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Sample records for random telegraph signal

  1. Random telegraph signals in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Jan; González, Maria Teresa; Schönenberger, Christian; Calame, Michel

    2014-11-26

    We investigate conductance fluctuations in molecular junctions using a mechanically controllable break junction setup in a liquid environment. In contrast to conventional break junction measurements, time-dependent conductance signals were recorded while reducing the gap size between the two contact electrodes. Only small amplitude fluctuations of the conductance are observed when measuring in pure solvent. Conductance traces recorded in solutions containing alkanedithiols show significantly larger fluctuations which can take the form of random telegraph signals. Such signals emerge in a limited conductance range, which corresponds well to the known molecular conductance of the compounds investigated. These large-amplitude fluctuations are attributed to the formation and thermally driven breaking of bonds between a molecule and a metal electrode and provide a still poorly explored source of information on the dynamics of molecular junctions formation. The lifetimes of the high and low conductance states are found to vary between 0.1 ms and 0.1 s. PMID:25352489

  2. Random telegraph signals from proton-irradiated CCDS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, I.H. ); Hopkinson, G.R. )

    1993-12-01

    Temporal fluctuations have recently been discovered in the dark current of proton-displacement-damaged CCDs. These fluctuations take the form of random telegraph signals with well defined amplitudes and time constants (for tile high and low dark current states). Temperature and annealing behavior have been studied, as has the dependence on proton fluence. A bistable defect mechanism is proposed.

  3. Random telegraph signal in a metallic double-dot system.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Yuval; Guttman, Avraham; Bar-Joseph, Israel

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of a single electron surface trap, embedded in a self-assembly metallic double-dot system. The charging and discharging of the trap by a single electron is manifested as a random telegraph signal of the current through the double-dot device. We find that we can control the duration time that an electron resides in the trap through the current that flows in the device, between fractions of a second to more than an hour. We suggest that the observed switching is the electrical manifestation of the optical blinking phenomenon, commonly observed in semiconductor quantum dots.

  4. Random telegraph signal in a metallic double-dot system.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Yuval; Guttman, Avraham; Bar-Joseph, Israel

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of a single electron surface trap, embedded in a self-assembly metallic double-dot system. The charging and discharging of the trap by a single electron is manifested as a random telegraph signal of the current through the double-dot device. We find that we can control the duration time that an electron resides in the trap through the current that flows in the device, between fractions of a second to more than an hour. We suggest that the observed switching is the electrical manifestation of the optical blinking phenomenon, commonly observed in semiconductor quantum dots. PMID:24724840

  5. Further measurements of random telegraph signals in proton irradiated CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, I.H.

    1995-12-01

    The probability/incident proton for creation of a defect in a charge-coupled device (CCD) which shows dark current random telegraph signal (RTS) behavior has been measured for energies of 1.5, 10 and 46 MeV. The probability was found to be proportional to the non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) for elastic collisions. Plots of RTS probability versus mean dark current indicate a correlation with the amount of field enhanced emission. If a pixel already has a defect showing field enhanced emission, it is more likely to show RTS effects. The amplitudes themselves are not correlated with the degree of field enhanced emission. An alternative to the bulk metastable defect model is proposed, based on the reorientation of the phosphorus-vacancy center in a high electric field.

  6. Random telegraph signals in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Ferrari, M.J.; Wellstood, F.C.; Clarke, J. Center for Advanced Materials, Materials and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA ); Beasley, M.R. ); Inam, A.; Wu, X.D. ); Nazar, L.; Venkatesan, T. , Red Bank, NJ )

    1990-12-01

    The local magnetization of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{ital x}} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{ital y}} measured with a superconducting quantum-interference device is shown to exhibit random telegraph signals (RTS's) over narrow ranges of temperature. We believe these signals arise from the thermally activated hopping of single magnetic vortices between two pinning sites. The spectral density of the RTS is Lorentzian; from the temperature dependence of the characteristic time, we deduce pinning energies of 0.17 and 0.20 eV for samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{ital x}} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{ital y}}, respectively, at reduced temperatures of 0.99 and 0.87. The amplitudes of various RTS's imply flux hopping distances varying from 0.2 to 30 {mu}m. Multiple metastable states and transitions between noisy'' and quiet'' states are also observed.

  7. Random Telegraph Signal in a Metallic Double-Dot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardi, Yuval; Guttman, Avraham; Bar-Joseph, Israel

    2015-03-01

    Double quantum dot systems offer a unique opportunity for studying the world of quantum transport. This stems from the ability to localize an electron in a limited region in space on the dot, and monitor its presence and properties. Another system, in which electrons can be stored and measured, is an electronic trap in solid. The electrons in such a trap are better isolated from the environment. However, their measurement and control are more difficult. Here we demonstrate how these two systems, metallic double-dots and electronic traps, are combined to yield a hybrid structure in which an electron can be stored for long durations and can be easily detected and measured. We investigate the dynamics of a single electron surface trap, embedded in a self-assembly metallic double-dot system. The charging and discharging of the trap by a single electron is manifested as a random telegraph signal of the current through the double-dot device. We find that we can control the duration that an electron resides in the trap through the current, varying it between fractions of a second to more than an hour, at the Coulomb blockade region. We suggest that the observed switching is the electrical manifestation of the optical blinking phenomenon, commonly observed in semiconductor quantum dots. Y. Vardi, A. Guttman, and I. Bar-Joseph, Nano Lett. 14, 2794 (2014). [DOI: 10.1021/nl500803p

  8. A random telegraph signal in tunneling silicon p- n junctions with GeSi nanoislands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, D. O.; Kazantseva, I. A.; Shengurov, V. G.; Chalkov, V. Yu.; Denisov, S. A.; Alyabina, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    We have experimentally discovered random telegraph signal generation in tunneling silicon p +- n + junctions with embedded self-assembled GeSi nanoislands. The observed phenomenon is related to blocking of the electron tunneling via individual GeSi nanoislands due to the generation of holes in, and their thermal emission from, the nanoislands.

  9. Random Telegraph Signal Amplitudes in Sub 100 nm (Decanano) MOSFETs: A 3D 'Atomistic' Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, Subhash

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we use 3D simulations to study the amplitudes of random telegraph signals (RTS) associated with the trapping of a single carrier in interface states in the channel of sub 100 nm (decanano) MOSFETs. Both simulations using continuous doping charge and random discrete dopants in the active region of the MOSFETs are presented. We have studied the dependence of the RTS amplitudes on the position of the trapped charge in the channel and on the device design parameters. We have observed a significant increase in the maximum RTS amplitude when discrete random dopants are employed in the simulations.

  10. Dopant-induced random telegraph signal in nanoscale lateral silicon pn diodes at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Purwiyanti, Sri; Nowak, Roland; Moraru, Daniel; Mizuno, Takeshi; Tabe, Michiharu; Hartanto, Djoko; Jablonski, Ryszard

    2013-12-09

    We studied current-voltage characteristics of nanoscale pn diodes having the junction formed in a laterally patterned ultrathin silicon-on-insulator layer. At temperatures below 30 K, we observed random telegraph signal (RTS) in a range of forward bias. Since RTS is observed only for pn diodes, but not for pin diodes, one dopant among phosphorus donors or boron acceptors facing across the junction is likely responsible for potential changes affecting the current. Based also on potential measurements by low-temperature Kelvin probe force microscope, RTS is ascribed to trapping/detrapping of carriers by/from a single dopant near the farther edge of the depletion region.

  11. Probing the spin state of a single electron trap by random telegraph signal.

    PubMed

    Xiao, M; Martin, I; Jiang, H W

    2003-08-15

    We have studied the random telegraph signal (RTS) generated by a single paramagnetic spin center adjacent to a submicrometer silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. An in-plane magnetic field induces a substantial change in the statistics of the RTS. We show that a model using the grand partition theorem can qualitatively explain the change in statistics of the RTS as a function of the applied magnetic field. While the data at high temperatures can be well described by this simple model, quantitative discrepancy increases as the temperature is lowered. PMID:12935055

  12. Modeling random telegraph signal noise in CMOS image sensor under low light based on binomial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhang; Xinmiao, Lu; Guangyi, Wang; Yongcai, Hu; Jiangtao, Xu

    2016-07-01

    The random telegraph signal noise in the pixel source follower MOSFET is the principle component of the noise in the CMOS image sensor under low light. In this paper, the physical and statistical model of the random telegraph signal noise in the pixel source follower based on the binomial distribution is set up. The number of electrons captured or released by the oxide traps in the unit time is described as the random variables which obey the binomial distribution. As a result, the output states and the corresponding probabilities of the first and the second samples of the correlated double sampling circuit are acquired. The standard deviation of the output states after the correlated double sampling circuit can be obtained accordingly. In the simulation section, one hundred thousand samples of the source follower MOSFET have been simulated, and the simulation results show that the proposed model has the similar statistical characteristics with the existing models under the effect of the channel length and the density of the oxide trap. Moreover, the noise histogram of the proposed model has been evaluated at different environmental temperatures. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372156 and 61405053) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province of China (Grant No. LZ13F04001).

  13. Random telegraph signal and spin characteristics of the gate-all-around poly-silicon nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tsung-Han; Li, Yan-Ting; Hu, Shu-Fen E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com

    2014-11-07

    An arsenic (As)-doped poly-silicon nanowire gate-all-around transistor fabricated using standard semiconductor methods was used to measure the Coulomb blockade effect by applying a tunable gate voltage. Two-level trapping states due to the random telegraph signal of fluctuating drain current were observed in the silicon transport channel. Under high magnetic fields, the superposition points of differential conductance revealed weak 2-electron singlet-triplet splitting states of the arsenic magnetic impurity. The weak spin-orbital coupling suggests that the electron-spin-polarization in the As-doped silicon nanowire and the two-level trapping state coexisted in the Coulomb blockade oscillations. These characteristics indicate that a few arsenic donors strongly affect the quantum behavior of the poly-silicon material.

  14. Random telegraph signals by alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles in chemically assembled single-electron transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Shinya; Azuma, Yasuo; Tanaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Smith, Luke W.; Smith, Charles G.; Majima, Yutaka

    2013-12-14

    We have studied random telegraph signals (RTSs) in a chemically assembled single-electron transistor (SET) at temperatures as low as 300 mK. The RTSs in the chemically assembled SET were investigated by measuring the source–drain current, using a histogram of the RTS dwell time, and calculating the power spectrum density of the drain current–time characteristics. It was found that the dwell time of the RTS was dependent on the drain voltage of the SET, but was independent of the gate voltage. Considering the spatial structure of the chemically assembled SET, the origin of the RTS is attributed to the trapped charges on an alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticle positioned near the SET. These results are important as they will help to realize stable chemically assembled SETs in practical applications.

  15. Random telegraph signals in small gate-area p-MOS transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, J.H.; Borland, N. ); Fleetwood, D.M. )

    1993-08-10

    We report the observation of random telegraph signals (RTS) in the channel resistances of nominally 1.25 [mu]m[times]1.25 [mu]m, enhancement-mode pMOS transistors fabricated using the AT T 1-[mu]m radiation hardened technology. Devices were operated in strong inversion in the linear regime. Measurements, performed for temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K and various gate voltages, show that capture and emission times are both thermally activated and that the capture time depends strongly on the gate voltage. Results suggest that the unfilled trap is charged and that, after capturing a hole, the trap relaxes to a lower energy. Basic features of a model are discussed.

  16. Random telegraph signals and low-frequency voltage noise in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Vitale, S.; Konopka, J. ); Bonaldi, M. )

    1991-11-15

    Excess low-frequency noise extending to MHz frequencies was observed in dc current biased granular high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} thin films. At particular bias conditions random telegraph signal produced by a single, fast two-level fluctuator dominated the noise properties of the sample. Lifetimes of the low- and high-voltage states of the fluctuating system were found to be exponentially distributed. Power spectra of the excess noise signal could be well fitted with a single Lorentzian contribution. Duty cycle dependence of the random telegraph signal on bias conditions was used to get an insight into physical mechanism causing the fluctuations. Charge trapping events in the intergranular intrinsic Josephson junctions and trapped flux hopping were identified as possible alternative sources of the observed noise.

  17. Random telegraph signal transients in active logarithmic continuous-time vision sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Fernando; Boluda, Jose A.; Vegara, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) is a well-known source of noise in current submicron circuits. Its static effects have been widely studied and its noise levels are in the order of other noise sources, especially for moderate submicron transistors. Nevertheless, RTS events may produce transients many times larger than the RTS itself, and this problem seems to have not yet been addressed. In this article we present results on the transients produced by RTS events in a smart vision sensor. RTS transients in closed-loop amplifiers can be many times greater than static RTS. The duration of the RTS transient may last for several milliseconds, and can be considered almost stationary for some conditions. The RTS transient effect has been modelled, and its impact on event-based vision sensors has been studied. This analysis may be also useful for many circuits based on closed-loop amplifiers. Some hints on how to reduce RTS transient effects on these sensors are also given, which may help with the design of current and future event-based vision sensors.

  18. Random telegraph signals in small MOSFET's after x-ray irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H. ); Tsai, M.H.; Ma, T.P. )

    1991-12-01

    The Random Telegraph Signals (RTS's) in small MOSFET's before and after x-ray irradiation and after annealing have been studied. It is believed that the RTS's arise from the trapping/detrapping of individual defect(s) near the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface, and they are expected to be altered by ionizing radiation and annealing processes. This paper reports that the key results from this study are: RTS's existed prior to x-ray irradiation in both weak inversion and strong inversion due to process-induced defects, x-ray irradiation causes the disappearance of the original RTS and the appearance of new RTS with different emission time constants, x-ray irradiation also causes high frequency current fluctuations with much more irregular amplitude distribution than the slower RTS's, annealing at 200-300{degrees} C in nitrogen removes most of the high frequency component and reveals more clearly some of the radiation-induced RTS's, and annealing at 400{degrees} C essentially removes all of the radiation-induced RTS's, but causes the reappearance of one set of the original RTS traces in strong inversion. Several possibilities are discussed to account for the observations.

  19. Measurements, modeling, and simulation of semiconductor/gate dielectric defects using random telegraph signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, Mohamed

    Constructing an effective statistical model and a simulation tool that can predict the phenomenon of random telegraph signals (RTS) is the objective of this work. The continuous scaling down of metal oxide -- semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) makes charging/discharging traps(s) located at the silicon/silicon dioxide interface or deep in the oxide bulk by mobile charge(s) a more pronounced problem for both analog and digital applications. The intent of this work is to develop an RTS statistical model and a simulation tool based on first principles and supported by extensive experimental data. The newly developed RTS statistical model and its simulation tool should be able to replicate and predict the RTS in time and frequency domains. First, room temperature RTS measurements are performed which provide limited information about the trap. They yield the extraction of some trap and RTS characteristics such as average capture and emission times associated with RTS traces, trap position in the oxide with respect to the Si/SiO 2 interface and along the channel with respect to the source, capture cross section, and trap energies in the Si and SiO2 band -- gaps. Variable temperature measurements, on the other hand, yield much more valuable information. Variable temperature RTS measurements from room temperature down to 80 K were performed, with the MOSFET biased from threshold voltage to strong inversion, in the linear and saturation regions. Variable temperature RTS measurements yield the extraction of trap characteristics such as capture cross -- section prefactor, capture and emission activation energies, change in entropy and enthalpy, and relaxation energy associated with a trap from which the nature and origin of a defect center can be identified. The newly developed Random Telegraph Signals Simulation (RTSSIM) is based on several physical principles and mechanisms e.g. (1) capturing and emitting a mobile charge from and to the channel is governed by

  20. A Real-time Auto-detection Method for Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) Noise Detection in CMOS Active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R.; Zhao, R.; Ma, Y.; Li, B.; Wei, X.; Wang, J.; Gao, W.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    CMOS Active pixel sensors (CMOS APS) are attractive for use in the innermost layers of charged particle trackers, due to their good tradeoffs among the key performances. However, CMOS APS can be greatly influenced by random telegraph signal (RTS) noise, which can cause particle tracking or energy calculation failures. In-depth research of pixels' RTS behavior stimulates the interest of the methods for RTS noise detection, reconstruction and parameters extraction. In this paper, a real-time auto-detection method is proposed, using real-time Gaussian noise standard deviation as the detection threshold. Experimental results show that, compared with current methods using signal standard deviation as the thresholds, the proposed method is more sensitive in multi-level RTS detection and more effective in the case of RTS noise degradation.

  1. Single vacancy defect spectroscopy on HfO2 using random telegraph noise signals from scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamankar, R.; Raghavan, N.; Molina, J.; Puglisi, F. M.; O'Shea, S. J.; Shubhakar, K.; Larcher, L.; Pavan, P.; Padovani, A.; Pey, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    Random telegraph noise (RTN) measurements are typically carried out at the device level using standard probe station based electrical characterization setup, where the measured current represents a cumulative effect of the simultaneous response of electron capture/emission events at multiple oxygen vacancy defect (trap) sites. To better characterize the individual defects in the high-κ dielectric thin film, we propose and demonstrate here the measurement and analysis of RTN at the nanoscale using a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope setup, with an effective area of interaction of the probe tip that is as small as 10 nm in diameter. Two-level and multi-level RTN signals due to single and multiple defect locations (possibly dispersed in space and energy) are observed on 4 nm HfO2 thin films deposited on n-Si (100) substrate. The RTN signals are statistically analyzed using the Factorial Hidden Markov Model technique to decode the noise contribution of more than one defect (if any) and estimate the statistical parameters of each RTN signal (i.e., amplitude of fluctuation, capture and emission time constants). Observation of RTN at the nanoscale presents a new opportunity for studies on defect chemistry, single-defect kinetics and their stochastics in thin film dielectric materials. This method allows us to characterize the fast traps with time constants ranging in the millisecond to tens of seconds range.

  2. Spectrum of anomalous random telegraph noise

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. )

    1993-12-15

    The alternate capture and emission of electrons at an individual defect site generates discrete switching in resistance, referred to as a random telegraph signal (RTS). Recent experiments indicate that some defects might have two mutually exclusive emission modes with distinct emission rates, which result in the anomalous RTS: a rapid-switching RTS modulated in time by a slow-switching RTS of the same amplitude. The spectrum is calculated of the anomalous RTS by assuming that the emission mode for a captured electron is determined at the moment of capture of the electron, and the probability for a given mode is a constant [ital p] in each event of capturing. It is shown that a distribution in [ital p] might lead to a 1/[ital f] spectrum.

  3. Proton-induced Random Telegraph Signal in the CMOS imaging sensor for JANUS, the visible imaging telescope on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstone, G. P.; Soman, M. R.; Allanwood, E. A. H.; Holland, A. D.; Gow, J. P. D.; Stefanov, K.; Leese, M.

    2015-09-01

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an ESA L class mission due for launch in 2022 as part of the agency's Cosmic Vision program [1][2]. The primary science goal is to explore and characterise Jupiter and several of its potentially habitable icy moons, particularly Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. The JANUS instrument is designated to be the scientific imager on-board the spacecraft with a wavelength range between 400 nm and 1000 nm and consists of a catoptric telescope coupled to a CMOS detector [3], specifically the CIS115 monolithic active pixel sensor supplied by e2v technologies[3]. A CMOS sensor has been chosen due to a combination of the high radiation tolerance required for all systems aboard the spacecraft and its capability of operating with integration times as low as 1 ms, which is required to prevent blur when imaging the moons at fast ground velocities since the camera has no mechanical shutter. However, an important consideration of using CMOS in high radiation environments is the generation of defects or defect clusters that result in pixels exhibiting Random Telegraph Signal (RTS)[5]. A study of RTS effects in the CIS115 has been undertaken, and the method applied to identify pixels in the array that display RTS behaviour is discussed and individual RTS-exhibiting pixels are characterised. The changes observed in RTS behaviour following irradiation of the CIS115 with protons is presented and the temperature dependence of the RTS behaviour is studied. The implications on the camera design and imaging requirements of the mission are examined.

  4. Random Telegraph Noise in Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, S.

    1998-10-01

    The theory of random current switchings in conductors with S -type current-voltage characteristic is presented. In the range of bistability, the mean time spent by the system in the low-current state before a transition to the high-current state occurs, {bar {tau}}{sub l} , decreases with voltage, and that for the high-current state, {bar {tau}}{sub h} , grows with voltage; both variations are exponential-like. {bar {tau}}{sub l}={bar {tau}}{sub h} at a definite voltage in the bistability range. These results are in full accordance with experiments on microstructures. Because of the growth of both times with the size of the conductor, such noise is observable just in microstructures. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Random telegraphic voltage noise due to thermal bi-stability in a superconducting weak link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sourav; Kumar, Nikhil; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, Herve; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the random telegraphic voltage noise signal in the hysteretic bi-stable state of a superconducting weak link device. Fluctuation induced random switching between zero voltage state and non-zero-voltage state gives rise to a random telegraphic voltage signal in time domain. This telegraphic noise is used to find the mean lifetime of each of the two states. The mean life time in the zero voltage state is found to decrease with increasing bias current while that of resistive state increases and thus the two cross at certain bias current. We qualitatively discuss this observed switching behavior as arising from the bi-stable nature.

  6. Temperature-independent switching rates for a random telegraph signal in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, John H.; Borland, Nick; Fleetwood, D. M.

    2000-05-29

    We have observed discrete random telegraph signals (RTSs) in the drain voltages of three, nominally 1.25 {mu}mx1.25 {mu}m, enhancement-mode p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors operated in strong inversion in their linear regimes with constant drain-current and gate-voltage bias, for temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 300 K. The switching rates for all RTSs observed above 30 K were thermally activated. The switching rate for the only RTS observed below 30 K was thermally activated above 30 K but temperature independent below 10 K. This response is consistent with a crossover from thermal activation to tunneling at low temperatures. Implications are discussed for models of change exchange between the Si and the near-interfacial SiO{sub 2}. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Random Telegraph Switching in Quantum Point Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. C.; Wybourne, M. N.; Goodnick, S. M.

    1996-03-01

    We have investigated non equilibrium transport through quantum point contacts. At low source- drain bias the devices display well defined quantized conductance plateaus. At higher biases (> 6 mV) regions of instability in the differential conductance are observed. These regions are associated with the onset of conduction when the chemical potential on one side of the contact is lifted above the bottom of the next one-dimensional subband. Time dependent measurements of these regions reveal random telegraph switching (RTS) in the conductance.^1 The RTS has been studied as a function of source-drain bias, gate bias, and temperature. We believe the conductance switching is due to random fluctuations in the height of the barrier forming the point contact. We will discuss possible mechanisms for the barrier height fluctuations. ^1J.C. Smith, C. Berven, M.N. Wybourne and S.M. Goodnick. ``Conductance Instabilities in Quantum Point Contact'' In press, Surface Science. This work was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research N00014-93-1-0618.

  8. Fractional telegrapher's equation from fractional persistent random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoliver, Jaume

    2016-05-01

    We generalize the telegrapher's equation to allow for anomalous transport. We derive the space-time fractional telegrapher's equation using the formalism of the persistent random walk in continuous time. We also obtain the characteristic function of the space-time fractional process and study some particular cases and asymptotic approximations. Similarly to the ordinary telegrapher's equation, the time-fractional equation also presents distinct behaviors for different time scales. Specifically, transitions between different subdiffusive regimes or from superdiffusion to subdiffusion are shown by the fractional equation as time progresses.

  9. Fractional telegrapher's equation from fractional persistent random walks.

    PubMed

    Masoliver, Jaume

    2016-05-01

    We generalize the telegrapher's equation to allow for anomalous transport. We derive the space-time fractional telegrapher's equation using the formalism of the persistent random walk in continuous time. We also obtain the characteristic function of the space-time fractional process and study some particular cases and asymptotic approximations. Similarly to the ordinary telegrapher's equation, the time-fractional equation also presents distinct behaviors for different time scales. Specifically, transitions between different subdiffusive regimes or from superdiffusion to subdiffusion are shown by the fractional equation as time progresses. PMID:27300830

  10. Origins of Highly Stable Al-evaporated Solution-processed ZnO Thin Film Transistors: Insights from Low Frequency and Random Telegraph Signal Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Hyung; Kang, Tae Sung; Yang, Jung Yup; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    One long-standing goal in the emerging field of flexible and transparent electronic devices is to meet the demand of key markets, such as enhanced output performance for metal oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) prepared by a solution process. While solution-based fabrication techniques are cost-effective and ensure large-area coverage at low temperature, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing large trap states into TFTs. Such states, the formation of which is induced by intrinsic defects initially produced during preparation, have a significant impact on electrical performance. Therefore, the ability to enhance the electrical characteristics of solution-processed TFTs, along with attaining a firm understanding of their physical nature, remains a key step towards extending their use. In this study, measurements of low-frequency noise and random telegraph signal noise are employed as generic alternative tools to examine the origins of enhanced output performance for solution-processed ZnO TFTs through the control of defect sites by Al evaporation. PMID:26525284

  11. Origins of Highly Stable Al-evaporated Solution-processed ZnO Thin Film Transistors: Insights from Low Frequency and Random Telegraph Signal Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Hyung; Kang, Tae Sung; Yang, Jung Yup; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-11-01

    One long-standing goal in the emerging field of flexible and transparent electronic devices is to meet the demand of key markets, such as enhanced output performance for metal oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) prepared by a solution process. While solution-based fabrication techniques are cost-effective and ensure large-area coverage at low temperature, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing large trap states into TFTs. Such states, the formation of which is induced by intrinsic defects initially produced during preparation, have a significant impact on electrical performance. Therefore, the ability to enhance the electrical characteristics of solution-processed TFTs, along with attaining a firm understanding of their physical nature, remains a key step towards extending their use. In this study, measurements of low-frequency noise and random telegraph signal noise are employed as generic alternative tools to examine the origins of enhanced output performance for solution-processed ZnO TFTs through the control of defect sites by Al evaporation.

