M.; Lobato, Maria Inês R.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) are generally overweight or obese and have several metabolic disorders. Additionally, such patients have a lower life expectancy and the main cause of their increased mortality is cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on serum glucose and CVD risk factors in individuals with SZ. Methods and Results: This is a four-week randomized, double-blind controlled trial (registration No.: NCT 02062190) in which 19 men with a diagnosis of SZ, aged 18 to 65, were assigned to either a resveratrol supplement group (200 mg/day) or a placebo group (200 mg/day). In short, we did not observe significant changes after resveratrol supplementation. In the placebo group, we found a significant increase in total cholesterol levels (p = 0.024) and in LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.002), as well as a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.038). The placebo group also showed an increase in triglycerides (9.19%) and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol (4.88%). In the resveratrol group, triglycerides decreased (7.64%). Conclusion: In summary, oral resveratrol in reasonably low dosages (200 mg daily) brought no differences to body weight, waist circumference, glucose, and total cholesterol. It was possible to note that the lipid profile in the placebo group worsened and, although no significant differences were found, we can assume that resveratrol might prevent lipid profile damage and that the intervention affected the lipoprotein metabolism at various levels. PMID:26840331

  19. Day-to-day variability of fasting plasma glucose in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, R L; Playle, R; Ahmed, K; Dunstan, F D; Luzio, S D; Owens, D R

    1999-03-01

    To determine the day-to-day intraindividual variability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in newly diagnosed Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects. A total of 193 newly diagnosed, previously untreated, Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects (135 men, 58 women) had FPG measured on two consecutive days (FPG1, FPG2). Ethical approval and subjects' full informed consent were obtained. Subjects fasted for 12 h before each study day and rested for at least 30 min before blood was taken. Plasma glucose was analyzed by a glucose oxidase method with intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs) < 2%. Variability of FPG was assessed by comparison of percentage differences (PDs): PD = 100 (FPG2 - FPG1)/FPG1, with averaged FPG (FPGaver = [FPG1 + FPG2]/2). Biological and analytical variability were determined by use of SD2total = SD2biological + SD2analytical, where SD2analytical approximately equal to 2 x (CVglucose measurement)2. Given normally distributed data with zero mean, 95% of daily percentage differences will be expected to fall within a range of +/- 2 SDtotal. Subjects were age 54 +/- 10 years (mean +/- SD) and had BMI of 29.3 +/- 5.3 kg/m2. FPG values for both days were 12.2 +/- 3.4 mmol/l (FPG1) and 12.1 +/- 3.3 mmol/l (FPG2), with a mean paired difference (95% CI) of 0.1 (0.0 to 0.3) mmol/l. The variance of these differences increased with increasing FPGaver. The PDs did not exhibit this effect and were normally distributed (mean -0.6% [-1.7 to 0.4]; SD 7.4% [6.8 to 8.3]), giving a 95% variability (2 SD) of 14.8%. Biological variability (2 SDbiological) was 13.7%. No significant difference in PD was found between men and women (mean difference 1.3% [-1.0 to 3.6]; SDmale 7.4%, SDfemale 7.3%; P = 0.62). A total of 95% of the FPG values for this group of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects varied within approximately +/- 15% on a daily basis, with approximately 14% caused by biological variability. As these results are expressed in percentage terms, subjects in

  20. Plasma myeloperoxidase is inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in elderly subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Leonard P; Teerlink, Tom; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Heine, Robert J; Scheffer, Peter G

    2010-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a biomarker related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide scavenging, has been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Because elevated hydrogen peroxide concentrations in diabetic vessels may enhance MPO activity, we hypothesized that a stronger association of MPO with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) may be found in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were measured in EDTA plasma samples from participants of a population-based cohort study, including 230 subjects with normal glucose metabolism and 386 with abnormal glucose metabolism. Vascular function was expressed as FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. In subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, MPO was negatively associated with FMD (-20.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -41.7 to -0.2] -μm change in FMD per SD increment of MPO). This association remained significant after adjustment for nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (-31.1 [95% CI, -50.0 to -12.3]) and was not attenuated after further adjustment for established risk factors. In subjects with normal glucose metabolism, MPO was not significantly associated with FMD (2.0 [95% CI, -16.0 to 20.0]). In conclusion, in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, plasma levels of MPO are inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation, possibly reflecting enhancement of MPO activity by vascular oxidative stress.

  1. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Polyviou, Thelma P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R.; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. PMID:26167296

  2. Pharmacodynamic Effects of Canagliflozin, a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, from a Randomized Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Sue; Devineni, Damayanthi; Ghosh, Atalanta; Polidori, David; Hompesch, Marcus; Arnolds, Sabine; Morrow, Linda; Spitzer, Heike; Demarest, Keith; Rothenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending-dose study evaluated the pharmacodynamic effects and safety/tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients (N = 116) discontinued their antihyperglycemic medications 2 weeks before randomization. Patients received canagliflozin 30, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily or 300 mg twice daily, or placebo at 2 study centers in the United States and Germany, or canagliflozin 30 mg once daily or placebo at 1 study center in Korea, while maintaining an isocaloric diet for 2 weeks. On Days –1, 1, and 16, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), plasma glucose (PG), fasting PG (FPG), and insulin were measured. The renal threshold for glucose (RTG) was calculated from UGE, PG, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Safety was evaluated based on adverse event (AE) reports, vital signs, electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory tests, and physical examinations. Results Canagliflozin increased UGE dose-dependently (∼80–120 g/day with canagliflozin ≥100 mg), with increases maintained over the 14-day dosing period with each dose. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased RTG, with maximal reductions to ∼4–5 mM (72–90 mg/dL). Canagliflozin also reduced FPG and 24-hour mean PG; glucose reductions were seen on Day 1 and maintained over 2 weeks. Plasma insulin reductions with canagliflozin were consistent with observed PG reductions. Canagliflozin also reduced body weight. AEs were transient, mild to moderate in intensity, and balanced across groups; 1 canagliflozin-treated female reported an episode of vaginal candidiasis. Canagliflozin did not cause hypoglycemia, consistent with the RTG values remaining above the hypoglycemia threshold. At Day 16, there were no clinically meaningful changes in urine volume, urine electrolyte excretion, renal function, or routine laboratory test values. Conclusions

  3. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than in pregnant goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p < 0.01), increasing again thereafter. The plasma NEFA concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  4. Stable isotope models of sugar intake using hair, red blood cells, and plasma, but not fasting plasma glucose, predict sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population.

    PubMed

    Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measured biomarkers will help to resolve the controversial role of sugar intake in the etiology of obesity and related chronic diseases. We recently validated a dual-isotope model based on RBC carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope ratios that explained a large percentage of the variation in self-reported sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population. Stable isotope ratios can easily be measured from many tissues, including RBCs, plasma, and hair; however, it is not known how isotopic models of sugar intake compare among these tissues. Here, we compared self-reported sugar intake with models based on RBCs, plasma, and hair δ(13)C and δ(15)N in Yup'ik people. We also evaluated associations of sugar intake with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C. Finally, we evaluated relations between δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in hair, plasma, RBCs, and fasting plasma glucose to allow comparison of isotope ratios across tissue types. Models using RBCs, plasma, or hair isotope ratios explained similar amounts of variance in total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (∼53%, 48%, and 34%, respectively); however, the association with δ(13)C was strongest for models based on RBCs and hair. There were no associations with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C (R(2) = 0.03). The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of RBCs, plasma, and hair showed strong, positive correlations; the slopes of these relations did not differ from 1. This study demonstrates that RBC, plasma, and hair isotope ratios predict sugar intake and provides data that will allow comparison of studies using different sample types.

  5. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  6. The effect of low zinc (Zn) intake on the plasma Zn response to a meal or glucose load

    SciTech Connect

    Hambidge, K.M.; Mellman, D.; Westcott, J.L. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the post-prandial net efflux of Zn from the plasma compartment is greater following a period of acute Zn deprivation. For 8 days, 5 healthy adults received their normal diet plus a 15 mg Zn supplement, following which they were fed a liquid synthetic egg albumin, high phytate diet providing less than 1 mg Zn per day for 8 days. On the 7th day on each diet, subjects were fed the low Zn liquid breakfast providing 240-400 kcal according to body weight. On the 8th day on each diet, subjects received an isocaloric quantity of glucose. Blood samples were collected before and for 6 hrs after both the test breakfast and glucose load. Post-prandial changes in plasma Zn were analyzed by a two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures. Mean fasting plasma Zn did not change after a week of severe dietary Zn restriction. Post glucose decline in plasma Zn did not change significantly, but post-breakfast decline in plasma Zn was consistently greater across the 6 hr period. The maximal post-prandial decline was 11.6 {plus minus} 6.1 ug/dl in the control period and 19.3 {plus minus} 2.6 ug/dl in the Zn restricted period. It is concluded that the plasma Zn response is greater with a meal than with an equicaloric glucose load and that plasma Zn is more sensitive to a Zn restricted diet post-prandially than in the fasting state.

  7. Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids in patients with primary aldosteronism: a controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Matrozova, Joanna; Steichen, Olivier; Amar, Laurence; Zacharieva, Sabina; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2009-04-01

    An association between primary aldosteronism and metabolism disorders has been reported. The aim of this retrospective study was to test for this association by comparison between large cohorts of patients with primary aldosteronism and with essential hypertension. We retrieved the records of 460 cases with primary aldosteronism (103 lateralized, 150 not lateralized, and 207 undetermined) and of 1363 controls with essential hypertension individually matched for age and sex. We compared clinical history; blood pressure levels; body mass index; levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum triglycerides; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose among subtypes of primary aldosteronism, as well as between cases with primary aldosteronism and their matched controls. Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipid levels did not differ among the 3 subtypes of primary aldosteronism. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower in patients with primary aldosteronism than their matched controls, but the prevalence of hyperglycemia (impaired fasting glucose or diabetes mellitus) and blood levels of glucose and lipids did not differ between cases and controls. There was no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative levels of either fasting plasma glucose or serum lipids in patients who underwent adrenalectomy and had follow-up data available. The analysis of this large group of patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension does not confirm a higher prevalence of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism disorders in the former. It is unlikely that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome differs significantly between patients with primary aldosteronism and those with essential hypertension.

  8. Anomalous transport in turbulent plasmas and continuous time random walks

    SciTech Connect

    Balescu, R.

    1995-05-01

    The possibility of a model of anomalous transport problems in a turbulent plasma by a purely stochastic process is investigated. The theory of continuous time random walks (CTRW`s) is briefly reviewed. It is shown that a particular class, called the standard long tail CTRW`s is of special interest for the description of subdiffusive transport. Its evolution is described by a non-Markovian diffusion equation that is constructed in such a way as to yield exact values for all the moments of the density profile. The concept of a CTRW model is compared to an exact solution of a simple test problem: transport of charged particles in a fluctuating magnetic field in the limit of infinite perpendicular correlation length. Although the well-known behavior of the mean square displacement proportional to {ital t}{sup 1/2} is easily recovered, the exact density profile cannot be modeled by a CTRW. However, the quasilinear approximation of the kinetic equation has the form of a non-Markovian diffusion equation and can thus be generated by a CTRW.

  9. Probabilistic model of beam-plasma interaction in randomly inhomogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Voshchepynets, Andrii; Artemyev, Anton

    2014-05-01

    We study beam-plasma interaction in the presence of random density fluctuations. The level of fluctuations is supposed to be high but Langmuir waves generated by the beam instability are supposed to be not trapped inside the density depletions. This system can be considered as a good approximation of beam-plasma interaction in the solar wind. We describe the system in terms of probability density for the density fluctuations that determines the probability density for wave phase velocities during wave propagation. We suppose that at each moment of time an electron can interact only with one single wave having the phase velocity equal to its velocity or do not interact at all. We suppose that the amplitudes and electron distribution functions vary slowly with respect to single wave-particle interaction that allows one to average over a large number of interactions. This allows one to write Smoluhovsky equation for probability for particle having velocity V0 at time t0 to have velocity V at time t. From this description one can obtain Kolmogorov-Feller equation for slow variations of electron distribution function similar to the diffusion equation in quasilinear approximation. This probabilistic approach allows finding out the dependence of diffusion coefficients on statistical distribution of plasma density fluctuations. We use Liouville equation to describe the evolution of the Langmuir wave's spectral power, for each single wave. To describe slow evolution of the wave power we use averaged wave growth rate. It is obtained from the probability for the wave to have the resonant velocity on the interval. The equations obtained are solved numerically. We evaluate the influence of the density inhomogeneities on the beam relaxation time. As a result the length of relaxation of the electron beam in such inhomogeneous plasma is much longer than in homogeneous case and our goal is to determine the dependence of this length on characteristics of the statistical properties

  10. Probabilistic Model of Beam-Plasma Interaction in Randomly Inhomogeneous Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoselskikh, V.; Voshchepynets, A.; Volokitin, A.; Artemyev, A.

    2014-12-01

    We study beam-plasma interaction in the presence of random density fluctuations. The level of fluctuations is supposed to be high but Langmuir waves generated by the beam instability are supposed to be not trapped inside the density depletions. This system can be considered as a good approximation of beam-plasma interaction in the solar wind. We describe the system in terms of probability density for the density fluctuations that determines the probability density for wave phase velocities during wave propagation. We suppose that at each moment of time an electron can interact only with one single wave having the phase velocity equal to its velocity or do not interact at all. We suppose that the amplitudes and electron distribution functions vary slowly with respect to single wave-particle interaction that allows one to average over a large number of interactions. This allows one to write Smoluhovsky equation for probability for particle having velocity V0 at time t0 to have velocity V at time t. From this description one can obtain Kolmogorov-Feller equation for slow variations of electron distribution function similar to the diffusion equation in quasilinear approximation. This probabilistic approach allows finding out the dependence of diffusion coefficients on statistical distribution of plasma density fluctuations. We use Liouville equation to describe the evolution of the Langmuir wave's spectral power, for each single wave. To describe slow evolution of the wave power we use averaged wave growth rate. It is obtained from the probability for the wave to have the resonant velocity on the interval. The equations obtained are solved numerically. We evaluate the influence of the density inhomogeneities on the beam relaxation time. As a result the length of relaxation of the electron beam in such inhomogeneous plasma is much longer than in homogeneous case and our goal is to determine the dependence of this length on characteristics of the statistical properties

  11. Palm olein and olive oil cause a higher increase in postprandial lipemia compared with lard but had no effect on plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Nagapan, Gowri; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-04-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs insulin sensitivity and triggers the pro-inflammatory state which may lead to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. A randomized, crossover single-blind study (n = 10 healthy men) was designed to compare the effects of a high-fat load (50 g fat), rich in palmitic acid from both plant (palm olein) or animal source (lard) versus an oleic acid-rich fat (virgin olive oil) on lipemia, plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were significantly lower after the lard meal than after the olive oil and palm olein meals (meal effect P = 0.003; time effect P < 0.001). The greater reduction in the plasma non-esterified free fatty acids levels in the lard group compared to the olive oil meal was mirrored by the changes observed for serum TAG levels (P < 0.05). The magnitude of response for plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leptin] were not altered by the type of dietary fats. A significant difference in plasma IL-1β was found over time following the three high fat loads (time effect P = 0.036). The physical characteristics and changes in TAG structure of lard may contribute to the smaller increase in postprandial lipemia compared with palm olein. A high fat load but not the type of fats influences concentrations of plasma IL-1β over time but had no effect on other pro-inflammatory markers tested in the postprandial state.

  12. Responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep-fed forage herb plantain and exposed to heat.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, M; Shibuya, K; Kajita, M; Tamura, Y; Sano, H

    2017-01-16

    The use of herbal plants as traditional medicines has a century long history. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is a perennial herb containing bioactive components with free radical scavenging activities. An isotope dilution technique using [U-13C]glucose was conducted to determine the effect of plantain on the responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep. Six crossbred sheep (three wethers and three ewes; mean initial BW=40±2 kg) were fed either a mixed hay of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) (MH-diet) or mixed hay and fresh plantain (1 : 1 ratio, dry matter basis, PL-diet) and exposed to a thermoneutral (TN, 20°C; 70% relative humidity (RH)) environment or a heat exposure (HE, 30°C; 70% RH) for 5 days using a crossover design for two 23-day periods. The isotope dilution was conducted on days 18 and 23 of the experimental period during TN and HE, respectively. Plasma concentration of α-tocopherol was greater (P<0.0001) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet and remained comparable between environmental treatments. Plasma glucose concentration before isotope dilution technique was reduced for sheep (P=0.05) during HE compared with TN and remained comparable between diets. Plasma glucose turnover rate during the preinfusion period of insulin did not differ (P=0.10) between dietary treatments and between environments (P=0.65). The response of plasma glucose utilization to exogenous insulin administration was lower (P=0.04) for the PL-diet than the MH-diet. Under present experimental conditions, the plantain group was found to be resistant to the effects of insulin infusion.

  13. Ethnicity modifies the relation between fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c in Indians, Malays and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, K; Kao, S L; Thai, A C; Salim, A; Lee, J J M; Heng, D; Tai, E S; Khoo, E Y H

    2012-07-01

    To study whether HbA(1c) , and its relationship with fasting plasma glucose, was significantly different among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. A sample of 3895 individuals without known diabetes underwent detailed interview and health examination, including anthropometric and biochemical evaluation, between 2004 and 2007. Pearson's correlation, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the influence of ethnicity on HbA(1c) . As fasting plasma glucose increased, HbA(1c) increased more in Malays and Indians compared with Chinese after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P-interaction < 0.001). This translates to an HbA(1c) difference of 1.1 mmol/mol (0.1%, Indians vs. Chinese), and 0.9 mmol/mol (0.08%, Malays vs. Chinese) at fasting plasma glucose 5.6 mmol/l (the American Diabetes Association criterion for impaired fasting glycaemia); and 2.1 mmol/mol (0.19%, Indians vs. Chinese) and 2.6 mmol/mol (0.24%, Malays vs. Chinese) at fasting plasma glucose 7.0 mmol/l, the diagnostic criterion for diabetes mellitus. Using HbA(1c) in place of fasting plasma glucose will reclassify different proportions of the population in different ethnic groups. This may have implications in interpretation of HbA(1c) results across ethnic groups and the use of HbA(1c) for diagnosing diabetes mellitus. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  14. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  15. Does a reduced glucose intake prevent hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery? a randomized controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia in children after cardiac surgery can be treated with intensive insulin therapy, but hypoglycemia is a potential serious side effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing glucose intake below standard intakes to prevent hyperglycemia, on blood glucose concentrations, glucose kinetics and protein catabolism in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Subjects received a 4-hour low glucose (LG; 2.5 mg/kg per minute) and a 4-hour standard glucose (SG; 5.0 mg/kg per minute) infusion in a randomized blinded crossover setting. Simultaneously, an 8-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was conducted to determine glucose and leucine kinetics. Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (IQR); comparison was made by paired samples t test. Results Eleven subjects (age 5.1 (20.2) months) were studied 9.5 ± 1.9 hours post-cardiac surgery. Blood glucose concentrations were lower during LG than SG (LG 7.3 ± 0.7 vs. SG 9.3 ± 1.8 mmol/L; P < 0.01), although the glycemic target (4.0-6.0 mmol/L) was not achieved. No hypoglycemic events occurred. Endogenous glucose production was higher during LG than SG (LG 2.9 ± 0.8 vs. SG 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/kg per minute; P = 0.02), due to increased glycogenolysis (LG 1.0 ± 0.6 vs. SG 0.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg per minute; P < 0.05). Leucine balance, indicating protein balance, was negative but not affected by glucose intake (LG -54.8 ± 14.6 vs. SG -58.8 ± 16.7 μmol/kg per hour; P = 0.57). Conclusions Currently recommended glucose intakes aggravated hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery with CPB. Reduced glucose intake decreased blood glucose concentrations without causing hypoglycemia or affecting protein catabolism, but increased glycogenolysis. Trial registration Dutch trial register NTR2079. PMID:23031354

  16. Selective conversion of plasma glucose into CO2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the measurement of 13C abundance by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Rembacz, Krzysztof P; Faber, Klaas Nico; Stellaard, Frans

    2007-01-01

    To study carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, time-dependent (13)C enrichment in plasma glucose is measured after oral administration of naturally occurring (13)C-enriched carbohydrates. The isotope enrichment of the administered carbohydrate is low (APE <0.1%) and plasma (13)C glucose measurements are routinely determined with gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) or liquid chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/C/IRMS). In this study, plasma glucose was converted into CO(2) by an in-tube reaction with yeast permitting direct measurement of (13)CO(2) in the headspace. Saccharomyces cerevisiae incubated under anaerobic conditions was able to convert sufficient glucose into CO(2) to produce a consistent CO(2) peak in IRMS with little variation in peak area and precise delta(13)C(PDB) values for corn glucose: -11.40 +/- 0.16 per thousand, potato glucose: -25.17 +/- 0.13 per thousand, and plasma glucose: -26.29 +/- 0.05 per thousand. The measurement showed high linearity (R(2) = 0.999) and selectivity and was not affected by the glucose concentration in the tested range of 5-15 mM. Comparison with GC/C/IRMS showed a good correlation of enrichment data: R(2) > 0.98 for both sources of glucose and plasma samples. Commercially available, instant dried baker's yeast was qualitatively and quantitatively comparable with freshly prepared yeast: R(2) > 0.96, slope 1.03 and 1.08 for glucose solutions and plasma, respectively. Thus, yeast conversion of plasma glucose into CO(2) and (13)C measurement applying a breath (13)CO(2) analyzer is an inexpensive, simple and equally accurate alternative to the more expensive and laborious GC/C/IRMS and LC/C/IRMS measurements. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Impact of Randomized Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Glucose Metabolism: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    ERLANDSON, Kristine Mace; KITCH, Douglas; TIERNEY, Camlin; SAX, Paul E.; DAAR, Eric S.; MELBOURNE, Kathleen M.; HA, Belinda; MCCOMSEY, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have found that early HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) contribute to glucose dysregulation. Few randomized trials have evaluated glucose indices in antiretroviral-naïve subjects on newer antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). Analyses used 2-sample t-tests, Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 non-diabetic subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, baseline median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL and CD4 233 cells/μL. Overall, significant 96-week increases occurred in fasting glucose, insulin, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), p≤0.004. Assignment to EFV (vs ATV/r) resulted in significantly greater glucose increase (mean difference 4.4; 95% CI 1.3, 7.5 mg/dL; p=0.006) but not insulin or HOMA-IR (p≥0.72). Glucose indices were not significantly different between ABC/3TC or TDF/FTC arms, p≥0.18. Significant correlations were detected between changes in glucose indices and changes in body mass index; all r≥0.23, p≤0.001. In multivariable analyses, in addition to the EFV effect, higher baseline HIV-1 RNA, and greater BMI change were significant independent factors associated with greater glucose increase. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism were not significantly different between TDF/FTC- and ABC/3TC-based regimens. A small but significantly greater increase in glucose was observed in those assigned to EFV. As glucose dysregulation may increase with time on ART, longer term studies will be needed to further clarify the clinical significance of these findings. PMID:24637543

  18. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  19. Effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glucose variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, R; Osonoi, T; Kanada, S; Jinnouchi, H; Sugio, K; Omiya, H; Ubukata, M; Sakai, S; Samukawa, Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of luseogliflozin on 24-h glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and on pharmacodynamic variables measured throughout the day. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise were randomized into two groups. Patients in each group first received luseogliflozin then placebo for 7 days each, or vice versa. After 7 days of treatment, the mean 24-h glucose level was significantly lower with luseogliflozin than with placebo [mean (95% confidence interval) 145.9 (134.4-157.5) mg/dl vs 168.5 (156.9-180.0) mg/dl; p < 0.001]. The proportion of time spent with glucose levels ≥70 to ≤180 mg/dl was significantly greater with luseogliflozin than with placebo [median (interquartile range) 83.2 (67.7-96.5)% vs 71.9 (46.9-83.3)%; p < 0.001] without inducing hypoglycaemia. The decrease in glucose levels was accompanied by reductions in serum insulin levels throughout the day. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantitative determination of glucose in blood plasma and in fruit juices by combined WATR-CPMG 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, S; Choy, W Y; Lam, S L; Au-Yeung, S C; Tsang, L; Cockram, C S

    1992-11-01

    The quantitative analysis of pure glucose solution < or = 225 mM (< or = 40.8 mg/mL) in 90/10 H2O/D2O was successfully completed in dilute aqueous solution by the WATR-CPMG method whereby the T2 of the water resonance is manipulated by the WATR method followed by elimination of the water peak by the CPMG pulse sequence. The method was applied to the quantitative analysis of total glucose in blood plasma from human subjects undergoing the oral glucose tolerance test in the teaching hospital, and the results were compared to those obtained using a standard glucose oxidase method in a hospital chemical pathology laboratory. The accuracy of the results obtained using the WATR-CPMG method were generally within 5% of the glucose oxidase method. The coefficient of variation was determined to be better than 4% using plasma samples of diabetic subjects. Application to the quantitative analysis of orange and guava juice was also successfully demonstrated.