  12. Origins of Highly Stable Al-evaporated Solution-processed ZnO Thin Film Transistors: Insights from Low Frequency and Random Telegraph Signal Noise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Hyung; Kang, Tae Sung; Yang, Jung Yup; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    One long-standing goal in the emerging field of flexible and transparent electronic devices is to meet the demand of key markets, such as enhanced output performance for metal oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) prepared by a solution process. While solution-based fabrication techniques are cost-effective and ensure large-area coverage at low temperature, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing large trap states into TFTs. Such states, the formation of which is induced by intrinsic defects initially produced during preparation, have a significant impact on electrical performance. Therefore, the ability to enhance the electrical characteristics of solution-processed TFTs, along with attaining a firm understanding of their physical nature, remains a key step towards extending their use. In this study, measurements of low-frequency noise and random telegraph signal noise are employed as generic alternative tools to examine the origins of enhanced output performance for solution-processed ZnO TFTs through the control of defect sites by Al evaporation. PMID:26525284

  13. Temperature-Independent Switching Rates for a Random Telegraph Signal in a Silicon Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, Nick; Fleetwood, D.M.; Scofield, John H.

    1999-07-19

    We have observed discrete random telegraph signals (RTS'S) in the drain voltages of three, observed above 30 K were thermally activated. The switching rate for the only RTS observed below 30 K was thermally activated above 30 K but temperature-independent below 10 K. To our knowledge, this cross-over from thermal activation to tunneling behavior has not been previously observed for RTS's Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MCEWETS) often exhibit relatively large levels of low-frequency (1/fl noise) [1,2]. Much evidence suggests that this noise is related to the capture all cases, switching rates have been thermally activated, often with different activation energies for capture and/or emission is accompanied by lattice relaxation. Though thermally activated behavior has sufficiently low temperatures [7,9]. While not observed in MOSFETS, cross-over from thermal activation to configurational tunneling has been observed for RTS's in junctions [13]. drain voltage was observed to randomly switch between two discrete levels, designated as Vup and Vdn, similar to RTS's reported by others [2,7'- 11 ]. We have characterized six RTS `S for temperatures above 30 K where thermally activated switching rates are observed. The properties of five of these have been the trap, i.e., the mean time a captured charge carrier spends in the trap before it is emitted. Similarly, we identify the mean time in the low resistance state ( trup in state Vup) as the capture time rc. F@ure 1 shows a typical time trace of the drain-voltage fluctuation &d(t)= Vd(t)+Vd>. This indicate that both the mean capture and emission times become independent of Tat low temperatures and where a= capture or emission, is temperature independent. The solid curve in Figure 3(a) (mean capture time) was obtained using a weighted nonlinear charge carriers are not in thermal equilibrium with the lattice, i.e., that while the lattice is being cooled Instead, we believe that the transition from thermally

  14. Random telegraph noise in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hyun-Jong; Woo Uhm, Tae; Won Kim, Sung; Gyu You, Young; Wook Lee, Sang; Ho Jhang, Sung; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.; Woo Park, Yung

    2014-05-12

    We have investigated random telegraph noise (RTN) observed in individual metallic carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Mean lifetimes in high- and low-current states, τ{sub high} and τ{sub low}, have been studied as a function of bias-voltage and gate-voltage as well as temperature. By analyzing the statistics and features of the RTN, we suggest that this noise is due to the random transition of defects between two metastable states, activated by inelastic scattering with conduction electrons. Our results indicate an important role of defect motions in the 1/f noise in CNTs.

  15. Anomalous Random Telegraph Signal Extractions from a Very Large Number of n-Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Using Test Element Groups with 0.47 Hz-3.0 MHz Sampling Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kenichi; Fujisawa, Takafumi; Teramoto, Akinobu; Watabe, Shunichi; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-04-01

    Random telegraph signal (RTS) noise in small gate area metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors occurs frequently and causes serious problems in the field of flash memories and complementary MOS (CMOS) image sensors. The trap in the gate insulator, which is considered the origin of RTS, varies widely in terms of spatial location and energy level, so that RTS characteristics including the amplitude and time constants have large variability by nature and statistical analysis of RTS should become indispensable. In this paper, we propose a high-speed RTS measurement system with a newly developed test circuit and discuss the drain current and temperature dependences of RTS amplitude distributions. Moreover, we expand the sampling frequency between 0.47 Hz-3.0 MHz and the observation length up to about 4 h and can thereby observe some anomalous RTSs such as ones with long time constants, ones generated abruptly, and ones disappearing.

  16. Delayed uncoupled continuous-time random walks do not provide a model for the telegraph equation.

    PubMed

    Rukolaine, S A; Samsonov, A M

    2012-02-01

    It has been alleged in several papers that the so-called delayed continuous-time random walks (DCTRWs) provide a model for the one-dimensional telegraph equation at microscopic level. This conclusion, being widespread now, is strange, since the telegraph equation describes phenomena with finite propagation speed, while the velocity of the motion of particles in the DCTRWs is infinite. In this paper we investigate the accuracy of the approximations to the DCTRWs provided by the telegraph equation. We show that the diffusion equation, being the correct limit of the DCTRWs, gives better approximations in L(2) norm to the DCTRWs than the telegraph equation. We conclude, therefore, that first, the DCTRWs do not provide any correct microscopic interpretation of the one-dimensional telegraph equation, and second, the kinetic (exact) model of the telegraph equation is different from the model based on the DCTRWs.

  17. Intrinsic high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} Josephson junctions in random-telegraph-noise fluctuators

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Savo, B.; Vecchione, A.; Bonaldi, M.; Vitale, S.

    1996-01-01

    Bias current and magnetic field strongly influence the switching rates of random-telegraph signals by stressing the two-level fluctuator energy structure. Symmetric-telegraph noise is observed when the stress due to current flow is compensated by the magnetic-field-induced stress. The dependence of the measured symmetrizing magnetic field on current flow enables one to infer the symmetry characteristics of a fluctuator. The symmetry characteristics in granular films were found to be strongly nonlinear. It has been shown that current flow across the intrinsic Josephson inductance is responsible for the observed nonlinearity. A fit of the experimental data to the proposed model has revealed that a Josephson element enclosed in a superconducting loop is likely involved in the random-telegraph voltage noise generation. The evaluated area of the loop is consistent with the free space between average grains in the sample investigated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. New high resolution Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) characterization method for resistive RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, M.; Diaz, J.; Crespo-Yepes, A.; Gonzalez, M. B.; Martin-Martinez, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Nafria, M.; Campabadal, F.; Aymerich, X.

    2016-01-01

    Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) is one of the main reliability problems of resistive switching-based memories. To understand the physics behind RTN, a complete and accurate RTN characterization is required. The standard equipment used to analyse RTN has a typical time resolution of ∼2 ms which prevents evaluating fast phenomena. In this work, a new RTN measurement procedure, which increases the measurement time resolution to 2 μs, is proposed. The experimental set-up, together with the recently proposed Weighted Time Lag (W-LT) method for the analysis of RTN signals, allows obtaining a more detailed and precise information about the RTN phenomenon.

  19. Anomalous random telegraph noise and temporary phenomena in resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Francesco Maria; Larcher, Luca; Padovani, Andrea; Pavan, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive examination of the characteristics of complex Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) signals in Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices with TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN structure. Initially, the anomalous RTN (aRTN) is investigated through careful systematic experiment, dedicated characterization procedures, and physics-based simulations to gain insights into the physics of this phenomenon. The experimentally observed RTN parameters (amplitude of the current fluctuations, capture and emission times) are analyzed in different operating conditions. Anomalous behaviors are characterized and their statistical characteristics are evaluated. Physics-based simulations considering both the Coulomb interactions among different defects in the device and the possible existence of defects with metastable states are exploited to suggest a possible physical origin of aRTN. The same simulation framework is also shown to be able to predict other temporary phenomena related to RTN, such as the temporary change in RTN stochastic properties or the sudden and iterative random appearing and vanishing of RTN fluctuations always exhibiting the same statistical characteristics. Results highlight the central role of the electrostatic interactions among individual defects and the trapped charge in describing RTN and related phenomena.

  20. Transistor-level characterization of static random access memory bit failures induced by random telegraph noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Saraya, Takuya; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2016-04-01

    Bit failure events induced by random telegraph noise (RTN) for silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) static random access memory (SRAM) cells were characterized by directly monitoring the storage node voltage of individual cells, using a device-matrix-array (DMA) test element group (TEG). Correlating the cell-level RTN and failure waveforms with the RTN waveforms of individual transistors that constitute the same cell, RTN of a specific transistor that causes the cell failure was identified.

  1. Low-frequency suppression of random-telegraph-noise spectra in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashkenazy, V.D. ); Jung, G. Instytut Fizuki, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02668 Warszawa ); Khalfin, I.B. ); Shapiro, B.Y. Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, 52100, Ramat Gan )

    1995-01-01

    Interaction of the random-telegraph-noise signals with pinned Abrikosov vortices in granular high-temperature superconductors is investigated. It is shown that the low-frequency part of random-noise spectra is suppressed due to interaction of Abrikosov vortices with pinning centers at low magnetic fields and/or due to mutual interactions of vortices in an Abrikosov lattice at high magnetic fields. Values of characteristic frequencies below which spectra are suppressed are evaluated for various experimental configurations including a typical experimental thin-film strip geometry. It is shown that characteristic frequencies and the functional dependence of the low-frequency part of the noise spectra strongly depend on the external magnetic field.

  2. Characterizing traps causing random telegraph noise during trap-assisted tunneling gate-induced drain leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sung-Won; Shin, Joonha; Seo, Youngsoo; Kim, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sangbin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of traps causing random telegraph noise (RTN) in trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current. RTN was shown for the first time to occur as a result of electron trapping rather than hole trapping. In addition, the proper effective permittivity of two different materials is used to accurately determine the distance between two traps causing RTN in TAT GIDL in an oxide.

  3. Statistical analysis of random telegraph noise in HfO2-based RRAM devices in LRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Francesco Maria; Pavan, Paolo; Larcher, Luca; Padovani, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present a thorough statistical characterization of Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) in HfO2-based Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) cells in Low Resistive State (LRS). Devices are tested under a variety of operational conditions. A Factorial Hidden Markov Model (FHMM) analysis is exploited to extrapolate the properties of the traps causing multi-level RTN in LRS. The trapping and de-trapping of charge carriers into/out of defects located in the proximity of the conductive filament results in a shielding effect on a portion of the conductive filament, leading to the observed RTN current fluctuations. It is found that both oxygen vacancies and oxygen ions defects may be responsible for the observed RTN. The variations of the current observed at subsequent set/reset cycles are instead attributed to the stochastic variations in the filament due to oxidation/reduction processes during reset and set operations, respectively.

  4. Silicon-film-related random telegraph noise in UTBOX silicon-on-insulator nMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fang; Simoen, Eddy; Chikang, Li; Aoulaiche, Marc; Jun, Luo; Chao, Zhao; Claeys, Cor

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies the amplitude of random telegraph noise (RTN) caused by a single trap in the silicon film of ultra-thin buried oxide (UTBOX) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The film-defect-related RTN was identified and analyzed by low frequency noise measurement and time domain measurement. Emphasis is on the relative amplitude ΔID/ID, which is studied in the function of the front-gate, the back-gate and the drain-to-source biases. Interesting asymmetric or symmetric VDS dependence of switched source and drain are observed and supported by calibrated Sentaurus simulations. It is believed the asymmetry of the VDS dependence of the switched source and drain is related to the lateral trap position along the source and drain.

  5. Goldstein-Kac telegraph processes with random speeds: Path probabilities, likelihoods, and reported Lévy flights.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Liepe, Juliane; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-04-01

    The Goldstein-Kac telegraph process describes the one-dimensional motion of particles with constant speed undergoing random changes in direction. Despite its resemblance to numerous real-world phenomena, the singular nature of the resultant spatial distribution of each particle precludes the possibility of any a posteriori empirical validation of this random-walk model from data. Here we show that by simply allowing for random speeds, the ballistic terms are regularized and that the diffusion component can be well-approximated via the unscented transform. The result is a computationally efficient yet robust evaluation of the full particle path probabilities and, hence, the parameter likelihoods of this generalized telegraph process. We demonstrate how a population diffusing under such a model can lead to non-Gaussian asymptotic spatial distributions, thereby mimicking the behavior of an ensemble of Lévy walkers. PMID:25974447

  6. Dynamical decoupling of local transverse random telegraph noise in a two-qubit gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Paladino, E.

    2015-10-01

    Achieving high-fidelity universal two-qubit gates is a central requisite of any implementation of quantum information processing. The presence of spurious fluctuators of various physical origin represents a limiting factor for superconducting nanodevices. Operating qubits at optimal points, where the qubit-fluctuator interaction is transverse with respect to the single qubit Hamiltonian, considerably improved single qubit gates. Further enhancement has been achieved by dynamical decoupling (DD). In this article we investigate DD of transverse random telegraph noise acting locally on each of the qubits forming an entangling gate. Our analysis is based on the exact numerical solution of the stochastic Schrödinger equation. We evaluate the gate error under local periodic, Carr-Purcell and Uhrig DD sequences. We find that a threshold value of the number, n, of pulses exists above which the gate error decreases with a sequence-specific power-law dependence on n. Below threshold, DD may even increase the error with respect to the unconditioned evolution, a behaviour reminiscent of the anti-Zeno effect.

  7. The understanding on the evolution of stress-induced gate leakage in high-k dielectric metal-oxide-field-effect transistor by random-telegraph-noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, E. R.; Chung, Steve S.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of gate-current leakage path has been observed and depicted by RTN signals on metal-oxide-silicon field effect transistor with high-k gate dielectric. An experimental method based on gate-current random telegraph noise (Ig-RTN) technique was developed to observe the formation of gate-leakage path for the device under certain electrical stress, such as Bias Temperature Instability. The results show that the evolution of gate-current path consists of three stages. In the beginning, only direct-tunnelling gate current and discrete traps inducing Ig-RTN are observed; in the middle stage, interaction between traps and the percolation paths presents a multi-level gate-current variation, and finally two different patterns of the hard or soft breakdown path can be identified. These observations provide us a better understanding of the gate-leakage and its impact on the device reliability.

  8. Extraction of Distance Between Interface Trap and Oxide Trap from Random Telegraph Noise in Gate-Induced Drain Leakage.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngsoo; Yoo, Sungwon; Shin, Joonha; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sangbin; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) of the Gate-Induced Drain Leakage (GIDL) of a Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). The RTN data that was measured and analytical equations are used to extract the values of the parameters for the vertical distance of the oxide trap from the interface and of the energy level of the interface trap. These values and equations allow for the distance r between the interface trap and the oxide trap to be extracted. For the first time, the accurate field enhancement factor γ(F), which depends on the magnitude of the electric field at the Si/SiO2 interface, was used to calculate the current ratio before and after the electron trapping, and the value extracted for r is completely different depending on the enhancement factor that is used. PMID:27483908

  9. Number of traps and trap depth position on statistical distribution of random telegraph noise in scaled NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Toshihiro; Miyaji, Kousuke

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of random telegraph noise (RTN) amplitude distribution on the number of traps and trap depth position is investigated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo device simulation including random dopant fluctuation (RDF) in a 30 nm NAND multi level flash memory. The ΔV th tail distribution becomes broad at fixed double traps, indicating that the number of traps greatly affects the worst RTN characteristics. It is also found that for both fixed single and fixed double traps, the ΔV th distribution in the lowest cell threshold voltage (V th) state shows the broadest distribution among all cell V th states. This is because the drain current flows at the channel surface in the lowest cell V th state, while at a high cell V th, it flows at the deeper position owing to the fringing coupling between the control gate (CG) and the channel. In this work, the ΔV th distribution with the number of traps following the Poisson distribution is also considered to cope with the variations in trap number. As a result, it is found that the number of traps is an important factor for understanding RTN characteristics. In addition, considering trap position in the tunnel oxide thickness direction is also an important factor.

  10. Analysis of magnetic random telegraph noise in individual arrangements of a small number of coupled MnAs nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin; Elm, Matthias T.; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakita, Shinya; Hara, Shinjiro; Klar, Peter J.

    2015-10-01

    The temporal dependence of the resistance of MnAs nanocluster arrangements grown by selective-area metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is investigated at different temperatures. The resistance of such arrangements exhibits random telegraph noise with jumps between discrete resistance levels. The effect is attributed to thermally activated switching of the magnetic domain structure resulting in alterations of spin-dependent scattering between the MnAs clusters of the arrangements. The behavior can be qualitatively understood by a simple model in which it is assumed that the nanocluster arrangement consists of three domains in accordance with investigations by magnetic force microscopy. The magnetizations of the outer larger domains remain fixed, whereas the magnetization of a smaller intermediate domain (or domain wall) exhibits thermally activated switching between local minima of its energy landscape. The results of the model indicate that the time scale of an actual switching event of the entire intermediate domain comprises the nucleation of a seed domain consisting of a few thousand Mn spins followed by the transformation of the entire domain by domain-wall motion in order to reorient its magnetization.

  11. Trap properties of high-k/metal gate pMOSFETs with aluminum ion implantation by random telegraph noise and 1/f noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, San-Lein; Tsai, Kai-Shiang; Fang, Yean-Kuen; Lai, Chien-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cheng, Osbert; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the impact of aluminum ion implantation on 1/f noise characteristics and random telegraph noise (RTN) in high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (pMOSFETs) was investigated. Aluminum ion implantation (Al I/I) into TiN/HfO2/SiO2 was implemented to tune an effective work function (EWF) in pMOSFETs without EOT increase complicated processes. RTN and 1/f results revealed that regardless of the implanted dose, HK/MG devices with Al I/I exhibit lower slow oxide trap densities than the control devices, which are responsible for the reduced trap position (xt) from the SiO2 interfacial layer (IL)/Si interface. For the HK/MG devices with different implanted doses, no significant differences in trap properties were observed.

  12. Electrical characterization of Random Telegraph Noise in Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator MOSFETs under extended temperature range and back-bias operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Carlos; Rodriguez, Noel; Gamiz, Francisco; Ruiz, Rafael; Ohata, Akiko

    2016-03-01

    Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) has been studied in Ultra-Thin Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator transistors. A modified Time Lag Plot algorithm has been used to identify devices with a single active trap. The physical characteristics of the trap have been extracted based on Shockley-Read-Hall models, revealing the possible trends of capture and emission times of the trap according to its physical and energetic position. The effect of the temperature on the characteristic times has been studied in the range from 248 to 323 K validating the results obtained at room temperature. Finally, the impact of back-bias on the RTN fluctuation has been modelled through the Lim-Fossum interface coupling relationships, allowing to predict accurately the experimental results.

  13. Joseph Henry and the Telegraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochfelder, David

    1997-04-01

    Morse's telegraph rested upon three scientific advances which occured between 1800 and 1830: the development of battery technology, the formulation of laws governing the behavior of electrical components in circuits, and the discovery of electromagnetic phenomena. Joseph Henry was crucial to the development of the early telegraph. His work on electromagnetism made it possible for the electric current to manifest itself as useful mechanical work. Henry developed electromagnets of sufficient lifting power, but which drew relatively small currents; these magnets were the heart of Morse's telegraph receiver. Morse also used electromagnets as relays, which allowed him to transmit signals over great distances. Morse often acknowledged his debt to Henry, and the two enjoyed a cordial working relationship until the mid-1840s. But during the bitter and protracted litigation over Morse's patent, Henry testified (unwillingly, he claimed) against the inventor. This began a lifelong quarrel between the two men, the specifics of which were tedious and petty. In general terms, however, their conflict arose over different notions regarding scientific discovery and technological innovation.

  14. A statistical evaluation of effective time constants of random telegraph noise with various operation timings of in-pixel source follower transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, A.; Kuroda, R.; Teramoto, A.; Obara, T.; Sugawa, S.

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated effective time constants of random telegraph noise (RTN) with various operation timings of in-pixel source follower transistors statistically, and discuss the dependency of RTN time constants on the duty ratio (on/off ratio) of MOSFET which is controlled by the gate to source voltage (VGS). Under a general readout operation of CMOS image sensor (CIS), the row selected pixel-source followers (SFs) turn on and not selected pixel-SFs operate at different bias conditions depending on the select switch position; when select switch locate in between the SF driver and column output line, SF drivers nearly turn off. The duty ratio and cyclic period of selected time of SF driver depends on the operation timing determined by the column read out sequence. By changing the duty ratio from 1 to 7.6 x 10-3, time constant ratio of RTN (time to capture <τc<)/(time to emission <τe<) of a part of MOSFETs increased while RTN amplitudes were almost the same regardless of the duty ratio. In these MOSFETs, <τc< increased and the majority of <τe< decreased and the minority of <τe< increased by decreasing the duty ratio. The same tendencies of behaviors of <τc< and <τe< were obtained when VGS was decreased. This indicates that the effective <τc< and <τe< converge to those under off state as duty ratio decreases. These results are important for the noise reduction, detection and analysis of in pixel-SF with RTN.

  15. The telegraph equation in charged particle transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.; Lorencz, K.; Williams, L. L.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the telegraph equation which modifies its coefficients. First, an infinite order partial differential equation is obtained for the velocity space solid angle-averaged phase-space distribution of particles which underwent at least a few collisions. It is shown that, in the lowest order asymptotic expansion, this equation simplifies to the well-known diffusion equation. The second-order asymptotic expansion for isotropic small-angle scattering results in a modified telegraph equation with a signal propagation speed of v(5/11) exp 1/2 instead of the usual v/3 exp 1/2. Our derivation of a modified telegraph equation follows from an expansion of the Boltzmann equation in the relevant smallness parameters and not from a truncation of an eigenfunction expansion. This equation is consistent with causality. It is shown that, under steady state conditions in a convecting plasma, the telegraph equation may be regarded as a diffusion equation with a modified transport coefficient, which describes a combination of diffusion and cosmic-ray inertia.

  16. Investigation of trap properties in high-k/metal gate p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with aluminum ion implantation using random telegraph noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shoou-Jinn Fang, Yean-Kuen; Huang, Po-Chin; Wu, Chung-Yi; Wu, San-Lein

    2014-08-11

    In this study, the impact of aluminum ion implantation (Al I/I) on random telegraph noise (RTN) in high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (pMOSFETs) was investigated. The trap parameters of HK/MG pMOSFETs with Al I/I, such as trap energy level, capture time and emission time, activation energies for capture and emission, and trap location in the gate dielectric, were determined. The configuration coordinate diagram was also established. It was observed that the implanted Al could fill defects and form a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and thus increase the tunneling barrier height for holes. It was also observed that the trap position in the Al I/I samples was lower due to the Al I/I-induced dipole at the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  17. 46 CFR 167.40-7 - Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems. 167.40-7... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-7 Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph... the pilothouse and engine room. This may be by bell signals with voice tubes, telephone, or...

  18. 46 CFR 167.40-7 - Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems. 167.40-7... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-7 Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph... the pilothouse and engine room. This may be by bell signals with voice tubes, telephone, or...

  19. 46 CFR 167.40-7 - Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems. 167.40-7... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-7 Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph... the pilothouse and engine room. This may be by bell signals with voice tubes, telephone, or...

  20. 46 CFR 167.40-7 - Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems. 167.40-7... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-7 Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph... the pilothouse and engine room. This may be by bell signals with voice tubes, telephone, or...

  1. 46 CFR 167.40-7 - Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph systems. 167.40-7... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167.40-7 Voice tubes, telephone, and telegraph... the pilothouse and engine room. This may be by bell signals with voice tubes, telephone, or...

  2. Investigation of trap properties of Hf0.83Zr0.17O2 high-k gate stack p-type MOSFETs by low-frequency (1/f) noise and random telegraph noise analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shih-Chang; Wu, San-Lein; Huang, Po-Chin; Wang, Bo-Chin; Tsai, Kai-Shiang; Kao, Tsung-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Guo; Cheng, Osbert; Fang, Yean-Kuen; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Chen, Jone-Fang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the trap properties of composite Hf0.83Zr0.17O2 high-k gate stack p-type MOSFETs (pMOSFETs) were investigated by simultaneous low-frequency (1/f) noise and random telegraph noise measurements. Compared with pure ZrO2 pMOSFETs, the interface property and drive current of Hf0.83Zr0.17O2 pMOSFETs were both improved, and the depth of the effective centroid of the fixed charges was close to the insulator/semiconductor interface. This result indicated that the trapping behavior of hole capture from a ZrO2 film can be suppressed by mixing the film with a HfO2 film. Consequently, comparable oxide trap densities and trapping depths between Hf0.83Zr0.17O2 and HfO2 pMOSFETs can be seen. In addition, it was found that the unified model can appropriately interpret the 1/f noise mechanism in Hf0.83Zr0.17O2 pMOSFETs.

  3. Deterministic signal associated with a random field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewoo; Zhu, Ruoyu; Nguyen, Tan H; Zhou, Renjie; Edwards, Chris; Goddard, Lynford L; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-09-01

    Stochastic fields do not generally possess a Fourier transform. This makes the second-order statistics calculation very difficult, as it requires solving a fourth-order stochastic wave equation. This problem was alleviated by Wolf who introduced the coherent mode decomposition and, as a result, space-frequency statistics propagation of wide-sense stationary fields. In this paper we show that if, in addition to wide-sense stationarity, the fields are also wide-sense statistically homogeneous, then monochromatic plane waves can be used as an eigenfunction basis for the cross spectral density. Furthermore, the eigenvalue associated with a plane wave, exp[i(k · r-ωt)], is given by the spatiotemporal power spectrum evaluated at the frequency (k, ω). We show that the second-order statistics of these fields is fully described by the spatiotemporal power spectrum, a real, positive function. Thus, the second-order statistics can be efficiently propagated in the wavevector-frequency representation using a new framework of deterministic signals associated with random fields. Analogous to the complex analytic signal representation of a field, the deterministic signal is a mathematical construct meant to simplify calculations. Specifically, the deterministic signal associated with a random field is defined such that it has the identical autocorrelation as the actual random field. Calculations for propagating spatial and temporal correlations are simplified greatly because one only needs to solve a deterministic wave equation of second order. We illustrate the power of the wavevector-frequency representation with calculations of spatial coherence in the far zone of an incoherent source, as well as coherence effects induced by biological tissues.

  4. The diffusion and telegraph equations in diagenetic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, B.P. )

    1989-08-01

    This paper considers the practical aspects of differentiating between the solutions of the Diffusion and Telegraph Equations when they are used to model molecular diffusion in sediment pore waters and the diffusive bioturbation of solids. If molecular diffusion is the only transport mechanism in pore water, then the results from a simple random-walk model coupled to the hydrodynamic or kinetic theories of diffusion indicate that the solute profiles predicted by these two equations differ measurably only for periods up to 10{sup {minus}10} s after the introduction of a transient and for spatial scales less than 10{sup {minus}6} cm. In addition, the distinct propagating front predicted by the Telegraph Equation moves so fast and is so attenuated as to be unmeasurable. In this situation, the Telegraph Equation offers no practical advantage over the Diffusion Equation for the description of diagenetic pore water profiles. These findings also hold when advection due to burial and chemical reaction are included in the model. The time scales associated with bioturbation of solids are sufficiently long compared to normal sampling times that the profiles of some transients, both in deep-sea and near-shore sediments, should exhibit behavior characteristic of the Telegraph Equation if mixing is diffusive (local).

  5. Compressive Detection of Random Subspace Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Alireza; Valkama, Mikko; Cabric, Danijela

    2016-08-01

    The problem of compressive detection of random subspace signals is studied. We consider signals modeled as $\\mathbf{s} = \\mathbf{H} \\mathbf{x}$ where $\\mathbf{H}$ is an $N \\times K$ matrix with $K \\le N$ and $\\mathbf{x} \\sim \\mathcal{N}(\\mathbf{0}_{K,1},\\sigma_x^2 \\mathbf{I}_K)$. We say that signal $\\mathbf{s}$ lies in or leans toward a subspace if the largest eigenvalue of $\\mathbf{H} \\mathbf{H}^T$ is strictly greater than its smallest eigenvalue. We first design a measurement matrix $\\mathbf{\\Phi}=[\\mathbf{\\Phi}_s^T,\\mathbf{\\Phi}_o^T]^T$ comprising of two sub-matrices $\\mathbf{\\Phi}_s$ and $\\mathbf{\\Phi}_o$ where $\\mathbf{\\Phi}_s$ projects the signals to the strongest left-singular vectors, i.e., the left-singular vectors corresponding to the largest singular values, of subspace matrix $\\mathbf{H}$ and $\\mathbf{\\Phi}_o$ projects it to the weakest left-singular vectors. We then propose two detectors which work based on the difference in energies of the samples measured by two sub-matrices $\\mathbf{\\Phi}_s$ and $\\mathbf{\\Phi}_o$ and prove their optimality. Simplified versions of the proposed detectors for the case when the variance of noise is known are also provided. Furthermore, we study the performance of the detector when measurements are imprecise and show how imprecision can be compensated by employing more measurement devices. The problem is then re-formulated for the case when the signal lies in the union of a finite number of linear subspaces instead of a single linear subspace. Finally, we study the performance of the proposed methods by simulation examples.

  6. Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, J.H.; Wodkiewicz, K.; Shore, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    We discuss strong laser-atom interactions that are subjected to jump-type (random telegraph) random-phase noise. Physically, the jumps may arise from laser fluctuations, from collisions of various kinds, or from other external forces. Our discussion is carried out in two stages. First, direct and partially heuristic calculations determine the laser spectrum and also give a third-order differential equation for the average inversion of a two-level atom on resonance. At this stage a number of general features of the interaction are able to be studied easily. The optical analog of motional narrowing, for example, is clearly predicted. Second, we show that the theory of generalized Poisson processes allows laser-atom interactions in the presence of random telegraph noise of all kinds (not only phase noise) to be treated systematically, by means of a master equation first used in the context of quantum optics by Burshtein. We use the Burshtein equation to obtain an exact expression for the two-level atom's steady-state resonance fluorescence spectrum, when the exciting laser exhibits phase telegraph noise. Some comparisons are made with results obtained from other noise models. Detailed treatments of the effects ofmly jumps, or as a model of finite laser bandwidth effects, in which the laser frequency exhibits random jumps. We show that these two types of frequency noise can be distinguished in light-scattering spectra. We also discuss examples which demonstrate both temporal and spectral motional narrowing, nonexponential correlations, and non-Lorentzian spectra. Its exact solubility in finite terms makes the frequency-telegraph noise model an attractive alternative to the white-noise Ornstein-Uhlenbeck frequency noise model which has been previously applied to laser-atom interactions.

  7. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  8. 26 CFR 49.4252-3 - Telegraph service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Telegraph service. 49.4252-3 Section 49.4252-3... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Communications § 49.4252-3 Telegraph service. (a) In general. The term “telegraph service” means a telegraph, cable, or radio dispatch or message for which...

  9. 26 CFR 49.4252-3 - Telegraph service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Telegraph service. 49.4252-3 Section 49.4252-3... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Communications § 49.4252-3 Telegraph service. (a) In general. The term “telegraph service” means a telegraph, cable, or radio dispatch or message for which...

  10. 26 CFR 49.4252-3 - Telegraph service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Telegraph service. 49.4252-3 Section 49.4252-3... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Communications § 49.4252-3 Telegraph service. (a) In general. The term “telegraph service” means a telegraph, cable, or radio dispatch or message for which...

  11. 26 CFR 49.4252-3 - Telegraph service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Telegraph service. 49.4252-3 Section 49.4252-3... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Communications § 49.4252-3 Telegraph service. (a) In general. The term “telegraph service” means a telegraph, cable, or radio dispatch or message for which...

  12. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AT THE EASTERN TELEGRAPH COMPANY, 1872-1929

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century the submarine telegraph cable industry, which had blossomed in the 1850s, had reached what historians regard as technological maturity. For a host of commercial, cultural and technical reasons, the industry seems to have become conservative in its attitude towards technological development, which is reflected in the small scale of its staff and facilities for research and development. This paper argues that the attitude of the cable industry towards research and development was less conservative and altogether more complex than historians have suggested. Focusing on the crucial case of the Eastern Telegraph Company, the largest single operator of submarine cables, it shows how the company encouraged inventive activity among outside and in-house electricians and, in 1903, established a small research laboratory where staff and outside scientific advisors pursued new methods of cable signalling and cable designs. The scale of research and development at the Eastern Telegraph Company, however, was small by comparison to that of its nearest competitor, Western Union, and dwarfed by that of large electrical manufacturers. This paper explores the reasons for this comparatively weak provision but also suggests that this was not inappropriate for a service-sector firm. PMID:25977587

  13. Nonlocal boundary value problem for telegraph equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Modanli, Mahmut

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the nonlocal boundary value problem for a telegraph equation in a Hilbert space is conceived. Stability estimates for the solution of this problem are obtained. The first and second order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of this problem are constructed. Stability estimates for the solution of these difference schemes are established. In implementations, two mixed problems for telegraph partial differential equations are investigated. The methods are showed by numerical experiments.

  14. Evolution of Lotka-Volterra predator-prey systems under telegraph noise.

    PubMed

    Auger, P; Du, N H; Hieu, N T

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we study a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system with prey logistic growth under the telegraph noise. The telegraph noise switches at random two prey-predator models. The aim of this work is to determine the subset of omega-limit set of the system and show out the existence of a stationary distribution. We also focus on persistence of the predator and thus we look for conditions that allow persistence of the predator and prey community. We show that the asymptotic behaviour highly depends on the value of some constant lambda which is useful to make suitable predictions about the persistence of the system.

  15. Telegraph-like noise in Y-Ba-Cu oxide thin-film dc SQUID's

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, M.; Kuriki, S.

    1988-08-15

    We have observed a telegraph-like noise in dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's) made of low-temperature synthesized superconducting Y-Ba-Cu oxide thin films. The voltage of the SQUID jumps among two to four discrete levels randomly with time, and exhibits a Lorentzian type frequency dependence in the power spectrum. Periodic modulations of the voltage with magnetic flux are observed in a SQUID having narrow bridges of submicrometer width. The flux noise of the SQUID is dominated by the telegraph-like noise at low frequencies.

  16. Neural coding using telegraphic switching of magnetic tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Dong Ik; Bae, Gi Yoon; Oh, Heong Sik; Park, Wanjun

    2015-05-07

    In this work, we present a synaptic transmission representing neural coding with spike trains by using a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). Telegraphic switching generates an artificial neural signal with both the applied magnetic field and the spin-transfer torque that act as conflicting inputs for modulating the number of spikes in spike trains. The spiking probability is observed to be weighted with modulation between 27.6% and 99.8% by varying the amplitude of the voltage input or the external magnetic field. With a combination of the reverse coding scheme and the synaptic characteristic of MTJ, an artificial function for the synaptic transmission is achieved.

  17. Neural coding using telegraphic switching of magnetic tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Dong Ik; Bae, Gi Yoon; Oh, Heong Sik; Park, Wanjun

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present a synaptic transmission representing neural coding with spike trains by using a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). Telegraphic switching generates an artificial neural signal with both the applied magnetic field and the spin-transfer torque that act as conflicting inputs for modulating the number of spikes in spike trains. The spiking probability is observed to be weighted with modulation between 27.6% and 99.8% by varying the amplitude of the voltage input or the external magnetic field. With a combination of the reverse coding scheme and the synaptic characteristic of MTJ, an artificial function for the synaptic transmission is achieved.

  18. Randomness in quantum mechanics - nature's ultimate cryptogram?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erber, T.; Putterman, S.

    1985-11-01

    The possibility that a single atom irradiated by coherent light will be equivalent to an infinite computer with regard to its ability to generate random numbers is addressed. A search for unexpected patterns of order by crypt analysis of the telegraph signal generated by the on/off time of the atom's fluorescence is described. The results will provide new experimental tests of the fundamental principles of quantum theory.

  19. 46 CFR 169.693 - Engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine order telegraph systems. 169.693 Section 169.693... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.693 Engine order telegraph systems. An engine order telegraph system is not required....

  20. 46 CFR 169.693 - Engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine order telegraph systems. 169.693 Section 169.693... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.693 Engine order telegraph systems. An engine order telegraph system is not required....

  1. 46 CFR 169.693 - Engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engine order telegraph systems. 169.693 Section 169.693... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.693 Engine order telegraph systems. An engine order telegraph system is not required....

  2. 77 FR 42694 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Telegraph Vegetation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... environmental impact statement called the Telegraph Vegetation Project was published in the 74 FR 58239. This... Forest Service Helena National Forest, Montana, Telegraph Vegetation Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... National Forest will still prepare an environmental impact statement for the Telegraph Vegetation...

  3. 46 CFR 169.693 - Engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engine order telegraph systems. 169.693 Section 169.693 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... order telegraph systems. An engine order telegraph system is not required....

  4. 25 CFR 117.13 - Telephone and telegraph messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Telephone and telegraph messages. 117.13 Section 117.13... COMPETENCY § 117.13 Telephone and telegraph messages. The superintendent may expend the surplus funds of an Indian to make direct payment for telephone and telegraph messages sent by the agency or received at...

  5. 46 CFR 129.560 - Engine-order telegraphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engine-order telegraphs. 129.560 Section 129.560... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.560 Engine-order telegraphs. No OSV need carry an engine-order telegraph, provided the vessel meets the requirements of § 113.35-3(d) of this chapter....

  6. 46 CFR 169.693 - Engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engine order telegraph systems. 169.693 Section 169.693 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... order telegraph systems. An engine order telegraph system is not required....

  7. 46 CFR 129.560 - Engine-order telegraphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engine-order telegraphs. 129.560 Section 129.560... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.560 Engine-order telegraphs. No OSV need carry an engine-order telegraph, provided the vessel meets the requirements of § 113.35-3(d) of this chapter....

  8. 25 CFR 117.13 - Telephone and telegraph messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Telephone and telegraph messages. 117.13 Section 117.13... COMPETENCY § 117.13 Telephone and telegraph messages. The superintendent may expend the surplus funds of an Indian to make direct payment for telephone and telegraph messages sent by the agency or received at...

  9. 25 CFR 117.13 - Telephone and telegraph messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Telephone and telegraph messages. 117.13 Section 117.13... COMPETENCY § 117.13 Telephone and telegraph messages. The superintendent may expend the surplus funds of an Indian to make direct payment for telephone and telegraph messages sent by the agency or received at...

  10. 25 CFR 117.13 - Telephone and telegraph messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and telegraph messages. 117.13 Section 117.13... COMPETENCY § 117.13 Telephone and telegraph messages. The superintendent may expend the surplus funds of an Indian to make direct payment for telephone and telegraph messages sent by the agency or received at...

  11. No-signaling, perfect bipartite dichotomic correlations and local randomness

    SciTech Connect

    Seevinck, M. P.

    2011-03-28

    The no-signaling constraint on bi-partite correlations is reviewed. It is shown that in order to obtain non-trivial Bell-type inequalities that discern no-signaling correlations from more general ones, one must go beyond considering expectation values of products of observables only. A new set of nontrivial no-signaling inequalities is derived which have a remarkably close resemblance to the CHSH inequality, yet are fundamentally different. A set of inequalities by Roy and Singh and Avis et al., which is claimed to be useful for discerning no-signaling correlations, is shown to be trivially satisfied by any correlation whatsoever. Finally, using the set of newly derived no-signaling inequalities a result with potential cryptographic consequences is proven: if different parties use identical devices, then, once they have perfect correlations at spacelike separation between dichotomic observables, they know that because of no-signaling the local marginals cannot but be completely random.

  12. Multistability, chaos, and random signal generation in semiconductor superlattices.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lei; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Historically, semiconductor superlattices, artificial periodic structures of different semiconductor materials, were invented with the purpose of engineering or manipulating the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A key application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers, and detectors in the "unusual" spectral range of subterahertz and terahertz (0.1-10 THz), which cannot be readily realized using conventional radiation sources, the so-called THz gap. Efforts in the past three decades have demonstrated various nonlinear dynamical behaviors including chaos, suggesting the potential to exploit chaos in semiconductor superlattices as random signal sources (e.g., random number generators) in the THz frequency range. We consider a realistic model of hot electrons in semiconductor superlattice, taking into account the induced space charge field. Through a systematic exploration of the phase space we find that, when the system is subject to an external electrical driving of a single frequency, chaos is typically associated with the occurrence of multistability. That is, for a given parameter setting, while there are initial conditions that lead to chaotic trajectories, simultaneously there are other initial conditions that lead to regular motions. Transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt. Multistability thus presents an obstacle to utilizing the superlattice system as a reliable and robust random signal source. However, we demonstrate that, when an additional driving field of incommensurate frequency is applied, multistability can be eliminated, with chaos representing the only possible asymptotic behavior of the system. In such a case, a random initial condition will lead to a trajectory landing in a chaotic attractor with probability 1, making quasiperiodically driven semiconductor superlattices potentially as a reliable

  13. Multistability, chaos, and random signal generation in semiconductor superlattices.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lei; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Historically, semiconductor superlattices, artificial periodic structures of different semiconductor materials, were invented with the purpose of engineering or manipulating the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A key application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers, and detectors in the "unusual" spectral range of subterahertz and terahertz (0.1-10 THz), which cannot be readily realized using conventional radiation sources, the so-called THz gap. Efforts in the past three decades have demonstrated various nonlinear dynamical behaviors including chaos, suggesting the potential to exploit chaos in semiconductor superlattices as random signal sources (e.g., random number generators) in the THz frequency range. We consider a realistic model of hot electrons in semiconductor superlattice, taking into account the induced space charge field. Through a systematic exploration of the phase space we find that, when the system is subject to an external electrical driving of a single frequency, chaos is typically associated with the occurrence of multistability. That is, for a given parameter setting, while there are initial conditions that lead to chaotic trajectories, simultaneously there are other initial conditions that lead to regular motions. Transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt. Multistability thus presents an obstacle to utilizing the superlattice system as a reliable and robust random signal source. However, we demonstrate that, when an additional driving field of incommensurate frequency is applied, multistability can be eliminated, with chaos representing the only possible asymptotic behavior of the system. In such a case, a random initial condition will lead to a trajectory landing in a chaotic attractor with probability 1, making quasiperiodically driven semiconductor superlattices potentially as a reliable

  14. Multistability, chaos, and random signal generation in semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Lei; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Historically, semiconductor superlattices, artificial periodic structures of different semiconductor materials, were invented with the purpose of engineering or manipulating the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A key application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers, and detectors in the "unusual" spectral range of subterahertz and terahertz (0.1-10 THz), which cannot be readily realized using conventional radiation sources, the so-called THz gap. Efforts in the past three decades have demonstrated various nonlinear dynamical behaviors including chaos, suggesting the potential to exploit chaos in semiconductor superlattices as random signal sources (e.g., random number generators) in the THz frequency range. We consider a realistic model of hot electrons in semiconductor superlattice, taking into account the induced space charge field. Through a systematic exploration of the phase space we find that, when the system is subject to an external electrical driving of a single frequency, chaos is typically associated with the occurrence of multistability. That is, for a given parameter setting, while there are initial conditions that lead to chaotic trajectories, simultaneously there are other initial conditions that lead to regular motions. Transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt. Multistability thus presents an obstacle to utilizing the superlattice system as a reliable and robust random signal source. However, we demonstrate that, when an additional driving field of incommensurate frequency is applied, multistability can be eliminated, with chaos representing the only possible asymptotic behavior of the system. In such a case, a random initial condition will lead to a trajectory landing in a chaotic attractor with probability 1, making quasiperiodically driven semiconductor superlattices potentially as a reliable

  15. Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Meredith Kathryn; Clarkson, Eric; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2008-01-01

    In a pure estimation task, an object of interest is known to be present, and we wish to determine numerical values for parameters that describe the object. This paper compares the theoretical framework, implementation method, and performance of two estimation procedures. We examined the performance of these estimators for tasks such as estimating signal location, signal volume, signal amplitude, or any combination of these parameters. The signal is embedded in a random background to simulate the effect of nuisance parameters. First, we explore the classical Wiener estimator, which operates linearly on the data and minimizes the ensemble mean-squared error. The results of our performance tests indicate that the Wiener estimator can estimate amplitude and shape once a signal has been located, but is fundamentally unable to locate a signal regardless of the quality of the image. Given these new results on the fundamental limitations of Wiener estimation, we extend our methods to include more complex data processing. We introduce and evaluate a scanning-linear estimator that performs impressively for location estimation. The scanning action of the estimator refers to seeking a solution that maximizes a linear metric, thereby requiring a global-extremum search. The linear metric to be optimized can be derived as a special case of maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation when the likelihood is Gaussian and a slowly varying covariance approximation is made. PMID:18545527

  16. 46 CFR 129.560 - Engine-order telegraphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine-order telegraphs. 129.560 Section 129.560 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.560 Engine-order telegraphs. No OSV need carry an...

  17. 46 CFR 129.560 - Engine-order telegraphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine-order telegraphs. 129.560 Section 129.560 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.560 Engine-order telegraphs. No OSV need carry an...

  18. On the stability of the telegraph equation with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Agirseven, Deniz; Turk, Koray

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the initial value problem for telegraph equations with delay in a Hilbert space is considered. Theorem on stability estimates for the solution of this problem is established. As a test problem, one-dimensional delay telegraph equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions is considered. Numerical solutions of this problem are obtained by first and second order of accuracy difference schemes.

  19. 46 CFR 129.560 - Engine-order telegraphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engine-order telegraphs. 129.560 Section 129.560 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.560 Engine-order telegraphs. No OSV need carry an...

  20. Dots and dashes: art, virtual reality, and the telegraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Chang, Ben

    2009-02-01

    Dots and Dashes is a virtual reality artwork that explores online romance over the telegraph, based on Ella Cheever Thayer's novel Wired Love - a Romance in Dots and Dashes (an Old Story Told in a New Way)1. The uncanny similarities between this story and the world of today's virtual environments provides the springboard for an exploration of a wealth of anxieties and dreams, including the construction of identities in an electronically mediated environment, the shifting boundaries between the natural and machine worlds, and the spiritual dimensions of science and technology. In this paper we examine the parallels between the telegraph networks and our current conceptions of cyberspace, as well as unique social and cultural impacts specific to the telegraph. These include the new opportunities and roles available to women in the telegraph industry and the connection between the telegraph and the Spiritualist movement. We discuss the development of the artwork, its structure and aesthetics, and the technical development of the work.

  1. Telegraph frequency noise in electromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F.; Zou, J.; Maizelis, Z. A.; Chan, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the possibility of revealing fluctuations in the eigenfrequency of a resonator when the frequency noise is of the telegraph type. Using a resonantly driven micromechanical resonator, we show that the time-averaged vibration amplitude spectrum exhibits two peaks. They merge with an increasing rate of frequency switching and the spectrum displays an analog of motional narrowing. We also show that the moments of the complex amplitude depend strongly on the frequency noise characteristics. This dependence remains valid even when strong thermal noise or detector noise is present.

  2. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-9... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order telegraph system must consist of transmitters...

  3. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-9... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order telegraph system must consist of transmitters...

  4. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-9... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order telegraph system must consist of transmitters...

  5. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-9... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each mechanical engine order telegraph system must consist of transmitters...

  6. 46 CFR 113.35-5 - Electric engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-5... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-5 Electric engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each electric engine order telegraph system must have transmitters and...

  7. 46 CFR 113.35-5 - Electric engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-5... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-5 Electric engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each electric engine order telegraph system must have transmitters and...

  8. 46 CFR 113.35-5 - Electric engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-5... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-5 Electric engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each electric engine order telegraph system must have transmitters and...

  9. 46 CFR 113.35-5 - Electric engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-5... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-5 Electric engine order telegraph systems. (a) Each electric engine order telegraph system must have transmitters and...

  10. 28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior finishes, framing, and furring over stonework - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  11. 48 CFR 49.601-1 - Telegraphic notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... your own account any work-in-process or other materials. Telegraph similar instructions to all... subcontractor wish to retain and continue for your account any work-in-process or other materials....

  12. 48 CFR 49.601-1 - Telegraphic notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... your own account any work-in-process or other materials. Telegraph similar instructions to all... subcontractor wish to retain and continue for your account any work-in-process or other materials....

  13. Temporal evolution of resonant transmission under telegraph noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvitz, Shmuel; Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, Ora

    2016-08-01

    The environment of a quantum dot that is connected to two leads is modeled by telegraph noise, i.e., random Markovian jumps of the (spinless) electron energy on the dot between two levels. The temporal evolutions of the charge on the dot and of the currents in the leads are studied using a recently developed single-particle basis approach, which is particularly convenient for the averaging over the histories of the noise. In the steady-state limit, we recover the Landauer formula. At a very fast jump rate between the two levels, the noise does not affect the transport. As the jump rate decreases, the effective average transmission crosses over from the transmission through a single (average) level to an incoherent sum of the transmissions through the two levels. The transient temporal evolution towards the steady state is dominated by the displacement current at short times, and by the Landauer current at long times. It contains oscillating terms that decay to zero faster than for the case without noise. When the average chemical potential on the leads equals the dot's "original" energy, without the noise, the oscillations disappear completely and the transient evolution becomes independent of the noise.