  1. Quantitative study of starving platelets in a minimal medium: maintenance by acetate or plasma but not by glucose.

    PubMed

    Whisson, M E; Nakhoul, A; Howman, P; Niu, X; Guppy, M

    1993-06-01

    The requirement of donor platelets for fuels, plasma and calcium were studied using platelets washed, filtered to remove leucocytes and resuspended in a new glucose-free minimal platelet storage medium with low citrate (3 mmol/l), low buffer capacity and no calcium. This is the first study of platelets stored without plasma, glucose or calcium and it was shown that platelets continued to aggregate with collagen plus adrenaline for 48 h and showed only a 50% fall in 'swirl index', an objective morphology score, after 3 days, showing that by these criteria human platelets do not require glucose. Sodium acetate extended the storage time by between 2 and 4 days, depending on the index parameter. This is the first evidence showing that failure of platelets in these conditions is at least partly due to exhaustion of fuel, and the first evidence that acetate prolongs in vitro survival. As little as 10% low-glucose plasma extended the storage time, but it was no better than acetate. New observations using this system included a very rapid fall in pH during resuspension of the washed platelet pellet, a rising pH in the absence of added fuel and an increased pH with added acetate.

  2. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  3. Six weeks' sebacic acid supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and glucose tolerance in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Membrez, M; Chou, C J; Raymond, F; Mansourian, R; Moser, M; Monnard, I; Ammon-Zufferey, C; Mace, K; Mingrone, G; Binnert, C

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact of chronic ingestion of sebacic acid (SA), a 10-carbon medium-chain dicarboxylic acid, on glycaemic control in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Three groups of 15 db/db mice were fed for 6 weeks either a chow diet (Ctrl) or a chow diet supplemented with 1.5 or 15% (SA1.5% and SA15%, respectively) energy from SA. Fasting glycaemia was measured once a week and HbA1c before and after supplementation. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the end of the supplementation. Gene expression was determined by transcriptomic analysis on the liver of the Ctrl and SA15% groups. Results: After 42 days of supplementation, fasting glycaemia and HbA1c were ∼70 and 25% lower in the SA15% group compared with the other groups showing a beneficial effect of SA on hyperglycaemia. During OGTT, plasma glucose area under the curve was reduced after SA15% compared with the other groups. This effect was associated with a tendency for an improved insulin response. In the liver, Pck1 and FBP mRNA were statistically decreased in the SA15% compared with Ctrl suggesting a reduced hepatic glucose output induced by SA. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of SA largely improves glycaemic control in a mouse model of T2D. This beneficial effect may be due to (i) an improved glucose-induced insulin secretion and (ii) a reduced hepatic glucose output. PMID:20977585

  4. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF BEAM–PLASMA INTERACTION IN RANDOMLY INHOMOGENEOUS PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Voshchepynets, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Artemyev, A.; Volokitin, A.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new model that describes beam–plasma interaction in the presence of random density fluctuations with a known probability distribution. We use the property that, for the given frequency, the probability distribution of the density fluctuations uniquely determines the probability distribution of the phase velocity of waves. We present the system as discrete and consisting of small, equal spatial intervals with a linear density profile. This approach allows one to estimate variations in wave energy density and particle velocity, depending on the density gradient on any small spatial interval. Because the characteristic time for the evolution of the electron distribution function and the wave energy is much longer than the time required for a single wave–particle resonant interaction over a small interval, we determine the description for the relaxation process in terms of averaged quantities. We derive a system of equations, similar to the quasi-linear approximation, with the conventional velocity diffusion coefficient D and the wave growth rate γ replaced by the average in phase space, by making use of the probability distribution for phase velocities and by assuming that the interaction in each interval is independent of previous interactions. Functions D and γ are completely determined by the distribution function for the amplitudes of the fluctuations. For the Gaussian distribution of the density fluctuations, we show that the relaxation process is determined by the ratio of beam velocity to plasma thermal velocity, the dispersion of the fluctuations, and the width of the beam in the velocity space.

  5. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin was inversely associated with plasma glucose level and fat mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, I; Yamaguchi, T; Yamauchi, M; Yamamoto, M; Kurioka, S; Yano, S; Sugimoto, T

    2011-01-01

    Although recent animal studies have shown that undercarboxylated osteocalcin acts as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass, little is known about the relationships in humans. We reported here for the first time that undercarboxylated osteocalcin were associated with glucose/fat metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) acts as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass. We investigated the relationship between ucOC as well as other bone turnover markers [serum OC, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen] versus serum levels of glucose, fasting serum C-peptide, and adiponectin as well as the amount of fat mass in type 2 diabetes. A total of 180 men and 109 postmenopausal women were consecutively recruited, and radiographic and biochemical characteristics were collected. Fat mass was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). In men, ucOC negatively correlated with percent trunk fat (%trunk fat; by DXA) and visceral/subcutaneous fat ratio (by CT) as well as fasting plasma glucose and HbA(1c) (at least p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that these associations were still significant independent of age, duration of diabetes, body stature, and renal function as well as glucose or fat metabolism, whereas BAP, another bone formation marker, did not correlate with any variable. On the other hand, although ucOC also negatively correlated with %fat and %trunk fat as well as HbA(1c) (at least p < 0.05) in postmenopausal women, we found no significant association in multiple regression analysis. These findings suggest that ucOC is associated with plasma glucose level and fat mass in men with type 2 diabetes.

  6. The Effect of Buffering High Acid Load Meal with Sodium Bicarbonate on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Humans-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Pinar; Blythe, Jackson C; Greenfield, Jerry R; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2017-08-11

    Background: High dietary acid load relates to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate whether buffering a high acid load meal with an alkalizing treatment changes glucose metabolism post meal. Methods: Non-diabetic participants (n = 32) were randomized to receive either 1680 mg NaHCO₃ or placebo, followed by a high acid load meal in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover (1-4 weeks apart) study. Thirty (20 men) participants completed the study. Venous blood pH, serum bicarbonate, blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured at baseline (fasting) and at 15-30 min intervals for 3 h post meal. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. Venous blood pH declined in the first 15 min post meal with the placebo (p = 0.001), but not with NaHCO₃ (p = 0.86) and remained decreased with the placebo for 3 h (pinteraction = 0.04). On average over the 3 h blood pH iAUC was greater with NaHCO₃ compared with placebo (p = 0.02). However, postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, NEFA and GLP-1 were not different between treatments (pinteraction ≥ 0.07). Conclusions: An alkalizing medication administered pre-meal has no acute effect on glycaemia and insulin response in healthy individuals. Long-term interventions in at-risk populations are necessary to investigate the effect of sustained alkalization on glucose metabolism.

  7. Effect of lithium on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats: role of glucagon in the hyperglycaemic response.

    PubMed Central

    Hermida, O. G.; Fontela, T.; Ghiglione, M.; Uttenthal, L. O.

    1994-01-01

    1. Lithium salts, used in the treatment of affective disorders, may have adverse effects on glucose tolerance in man, and suppress glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rats. 2. To study the interaction of these effects with pre-existing diabetes mellitus, plasma glucose and insulin responses to lithium chloride were measured in male Wistar rats made diabetic with intraperitoneal streptozotocin, and in normal controls. 3. In both normal and diabetic anaesthetized rats, intravenous lithium (4 mEq kg-1) caused a rise in plasma glucose. In absolute terms, the rise was greater in diabetic (5.2 mmol l-1) than in normal rats (2.3 mmol l-1). 4. Plasma insulin concentrations were reduced by lithium in normal rats, but the low insulin concentrations measured in the diabetic rats were not significantly changed. 5. After intravenous glucose (0.5 g kg-1), lithium-treated diabetic rats showed a second rise in plasma glucose at 60-90 min without any insulin response, while normal rats showed typically reduced insulin responses and initial glucose disappearance rates. 6. Intravenous glucose reduced plasma glucagon concentrations to a greater extent in normal than in diabetic rats, but lithium induced an equal rise in plasma glucagon in both groups, with a time-course similar to that of the hyperglycaemic effect. 7. The hyperglycaemic action of lithium is greater in the hypoinsulinaemic diabetic rats and appears to involve a stimulation of glucagon secretion in both normal and diabetic animals. PMID:8019763

  8. Effect of niacin on lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Li, YuWen; Wen, AiDong

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of niacin on serum lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Scopus, AMED, Cochrane and Clinical trial registry databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of niacin on serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Pooled effects were measured by weighted mean difference (WMD) using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Quality assessment, and subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were conducted using standard methods. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. The estimated pooled mean changes (95% confidence interval) with niacin were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.24 to 0.30; P < 0.001) mmol/L for HDL-c, -0.250 (95% CI: -0.47 to -0.03; P < 0.05) mmol/L for LDL-c and -0.39 (95% CI: -0.43 to -0.34; P < 0.001) mmol/L for TG compared with controls. There was a significant heterogeneity for the impact of niacin on LDL-c and FPG. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant increase in FPG 0.085 (95% CI: 0.029 to 0.141; P < 0.05) mmol/L compared with controls in patients with long term treatment. Our analysis also showed the absence of publication bias and any dose-response relations between niacin and effect size. Analysis of the results showed that niacin alone or in combination significantly improved lipid abnormalities in patients with TDM, but requires monitoring of glucose in long term treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of dietary D-psicose on diurnal variation in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Izumori, Ken

    2006-09-01

    The effects of supplemental D-psicose in the diet on diurnal variation in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were investigated in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Each group except for the control group was fed a diet of 5% D-fructose, D-psicose, or psico-rare sugar (3:1 mixture of D-fructose and D-psicose) for 8 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were lower and plasma insulin levels were higher at all times of day in the psicose and psico-rare sugar groups than in the control and fructose groups. Weight gain was significantly lower in the psicose group than in the control and fructose groups. Liver glycogen content, both before and after meals was higher in the psicose group than in the control and fructose groups. These results suggest that supplemental D-psicose can lower plasma glucose levels and reduce body fat accumulation. Hence, D-psicose might be useful in preventing postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.

  10. Nutraceutical Effects on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Impaired Fasting Glucose: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial on a Combined Product.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Fogacci, Federica; Morbini, Martino; Colletti, Alessandro; Bove, Marilisa; Veronesi, Maddalena; Giovannini, Marina; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-05-23

    A number of natural compounds have individually demonstrated to improve glucose and lipid levels in humans. To  evaluate the short-term glucose and lipid-lowering activity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. To assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals based on Lagerstroemia speciosa, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Alpha-lipoic acid, Chrome picolinate and Folic acid, we performed a double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in 40 adults affected by impaired fasting glucose (FPG = 100-125 mg/dL) in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. After a period of 2 weeks of dietary habits correction only, patients continued the diet and began a period of 8 weeks of treatment with nutraceutical or placebo. Data related to lipid pattern, insulin resistance, liver function and hsCRP were obtained at the baseline and at the end of the study. No side effects were detected in both groups of subjects. After the nutraceutical treatment, and compared to the placebo-treated group, the enrolled patients experienced a significant improvement in TG (-34.7%), HDL-C (+13.7), FPI (-13.4%), and HOMA-Index (-25%) versus the baseline values. No significant changes were observed in the other investigated parameters in both groups (Body Mass Index, LDL-C, hsCRP). The tested combination of nutraceuticals showed clinical efficacy in the improvement of TG, HDL-C, FPI and HOMA-Index, with an optimal tolerability profile. Further confirmation is needed to verify these observations on the middle and long term with a larger number of subjects.

  11. Effects of pioglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bone, Henry G; Lindsay, Robert; McClung, Michael R; Perez, Alfonso T; Raanan, Marsha G; Spanheimer, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Meta-analyses of clinical studies have suggested an increased incidence of peripheral fractures in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking pioglitazone. The mechanism behind this apparent increase is unknown. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover. Twenty-five sites (in the United States) enrolled participants in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Postmenopausal women (n = 156) with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance participated in the study. The intervention consisted of pioglitazone 30 mg/d (n = 78) or placebo (n = 78), increased to 45 mg/d after 1 month, for 12 months of treatment total, followed by 6 months of washout/follow-up. Percentage changes from baseline to month 12 and from month 12 to month18 in BMD in total proximal femur (primary end point), total body, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and radius were measured. Least squares mean changes from baseline to month 12 in total proximal femur BMD were -0.69% for pioglitazone and -0.14% for placebo (P = .170). No statistically significant between-group differences were observed for any BMD or bone remodeling marker end point. We observed improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. In addition, pioglitazone appeared to increase body fat, which may affect bone density measurements, especially in the lumbar spine. One pioglitazone-treated and three placebo-treated women experienced confirmed fractures. Over 18 months, one pioglitazone-treated (1.3%) and eight placebo-treated women (10.3%) developed overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pattern and incidence of adverse events with pioglitazone were consistent with clinical experience with thiazolidinediones. Maximal-dose pioglitazone had no effects on BMD or bone turnover, while improving glycemic control as expected, in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

  12. Continuous postoperative blood glucose monitoring and control by artificial pancreas in patients having pancreatic resection: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Nishimori, Isao; Yamashita, Koichi; Sugimoto, Takeki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kohsaki, Takuhiro; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate a closed-loop system providing continuous monitoring and strict control of perioperative blood glucose following pancreatic resection. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Thirty patients who had pancreatic resection for pancreatic neoplasm. Patients were prospectively randomized. Perioperative blood glucose levels were continuously monitored using an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-22). Glucose levels were controlled using either the sliding scale method (sliding scale group, n = 13) or the artificial pancreas (artificial pancreas group, n = 17). Incidence of severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL) during the intensive care period following pancreatic resection in patients monitored with the artificial pancreas. The secondary outcome measure was the total amount of insulin required for glycemic control in the first 18 hours after pancreatic resection in each patient group. In the sliding scale group, postoperative blood glucose levels rose initially before reaching a plateau of approximately 200 mg/dL between 4 and 6 hours after pancreatectomy. The levels remained high for 18 hours postoperatively. In the artificial pancreas group, blood glucose levels reduced steadily, reaching the target zone (80-110 mg/dL) by 6 hours after surgery. The total insulin dose administered per patient during the first postoperative 18 hours was significantly higher in the artificial pancreas group (mean [SD], 107 [109] IU) than the sliding scale group (8 [6] IU; P < .01). Neither group showed hypoglycemia. Perioperative use of an artificial endocrine pancreas to control pancreatogenic diabetes after pancreatic resection is an easy and effective way to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels. The artificial pancreas shows promise for use as insulin treatment for patients with pancreatogenic diabetes after pancreatic resection.

  13. Effect of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on plasma volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sha, S; Polidori, D; Heise, T; Natarajan, J; Farrell, K; Wang, S-S; Sica, D; Rothenberg, P; Plum-Mörschel, L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on plasma volume, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and additional measures of fluid/electrolyte balance in patients with type 2 diabetes on background therapy with metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients (N = 36) were randomized (1:1) to receive canagliflozin 300 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1 and 12. Increased 24-h UGE was seen in the canagliflozin group compared with a reduction in the placebo group at both week 1 (91.8 vs. -2.4 g) and week 12 (82.6 vs. -0.4 g). Canagliflozin also reduced both FPG and HbA1c. Reductions in body weight and blood pressure were observed at weeks 1 and 12. Canagliflozin decreased plasma volume compared with an increase with placebo at week 1 (-5.4 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.02), but this was largely attenuated at week 12 (4.6 vs. 5.8%; p = 0.76). A modest numerical increase in urine volume was observed with canagliflozin at week 1 that was attenuated at week 12; other measures of volume status (i.e. blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and haematocrit) remained modestly increased with canagliflozin at week 12. Canagliflozin provided sustained effects on UGE and FPG over 12 weeks and a transient reduction in plasma volume that was largely attenuated by week 12. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Genetic determination of fast plasma glucose concentration and correlation with anthropometric indices].

    PubMed

    Jian, Wei-xia; Su, Qing; Luo, Min

    2009-04-01

    To study the genetic determination of fast plasma glucose (FPG) and correlation with its potential correlated traits, anthropometric measures and blood pressure. Two hundred and eighteen Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pedigrees composed of 1383 Chinese Han individuals residing in the East and South-East China were analyzed. Univariate variance decomposition analyses were used to estimate the narrow-sense heritability (h(2)) of FPG, anthropometric indices and blood pressure, and bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were used to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations between FPG and anthropometric measures or blood pressure. We found that FPG, blood pressure and all anthropometric indices except for waist to hip ratio were under significant genetic determination, and the h(2) was from 0.28 to 0.43. We did not find significant genetic and environmental correlation between FPG and anthropometric indices and blood pressure. The present study demonstrated that T2DM, obesity and hypertension were controlled by some genetic factors, and FPG shares little common genetic and environmental factors with obesity-related anthropometric indices and blood pressure in our Chinese sample population.

  15. Calcium oxalate syntheses in a solution containing glucose by the atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurake, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yamanishi, Yoko; Hori, Masaru

    2016-09-01

    The non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) has been attracted attention because of its characteristic high reactivity even in a low temperature so that various phenomena by the NEAPP such as a sterilization, growth promotion and so forth have been reported around the world. Previously, we reported the NEAPP irradiation generated the calcium oxalate crystals in the medium, which contains 31 kinds of organics and inorganics. The Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) which was used in previous study is composed of no oxalate. Interestingly, not only crystallization but also synthesis of the oxalate was occurred by the NEAPP irradiation. Also the crystallization details were analyzed with the X-ray diffraction (XRD). In this study, we have clarified the mechanism on the crystallization due that D-glucose, calcium ion and bicarbonate ions are minimum essential components. The oxalate synthesis was proved by the gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Finally, we conclude that a supersaturation of oxalic acid synthesized in those 3 species by the NEAPP.

  16. Safety, efficacy and glucose turnover of reduced prandial boluses during closed-loop therapy in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Elleri, D; Biagioni, M; Allen, J M; Kumareswaran, K; Leelarathna, L; Caldwell, K; Nodale, M; Wilinska, M E; Haidar, A; Calhoun, P; Kollman, C; Jackson, N C; Umpleby, A M; Acerini, C L; Dunger, D B; Hovorka, R

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate safety, efficacy and glucose turnover during closed-loop with meal announcement using reduced prandial insulin boluses in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We conducted a randomized crossover study comparing closed-loop therapy with standard prandial insulin boluses versus closed-loop therapy with prandial boluses reduced by 25%. Eight adolescents with T1D [3 males; mean (standard deviation) age 15.9 (1.5) years, glycated haemoglobin 74 (17) mmol/mol; median (interquartile range) total daily dose 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) IU/kg/day] were studied on two 36-h-long visits. In random order, subjects received closed-loop therapy with either standard or reduced insulin boluses administered with main meals (50-80 g carbohydrates) but not with snacks (15-30 g carbohydrates). Stable-label tracer dilution methodology measured total glucose appearance (Ra_total) and glucose disposal (Rd). The median (interquartile range) time spent in target (3.9-10 mmol/l) was similar between the two interventions [74 (66, 84)% vs 80 (65, 96)%; p = 0.87] as was time spent above 10 mmol/l [21.8 (16.3, 33.5)% vs 18.0 (4.1, 34.2)%; p = 0.87] and below 3.9 mmol/l [0 (0, 1.5)% vs 0 (0, 1.8)%; p = 0.88]. Mean plasma glucose was identical during the two interventions [8.4 (0.9) mmol/l; p = 0.98]. Hypoglycaemia occurred once 1.5 h post-meal during closed-loop therapy with standard bolus. Overall insulin delivery was lower with reduced prandial boluses [61.9 (55.2, 75.0) vs 72.5 (63.6, 80.3) IU; p = 0.01] and resulted in lower mean plasma insulin concentration [186 (171, 260) vs 252 (198, 336) pmol/l; p = 0.002]. Lower plasma insulin was also documented overnight [160 (136, 192) vs 191 (133, 252) pmol/l; p = 0.01, pooled nights]. Ra_total was similar [26.3 (21.9, 28.0) vs 25.4 (21.0, 29.2) µmol/kg/min; p = 0.19] during the two interventions as was Rd [25.8 (21.0, 26.9) vs 25.2 (21.2, 28.8) µmol/kg/min; p = 0.46]. A 25% reduction in prandial boluses during closed-loop therapy maintains

  17. Differential Effects of Various Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics on Plasma Glucose and Insulin Levels in the Mouse: Evidence for the Involvement of Sympathetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Savoy, Yvette E.; Ashton, Michael A.; Miller, Matthew W.; Nedza, Frank M.; Spracklin, Douglas K.; Hawthorn, Mark H.; Rollema, Hans; Matos, F. Fatima; Hajos-Korcsok, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic treatment has been associated with serious metabolic adverse events, such as glucose dysregulation and development of type 2 diabetes. As part of our studies on possible underlying mechanisms, we investigated the acute effects of various typical and atypical antipsychotics on plasma glucose and insulin in FVB/N mice, a strain that showed a more pronounced hyperglycemic response to clozapine than C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice. Acute administration of high doses of clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, perphenazine, or chlorpromazine significantly increased plasma glucose by 100%–140% above basal levels without significant effects on insulin levels. In contrast, risperidone reduced plasma glucose (−30%) and markedly enhanced plasma insulin levels. Doses of ziprasidone that gave 50-fold higher free plasma concentrations than therapeutic plasma levels, as well as high doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol, did not significantly alter either glucose or insulin levels. Clozapine- and olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia occurred at free plasma concentrations that were within, or one order of magnitude above, the range of therapeutic plasma levels. Pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or the α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine, blocked the clozapine- and chlorpromazine-induced increase in glucose levels. Taken together, these results suggest that typical and atypical antipsychotics with known metabolic liability produce acute hyperglycemia in mice and that this effect is likely driven by activation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system via a central mechanism. PMID:18703666

  18. Association of leisure time physical activity and abdominal obesity with fasting serum insulin and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, K; Tuomilehto, J; Peltonen, M; Lakka, T A; Sundvall, J; Jousilahti, P

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the joint associations of leisure time physical activity and abdominal obesity with fasting insulin and 2-h glucose levels and with the risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and Type 2 diabetes (Type 2 DM). A cross-sectional population-based random sample of 1812 Finnish adults 45-74 years of age without a history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Relative energy expenditure during the previous 12 months (METh/week), assessed by a questionnaire, was used as a measure of leisure time physical activity. Waist-hip ratio (WHR) was used as a measure of abdominal obesity. IGT and Type 2 DM were assessed by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and were defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. While 2-h glucose and fasting insulin levels increased with increasing WHR (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), both of them decreased with increasing physical activity (P = 0.015 and P < 0.001, respectively). The highest 2-h glucose and fasting insulin levels were found among individuals who had most abdominal obesity and were least physically active. Physically inactive individuals had a higher prevalence of IGT and Type 2 DM in all WHR tertiles than physically active persons. Higher levels of leisure time physical activity are associated with lower 2-h glucose and fasting insulin levels and a reduced risk of having IGT and Type 2 DM, independent of the level of abdominal obesity.

  19. Glucose transport and system A activity in syncytiotrophoblast microvillous and basal plasma membranes in intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Jansson, T; Ylvén, K; Wennergren, M; Powell, T L

    2002-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reduced fetal plasma concentrations of amino acids and glucose associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remain to be fully established. The activity of the amino acid transporter system A has been shown to be reduced in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane (MVM) in IUGR, however the impact of these changes on transplacental transport is difficult to assess without information on system A activity in the basal plasma membrane (BM). In this study we measured system A activity and mediated D-glucose uptake using radiolabelled substrates and rapid filtration techniques, and glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT 1) protein expression using Western blots in MVM and BM isolated from human placentas. In term IUGR (n=11) MVM system A activity was unaltered compared to controls (n=9). In contrast, system A activity in MVM was reduced by 50 per cent (P< 0.05) in preterm IUGR (n=8, gestational age 28-36 weeks) as compared to controls (n=8, gestational age 28-35 weeks). BM system A activity was unaltered in both IUGR groups. Similarly, MVM and BM GLUT 1 expression and mediated D-glucose uptake was not affected by IUGR. In all preterm IUGR pregnancies signs of severe fetal compromise were present whereas term IUGR fetuses were less affected. These data support the view that MVM system A activity is related to the severity of compromise in IUGR. The markedly reduced system A activity in MVM in preterm IUGR together with the unaltered activity in BM is consistent with a decreased transplacental transport of neutral amino acids in this pregnancy complication. The hypoglycemia present in utero in some IUGR fetuses is not caused by a decreased glucose transport capacity across the syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes.

  20. Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily

    PubMed Central

    Brambillasca, Sebastián; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, José L.; Cajarville, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P < 0.001). The feeding schedule had no effect on plasma glucose and urea. Neither feeding frequency nor food × frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied. PMID:20440906

  1. Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily.