  14. Cosmic Ray Transport with Magnetic Focusing and the ``Telegraph'' model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeev, Roald; Malkov, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    Cosmic rays (CR), scattered by MHD waves, must propagate diffusively. However, because some of the particles diffuse unrealistically fast, an alternative CR transport model based on the ``telegraph'' equation was put forward. Though, its derivations often lack rigor and transparency leading to inconsistent results. We apply the Chapman-Enskog method to the CR transport. No ``telegraph'' ∂2 f / ∂t2 term emerges in a proper t >> 1 asymptotic expansion. Nevertheless, this term may be converted from the ∂4 f / ∂z4 term of that expansion. However, both the telegraph and hyperdiffusive terms are important only for a short relaxation period associated with the initial CR anisotropy/inhomogeneity. Then, the system evolves diffusively in both cases. The term conversion is possible only after this relaxation period. During this period, the telegraph solution is argued to be unphysical. Unlike the hyperdiffusion correction, it is not uniformly valid and introduces implausible singular components to the solution. These dominate the solution during the relaxation period. Because they are shown not to be inherent in the underlying scattering problem, the telegraph term is involuntarily acquired in an asymptotic reduction. Supported by NASA ATP-program under the grant NNX14AH36G.

  15. 46 CFR 113.35-15 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application...-15 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application. If a mechanical engine order telegraph... cables or other mechanical limitations must not prevent the efficient operation of the system....

  16. 46 CFR 113.35-15 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application...-15 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application. If a mechanical engine order telegraph... cables or other mechanical limitations must not prevent the efficient operation of the system....

  17. 46 CFR 113.35-15 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application...-15 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application. If a mechanical engine order telegraph... cables or other mechanical limitations must not prevent the efficient operation of the system....

  18. 46 CFR 113.35-15 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application...-15 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application. If a mechanical engine order telegraph... cables or other mechanical limitations must not prevent the efficient operation of the system....

  19. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  20. 46 CFR 113.35-15 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-15 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application. If a mechanical engine order...

  1. 26 CFR 49.4252-4 - Provisions common to telephone and telegraph services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Provisions common to telephone and telegraph... Provisions common to telephone and telegraph services. (a) In general. The tax applies to all amounts paid... dispatches, messages, or conversations are transmitted by telephone, radio telephone, telegraph, cable,...

  2. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. 113... ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7 Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. (a) Where two or more transmitters, located on or on top...

  3. 47 CFR 1.789 - Reports regarding division of international telegraph communication charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... telegraph communication charges. 1.789 Section 1.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.789 Reports regarding division of international telegraph communication charges. Carriers engaging in international telegraph communication shall file reports in...

  4. 26 CFR 49.4252-4 - Provisions common to telephone and telegraph services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Provisions common to telephone and telegraph... Provisions common to telephone and telegraph services. (a) In general. The tax applies to all amounts paid... dispatches, messages, or conversations are transmitted by telephone, radio telephone, telegraph, cable,...

  5. 26 CFR 49.4252-4 - Provisions common to telephone and telegraph services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Provisions common to telephone and telegraph... Provisions common to telephone and telegraph services. (a) In general. The tax applies to all amounts paid... dispatches, messages, or conversations are transmitted by telephone, radio telephone, telegraph, cable,...

  6. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. 113... ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7 Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. (a) Where two or more transmitters, located on or on top...

  7. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. 113... ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7 Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. (a) Where two or more transmitters, located on or on top...

  8. 47 CFR 1.789 - Reports regarding division of international telegraph communication charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... telegraph communication charges. 1.789 Section 1.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.789 Reports regarding division of international telegraph communication charges. Carriers engaging in international telegraph communication shall file reports in...

  9. 47 CFR 1.789 - Reports regarding division of international telegraph communication charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... telegraph communication charges. 1.789 Section 1.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.789 Reports regarding division of international telegraph communication charges. Carriers engaging in international telegraph communication shall file reports in...

  10. 46 CFR 32.30-5 - Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL. 32.30-5 Section..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Sound Powered Telephone, Voice Tube, and Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 32.30-5 Engine order telegraph equipment—T/ALL. Each tankship must have an engine order...

  11. 46 CFR 32.30-5 - Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL. 32.30-5 Section..., MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Sound Powered Telephone, Voice Tube, and Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 32.30-5 Engine order telegraph equipment—T/ALL. Each tankship must have an engine order...

  12. Numerical solutions of telegraph equations with the Dirichlet boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Turkcan, Kadriye Tuba; Koksal, Mehmet Emir

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the Cauchy problem for telegraph equations in a Hilbert space is considered. Stability estimates for the solution of this problem are presented. The third order of accuracy difference scheme is constructed for approximate solutions of the problem. Stability estimates for the solution of this difference scheme are established. As a test problem to support theoretical results, one-dimensional telegraph equation with the Dirichlet boundary condition is considered. Numerical solutions of this equation are obtained by first, second and third order of accuracy difference schemes.

  13. Big Sky Telegraph: Telecommunications Guide to Community Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odasz, Frank B., Comp.

    This document contains a wide assortment of papers and promotional materials concerning the Big Sky Telegraph, a Montana-based telecommunications network serving rural economic development organizations. Funded by the US West Foundation and Western Montana College, Big Sky was created to stimulate grassroots innovation in rural education,…

  14. Early Telegraphic News Dispatches: The Forerunner of the AP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzlose, Richard A.

    The origin of the Associated Press (AP) lies in the early cooperative news gathering efforts of the editors of several New York newspapers. As early as May 1846, these editors were "pooling" their energies in response to newly developed modes of communication--the wire and wireless telegraph and the trans-oceanic steamship mail services. The…

  15. 31. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH IN FOREGROUND, AT BACKGROUND LEFT IS TOP OF STAIRS DOWN TO MESS DECK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  16. Covert communications using random noise signals: effects of atmospheric propagation nulls and rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Karen M.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2005-06-01

    In military communications, there exist numerous potential threats to message security. Ultra-wideband (UWB) signals provide secure communications because they cannot, in general, be detected using conventional receivers and they can be made relatively immune from jamming. The security of an UWB signal can be further improved by mixing it with random noise. By using a random noise signal, the user can conceal the message signal within the noise waveform and thwart detection by hostile forces. This paper describes a novel spread spectrum technique that can be used for secure and covert communications. The technique is based on the use of heterodyne correlation techniques to inject coherence in a random noise signal. The modulated signal to be transmitted containing the coherent carrier is mixed with a sample of an ultra-wideband (UWB) random noise signal. The frequency range of the UWB noise signal is appropriately chosen so that the lower sideband of the mixing process falls over the same frequency range. Both the frequency-converted noise-like signal and the original random noise signal are simultaneously transmitted on orthogonally polarized channels through a dual-polarized transmitting antenna. The receiver consists of a similar dual-polarized antenna that simultaneously receives the two orthogonally polarized transmitted signals, amplifies each in a minimum phase limiting amplifier, and mixes these signals in a double sideband upconverter. The upper sideband of the mixing process recovers the modulated signal, which can then be demodulated. The advantage of this technique lies in the relative immunity of the random noise-like unpolarized transmit signal from detection and jamming. Since the transmitted signal "appears" totally unpolarized and noise-like, linearly polarized receivers are unable to identify, decode, or otherwise extract useful information from the signal. The system is immune from interference caused by high power linearly polarized signal

  17. Covert communications using random noise signals: overall system simulation and modulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Jack; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2005-06-01

    In military communications, there exist numerous potential threats to message security. Ultra-wideband (UWB) signals provide secure communications because they cannot, in general, be detected using conventional receivers and they can be made relatively immune from jamming. The security of an UWB signal can be further improved by mixing it with random noise. By using a random noise signal, the user can conceal the message signal within the noise waveform and thwart detection by hostile forces. This paper describes a novel spread spectrum technique that can be used for secure and covert communications. The technique is based on the use of heterodyne correlation techniques to inject coherence in a random noise signal. The modulated signal to be transmitted containing the coherent carrier is mixed with a sample of an ultrawideband random noise signal. The frequency range of the ultra-wideband noise signal is appropriately chosen so that the lower sideband of the mixing process falls over the same frequency range. Both the frequency-converted noise-like signal and the original random noise signal are simultaneously transmitted on orthogonally polarized channels through a dual-polarized transmitting antenna. The receiver consists of a similar dual-polarized antenna that simultaneously receives the two orthogonally polarized transmitted signals, amplifies each in a minimum phase limiting amplifier, and mixes these signals in a double sideband up-converter. The upper sideband of the mixing process recovers the modulated signal, which can then be demodulated. The advantage of this technique lies in the relative immunity of the random noise-like un-polarized transmit signal from detection and jamming. Since the transmit signal "appears" totally un-polarized and noise-like, linearly polarized receivers are unable to identify, decode, or otherwise extract useful information from the signal. The system is immune from interference caused by high power linearly polarized signal

  18. Simultaneous seismic random noise attenuation and signal preservation by optimal spatiotemporal TFPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hongbo; Li, Yue; Ma, Haitao; Xu, Liping

    2016-05-01

    The time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF) algorithm has been successfully applied to seismic random noise attenuation. However, the time-frequency peak filtering with fixed-type spatiotemporal filtering trajectories fails to preserve reflected signals in seismic events which have complex geometric structure. An optimal spatiotemporal TFPF (OST-TFPF) is proposed here combining the Shapiro-Francia (S-F) statistic to reduce random noise and preserve seismic signals simultaneously. In the novel algorithm, the S-F statistic is first calculated for seismic data to detect seismic events based on the fact that the non-Gaussian seismic signals lead to smaller values of the S-F statistic comparing to seismic random noise which is general Gaussian. Then, optimal spatiotemporal filtering trajectory can be constructed based on the S-F statistic to coincide with the shape of each event. Finally, the optimal spatiotemporal TFPF de-noises seismic data along the optimal trajectories. Since the resampled signals along the trajectories matching the geometric structures of seismic events become more linear compared to signals in time, the OST-TFPF gives better signal estimation while attenuating random noise. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that the optimal spatiotemporal TFPF is effective in the denoising and signal-preserving of the seismic data with low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the OST-TFPF also obtains good performance in preservation of seismic event with complex geometric structure.

  19. On the stability and convergence of the time-fractional variable order telegraph equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atangana, Abdon

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we have generalized the time-fractional telegraph equation using the concept of derivative of fractional variable order. The generalized equation is called time-fractional variable order telegraph equation. This new equation was solved numerically via the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Stability and convergence of the numerical solution were presented in details. Numerical simulations of the approximate solution of the time-fractional variable order telegraph equation were presented for different values of the grid point.

  20. Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-11-01

    Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks.

  1. A Monte Carlo method for solving the one-dimensional telegraph equations with boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acebrón, Juan A.; Ribeiro, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm is derived to solve the one-dimensional telegraph equations in a bounded domain subject to resistive and non-resistive boundary conditions. The proposed numerical scheme is more efficient than the classical Kac's theory because it does not require the discretization of time. The algorithm has been validated by comparing the results obtained with theory and the Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method for a typical two-wire transmission line terminated at both ends with general boundary conditions. We have also tested transmission line heterogeneities to account for wave propagation in multiple media. The algorithm is inherently parallel, since it is based on Monte Carlo simulations, and does not suffer from the numerical dispersion and dissipation issues that arise in finite difference-based numerical schemes on a lossy medium. This allowed us to develop an efficient numerical method, capable of outperforming the classical FDTD method for large scale problems and high frequency signals.

  2. Investigation of correlation characteristics for random array collaborative beamforming using noise signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David B.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Himed, Braham

    2016-05-01

    The performance of different random array geometries is analyzed and compared. Three phased array geometries are considered: linear arrays with non-uniform randomized spacing between elements, circular arrays with non-uniform element radii, and ad hoc sensor networks with elements located randomly within a circular area. For each of these array geometries, computer simulations modeled the transmission, reflection from an arbitrary target, and reception of signals. The effectiveness of each array's beamforming techniques was measured by taking the peak cross-correlation between the received signal and a time-delayed replica of the original transmitted signal. For each array type, the correlation performance was obtained for transmission and reception of both chirp waveforms and ultra-wideband noise signals. It was found that the non-uniform linear array generally produced the highest correlation between transmitted and reflected signals. The non-uniform circular and ad hoc arrays demonstrated the most consistent performance with respect to noise signal bandwidth. The effect of scan angle was found to have a significant impact on the correlation performance of the linear arrays, where the correlation performance declines as the scan angle moves away from broadside to the array.

  3. Parent Telegraphic Speech Use and Spoken Language in Preschoolers with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Meyer, Allison; Sindberg, Heidi; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is considerable controversy regarding whether to use telegraphic or grammatical input when speaking to young children with language delays, including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined telegraphic speech use in parents of preschoolers with ASD and associations with children's spoken language 1 year…

  4. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. 113.35-13 Section 113.35-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  5. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. 113.35-13 Section 113.35-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  6. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. 113.35-13 Section 113.35-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  7. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. 113.35-13 Section 113.35-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  8. 46 CFR 113.35-9 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems. 113.35-9 Section 113.35-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-9 Mechanical engine...

  9. Development of an Analytical Approach to Telegraphic Communication. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clessen J.

    It has been assumed that written and spoken language contains many words and word sequences which are unnecessary for the comprehension of a message. The purpose of this research was the development and evaluation of three major telegraphic production schemes. Telegraphic prose refers to an abbreviated writing style similar to that found in…

  10. 46 CFR 32.30-5 - Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL. 32.30-5 Section 32.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Sound Powered Telephone, Voice Tube, and Engine Order Telegraph...

  11. 46 CFR 32.30-5 - Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engine order telegraph equipment-T/ALL. 32.30-5 Section 32.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Sound Powered Telephone, Voice Tube, and Engine Order Telegraph...

  12. 26 CFR 49.4254-2 - Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph... Communications § 49.4254-2 Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones. Where the tax on a toll telephone or radio telephone message or conversation, or a telegraph, cable,...

  13. 12 CFR 221.114 - Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock Plan. 221.114 Section 221.114 Banks and Banking...) Interpretations § 221.114 Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees... to persons who are purchasing shares of stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company pursuant...

  14. 26 CFR 49.4254-2 - Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph... Communications § 49.4254-2 Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones. Where the tax on a toll telephone or radio telephone message or conversation, or a telegraph, cable,...

  15. 12 CFR 221.114 - Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock Plan. 221.114 Section 221.114 Banks and Banking...) Interpretations § 221.114 Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees... to persons who are purchasing shares of stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company pursuant...

  16. Comparison of the telegraph and hyperdiffusion approximations in cosmic-ray transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Noble, P. L.

    2016-06-01

    The telegraph equation and its generalizations have been repeatedly considered in the models of diffusive cosmic-ray transport. Yet the telegraph model has well-known limitations, and analytical arguments suggest that a hyperdiffusion model should serve as a more accurate alternative to the telegraph model, especially on the timescale of a few scattering times. We present a detailed side-by-side comparison of an evolving particle density profile, predicted by the telegraph and hyperdiffusion models in the context of a simple but physically meaningful initial-value problem, compare the predictions with the solution based on the Fokker-Planck equation, and discuss the applicability of the telegraph and hyperdiffusion approximations to the description of strongly anisotropic particle distributions.

  17. Power of the echo signal at grazing angles of location of a randomly irregular surface

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, M.L.

    1995-03-01

    The power of an optical signal detected upon nonstationary irradiation of a randomly irregular surface in the case when mutual shading of surface elements is an essential factor is investigated. An expression for an average (over an ensemble of irregular surfaces) power detected in location of a surface with a Gaussian distribution of heights and inclinations by a {delta}-pulse under conditions of strong shadings is derived. Shading is shown to produce a substantial distortion of the shape of the echo signal. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Application of the three-dimensional telegraph equation to cosmic-ray transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, Robert C.; Lerche, Ian

    2016-10-01

    An analytical solution to the three-dimensional telegraph equation is presented. This equation has recently received some attention but so far the treatment has been one-dimensional. By using the structural similarity to the Klein-Gordon equation, the telegraph equation can be solved in closed form. Illustrative examples are used to discuss the qualitative differences from the diffusion solution. A comparison with a numerical test-particle simulation reveals that some features of an intensity profile can be better explained using the telegraph approach.

  19. Stabilization and asymptotic behavior of a generalized telegraph equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicaise, Serge

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the stability of different models of the telegraph equation set in a real interval. They correspond to the coupling between a first-order hyperbolic system and a first-order differential equation of parabolic type. We show that some models have an exponential decay rate, while other ones are only polynomially stable. When the parameters are constant, we show that the obtained polynomial decay is optimal and in the case of an exponential decay that the decay rate is equal to the spectral abscissa. These optimality results are based on a careful spectral analysis of the operator. In particular, we characterize its full spectrum that is made of a discrete set of eigenvalues and an essential spectrum reduced to one point.

  20. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on deep random forest fusion of acoustic and vibratory signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Sanchez, René-Vinicio; Zurita, Grover; Cerrada, Mariela; Cabrera, Diego; Vásquez, Rafael E.

    2016-08-01

    Fault diagnosis is an effective tool to guarantee safe operations in gearboxes. Acoustic and vibratory measurements in such mechanical devices are all sensitive to the existence of faults. This work addresses the use of a deep random forest fusion (DRFF) technique to improve fault diagnosis performance for gearboxes by using measurements of an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer that are used for monitoring the gearbox condition simultaneously. The statistical parameters of the wavelet packet transform (WPT) are first produced from the AE signal and the vibratory signal, respectively. Two deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs) are then developed for deep representations of the WPT statistical parameters. A random forest is finally suggested to fuse the outputs of the two DBMs as the integrated DRFF model. The proposed DRFF technique is evaluated using gearbox fault diagnosis experiments under different operational conditions, and achieves 97.68% of the classification rate for 11 different condition patterns. Compared to other peer algorithms, the addressed method exhibits the best performance. The results indicate that the deep learning fusion of acoustic and vibratory signals may improve fault diagnosis capabilities for gearboxes.

  1. The Telegraph Approximation for Focused Cosmic-Ray Transport in the Presence of Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Effenberger, Frederic; Schlickeiser, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Diffusive cosmic-ray transport in nonuniform large-scale magnetic fields in the presence of boundaries is considered. Reflecting and absorbing boundary conditions are derived for a modified telegraph equation with a convective term. Analytical and numerical solutions of illustrative boundary problems are presented. The applicability and accuracy of the telegraph approximation for focused cosmic-ray transport in the presence of boundaries are discussed, and potential applications to modeling cosmic-ray transport are noted.

  2. Stochastic resonance in a fractional harmonic oscillator subject to random mass and signal-modulated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Zhu, Cheng-Yin; Cheng, Xiao-Feng; Li, Heng

    2016-10-01

    Stochastic resonance in a fractional harmonic oscillator with random mass and signal-modulated noise is investigated. Applying linear system theory and the characteristics of the noises, the analysis expression of the mean output-amplitude-gain (OAG) is obtained. It is shown that the OAG varies non-monotonically with the increase of the intensity of the multiplicative dichotomous noise, with the increase of the frequency of the driving force, as well as with the increase of the system frequency. In addition, the OAG is a non-monotonic function of the system friction coefficient, as a function of the viscous damping coefficient, as a function of the fractional exponent.

  3. Signals in Communication Engineering History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

  4. Application of the Radon–FCL approach to seismic random noise suppression and signal preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanlei; Li, Yue; Liu, Yanping; Tian, Yanan; Wu, Ning

    2016-08-01

    The fractal conservation law (FCL) is a linear partial differential equation that is modified by an anti-diffusive term of lower order. The analysis indicated that this algorithm could eliminate high frequencies and preserve or amplify low/medium-frequencies. Thus, this method is quite suitable for the simultaneous noise suppression and enhancement or preservation of seismic signals. However, the conventional FCL filters seismic data only along the time direction, thereby ignoring the spatial coherence between neighbouring traces, which leads to the loss of directional information. Therefore, we consider the development of the conventional FCL into the time-space domain and propose a Radon–FCL approach. We applied a Radon transform to implement the FCL method in this article; performing FCL filtering in the Radon domain achieves a higher level of noise attenuation. Using this method, seismic reflection events can be recovered with the sacrifice of fewer frequency components while effectively attenuating more random noise than conventional FCL filtering. Experiments using both synthetic and common shot point data demonstrate the advantages of the Radon–FCL approach versus the conventional FCL method with regard to both random noise attenuation and seismic signal preservation.

  5. Application of the Radon-FCL approach to seismic random noise suppression and signal preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanlei; Li, Yue; Liu, Yanping; Tian, Yanan; Wu, Ning

    2016-08-01

    The fractal conservation law (FCL) is a linear partial differential equation that is modified by an anti-diffusive term of lower order. The analysis indicated that this algorithm could eliminate high frequencies and preserve or amplify low/medium-frequencies. Thus, this method is quite suitable for the simultaneous noise suppression and enhancement or preservation of seismic signals. However, the conventional FCL filters seismic data only along the time direction, thereby ignoring the spatial coherence between neighbouring traces, which leads to the loss of directional information. Therefore, we consider the development of the conventional FCL into the time-space domain and propose a Radon-FCL approach. We applied a Radon transform to implement the FCL method in this article; performing FCL filtering in the Radon domain achieves a higher level of noise attenuation. Using this method, seismic reflection events can be recovered with the sacrifice of fewer frequency components while effectively attenuating more random noise than conventional FCL filtering. Experiments using both synthetic and common shot point data demonstrate the advantages of the Radon-FCL approach versus the conventional FCL method with regard to both random noise attenuation and seismic signal preservation.

  6. Neurons in Striate Cortex Signal Disparity in Half-Matched Random-Dot Stereograms

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Cumming, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Human stereopsis can operate in dense “cyclopean” images containing no monocular objects. This is believed to depend on the computation of binocular correlation by neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). The observation that humans perceive depth in half-matched random-dot stereograms, although these stimuli have no net correlation, has led to the proposition that human depth perception in these stimuli depends on a distinct “matching” computation possibly performed in extrastriate cortex. However, recording from disparity-selective neurons in V1 of fixating monkeys, we found that they are in fact able to signal disparity in half-matched stimuli. We present a simple model that explains these results. This reinstates the view that disparity-selective neurons in V1 provide the initial substrate for perception in dense cyclopean stimuli, and strongly suggests that separate correlation and matching computations are not necessary to explain existing data on mixed correlation stereograms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The initial step in stereoscopic 3D vision is generally thought to be a correlation-based computation that takes place in striate cortex. Recent research has argued that there must be an additional matching computation involved in extracting stereoscopic depth in random-dot stereograms. This is based on the observation that humans can perceive depth in stimuli with a mean binocular correlation of zero (where a correlation-based mechanism should not signal depth). We show that correlation-based cells in striate cortex do in fact signal depth here because they convert fluctuations in the correlation level into a mean change in the firing rate. Our results reinstate the view that these cells provide a sufficient substrate for the perception of stereoscopic depth. PMID:27559177

  7. The use of steerable channels for detecting asymmetrical signals with random orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Bart; Platiša, Ljiljana; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2010-02-01

    In the optimization of medical imaging systems, there is a stringent need to shift from human observer studies to numerical observer studies, because of both cost and time limitations. Numerical models give an objective measure for the quality of displayed images for a given task and can be designed to predict the performance of medical specialists performing the same task. For the task of signal detection, the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) has been successfully used, although several studies indicate an overefficiency of the CHO compared to human observers. One of the main causes of this overefficiency is attributed to the intrinsic uncertainty about the signal (such as its orientation) that a human observer is dealing with. Deeper knowledge of the discrepancies of the CHO and the human observer may provide extra insight in the processing of the human visual system and this knowledge can be utilized to better fine-tune medical imaging systems. In this paper, we investigate the optimal detection of asymmetrical signals with statistically known random orientation, based on joint detection and estimation theory. We derive the optimal channelized observer for this task and we show that the optimal detection in channel space requires the use of steerable channels, which are used in steerable pyramid transforms in image processing. Even though the use of CHOs for SKS tasks has not been studied so far, our findings indicate that CHO models can be further extended to incorporate intrinsic uncertainty about the signal to behave closer to humans. Experimental results are provided to illustrate these findings.

  8. Directed random walks and constraint programming reveal active pathways in hepatocyte growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kittas, Aristotelis; Delobelle, Aurélien; Schmitt, Sabrina; Breuhahn, Kai; Guziolowski, Carito; Grabe, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An effective means to analyze mRNA expression data is to take advantage of established knowledge from pathway databases, using methods such as pathway-enrichment analyses. However, pathway databases are not case-specific and expression data could be used to infer gene-regulation patterns in the context of specific pathways. In addition, canonical pathways may not always describe the signaling mechanisms properly, because interactions can frequently occur between genes in different pathways. Relatively few methods have been proposed to date for generating and analyzing such networks, preserving the causality between gene interactions and reasoning over the qualitative logic of regulatory effects. We present an algorithm (MCWalk) integrated with a logic programming approach, to discover subgraphs in large-scale signaling networks by random walks in a fully automated pipeline. As an exemplary application, we uncover the signal transduction mechanisms in a gene interaction network describing hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration and proliferation from gene-expression measured with microarray and RT-qPCR using in-house perturbation experiments in a keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. The resulting subgraphs illustrate possible associations of hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met nodes, differentially expressed genes and cellular states. Using perturbation experiments and Answer Set programming, we are able to select those which are more consistent with the experimental data. We discover key regulator nodes by measuring the frequency with which they are traversed when connecting signaling between receptors and significantly regulated genes and predict their expression-shift consistently with the measured data. The Java implementation of MCWalk is publicly available under the MIT license at: https://bitbucket.org/akittas/biosubg.

  9. Studies on spectral analysis of randomly sampled signals: Application to laser velocimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, David

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis is very useful in determining the frequency characteristics of many turbulent flows, for example, vortex flows, tail buffeting, and other pulsating flows. It is also used for obtaining turbulence spectra from which the time and length scales associated with the turbulence structure can be estimated. These estimates, in turn, can be helpful for validation of theoretical/numerical flow turbulence models. Laser velocimetry (LV) is being extensively used in the experimental investigation of different types of flows, because of its inherent advantages; nonintrusive probing, high frequency response, no calibration requirements, etc. Typically, the output of an individual realization laser velocimeter is a set of randomly sampled velocity data. Spectral analysis of such data requires special techniques to obtain reliable estimates of correlation and power spectral density functions that describe the flow characteristics. FORTRAN codes for obtaining the autocorrelation and power spectral density estimates using the correlation-based slotting technique were developed. Extensive studies have been conducted on simulated first-order spectrum and sine signals to improve the spectral estimates. A first-order spectrum was chosen because it represents the characteristics of a typical one-dimensional turbulence spectrum. Digital prefiltering techniques, to improve the spectral estimates from randomly sampled data were applied. Studies show that the spectral estimates can be increased up to about five times the mean sampling rate.

  10. Studies on spectral analysis of randomly sampled signals: Application to laser velocimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree, David

    1992-09-01

    Spectral analysis is very useful in determining the frequency characteristics of many turbulent flows, for example, vortex flows, tail buffeting, and other pulsating flows. It is also used for obtaining turbulence spectra from which the time and length scales associated with the turbulence structure can be estimated. These estimates, in turn, can be helpful for validation of theoretical/numerical flow turbulence models. Laser velocimetry (LV) is being extensively used in the experimental investigation of different types of flows, because of its inherent advantages; nonintrusive probing, high frequency response, no calibration requirements, etc. Typically, the output of an individual realization laser velocimeter is a set of randomly sampled velocity data. Spectral analysis of such data requires special techniques to obtain reliable estimates of correlation and power spectral density functions that describe the flow characteristics. FORTRAN codes for obtaining the autocorrelation and power spectral density estimates using the correlation-based slotting technique were developed. Extensive studies have been conducted on simulated first-order spectrum and sine signals to improve the spectral estimates. A first-order spectrum was chosen because it represents the characteristics of a typical one-dimensional turbulence spectrum. Digital prefiltering techniques, to improve the spectral estimates from randomly sampled data were applied. Studies show that the spectral estimates can be increased up to about five times the mean sampling rate.

  11. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  12. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  13. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  14. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  15. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  16. 12 CFR 221.114 - Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock Plan. 221.114 Section 221.114 Banks and Banking... (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.114 Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph... proposed loans by a bank to persons who are purchasing shares of stock of American Telephone and...

  17. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  18. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  19. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  20. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  1. The effect of signal-temporal uncertainty on detection in bursts of noise or a random-frequency complex

    PubMed Central

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of signal-temporal uncertainty on detection of a 120-ms, 1-kHz tone in the presence of a continuous sequence of 120-ms bursts of either a broadband noise or a random-frequency, two-tone complex. Using the method of constant stimuli, signal-temporal uncertainty was defined as the difference in threshold across temporally uncertain and temporally defined listening conditions. Results indicted an average effect of signal-temporal uncertainty of 2 dB for the noise masker compared to 9 dB for the random-frequency, two-tone masker. These results suggest that signal-temporal uncertainty may be more detrimental for conditions in which informational masking dominates performance. PMID:19045685

  2. A fast random walk algorithm for computing the pulsed-gradient spin-echo signal in multiscale porous media.

    PubMed

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2011-02-01

    A new method for computing the signal attenuation due to restricted diffusion in a linear magnetic field gradient is proposed. A fast random walk (FRW) algorithm for simulating random trajectories of diffusing spin-bearing particles is combined with gradient encoding. As random moves of a FRW are continuously adapted to local geometrical length scales, the method is efficient for simulating pulsed-gradient spin-echo experiments in hierarchical or multiscale porous media such as concrete, sandstones, sedimentary rocks and, potentially, brain or lungs. PMID:21159532

  3. A fast random walk algorithm for computing the pulsed-gradient spin-echo signal in multiscale porous media.

    PubMed

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2011-02-01

    A new method for computing the signal attenuation due to restricted diffusion in a linear magnetic field gradient is proposed. A fast random walk (FRW) algorithm for simulating random trajectories of diffusing spin-bearing particles is combined with gradient encoding. As random moves of a FRW are continuously adapted to local geometrical length scales, the method is efficient for simulating pulsed-gradient spin-echo experiments in hierarchical or multiscale porous media such as concrete, sandstones, sedimentary rocks and, potentially, brain or lungs.

  4. Novel Evidence That Attributing Affectively Salient Signal to Random Noise Is Associated with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Catalan, Ana; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Bustamante, Sonia; Drukker, Marjan; Madrazo, Aranzazu; de Artaza, Maider Gonzalez; Gorostiza, Iñigo; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    We wished to replicate evidence that an experimental paradigm of speech illusions is associated with psychotic experiences. Fifty-four patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) and 150 healthy subjects were examined in an experimental paradigm assessing the presence of speech illusion in neutral white noise. Socio-demographic, cognitive function and family history data were collected. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered in the patient group and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R), and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) in the control group. Patients had a much higher rate of speech illusions (33.3% versus 8.7%, ORadjusted: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.3–11.5), which was only partly explained by differences in IQ (ORadjusted: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4–8.3). Differences were particularly marked for signals in random noise that were perceived as affectively salient (ORadjusted: 9.7, 95% CI: 1.8–53.9). Speech illusion tended to be associated with positive symptoms in patients (ORadjusted: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.9–11.6), particularly affectively salient illusions (ORadjusted: 8.3, 95% CI: 0.7–100.3). In controls, speech illusions were not associated with positive schizotypy (ORadjusted: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.3–3.4) or self-reported psychotic experiences (ORadjusted: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.4–4.6). Experimental paradigms indexing the tendency to detect affectively salient signals in noise may be used to identify liability to psychosis. PMID:25020079

  5. Applying the random effect negative binomial model to examine traffic accident occurrence at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Chin, Hoong Chor; Quddus, Mohammed Abdul

    2003-03-01

    Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models have been used to analyze traffic accident occurrence at intersections for several years. There are however, limitations in the use of such models. The Poisson model requires the variance-to-mean ratio of the accident data to be about 1. Both the Poisson and the NB models require the accident data to be uncorrelated in time. Due to unobserved heterogeneity and serial correlation in the accident data, both models seem to be inappropriate. A more suitable alternative is the random effect negative binomial (RENB) model, which by treating the data in a time-series cross-section panel, will be able to deal with the spatial and temporal effects in the data. This paper describes the use of RENB model to identify the elements that affect intersection safety. To establish the suitability of the model, several goodness-of-fit statistics are used. The model is then applied to investigate the relationship between accident occurrence and the geometric, traffic and control characteristics of signalized intersections in Singapore. The results showed that 11 variables significantly affected the safety at the intersections. The total approach volumes, the numbers of phases per cycle, the uncontrolled left-turn lane and the presence of a surveillance camera are among the variables that are the highly significant. PMID:12504146

  6. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    PubMed

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.

  7. 25 CFR 169.26 - Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and other communications facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and...; radio, television, and other communications facilities. (a) The Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. 790... communication purposes, and for radio, television, and other forms of communication transmitting, relay,...

  8. 25 CFR 169.26 - Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and other communications facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and...; radio, television, and other communications facilities. (a) The Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. 790... communication purposes, and for radio, television, and other forms of communication transmitting, relay,...

  9. 25 CFR 169.26 - Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and other communications facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and...; radio, television, and other communications facilities. (a) The Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. 790... communication purposes, and for radio, television, and other forms of communication transmitting, relay,...

  10. 47 CFR 1.789 - Reports regarding division of international telegraph communication charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports regarding division of international... Financial and Accounting Reports and Requests § 1.789 Reports regarding division of international telegraph... to the division of communication charges as required by part 43 of this chapter....

  11. 25 CFR 169.26 - Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and other communications facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.26 Telephone and telegraph lines..., 1901 (31 Stat. 1083; 25 U.S.C. 319), authorize right-of-way grants across tribal, individually owned... receiving structures and facilities. Rights-of-way granted under these acts shall be subject to...

  12. Development of an Analytical Approach to Telegraphic Communication. Volume II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clessen J.

    This study analyzed and evaluated three major telegraphic production schemes. This second volume consists of eight appendixes which give the stimulus materials in their various reduction formats and their associated tests. For the first volume of the study see IR 001 308. (WCM)

  13. 25 CFR 169.26 - Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and other communications facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Telephone and telegraph lines; radio, television, and...; radio, television, and other communications facilities. (a) The Act of February 15, 1901 (31 Stat. 790... communication purposes, and for radio, television, and other forms of communication transmitting, relay,...

  14. Cosmic Ray Transport with Magnetic Focusing and the “Telegraph" Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, M. A.; Sagdeev, R. Z.

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic rays (CR), constrained by scattering on magnetic irregularities, are believed to propagate diffusively. However, a well-known defect of diffusive approximation, whereby some of the particles propagate unrealistically fast, has directed interest toward an alternative CR transport model based on the “telegraph” equation. Though, its derivations often lack rigor and transparency leading to inconsistent results. We apply the classic Chapman–Enskog method to the CR transport problem. We show that no “telegraph” (second order time derivative) term emerges in any order of a proper asymptotic expansion with systematically eliminated short timescales. Nevertheless, this term may formally be converted from the fourth order hyper-diffusive term of the expansion. However, both the telegraph and hyperdiffusive terms may only be important for a short relaxation period associated with either strong pitch-angle anisotropy or spatial inhomogeneity of the initial CR distribution. Beyond this period the system evolves diffusively in both cases. The term conversion, that makes the telegraph and Chapman–Enskog approaches reasonably equivalent, is possible only after this relaxation period. During this period, the telegraph solution is argued to be unphysical. Unlike the hyperdiffusion correction, it is not uniformly valid and introduces implausible singular components to the solution. These dominate the solution during the relaxation period. Because they are shown not to be inherent in the underlying scattering problem, we argue that the telegraph term is involuntarily acquired in an asymptotic reduction of the problem.

  15. Analytical method for space-fractional telegraph equation by homotopy perturbation transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Amit

    2016-06-01

    The object of the present article is to study spacefractional telegraph equation by fractional Homotopy perturbation transform method (FHPTM). The homotopy perturbation transform method is an innovative adjustment in Laplace transform algorithm. Three test examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  16. A didactically novel derivation of the telegraph equation to describe sound propagation in rigid tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Bernie C.; Driessen, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Starting from first principles, we derive the telegraph equation to describe the propagation of sound waves in rigid tubes by using a simple approach that yields a lossy transmission line model with frequency-independent parameters. The approach is novel in the sense that it has not been found in the literature or textbooks. To derive the lossy acoustic telegraph equation from the lossless wave equation, we need only to relax the assumption that the dynamical variables are constant over the entire cross-sectional area of the tube. In this paper, we do this by introducing a relatively narrow boundary layer at the wall of the tube, over which the dynamical variables decrease linearly from the constant value to zero. This allows us to make very simple corrections to the lossless case, and to express them in terms of two parameters, namely the viscous diffusion time constant and the thermal diffusion time constant. The coefficients of the resulting telegraph equation are frequency-independent. A comparison with the telegraph equation for the electrical transmission line establishes precise relationships between the electrical circuit elements and the physical properties of the fluid. These relationships are thus proven a posteriori rather than asserted a priori. In this way, we arrive at an instructive and useful derivation of the acoustic telegraph equation, which takes viscous damping and thermal dissipation into account, and is accessible to students at the undergraduate level. This derivation does not resort to the combined heavy machinery of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics, does not assume that the waveforms are sinusoidal, and does not assume any particular cross-sectional shape of the tube. Surprisingly, we have been unable to find a comparable treatment in the standard introductory physics and acoustics texts, or in the literature.

  17. Charting the Signal Trajectory in a Light-Oxygen-Voltage Photoreceptor by Random Mutagenesis and Covariance Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Gleichmann, Tobias; Diensthuber, Ralph P.; Möglich, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Modular signal receptors empower organisms to process environmental stimuli into adequate physiological responses. At the molecular level, a sensor module receives signals and processes the inherent information into changes of biological activity of an effector module. To better understand the molecular bases underpinning these processes, we analyzed signal reception and processing in the dimeric light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) blue light receptor YF1 that serves as a paradigm for the widespread Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) signal receptors. Random mutagenesis identifies numerous YF1 variants in which biological activity is retained but where light regulation is abolished or inverted. One group of variants carries mutations within the LOV photosensor that disrupt proper coupling of the flavin-nucleotide chromophore to the protein scaffold. Another larger group bears mutations that cluster at the dyad interface and disrupt signal transmission to two coaxial coiled-coils that connect to the effector. Sequence covariation implies wide conservation of structural and mechanistic motifs, as also borne out by comparison to several PAS domains in which mutations leading to disruption of signal transduction consistently map to confined regions broadly equivalent to those identified in YF1. Not only do these data provide insight into general mechanisms of signal transduction, but also they establish concrete means for customized reprogramming of signal receptors. PMID:24003219

  18. Effects of Random Circuit Fabrication Errors on Small Signal Gain and on Output Phase In a Traveling Wave Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittersdorf, I. M.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Chernin, D.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Random fabrication errors may have detrimental effects on the performance of traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) of all types. A new scaling law for the modification in the average small signal gain and in the output phase is derived from the third order ordinary differential equation that governs the forward wave interaction in a TWT in the presence of random error that is distributed along the axis of the tube. Analytical results compare favorably with numerical results, in both gain and phase modifications as a result of random error in the phase velocity of the slow wave circuit. Results on the effect of the reverse-propagating circuit mode will be reported. This work supported by AFOSR, ONR, L-3 Communications Electron Devices, and Northrop Grumman Corporation.

  19. FOG Random Drift Signal Denoising Based on the Improved AR Model and Modified Sage-Husa Adaptive Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Yiting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) random drift error on inertial navigation systems, an improved auto regressive (AR) model is put forward in this paper. First, based on real-time observations at each restart of the gyroscope, the model of FOG random drift can be established online. In the improved AR model, the FOG measured signal is employed instead of the zero mean signals. Then, the modified Sage-Husa adaptive Kalman filter (SHAKF) is introduced, which can directly carry out real-time filtering on the FOG signals. Finally, static and dynamic experiments are done to verify the effectiveness. The filtering results are analyzed with Allan variance. The analysis results show that the improved AR model has high fitting accuracy and strong adaptability, and the minimum fitting accuracy of single noise is 93.2%. Based on the improved AR(3) model, the denoising method of SHAKF is more effective than traditional methods, and its effect is better than 30%. The random drift error of FOG is reduced effectively, and the precision of the FOG is improved. PMID:27420062

  20. FOG Random Drift Signal Denoising Based on the Improved AR Model and Modified Sage-Husa Adaptive Kalman Filter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Yiting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) random drift error on inertial navigation systems, an improved auto regressive (AR) model is put forward in this paper. First, based on real-time observations at each restart of the gyroscope, the model of FOG random drift can be established online. In the improved AR model, the FOG measured signal is employed instead of the zero mean signals. Then, the modified Sage-Husa adaptive Kalman filter (SHAKF) is introduced, which can directly carry out real-time filtering on the FOG signals. Finally, static and dynamic experiments are done to verify the effectiveness. The filtering results are analyzed with Allan variance. The analysis results show that the improved AR model has high fitting accuracy and strong adaptability, and the minimum fitting accuracy of single noise is 93.2%. Based on the improved AR(3) model, the denoising method of SHAKF is more effective than traditional methods, and its effect is better than 30%. The random drift error of FOG is reduced effectively, and the precision of the FOG is improved. PMID:27420062

  1. FOG Random Drift Signal Denoising Based on the Improved AR Model and Modified Sage-Husa Adaptive Kalman Filter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Yiting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao

    2016-07-12

    In order to reduce the influence of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) random drift error on inertial navigation systems, an improved auto regressive (AR) model is put forward in this paper. First, based on real-time observations at each restart of the gyroscope, the model of FOG random drift can be established online. In the improved AR model, the FOG measured signal is employed instead of the zero mean signals. Then, the modified Sage-Husa adaptive Kalman filter (SHAKF) is introduced, which can directly carry out real-time filtering on the FOG signals. Finally, static and dynamic experiments are done to verify the effectiveness. The filtering results are analyzed with Allan variance. The analysis results show that the improved AR model has high fitting accuracy and strong adaptability, and the minimum fitting accuracy of single noise is 93.2%. Based on the improved AR(3) model, the denoising method of SHAKF is more effective than traditional methods, and its effect is better than 30%. The random drift error of FOG is reduced effectively, and the precision of the FOG is improved.

  2. Power Spectrum of Uplink Array Signals with Random Phase and Delay Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Link Array signals emanating from different antennas must be compensated for Doppler and delay in order to achieve the N(sup 2) array gain predicted by theory. However compensation is never perfect, leaving residual errors that cause losses in array gain and degradation in signal quality. Here we develop a mathematical model for Uplink Array signals in the presence of phase and delay errors, similar to well-known multipath analyses but with features unique to this problem. The resulting losses and distortions are described, and the power spectral density of the array signal derived first conditioned on a given error vector, then averaged over distributions deemed suitable for Uplink Array applications. The impact of phase and delay errors on array gain and signal distortion are addressed, and the maximum data throughput is quantified in terms of the assumed error statistics.

  3. Compensation of decoherence from telegraph noise by means of an open-loop quantum-control technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, Henryk; Wilhelm, Frank K.; Kaminsky, William M.; Lloyd, Seth

    2005-02-01

    With the growing efforts in isolating solid-state qubits from external decoherence sources, the origins of noise inherent to the material start to play a relevant role. One representative example is charged impurities in the device material or substrate, which typically produce telegraph noise and can hence be modeled as bistable fluctuators. In order to demonstrate the possibility of the active suppression of the disturbance from a single fluctuator, we theoretically implement an elementary bang-bang control protocol, a protocol based on sudden pulses. We numerically simulate the random walk of the qubit state on the Bloch sphere with and without bang-bang compensation by means of a stochastic Schroedinger equation and compare it with an analytical saddle-point solution of the corresponding Langevin equation in the long-time limit. We find that the deviation with respect to the noiseless case is significantly reduced when bang-bang pulses are applied, being scaled down approximately by the ratio of the bang-bang period to the typical flipping time of the bistable fluctuation. Our analysis gives not only the effect of bang-bang control on the variance of these deviations, but also their entire distribution. As a result, we expect that bang-bang control works as a high-pass filter on the spectrum of noise sources. This indicates how the influence of 1/f noise ubiquitous to the solid-state world can be reduced.

  4. Origin of multi-level switching and telegraphic noise in organic nanocomposite memory devices

    PubMed Central

    Song, Younggul; Jeong, Hyunhak; Chung, Seungjun; Ahn, Geun Ho; Kim, Tae-Young; Jang, Jingon; Yoo, Daekyoung; Jeong, Heejun; Javey, Ali; Lee, Takhee

    2016-01-01

    The origin of negative differential resistance (NDR) and its derivative intermediate resistive states (IRSs) of nanocomposite memory systems have not been clearly analyzed for the past decade. To address this issue, we investigate the current fluctuations of organic nanocomposite memory devices with NDR and the IRSs under various temperature conditions. The 1/f noise scaling behaviors at various temperature conditions in the IRSs and telegraphic noise in NDR indicate the localized current pathways in the organic nanocomposite layers for each IRS. The clearly observed telegraphic noise with a long characteristic time in NDR at low temperature indicates that the localized current pathways for the IRSs are attributed to trapping/de-trapping at the deep trap levels in NDR. This study will be useful for the development and tuning of multi-bit storable organic nanocomposite memory device systems. PMID:27659298

  5. Parametric excitation of high-mode oscillations for a non-linear telegraph equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2000-08-31

    The problem of parametric excitation of high-mode oscillations is solved for a non-linear telegraph equation with a parametric external excitation and small diffusion. The equation is considered on a finite (spatial) interval with Neumann boundary conditions. It is shown that under a proper choice of parameters of the external excitation this boundary-value problem can have arbitrarily many exponentially stable solutions that are periodic in time and rapidly oscillate with respect to the spatial variable.

  6. High-fidelity one-qubit operations under random telegraph noise

    SciTech Connect

    Moettoenen, Mikko; Sousa, Rogerio de; Zhang Jun; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2006-02-15

    We address the problem of implementing high-fidelity one-qubit operations subject to time-dependent noise in the qubit energy splitting. We show with explicit numerical results that high-fidelity bit flip operations may be generated by imposing bounded control fields. For noise correlation times shorter than the time for a {pi} pulse, the time-optimal {pi} pulse itself yields the highest fidelity. For very long correlation times, fidelity loss is approximately due to systematic error, which is efficiently tackled by compensation for off resonance with a pulse sequence (CORPSE). For intermediate ranges of the noise correlation time, we find that short CORPSE, which is less accurate than CORPSE in correcting systematic errors, yields higher fidelities. Numerical optimization of the pulse sequences using gradient ascent pulse engineering results in noticeable improvement of the fidelity for a bit flip operation on the computational basis states and a small but still positive fidelity enhancement for the NOT gate.

  7. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement.

  8. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement. PMID:25546999

  9. Effect of Random Circuit Fabrication Errors on Small Signal Gain and Phase in Helix Traveling Wave Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Chernin, D. P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Luginsland, J. W.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2007-11-01

    Motivated by the current interest in mm-wave and THz sources, which use miniature, difficult-to-fabricate circuit components, we evaluate the statistical effects of random fabrication errors on a helix traveling wave tube amplifier's small signal characteristics. The small signal theory is treated in a continuum model in which the electron beam is assumed to be monoenergetic, and axially symmetric about the helix axis. Perturbations that vary randomly along the beam axis are introduced in the dimensionless Pierce parameters b, the beam-wave velocity mismatch, C, the gain parameter, and d, the cold tube circuit loss. Our study shows, as expected, that perturbation in b dominates the other two. The extensive numerical data have been confirmed by our analytic theory. They show in particular that the standard deviation of the output phase is linearly proportional to standard deviation of the individual perturbations in b, C, and d. Simple formulas have been derived which yield the output phase variations in terms of the statistical random manufacturing errors. This work was supported by AFOSR and by ONR.

  10. Characterization and interpretation of electrical signals from random networks of cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Bove, M; Genta, G; Verreschi, G; Grattarola, M

    1996-04-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe several software tools specifically adapted to characterize the electrophysiological behavior of a population of neurons coupled to a planar array of microtransducers by analyzing the recorded signals. Both graphic and signal processing tools are considered. They include: image analysis of the neuronal network topology, peak detection procedure, multi-graphics visualization, spike classification, cross-correlation, interspike and interbursting interval analysis. These tools are utilized to characterize changes induced in the electrophysiological behavior of populations of cultured neurons by modifications to the medium-culture. PMID:8773310

  11. Adults, but not children, benefit from a pretrial signal cue in a random-frequency, two-tone masker

    PubMed Central

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the benefit of a pretrial cue, a preview of the signal, on children's (5–10 years) and adults' detection of a 1000-Hz pure-tone signal in a broadband noise or a random-frequency, two-tone masker. No cuing effect was observed with the noise masker, regardless of listener age. In contrast, all but one adult benefited from the cue with the two-tone masker (average = 9.4 dB). Most children showed no cuing effect (average = 0.1 dB) with the two-tone masker. These results suggest that, unlike adults, the provision of a pretrial cue does not promote frequency-selective listening during detection for 5- to 10-year-olds. PMID:26233066

  12. Adults, but not children, benefit from a pretrial signal cue in a random-frequency, two-tone masker.

    PubMed

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the benefit of a pretrial cue, a preview of the signal, on children's (5-10 years) and adults' detection of a 1000-Hz pure-tone signal in a broadband noise or a random-frequency, two-tone masker. No cuing effect was observed with the noise masker, regardless of listener age. In contrast, all but one adult benefited from the cue with the two-tone masker (average = 9.4 dB). Most children showed no cuing effect (average = 0.1 dB) with the two-tone masker. These results suggest that, unlike adults, the provision of a pretrial cue does not promote frequency-selective listening during detection for 5- to 10-year-olds.

  13. Superior signal-to-noise ratio of a new AA1 sequence for random-modulation continuous-wave lidar.

    PubMed

    Rybaltowski, Adam; Taflove, Allen

    2004-08-01

    In an earlier work [Proc. SPIE 4484, 216 (2001)] we proposed a new AA1 modulation sequence for random-modulation continuous-wave lidar. It possesses significantly better signal properties than other pseudorandom codes (the M, A1, and A2 sequences). We derive and compare the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new AA1 sequence with those of previous modulation sequences. Using a figure of merit proposed for pseudorandom sequences in additive (and generally colored) noise, we show that the SNR of the AA1 sequence in 1/f noise can be as much as 50 times better than that of the commonly used M sequence. This improved SNR should permit as much as a 7:1 increase of the maximum lidar sensing range in baseband-modulation direct-detection infrared lidar with no significant changes to the transmitter and receiver.