    PubMed

    Brambillasca, Sebastián; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, José L; Cajarville, Cecilia

    2010-02-01

    Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P < 0.001). The feeding schedule had no effect on plasma glucose and urea. Neither feeding X frequency nor food 3 frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied.

  2. Relationships between glucose and mannose during late gestation in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus: concurrent concentrations in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, S; Metzger, B E; Freinkel, N

    1986-05-01

    Enzymatic assays were modified to permit sensitive and highly reproducible simultaneous measurements of D-mannose and D-glucose in biological fluids during weeks 34-40 of human pregnancy. Plasma mannose and glucose averaged 9.8 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) and 790 +/- 16 micrograms/ml, respectively, after an overnight fast in pregnant women (n = 22) with normal carbohydrate metabolism. Significantly higher plasma mannose levels were found, despite only minor increases in plasma glucose, in pregnant women with relatively well controlled diabetes mellitus after an overnight fast (16.9 +/- 0.6 micrograms/ml mannose; 883 +/- 29 micrograms/ml glucose; n = 31) or 3-4 h after breakfast (15.7 +/- 1.2 micrograms/ml mannose; 1159 +/- 101 micrograms/ml glucose; n = 19). Plasma mannose correlated significantly with plasma glucose in the women with diabetes mellitus, particularly after an overnight fast. Samples of amniotic fluid were also obtained from the gravida with diabetes mellitus to provide some index of simultaneous relationships in utero. Amniotic fluid mannose and glucose averaged 5.9 +/- 0.4 and 302 +/- 24 micrograms/ml, respectively, after an overnight fast and 6.7 +/- 1.3 and 459 +/- 84 micrograms/ml 3-4 h after breakfast. In amniotic fluid, as in plasma, the concurrent levels of mannose and glucose conformed to relatively fixed relationships. Thus, both fetus and mother appear to be exposed to readily demonstrable amounts of mannose during late gestation and the absolute as well as relative abundance of mannose may be increased coincident with faulty maternal glucoregulation. However, since mannose did not exceed 3% of the concurrent concentration of glucose in any instance, it does not seem likely that endogenous levels of circulating mannose can modify glucose utilization appreciably by competing with glucose for phosphorylation via hexokinase and subsequent intracellular processing.

  3. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae start mutant carrying the cdc25 mutation is defective in activation of plasma membrane ATPase by glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, F; Mazón, M J

    1986-01-01

    Activation of plasma membrane ATPase by the addition of glucose was examined in several cell division cycle mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The start mutant carrying the cdc25 mutation was shown to be defective in ATPase activation at the restrictive temperature. Genetic analysis showed that lack of growth and defective activation of ATPase at the restrictive temperature were caused by the same mutation. It was also found that CDC25 does not map at the same locus as the structural gene of plasma membrane ATPase (PMA1). We conclude that the product of CDC25 controls the activation of ATPase. PMID:2877973

  4. Capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for blood plasma separation and on-chip glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Maria, M Sneha; Rakesh, P E; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2016-09-01

    We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma. The modified wetting property of the walls and hence the device performance could be retained for a few weeks by covering the channels with deionised water. The effects of the channel cross-section, exposure time, waiting time, and location and length of the hydrophobic region on the volume of the collected plasma are studied. Using a channel cross-section of 1000 × 400 μm, an exposure time of 2 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a hydrophobic region of width 1.0 cm located at 10 mm from the device inlet, 450 nl of plasma was obtained within 15 min. The performance of the device was found to be unaffected (provides 450 nl of plasma in 15 min) even after 15 days. The purification efficiency and plasma recovery of the device were measured and found to be comparable with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation process. Detection of glucose at different concentrations in whole blood of normal and diabetic patients was performed (using 5 μl of sample blood within 15 min) to demonstrate the compatibility of the device with integrated detection modules.

  5. Sodium glucose co-transport 2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The discovery of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, with a novel mechanism independent of insulin secretion or sensitization, bring about a new therapeutic approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses in randomized double blind clinical trials. Methods This meta-analysis was conducted by including randomized double-blind controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes irrespective of their antidiabetic drug exposure history but with an inadequate glycemic control. All the effect sizes were computed using the random effects model. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (OR) were computed for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Additional analyses like sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also performed. Results The pooled analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in mean changes in Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (SMD = −0.78%, 95% CI, -0.87 to −0.69), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (SMD = −0.70 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.79 to −0.61), body weight (overall SMD = −0.59 kg, 95% CI, -0.65 to −0.52) and blood pressure from baseline with SGLT2 inhibitors based therapy. Consistently a significant number of patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors achieved HbA1c < 7% (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.77 to 2.46). SGLT2 inhibitors based therapy was associated with adverse events like genital and urinary tract infections. Conclusion All studied doses of SGLT2 inhibitors, either as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents, consistently improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, a small percentage of patients suffer from genital and urinary tract infections. PMID:24341330

  6. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  7. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  8. Acute and Chronic Kudzu Improves Plasma Glucose Tolerance in Non-Diabetic CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that kudzu root extract and its major isoflavone (puerarin) improve glucose metabolism in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, these beneficial effects have not been investigated in normal glycemic mice. The present study investigates the effect of acute and chronic kudzu root extract supplementation on glucose tolerance in normoglycemic CD-1 mice. Male, adult CD-1 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet containing 0.2% or 0.0% kudzu root extract for 6 weeks. Thereafter, they were acutely administered kudzu root extract (75 mg/kg BW; oral) or vehicle followed by a glucose challenge (2 g/kg BW; oral). In control fed mice, the acute glucose challenge increased blood glucose ~300% after 30 minutes, and acute kudzu root extract administration significantly blunted this response by ~50%. In mice chronically fed a kudzu-supplemented diet, glucose tolerance was improved, and acute treatment caused no additional improvement. Irrespective of treatment, all mice were normoglycemic at the start of each glucose challenge. Administration of insulin resulted in a larger decrease in blood glucose in chronic kudzu-supplemented compared to control mice. Co-administration of phloridzin (a specific inhibitor of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake), improved glucose tolerance in acutely kudzu-treated mice but had no significant effect on glucose tolerance in chronically treated mice. These results indicate that both acute and chronic administration of kudzu root extract improves glucose tolerance in a normal glycemic mouse strain and that the effects of chronic kudzu feeding may be mediated, in part, by enhanced insulin sensitivity (chronic) and inhibition of sodium dependent glucose transport.

  9. Moderate glucose control results in less negative nitrogen balances in medical intensive care unit patients: a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia and protein loss are common in critically ill patients. Insulin can be used to lower blood glucose and inhibit proteolysis. The impact of moderate insulin therapy on protein metabolism in critically ill patients has not been evaluated. We compared urinary nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance, serum albumin concentrations, prealbumin concentrations, and clinical outcomes between patients receiving moderate insulin therapy (MIT) and conventional insulin therapy (CIT) in a medical ICU. Methods Patients were randomly divided into groups and treated with MIT (glucose target 120 to 140 mg/dl) or CIT (glucose target 180 to 200 mg/dl). Calories and protein intake were recorded each day. On days 3, 7 and 14, the 24-hour urinary nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance, and serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations were measured. Clinical outcomes data were collected. Results A total of 112 medical ICU patients were included, with 55 patients randomized to the MIT group and 57 patients randomized to the CIT group. Patients treated with MIT showed a trend towards increased nitrogen balance (P = 0.070), significantly lower urinary nitrogen excretion (P = 0.027), and higher serum albumin (P = 0.047) and prealbumin (P = 0.001) concentrations than patients treated with CIT. The differences between the two groups were most significant on day 3, when all factors showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusions Moderate glucose control results in less negative nitrogen balances in medical ICU patients. Differences are more significant in the early stages compared with the late stages of critical illness. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.Gov NCT 01227148 PMID:22480187

  10. [Associations of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell function with plasma glucose level in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nian, Xiaoping; Sun, Gaisheng; Dou, Chunmei; Hou, Hongbo; Fan, Xiuping; Yu, Hongmei; Ma, Ling; He, Bingxian

    2002-06-10

    To investigate the influence of insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell function on plasma glucose level in type 2 diabetes so as to provide theoretical basis for reasonable selection of hypoglycemic agents. The plasma non-specific insulin (NSINS), true insulin (TI) and glucose in eight-one type 2 diabetics, 38 males and 43 females, with a mean age of 53 years, were examined 0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after they had 75 grams of instant noodles. The patients were divided into two groups according to their fasting plasma glucose (FPG): group A (FPG < 8.89 mmol/L) and group B (FPG> = 8.89 mmol/L). The insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR, the beta-cell function was evaluated by HOMA-beta formula and the formula deltaI(30)/deltaG(30) = (deltaI(30)-deltaI(0))/(deltaG(30)-deltaG(0)). The insulin area under curve (INSAUC) was evaluated by the formula INSAUC=FINS/2+INS(30)+INS(60)+INS(120)/2. The mean FPG was 6.23 mmol/L in group A and 12.6 mmol/L in group B. PG2H was 11.7 mmol/L in group A and 19.2 mmol/L in group B. The TI levels in group B at 0, 30, 60, 120 min during standard meal test were significantly higher than those in group A: 6.15 +/- 1.06 vs 4.77 +/- 1.06, 9.76 +/- 1.1 vs 5.88 +/- 1.1,14.68 +/- 1.11 vs 6.87 +/- 1.1 and 17.13 +/- 1.12 vs 8.0 +/- 1.1 microU/dl (all P< 0.01). The NSINS showed the same trend. The insulin resistance in group B was 1.5 times that in group A. With the insulin resistance adjusted, the beta cell function in group A was 5 to 6 times that in group B. The INSAUC in group A was 1.66 times larger than that in group B, especially the INSAUC for true insulin (2 times larger). The contribution of insulin resistance and beta cell function to PG2H was half by half in group A and 1:8 in group B. beta cell function calculated by insulin (Homa-beta) explained 41% of the plasma glucose changes in group A and 54% of the plasma glucose changes in group B. The contribution of insulin deficiency to plasma glocose was 3.3.times that of insulin

  11. Sex and age affect agreement between fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin for diagnosis of dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Medina, Mercedes; Uranga, Begoña; Rus, Antonio; Martínez, Rosa; Puertas, Carolina; Blanco, María Dolores; Casís, Ernesto; Corcoy, Rosa

    To assess agreement between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels for diagnosis of dysglycemia (diabetes and risk of diabetes), overall and depending on clinical characteristics. The study enrolled 1020 adult subjects without drug-treated diabetes who underwent a laboratory test at a Spanish health care center. The criteria for dysglycemia of the American Diabetes Association were used. A logistic regression analysis was used to predict de novo diagnosis of dysglycemia based on sex, age, body mass index, anemia, and iron levels. Overall prevalence of dysglycemia was 28.04%, and was identified by FPG only in 13.63% of subjects, by both FPG and HbA1c in 7.65%, and by HbA1c only in 6.76% (de novo diagnoses). Independent predictors of de novo diagnoses based on HbA1c were female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.119, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.133-4.020; p<0.020), age (OR for 42-56 years: 2.541, 95% CI: 0.634-17.140; OR for ≥57 years: 5.656, 95% CI: 1.516-36.980; overall p<0.007), and serum ferritin levels (borderline significance). In this study population, agreement between FPG and HbA1c for diagnosis of dysglycemia was poor, with FPG being the test that identified more subjects. De novo diagnoses based on HbA1c were more common in females and increased with age. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-analytical and analytical aspects affecting clinical reliability of plasma glucose results.

    PubMed

    Pasqualetti, Sara; Braga, Federica; Panteghini, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of plasma glucose (PG) plays a central role in recognizing disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism, with established decision limits that are globally accepted. This requires that PG results are reliable and unequivocally valid no matter where they are obtained. To control the pre-analytical variability of PG and prevent in vitro glycolysis, the use of citrate as rapidly effective glycolysis inhibitor has been proposed. However, the commercial availability of several tubes with studies showing different performance has created confusion among users. Moreover, and more importantly, studies have shown that tubes promptly inhibiting glycolysis give PG results that are significantly higher than tubes containing sodium fluoride only, used in the majority of studies generating the current PG cut-points, with a different clinical classification of subjects. From the analytical point of view, to be equivalent among different measuring systems, PG results should be traceable to a recognized higher-order reference via the implementation of an unbroken metrological hierarchy. In doing this, it is important that manufacturers of measuring systems consider the uncertainty accumulated through the different steps of the selected traceability chain. In particular, PG results should fulfil analytical performance specifications defined to fit the intended clinical application. Since PG has tight homeostatic control, its biological variability may be used to define these limits. Alternatively, given the central diagnostic role of the analyte, an outcome model showing the impact of analytical performance of test on clinical classifications of subjects can be used. Using these specifications, performance assessment studies employing commutable control materials with values assigned by reference procedure have shown that the quality of PG measurements is often far from desirable and that problems are exacerbated using point-of-care devices. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian

  13. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  14. Association of television viewing with fasting and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose levels in adults without diagnosed diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, David W; Salmon, Jo; Healy, Genevieve N; Shaw, Jonathan E; Jolley, Damien; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2007-03-01

    We examined the associations of television viewing time with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (2-h PG) levels in Australian adults. A total of 8,357 adults aged > 35 years who were free from diagnosed diabetes and who attended a population-based cross-sectional study (Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study [AusDiab]) were evaluated. Measures of FPG and 2-h PG were obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Self-reported television viewing time (in the previous week) was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%B) were calculated based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. After adjustment for confounders and physical activity time, time spent watching television in women was positively associated with 2-h PG, log fasting insulin, and log HOMA-%B and inversely associated with log HOMA-%S (P < 0.05) but not with FPG. No significant associations were observed with glycemic measures in men. The beta-coefficients across categories of average hours spent watching television per day (< 1.0, 1.0-1.9, 2.0-2.9, 3.0-3.9, and > or = 4.0) for 2-h PG in women were 0 (reference), 0.009, 0.047, 0.473, and 0.501, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Our findings highlight the unique deleterious relationship of sedentary behavior (indicated by television viewing time) and glycemic measures independent of physical activity time and adiposity status. These relationships differed according to sex and type of glucose measurement, with the 2-h PG measure being more strongly associated with television viewing. The findings suggest an important role for reducing sedentary behavior in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, especially in women.

  15. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  16. Influence of Glucose Deprivation on Membrane Potentials of Plasma Membranes, Mitochondria and Synaptic Vesicles in Rat Brain Synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Pekun, Tatyana G; Waseem, Tatyana V; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause neuronal cell death similar to that of glutamate-induced cell death. In the present paper, we investigated the effect of glucose removal from incubation medium on changes of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials in rat brain synaptosomes using the fluorescent dyes DiSC3(5) and JC-1. We also monitored pH gradients in synaptic vesicles and their recycling by the fluorescent dye acridine orange. Glucose deprivation was found to cause an inhibition of K(+)-induced Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and a shift of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials to more positive values. The sensitivity of these parameters to the energy deficit caused by the removal of glucose showed the following order: mitochondrial membrane potential > plasma membrane potential > pH gradient in synaptic vesicles. The latter was almost unaffected by deprivation compared with the control. The pH-dependent dye acridine orange was used to investigate synaptic vesicle recycling. However, the compound's fluorescence was shown to be enhanced also by the mixture of mitochondrial toxins rotenone (10 µM) and oligomycin (5 µg/mL). This means that acridine orange can presumably be partially distributed in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Glucose removal from the incubation medium resulted in a 3.7-fold raise of acridine orange response to rotenone + oligomycin suggesting a dramatic increase in the mitochondrial pH gradient. Our results suggest that the biophysical characteristics of neuronal presynaptic endings do not favor excessive non-controlled neurotransmitter release in case of hypoglycemia. The inhibition of exocytosis and the increase of the mitochondrial pH gradient, while preserving the vesicular pH gradient, are proposed as compensatory mechanisms.

  17. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Ogata, Yasumichi; Sato, Yukari; Sano, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and [1-13C]leucine (Leu) was conducted to evaluate the effects of rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses (RSUM-diet) on plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates in sheep. Nitrogen (N) balance, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Four sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH-diet), or a RSUM-diet with a crossover design for two 21 days period. Feed allowance was computed on the basis of metabolizable energy at maintenance level. The isotope dilution method was performed as the primed-continuous infusion on day 21 of each dietary period. Nitrogen intake was lower (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet and N digestibility did not differ (p = 0.57) between diets. Concentrations of rumen total volatile fatty acids tended to be higher (p = 0.09) for the RSUM-diet than the MH-diet. Acetate concentration in the rumen did not differ (p = 0.38) between diets, whereas propionate concentration was higher (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. Turnover rates as well as concentrations of plasma glucose and Leu did not differ between diets. It can be concluded that kinetics of plasma glucose and Leu metabolism were comparable between the RSUM-diet and the MH-diet, and rumen fermentation characteristics were improved in sheep fed the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. PMID:26949953

  18. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose uptake to prevent hyperglycemia. Although the term homeostasis mostly refers to stable levels, the blood glucose concentrations fluctuate over the day/night cycle, with the highest concentrations occurring just prior to the activity period in anticipation of increased caloric need. In this chapter we describe how the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, is involved in both the daily rhythm of plasma glucose concentrations and acute glucose challenges.

  19. Partition function for a two dimensional plasma in the random phase approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyler, C. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The partition function for a two-dimensional plasma is evaluated within the random phase approximation. The periodic boundary conditions are fully taken into account by including the periodic image interactions. In the guiding-center limit, the negative temperature threshold energy is evaluated, and a value different from previous calculations results. When an identical random phase evaluated, and a value different from previous calculations results. When an identical random phase evaluation is applied to the finite gyroradius plasma, the Salzberg-Prager-May equation of state is recovered.

  20. Postprandial glucose-lowering effects of fermented red ginseng in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Red ginseng is prepared by steaming raw ginseng, a process believed to increase the pharmacological efficacy. Further bioconversion of red ginseng through fermentation is known to increase its intestinal absorption and bioactivity, and bioconversion diminishes the toxicity of red ginseng’s metabolite. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily supplementation with fermented red ginseng (FRG) on glycemic status in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. Methods This study was a four-week long, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to two groups assigned to consume either the placebo or fermented red ginseng (FRG) three times per day for four weeks. Fasting and postprandial glucose profiles during meal tolerance tests were assessed before and after the intervention. Results FRG supplementation led to a significant reduction in postprandial glucose levels and led to an increase in postprandial insulin levels compared to the placebo group. There was a consistently significant improvement in the glucose area under the curve (AUC) in the FRG group. However, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were not different from the placebo group. Conclusion Daily supplementation with FRG lowered postprandial glucose levels in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01826409 PMID:25015735

  1. Acute effect of red meat and dairy on glucose and insulin: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kirsty M; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with some epidemiologic evidence, our previous research showed that a 4-wk diet that was high in low-fat dairy reduced insulin sensitivity compared with the effect of a diet that was high in red meat. We investigated whether a dairy meal would produce a greater insulin response than a carbohydrate-matched red meat meal would, which might account for the change in insulin sensitivity. One meal contained lean red meat, bread, and orange juice, and the other meal contained skim milk, low-fat yogurt, cheese, and bread. Meals were isoenergetic, equal in macronutrient profile, and consumed 1 wk apart. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured before and 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after meal consumption. Differences between meals were tested with the use of a repeated-measures ANOVA and paired sample t tests. Nineteen men and 24 women [mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 16.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30.0 ± 3.5] completed the study. Twenty-two participants had normal glucose tolerance, and 21 participants had impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. The red meat meal resulted in a higher glucose response at 30 min after consumption (P < 0.001); however, the glucose total AUC was not different between meals (P = NS). The mean ± SEM incremental AUC (iAUC) for glucose was significantly higher after the dairy meal than after the red meat meal (2.23 ± 0.49 compared with 0.88 ± 0.57 mmol/L · 3 h, respectively; P = 0.004). The insulin total AUC and iAUC were not different between meals (iAUC: 159.65 ± 20.0 mU/L · 3 h for red meat compared with 167.49 ± 24.1 mU/L · 3 h for dairy; P = NS). Lean red meat and low-fat dairy produced a similar glycemic response. The higher glucose response 30 min after consumption of the red meat meal was likely attributable to differences in the glycemic load between orange juice and milk and yogurt. An insulinotropic effect of dairy was not observed. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta genetic polymorphism and its association with insulin resistance index and fasting plasma glucose concentrations in Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Jia, W; Fang, Q; Zhang, R; Wang, C; Lu, J; Xiang, K

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) genetic polymorphism affects cholesterol metabolism in Whites. This association was not observed in a Korean population in a separate study, but this study showed a link between the PPARD polymorphism and body weight and fasting plasma glucose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms of PPARD influence glucose and cholesterol metabolism in Chinese subjects. We investigated the association between the polymorphism (-87T/C) of the human PPARD gene and phenotypes related to body weight, insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolism in Chinese subjects. Unrelated Chinese subjects (n = 663) in Shanghai were studied; 287 had newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus and 376 were non-diabetic control subjects over 40 years old. Clinical parameters were collected and genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects, the C allele carriers had higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations (P = 0.0078) and a lower insulin sensitivity index (ISI) (P = 0.0365). The C allele carriers also showed higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0261) and percentage of body fat (P = 0.0357). There was a trend towards higher visceral adiposity in C allele carriers, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.0830). In diabetes patients, similar results were detected for plasma glucose concentrations (fasting plasma glucose P < 0.0001, 2-h plasma glucose P = 0.0052) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance P = 0.0094; ISI P = 0.0058). The PPARD-87T/C polymorphism is associated with higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations in both NGT and diabetic subjects, largely due to impaired insulin sensitivity.

  3. The relation of postprandial plasma glucose and serum endostatin to the urinary albumin excretion of residents with prediabetes: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Tanaka, Yuuki; Kato, Yoshifumi; Mitsumoto-Kaseida, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Previous clinical studies have shown that the circulating level of endostatin is related to kidney injury. We hypothesized that the impact of HbA1c, fasting, and postprandial plasma glucose on urinary albumin excretion would be related to the serum endostatin level. A cross-sectional, community-based population study of 1057 Japanese residents was conducted. Of these subjects, 162 with a fasting plasma glucose value between 5.5 and 6.9 mmol/L and an HbA1c level of <6.5 % received an oral glucose tolerance test, had serum endostatin measured, and had the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) calculated. In multivariate analysis, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (β = 0.26, P < 0.01) was significantly associated with log-transformed UACR, independently of fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.14, P = 0.28) and HbA1c (β = -0.08, P = 0.57). When divided by the median value of endostatin (82.2 ng/mL), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (β = 0.38, P = 0.01) remained significantly associated with the log-transformed UACR of the participants below the median, while the fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.34, P = 0.046) was independently associated with the log-transformed UACR of participants above the median. Postprandial plasma glucose was independently associated with the urinary albumin excretion of the residents with prediabetes. Moreover, this relationship was limited to residents with a serum endostatin level below the median.

  4. The evidence for clinically significant bias in plasma glucose between liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer additive.