  14. Adults, but not children, benefit from a pretrial signal cue in a random-frequency, two-tone masker.

    PubMed

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the benefit of a pretrial cue, a preview of the signal, on children's (5-10 years) and adults' detection of a 1000-Hz pure-tone signal in a broadband noise or a random-frequency, two-tone masker. No cuing effect was observed with the noise masker, regardless of listener age. In contrast, all but one adult benefited from the cue with the two-tone masker (average = 9.4 dB). Most children showed no cuing effect (average = 0.1 dB) with the two-tone masker. These results suggest that, unlike adults, the provision of a pretrial cue does not promote frequency-selective listening during detection for 5- to 10-year-olds. PMID:26233066

  15. Active targeting in a random porous medium by chemical swarm robots with secondary chemical signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grančič, Peter; Štěpánek, František

    2011-08-01

    The multibody dynamics of a system of chemical swarm robots in a porous environment is investigated. The chemical swarm robots are modeled as Brownian particles capable of delivering an encapsulated chemical payload toward a given target location and releasing it in response to an external stimulus. The presence of chemical signals (chemo-attractant) in the system plays a crucial role in coordinating the collective movement of the particles via chemotaxis. For a number of applications, such as distributed chemical processing and targeted drug delivery, the understanding of factors that govern the collective behavior of the particles, especially their ability to localize a given target, is of immense importance. A hybrid modeling methodology based on the combination of the Brownian dynamics method and diffusion problem coupled through the chemotaxis phenomena is used to analyze the impact of a varying signaling threshold and the strength of chemotaxis on the ability of the chemical robots to fulfill their target localization mission. The results demonstrate that the selected performance criteria (the localization half time and the success rate) can be improved when an appropriate signaling process is chosen. Furthermore, for an optimum target localization strategy, the topological complexity of the porous environment needs to be reflected.

  16. Effect of signal-temporal uncertainty in children and adults: Tone detection in noise or a random-frequency masker

    PubMed Central

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    A cue indicating when in time to listen can improve adults' tone detection thresholds, particularly for conditions that produce substantial informational masking. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5- to 13-yr-old children likewise benefit from a light cue indicating when in time to listen for a masked pure-tone signal. Each listener was tested in one of two continuous maskers: Broadband noise (low informational masking) or a random-frequency, two-tone masker (high informational masking). Using a single-interval method of constant stimuli, detection thresholds were measured for two temporal conditions: (1) Temporally-defined, with the listening interval defined by a light cue, and (2) temporally-uncertain, with no light cue. Thresholds estimated from psychometric functions fitted to the data indicated that children and adults benefited to the same degree from the visual cue. Across listeners, the average benefit of a defined listening interval was 1.8 dB in the broadband noise and 8.6 dB in the random-frequency, two-tone masker. Thus, the benefit of knowing when in time to listen was more robust for conditions believed to be dominated by informational masking. An unexpected finding of this study was that children's thresholds were comparable to adults' in the random-frequency, two-tone masker. PMID:25669256

  17. Effect of signal-temporal uncertainty in children and adults: tone detection in noise or a random-frequency masker.

    PubMed

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J; Buss, Emily

    2013-12-01

    A cue indicating when in time to listen can improve adults' tone detection thresholds, particularly for conditions that produce substantial informational masking. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5- to 13-yr-old children likewise benefit from a light cue indicating when in time to listen for a masked pure-tone signal. Each listener was tested in one of two continuous maskers: Broadband noise (low informational masking) or a random-frequency, two-tone masker (high informational masking). Using a single-interval method of constant stimuli, detection thresholds were measured for two temporal conditions: (1) Temporally-defined, with the listening interval defined by a light cue, and (2) temporally-uncertain, with no light cue. Thresholds estimated from psychometric functions fitted to the data indicated that children and adults benefited to the same degree from the visual cue. Across listeners, the average benefit of a defined listening interval was 1.8 dB in the broadband noise and 8.6 dB in the random-frequency, two-tone masker. Thus, the benefit of knowing when in time to listen was more robust for conditions believed to be dominated by informational masking. An unexpected finding of this study was that children's thresholds were comparable to adults' in the random-frequency, two-tone masker.

  18. Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms.

  19. New explicit group iterative methods in the solution of three dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kew, Lee Ming; Ali, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, new group iterative numerical schemes based on the centred and rotated (skewed) seven-point finite difference discretisations are proposed for the solution of a three dimensional second order hyperbolic telegraph equation, subject to specific initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions. Both schemes are shown to be of second order accuracies and unconditionally stable. The scheme derived from the rotated grid stencil results in a reduced linear system with lower computational complexity compared to the scheme derived from the centred approximation formula. A comparative study with other common point iterative methods based on the seven-point centred difference approximation together with their computational complexity analyses is also presented.

  20. Modelling the effect of telegraph noise in the SIRS epidemic model using Markovian switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, D.; Liang, Y.; Mao, X.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the effect of introducing telegraph noise, which is an example of an environmental noise, into the susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model by examining the model using a finite-state Markov Chain (MC). First we start with a two-state MC and show that there exists a unique nonnegative solution and establish the conditions for extinction and persistence. We then explain how the results can be generalised to a finite-state MC. The results for the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) model with Markovian Switching (MS) are a special case. Numerical simulations are produced to confirm our theoretical results.

  1. Two-dimensional ultrasound detection with unfocused frequency-randomized signals

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Gregory T.

    2006-01-01

    A method is described for detecting scattering in two-dimensions using an unfocused ultrasound field created from a continuously-driven source array. The frequency of each element on the array is unique, resulting in a field that is highly variant as a function of both time and position. The scattered signal is then received by a single receiving line. The method, as currently written, is valid under the first order Born approximation. To demonstrate the approach, a series of simulations within the frequency range of 0.10 MHz to 1.25 MHz are performed and compared with a simulated B-Scan in the same frequency range. The method is found to be superior in resolving closely spaced objects, discerning 1.4-mm separation in the radial and 0.5-mm separation in the axial direction. The method was also better able to determining object size, resolving scatters less than 10% of wavelength associated with the center frequency. PMID:17297817

  2. Application of the Telegraph Model to Coda Q Variations in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. M.; Clayton, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    We examine data used to construct coda magnitude in southern California to estimate the spatial variation of coda Q and its dependence on frequency. Our analysis combined with independent borehole data (Abercrombie, 1995) suggests coda is mainly generated by multiple scattering in the upper few km of the crust where large impedance contrasts occur due to surface layering or fracturing. The ubiquitous observation that coda Q increases with frequency is explained as arising from multiple reverberations in the upper crust. We suggest that the telegraph model that has been successfully used to describe reflection seismogram multiples in the exploration industry may also apply to earthquakes. Under this model the apparent increase of Q with frequency is due to trapping of high frequency energy in the upper crust. This behavior is expected if the associated reflector series has an exponential autocorrelation function, a feature of the telegraph model. At lower frequencies trapping is less efficient. The combined effects give rise to an apparent absorption band that we suppose is superimposed on frequency-independent intrinsic attenuation. Maximum apparent attenuation occurs at wavelengths equal to the dimensions of the regions of upper crust that contain the scattering layers. At lower frequencies trapping is less effective and attenuation decreases as the longer wavelength waves sample the deeper crust and upper mantle where, due to over-burden pressures, acoustic impedance contrasts are less extreme.

  3. Efficient Signal Processing in Random Networks that Generate Variability: A Comparison of Internally Generated and Externally Induced Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Nishikawa, Isao; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Toyoizumi, Taro

    Source of cortical variability and its influence on signal processing remain an open question. We address the latter, by studying two types of balanced randomly connected networks of quadratic I-F neurons, with irregular spontaneous activity: (a) a deterministic network with strong connections generating noise by chaotic dynamics (b) a stochastic network with weak connections receiving noisy input. They are analytically tractable in the limit of large network-size and channel time-constant. Despite different sources of noise, spontaneous activity of these networks are identical unless majority of neurons are simultaneously recorded. However, the two networks show remarkably different sensitivity to external stimuli. In the former, input reverberates internally and can be read out over long time, but in the latter, inputs rapidly decay. This is further enhanced with activity-dependent plasticity at input synapses producing marked difference in decoding inputs from neural activity. We show, this leads to distinct performance of the two networks to integrate temporally separate signals from multiple sources, with the deterministic chaotic network activity serving as reservoir for Monte Carlo sampling to perform near optimal Bayesian integration, unlike its stochastic counterpart.

  4. 26 CFR 49.4254-2 - Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... service in coin-operated telephones. 49.4254-2 Section 49.4254-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Communications § 49.4254-2 Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones... radio dispatch or message is paid by inserting coins in a coin-operated telephone, the tax shall...

  5. 12 CFR 221.114 - Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to purchase stock of American...) Interpretations § 221.114 Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock Plan. (a) The Board of Governors interpreted this part in connection with proposed loans by a...

  6. Asynchronous decoding of finger movements from ECoG signals using long-range dependencies conditional random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F.; de Pesters, Adriana; Cetin, Mujdat

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this work we propose the use of conditional random fields with long-range dependencies for the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. Approach. The proposed method uses long-range dependencies taking into consideration time-lags between the brain activity and the execution of the motor task. In addition, the proposed method models the dynamics of the task executed by the subject and uses information about these dynamics as prior information during the classification stage. Main results. The results show that incorporating temporal information about the executed task as well as incorporating long-range dependencies between the brain signals and the labels effectively increases the system’s classification performance compared to methods in the state of art. Significance. The method proposed in this work makes use of probabilistic graphical models to incorporate temporal information in the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. The proposed method highlights the importance of including prior information about the task that the subjects execute. As the results show, the combination of these two features effectively produce a significant improvement of the system’s classification performance.

  7. Statistical properties of finite-bandwidth radiation scattered by random amplitude screens and random phase screens.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Kevin D; Jakeman, Eric

    2010-11-10

    We investigate the effect of finite bandwidth of the incident radiation on scattering by thin layers that introduce random phase or amplitude variations. In particular, we calculate the scintillation index of the propagating radiation for smoothly varying and fractal phase screens and for random telegraph wave and checkerboard amplitude screens. Increasing the bandwidth of the incident radiation reduces the fluctuations of the scattered intensity over the whole propagation path, except in the case of the smoothly varying phase screen, where geometrical optics features in the pattern persist in the focusing region. PMID:21068869

  8. The diffusion approximation versus the telegraph equation for modeling solar energetic particle transport with adiabatic focusing. I. Isotropic pitch-angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Effenberger, Frederic; Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2014-03-01

    The diffusion approximation to the Fokker-Planck equation is commonly used to model the transport of solar energetic particles in interplanetary space. In this study, we present exact analytical predictions of a higher order telegraph approximation for particle transport and compare them with the corresponding predictions of the diffusion approximation and numerical solutions of the full Fokker-Planck equation. We specifically investigate the role of the adiabatic focusing effect of a spatially varying magnetic field on an evolving particle distribution. Comparison of the analytical and numerical results shows that the telegraph approximation reproduces the particle intensity profiles much more accurately than does the diffusion approximation, especially when the focusing is strong. However, the telegraph approximation appears to offer no significant advantage over the diffusion approximation for calculating the particle anisotropy. The telegraph approximation can be a useful tool for describing both diffusive and wave-like aspects of the cosmic-ray transport.

  9. Regulation of Lipolysis and Adipose Tissue Signaling during Acute Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation: A Human Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina; Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Pedersen, Steen Bønlykke; Nielsen, Thomas Sava; Jørgensen, Jens O.; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background Lipolysis is accelerated during the acute phase of inflammation, a process being regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α), stress-hormones, and insulin. The intracellular mechanisms remain elusive and we therefore measured pro- and anti-lipolytic signaling pathways in adipocytes after in vivo endotoxin exposure. Methods Eight healthy, lean, male subjects were investigated using a randomized cross over trial with two interventions: i) bolus injection of saline (Placebo) and ii) bolus injection of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS). A 3H-palmitate tracer was used to measure palmitate rate of appearance (Rapalmitate) and indirect calorimetry was performed to measure energy expenditures and lipid oxidation rates. A subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsy was obtained during both interventions and subjected to western blotting and qPCR quantifications. Results LPS caused a mean increase in serum free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations of 90% (CI-95%: 37–142, p = 0.005), a median increase in Rapalmitate of 117% (CI-95%: 77–166, p<0.001), a mean increase in lipid oxidation of 49% (CI-95%: 1–96, p = 0.047), and a median increase in energy expenditure of 28% (CI-95%: 16–42, p = 0.001) compared with Placebo. These effects were associated with increased phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) at ser650 in adipose tissue (p = 0.03), a trend towards elevated pHSL at ser552 (p = 0.09) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of perilipin 1 (PLIN1) (p = 0.09). Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) also tended to increase (p = 0.08) while phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 tended to decrease (p = 0.09) during LPS compared with Placebo. There was no difference between protein or mRNA expression of ATGL, G0S2, and CGI-58. Conclusion LPS stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue and is associated with increased pHSL and signs of increased PLIN1 phosphorylation combined with a trend toward decreased insulin signaling. The combination of

  10. A Phase IIa Randomized, Double-Blind Trial of Erlotinib in Inhibiting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Aberrant Crypt Foci of the Colorectum

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, Daniel L.; Meyskens, Frank L.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Zell, Jason; Carroll, Robert; Benya, Richard; Chen, Wen-Pin; Mo, Allen; Tucker, Chris; Bhattacharya, Asmita; Huang, Zhiliang; Arcilla, Myra; Wong, Vanessa; Chung, Jinah; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Szabo, Eva; Rosenberg, Daniel W.; Lipkin, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) progresses through multiple distinct stages that are potentially amenable to chemopreventative intervention. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are efficacious in advanced tumors including CRC. There is significant evidence that EGFR also plays important roles in CRC initiation, and that EGFR inhibitors block tumorigenesis. We performed a double-blind randomized clinical trial to test whether the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib given for up to 30 days had an acceptable safety and efficacy profile to reduce EGFR signaling biomarkers in colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a subset of which progress to CRC, and normal rectal tissue. A total of N=45 patients were randomized to one of three erlotinib doses (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg) with randomization stratified by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. There were no unanticipated adverse events with Erlotinib therapy. Erlotinib was detected in both normal rectal mucosa and ACFs. Colorectal ACF phosphoERK, phosphoEGFR and total EGFR signaling changes from baseline were modest and there was no dose response. Overall, this trial did not meet is primary efficacy endpoint. Colorectal EGFR signaling inhibition by erlotinib is therefore likely insufficient to merit further studies without additional pre-screening stratification or potentially longer duration of use. PMID:25604134

  11. A phase IIa randomized, double-blind trial of erlotinib in inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in aberrant crypt foci of the colorectum.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Daniel L; Meyskens, Frank L; Morgan, Timothy R; Zell, Jason A; Carroll, Robert; Benya, Richard; Chen, Wen-Pin; Mo, Allen; Tucker, Chris; Bhattacharya, Asmita; Huang, Zhiliang; Arcilla, Myra; Wong, Vanessa; Chung, Jinah; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Szabo, Eva; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Lipkin, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer progresses through multiple distinct stages that are potentially amenable to chemopreventative intervention. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are efficacious in advanced tumors including colorectal cancer. There is significant evidence that EGFR also plays important roles in colorectal cancer initiation, and that EGFR inhibitors block tumorigenesis. We performed a double-blind randomized clinical trial to test whether the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib given for up to 30 days had an acceptable safety and efficacy profile to reduce EGFR signaling biomarkers in colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a subset of which progress to colorectal cancer, and normal rectal tissue. A total of 45 patients were randomized to one of three erlotinib doses (25, 50, and 100 mg) with randomization stratified by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. There were no unanticipated adverse events with erlotinib therapy. Erlotinib was detected in both normal rectal mucosa and ACFs. Colorectal ACF phosphorylated ERK (pERK), phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR), and total EGFR signaling changes from baseline were modest and there was no dose response. Overall, this trial did not meet is primary efficacy endpoint. Colorectal EGFR signaling inhibition by erlotinib is therefore likely insufficient to merit further studies without additional prescreening stratification or potentially longer duration of use.

  12. Geologic map of the Telegraph Peak 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Woodburne, M.O.; Foster, J.H.; Morton, Gregory; Cossette, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Telegraph Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  13. Numerical analysis of an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for time fractional telegraph equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We discuss and analyze an H(1)-Galerkin mixed finite element (H(1)-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H(1)-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H(1)-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L(2)-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H(1)-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H(1)-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure.

  14. Numerical analysis of an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for time fractional telegraph equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We discuss and analyze an H(1)-Galerkin mixed finite element (H(1)-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H(1)-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H(1)-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L(2)-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H(1)-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H(1)-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure. PMID:25184148

  15. Generation of multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers originated from two chaotic signals of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Wu, Z. M.; Wu, J. G.; Deng, T.; Fan, L.; Zhong, Z. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xia, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to generate multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers (PRNs) by taking two chaotic signal outputs from mutually coupled semiconductor lasers (MC-SLs) as entropy sources. First, through controlling the operation parameters of the MC-SL system, two time-delay signature (TDS) suppressed chaotic signals can be obtained. Next, each of these two chaotic signals is sampled by an 8 bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a sampling rate of 10 GHz, and then a bitwise exclusive-OR (XOR) operation on the corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time delayed signal is implemented to obtain 8 bit XOR data. Furthermore, through selecting the five least significant bits (LSBs) of 8 bit XOR data to form 5 bit Boolean sequences, two sets of PRN streams with a rate up to 50 Gbits s-1 are generated and successfully pass the NIST statistical tests. Finally, merging these two sets of 50 Gbits s-1 PRN streams by an interleaving operation, another set of the 100 Gbits s-1 PRN stream, which meets all the quality criteria of NIST statistical tests, is also acquired.

  16. Probe measurements of plasma potential nonuniformity due to edge asymmetry in large-area radio-frequency reactors: The telegraph effect

    SciTech Connect

    Howling, A.A.; Derendinger, L.; Sansonnens, L.; Schmidt, H.; Hollenstein, Ch.; Sakanaka, E.; Schmitt, J.P.M.

    2005-06-15

    In large-area radio-frequency (rf) capacitive reactors, the redistribution of rf current to maintain current continuity near asymmetric sidewalls causes a perturbation in rf plasma potential to propagate along the resistive plasma between capacitive sheaths. The damping length of the perturbation can be determined by a telegraph equation. Experiments are described using a surface array of unbiased electrostatic probes in the ground electrode to verify the theoretical model of the telegraph effect in Howling et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5429 (2004)]. The measured spatial dependence of the plasma potential rf amplitude and circulating nonambipolar current agree well with two-dimensional numerical solutions of the telegraph equation. The rf plasma potential can be made uniform by using symmetric reactor sidewalls.

  17. Noise/spike detection in phonocardiogram signal as a cyclic random process with non-stationary period interval.

    PubMed

    Naseri, H; Homaeinezhad, M R; Pourkhajeh, H

    2013-09-01

    The major aim of this study is to describe a unified procedure for detecting noisy segments and spikes in transduced signals with a cyclic but non-stationary periodic nature. According to this procedure, the cycles of the signal (onset and offset locations) are detected. Then, the cycles are clustered into a finite number of groups based on appropriate geometrical- and frequency-based time series. Next, the median template of each time series of each cluster is calculated. Afterwards, a correlation-based technique is devised for making a comparison between a test cycle feature and the associated time series of each cluster. Finally, by applying a suitably chosen threshold for the calculated correlation values, a segment is prescribed to be either clean or noisy. As a key merit of this research, the procedure can introduce a decision support for choosing accurately orthogonal-expansion-based filtering or to remove noisy segments. In this paper, the application procedure of the proposed method is comprehensively described by applying it to phonocardiogram (PCG) signals for finding noisy cycles. The database consists of 126 records from several patients of a domestic research station acquired by a 3M Littmann(®) 3200, 4KHz sampling frequency electronic stethoscope. By implementing the noisy segments detection algorithm with this database, a sensitivity of Se=91.41% and a positive predictive value, PPV=92.86% were obtained based on physicians assessments. PMID:23930815

  18. Signal-to-noise ratio in direct-detection mid-infrared Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave lidar in the presence of colored additive noise.

    PubMed

    Rybaltowski, A; Taflove, A

    2001-10-01

    We have derived the signal-to-noise ratio in direct-detection Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave (RM-CW) lidar in the presence of colored additive noise. In contrast to a known formula derived for the photon shot-noise regime, which may adequately describe experimental conditions in the near-infrared, our result is applicable mainly at longer, mid-infrared wavelengths. Unlike the former formula, our result is explicitly dependent on the pseudorandom code (PRC) used for modulation. Three known modulation codes, the M-, A1-, and A2-sequence are compared and shown to have practically equivalent signal and noise properties (provided that clutter inherent in the A1- and A2-sequence is neglected), except that the M-sequence has a near-zero-frequency noise pickup that degrades its performance in real measurement systems. This difference provides an alternative explanation of a better performance of the A1-/A2-sequence in a previous experiment [3], carried out in the near-infrared. It suggests the presence of an additive noise component and thus some applicability of our result also in near-infrared lidar. A need for balanced sequences - particularly in the mid-infrared - is explained, although in a different way than previously suggested in near-infrared, photon shot noise-limited lidar. Additional, sinusoidal carrier modulation is considered and shown to have significant drawbacks. Our results allow comparison of given modulation sequences, and construction of improved ones. Interestingly, the improved sequences will possess less "random" characteristics, seemingly against the underlying concept of random modulation.

  19. FRET imaging and statistical signal processing reveal positive and negative feedback loops regulating the morphology of randomly migrating HT-1080 cells.

    PubMed

    Kunida, Katsuyuki; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological processes. Rho GTPases (Rac1, Cdc42, RhoA) and phosphatidylinositols have been extensively studied in directional cell migration. However, it remains unclear how Rho GTPases and phosphatidylinositols regulate random cell migration in space and time. We have attempted to address this issue using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging and statistical signal processing. First, we acquired time-lapse images of random migration of HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells expressing FRET biosensors of Rho GTPases and phosphatidyl inositols. We developed an image-processing algorithm to extract FRET values and velocities at the leading edge of migrating cells. Auto- and cross-correlation analysis suggested the involvement of feedback regulations among Rac1, phosphatidyl inositols and membrane protrusions. To verify the feedback regulations, we employed an acute inhibition of the signaling pathway with pharmaceutical inhibitors. The inhibition of actin polymerization decreased Rac1 activity, indicating the presence of positive feedback from actin polymerization to Rac1. Furthermore, treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor induced an adaptation of Rac1 activity, i.e. a transient reduction of Rac1 activity followed by recovery to the basal level. In silico modeling that reproduced the adaptation predicted the existence of a negative feedback loop from Rac1 to actin polymerization. Finally, we identified MLCK as the probable controlling factor in the negative feedback. These findings quantitatively demonstrate positive and negative feedback loops that involve actin, Rac1 and MLCK, and account for the ordered patterns of membrane dynamics observed in randomly migrating cells.

  20. Quantumness, Randomness and Computability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Aldo; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2015-06-01

    Randomness plays a central role in the quantum mechanical description of our interactions. We review the relationship between the violation of Bell inequalities, non signaling and randomness. We discuss the challenge in defining a random string, and show that algorithmic information theory provides a necessary condition for randomness using Borel normality. We close with a view on incomputablity and its implications in physics.

  1. Qubit Metrology of Ultralow Phase Noise Using Randomized Benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, P. J. J.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Hoi, I.-C.; Jeffrey, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Korotkov, A. N.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

    2015-04-01

    A precise measurement of dephasing over a range of time scales is critical for improving quantum gates beyond the error correction threshold. We present a metrological tool based on randomized benchmarking capable of greatly increasing the precision of Ramsey and spin-echo sequences by the repeated but incoherent addition of phase noise. We find our superconducting-quantum-interference-device-based qubit is not limited by 1 /f flux noise at short time scales but instead observe a telegraph noise mechanism that is not amenable to study with standard measurement techniques.

  2. Theoretical Investigation of Random Noise-Limited Signal-to-Noise Ratio in MR-Based Electrical Properties Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Kyun; Bulumulla, Selaka; Hancu, Ileana

    2015-11-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging-based electrical properties tomography (MREPT), tissue electrical properties (EPs) are derived from the spatial variation of the transmit RF field (B1(+)). Here we derive theoretically the relationship between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the electrical properties obtained by MREPT and the SNR of the input B1(+) data, under the assumption that the latter is much greater than unity, and the noise in B1(+) at different voxels is statistically independent. It is shown that for a given B1(+) data, the SNR of both electrical conductivity and relative permittivity is proportional to the square of the linear dimension of the region of interest (ROI) over which the EPs are determined, and to the square root of the number of voxels in the ROI. The relationship also shows how the SNR varies with the main magnetic field (B0) strength. The predicted SNR is verified through numerical simulations on a cylindrical phantom with an analytically calculated B1(+) map, and is found to provide explanation of certain aspects of previous experimental results in the literature. Our SNR formula can be used to estimate minimum input data SNR and ROI size required to obtain tissue EP maps of desired quality. PMID:25955582

  3. Signal transduction in T lymphocytes--a comparison of the data from space, the free fall machine and the random positioning machine.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberg, M; Pippia, P; Meloni, M A; Cossu, G; Cogoli-Greuter, M; Cogoli, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the effect of microgravity on T cells and we present the data of studies with two new machines for 0 g simulations. Several experiments in space show that mitogenic T cell activation is lost at 0 g. Immunocytochemistry indicates that such effect is associated with changes of the cytoskeleton. Biochemical studies suggest that the lack of expression of the interleukin-2 receptor is one of the major causes of the loss of activity. In fact, interleukin-2 is the third signal required for full activation. In order to deepen our investigations we are now working with the free-fall machine, FFM, invented by D. Mesland, and with the random positioning machine, RPM, or three-dimensional clinostat, developed by T. Hoson. The FFM produces periods of free-fall lasting approximately 800 ms followed by bounces of 15-30 g lasting 45-60 ms. The RPM eliminates the effect of gravity by rotating biological specimen randomly around two orthogonal axes. While the FFM failed to reproduce the results obtained with T lymphocytes in space, the data from the RPM are in good agreement with those in real microgravity. In fact, the inhibition of the mitotic index in the RPM is 89% compared to static controls. The RPM (as the FFM) can carry markedly larger specimen than the fast rotating clinostat and thus allows to conduct comprehensive studies to select suitable biological objects for further investigations in space.

  4. Approximate solution of two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph models arising in mathematical physics using optimal homotopy asymptotic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, S.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the analytical approximate solutions for two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph equations. The fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], (1,2), and [1,2], respectively. In this paper, we extended optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) for two-term fractional-order wave-diffusion equations. Highly approximate solution is obtained in series form using this extended method. Approximate solution obtained by OHAM is compared with the exact solution. It is observed that OHAM is a prevailing and convergent method for the solutions of nonlinear-fractional-order time-dependent partial differential problems. The numerical results rendering that the applied method is explicit, effective, and easy to use, for handling more general fractional-order wave diffusion, diffusion, and telegraph problems.

  5. [The role of short Telegraph nail in the treatment of fractures of the upper end of the humerus: about 19 cases].

    PubMed

    Karabila, Mohamed Amine; Hmouri, Ismail; Mhamdi, Younes; Azouz, Mohamed; Madani, Tarik; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Ouadaghiri, Mohamed; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Bardouni, Ahmed; Lahlou, Abdou; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Montbarbon, Éric; Beaudouin, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The fracture of the upper end of the humerus is the third most frequent fracture in the elderly and its distribution is bimodal, preferentially affecting osteoporotic elderly patients after low energy trauma or, more rarely, young subjects as a consequence of severe kinetic mechanism The treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus is the subject of much controversy. Telegraph nail is a highly effective therapeutic approach for displaced fractures of the upper end of the humerus. Surgical procedure is easy but with a learning curve; it allows to start rehabilitation protocol immediately after surgery. It is an antegrade nailing material, 15 cm long, with full proximal and distal locking. Proximal locking is secured by 4 cancellous screws, long thread, stable in the nail ensuring perfect solidity of the assembly while the distal locking screw is secured to deltoid tuberosity in the avascular zone and where there is no neural pathway. This study reports 19 case of patients with fractures of the humerus treated with short Telegraph nail between 2013 and 2015. It aims to investigate radio-clinical results and to assess the impact of this technique on shoulder function. Telegraph nail that has been used for more than 12 years or so met and continues to meet with strong success. It allows to trat very effectively simple fractures type 2 and 3, but also 4-fragment valgus impacted fractures Osteosynthesis by Telegraph nail is an efficient, rapid and reproducible surgical treatment option of the fractures of the upper end of the humerus even in case of complex fractures and allows for a more rapid return of shoulder mobility. PMID:27583100

  6. Evaluation of electromyographic signals in children with bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa Officinalis L—a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Cordeiro da Silva, Fernanda; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Curiki, Lucia Maria; Mesquita-Ferarri, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Bruxism is a repetitive muscle activity involving the clenching or grinding of one’s teeth during sleep or waking hours. Melissa officinalis L. may be employed as a natural therapy due to the sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasm properties of the chemical constituents of the essential oil obtained from its leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate electromyographic signals in the temporal muscle using the BiteStrip® test on children with sleep bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa officinalis L. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (n = 12) ingested a tincture containing Melissa officinalis L. for 30 days. Group 2 (n = 12) received a placebo solution with the same dose and frequency as Group 1. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed for statistical analysis. [Results] The sample was made up of 24 children aged 6 to 10 years. No statistically significant differences were found between initial and final muscle activity in either group or in an intergroup comparison. [Conclusion] Use of the Melissa officinalis L. tincture at the dose employed did not lead to a reduction in muscle activity in children with bruxism. PMID:27134350

  7. Evaluation of electromyographic signals in children with bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa Officinalis L-a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Cordeiro da Silva, Fernanda; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Curiki, Lucia Maria; Mesquita-Ferarri, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Bruxism is a repetitive muscle activity involving the clenching or grinding of one's teeth during sleep or waking hours. Melissa officinalis L. may be employed as a natural therapy due to the sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasm properties of the chemical constituents of the essential oil obtained from its leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate electromyographic signals in the temporal muscle using the BiteStrip(®) test on children with sleep bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa officinalis L. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (n = 12) ingested a tincture containing Melissa officinalis L. for 30 days. Group 2 (n = 12) received a placebo solution with the same dose and frequency as Group 1. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed for statistical analysis. [Results] The sample was made up of 24 children aged 6 to 10 years. No statistically significant differences were found between initial and final muscle activity in either group or in an intergroup comparison. [Conclusion] Use of the Melissa officinalis L. tincture at the dose employed did not lead to a reduction in muscle activity in children with bruxism.

  8. Current-limiting and ultrafast system for the characterization of resistive random access memories.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Fortuny, J; Maestro, M; Martin-Martinez, J; Crespo-Yepes, A; Rodriguez, R; Nafria, M; Aymerich, X

    2016-06-01

    A new system for the ultrafast characterization of resistive switching phenomenon is developed to acquire the current during the Set and Reset process in a microsecond time scale. A new electronic circuit has been developed as a part of the main setup system, which is capable of (i) applying a hardware current limit ranging from nanoampers up to miliampers and (ii) converting the Set and Reset exponential gate current range into an equivalent linear voltage. The complete system setup allows measuring with a microsecond resolution. Some examples demonstrate that, with the developed setup, an in-depth analysis of resistive switching phenomenon and random telegraph noise can be made. PMID:27370480

  9. Current-limiting and ultrafast system for the characterization of resistive random access memories.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Fortuny, J; Maestro, M; Martin-Martinez, J; Crespo-Yepes, A; Rodriguez, R; Nafria, M; Aymerich, X

    2016-06-01

    A new system for the ultrafast characterization of resistive switching phenomenon is developed to acquire the current during the Set and Reset process in a microsecond time scale. A new electronic circuit has been developed as a part of the main setup system, which is capable of (i) applying a hardware current limit ranging from nanoampers up to miliampers and (ii) converting the Set and Reset exponential gate current range into an equivalent linear voltage. The complete system setup allows measuring with a microsecond resolution. Some examples demonstrate that, with the developed setup, an in-depth analysis of resistive switching phenomenon and random telegraph noise can be made.

  10. Current-limiting and ultrafast system for the characterization of resistive random access memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Fortuny, J.; Maestro, M.; Martin-Martinez, J.; Crespo-Yepes, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Nafria, M.; Aymerich, X.

    2016-06-01

    A new system for the ultrafast characterization of resistive switching phenomenon is developed to acquire the current during the Set and Reset process in a microsecond time scale. A new electronic circuit has been developed as a part of the main setup system, which is capable of (i) applying a hardware current limit ranging from nanoampers up to miliampers and (ii) converting the Set and Reset exponential gate current range into an equivalent linear voltage. The complete system setup allows measuring with a microsecond resolution. Some examples demonstrate that, with the developed setup, an in-depth analysis of resistive switching phenomenon and random telegraph noise can be made.

  11. On enhancement of vibration-based energy harvesting by a random parametric excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobryk, Roman V.; Yurchenko, Daniil

    2016-03-01

    An electromechanical linear oscillator with a random ambient excitation and telegraphic noise parametric excitation is considered as an energy harvester model. It is shown that a parametric colored excitation can have a dramatic effect on the enhancement of the energy harvesting. A close relation with mean-square stability of the oscillator is established. Four sources of the ambient excitation are considered: the white noise, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise, the harmonic noise and the periodic function. Analytical expressions for stationary electrical net mean power are presented for all the considered cases, confirming the proposed approach.

  12. Climate change, wellbeing and resilience in the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck: the Moccasin Telegraph goes global.

    PubMed

    Lemelin, Harvey; Matthews, Drew; Mattina, Charlie; McIntyre, Norman; Johnston, Margaret; Koster, Rhonda; Weenusk First Nation At Peawanuck

    2010-01-01

    The Cree of Northern Ontario, Canada, have proved resilient and adaptable to social and environmental changes. However, the rapidity of climate change impacts in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of the Canadian sub-Arctic is challenging this resiliency. A collaborative project conducted with the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck and researchers at Lakehead University used the concept of wellbeing to explore the impact of climate change on current subsistence activities, resource management, and conservation strategies, while considering the implications of globalization on climate change awareness. This article describes the analysis of 22 interviews conducted with members of the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck. Findings indicate that residents are concerned with a variety of changes in the environment and their ability to use the land. For example, they noted changes in travel routes on water and land, often attributing these to geomorphic changes in the coastal landscapes along Hudson Bay. They also noted the disappearance of particular insects and bird species, and variations in the distribution of particular fauna and flora. Possible impacts of these changes on the community's wellbeing and resiliency are examined. Another major theme that arose from the analysis was the impact of traditional modes of communication (eg traditional knowledge, radio, newspaper) and newer forms (eg satellite television and the internet) on Indigenous people's understanding of climate change. Given that few researchers have acknowledged or recognized the globalization of the moccasin telegraph (ie the traditional mode of communication between First Nations), a discussion of this phenomenon and its significance for understanding emerging knowledge systems in small, remote First Nation communities is central to this article.

  13. Numerical approximation of higher-order time-fractional telegraph equation by using a combination of a geometric approach and method of line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, M. S.; Baleanu, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a simple and accurate numerical scheme for solving the time fractional telegraph (TFT) equation within Caputo type fractional derivative. A fictitious coordinate ϑ is imposed onto the problem in order to transform the dependent variable u (x , t) into a new variable with an extra dimension. In the new space with the added fictitious dimension, a combination of method of line and group preserving scheme (GPS) is proposed to find the approximate solutions. This method preserves the geometric structure of the problem. Power and accuracy of this method has been illustrated through some examples of TFT equation.

  14. Single electron charge sensitivity of liquid-gated carbon nanotube transistors.

    PubMed

    Sharf, Tal; Wang, Neng-Ping; Kevek, Joshua W; Brown, Morgan A; Wilson, Heather; Heinze, Stefan; Minot, Ethan D

    2014-09-10

    Random telegraph signals corresponding to activated charge traps were observed with liquid-gated CNT FETs. The high signal-to-noise ratio that we observe demonstrates that single electron charge sensing is possible with CNT FETs in liquids at room temperature. We have characterized the gate-voltage dependence of the random telegraph signals and compared to theoretical predictions. The gate-voltage dependence clearly identifies the sign of the activated trapped charge. PMID:25160798

  15. Ticks of a Random clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, P.; Talkner, P.

    2010-09-01

    A simple way to convert a purely random sequence of events into a signal with a strong periodic component is proposed. The signal consists of those instants of time at which the length of the random sequence exceeds an integer multiple of a given number. The larger this number the more pronounced the periodic behavior becomes.

  16. Heaviside revisited: Distortionless signal transmission through lossy media with application to precision clock synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flake, Robert H.

    2016-02-01

    A recently discovered non-sinusoidal, non-periodic electrical signal in the form of an exponentially rising pulse achieves distortionless propagation at constant velocity through lossy, passive transmission media. This unique property is derived theoretically in the framework of the telegrapher's equation analyzed by Heaviside and confirmed experimentally in propagation of such a pulse along serially connected sections of telephone cable. The utility of the distortion-free pulse within the field of time-domain reflectometry is demonstrated in precise time-of-flight measurement of the reflected signal, with the prospect of enhancing the accuracy of protocols for synchronization of spatially separated clocks.

  17. Should We Use Telegraphic or Grammatical Input in the Early Stages of Language Development with Children Who Have Language Impairments? A Meta-Analysis of the Research and Expert Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleeck, Anne; Schwarz, Amy Louise; Fey, Marc; Kaiser, Ann; Miller, Jon; Weitzman, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In working with children with language impairments, some clinical scholars and clinicians advocate using input that is simplified to the point of being ungrammatical (telegraphic input), while others advocate simplified but grammatical input. This article considers 2 types of external evidence on this topic. Method: First, a meta-analysis…

  18. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Chng, Brenda; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  19. Doe v. Alton Telegraph.

    PubMed

    1992-09-30

    The U.S. District Court, Central District of Illinois, determined that the Illinois AIDS Confidentiality Act does not prevent publication or dissemination of information that is available in open and public court files. Therefore, a convicted prostitute has no legitimate claim against two newspapers that had reported the details of her conviction. State law requires AIDS tests for persons convicted of sexual offenses, and the newspapers disclosed the convicted prostitute as "a person about to undergo an AIDS test." Because her conviction and the requirement that she undergo an AIDS test were included within court files that were open to the public, the newspapers had not violated the AIDS Confidentiality Act.

  20. Effect of mandibular mobilization on electromyographic signals in muscles of mastication and static balance in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The stomatognathic system and dysfunction in this system may be related to postural control. The proposal of the present study is to assess the effect of mandibular mobilization in individuals with temporomandibular disorder using surface electromyography of the muscles of mastication and stabilometric variables. Methods/Design A randomized, controlled, blind, clinical trial will be carried out, with the participants divided into three groups: 1) facial massage therapy (control group), 2) nonspecific mandibular mobilization and 3) specific mandibular mobilization. All groups will be assessed before and after treatment using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, surface electromyography of the masseter and temporal muscles and stabilometry. This study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (RBR9x8ssz). Discussion A large number of studies have employed surface electromyography to investigate the function/dysfunction of the muscles of mastication and associations with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. However, it has not yet been determined whether stabilometric variables offer adequate reliability in patients with this disorder. The results of the proposed study will help determine whether specific and/or nonspecific mandibular mobilization exerts an effect on the muscles of mastication and postural control. Moreover, if an effect is detected, the methodology defined in the proposed study will allow identifying whether the effect is local (found only in the muscles of mastication), global (found only in postural control) or generalized. PMID:24083628

  1. Network-Physics (NP) BEC DIGITAL(#)-VULNERABILITY; ``Q-Computing"=Simple-Arithmetic;Modular-Congruences=SignalXNoise PRODUCTS=Clock-model;BEC-Factorization;RANDOM-# Definition;P=/=NP TRIVIAL Proof!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, E. I.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-60-124] digits logarithmic- law inversion to ONLY BEQS BEC:Quanta/Bosons=#: EMP-like SEVERE VULNERABILITY of ONLY #-networks(VS.ANALOG INvulnerability) via Barabasi NP(VS.dynamics[Not.AMS(5/2009)] critique);(so called)``quantum-computing''(QC) = simple-arithmetic (sansdivision);algorithmiccomplexities:INtractibility/UNdecidabi lity/INefficiency/NONcomputability/HARDNESS(so MIScalled) ``noise''-induced-phase-transition(NIT)ACCELERATION:Cook-Levin theorem Reducibility = RG fixed-points; #-Randomness DEFINITION via WHAT? Query(VS. Goldreich[Not.AMS(2002)] How? mea culpa)= ONLY MBCS hot-plasma v #-clumping NON-random BEC; Modular-Arithmetic Congruences = Signal x Noise PRODUCTS = clock-model; NON-Shor[Physica A,341,586(04)]BEC logarithmic-law inversion factorization: Watkins #-theory U statistical- physics); P=/=NP C-S TRIVIAL Proof: Euclid!!! [(So Miscalled) computational-complexity J-O obviation(3 millennia AGO geometry: NO:CC,``CS'';``Feet of Clay!!!'']; Query WHAT?:Definition: (so MIScalled)``complexity''=UTTER-SIMPLICITY!! v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S).

  2. On the joint statistics of stable random processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopcraft, K. I.; Jakeman, E.

    2011-10-01

    A utilitarian continuous bi-variate random process whose first-order probability density function is a stable random variable is constructed. Results paralleling some of those familiar from the theory of Gaussian noise are derived. In addition to the joint-probability density for the process, these include fractional moments and structure functions. Although the correlation functions for stable processes other than Gaussian do not exist, we show that there is coherence between values adopted by the process at different times, which identifies a characteristic evolution with time. The distribution of the derivative of the process, and the joint-density function of the value of the process and its derivative measured at the same time are evaluated. These enable properties to be calculated analytically such as level crossing statistics and those related to the random telegraph wave. When the stable process is fractal, the proportion of time it spends at zero is finite and some properties of this quantity are evaluated, an optical interpretation for which is provided.

  3. Full randomness from arbitrarily deterministic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Rodrigo; Masanes, Lluis; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Dhara, Chirag; Aolita, Leandro; Acín, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Do completely unpredictable events exist? Classical physics excludes fundamental randomness. Although quantum theory makes probabilistic predictions, this does not imply that nature is random, as randomness should be certified without relying on the complete structure of the theory being used. Bell tests approach the question from this perspective. However, they require prior perfect randomness, falling into a circular reasoning. A Bell test that generates perfect random bits from bits possessing high—but less than perfect—randomness has recently been obtained. Yet, the main question remained open: does any initial randomness suffice to certify perfect randomness? Here we show that this is indeed the case. We provide a Bell test that uses arbitrarily imperfect random bits to produce bits that are, under the non-signalling principle assumption, perfectly random. This provides the first protocol attaining full randomness amplification. Our results have strong implications onto the debate of whether there exist events that are fully random.

  4. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  5. Fractional randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  6. Certifying Unpredictable Randomness from Quantum Nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhorst, Peter

    2015-03-01

    A device-independent quantum randomness protocol takes an initial random seed as input and then expands it in to a longer random string. It has been proven that if the initial random seed is trusted to be unpredictable, then the longer output string can also be certified to be unpredictable by an experimental violation of Bell's inequality. It has furthermore been argued that the initial random seed may not need to be truly unpredictable, but only uncorrelated to specific parts of the Bell experiment. In this work, we demonstrate rigorously that this is indeed true, under assumptions related to ``no superdeterminism/no conspiracy'' concepts along with the no-signaling assumption. So if we assume that superluminal signaling is impossible, then a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality would be able to generate provably unpredictable randomness from an input source of (potentially predictable) classical randomness.

  7. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  8. Common Randomness Principles of Secrecy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyagi, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the secure processing of distributed data by multiple terminals, using interactive public communication among themselves, in order to accomplish a given computational task. In the setting of a probabilistic multiterminal source model in which several terminals observe correlated random signals, we analyze secure…

  9. News CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events

  10. Signal voter

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Roy L.

    1981-01-01

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals, each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  11. Tailpulse signal generator

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, John; Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, Stanley John; Decman, Daniel J.; White, Gregory K.

    2009-06-23

    A tailpulse signal generating/simulating apparatus, system, and method designed to produce electronic pulses which simulate tailpulses produced by a gamma radiation detector, including the pileup effect caused by the characteristic exponential decay of the detector pulses, and the random Poisson distribution pulse timing for radioactive materials. A digital signal process (DSP) is programmed and configured to produce digital values corresponding to pseudo-randomly selected pulse amplitudes and pseudo-randomly selected Poisson timing intervals of the tailpulses. Pulse amplitude values are exponentially decayed while outputting the digital value to a digital to analog converter (DAC). And pulse amplitudes of new pulses are added to decaying pulses to simulate the pileup effect for enhanced realism in the simulation.

  12. La place du clou Telegraph court dans le traitement des fractures de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus: à propos de 19 cas

    PubMed Central

    karabila, Mohamed Amine; Hmouri, Ismail; Mhamdi, Younes; Azouz, Mohamed; Madani, Tarik; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Ouadaghiri, Mohamed; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Bardouni, Ahmed; Lahlou, Abdou; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Montbarbon, Éric; Beaudouin, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    La fracture de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus est la troisième fracture en fréquence chez les sujets âgés et leur répartition est bimodale touchant préférentiellement le sujet âgé ostéoporotique après un traumatisme à faible énergie ou plus rarement le sujet jeune par mécanisme à forte cinétique. Le traitement des fractures complexes de l'humérus proximal est le sujet de nombreuses controverses Le clou Telegraph constitue une approche thérapeutique très efficace pour les fractures déplacées de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus, de technique chirurgicale facile mais avec une courbe d'apprentissage et permettant un protocole de rééducation dans l'immédiat de l'intervention. C'est un matériel d'enclouage antérograde de 15 cm de long, plein verrouillé en proximal et en distal, le verrouillage proximal est assuré par 4 vis spongieuses, de filetage long, stables dans le clou et cela confère une solidité tout-à-fait remarquable à ce montage alors que le verrouillage distal est assuré au niveau du V deltoïdien en zone avasculaire et là où il n'y a pas de passage nerveux. L’étude présentée concerne 19 patients traités par un clou Telegraph court dans le traitement des fractures de l'extrémité supérieure de l'humérus entre 2013 et 2015 et elle a pour but d'analyser les résultats radio-cliniques et d’évaluer la répercussion de cette technique sur la fonction de l’épaule. Le clou Telegraph proposé depuis plus de 12 ans à peu près, a rencontré et continue de rencontrer un réel succès. Il permet de traiter très efficacement les fractures simples type 2 et 3, mais aussi les fractures impactées en valgus à 4 fragments. L'ostéosynthèse par clou Telegraph est une solution efficace, rapide et reproductible dans le traitement chirurgical des fractures de l'extrémité supérieur de l'humérus même en cas des fractures complexes et permet une reprise rapide de la mobilité de l’épaule. PMID:27583100

  13. How to Do Random Allocation (Randomization)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explain the concept and procedure of random allocation as used in a randomized controlled study. Methods We explain the general concept of random allocation and demonstrate how to perform the procedure easily and how to report it in a paper. PMID:24605197

  14. Signal Processing, Analysis, & Display

    1986-06-01

    SIG is a general-purpose signal processing, analysis, and display program. Its main purpose is to perform manipulations on time- and frequency-domain signals. However, it has been designed to ultimately accommodate other representations for data such as multiplexed signals and complex matrices. Two user interfaces are provided in SIG - a menu mode for the unfamiliar user and a command mode for more experienced users. In both modes errors are detected as early as possible andmore » are indicated by friendly, meaningful messages. An on-line HELP package is also included. A variety of operations can be performed on time- and frequency-domain signals including operations on the samples of a signal, operations on the entire signal, and operations on two or more signals. Signal processing operations that can be performed are digital filtering (median, Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebychev), ensemble average, resample, auto and cross spectral density, transfer function and impulse response, trend removal, convolution, Fourier transform and inverse window functions (Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel), simulation (ramp, sine, pulsetrain, random), and read/write signals. User definable signal processing algorithms are also featured. SIG has many options including multiple commands per line, command files with arguments,commenting lines, defining commands, and automatic execution for each item in a repeat sequence. Graphical operations on signals and spectra include: x-y plots of time signals; real, imaginary, magnitude, and phase plots of spectra; scaling of spectra for continuous or discrete domain; cursor zoom; families of curves; and multiple viewports.« less

  15. Brassinosteroid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Sae-Seaw, Juthamas; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The brassinosteroid (BR) class of steroid hormones regulates plant development and physiology. The BR signal is transduced by a receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction pathway, which is distinct from animal steroid signalling systems. Recent studies have fully connected the BR signal transduction chain and have identified thousands of BR target genes, linking BR signalling to numerous cellular processes. Molecular links between BR and several other signalling pathways have also been identified. Here, we provide an overview of the highly integrated BR signalling network and explain how this steroid hormone functions as a master regulator of plant growth, development and metabolism. PMID:23533170

  16. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Elsasser, Robert; Friedrich, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  17. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe the acute (short-term) toxicity ... red letters on the front panel of the product label. 2,4 Acute Oral LD 50 Inhalation LC ...

  18. Can Observed Randomness Be Certified to Be Fully Intrinsic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Chirag; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Acín, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    In general, any observed random process includes two qualitatively different forms of randomness: apparent randomness, which results both from ignorance or lack of control of degrees of freedom in the system, and intrinsic randomness, which is not ascribable to any such cause. While classical systems only possess the first kind of randomness, quantum systems may exhibit some intrinsic randomness. In this Letter, we provide quantum processes in which all the observed randomness is fully intrinsic. These results are derived under minimal assumptions: the validity of the no-signaling principle and an arbitrary (but not absolute) lack of freedom of choice. Our results prove that quantum predictions cannot be completed already in simple finite scenarios, for instance of three parties performing two dichotomic measurements. Moreover, the observed randomness tends to a perfect random bit when increasing the number of parties, thus, defining an explicit process attaining full randomness amplification.