    PubMed

    Juricic, Gordana; Saracevic, Andrea; Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Bakliza, Ana; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    Citrate buffer additive has been suggested to be of supreme performance in inhibiting glycolysis. However, there is little evidence in the literature regarding the comparability of glucose concentrations in liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer containing tubes. The aim of this study was to compare glucose concentrations in tubes containing liquid (Glucomedics) and lyophilized citrate buffer (Terumo VENOSAFE™ Glycemia) additive, measured immediately after centrifugation. Blood was collected from forty volunteers into both Glucomedics and Venosafe Glycemia tubes. Blood was centrifuged within 15min from venipuncture and glucose concentration was measured immediately after centrifugation, on the Abbott Architect analyzer. Differences between glucose concentrations in Glucomedics and Terumo tubes were tested using the paired t-test. Mean bias was calculated and compared to recommended quality specification for glucose (i.e. 2.2%). Glucose concentration in Terumo tubes was 3.4% lower than in Glucomedics tubes (P<0.001). The mean bias was clinically significant. There is a clinically significant difference between glucose concentrations in liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer additive tubes (Glucomedics vs. Terumo tubes) measured immediately after centrifugation. This difference may affect the patient outcome due to the misclassification of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1c in pregnancy and the postpartum risk of diabetes among Chinese women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Leishen; Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Li, Nan; Li, Min; Qiao, Yijuan; Tian, Huiguang; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have assessed the association of fasting and 2h glucose, and HbA1c during pregnancy with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We assessed the association of fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior GDM. A cohort study in 1263 GDM women at 1-5 years after delivery was performed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of fasting and 2h plasma glucose, and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with the risk of diabetes at postpartum. The multivariable-adjusted (age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, current body mass index, family history of diabetes, marital status, education, family income, smoking status, passive smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol drinking, and intake of energy, saturated fat, and dietary fiber) hazard ratios of postpartum diabetes were 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.91) for each 1 mmol/l increase in fasting glucose during pregnancy, 1.63 (95% CI: 1.45-1.84) for each 1 mmol/l increase in 2h glucose during pregnancy, 2.11 (95% CI: 1.50-2.97) for each 1 unit (%) increase in HbA1c during pregnancy. When fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy were entered multivariable-adjusted model simultaneously, 2h glucose and HbA1c but not fasting glucose remained to be significant and positive predictors for postpartum diabetes. For women with prior GDM, 2h plasma glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy are independent predictors of postpartum diabetes, but fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Burden of disease attributable to high fasting plasma glucose in 1990 and 2013 in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y F; Wang, Z Q; Yang, J; Li, Y C; Yin, P; You, J L; Zhou, M G

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the burden of disease attributed to high fasting plasma glucose(FPG)in China in 1990 and 2013. Methods: The analysis used data obtained from the 2013 Global Burden of Diseases Study and examined deaths, death rate, disability-adjusted life years(DALY), years lived with disability(YLD)and years of life lost(YLL)attributed to high FPG in 1990 and 2013 in China(not including Taiwan, China). An average world population age-structure for the period 2000- 2025 was adopted to calculate age-standardized rates. Results: In 2013, the number of deaths attributed to high FPG in China increased to 621.9 thousand from 320.3 thousand in 1990. From 1990- 2013, the age-standardized death rate attributable to high FPG increased from 45.69/100 000 to 48.64/100 000. DALYs caused by high FPG increased to 20.389 1 million in 2013 from 10.648 3 million in 1990. In 2013, high FPG caused 8.751 5 million YLD and 11.637 6 million YLL, and the percentage of YLL in DALY decreased to 57.1% in 2013 from 68.7% in 1990. Compared with 1990, the age-standardized DALY rate attributed to high FPG increased by 10.81%. In 2013, the top three provinces with the highest burden of disease attributed to high FPG were Xinjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, with standardized death rates of 83.38, 74.01 and 68.64/100 000, respectively, and the standardized DALY rate was 2 217.96, 2 001.84 and 1 837.79/100 000 in the three provinces, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with 1990, the burden of disease attributed to high FPG in 2013 increased substantially in China, in particular the burden of attributed YLD. However, the burden of YLL attributed to high FPG has decreased modestly. The burden of disease caused by high FPG shows variation among different provinces in China.

  7. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jung Yu, Dae; Kim, Kihong

    2013-12-15

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region.

  8. Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies novel variants associated with fasting plasma glucose in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Sim, Xueling; Wu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Tabara, Yasuharu; Hu, Cheng; Hara, Kazuo; Tam, Claudia H T; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhao, Qi; Jee, Sunha; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Go, Min Jin; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kim, Young Jin; Zhang, Rong; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; So, Wing Yee; Long, Jirong; Gu, Dongfeng; Lee, Nanette R; Kim, Soriul; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Oh, Ji Hee; Liu, Jianjun; Umemura, Satoshi; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Jiang, Feng; Maeda, Shiro; Chan, Juliana C N; Lu, Wei; Hixson, James E; Adair, Linda S; Jung, Keum Ji; Nabika, Toru; Bae, Jae-Bum; Lee, Mi Hee; Seielstad, Mark; Young, Terri L; Teo, Yik Ying; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takashima, Naoyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko; Lee, So-Hyun; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Bo Youl; Shi, Jiajun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei; Kato, Norihiro; Yoon, Miwuk; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ma, Ronald C W; Kadowaki, Takashi; Jia, Weiping; Miki, Tetsuro; Qi, Lu; Tai, E Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L; Han, Bok-Ghee; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Bong-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) has been recognized as an important indicator for the overall glycemic state preceding the onset of metabolic diseases. So far, most indentified genome-wide association loci for FPG were derived from populations with European ancestry, with a few exceptions. To extend a thorough catalog for FPG loci, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 genome-wide association studies in up to 24,740 nondiabetic subjects with East Asian ancestry. Follow-up replication analyses in up to an additional 21,345 participants identified three new FPG loci reaching genome-wide significance in or near PDK1-RAPGEF4, KANK1, and IGF1R. Our results could provide additional insight into the genetic variation implicated in fasting glucose regulation. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Meta-analysis Identifies Novel Variants Associated With Fasting Plasma Glucose in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Sim, Xueling; Wu, Ying; Liang, Jun; Tabara, Yasuharu; Hu, Cheng; Hara, Kazuo; Tam, Claudia H.T.; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhao, Qi; Jee, Sunha; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Go, Min Jin; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kim, Young Jin; Zhang, Rong; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; So, Wing Yee; Long, Jirong; Gu, Dongfeng; Lee, Nanette R.; Kim, Soriul; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Oh, Ji Hee; Liu, Jianjun; Umemura, Satoshi; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Jiang, Feng; Maeda, Shiro; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Lu, Wei; Hixson, James E.; Adair, Linda S.; Jung, Keum Ji; Nabika, Toru; Bae, Jae-Bum; Lee, Mi Hee; Seielstad, Mark; Young, Terri L.; Teo, Yik Ying; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takashima, Naoyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko; Lee, So-Hyun; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Bo Youl; Shi, Jiajun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei; Kato, Norihiro; Yoon, Miwuk; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Jia, Weiping; Miki, Tetsuro; Qi, Lu; Tai, E Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) has been recognized as an important indicator for the overall glycemic state preceding the onset of metabolic diseases. So far, most indentified genome-wide association loci for FPG were derived from populations with European ancestry, with a few exceptions. To extend a thorough catalog for FPG loci, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 genome-wide association studies in up to 24,740 nondiabetic subjects with East Asian ancestry. Follow-up replication analyses in up to an additional 21,345 participants identified three new FPG loci reaching genome-wide significance in or near PDK1-RAPGEF4, KANK1, and IGF1R. Our results could provide additional insight into the genetic variation implicated in fasting glucose regulation. PMID:25187374

  10. Plasma glucose levels after prolonged strenuous exercise correlate inversely with glycemic response to food consumed before exercise.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D E; Brotherhood, J R; Miller, J B

    1994-12-01

    It was hypothesized that slowly digested carbohydrates, that is, low glycemic index (GI) foods, eaten before prolonged strenuous exercise would increase the blood glucose concentration toward the end of exercise. Six trained cyclists pedaled on a cycle ergometer at 65-70% VO2max 60 min after ingestion of each of four test meals: a low-GI and a high-GI powdered food and a low-GI and a high-GI breakfast cereal, all providing 1 g of available carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass. Plasma glucose levels after more that 90 min of exercise were found to correlate inversely with the observed GI of the foods (p < .01). Free fatty acid levels during the last hour of exercise also correlated inversely with the GI (p < .05). The findings suggest that the slow digestion of carbohydrate in the prevent food favors higher concentrations of fuels in the blood toward the end of exercise.

  11. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Levinger, Itamar; Mousa, Aya; Howlett, Kirsten; de Courten, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism. However, previous findings are contradictory and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We examined the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin sensitivity, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventeen healthy adults (Body mass index: 26 ± 4; Age: 30 ± 12 years) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and resting skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. In this cohort, the plasma 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.19, p = 0.56). However, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations correlated with lower phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) αSer21 and βSer9 in skeletal muscle (r = −0.66, p = 0.015 and r = −0.53, p = 0.06, respectively) and higher GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 phosphorylation in adipose tissue (r = 0.82, p < 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.042, respectively). Furthermore, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with greater phosphorylation of both protein kinase-B (AktSer473) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1Ser312) (r = 0.71, p = 0.01) in adipose tissue. No associations were found between plasma 25(OH)D concentration and IRS-1Tyr612 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The divergent findings between muscle and adipose tissue with regard to the association between 25(OH)D and insulin signaling proteins may suggest a tissue-specific interaction with varying effects on glucose homeostasis. Further research is required to elucidate the physiological relevance of 25(OH)D in each tissue. PMID:27754361

  13. [Effect of hormone replacement with tibolone on plasma insulin and blood glucose in postmenopause].

    PubMed

    Saucedo, R P; Basurto, L; Fonseca, E; Zárate, A

    2001-08-01

    The effect of Tibolone, and estrogen-like therapeutic agent used for menopause, on insulin and glucose was investigated in 18 healthy postmenopausal women. At baseline and after 3 months of Tibolone, 2.5 mg daily, blood levels of glucose and insulin were evaluated in each participant. Fasting levels of glucose were not modified by Tibolone, whereas plasmatic insulin levels were reduced significantly (p < 0.01). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were not affected by Tibolone. From these data it may be suggested that Tibolone does not negatively influence glucose fasting levels, but reduces the already elevated insulin levels which may be due to an improvement in peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin.

  14. Comparison of Space Glucose Control and Routine Glucose Management Protocol for Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Biao; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yao; Weng, Li; Hu, Xiao-Yun; Peng, Jin-Min; Du, Bin

    2017-09-05

    The Space Glucose Control (SGC) system is a computer-assisted device combining infusion pumps with the enhanced Model Predictive Control algorithm to achieve the target blood glucose (BG) level safely. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycemic control by SGC with customized BG target range of 5.8-8.9 mmol/L in the critically ill patients. It is a randomized controlled trial of seventy critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and hyperglycemia (BG ≥ 9.0 mmol/L). Thirty-six patients in the SGC group and 34 in the routine glucose management group were observed for three consecutive days. Target BG for both groups was 5.8-8.9 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the percentage time in the target range. The percentage time within BG target range in the SGC group (69 ± 15%) was significantly higher than in the routine management group (52 ± 24%; P< 0.01). No measurement was ≤2.2 mmol/L, and there was only one episode of hypoglycemia (2.3-3.3 mmol/L) in each group. The average BG was significantly lower in the SGC group (7.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) than in the routine management group (9.1 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P< 0.001). Target BG level was reached earlier in the SGC group than routine management group (2.5 ± 2.9 vs. 12.1 ± 15.3 h, P= 0.001). However, the SGC group performed worse for daily insulin requirement (59.8 ± 39.3 vs. 28.4 ± 36.7 U, P= 0.001) and sampling interval (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 3.7 ± 0.5 h, P< 0.001) than the routine management group did. Multiple linear regression showed that the intervention group remained a significant individual predictor (P < 0.001) of the percentage time in target range. The SGC system, with a BG target of 5.8-8.9 mmol/L, resulted in effective and reliable glycemic control with few hypoglycemic episodes in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and hyperglycemia. However, the workload was increased. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT 02491346; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  15. Effect of chromium supplementation on the glucose homeostasis and anthropometry of type 2 diabetic patients: Double blind, randomized clinical trial: Chromium, glucose homeostasis and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marília Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Clara Martins Silva; Silva, Maria Sebastiana

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of chromium supplementation on the glucose homeostasis and anthropometry of type 2 diabetic patients. Fifty-six individuals with type 2 Diabetes were randomized on a double blind clinical trial into three groups: placebo (NC0), 50μg (NC50) and 200μg (NC200) of chromium nicotinate. Glucose homeostasis, anthropometry and physical activity intensity were evaluated at the beginning, at day 45 and at day 90. Energy intake was evaluated at the beginning, between the beginning and 45 days, and between days 45 and 90 of the study. There were no differences within or between groups for HOMA-IR, waist circumference, body fat percentage, lean body mass percentage and total energy intake during the trial. There was an increase of the HOMA-β in group NC0 (p=0.0349) and a decrease of 1.08kg in group NC50 (p=0.0048) at 90 days. The relation between body mass index, body fat percentage and insulin sensitivity did not change in the placebo and supplemented groups (p>0.05). In the effect of the intervention, for each 1cm increase in waist circumference there was an increase of 1.90±0.63 in HOMA-IR (p=0.0087) and 16.31±5.27% in HOMA-β (p=0.0073) in group NC200. No difference was seen in the intensity of physical activity within the groups and in the comparison between the supplemented groups (NC50 and NC200) and placebo (NC0) at 90 days. There was an increase in energy expenditure in physical activity at 90days (p=0.0371) of intervention in the group subjects NC50. As for total energy intake, there were no differences within or between the groups during the study. 50μg and 200μg supplementation with chromium nicotinate for 90days did not promote improvements in glucose homeostasis and anthropometry in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Marie-Eve; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the impact of brown seaweed on post-load plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in men and women. Twenty-three participants (11 men, 12 women) aged 19-59 years were recruited in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. The test product consisted of a commercially available blend of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) with known inhibitory action on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities (InSea²). Two 250 mg seaweed capsules and 2 placebo capsules were consumed on each occasion 30 min prior to the consumption of 50 g of carbohydrates from bread. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured over a period of 3 h postcarbohydrate ingestion at predetermined time points. Both treatments were separated by a 1-week washout period. Data were analysed using mixed models for repeated measures. Compared with placebo, consumption of seaweed was associated with a 12.1% reduction in the insulin incremental area under the curve (p = 0.04, adjusted for baseline) and a 7.9% increase in the Cederholm index of insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). The single ingestion of 500 mg of brown seaweed had no significant effect on the glucose response (p = 0.24, adjusted for baseline). Glucose and insulin responses were similar between men and women. Consumption of the seaweed capsules was not associated with any adverse event. These data suggest that brown seaweed may alter the insulin homeostasis in response to carbohydrate ingestion.

  17. Chromium yeast supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose and LDL-cholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Hoang; Chen, Ya-Yen; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien

    2006-11-01

    Chromium yeast supplementation has been studied for its ability to improve carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities. There have been some earlier literature-reported studies involving chromium supplementation amongst patients suffering diabetes, but the results would appear to be somewhat varied. Forty male Wistar rats (ten weeks old, 300 g in average body mass) were divided into one of four groups, namely (i) controls; (ii) controls treated with chromium yeast; (iii) diabetic controls; and (iv) diabetic rats treated with chromium yeast. In the present investigation, the effect of a four-week oral administration of chromium yeast (600 microg of Cr/kg body mass/day, by gavage) upon the glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was assessed. Supplemental Cr yeast decreased the fasting blood glucose amongst the STZ-diabetic rats. No significant difference was observed in plasma fructosamine levels of rats treated with chromium yeast compared to control rats. Supplemental Cr yeast did decrease the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level for the STZ-diabetic rats as compared to controls. We noted no significant effect of chromium supplementation upon plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol or triglycerides compared to controls. Treatment with chromium yeast significantly increased the blood and urine chromium levels for both the diabetic and normal rats compared to respective control groups. The results of these studies suggest that Cr yeast decreased the fasting blood glucose and LDL-cholesterol levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. This raises the possibility that Cr yeast supplementation can be considered to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism amongst human patients featuring type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ruifeng; Yang, Wenqing; Xue, Qiang; Gao, Liang; Huo, Junli; Ren, Dongqing; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-15

    Rutin exhibits antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes rutin an attractive candidate for diabetic complications. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. After induction of diabetic neuropathy, rutin (5mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) were daily given to the diabetic rats for 2 weeks. At the end of rutin administration, rutin produced a significant inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as partial restoration of nerve conduction velocities in diabetic rats. Furthermore, rutin significantly increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in sciatic nerves and decreased caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). In addition, rutin significantly decreased plasma glucose, attenuated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Further studies showed that rutin significantly increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) level, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in DRG. The evidences suggest the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, insulin (2 IU) and BG-12 (15mg/kg) were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. Insulin achieved lower plasma glucose and BG-12 achieved comparable Nrf2 expression than/to rutin (50mg/kg), respectively. In contrast, the beneficial effect of insulin and BG-12 was inferior to that of rutin (50mg/kg), suggesting that both lowered plasma glucose and Nrf2 signaling contribute to the beneficial effect of rutin on diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. REPLACE-BG: A Randomized Trial Comparing Continuous Glucose Monitoring With and Without Routine Blood Glucose Monitoring in Adults With Well-Controlled Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Aleppo, Grazia; Ruedy, Katrina J; Riddlesworth, Tonya D; Kruger, Davida F; Peters, Anne L; Hirsch, Irl; Bergenstal, Richard M; Toschi, Elena; Ahmann, Andrew J; Shah, Viral N; Rickels, Michael R; Bode, Bruce W; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Rodriguez, Henry; Eyth, Emily; Bhargava, Anuj; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) without confirmatory blood glucose monitoring (BGM) measurements is as safe and effective as using CGM adjunctive to BGM in adults with well-controlled type 1 diabetes (T1D). A randomized noninferiority clinical trial was conducted at 14 sites in the T1D Exchange Clinic Network. Participants were ≥18 years of age (mean 44 ± 14 years), had T1D for ≥1 year (mean duration 24 ± 12 years), used an insulin pump, and had an HbA1c ≤9.0% (≤75 mmol/mL) (mean 7.0 ± 0.7% [53 ± 7.7 mmol/mol]); prestudy, 47% were CGM users. Participants were randomly assigned 2:1 to the CGM-only (n = 149) or CGM+BGM (n = 77) group. The primary outcome was time in range (70-180 mg/dL) over the 26-week trial, with a prespecified noninferiority limit of 7.5%. CGM use averaged 6.7 ± 0.5 and 6.8 ± 0.4 days/week in the CGM-only and CGM+BGM groups, respectively, over the 26-week trial. BGM tests per day (including the two required daily for CGM calibration) averaged 2.8 ± 0.9 and 5.4 ± 1.4 in the two groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean time in 70-180 mg/dL was 63 ± 13% at both baseline and 26 weeks in the CGM-only group and 65 ± 13% and 65 ± 11% in the CGM+BGM group (adjusted difference 0%; one-sided 95% CI -2%). No severe hypoglycemic events occurred in the CGM-only group, and one occurred in the CGM+BGM group. Use of CGM without regular use of confirmatory BGM is as safe and effective as using CGM with BGM in adults with well-controlled T1D at low risk for severe hypoglycemia. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Random aspects of beam physics and laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charman, Andrew Emile

    Aspects of the dynamics of charged particle and radiation beams, and of the interaction of plasmas with radiation are investigated, informed by concerns of classical and quantum mechanical uncertainty and noise, and related by notions of particle and radiation phase space manipulation, overlap, and control. We begin by studying questions of optimal longitudinal pulse-shaping in laser wakefield accelerators, based on a one-dimensional model with prescribed laser drive and either a linearized or fully nonlinear quasi-static plasma response. After discussing various figures of-merit, we advocate maximizing the peak wake amplitude instead of the transformer ratio. A number of new results are demonstrated, certain conjectures are rigorously proved for the first time, and some erroneous claims corrected. Instead of using short laser pulses to excite plasma waves, one can employ the beat wave between two co-propagating lasers to excite a Langmuir wave with high phase velocity suitable for acceleration of relativistic electrons. A modified version of this plasma beat-wave accelerator scheme is introduced and analyzed, which is based on autoresonant phase-locking of the nonlinear Langmuir wave to the slowly chirped beat frequency of the driving lasers via adiabatic passage through resonance. This new scheme is designed to overcome some of the well-known limitations of previous approaches, such as relativistic detuning and nonlinear modulation of the driven Langmuir wave amplitude, as well as sen sitivity to frequency mismatch due to measurement uncertainties and density fluctuations or inhomogeneities. From radiation exciting plasmas, we turn to issues of plasmas or beams emitting radiation. We develop a Hilbert-space and operator-based approach to electromagnetic radiation, and use this formalism to derive a maximum-power variational principle (MPVP) for spontaneous radiation from prescribed classical harmonic sources. Results are first derived in the paraxial limit, based

  1. Deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I ablates the pharmacological effects of metformin on plasma glucose homeostasis and hepatic lipid deposition.

    PubMed

    Karavia, Eleni A; Hatziri, Aikaterini; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Papachristou, Nikolaos I; Xepapadaki, Eva; Constantinou, Caterina; Natsos, Anastasios; Petropoulou, Peristera-Ioanna; Sasson, Shlomo; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2015-11-05

    Recently, we showed that deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) sensitizes mice to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and NAFLD. Here we investigated the potential involvement of ApoA-I in the pharmacological effects of metformin on glucose intolerance and NAFLD development. Groups of apoa1-deficient (apoa1(-/-)) and C57BL/6 mice fed western-type diet were either treated with a daily dose of 300 mg/kg metformin for 18 weeks or left untreated for the same period. Then, histological and biochemical analyses were performed. Metformin treatment led to a comparable reduction in plasma insulin levels in both C57BL/6 and apoa1(-/-) mice following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. However, only metformin-treated C57BL/6 mice maintained sufficient peripheral insulin sensitivity to effectively clear glucose following the challenge, as indicated by a [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake assay in isolated soleus muscle. Similarly, deficiency in ApoA-I ablated the effect of metformin on hepatic lipid deposition and NAFLD development. Gene expression analysis indicated that the effects of ApoA-I on metformin treatment may be independent of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and de novo lipogenesis. Interestingly, metformin treatment reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function only in apoa1(-/-) mice. Our data show that the role of ApoA-I in diabetes extends to the modulation of the pharmacological actions of metformin, a common drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  3. Web-based telemedicine for management of type 2 diabetes through glucose uploads: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiru; Xu, Lingli; Liu, Xueyan; Huang, Jiewei; Xu, Wanping; Chen, Weiju

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a telemedicine system based on internet in the follow-up of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A prospective randomized telemedicine study with two parallel groups was designed. 114 patients diagnosed T2DM were randomly divided into telemedicine group and traditional face-to-face visit group as control. 57 cases were included for each group. 108 patients completed the trial, in which 53 cases in telemedicine group and 55 cases in control group. Patients in telemedicine group were taught to use telemedicine software to upload their blood glucose and other metabolic information at home at least every 2 weeks, and the researchers gave proper advices according to patients' key behaviors. The telemedicine interval is 3 months. Compared to control group, telemedicine group exhibited better HbA1c and fasting blood glucose controlling (P < 0.05). Moreover, telemedicine intervention decreased hypoglycemia risk (P = 0.044), and contributed to levels of HbA1c less than 7% which is the target of our study (P = 0.049). Telemedicine system can provide a tighter glycemic control for the treatment of T2DM patients, especially in cases with difficulties to access to the medical centre.

  4. Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Powdered Brassica rapa Ethanol Extract on Alteration of Body Composition and Plasma Lipid and Adipocytokine Profiles in Overweight Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Seon-Min; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Su-kyung; Kwon, Eun-young; Jung, Un Ju; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Chung, Hae-Gon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the effects of Brassica rapa ethanol extract (BREE) on body composition and plasma lipid profiles through a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial in overweight subjects. Fifty-eight overweight participants (age 20–50 years, body mass index23.0–24.9) were randomly assigned to two groups and served BREE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. Body compositions, nutrients intake, plasma lipids, adipocytokines, and hepatotoxicity biomarkers were assessed in all subjects at baseline and after 10 weeks of supplementation. The plasma total cholesterol (total-C) concentration was significantly increased after 10 weeks compared to the baseline in both groups. However, BREE supplementation significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and significantly reduced the total-C/HDL-C ratio, free fatty acid, and adipsin levels after 10 weeks. No significant differences were observed in body compositions, fasting blood glucose, plasma adipocytokines except adipsin, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities between before and after trial within groups as well as between the two groups. The supplementation of BREE partially improves plasma lipid metabolism in overweight subjects without adverse effects. PMID:23342969

  5. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of powdered Brassica rapa ethanol extract on alteration of body composition and plasma lipid and adipocytokine profiles in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seon-Min; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Su-Kyung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Jung, Un Ju; Baek, Nam-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Chung, Hae-Gon; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of Brassica rapa ethanol extract (BREE) on body composition and plasma lipid profiles through a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial in overweight subjects. Fifty-eight overweight participants (age 20-50 years, body mass index23.0-24.9) were randomly assigned to two groups and served BREE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. Body compositions, nutrients intake, plasma lipids, adipocytokines, and hepatotoxicity biomarkers were assessed in all subjects at baseline and after 10 weeks of supplementation. The plasma total cholesterol (total-C) concentration was significantly increased after 10 weeks compared to the baseline in both groups. However, BREE supplementation significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and significantly reduced the total-C/HDL-C ratio, free fatty acid, and adipsin levels after 10 weeks. No significant differences were observed in body compositions, fasting blood glucose, plasma adipocytokines except adipsin, and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities between before and after trial within groups as well as between the two groups. The supplementation of BREE partially improves plasma lipid metabolism in overweight subjects without adverse effects.

  6. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  7. High-fiber foods at breakfast: influence on plasma glucose and insulin responses to lunch.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, S M; Fleming, S E

    1987-11-01

    This study evaluates acute effects of red kidney bean consumption on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in six healthy young men. Comparisons were made among three mixed-food breakfast meals comprised predominantly of either red kidney beans, bran cereal, or white bread. These meals provided equivalent levels of digestible carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The bean and bran meals contained equivalent levels of fiber while the white-bread meal contained a lower level. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses to the three meals were similar and responses also were similar after a standard whole-wheat-bread meal 4 h later. There appeared to be a reciprocal relationship between glucose and insulin responses after the lunch meal. This would influence interpretation of data regarding second-meal response.

  8. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675. PMID:27648290

  9. Maternal plasma glucose levels and Doppler flow velocity waveforms in cerebral arteries of growth-retarded fetuses.

    PubMed

    Degani, S; Levinsky, R; Rabia, R; Shapiro, I; Sharf, M

    1994-01-01

    Doppler flow studies of the intracranial internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery performed in 17 women at 30-36 weeks of gestation, referred for evaluation of small for gestational age fetuses, resulted in abnormally low pulsatility index values (below 2 SD). These patients were investigated when fasting and 1 h after a 100-gram glucose load. Increase of 20 ml/dl or more was followed by elevation of the mean pulsatility index in the internal carotid artery from 1.03 +/- 0.09 to 1.44 +/- 0.22 (p < 0.001), and in the middle cerebral artery from 1.12 +/- 0.16 to 1.83 +/- 0.24 (p < 0.001). Pulsatility index values returned to normal (within 2 SD for gestational age) in 15 of the subjects investigated after glucose load. These findings suggest the importance of standard fasting state or determination of maternal plasma glucose levels in patients undergoing Doppler flow evaluation of growth-retarded fetuses.

  10. Change in fasting plasma glucose and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Asgari, Samaneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a cohort of the Iranian population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) to investigate the association between change in FPG between baseline examination (1999–2001) and the second visit (2002–2005) with incident T2D. Participants A total of 3981 non-diabetic participants aged ≥20 years. Outcome measure T2D was defined if the participant was using antidiabetic drugs or if FPG was ≥7 mmol/L or if the 2 h post-challenge plasma glucose (2-hPCG) was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Results During a median follow-up of 6.17 years, after the second examination, 288 new cases of T2D were identified. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis using age as timescale, we presented a simple model including FPG change (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.33) and baseline waist circumference (WC) (HR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.008) with a discriminative power (C-index) of 72%. Furthermore, we showed that the highest quartile of FPG change enhanced the T2D risk to 1.65 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.27) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend=0.004).The independent risk of FPG change resisted further adjustment with 2-hPCG change. Adding the 2-hPCG change only slightly increased the discriminative power of the model including FPG change and baseline value of WC (0.73% vs 0.72%). After the study population had been limited to those with normal fasting glucose/normal glucose tolerance, FPG change remained an independent predictor (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.88). Conclusions Two measurements of FPG obtained about 3 years apart can help to identify populations at risk of incident T2D independently of important traditional risk factors and their changes, including 2-hPCG change. PMID:27217283

  11. Special issue: Macroscopic randomness in astrophysical plasmas: The legacy and vision of Ya. B. Zeldovich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Schekochihin, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    This issue commemorates an outstanding scientist of the twentieth century, Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich, in connection with the centenary of his birth (8 March 1914), with a collection of reviews and research articles broadly related to large-scale random phenomena in astrophysical plasmas.

  12. The effect of hormone therapy on plasma homocysteine levels: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tutuncu, Levent; Ergur, Ali Rustu; Mungen, Ercument; Gun, Ismet; Ertekin, Aktug; Yergok, Yusuf Ziya

    2005-03-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hormone therapy (HT) may reduce fasting plasma homocysteine levels. We studied 80 postmenopausal women to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) combined with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) on fasting plasma homocysteine levels. In a randomized, double blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 80 healthy postmenopausal women between CEE 0.625 mg/d combined with MPA 2.5 mg/d (n = 20), CEE 0.625 mg/d combined with MPA 5 mg/d (n = 20), unopposed CEE 0.625 mg/d (n = 20), and placebo (n = 20) all given for a duration of 6 months. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were measured before and at the end of the treatment. Before treatment, plasma homocysteine concentrations were similar in all groups. After 6 months of unopposed CEE, the mean fasting plasma homocysteine levels decreased by 19.02% when compared with baseline levels (P < 0.05). The mean fasting plasma homocysteine concentrations decreased by 17.63% and 19.56% from baseline in both the CEE plus MPA 2.5 mg/d and CEE plus MPA 5 mg/d groups, respectively (P < 0.05 for each group). In contrast, plasma homocysteine levels increased by 11.66% in the placebo group. The homocysteine lowering effect did not differ significantly among the three groups of women receiving unopposed CEE alone and CEE plus MPA at two different doses. Six months of estrogen therapy (ET) and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT) significantly lower fasting plasma homocysteine levels in healthy postmenopausal women with equal efficacy.

  13. Melatonin effect on plasma adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in normal and high fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    Melatonin effect on body weight progression, mean levels and 24-hr pattern of circulating adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were examined in rats fed a normal or a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats fed a normal diet were divided into two groups: receiving melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking water) or vehicle for 9 wk. In experiment 2, animals were divided into three groups: two fed with a high-fat diet (35% fat) and melatonin (25 μg/mL) or vehicle in drinking water for 11 wk, while a third group was given a normal diet (4% fat). At the end of experiments, groups of eight rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Melatonin administration for 9 wk decreased body weight gain from the 3rd wk on without affecting food intake. A significant reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and triglyceride mean levels and disrupted daily patterns of plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin were observed after melatonin. In high fat-fed rats, melatonin attenuated body weight increase, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, as well as the increase in mean plasma adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The high-fat diet disrupted normal 24-hr patterns of circulating adiponectin, insulin and cholesterol, the effects on insulin and cholesterol being counteracted by melatonin. Nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration in control and obese rats receiving melatonin for 11 wk attained values 21-24-fold greater than controls. The results indicate that melatonin counteracts some of the disrupting effects of diet-induced obesity in rats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Effect of chronic co-administration of metformin and vitamin C on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, A A; Amole, O O; Agbaje, E O; Izegbu, M C; Elias, S O

    2007-06-01

    In clinical setting, uncomplicated diabetes mellitus type 2 is managed with anti-oxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, etc.) with standard oral hypoglycaemic agents, which is aimed at limiting its glucose auto-oxidation and lipid peroxidation complications. The current study is an experimental animal study aimed at investigating the effect of co-administration of metformin and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) on plasma glucose and lipid levels in non-diabetic rats which could serve as a template for future studies in this area. The hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities of metformin, ascorbic acid, and metformin-ascorbic acid combination were studied in 4 groups consisting of 6 rats per group and weighing 120 - 155 g, by administering oral doses of 5, 10 and 15 (for co-administration) mg/kg/day of the drugs, respectively, for 30 days. The acute oral toxicity of the combination was also conducted using limit dose test of Up and Down Procedure of Acute Oral Toxicity test. Results of the study showed that metformin and metformin-ascorbic acid combination induced significant and comparable hypoglycaemia. The drug combination also lowered plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c) significantly but had no effect on plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c). The LD50 estimate of the drug combination was greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. The results of this study suggest the drug combination could have hypoglycaemic and lipid-lowering effects.

  15. Impact of the Bienestar school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on fasting capillary glucose levels: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Roberto P; Yin, Zenong; Hernandez, Arthur; Hale, Daniel E; Garcia, Oralia A; Mobley, Connie

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of a school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on low-income fourth-grade Mexican American children. A randomized controlled trial with 13 intervention and 14 control schools. Elementary schools in inner-city neighborhoods in San Antonio, Tex. Eighty percent of participants were Mexican American and 94% were from economically disadvantaged households. Baseline and follow-up measures were collected from 1419 (713 intervention and 706 control) and 1221 (619 intervention and 602 control) fourth-grade children, respectively. The Bienestar Health Program consists of a health class and physical education curriculum, a family program, a school cafeteria program, and an after-school health club. The objectives are to decrease dietary saturated fat intake, increase dietary fiber intake, and increase physical activity. The primary end point was fasting capillary glucose level, and the secondary end points were percentage of body fat, physical fitness level, dietary fiber intake, and dietary saturated fat intake. Fasting capillary glucose level, bioelectric impedance, modified Harvard step test, three 24-hour dietary recalls, weight, and height were collected at baseline and 8 months later. Children in the intervention arm attended an average of 32 Bienestar sessions. Mean fasting capillary glucose levels decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools after adjusting for covariates (-2.24 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval, -6.53 to 2.05 [-0.36 to 0.11 mmol/L]; P =.03). Fitness scores (P =.04) and dietary fiber intake (P =.009) significantly increased in intervention children and decreased in control children. Percentage of body fat (P =.56) and dietary saturated fat intake (P =.52) did not differ significantly between intervention and control children. This intervention showed some positive results, but additional research is needed to examine long-term benefits, translation, and cost-effectiveness.

  16. The antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine increase plasma glucose and corticosterone levels in rats: comparison with aripiprazole, ziprasidone, bifeprunox and F15063.

    PubMed

    Assié, Marie-Bernadette; Carilla-Durand, Elisabeth; Bardin, Laurent; Maraval, Mireille; Aliaga, Monique; Malfètes, Nathalie; Barbara, Michèle; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2008-09-11

    Several novel antipsychotics activate serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as well as antagonising dopamine D2/3 receptors. Such a pharmacological profile is associated with a lowered liability to produce extrapyramidal side effects and enhanced efficacy in treating negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, 5-HT1A receptor agonists increase plasma corticosterone and many antipsychotics disturb the regulation of glucose. Here, we compared the influence on plasma glucose and corticosterone of acute treatments with 'new generation' antipsychotics which target dopamine D2/3 receptors and 5-HT1A receptors, with that of atypical antipsychotics, and with haloperidol. Olanzapine and clozapine, antipsychotics that are known to produce weight gain and diabetes in humans, both at 10 mg/kg p.o., substantially increased plasma glucose (from 0.8 to 1.7 g/l) at 1 h after administration, an effect that returned to control levels after 4 h. In comparison, F15063 (40 mg/kg p.o.) was without effect at any time point. Olanzapine and clozapine dose-dependently increased plasma glucose concentrations as did SLV313 and SSR181507. Haloperidol and risperidone had modest effects whereas aripiprazole, ziprasidone and bifeprunox, antipsychotics that are not associated with metabolic dysfunction in humans, and F15063 had little or no influence on plasma glucose. The same general pattern of response was found for plasma corticosterone levels. The present data provide the first comparative study of conventional, atypical and 'new generation' antipsychotics on glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. A variety of mechanisms likely underlie the hyperglycemia and corticosterone release observed with clozapine and olanzapine, whilst the balance of dopamine D2/3/5-HT1A interaction may contribute to the less favourable impact of SLV313 and SSR181507 compared with that of bifeprunox and F15063.

  17. Mango modulates body fat and plasma glucose and lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Edralin A; Li, Wenjia; Peterson, Sandra K; Brown, Angela; Kuvibidila, Solo; Perkins-Veazie, Penny; Clarke, Stephen L; Smith, Brenda J

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been investigated for their role in the prevention of many chronic conditions. Among the fruits, mango provides numerous bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, which have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the effects of dietary supplementation of freeze-dried mango pulp, in comparison with the hypolipidaemic drug, fenofibrate, and the hypoglycaemic drug, rosiglitazone, in reducing adiposity and alterations in glucose metabolism and lipid profile in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six treatment groups (eight to nine/group): control (10 % energy from fat); HF (60 % energy from fat); HF+1 or 10 % freeze-dried mango (w/w); HF+fenofibrate (500 mg/kg diet); HF+rosiglitazone (50 mg/kg diet). After 8 weeks of treatment, mice receiving the HF diet had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0·0205) and epididymal fat mass (P = 0·0037) compared with the other treatment groups. Both doses of freeze-dried mango, similar to fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, prevented the increase in epididymal fat mass and the percentage of body fat. Freeze-dried mango supplementation at the 1 % dose improved glucose tolerance as shown by approximately 35 % lower blood glucose area under the curve compared with the HF group. Moreover, freeze-dried mango lowered insulin resistance, as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, to a similar extent as rosiglitazone and modulated NEFA. The present findings demonstrate that incorporation of freeze-dried mango in the diet of mice improved glucose tolerance and lipid profile and reduced adiposity associated with a HF diet.

  18. Changes in glucose-induced plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels by co-administration of sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Nakayama, Keiko; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Hikida, Kumiko; Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Minoru; Saito, Akira; Arakawa, Kenji; Ueta, Kiichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether structurally different sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors, when co-administered with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, could enhance glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in rodents. Three different SGLT inhibitors-1-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-4-chloro-3-[5-(6-fluoro-2-pyridyl)-2-thienylmethyl]benzene (GTB), TA-1887, and canagliflozin-were examined to assess the effect of chemical structure. Oral treatment with GTB plus a DPP4 inhibitor enhanced glucose-induced plasma active GLP-1 (aGLP-1) elevation and suppressed glucose excursions in both normal and diabetic rodents. In DPP4-deficient rats, GTB enhanced glucose-induced aGLP-1 elevation without affecting the basal level, whereas metformin, previously reported to enhance GLP-1 secretion, increased both the basal level and glucose-induced elevation. Oral treatment with canagliflozin and TA-1887 also enhanced glucose-induced aGLP-1 elevation when co-administered with either teneligliptin or sitagliptin. These data suggest that structurally different SGLT2 inhibitors enhance plasma aGLP-1 elevation and suppress glucose excursions during OGTT when co-administered with DPP4 inhibitors, regardless of the difference in chemical structure. Combination treatment with DPP4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors having moderate SGLT1 inhibitory activity may be a promising therapeutic option for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  20. The effects of wild blueberry consumption on plasma markers and gene expression related to glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Zhao, Alice; Merrow, Thomas; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2015-06-01

    Impaired fasting blood glucose is one of the landmark signs of metabolic syndrome, together with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and a chronic proinflammatory, pro-oxidative, and prothrombotic environment. This study investigates the effect of wild blueberry (WB) consumption on blood glucose levels and other parameters involved in glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen OZRs and 16 lean littermate controls (lean Zucker rat [LZR]) were fed an 8% enriched WB diet or a control (C) diet for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin GHbA1c, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured. Expression of the resistin, RBP4, and glucose transporter GLUT4 genes was also determined both in the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, RBP4, and resistin concentrations were significantly lower in OZRs following the WB diet (-20%, -22%, and -27%, respectively, compared to C diet, P<.05). Following WB consumption, resistin expression was significantly downregulated in the liver of both OZRs and LZRs (-28% and -61%, respectively, P<.05), while RBP4 expression was significantly downregulated in the AAT of both OZRs and LZRs (-87% and -43%, respectively, P<.05). All other markers were not significantly affected following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption normalizes some markers related to glucose metabolism in the OZR model of metabolic syndrome, but has no effect on fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations.

  1. Effects of exogenous hormones and glucose on plasma levels and hepatic metabolism of amino acids in the fetus and in the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Girard, J R; Guillet, I; Marty, J; Assan, R; Marliss, E B

    1976-08-01

    The present study examines the role of insulin, glucagon and cortisol in the regulation of gluconeogenesis from lactate and amino acids in fetal and newborn rats. Injection of glucagon in the full-term fetal rat caused a rise in glucose (and insulin) and a fall in blood levels of most individual amino acids, stimulated hepatic accumulation of 14C-amino isobutyric acid and 14C-cycloleucine and increased the conversion of 14C lactate, alanine and serine to glucose in vivo and in vitro (liver slices). Such changes were equivalent to the changes seen in 4 h old newborn rats. When glucagon was administered at birth, little difference was observed between control and treated animals in plasma amino acids and a smaller increment in conversion of 14C substrate to glucose occurred. By contrast, insulin injection at birth caused hypoglycemia, suppression of levels of certain amino acids and inhibition of conversion of 14C substrates into glucose. Glucose injection at birth caused elevated glycemia and plasma insulin and suppression of most amino acid levels and of conversion of 14C substrate into glucose. Cortisol injection at birth caused a marked, generalized by hyperaminoacidemia, a stimulation of glucagon secretion and of conversion of 14C substrates into glucose. These observations support the thesis that glucagon plays a major role in the induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis and that insulin acts as an antagonist hormone.

  2. Single Fasting Plasma Glucose Versus 75-g Oral Glucose-Tolerance Test in Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Songying; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Lifang; He, Jianrong; Li, Weidong; Chen, Niannian; Wen, Xingxuan; Xiao, Wanqing; Yuan, Mingyang; Qiu, Lan; Cheng, Kar Keung; Xia, Huimin; Mol, Ben Willem J; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    There remains uncertainty regarding whether a single fasting glucose measurement is sufficient to predict risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. We included 12,594 pregnant women who underwent a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 22-28weeks' gestation in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China. Outcomes were large for gestational age (LGA) baby, cesarean section, and spontaneous preterm birth. We calculated the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUCs) to assess the capacity of OGTT glucose values to predict adverse outcomes, and compared the AUCs of different components of OGTT. 1325 women had a LGA baby (10.5%). Glucose measurements were linearly associated with LGA, with strongest associations for fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45). Weaker associations were observed for cesarean section and spontaneous preterm birth. Fasting glucose have a comparable discriminative power for prediction of LGA to the combination of fasting, 1h, and 2h glucose values during OGTT (AUCs, 0.611 vs. 0.614, P=0.166). The LGA risk was consistently increased in women with abnormal fasting glucose (≥5.1mmol/l), irrespective of 1h or 2h glucose levels. A single fasting glucose measurement performs comparably to 75-g OGTT in predicting risk of having a LGA baby. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of chromium-enriched yeast on fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Sindberg, C D; Moesgaard, S; Mainz, Josef; Fabry, Jaroslav; Müller, Luděk; Rácová, Katarína

    2013-10-01

    Chromium is required for a normal insulin function, and low levels have been linked with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to follow the effect of chromium supplementation on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) on insulin therapy. Eleven randomly selected patients with DM2 on insulin therapy were supplemented with a daily dose of 100 μg chromium yeast for the first supplementation period of 2 weeks. In the second supplementation period, the chromium dose was doubled and continued for the next 6 weeks. The third phase was a 6-week washout period. After each period, the levels of FPG and HbA1c were compared with the corresponding values at the end of the previous period. Serum triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterol values after supplementation were compared with the baseline values. FPG decreased significantly after the first period of chromium supplementation (p < 0.001), and a tendency to a further reduction was observed after the second supplementation period. Similarly, HbA1c decreased significantly in both periods (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Eight weeks after withdrawal of chromium supplementation, both FPG and HbA1c levels returned to their pre-intervention values. The serum lipid concentrations were not significantly influenced by chromium supplementation. Chromium supplementation could be beneficial in patients with DM2 treated with insulin, most likely due to lowered insulin resistance leading to improved glucose tolerance. This finding needs to be confirmed in a larger study.

  4. Fasting plasma glucose and 5-year incidence of diabetes in the JPHC diabetes study - suggestion for the threshold for impaired fasting glucose among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the optimal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) cut-off value which effectively identifies high risk subjects for type 2 diabetes in Japanese, we conducted a population-based prospective study on diabetes as part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and estimated the 5-year incidence of diabetes. The subjects of the analysis of this study were 2,207 Japanese aged 51-70 at baseline from whom a fasting blood sample was collected in both the baseline and the 5-year follow-up surveys and who completed the questionnaires at both times. Diabetes was defined as an FPG value > or = 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) and/or self-reported diabetes. A total of 125 subjects developed diabetes during the 5 years after the baseline survey, and the incidence rate for a baseline FPG value of 95-99, 100-104, 105-109, 110-114, 115- 119, and 120-125 mg/dL was 6.1, 11.5, 30.3, 52.6, 86.4, and 115.2 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that an FPG value of 102 mg/dL (5.67 mmol/L) was optimal for predicting diabetes during the next 5-years. The cut-off value was similar in both genders and in the 51- to 60-year-old group and 61- to 70-year-old group. Use of hemoglobin A(1c) level > or = 6.1% for an additional diagnostic criterion resulted in a small increment in incidence, but the cut-off value for predicting diabetes was almost the same (101 mg/dL). The results of this study suggested that the cut-off FPG value should be lowered in terms of prediction of type 2 diabetes among Japanese populations.

  5. Microdetermination of glucose content of plasma and its isotopic enrichment using capillary gas chromatography/ammonia chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lepetit, N; Rocchiccioli, F

    1989-05-01

    A new sensitive and precise method for the determination of the isotopic enrichment of [6,6-D2]glucose and concentration of glucose in plasma microsamples (20 microL) has been developed. Glucose was extracted from plasma samples by anion-cation column-exchange with absolute ethanol, derivatized as 1,2:3,5-bis(butylboronate)-6-acetyl-alpha-D-glucofuranose, and analysed by capillary gas chromatography/ammonia chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. This method gives a better reproducibility and precision (variation coefficient below 1%) than methods using isobutane chemical ionization. Stable isotopes are being used increasingly to investigate energy metabolism in vivo. Recent work has involved the development of methodologies, especially mass spectrometry, to perform tracer experiments using the stable isotopes 3H, 13C, or 13N(1-4). Chemical-ionization mass spectrometry is extensively used for the analysis of isotopically labelled amino acids. In neonates and children, "true" glucose production can be measured by the continuous infusion of the stable isotopically labelled tracer 6,6-dideutero-glucose (6,6-D2-glucose), and analytical measurement is performed using gas chromatography/electron-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EIMS). Herein, we present a new, simple and sensitive method for the determination of the isotopic enrichment of [6,6-D2]glucose and measurement of the concentration of glucose in plasma microsamples (20 microL), based on the use of capillary gas-chromatography/ammonia chemical-ionization mass spectrometry of 1,2:3,5-bis(butylboronate)-6-acetyl-alpha-D-glucofuranose.

  6. Plasma total oxidant and antioxidant status after oral glucose tolerance and mixed meal tests in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kucukaydın, Zehra; Duran, Cevdet; Basaran, Mustafa; Camlica, Fatos; Erdem, Sami Said; Basaran, Ahmet; Kutlu, Orkide; Burnik, Ferda Sevimli; Elmas, Halis; Gonen, Mustafa Sait

    2016-10-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and increased oxidative stress (OS) are the characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and mixed meal tests (MMT) on plasma total oxidant (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in patients with PCOS and the relationship between these parameters and IR, calculated via homeostasis of model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda's insulin sensitivity index (ISI) derived from OGTT and MMT. Twenty-two patients with PCOS, and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched 20 women as controls were enrolled into the study. Five-hour OGTT and MMT were performed on different days, and before and after these tests, plasma TOS and TAS levels were investigated. IR was calculated with HOMA-IR and Matsuda's ISI. HOMA-IR levels were higher in patients with PCOS, compared to controls, while Matsuda's ISI derived from OGTT and MMT was higher in controls. Plasma TOS levels before OGTT and MMT were higher in patients with PCOS than controls, while TAS levels were similar. After OGTT, plasma TOS levels became decreased at 5th hour, when compared to baseline values in PCOS group. Likewise, the same decrement was found in controls, but the decrement was not significant. After OGTT and MMT at 5th hour, no changes were observed in TAS levels, compared to baseline. Matsuda's ISIs derived from OGTT and MMT can be used instead of each other, and interestingly, we found a decrease in TOS levels after OGTT in patients with PCOS.

  7. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Excessive amounts of fructose, HFCS, and glucose from SSBs

  8. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial1

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Gail; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Weigle, David S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. Objective: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Results: Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Conclusion: Excessive

  9. Autophagy-Dependent Shuttling of TBC1D5 Controls Plasma Membrane Translocation of GLUT1 and Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Roy, Srirupa; Leidal, Andrew M; Ye, Jordan; Ronen, Sabrina M; Debnath, Jayanta

    2017-07-06

    Autophagy traditionally sustains metabolism in stressed cells by promoting intracellular catabolism and nutrient recycling. Here, we demonstrate that in response to stresses requiring increased glycolytic demand, the core autophagy machinery also facilitates glucose uptake and glycolytic flux by promoting cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1/Slc2a1. During metabolic stress, LC3(+) autophagic compartments bind and sequester the RabGAP protein TBC1D5 away from its inhibitory interactions with the retromer complex, thereby enabling retromer recruitment to endosome membranes and GLUT1 plasma membrane translocation. In contrast, TBC1D5 inhibitory interactions with the retromer are maintained in autophagy-deficient cells, leading to GLUT1 mis-sorting into endolysosomal compartments. Furthermore, TBC1D5 depletion in autophagy-deficient cells rescues retromer recruitment to endosomal membranes and GLUT1 surface recycling. Hence, TBC1D5 shuttling to autophagosomes during metabolic stress facilitates retromer-dependent GLUT1 trafficking. Overall, our results illuminate key interconnections between the autophagy and endosomal pathways dictating GLUT1 trafficking and extracellular nutrient uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bonnefond, Amélie; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Sparsø, Thomas; Holmkvist, Johan; Marchand, Marion; Delplanque, Jérôme; Lobbens, Stéphane; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Durand, Emmanuelle; De Graeve, Franck; Chèvre, Jean-Claude; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tichet, Jean; Marre, Michel; Weill, Jacques; Heude, Barbara; Tauber, Maithé; Lemaire, Katleen; Schuit, Frans; Elliott, Paul; Jørgensen, Torben; Charpentier, Guillaume; Hadjadj, Samy; Cauchi, Stéphane; Vaxillaire, Martine; Sladek, Robert; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Balkau, Beverley; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Pattou, François; Meyre, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riita; Walley, Andrew J; Hansen, Torben; Dina, Christian; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In genome-wide association (GWA) data from 2,151 nondiabetic French subjects, we identified rs1387153, near MTNR1B (which encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2)), as a modulator of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). In European populations, the rs1387153 T allele is associated with increased FPG (beta = 0.06 mmol/l, P = 7.6 x 10(-29), N = 16,094), type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08-1.22, P = 6.3 x 10(-5), cases N = 6,332) and risk of developing hyperglycemia or diabetes over a 9-year period (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.06-1.36, P = 0.005, incident cases N = 515). RT-PCR analyses confirm the presence of MT2 transcripts in neural tissues and show MT2 expression in human pancreatic islets and beta cells. Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway.

  11. Neurocognitive development of children 4 years after critical illness and treatment with tight glucose control: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mesotten, Dieter; Gielen, Marijke; Sterken, Caroline; Claessens, Kirsten; Hermans, Greet; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Lemiere, Jurgen; Lagae, Lieven; Gewillig, Marc; Eyskens, Benedicte; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Wouters, Pieter J; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2012-10-24

    A large randomized controlled trial revealed that tight glucose control (TGC) to age-adjusted normoglycemia (50-80 mg/dL at age <1 year and 70-100 mg/dL at age 1-16 years) reduced intensive care morbidity and mortality compared with usual care (UC), but increased hypoglycemia (≤40 mg/dL) (25% vs 1%). As both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia may adversely affect the developing brain, long-term follow-up was required to exclude harm and validate short-term benefits of TGC. A prospective, randomized controlled trial of 700 patients aged 16 years or younger who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) of the University Hospitals in Leuven, Belgium, between October 2004 and December 2007. Follow-up was scheduled after 3 years with infants assessed at 4 years old between August 2008 and January 2012. Assessment was performed blinded for treatment allocation, in-hospital (83%) or at home/school (17%). For comparison, 216 healthy siblings and unrelated children were tested. Intelligence (full-scale intelligence quotient [IQ]), as assessed with age-adjusted tests (Wechsler IQ scales). Further neurodevelopmental testing encompassed tests for visual-motor integration (Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration); attention, motor coordination, and executive functions (Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks); memory (Children's Memory Scale); and behavior (Child Behavior Checklist). Sixteen percent of patients declined participation or could not be reached (n = 113), resulting in 569 patients being alive and testable at follow-up. At a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 3.9 (3.8-4.1) years after randomization, TGC in the ICU did not affect full-scale IQ score (median [IQR], 88.0 [74.0-100.0] vs 88.5 [74.3-99.0] for UC; P = .73) and had not increased incidence of poor outcomes (death or severe disability precluding neurocognitive testing: 19% [68/349] vs 18% [63/351] with UC; risk-adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.60-1.46; P = .72). Other

  12. Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics associated with random Alfven waves in a plasma with weak magnetic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu

    1988-02-01

    Using first-order smoothing theory, Fourier analysis and perturbation methods, a new equation is derived governing the evolution of the spectrum tensor (including the energy and helicity spectrum functions) of the random velocity field as well as the ponderomotive and mean electromotive forces generated by random Alfven waves in a plasma with weak magnetic diffusion. The ponderomotive and mean electromotive forces are expressed as series involving spatial derivatives of mean magnetic and velocity fields whose coefficients are associated with the helicity spectrum function of the random velocity field. The effect of microscale random Alfven waves, through ponderomotive and mean electromotive forces generated by them, on the propagation of large-scale Alfven waves is also investigated by solving the mean-field equations, including the transport equation of the helicity spectrum function.

  13. Plasma amino acid profiles in preterm infants receiving Vamin 9 glucose or Vamin infant.

    PubMed

    Mitton, S G; Burston, D; Brueton, M J; Kovar, I Z

    1993-02-01

    Amino acid profiles were measured in 29 low-birth-weight infants receiving either Vamin 9 glucose (n = 18, group A) or Vamin Infant (n = 11, group B) as the amino acid source in parenteral nutrition; intake was otherwise identical. Infants were sampled when receiving 430 mgN/kg per day (3.2 g/kg per day amino acids) and 90 non-protein kcal/kg per day. There was no difference between groups in birth weight, gestational or postnatal age. The percentage N retention was similar in both (68 and 60%, groups A and B respectively). Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels were higher in those who received Vamin 9 glucose but 55% of infants given Vamin Infant had tyrosine levels below the lower limit of the target range. Cysteine levels were low in both groups. Further modification of the amino acid composition of parenteral solutions for the newborn is necessary. If sufficient non-protein energy can be provided the risk of abnormally high amino acid levels is reduced.

  14. Co-expressed immune and metabolic genes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from severely obese individuals are associated with plasma HDL and glucose levels: a microarray study.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Marcel G M; Rensen, Sander S; Bruin-Van Dijk, Elinda J; Verdam, Froukje J; Greve, Jan-Willem; Sanjabi, Bahram; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Haeften, Timon W; Buurman, Wim A; Franke, Lude; Hofker, Marten H

    2010-08-05

    Excessive accumulation of body fat, in particular in the visceral fat depot, is a major risk factor to develop a variety of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the increased risk of obese individuals to develop co-morbid diseases are largely unclear.We aimed to identify genes expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) that are related to blood parameters involved in obesity co-morbidity, such as plasma lipid and glucose levels, and to compare gene expression between the fat depots. Whole-transcriptome SAT and VAT gene expression levels were determined in 75 individuals with a BMI >35 kg/m2. Modules of co-expressed genes likely to be functionally related were identified and correlated with BMI, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, ALAT, ASAT, C-reactive protein, and LDL- and HDL cholesterol. Of the approximately 70 modules identified in SAT and VAT, three SAT modules were inversely associated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels, and a fourth module was inversely associated with both plasma glucose and plasma triglyceride levels (p < 5.33 x 10(-5)). These modules were markedly enriched in immune and metabolic genes. In VAT, one module was associated with both BMI and insulin, and another with plasma glucose (p < 4.64 x 10(-5)). This module was also enriched in inflammatory genes and showed a marked overlap in gene content with the SAT modules related to HDL. Several genes differentially expressed in SAT and VAT were identified. In obese subjects, groups of co-expressed genes were identified that correlated with lipid and glucose metabolism parameters; they were enriched with immune genes. A number of genes were identified of which the expression in SAT correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol, while their expression in VAT correlated with plasma glucose. This underlines both the singular importance of these genes for lipid and glucose metabolism and the specific

  15. Making thawed universal donor plasma available rapidly for massively bleeding trauma patients: Experience from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Deborah J.; Bai, Yu; Cooke, Rhonda K.; Marques, Marisa B.; Fontaine, Magali J.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Carey, Patricia M.; Scanlan, Richard M.; Fiebig, Eberhard W.; Shulman, Ira A.; Nelson, Janice M.; Flax, Sherri; Duncan, Veda; Daniel-Johnson, Jennifer A.; Callum, Jeannie L.; Holcomb, John B.; Fox, Erin E.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Tilley, Barbara C.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Inaba, Kenji; Rizoli, Sandro; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Hess, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial was a randomized clinical trial comparing survival after transfusion of 2 different blood component ratios for emergency resuscitation of traumatic massive hemorrhage. Transfusion services supporting the study were expected to provide thawed plasma, platelets and red blood cells within 10 minutes of request. Study Design and Methods At the 12 Level 1 trauma centers participating in PROPPR, blood components transfused and delivery times were tabulated, with a focus on universal donor (UD) plasma management. The adequacy of site plans was assessed by comparing the bedside blood availability times to study goals and the new American College of Surgeons (ACS) guidelines. Results Eleven of 12 sites were able to consistently deliver 6 units of thawed UD plasma to their trauma receiving unit within 10 minutes, and 12 units in 20 minutes. Three sites used blood group A plasma instead of AB for massive transfusion without complications. Approximately 4700 units of plasma were given to the 680 patients enrolled in the trial. No site experienced shortages of AB plasma that limited enrollment. Two of 12 sites reported wastage of thawed AB plasma approaching 25% of AB plasma prepared. Conclusion Delivering UD plasma to massively hemorrhaging patients was accomplished consistently, rapidly and without excessive wastage in high-volume trauma centers. The ACS Trauma Quality Improvement Program guidelines for massive transfusion protocol UD plasma availability are practicable in large academic trauma centers. Use of group A plasma in trauma resuscitation needs further study. PMID:25823522

  16. Making thawed universal donor plasma available rapidly for massively bleeding trauma patients: experience from the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial.

    PubMed

    Novak, Deborah J; Bai, Yu; Cooke, Rhonda K; Marques, Marisa B; Fontaine, Magali J; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M; Scanlan, Richard M; Fiebig, Eberhard W; Shulman, Ira A; Nelson, Janice M; Flax, Sherri; Duncan, Veda; Daniel-Johnson, Jennifer A; Callum, Jeannie L; Holcomb, John B; Fox, Erin E; Baraniuk, Sarah; Tilley, Barbara C; Schreiber, Martin A; Inaba, Kenji; Rizoli, Sandro; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Cotton, Bryan A; Hess, John R

    2015-06-01

    The Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial was a randomized clinical trial comparing survival after transfusion of two different blood component ratios for emergency resuscitation of traumatic massive hemorrhage. Transfusion services supporting the study were expected to provide thawed plasma, platelets, and red blood cells within 10 minutes of request. At the 12 Level 1 trauma centers participating in PROPPR, blood components transfused and delivery times were tabulated, with a focus on universal donor (UD) plasma management. The adequacy of site plans was assessed by comparing the bedside blood availability times to study goals and the new American College of Surgeons guidelines. Eleven of 12 sites were able to consistently deliver 6 units of thawed UD plasma to their trauma-receiving unit within 10 minutes and 12 units in 20 minutes. Three sites used blood group A plasma instead of AB for massive transfusion without complications. Approximately 4700 units of plasma were given to the 680 patients enrolled in the trial. No site experienced shortages of AB plasma that limited enrollment. Two of 12 sites reported wastage of thawed AB plasma approaching 25% of AB plasma prepared. Delivering UD plasma to massively hemorrhaging patients was accomplished consistently and rapidly and without excessive wastage in high-volume trauma centers. The American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program guidelines for massive transfusion protocol UD plasma availability are practicable in large academic trauma centers. Use of group A plasma in trauma resuscitation needs further study. © 2015 AABB.

  17. Model analysis of effect of canagliflozin (Invokana), a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, to alter plasma 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Danielle; McCloskey, Laura J; Stickle, Douglas F

    2016-01-15

    Renal reabsorption of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) is competitively inhibited by elevated glucose and leads to depleted plasma AG in diabetes. Plasma AG recovery in diabetes normally correlates with improved glycemic control. However, use of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (e.g., canagliflozin) to treat diabetes by inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption can negate this correlation, via an indirect effect (increase of renal filtrate glucose concentration) to inhibit AG reabsorption by sodium-glucose co-transporter 4 (SGLT4). Conversely, then, AG measurement might be useful as an independent marker for SGLT2 inhibitor activity. Using an AG mass balance model, we analyzed literature data on plasma AG before and after initiation of canagliflozin therapy (CT) to quantitatively characterize the effect of CT on AG reabsorption. According to model calculations, modest decreases (<5%) in fractional reabsorption of AG account for the drastic decrease in [AG] observed during CT. Decreases are predicted to be rapid (t1/2<3days) after CT initiation. CT negates the usual premise of AG measurement (that [AG] should increase with improved glycemic control). However, according to model calculations, a substantial and likely rapid effect of CT on [AG] means that AG measurement might provide an early marker for CT activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of diagnotors based on time-average values of plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels during intravenous glucose tolerance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinov, Igor A.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Brook, Sergey B.

    2000-04-01

    The diagnostic algorithm of glucose-insulinic violations for the patients with a clinically obvious atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and persons with the heritable predisposition to these forms of pathology was designed. The realization of intravenous glucose tolerance test in specially fitted groups of patients served as basis of the algorithm.

  19. Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus bark, on blood glucose, serum lipids, plasma insulin and hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kondeti, Vinay Kumar; Badri, Kameswara Rao; Maddirala, Dilip Rajasekhar; Thur, Sampath Kumar Mekala; Fatima, Shaik Sameena; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Rao, Chippada Appa

    2010-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of bark of Pterocarpus santalinus, an ethnomedicinal plant, on blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum lipids and the activities of hepatic glucose metabolizing enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated (acute/short-term and long-term) with ethyl acetate:methanol fractions of ethanolic extract of the bark of P. santalinus. Fasting blood glucose, HbA(1C), plasma insulin and protein were estimated before and after the treatment, along with hepatic glycogen, and activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Further anti-hyperlipidemic activity was studied by measuring the levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins. Phytochemical analysis of active fraction showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and phenols. Biological testing of the active fraction demonstrated a significant antidiabetic activity by reducing the elevated blood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin, improving hyperlipidemia and restoring the insulin levels in treated experimental induced diabetic rats. Further elucidation of mechanism of action showed improvement in the hepatic carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes after the treatment. Our present investigation suggests that active fraction of ethanolic extract of bark of P. santalinus decreases streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by increasing glycolysis and decreasing gluconeogenesis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Canarium odontophyllum leaves on plasma glucose and T lymphocyte population in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Saari, Shafikha Mohd; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Budin, Siti Balkis; Warif, Nor Malia Abd

    2017-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by lack of insulin production. Immune mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes. Canarium odontophyllum (CO) fruits and leaves have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of CO leaves aqueous extract on the blood glucose and T lymphocyte population in the spleen of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal, diabetic control and CO treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg STZ/kg body weight. The extract of CO leaves was administered orally by force feeding daily at the dose of 300 mg/kg for 28 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the study and the spleen was harvested for flow cytometry analysis. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight of diabetic and CO treated diabetic groups compared with the normal group (p < 0.05). The fasting blood glucose level of CO treated diabetic group was significantly lower than the diabetic group (p < 0.05). Diabetic and CO treated diabetic groups showed a significant increase in the percentage of spleen CD3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal group. However, there was no significant difference in the percentage of spleen CD3(+) CD8(+) T lymphocytes among all experimental groups. The finding suggested that an aqueous extract of CO leaves has the ability to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats.

  1. Effects of pentobarbital on plasma glucose and free fatty acids in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furner, R. L.; Neville, E. D.; Talarico, K. S.; Feller, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypolipemia were observed in rats after the injection of sodium pentobarbital. The observed changes were independent of whether the blood was collected by decapitation or by needle puncture of the aorta. The hyperglycemic response was caused by two factors including the stress of the injection per se and the pharmacological action of the drug. Hyperlipemia was observed at 5 min postinjection. However, pentobarbital decreased plasma free fatty acids by 15 min postinjection. Both the hyperglycemia and hypolipemia responses were dose dependent.

  2. A Double-Blind, Randomized Pilot Trial of Chromium Picolinate for Overweight Individuals with Binge-Eating Disorder: Effects on Glucose Regulation.

    PubMed

    Sala, Margarita; Breithaupt, Lauren; Bulik, Cynthia M; Hamer, Robert M; La Via, Maria C; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2017-03-04

    Chromium treatment has been shown to improve glucose regulation in some populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation improves glucose regulation in overweight individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). In this double-blinded randomized pilot trial, participants (N = 24) were randomized to high (HIGH, 1000 mcg/day, n = 8) or moderate (MOD, 600 mcg/day, n = 9) dose of CrPic or placebo (PL, n = 7) for 6 months. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Fixed effects models were used to estimate mean change in glucose area under the curve (AUC), insulinAUC, and insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Results revealed a significant group and time interaction (p < 0.04) for glucoseAUC, with glucoseAUC increasing significantly in the PL group (p < 0.02) but decreasing significantly in the MOD group (p < 0.03) at 6 months. InsulinAUC increased significantly over time (main effect, p < 0.02), whereas ISI decreased significantly over time (main effect, p < 0.03). As anticipated, a moderate dose of CrPic was associated with improved glycemic control, whereas PL was associated with decreased glycemic control. It was unexpected that the improved glycemic control seen in the MOD dose group was not seen in the HIGH dose group. However, although participants randomized to the HIGH dose group did not have improved glycemic control, they had better glycemic control than participants randomized to the PL group. These findings support the need for larger trials.

  3. Radio-wave heating of iron oxide nanoparticles can regulate plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Sarah A; Gagner, Jennifer E; Damanpour, Shadi; Yoshida, Mitsukuni; Dordick, Jonathan S; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2012-05-04

    Medical applications of nanotechnology typically focus on drug delivery and biosensors. Here, we combine nanotechnology and bioengineering to demonstrate that nanoparticles can be used to remotely regulate protein production in vivo. We decorated a modified temperature-sensitive channel, TRPV1, with antibody-coated iron oxide nanoparticles that are heated in a low-frequency magnetic field. When local temperature rises, TRPV1 gates calcium to stimulate synthesis and release of bioengineered insulin driven by a Ca(2+)-sensitive promoter. Studying tumor xenografts expressing the bioengineered insulin gene, we show that exposure to radio waves stimulates insulin release from the tumors and lowers blood glucose in mice. We further show that cells can be engineered to synthesize genetically encoded ferritin nanoparticles and inducibly release insulin. These approaches provide a platform for using nanotechnology to activate cells.

  4. Comparison of control fasting plasma glucose of exercise-only versus exercise-diet among a pre-diabetic population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; Wu, J; Wang, G; Persuitte, G; Ma, Y; Zou, L; Zhang, L; Zhao, M; Wang, J; Lan, Qin; Liu, Z; Fan, H; Li, J

    2016-04-01

    Exercise is considered a protective factor in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, although its role as a sole treatment for pre-diabetes remains unknown. The present meta-analysis compared the effect of exercise-only with exercise-diet interventions on plasma glucose levels among a pre-diabetic population. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the quality of each trial. Two reviewers independently performed quality assessment of all included articles. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled effect. A total of 4021 participants from 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis, 2045 of them were in the intervention group and 1976 were in the control group. Compared with the exercise-only interventions, the exercise-diet interventions showed a significant effect on decreasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, with a weighted mean difference (WMD) =-0.22 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25, -0.18 (Z=12.06, P<0.05). The subgroup effect of exercise-only interventions did not produce a statistically significant result (WMD=-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.18, 0.00, Z=1.91, P>0.05). According to the intervention periods, the pooled effect in the ⩾2-year group was the highest, and its WMD (95% CI) was -0.24 mmol/l (-0.43,-0.05). The pooled effects were statistically significant among the elderly and those of American and European descent, with WMD (95% CI) being -0.19 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.22, -0.15), -0.17 mmol/l (-0.21,-0.12) and -0.22 mmol/l (-0.27, -0.17), respectively. Evidence from published trials indicates that exercise-diet interventions showed a significant effect on decreasing FPG levels.

  5. Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Mónica; Roman, Pilar; Lapetra, José; García de la Corte, Francisco J; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramón; Coca, Antonio; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (P<0.001). Respective changes in mean diastolic BP were -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), and 0.7 (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.7) mm Hg (P=0.017). Daytime and nighttime BP followed similar patterns. Mean changes from baseline in fasting blood glucose were -6.1, -4.6, and 3.5 mg/dL (P=0.016) in the MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Bolus calculator and wirelessly communicated blood glucose measurement effectively reduce hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetic children - randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ramotowska, Anna; Szypowska, Agnieszka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bolus calculator function and wireless communication between insulin pump and blood glucose metre on metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes, treated with insulin pumps. In this randomized, controlled, 12-week trial, 156 patients, aged 12.9 ± 2.6 years, with a history of diabetes of 5.1 ± 3.3 years and glycated haemoglobin values of 7.3 ± 1.2% (56.3 ± 13.44 mmol/mol) were included. Children were assigned to one of three arms: group A, subjects using bolus calculator and wireless communication between insulin pump and blood glucose metre; group B, subjects using bolus calculator without communication between the devices and group C, control group. Devices were downloaded at 0, 6 and 12 weeks. There were statistically fewer episodes of hypoglycaemia in children using bolus calculator compared with the control group: A versus C (3.8 ± 3.1 versus 7.8 ± 5.13 episodes/2 weeks, respectively, p < 0.0001); B versus C (3.6 ± 3.3 versus 7.8 ± 5.1 episodes/2 weeks, respectively, p < 0.0001). Patients in group A used bolus calculator function significantly more frequently than patients in group B (4.9 ± 3.4 versus 2.5 ± 2.9 times/24 h, respectively, p = 0.0006). No significant differences in glycated haemoglobin levels were found between the experimental and the control groups: group A versus C (p = 0.699). The use of bolus calculator did not influence post-prandial glycaemia, body mass index-SD score or insulin/kg/24 h. Bolus calculator use reduces hypoglycaemic episodes independently of communication between insulin pump and blood glucose metre. Wireless communication between devices results in more frequent bolus calculator use. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of Acute Pinitol Supplementation on Plasma Pinitol Concentration, Whole Body Glucose Tolerance, and Activation of the Skeletal Muscle Insulin Receptor in Older Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stull, A. J.; Wood, K. V.; Thyfault, J. P.; Campbell, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62 ± 1 years, mean ± SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Subjects consumed a non-nutritive beverage with nothing (placebo) or 1 000 mg pinitol. Sixty minutes later, the subjects consumed beverages that were either energy- and carbohydrate-free (Sham) or contained 75 g glucose (OGTT). Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min testing period. For the OGTT trials only, vastus lateralis samples were obtained before the placebo and pinitol supplementation and 60 min after consuming the 75 g glucose beverage. Plasma pinitol concentration increased and was maintained for 240 min. Pinitol did not influence the fasting state and 180-min area under the curves for plasma glucose and insulin during the Sham and OGTT trials or hepatic (placebo 0.83 ± 0.08; pinitol 0.80 ± 0.08) and whole-body (placebo 6.10 ± 0.54; pinitol 6.22 ± 0.52) insulin sensitivities. Activation of the muscle insulin receptor was increased by 140% with glucose ingestion (Pre 0.62 ± 0.12; Post 1.49 ± 0.35), but pinitol did not influence this response. These results show that the pinitol supplement was quickly absorbed, but did not acutely influence indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, or the activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older, nondiabetic humans. PMID:19221977

  8. Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial: Design, rationale and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, Sarah; Tilley, Barbara C.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Fox, Erin E.; van Belle, Gerald; Wade, Charles E.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Beeler, Angela M.; Hess, John R.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Inaba, Kenji; Fabian, Timothy C.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Miller, Christopher N.; Rizoli, Sandro; Scalea, Thomas M.; O’Keeffe, Terence; Brasel, Karen J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Muskat, Peter; Holcomb, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Forty percent of in-hospital deaths among injured patients involve massive truncal hemorrhage. These deaths may be prevented with rapid hemorrhage control and improved resuscitation techniques. The Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial was designed to determine if there is a difference in mortality between subjects who received different ratios of FDA approved blood products. This report describes the design and implementation of PROPPR. Study Design PROPPR was designed as a randomized, two-group, Phase III trial conducted in subjects with the highest level of trauma activation and predicted to have a massive transfusion. Subjects at 12 North American level 1 trauma centers were randomized into one of two standard transfusion ratio interventions: 1:1:1 or 1:1:2, (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells). Clinical data and serial blood samples were collected under Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) regulations. Co-primary mortality endpoints of 24 hours and 30 days were evaluated. Results Between August 2012 and December 2013, 680 patients were randomized. The overall median time from admission to randomization was 26 minutes. PROPPR enrolled at higher than expected rates with fewer than expected protocol deviations. Conclusion PROPPR is the largest randomized study to enroll severely bleeding patients. This study showed that rapidly enrolling and successfully providing randomized blood products to severely injured patients in an EFIC study is feasible. PROPPR was able to achieve these goals by utilizing a collaborative structure and developing successful procedures and design elements that can be part of future trauma studies. PMID:24996573

  9. Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial: design, rationale and implementation.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, Sarah; Tilley, Barbara C; del Junco, Deborah J; Fox, Erin E; van Belle, Gerald; Wade, Charles E; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Beeler, Angela M; Hess, John R; Bulger, Eileen M; Schreiber, Martin A; Inaba, Kenji; Fabian, Timothy C; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Miller, Christopher N; Rizoli, Sandro; Scalea, Thomas M; O'Keeffe, Terence; Brasel, Karen J; Cotton, Bryan A; Muskat, Peter; Holcomb, John B

    2014-09-01

    Forty percent of in-hospital deaths among injured patients involve massive truncal haemorrhage. These deaths may be prevented with rapid haemorrhage control and improved resuscitation techniques. The Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial was designed to determine if there is a difference in mortality between subjects who received different ratios of FDA approved blood products. This report describes the design and implementation of PROPPR. PROPPR was designed as a randomized, two-group, Phase III trial conducted in subjects with the highest level of trauma activation and predicted to have a massive transfusion. Subjects at 12 North American level 1 trauma centres were randomized into one of two standard transfusion ratio interventions: 1:1:1 or 1:1:2, (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells). Clinical data and serial blood samples were collected under Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) regulations. Co-primary mortality endpoints of 24h and 30 days were evaluated. Between August 2012 and December 2013, 680 patients were randomized. The overall median time from admission to randomization was 26min. PROPPR enrolled at higher than expected rates with fewer than expected protocol deviations. PROPPR is the largest randomized study to enrol severely bleeding patients. This study showed that rapidly enrolling and successfully providing randomized blood products to severely injured patients in an EFIC study is feasible. PROPPR was able to achieve these goals by utilizing a collaborative structure and developing successful procedures and design elements that can be part of future trauma studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S.; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  11. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor use and dietary carbohydrate intake in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, open-label, 3-arm parallel comparative, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Daisuke; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Kuwata, Hitoshi; Haraguchi, Takuya; Hamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Kurose, Takeshi; Sumita, Kiminobu; Yamazato, Hitoshi; Kanada, Shigeto; Seino, Yutaka

    2016-12-19

    This study investigated the safety and efficacy of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor luseogliflozin with differing carbohydrate intakes in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were randomly assigned to 3 carbohydrate-adjusted meals for 14 days (days 1-14; a high carbohydrate [HC; 55% total energy carbohydrate] and high glycaemic index [HGI] meal; an HC [55% total energy carbohydrate] and low glycaemic index [LGI] meal; or a low carbohydrate [LC; 40% total energy carbohydrate] and HGI meal). All participants received luseogliflozin for the last 7 days (days 8-14), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) before and after luseogliflozin treatment (days 5-8 and days 12-15) and blood tests on days 1, 8 and 15. Luseogliflozin significantly decreased the area under the curve and mean of CGM values in all 3 groups similarly. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon were similar at all time points. Ketone bodies on day 15 were significantly higher in the LC-HGI group compared with the HC-HGI and HC-LGI groups. In conclusion, luseogliflozin has similar efficacy and safety in Japanese people with T2D when meals contain 40% to 55% total energy carbohydrate, but a strict LC diet on this class of drug should be avoided to prevent SGLT2 inhibitor-associated diabetic ketoacidosis.

  12. Mass spectrometry-based microassay of 2H and 13C plasma glucose labeling to quantify liver metabolic fluxes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hasenour, Clinton M.; Wall, Martha L.; Ridley, D. Emerson; Hughey, Curtis C.; James, Freyja D.; Wasserman, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models designed to examine hepatic metabolism are critical to diabetes and obesity research. Thus, a microscale method to quantitatively assess hepatic glucose and intermediary metabolism in conscious, unrestrained mice was developed. [13C3]propionate, [2H2]water, and [6,6-2H2]glucose isotopes were delivered intravenously in short- (9 h) and long-term-fasted (19 h) C57BL/6J mice. GC-MS and mass isotopomer distribution (MID) analysis were performed on three 40-μl arterial plasma glucose samples obtained during the euglycemic isotopic steady state. Model-based regression of hepatic glucose and citric acid cycle (CAC)-related fluxes was performed using a comprehensive isotopomer model to track carbon and hydrogen atom transitions through the network and thereby simulate the MIDs of measured fragment ions. Glucose-6-phosphate production from glycogen diminished, and endogenous glucose production was exclusively gluconeogenic with prolonged fasting. Gluconeogenic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) remained stable, whereas that from glycerol modestly increased from short- to long-term fasting. CAC flux [i.e., citrate synthase (VCS)] was reduced with long-term fasting. Interestingly, anaplerosis and cataplerosis increased with fast duration; accordingly, pyruvate carboxylation and the conversion of oxaloacetate to PEP were severalfold higher than VCS in long-term fasted mice. This method utilizes state-of-the-art in vivo methodology and comprehensive isotopomer modeling to quantify hepatic glucose and intermediary fluxes during physiological stress in mice. The small plasma requirements permit serial sampling without stress and the affirmation of steady-state glucose kinetics. Furthermore, the approach can accommodate a broad range of modeling assumptions, isotope tracers, and measurement inputs without the need to introduce ad hoc mathematical approximations. PMID:25991647

  13. Effects of glucose in drinking water on the changes in whole blood viscosity and plasma osmolality of broiler chickens during high temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W T; Fujita, M; Yamamoto, S; Iwasaki, K; Ikawa, R; Oyama, H; Horikawa, H

    1998-05-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the influence of glucose in drinking water on whole blood viscosity and plasma osmolality of broilers during high temperature exposure. Two groups of birds, which had ad libitum access to either a 4% glucose-water solution (Group G) or tap water (Group W), were exposed simultaneously to 30 C from 0300 h for 12 h each day for 3 d. During the experimental period, Group G birds had greater metabolic energy intake and body weight gain than Group W. Hematocrit and whole blood viscosity decreased significantly at 30 C compared to controls at 20 C in Group W, whereas, in Group G, no changes were found for these two variables. Plasma osmolality also decreased at 30 C compared to 20 C in Group W, whereas no change was noted in this variable in Group G. However, at 20 C, plasma osmolality was significantly higher in Group W than in Group G, but no difference was observed between the two groups at 30 C. Plasma protein concentration decreased during exposure to 30 C in both groups, but the decrease tended to be greater in Group W than in Group G. These results suggest that glucose intake may alleviate the influence of heat stress on whole blood viscosity and plasma osmolality.

  14. Effects of niacin source on epinephrine stimulation of plasma nonesterified fatty acid and glucose concentrations, on diet digestibility and on rumen protozoal numbers in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P S; Trusk, A M; Murphy, M R

    1990-12-01

    Effects of niacin (nicotinic acid or nicotinamide) supplementation of dairy cow diets on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and milk composition were determined using six mid-lactation Holstein cows in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design arranged to test for residual treatment effects. Treatments were control, 12 g/d of nicotinic acid or 12 g/d of nicotinamide. Periods were 14 d long; d 1 to 4 served as an adaptation period before treatment administration commenced (d 5 to 14). Effects of supplemental niacin on plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations were tested following saline injection on d 10. Blood was then sampled for 5.5 h at 15-min intervals. On d 13, cows were treated similarly except that epinephrine replaced saline. The area below d-10 curves was subtracted from the area below d-13 curves to serve as an indicator of niacin's effect on plasma NEFA and glucose concentration responses to epinephrine injection. Niacin treatments did not change the area differences for plasma glucose compared to the control treatment; however, there was a trend for niacin to reduce the area difference compared to the control treatment for plasma NEFA. Niacin treatments did not alter dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield or composition. Niacin supplementation increased the number of entodinia protozoa in rumen fluid.

  15. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Jonna C.; Björck, Inger M. E.; Nilsson, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Method Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5–13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. Results With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0–120 min, P<0.001), GLP-1 (0–90 min, P<0.05) and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05), compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0–120 min, P = 0.001), serum insulin response (0–120 min, P<0.05) and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05). Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05), and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001), indicating increased colonic fermentation activity. Conclusion The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in

  16. Membrane versus centrifuge-based therapeutic plasma exchange: a randomized prospective crossover study.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Carsten; Golla, Paulina; Gericke, Marion; Eden, Gabriele; Beutel, Gernot; Schmidt, Julius J; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; De Reys, Stef; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is either performed using a highly permeable filter with standard multifunctional renal replacement equipment (mTPE) or a centrifugation device (cTPE). Although both techniques are well established in clinical practice, performance of these two modes of TPE was never compared in a prospective randomized fashion. Thus we aimed to compare two commercially available therapeutic apheresis systems: mTPE (Octonova with Plasmaflo filter) and cTPE (Spectra Optia apheresis system). Twenty-one patients (age 51.6 ± 13.5 years; 10 F/11 M; BMI 25.1 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, paired, crossover study performed in the Hannover Medical School, Germany. First treatment (either mTPE or cTPE) was chosen by an online randomization list. The primary endpoints were plasma removal efficiency with 1.2× of the total plasma volume exchanged. Secondary endpoints were total amount of plasma substances removed, such as IgG and fibrinogen. Further, the treatment effect on platelet count and complications were evaluated. Despite a comparable volume of the processed plasma, mTPE treatment time was 10.5 % longer than cTPE treatment time (p < 0.05), resulting in a 10 % lower plasma removal rate of the mTPE treatment. Both treatments were comparable in terms of decrease in median (IQR) IgG [pre-mTPE 5.34 (3.48-8.37), post-mTPE 1.96 (1.43-2.84) g/L; pre-cTPE 5.88 (3.42-8.84), post-cTPE 1.89 (1.21-3.52) g/L]. Also the median (IQR) amount of IgG removed in mTPE [13.14 (7.42-16.10) g] was not different from the cTPE treatment [9.30 (6.26-15.69) g]. This was also true for IgM removal. Platelet loss during mTPE was nearly twice as much as with cTPE (15 ± 9 versus 7 ± 9 %, p < 0.05). Although the centrifugal procedures were conducted using flow rates that could easily be obtained using peripheral access, plasma removal efficiency was significantly higher and treatment time was significantly lower in cTPE as compared to mTPE. Despite

  17. Strength of family history in predicting levels of blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Wandeler, G; Paccaud, F; Vollenweider, P; Waeber, G; Mooser, V; Bochud, M

    2010-01-01

    Limited information is available on the quantitative relationship between family history and the corresponding underlying traits. We analyzed these associations for blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol levels. Data were obtained from 6,102 Caucasian participants (2,903 men and 3,199 women) aged 35-75 years using a population-based cross-sectional survey in Switzerland. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured, and the corresponding family history was self-reported using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of a positive family history (in first-degree relatives) was 39.6% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes, and 29.0% for hypercholesterolemia. Family history was not known for at least one family member in 41.8% of participants for hypertension, 14.4% for diabetes, and 50.2% for hypercholesterolemia. A positive family history was strongly associated with higher levels of the corresponding trait, but not with the other traits. Participants who reported not to know their family history of hypertension had a higher systolic blood pressure than participants with a negative history. Sibling histories had higher positive predictive values than parental histories. The ability to discriminate, calibrate, and reclassify was best for the family history of hypertension. Family history of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia was strongly associated with the corresponding dichotomized and continuous phenotypes. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effects of abomasal infusions of histidine, glucose, and leucine on milk production and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed grass silage diets.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Vanhatalo, A; Varvikko, T

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study showed that His was the first-limiting amino acid (AA) for milk protein production in cows fed grass silage and cereal-based supplement. The aim of this study was to identify the second-limiting AA and determine whether glucose was limiting responses to His. Abomasal infusion of His (6.5 g/d), glucose (250 g/d), His (6.5 g/d) + glucose (250 g/d), His 6.5 g/d) + Leu (12 g/d) and His (6.5 g/d) + Leu (12 g/d) + glucose (250 g/d) on milk production and utilization of amino acids by mammary gland was in an incomplete 5 x 6 Latin square design with 14-d periods. The diet was based on restrictively fermented grass silage fed ad libitum and 8 kg/d of concentrate comprised of barley, oats, unmolassed sugar beet pulp, urea, and minerals. The infusions did not affect feed intake, diet digestibility, or rumen fermentation pattern. The molar proportion of propionate in rumen VFA was low (15.5%), suggesting that glucose supply from the basal diet could be limiting. Milk and milk protein yields were increased by His infusion. Infusion of His increased plasma His concentration from 19 to 52 microM but decreased extraction efficiency of His. Infusion of glucose increased plasma glucose concentration, milk lactose concentration, and yield and tended to increase milk protein yield. Responses in milk protein yield to combined infusions of His and glucose were additive, suggesting that the utilization of the first-limiting AA His was limited by glucose supply. Infusion of Leu increased plasma Leu concentration but did not produce any further milk protein yield response compared with the infusions without Leu. It was concluded that the efficiency of utilization of the first-limiting AA His could be improved by increasing the supply of glucose, when the basal diet produces a rumen fermentation pattern low in propionate. Leu was not the second-limiting AA in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

  19. Effects of selenium supplementation on glucose homeostasis and free androgen index in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Rashidi, Batool

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a main pathophysiologic feature in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients which is triggered by elevated oxidative stress in these patients. Selenium, an essential micronutrient, is a major constituent of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase. Recently, decreased plasma selenium concentrations were reported in PCOS patients. So, the present study was carried out in order to assess whether selenium consumption can improve the metabolic response to insulin and reduce the insulin resistance in these women. A total of 53 PCOS patients (diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria), 18-42 years old, participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled trial for 12 weeks (selenium, n=26; placebo, n=27). The effects of daily administration of 200 μg selenium or placebo on serum glucose, total testosterone (tT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and free androgen index (FAI) in fasting state were evaluated. At the end of the study, insulin resistance was significantly increased in selenium recipients when compared with the placebo group (2.05 ± 0.39 when compared with 1.81 ± 0.25, p=0.017). Also, selenium supplementation resulted in marginally significant increase (p=0.056) in insulin level when compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant changes in other study endpoints, when comparing the two groups. This study showed that selenium supplementation in PCOS patients may worsen insulin resistance in them. Until the results of larger studies become available, indiscriminate consumption of selenium supplements in PCOS patients will warrant caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Dapagliflozin improves muscle insulin sensitivity but enhances endogenous glucose production.

    PubMed

    Merovci, Aurora; Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Daniele, Giuseppe; Eldor, Roy; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Tripathy, Devjit; Xiong, Juan; Perez, Zandra; Norton, Luke; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin action, resulting in glucotoxicity, which can be ameliorated in animal models by inducing glucosuria with renal glucose transport inhibitors. Here, we examined whether reduction of plasma glucose with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor could improve insulin-mediated tissue glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen diabetic men were randomized to receive either dapagliflozin (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6) for 2 weeks. We measured insulin-mediated whole body glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production (EGP) at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Dapagliflozin treatment induced glucosuria and markedly lowered fasting plasma glucose. Insulin-mediated tissue glucose disposal increased by approximately 18% after 2 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment, while placebo-treated subjects had no change in insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, following dapagliflozin treatment, EGP increased substantially and was accompanied by an increase in fasting plasma glucagon concentration. Together, our data indicate that reduction of plasma glucose with an agent that works specifically on the kidney to induce glucosuria improves muscle insulin sensitivity. However, glucosuria induction following SGLT2 inhibition is associated with a paradoxical increase in EGP. These results provide support for the glucotoxicity hypothesis, which suggests that chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin action in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Effects of intramuscular administration of tiletamine-zolazepam with and without sedative pretreatment on plasma and serum biochemical values and glucose tolerance test results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-08-01

    To establish a safe anesthetic protocol with little effect on blood biochemical values and IV glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). 16 captive female Japanese black bears (5 to 17 years of age). Bears were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (4 bears/group) in which various treatment combinations were administered via blow dart: tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (9 mg/kg) alone (TZ), TZ (6 mg/kg) and acepromazine maleate (0.1 mg/kg), TZ (6 mg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (0.3 mg/kg), or TZ (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine HCl (40 μg/kg). Glucose injection for the IVGTT was started 130 minutes after TZ administration. Blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection for measurement of biochemical variables as well as plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations during the IVGTT. Rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were assessed every 15 minutes during the experiment. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were safely achieved with little adverse effect on cardiopulmonary function when each of the 4 anesthetic regimens was used, although mild hypothermia was induced. No difference was evident between treatment groups in blood biochemical values. Blood glucose and insulin concentration profiles during the IVGTT were similar among the bears given TZ, with or without acepromazine or butorphanol, but hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia developed in bears given TZ with medetomidine. All 4 anesthetic regimens yielded chemical restraint without affecting clinical and biochemical values in bears, but medetomidine appeared to affect IVGTT results. For this reason, medetomidine should not be used when anesthetizing bears for IVGTTs.

  2. Effect of Glycemic Control on Chylomicron Metabolism and Correlation between Postprandial Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Chylomicron in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Basal-bolus Insulin Therapy with or without Vildagliptin

    PubMed Central

    Emoto, Naoya; Kato, Katsuhito; Sugihara, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Glucagon-like peptide-1 can reduce both postprandial plasma glucose (PG) and chylomicron (CM) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, there have been no reports regarding the relationship between the postprandial metabolism of PG and CM. Methods: Patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted for glycemic control were randomized to insulin alone (Ins; n = 16) or insulin plus vildagliptin 100 mg (InsV; n = 16) groups. The insulin dose was adjusted to maintain normal blood glucose levels. The daily profiles of serum TG, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemL-C), and apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) were estimated by frequent blood collection on admission and before discharge, and the daily glucose fluctuation profile was also estimated using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) before discharge. Results: The daily profiles of serum TG and RemL-C indicated a significant decrease before discharge compared with on admission; however, no significant changes in serum ApoB48 levels were observed in either group. At discharge, daily glucose fluctuation profile and the change in the serum ApoB48 level from fasting to the peak of the daily profile was significantly smaller in the InsV group than in the Ins group. The increment of serum ApoB48 level was significantly correlated with the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions calculated using CGM data only in the Ins group (R2 = 0.5242, P <0.001). Conclusions: Short-term glycemic control decreased serum TG and RemL-C levels, but not ApoB48 levels, and the postprandial metabolism of PG and CM might be regulated by the same mechanism except GLP-1 effect. PMID:27397060

  3. Effect of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in adults: a meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Kai; Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide health problem. Whether fruit juice is beneficial in glycemic control is still inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on fruit juice in relationship to glucose control and insulin sensitivity. A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March, 2014) was performed to retrieve the randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) using fixed- or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential heterogeneity. Twelve trials comprising a total of 412 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The numbers of these studies that reported the data on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were 12, 5, 3 and 3, respectively. Fruit juice consumption did not show a significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. The net change was 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI: -1.44, 3.02 mg/dL; P = 0.49) for fasting glucose concentrations and -0.74 µIU/ml (95% CI: -2.62, 1.14 µIU/ml; P = 0.44) for fasting insulin concentrations in the fixed-effects model. Subgroup analyses further suggested that the effect of fruit juice on fasting glucose concentrations was not influenced by population region, baseline glucose concentration, duration, type of fruit juice, glycemic index of fruit juice, fruit juice nutrient constitution, total polyphenols dose and Jadad score. This meta-analysis showed that fruit juice may have no overall effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. More RCTs are warranted to further clarify the association between fruit juice and

  4. Effect of Fruit Juice on Glucose Control and Insulin Sensitivity in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide health problem. Whether fruit juice is beneficial in glycemic control is still inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on fruit juice in relationship to glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Methods A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March, 2014) was performed to retrieve the randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) using fixed- or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential heterogeneity. Results Twelve trials comprising a total of 412 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The numbers of these studies that reported the data on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were 12, 5, 3 and 3, respectively. Fruit juice consumption did not show a significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. The net change was 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI: −1.44, 3.02 mg/dL; P = 0.49) for fasting glucose concentrations and −0.74 µIU/ml (95% CI: −2.62, 1.14 µIU/ml; P = 0.44) for fasting insulin concentrations in the fixed-effects model. Subgroup analyses further suggested that the effect of fruit juice on fasting glucose concentrations was not influenced by population region, baseline glucose concentration, duration, type of fruit juice, glycemic index of fruit juice, fruit juice nutrient constitution, total polyphenols dose and Jadad score. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that fruit juice may have no overall effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. More RCTs are warranted to further

  5. The relationship of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1C levels among nondiabetic trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Tammy R; O'Neill, Patrick J; Kanneganti, Shalini R; Davis, Karole M; Drachman, David A

    2008-01-01

    : Hyperglycemia (blood glucose >/=110 mg/dL) in trauma patients without a known history of diabetes mellitus (DM) is often attributed to the metabolic stress response of injury. We studied whether this hyperglycemia may actually indicate the presence of occult DM (ODM) as demonstrated by elevated glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (gHbA1C). : After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, a prospective, sequential case series study of nondiabetic adult patients presenting to an urban Level I trauma center from September 2006 to February 2007 was performed. In addition to basic demographics, all hyperglycemic patients had a measured gHbA1C. ODM was diagnosed when gHbA1C was >/=6%. : A total of 1,039 trauma patients were screened with 192 (18%) noted to be hyperglycemic. Of these 192 patients, 22% (n = 42) were found to have an elevated gHbA1C. Using logistic regression, being older (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; p < 0.004), having a higher body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.12; p < 0.003), and being Native American (OR = 5.08; p < 0.017) were each identified as significant risk factors for elevated gHbA1C levels and the diagnosis of ODM. In contrast, the magnitude of observed hyperglycemia, gender, or other races were not shown to be significant risk factors for the presence of ODM. : Almost a quarter of nondiabetic trauma patients presenting with hyperglycemia were found to have elevated gHbA1C levels and ODM. Risk factors for ODM included advancing age and body mass index as well as being Native American. The hyperglycemia seen in trauma patients should not solely be attributed to the hormonal and metabolic response to injury; wider ODM screening for both acute management strategies and long-term health benefits is warranted.

  6. Changes in Plasma Levels of N-Arachidonoyl Ethanolamine and N-Palmitoylethanolamine following Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Females with Impaired Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Mallipedhi, Akhila; Prior, Sarah L.; Dunseath, Gareth; Bracken, Richard M.; Barry, Jonathan; Caplin, Scott; Eyre, Nia; Morgan, James; Baxter, John N.; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E.; Sarmad, Sarir; Barrett, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Luzio, Steve D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We examined endocannabinoids (ECs) in relation to bariatric surgery and the association between plasma ECs and markers of insulin resistance. Methods. A study of 20 participants undergoing bariatric surgery. Fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, and C-peptide were recorded preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively with plasma ECs (AEA, 2-AG) and endocannabinoid-related lipids (PEA, OEA). Results. Gender-specific analysis showed differences in AEA, OEA, and PEA preoperatively with reductions in AEA and PEA in females postoperatively. Preoperatively, AEA was correlated with 2-hour glucose (r = 0.55, P = 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), and HOMA %S (r = −0.71, P = 0.002). OEA was correlated with weight (r = 0.49, P = 0.03), waist circumference (r = 0.52, P = 0.02), fasting insulin (r = 0.49, P = 0.04), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.48, P = 0.05). PEA was correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.49, P = 0.04). 2-AG had a negative correlation with fasting glucose (r = −0.59, P = 0.04). Conclusion. Gender differences exist in circulating ECs in obese subjects. Females show changes in AEA and PEA after bariatric surgery. Specific correlations exist between different ECs and markers of obesity and insulin and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25874237

  7. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2-3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  8. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. Methods The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2–3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Results Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Conclusion Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects. PMID:26844086

  9. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c < 6.5% were more likely to be older (64 ± 15 versus 60 ± 15 years old, P = 0.01, mean ± STD), female (53.2% versus 38.2%, P = 0.008), leaner (29.7 ± 6.1 versus 33.0 ± 6.6 kg/m2, P = 0.000005), and less likely to be current smokers (18.1% versus 29.1%, P = 0.02) as compared to those with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained. PMID:27597979

  10. Modification of sodium, glucose, potassium, and osmolarity in packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma using a desktop hemoconcentrator setup.

    PubMed

    Striker, Carrie Whittaker; Woldorf, Stacia; Holt, David

    2012-06-01

    Massive transfusion with packed blood cells (PRBCs) or fresh frozen plasma (FFP) can result in dangerous complications including stroke, kidney failure, and cardiac arrest. A simple, bench top technique using a hemoconcentrator and dialysate solution is described to correct critical values of sodium, glucose, potassium, and osmolarity in PRBCs and FFP. Sodium, glucose, and osmolarity were corrected to normal or near normal values. Elevated potassium was reduced by 65%, but not completely normalized. A simple, bench top method for correcting dangerous abnormalities with PRBCs and FFP can be used to improve the safety of massive blood transfusion.

  11. Stable Isotope Models of Sugar Intake Using Hair, Red Blood Cells, and Plasma, but Not Fasting Plasma Glucose, Predict Sugar Intake in a Yup’ik Study Population12

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Boyer, Bert B.; O’Brien, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measured biomarkers will help to resolve the controversial role of sugar intake in the etiology of obesity and related chronic diseases. We recently validated a dual-isotope model based on RBC carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios that explained a large percentage of the variation in self-reported sugar intake in a Yup’ik study population. Stable isotope ratios can easily be measured from many tissues, including RBCs, plasma, and hair; however, it is not known how isotopic models of sugar intake compare among these tissues. Here, we compared self-reported sugar intake with models based on RBCs, plasma, and hair δ13C and δ15N in Yup’ik people. We also evaluated associations of sugar intake with fasting plasma glucose δ13C. Finally, we evaluated relations between δ13C and δ15N values in hair, plasma, RBCs, and fasting plasma glucose to allow comparison of isotope ratios across tissue types. Models using RBCs, plasma, or hair isotope ratios explained similar amounts of variance in total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (∼53%, 48%, and 34%, respectively); however, the association with δ13C was strongest for models based on RBCs and hair. There were no associations with fasting plasma glucose δ13C (R2 = 0.03). The δ13C and δ15N values of RBCs, plasma, and hair showed strong, positive correlations; the slopes of these relations did not differ from 1. This study demonstrates that RBC, plasma, and hair isotope ratios predict sugar intake and provides data that will allow comparison of studies using different sample types. PMID:24198311

  12. Impact of diabetes duration on achieved reductions in glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and body weight with liraglutide treatment for up to 28 weeks: a meta‐analysis of seven phase III trials

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T.; Barkholt Christensen, S.; Nauck, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This meta‐analysis of seven randomized, placebo‐controlled studies (total 3222 patients) evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) duration affects the changes in blood glucose control and body weight that can be achieved with liraglutide and placebo. With liraglutide 1.2 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a significantly greater, but clinically non‐relevant, difference in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.18% (1.96 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. With liraglutide 1.8 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a small but statistically significant trend for greater fasting plasma glucose (FPG) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.38 mmol/l reduction in FPG per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. Neither the liraglutide 1.8 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between HbA1c and diabetes duration and neither the liraglutide 1.2 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between FPG and diabetes duration. Likewise, neither liraglutide nor placebo showed a significant association between change in weight and diabetes duration. These results suggest diabetes duration has a clinically negligible effect on achievable blood glucose control and weight outcomes with liraglutide and placebo in patients with T2D. PMID:26679282

  13. Development of glucose biosensors based on plasma polymerization-assisted nanocomposites of polyaniline, tin oxide, and three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shide; Su, Fangfang; Dong, Xiaodong; Ma, Chuang; Pang, Long; Peng, Donglai; Wang, Minghua; He, Linghao; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-04-01

    A biosensor based on the plasma polyaniline (pPANI)-modified tin oxide and 3D reduced graphene oxide (SnO2@3D-rGO) nanocomposite was fabricated to detect glucose. The SnO2@3D-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by simultaneously reducing 3D graphene oxide (3D-GO) and translating SnCl4 into SnO2, followed by pPANI modification. The content of amino groups in the SnO2@3D-rGO@pPANI nanocomposites depended on the plasma input powers used in plasma deposition. The SnO2@3D-rGO nanocomposite was important in the electrochemical biosensor to detect glucose. The fabricated biosensor exhibited a much higher sensitivity than that formed from individual components, namely, SnO2@3D-rGO and pPANI. This biosensor demonstrated a low detection limit of 0.047 ng mL-1 (0.26 nM) (S/N = 3) within the concentration range of 0.1 ng mL-1 to 5 μg mL-1. The selectivity, stability, and practicality of the SnO2@3D-rGO@pPANI-based biosensor were observed. In conclusion, the plasma surface-modified nanocomposite is a promising candidate as biosensor for glucose detection and biological diagnosis.

  14. Cassie state robustness of plasma generated randomly nano-rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Bottiglione, Francesco; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are effective in practical applications provided they are “robust superhydrophobic”, i.e. able to retain the Cassie state, i.e. with water suspended onto the surface protrusions, even under severe conditions (high pressure, vibrations, high speed impact, etc.). We show that for randomly rough surfaces, given the Young angle, Cassie states are robust when a threshold value of the Wenzel roughness factor, rW, is exceeded. In particular, superhydrophobic nano-textured surfaces have been generated by self-masked plasma etching. In view of their random roughness, topography features, acquired by Atomic Force Microscopy, have been statistically analyzed in order to gain information on statistical parameters such as power spectral density, fractal dimension and Wenzel roughness factor (rW), which has been used to assess Cassie state robustness. Results indicate that randomly rough surfaces produced by plasma at high power or long treatment duration, which are also fractal self-affine, have a rW higher than the theoretical threshold, thus for them a robust superhydrophobicity is predicted. In agreement with this, under dynamic wetting conditionson these surfaces the most pronounced superhydrophobic character has been appreciated: they show the lowest contact angle hysteresis and result in the sharpest bouncing when hit by drops at high impact velocity.

  15. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with weight (r

  16. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    SciTech Connect

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  17. Phase fluctuations of radio waves experiencing total reflection from a randomly inhomogeneous plasma layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, N. T.; Afanasiev, A. N.; Larunin, O. A.; Markov, V. P.

    2010-05-01

    We examine the problem of small-angle scattering of radio waves experiencing total reflection from a randomly inhomogeneous layer of plasma. We consider the waves to be normally incident on the layer. To take into account the scattering peculiarities in the neighborhood of the reflection point, we introduce an analytical transformation for the eikonal equation solution derived by the perturbation method. This transformation permits calculations of radio-wave phase fluctuations for any monotonous profile of the regular dielectric permittivity of the plasma in the layer. Using this approach, we have derived analytical formulas for the variance and two-dimensional spatial spectrum of phase fluctuations, depending on the three-dimensional power spectrum of plasma fluctuations. We have also estimated a contribution of reflection point fluctuations to the phase fluctuations and determined the limits of applicability of the derived formulas. The presented analytical transformation of the eikonal equation solution can be used to calculate other statistical moments of the radio wave phase in many problems of solar-terrestrial physics where scattering and reflection of radio waves by plasma formations are important.

  18. Activation of the gut calcium-sensing receptor by peptide agonists reduces rapid elevation of plasma glucose in response to oral glucose load in rats.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Maya; Hira, Tohru; Mitsunaga, Arimi; Sato, Eri; Nakajima, Shingo; Kitahara, Yoshiro; Eto, Yuzuru; Hara, Hiroshi

    2014-06-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the role of gut CaSR on glycemic control, we examined whether single oral administration of CaSR agonist peptides affected the glycemic response in rats. Glucose tolerance tests were performed under oral or duodenal administration of various CaSR agonist peptides (γGlu-Cys, protamine, and poly-d-lysine hydrobromide) in conscious rats. Involvement of CaSR was determined by using a CaSR antagonist. Signaling pathways underlying CaSR agonist-modified glycemia were investigated using gut hormone receptor antagonists. The gastric emptying rate after the administration of CaSR agonist peptides was measured by the phenol red recovery method. Oral and duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides attenuated glycemic responses under the oral glucose tolerance test, but the administration of casein did not. The promotive effect on glucose tolerance was weakened by luminal pretreatment with a CaSR antagonist. Treatment with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist partially diminished the glucose-lowering effect of peptides. Furthermore, the gastric emptying rate was decreased by duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides. These results demonstrate that activation of the gut CaSR by peptide agonists promotes glucose tolerance in conscious rats. 5-HT3 receptor and the delayed gastric emptying rate appear to be involved in the glucose-lowering effect of CaSR agonist peptides. Thus, activation of gut CaSR by dietary peptides reduces glycemic responses so that gut CaSR may be a potential target for the improvement of postprandial glycemia.

  19. Evaluating the transferability of 15 European-derived fasting plasma glucose SNPs in Mexican children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Christine; Abadi, Arkan; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Alyass, Akram; Suarez, Fernando; Gomez-Zamudio, Jaime; Burguete-Garcia, Ana I.; Yazdi, Fereshteh T.; Cruz, Miguel; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in adult European populations. The contribution of these SNPs to FPG in non-Europeans and children is unclear. We studied the association of 15 GWAS SNPs and a genotype score (GS) with FPG and 7 metabolic traits in 1,421 Mexican children and adolescents from Mexico City. Genotyping of the 15 SNPs was performed using TaqMan Open Array. We used multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index standard deviation score, and recruitment center. We identified significant associations between 3 SNPs (G6PC2 (rs560887), GCKR (rs1260326), MTNR1B (rs10830963)), the GS and FPG level. The FPG risk alleles of 11 out of the 15 SNPs (73.3%) displayed significant or non-significant beta values for FPG directionally consistent with those reported in adult European GWAS. The risk allele frequencies for 11 of 15 (73.3%) SNPs differed significantly in Mexican children and adolescents compared to European adults from the 1000G Project, but no significant enrichment in FPG risk alleles was observed in the Mexican population. Our data support a partial transferability of European GWAS FPG association signals in children and adolescents from the admixed Mexican population. PMID:27782183

  20. Changes in plasma lipid and glucose levels during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chics.

    PubMed

    Evans, A J; Bannister, D W; Whitehead, C C; Siller, W G; Wight, P A

    1977-11-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were measured during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks. Intial studies indicated that behavioural and clinical changes characteristically associated with the syndrome were observed only during the 24 h preceding death. A more detailed examination of the blood changes was made on fasted birds. Typically, affected birds could be distinguished from healthy fasted birds by a hypoglycaemia which developed within 2.5 h of the removal of food, and a slightly higher and more sustained elevation of free fatty acid levels. Triglyceride values were not generally different from those found in normal birds. Although moderate to large amounts of lipid were occasionally observed in the kidneys of healthy fasted birds, only in affected birds was significant lipid infiltration of the kidneys associated with a similar level of lipid infiltration of the liver. In extreme cases death from fatty liver and kidney syndrome could occur within 4 h of the removal of food.

  1. Physical activity and change in fasting glucose and HbA1c: a quantitative meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Boniol, Mathieu; Dragomir, Miruna; Autier, Philippe; Boyle, Peter

    2017-08-24

    A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials which evaluated the impact of physical activity on the change in fasting glucose and HbA1c. A literature search was conducted in PubMed until December 2015. Studies reporting glucose or HbA1c at baseline and at the end of study were included, and the change and its variance were estimated from studies with complete data. Mixed-effect random models were used to estimate the change of fasting glucose (mg/dl) and HbA1c (%) per additional minutes of physical activity per week. A total of 125 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Based on 105 studies, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -2.75 mg/dl of fasting glucose (95% CI -3.96; -1.55), although there was a high degree of heterogeneity (83.5%). When restricting the analysis on type 2 diabetes and prediabetes subjects (56 studies), the average change in fasting glucose was -4.71 mg/dl (95% CI -7.42; -2.01). For HbA1c, among 76 studies included, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -0.14% of HbA1c (95% CI -0.18; -0.09) with heterogeneity (73%). A large degree of publication bias was identified (Egger test p < 0.001). When restricting the analysis on type 2 diabetes and prediabetes subjects (60 studies), the average change in HbA1c was -0.16% (95% CI -0.21; -0.11). This analysis demonstrates that moderate increases in physical activity are associated with significant reductions in both fasting glucose and HbA1c.

  2. Use of icodextrin during nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis allows sustained ultrafiltration while reducing the peritoneal glucose load: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Pérez Fontán, Miguel; García López, Elvia; García Falcón, Teresa; Díaz Cambre, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of ultrafiltration and preservation of the peritoneal membrane are desirable objectives in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Mixtures of glucose- and non-glucose-based solutions may help to meet both targets simultaneously. To analyze the effects, in terms of ultrafiltration and peritoneal glucose load, of including icodextrin-based dialysate in the nocturnal schedule of patients undergoing automated PD (APD). Following a randomized crossover design, 17 APD patients underwent two 10-day study periods under identical prescription (including amino acid-based solution for the night schedule), except for the substitution of 2 L glucose-based dialysate in the nocturnal mixture (control) by a similar amount of icodextrin-based dialysate (icodextrin phase) in one period. Dependent variables included ultrafiltration, sodium removal, peritoneal glucose load, and residual renal function. We measured serum and urine levels of icodextrin metabolites at the end of each phase. Ultrafiltration was marginally higher during the icodextrin phase (median 815 vs 763 mL/day, p = 0.07), while peritoneal sodium removal was similar in both phases (74 vs 71 mmol/L/day). Peritoneal glucose load (median 67.5 vs 104.0 g/day, p < 0.005) and absorption (14.0 vs 35.6 g/day, p < 0.005) were lower during the icodextrin phase. Diuresis was also modestly lower during the icodextrin phase (500 vs 600 mL/day, p < 0.05). Serum levels of icodextrin metabolites were moderately higher in the icodextrin phase (p < 0.005) in patients both on and off diurnal icodextrin. Inclusion of amino acid- and icodextrin-based solutions in the nocturnal schedule of APD patients may allow sustained ultrafiltration and sodium removal while significantly reducing the peritoneal glucose load in these patients.

  3. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on mindful eating, sweets consumption, and fasting glucose levels in obese adults: data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Kristeller, Jean; Moran, Patricia J.; Dallman, Mary; Lustig, Robert H.; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara A.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated changes in mindful eating as a potential mechanism underlying the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention for weight loss on eating of sweet foods and fasting glucose levels. We randomized 194 obese individuals (M age = 47.0 ± 12.7 years; BMI = 35.5 ± 3.6; 78 % women) to a 5.5-month diet-exercise program with or without mindfulness training. The mindfulness group, relative to the active control group, evidenced increases in mindful eating and maintenance of fasting glucose from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating were associated with decreased eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels among mindfulness group participants, but this association was not statistically significant among active control group participants. Twelve-month increases in mindful eating partially mediated the effect of intervention arm on changes in fasting glucose levels from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating may contribute to the effects of mindfulness-based weight loss interventions on eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels. PMID:26563148

  4. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on mindful eating, sweets consumption, and fasting glucose levels in obese adults: data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Kristeller, Jean; Moran, Patricia J; Dallman, Mary; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara A; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated changes in mindful eating as a potential mechanism underlying the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention for weight loss on eating of sweet foods and fasting glucose levels. We randomized 194 obese individuals (M age = 47.0 ± 12.7 years; BMI = 35.5 ± 3.6; 78% women) to a 5.5-month diet-exercise program with or without mindfulness training. The mindfulness group, relative to the active control group, evidenced increases in mindful eating and maintenance of fasting glucose from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating were associated with decreased eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels among mindfulness group participants, but this association was not statistically significant among active control group participants. Twelve-month increases in mindful eating partially mediated the effect of intervention arm on changes in fasting glucose levels from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating may contribute to the effects of mindfulness-based weight loss interventions on eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels.

  5. Comparison of icodextrin and glucose solutions for long dwell exchange in peritoneal dialysis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hualin; Xu, Chen; Yan, Haidong; Ma, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Icodextrin is widely used in peritoneal dialysis (PD); however, the safety and efficacy of icodextrin are unclear. In the present study, we performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared icodextrin and glucose for the once-daily long dwell in PD. Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to select all eligible studies. Eligible studies, as determined by consensus using predefined criteria, were reviewed, and data were extracted onto a standard form. In the 9 RCTs that were identified, patients using icodextrin were found to have much greater net ultrafiltration (UF) and a lower incidence of negative net UF compared to patients using 1.5%, 2.5%, and 4.25% glucose solutions. Additionally, icodextrin has a markedly increased UF efficiency ratio and peritoneal clearance of creatinine and urea nitrogen, but residual renal function was not different from patients using glucose solutions for PD. No significant differences were observed between icodextrin and glucose groups with respect to risk of mortality, peritonitis, and total adverse events. Although rashes occurred significantly more often in icodextrin groups, few differences were noted between icodextrin and glucose groups when withdrawal rates secondary to adverse events were compared. This meta-analysis suggests that icodextrin provides patients with greater fluid removal and small solute clearance and does not cause any damage to residual renal function. Icodextrin is particularly appropriate for use in patients with high peritoneal transport status.

  6. Higher normal range of fasting plasma glucose still has a higher risk for metabolic syndrome: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study in elderly.

    PubMed

    Wei, S-H; Lin, J-D; Hsu, C-H; Wu, C-Z; Hsieh, C-H; Pei, D; Chang, J-B; Liang, Y-J; Hsia, T-L; Chen, Y-L

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This relationship still exists even the FPG is within the normal range. However, most of these studies did not exclude subjects who were on medications which would affect the results of the studies. At the same time, there is no longitudinal study done to validate this correlation, especially in elderly. In this study, the relationships between normal FPG and MetS were evaluated. We randomly selected 57,517 subjects who were ≥ 60-years old from health screening centre. In the first part of study, subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study to find out the optimal cut-off value of FPG with higher chances to have MetS. In the second part of current study, subjects with MetS at baseline were excluded from the same study group, and performed a median 5.3-year longitudinal study. There were 18,287 subjects enrolled in this study. In the first part of study, the cross-sectional study, optimal cut-off values of FPG were determined by the ROC curve and the sensitivity for these cut-off values were 56.6% in men and 60.9% in women, respectively. The result showed that lower FPG is healthier than the higher (log-rank test, p < 0.001). During the follow-up period, 5039 subjects showed hazard ratios of 2.09 for men and 1.884 for women developing future MetS. Our study is the first longitudinal design in elderly and showed that older subjects with higher FPG proved to have higher risk of Mets even the FPG is still within its normal range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of Type 2 diabetes-evaluation of the effect of evidence-based patient information: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Genz, J; Haastert, B; Müller, H; Verheyen, F; Cole, D; Rathmann, W; Nowotny, B; Roden, M; Giani, G; Mielck, A; Ohmann, C; Icks, A

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effect of our newly developed online evidence-based patient information vs. standard patient information about sub-threshold elevated blood glucose levels and primary prevention of diabetes on informed patient decision making. We invited visitors to the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse, and the German Diabetes Center websites to take part in a web-based randomized controlled trial. The population after randomization comprised 1120 individuals aged between 40 and 70 years without known diabetes, of whom 558 individuals were randomly assigned to the intervention group receiving evidence-based patient information, and 562 individuals were randomly assigned to the control group receiving standard information from the Internet. The primary endpoint was acquired knowledge of elevated blood glucose level issues and the secondary outcomes were attitude to metabolic testing, intention to undergo metabolic testing, decisional conflict and satisfaction with the information. Overall, knowledge of elevated glucose level issues and the intention to undergo metabolic testing were high in both groups. Participants who had received evidence-based patient information, however, had significantly higher knowledge scores. The secondary outcomes in the evidence-based patient information subgroup that completed the 2-week follow-up period yielded significantly lower intention to undergo metabolic testing, significantly more critical attitude towards metabolic testing and significantly higher decisional conflict than the control subgroup (n=466). Satisfaction with the information was not significantly different between both groups. Evidence-based patient information significantly increased knowledge about elevated glucose levels, but also increased decisional conflict and critical attitude to screening and treatment options. The intention to undergo metabolic screening decreased. Future studies are warranted to assess uptake of metabolic testing

  8. Quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal, glyoxal and free advanced glycation end-products in the plasma of Wistar rats during the oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Jing; Aikawa, Chiwa; Matsui, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the production behavior of free adducts of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in Wistar rats under acute hyperglycemic conditions. Five AGE-free adducts as well as their precursors (i.e., highly reactive carbonyl intermediates of methylglyoxal and glyoxal) in rat plasma were quantitatively determined at greater than nanomolar levels using the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method coupled with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate and 2,3-diaminonaphthalene derivatization techniques. An oral glucose (2 g/kg dose) tolerance test to 10-week-old Wistar rats provided evidence that the plasma levels of diabetes-related metabolites did not change acutely within 120 min, irrespective of increasing blood glucose levels.

  9. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Eggels, Leslie; Rijnsburger, Merel; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Kalsbeek, Andries; Denys, Damiaan; Fliers, Eric; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc) influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of 1 h. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity- dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.

  10. Glucose-β-CD interaction assisted ACN field-amplified sample stacking in CZE for determination of trace amlodipine in beagle dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Li, You; Zhang, Wenting; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Guorong

    2013-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and low-cost method using CE coupled with glucose-β-CD interaction assisted ACN stacking technique has been developed for quantification of trace amlodipine in dog plasma. The plasma samples were extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether. The separation was performed at 25°C in a 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 15 kV. The BGE was composed of 6.25 mM borate/25 mM phosphate (pH 2.5) and 5 mg/mL glucose-β-CD. The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Because CD could diminish the interaction between drugs and matrix, and derivation groups of CD play an important role in separation performance, the effects of β-CD, and its derivatives on the separation were studied at several concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 mg/mL). In this study, organic solvent field-amplified sample stacking technique in combination with glucose-β-CD enhanced the sensitivity about 60-70 folds and glucose-β-CD could effectively improve the peak shape. All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision extraction recovery, and stability, were within the required limits. The calibration curve was linear for amlodipine from 1 to 200 ng/mL. The method developed was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of amlodipine besylate in beagle dogs.

  11. Early prediction of new-onset diabetes mellitus by fifth-day fasting plasma glucose, pulse pressure, and proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, E; Santos, L; Piñera, C; Quintanar, J A; Ruiz, J C; Fernández-Fresnedo, G; Palomar, R; Gómez-Alamillo, C; Arias, M

    2011-01-01

    Renal transplant recipients are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) contributes to the risk of CVD, reducing graft and patient survival. To improve outcome of kidney transplant recipients, it is of great interest to identify those patients who will develop NODAT. The aim of our study was to explore the predictive value of fifth-day fasting plasma glucose (FPG), third-month proteinuria, and pulse pressure (PP) for NODAT development. We analyzed 282 non-previously-diabetic kidney transplants in our center. Fifth-day FPG, PP, and third-month 24-hour proteinuria were collected. NODAT was defined at month 12 according to the "consensus guidelines": symptoms of diabetes plus casual glucose concentrations ≥ 200 mg/dL or FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL. Some 46 patients (16.3%) developed NODAT at month 12. Fifth-day FPG (133 ± 35 vs 108 ± 16 mg/dL, P < .001) and PP (57 ± 17 vs 49 ± 15 mm Hg, P = .007) were significantly higher in patients at risk for NODAT, but there was no difference in third-month proteinuria (652 ± 959 vs 472 ± 1336 mg, P = .390). A multivariate regression model showed an increased risk for NODAT associated with recipient age, body mass index, smoking habit, and a fifth-day FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL (relative risk 4.784, 95% confidence interval 2.121-10.788, P = .0002). The negative predictive value of a fifth-day FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL for predicting 1-year NODAT was 89.4%. Fifth-day FPG was independently related to NODAT development. The detection of a fifth-day FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL increases the risk of suffering NODAT more than 4 times. Fifth-day FPG < 126 mg/dL allows us to identify a transplant population with a low risk (near 10%) for NODAT.

  12. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance: a randomized, controlled crossover trial in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were analyzed. The CGA and caffeine contents in the coffees were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. No differences in glucose area under the curve (AUC) were found between treatments. Glucose concentrations were higher at 60 min after ingestion of DAR compared with water, while ingestion of LIR showed similar glucose concentrations as ingestion of water. Insulin AUC was higher after ingestion of DAR compared with water, and both coffees raised insulin concentrations and reduced ISI compared with water, with no difference between the two coffees. Two coffees with different CGA contents did not differentially affect glucose or insulin responses during an OGTT, but both increased the insulin response compared with water.

  13. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  14. Fasting or two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels in early months of pregnancy as screening tools for gestational diabetes mellitus developing in later months of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sudhindra Mohan

    2004-08-01

    The present study was done to find out whether the fasting or 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) levels in early months of pregnancy can be used as screening tools for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) developing in later months of pregnancy. Fasting and 2-hour PPPG levels were measured in the early months of pregnancy in 246 women attending the antenatal clinic of the author. All of the women underwent glucose challenge tests with 50 grams of glucose at 24-28 weeks and if the value exceeded 140 mg%, a three-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 100 grams of glucose was performed to diagnose GDM. The present study found that the incidence of GDM was 10.5% in the third trimester. Statistical analysis did not show any correlation between fasting and the PPPG values in the early months and GDM in later months of pregnancy. Fasting or PPPG values cannot be used as efficient screening tools for GDM developing in the later months of pregnancy.

  15. Correlates of plasma fibrinogen (FG) levels in a random sample of community-dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Tomasz; Para, Jadwiga; Kostka, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between plasma FG levels and coexisting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors, comorbidities, functional status and cognitive function in a random sample of 270 (163 women and 107 men) community-dwelling elderly aged 65-79 years. The assessment included demographic and social variables, health status, nutritional state, physical and cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed by the Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire. The average plasma FG level was lower in men 3.1+/-0.9 g/l (+/-SD) than in women 3.6+/-1.1g/l. In the whole group of elderly people, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, calf circumference as well as total and low density cholesterol were positively correlated with FG levels, whereas the Stanford Moderate Index-negatively. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that female gender, calf circumference and the Stanford Moderate Index are the factors that independently predict FG levels. In conclusion, FG seems not to be related to functional status or cognitive function of older individuals. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that female gender, excess body fatness and low physical activity have an independent contribution to higher plasma FG levels in community-dwelling older subjects.

  16. Overcoming Clinical Inertia: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Telehealth Remote Monitoring Intervention Using Paired Glucose Testing in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Blozis, Shelley A; Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Quinn, Charlene C

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide challenge. Practice guidelines promote structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) for informing health care providers about glycemi