  19. Directed random walk with random restarts: The Sisyphus random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Miquel; Villarroel, Javier

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider a particular version of the random walk with restarts: random reset events which suddenly bring the system to the starting value. We analyze its relevant statistical properties, like the transition probability, and show how an equilibrium state appears. Formulas for the first-passage time, high-water marks, and other extreme statistics are also derived; we consider counting problems naturally associated with the system. Finally we indicate feasible generalizations useful for interpreting different physical effects.

  20. Algorithm Reveals Sinusoidal Component Of Noisy Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Lloyd C.

    1991-01-01

    Algorithm performs simple statistical analysis of noisy signal to yield preliminary indication of whether or not signal contains sinusoidal component. Suitable for preprocessing or preliminary analysis of vibrations, fluctuations in pressure, and other signals that include large random components. Implemented on personal computer by easy-to-use program.

  1. EEG signal analysis: a survey.

    PubMed

    Subha, D Puthankattil; Joseph, Paul K; Acharya U, Rajendra; Lim, Choo Min

    2010-04-01

    The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signal indicates the electrical activity of the brain. They are highly random in nature and may contain useful information about the brain state. However, it is very difficult to get useful information from these signals directly in the time domain just by observing them. They are basically non-linear and nonstationary in nature. Hence, important features can be extracted for the diagnosis of different diseases using advanced signal processing techniques. In this paper the effect of different events on the EEG signal, and different signal processing methods used to extract the hidden information from the signal are discussed in detail. Linear, Frequency domain, time - frequency and non-linear techniques like correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Hurst exponent (H), different entropies, fractal dimension(FD), Higher Order Spectra (HOS), phase space plots and recurrence plots are discussed in detail using a typical normal EEG signal.

  2. Sunspot random walk and 22-year variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We examine two stochastic models for consistency with observed long-term secular trends in sunspot number and a faint, but semi-persistent, 22-yr signal: (1) a null hypothesis, a simple one-parameter random-walk model of sunspot-number cycle-to-cycle change, and, (2) an alternative hypothesis, a two-parameter random-walk model with an imposed 22-yr alternating amplitude. The observed secular trend in sunspots, seen from solar cycle 5 to 23, would not be an unlikely result of the accumulation of multiple random-walk steps. Statistical tests show that a 22-yr signal can be resolved in historical sunspot data; that is, the probability is low that it would be realized from random data. On the other hand, the 22-yr signal has a small amplitude compared to random variation, and so it has a relatively small effect on sunspot predictions. Many published predictions for cycle 24 sunspots fall within the dispersion of previous cycle-to-cycle sunspot differences. The probability is low that the Sun will, with the accumulation of random steps over the next few cycles, walk down to a Dalton-like minimum. Our models support published interpretations of sunspot secular variation and 22-yr variation resulting from cycle-to-cycle accumulation of dynamo-generated magnetic energy.

  3. Sunspot random walk and 22-year variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua

    2012-05-01

    We examine two stochastic models for consistency with observed long-term secular trends in sunspot number and a faint, but semi-persistent, 22-yr signal: (1) a null hypothesis, a simple one-parameter log-normal random-walk model of sunspot-number cycle-to-cycle change, and, (2) an alternative hypothesis, a two-parameter random-walk model with an imposed 22-yr alternating amplitude. The observed secular trend in sunspots, seen from solar cycle 5 to 23, would not be an unlikely result of the accumulation of multiple random-walk steps. Statistical tests show that a 22-yr signal can be resolved in historical sunspot data; that is, the probability is low that it would be realized from random data. On the other hand, the 22-yr signal has a small amplitude compared to random variation, and so it has a relatively small effect on sunspot predictions. Many published predictions for cycle 24 sunspots fall within the dispersion of previous cycle-to-cycle sunspot differences. The probability is low that the Sun will, with the accumulation of random steps over the next few cycles, walk down to a Dalton-like minimum. Our models support published interpretations of sunspot secular variation and 22-yr variation resulting from cycle-to-cycle accumulation of dynamo-generated magnetic energy.

  4. Random mutagenesis of the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC1 (NB-LRR Required for Hypersensitive Response-Associated Cell Death-1), a downstream signalling nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein, identifies gain-of-function mutations in the nucleotide-binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Sueldo, Daniela J; Shimels, Mahdere; Spiridon, Laurentiu N; Caldararu, Octav; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Tameling, Wladimir I L

    2015-10-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins confer immunity to pathogens possessing the corresponding avirulence proteins. Activation of NB-LRR proteins is often associated with induction of the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death. NRC1 (NB-LRR Required for HR-Associated Cell Death-1) is a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NB-LRR protein that participates in the signalling cascade leading to resistance to the pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Verticillium dahliae. To identify mutations in NRC1 that cause increased signalling activity, we generated a random library of NRC1 variants mutated in their nucleotide-binding domain and screened them for the ability to induce an elicitor-independent HR in Nicotiana tabacum. Screening of 1920 clones retrieved 11 gain-of-function mutants, with 10 of them caused by a single amino acid substitution. All substitutions are located in or very close to highly conserved motifs within the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting modulation of the signalling activity of NRC1. Three-dimensional modelling of the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC1 revealed that the targeted residues are centred around the bound nucleotide. Our mutational approach has generated a wide set of novel gain-of-function mutations in NRC1 and provides insight into how the activity of this NB-LRR is regulated.

  5. Bright emission from a random Raman laser

    PubMed Central

    Hokr, Brett H.; Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Mason, John D.; Beier, Hope T.; Noojin, Gary D.; Petrov, Georgi I.; Golovan, Leonid A.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Random lasers are a developing class of light sources that utilize a highly disordered gain medium as opposed to a conventional optical cavity. Although traditional random lasers often have a relatively broad emission spectrum, a random laser that utilizes vibration transitions via Raman scattering allows for an extremely narrow bandwidth, on the order of 10 cm−1. Here we demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing via a Raman interaction in a bulk three-dimensional random medium, with conversion efficiencies on the order of a few percent. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of nonlinear processes in turbid media. In addition to providing a large signal, characteristic of the Raman medium, the random Raman laser offers us an entirely new tool for studying the dynamics of gain in a turbid medium. PMID:25014073

  6. Randomization in robot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of randomization in the solution of robot manipulation tasks. One example of randomization is shown by the strategy of shaking a bin holding a part in order to orient the part in a desired stable state with some high probability. Randomization can be useful for mobile robot navigation and as a means of guiding the design process.

  7. Random Item IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    It is common practice in IRT to consider items as fixed and persons as random. Both, continuous and categorical person parameters are most often random variables, whereas for items only continuous parameters are used and they are commonly of the fixed type, although exceptions occur. It is shown in the present article that random item parameters…

  8. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  9. Signal focusing through active transport.

    PubMed

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing-faster and more precise signaling-are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  10. Quantum random number generation

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  11. Defect Detection Using Hidden Markov Random Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dogandzic, Aleksandar; Eua-anant, Nawanat; Zhang Benhong

    2005-04-09

    We derive an approximate maximum a posteriori (MAP) method for detecting NDE defect signals using hidden Markov random fields (HMRFs). In the proposed HMRF framework, a set of spatially distributed NDE measurements is assumed to form a noisy realization of an underlying random field that has a simple structure with Markovian dependence. Here, the random field describes the defect signals to be estimated or detected. The HMRF models incorporate measurement locations into the statistical analysis, which is important in scenarios where the same defect affects measurements at multiple locations. We also discuss initialization of the proposed HMRF detector and apply to simulated eddy-current data and experimental ultrasonic C-scan data from an inspection of a cylindrical Ti 6-4 billet.

  12. Instrument sequentially samples ac signals from several accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1967-01-01

    Scanner circuit sequentially samples the ac signals from accelerometers used in conducting noise vibration tests, and provides a time-averaged output signal. The scanner is used in conjunction with other devices for random noise vibration tests.

  13. Theory of a random fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokolov, I. V. Lebedev, V. V.; Podivilov, E. V.; Vergeles, S. S.

    2014-12-15

    We develop the theory explaining the role of nonlinearity in generation of radiation in a fiber laser that is pumped by external light. The pumping energy is converted into the generating signal due to the Raman scattering supplying an effective gain for the signal. The signal is generated with frequencies near the one corresponding to the maximum value of the gain. Generation conditions and spectral properties of the generated signal are examined. We focus mainly on the case of a random laser where reflection of the signal occurs on impurities of the fiber. From the theoretical standpoint, kinetics of a wave system close to an integrable one are investigated. We demonstrate that in this case, the perturbation expansion in the kinetic equation has to use the closeness to the integrable case.

  14. Subnoise detection of a fast random event.

    PubMed

    Ataie, V; Esman, D; Kuo, B P-P; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-12-11

    Observation of random, nonrepetitive phenomena is of critical importance in astronomy, spectroscopy, biology, and remote sensing. Heralded by weak signals, hidden in noise, they pose basic detection challenges. In contrast to repetitive waveforms, a single-instance signal cannot be separated from noise through averaging. Here, we show that a fast, randomly occurring event can be detected and extracted from a noisy background without conventional averaging. An isolated 80-picosecond pulse was received with confidence level exceeding 99%, even when accompanied by noise. Our detector relies on instantaneous spectral cloning and a single-step, coherent field processor. The ability to extract fast, subnoise events is expected to increase detection sensitivity in multiple disciplines. Additionally, the new spectral-cloning receiver can potentially intercept communication signals that are presently considered secure. PMID:26659052

  15. Randomizing Genome-Scale Metabolic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Areejit; Martin, Olivier C.

    2011-01-01

    Networks coming from protein-protein interactions, transcriptional regulation, signaling, or metabolism may appear to have “unusual” properties. To quantify this, it is appropriate to randomize the network and test the hypothesis that the network is not statistically different from expected in a motivated ensemble. However, when dealing with metabolic networks, the randomization of the network using edge exchange generates fictitious reactions that are biochemically meaningless. Here we provide several natural ensembles of randomized metabolic networks. A first constraint is to use valid biochemical reactions. Further constraints correspond to imposing appropriate functional constraints. We explain how to perform these randomizations with the help of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and show that they allow one to approach the properties of biological metabolic networks. The implication of the present work is that the observed global structural properties of real metabolic networks are likely to be the consequence of simple biochemical and functional constraints. PMID:21779409

  16. [A biomedical signal processing toolkit programmed by Java].

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyuan

    2012-09-01

    According to the biomedical signal characteristics, a new biomedical signal processing toolkit is developed. The toolkit is programmed by Java. It is used in basic digital signal processing, random signal processing and etc. All the methods in toolkit has been tested, the program is robust. The feature of the toolkit is detailed explained, easy use and good practicability.

  17. Signal focusing through active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  18. CT detector evaluation with complex random backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Helen; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2012-02-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) uses detector arrays consisting of large numbers of photodiodes with scintil- lator crystals. The number of pixels in the array can play an important role in system performance. Considerable research has been performed on signal detection in flat backgrounds under various conditions, but little has been done with complex, random backgrounds in CT; our work investigates in particular the effect of the number of detector elements on signal detection by a channelized Hotelling observer in a complex background. For this project, a simulated three-dimensional phantom is generated with its attenuation equal to that of water. The phantom contains a smaller central section with random variations to simulate random anatomical structures. Cone-beam projections of the phantom are acquired at different angles and used to calculate the covariance matrix of the raw projection data. Laguerre-Gauss channels are used to reduce the dimensionality of each 2D projection and hence the size of the covariance matrix, but the covariance is still a function of two projection angles. A strong cross-channel correlation is observed as a function of the difference between the angles. A signal with known location and size is used, and the performance of the observer is calculated from the channel outputs at multiple projection angles. A contrast-detail diagram is computed for different variables such as signal size, number of incident x-ray photons, pixel size, etc. At a fixed observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the contrast required to detect a signal increases dramatically as the signal size decreases.

  19. Random bistochastic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Bruzda, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol

    2009-09-01

    Ensembles of random stochastic and bistochastic matrices are investigated. While all columns of a random stochastic matrix can be chosen independently, the rows and columns of a bistochastic matrix have to be correlated. We evaluate the probability measure induced into the Birkhoff polytope of bistochastic matrices by applying the Sinkhorn algorithm to a given ensemble of random stochastic matrices. For matrices of order N = 2 we derive explicit formulae for the probability distributions induced by random stochastic matrices with columns distributed according to the Dirichlet distribution. For arbitrary N we construct an initial ensemble of stochastic matrices which allows one to generate random bistochastic matrices according to a distribution locally flat at the center of the Birkhoff polytope. The value of the probability density at this point enables us to obtain an estimation of the volume of the Birkhoff polytope, consistent with recent asymptotic results.

  20. Generating random density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Życzkowski, Karol; Penson, Karol A.; Nechita, Ion; Collins, Benoît

    2011-06-01

    We study various methods to generate ensembles of random density matrices of a fixed size N, obtained by partial trace of pure states on composite systems. Structured ensembles of random pure states, invariant with respect to local unitary transformations are introduced. To analyze statistical properties of quantum entanglement in bi-partite systems we analyze the distribution of Schmidt coefficients of random pure states. Such a distribution is derived in the case of a superposition of k random maximally entangled states. For another ensemble, obtained by performing selective measurements in a maximally entangled basis on a multi-partite system, we show that this distribution is given by the Fuss-Catalan law and find the average entanglement entropy. A more general class of structured ensembles proposed, containing also the case of Bures, forms an extension of the standard ensemble of structureless random pure states, described asymptotically, as N → ∞, by the Marchenko-Pastur distribution.

  1. Randomness: Quantum versus classical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory has led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g. quantum random generators. This development had stimulated a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is the elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of a quantum state. Closely related problem is the clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review, we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. We also discuss briefly “digital philosophy”, its role in physics (classical and quantum) and its coupling to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM).

  2. Quantum random number generator

    DOEpatents

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  3. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  4. Randomness for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Gimbert, Hugo; Henzinger, Thomas A.

    We consider two-player zero-sum games on graphs. These games can be classified on the basis of the information of the players and on the mode of interaction between them. On the basis of information the classification is as follows: (a) partial-observation (both players have partial view of the game); (b) one-sided complete-observation (one player has complete observation); and (c) complete-observation (both players have complete view of the game). On the basis of mode of interaction we have the following classification: (a) concurrent (players interact simultaneously); and (b) turn-based (players interact in turn). The two sources of randomness in these games are randomness in transition function and randomness in strategies. In general, randomized strategies are more powerful than deterministic strategies, and randomness in transitions gives more general classes of games. We present a complete characterization for the classes of games where randomness is not helpful in: (a) the transition function (probabilistic transition can be simulated by deterministic transition); and (b) strategies (pure strategies are as powerful as randomized strategies). As consequence of our characterization we obtain new undecidability results for these games.

  5. Selecting people randomly.

    PubMed

    Broome, John

    1984-10-01

    This article considers what justification can be found for selecting randomly and in what circumstances it applies, including that of selecting patients to be treated by a scarce medical procedure. The author demonstrates that balancing the merits of fairness, common good, equal rights, and equal chance as they apply in various situations frequently leads to the conclusion that random selection may not be the most appropriate mode of selection. Broome acknowledges that, in the end, we may be forced to conclude that the only merit of random selection is the political one of guarding against partiality and oppression.

  6. On the simulation of harmonically related signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Albert A.; Kunz, Edward L.; Anderson, Wendell L.; Flowers, Kenneth D.

    1988-06-01

    Narrowband harmonically related signals, embedded in broadband noise and other unrelated signals, occur in specific applications. To study these signals and to evaluate techniques for their discernment, it is convenient to model or simulate harmonically related signals in the laboratory. A means of accomplishing this task on a conventional digital computer is developed in discrete algorithm format. The resulting simulator uses parameters that allow one to select the mean frequency and harmonic ratio of the signals and to control both the extent and autocorrelation (or power spectral density) of the random signal-frequency fluctuations. Broadband noise and other nonharmonically related signals may also be accommodated in the simulator concept. Examples, using the algorithm, demonstrate its performance and its conformance with theoretical predictions. Conclusions: A relatively simple algorithm is formulated to simulate harmonically related narrowband signals with random frequency fluctuations in discrete format on a digital computer. Signal parameters are incorporated into the algorithm to select the signal mean frequencies and to control both the spectral bounds and the autocorrelation (or power spectral density) of the signal fluctuations. Examples, using the algorithm, demonstrate the performance of the signal simulator and its conformance with theoretical predictions.

  7. Strict and random alternation in concurrent variable-interval schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Elliffe, Douglas; Davison, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Six pigeons responded on pairs of concurrent variable-interval schedules with, in different parts, four different arrangements of alternation between schedules. Following a single switching-key response, alternation was either strict or random, and the alternative presented after a switch (the postswitch alternative) was either signaled by the location of the switching key or unsignaled. Generalized-matching analyses showed little difference in behavior among the different alternation arrangements, except the usual finding of lower sensitivity of response allocation than time allocation was eliminated by arranging random alternation. Patterns of interchangeover times were similar for all arrangements except signaled random alternation. Differences in behavior preceding the different postswitch alternatives were found in the signaled random alternation procedure. Preference was biased towards the color of the signaled postswitch alternative and showed increased sensitivity when the postswitch alternative was to be the one with the higher reinforcer rate. Interchangeover times were substantially shorter when the postswitch alternative was signaled to be different from the current alternative than when it was signaled to be the same. However, when separate reinforcer ratios were calculated for the different postswitch alternatives, those effects were eliminated or greatly reduced. We suggest that, although behavior is indeed influenced by the postswitch alternative, the mechanism is indirect. That is, the distributions of reinforcers between alternatives obtained before each postswitch alternative differ when those alternatives are signaled, and those distributions are discriminated, but the same relations between choice and relative reinforcement hold irrespective of which postswitch alternative is signaled. PMID:12696742

  8. Relativistic diffusion processes and random walk models

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkel, Joern; Talkner, Peter; Haenggi, Peter

    2007-02-15

    The nonrelativistic standard model for a continuous, one-parameter diffusion process in position space is the Wiener process. As is well known, the Gaussian transition probability density function (PDF) of this process is in conflict with special relativity, as it permits particles to propagate faster than the speed of light. A frequently considered alternative is provided by the telegraph equation, whose solutions avoid superluminal propagation speeds but suffer from singular (noncontinuous) diffusion fronts on the light cone, which are unlikely to exist for massive particles. It is therefore advisable to explore other alternatives as well. In this paper, a generalized Wiener process is proposed that is continuous, avoids superluminal propagation, and reduces to the standard Wiener process in the nonrelativistic limit. The corresponding relativistic diffusion propagator is obtained directly from the nonrelativistic Wiener propagator, by rewriting the latter in terms of an integral over actions. The resulting relativistic process is non-Markovian, in accordance with the known fact that nontrivial continuous, relativistic Markov processes in position space cannot exist. Hence, the proposed process defines a consistent relativistic diffusion model for massive particles and provides a viable alternative to the solutions of the telegraph equation.

  9. Equitable random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E. J.; Martin, Travis

    2014-11-01

    Random graph models have played a dominant role in the theoretical study of networked systems. The Poisson random graph of Erdős and Rényi, in particular, as well as the so-called configuration model, have served as the starting point for numerous calculations. In this paper we describe another large class of random graph models, which we call equitable random graphs and which are flexible enough to represent networks with diverse degree distributions and many nontrivial types of structure, including community structure, bipartite structure, degree correlations, stratification, and others, yet are exactly solvable for a wide range of properties in the limit of large graph size, including percolation properties, complete spectral density, and the behavior of homogeneous dynamical systems, such as coupled oscillators or epidemic models.

  10. Spatial random downscaling of rainfall signals in Andean heterogeneous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posadas, A.; Duffaut Espinosa, L. A.; Yarlequé, C.; Carbajal, M.; Heidinger, H.; Carvalho, L.; Jones, C.; Quiroz, R.

    2015-07-01

    Remotely sensed data are often used as proxies for indirect precipitation measures over data-scarce and complex-terrain areas such as the Peruvian Andes. Although this information might be appropriate for some research requirements, the extent at which local sites could be related to such information is very limited because of the resolution of the available satellite data. Downscaling techniques are used to bridge the gap between what climate modelers (global and regional) are able to provide and what decision-makers require (local). Precipitation downscaling improves the poor local representation of satellite data and helps end-users acquire more accurate estimates of water availability. Thus, a multifractal downscaling technique complemented by a heterogeneity filter was applied to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B42 gridded data (spatial resolution ~ 28 km) from the Peruvian Andean high plateau or Altiplano to generate downscaled rainfall fields that are relevant at an agricultural scale (spatial resolution ~ 1 km).

  11. Maximally Nonlocal Theories Cannot Be Maximally Random

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, Gonzalo; Hoban, Matty J.; Dhara, Chirag; Prettico, Giuseppe; Acín, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Correlations that violate a Bell inequality are said to be nonlocal; i.e., they do not admit a local and deterministic explanation. Great effort has been devoted to study how the amount of nonlocality (as measured by a Bell inequality violation) serves to quantify the amount of randomness present in observed correlations. In this work we reverse this research program and ask what do the randomness certification capabilities of a theory tell us about the nonlocality of that theory. We find that, contrary to initial intuition, maximal randomness certification cannot occur in maximally nonlocal theories. We go on and show that quantum theory, in contrast, permits certification of maximal randomness in all dichotomic scenarios. We hence pose the question of whether quantum theory is optimal for randomness; i.e., is it the most nonlocal theory that allows maximal randomness certification? We answer this question in the negative by identifying a larger-than-quantum set of correlations capable of this feat. Not only are these results relevant to understanding quantum mechanics' fundamental features, but also put fundamental restrictions on device-independent protocols based on the no-signaling principle.

  12. Maximally nonlocal theories cannot be maximally random.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Gonzalo; Hoban, Matty J; Dhara, Chirag; Prettico, Giuseppe; Acín, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    Correlations that violate a Bell inequality are said to be nonlocal; i.e., they do not admit a local and deterministic explanation. Great effort has been devoted to study how the amount of nonlocality (as measured by a Bell inequality violation) serves to quantify the amount of randomness present in observed correlations. In this work we reverse this research program and ask what do the randomness certification capabilities of a theory tell us about the nonlocality of that theory. We find that, contrary to initial intuition, maximal randomness certification cannot occur in maximally nonlocal theories. We go on and show that quantum theory, in contrast, permits certification of maximal randomness in all dichotomic scenarios. We hence pose the question of whether quantum theory is optimal for randomness; i.e., is it the most nonlocal theory that allows maximal randomness certification? We answer this question in the negative by identifying a larger-than-quantum set of correlations capable of this feat. Not only are these results relevant to understanding quantum mechanics' fundamental features, but also put fundamental restrictions on device-independent protocols based on the no-signaling principle. PMID:25955039

  13. Random quantum operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzda, Wojciech; Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We define a natural ensemble of trace preserving, completely positive quantum maps and present algorithms to generate them at random. Spectral properties of the superoperator Φ associated with a given quantum map are investigated and a quantum analogue of the Frobenius-Perron theorem is proved. We derive a general formula for the density of eigenvalues of Φ and show the connection with the Ginibre ensemble of real non-symmetric random matrices. Numerical investigations of the spectral gap imply that a generic state of the system iterated several times by a fixed generic map converges exponentially to an invariant state.

  14. Random walks on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Isaac

    Random walks on lattices are a well used model for diffusion on continuum. They have been to model subdiffusive systems, systems with forcing and reactions as well as a combination of the three. We extend the traditional random walk framework to the network to obtain novel results. As an example due to the small graph diameter, the early time behaviour of subdiffusive dynamics dominates the observed system which has implications for models of the brain or airline networks. I would like to thank the Australian American Fulbright Association.

  15. [Purinergic signals].

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade evidence accumulated that nucleosides and nucleotides of both uridine and adenine can act as extracellular signaling factors. Their action is mediated by two main types of surface receptors commonly known as purinergic. P1 receptors are metabotropic and activated by adenosine, whereas receptors for nucleotides (ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP) and nucleotide-sugars (UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose) can be either metabotropic (P2Y) or ionotropic (P2X). The importance and complexity of this signaling system is evidenced by various mechanisms of nucleotide release, as well as by the ibiquitous distribution of various types of ectonucleotidases which catalyze and convert extracellular nucleotides. Up to now about twenty receptors have been cloned and found to modulate the nerve impulse, inflammatory response, insuline secretion, the regulation of the vascular tone and nociception, among other processes. In the present review we describe the main structural and pharmacological features of purinergic receptors, and analyze how the dynamic interaction between these receptors, nucleotides and nucleosides, and ectonucleotidases modulate several biological responses. Particular focus is given to platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, the immune response and the hydration of the mucosal linings of the respiratory tract. PMID:19435702

  16. A hybrid-type quantum random number generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Qiang, Ma; Wu, Zhu; Ke-Jin, Wei; Rui-Xue, Li; Hong-Wei, Liu

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a well-performing hybrid-type truly quantum random number generator based on the time interval between two independent single-photon detection signals, which is practical and intuitive, and generates the initial random number sources from a combination of multiple existing random number sources. A time-to-amplitude converter and multichannel analyzer are used for qualitative analysis to demonstrate that each and every step is random. Furthermore, a carefully designed data acquisition system is used to obtain a high-quality random sequence. Our scheme is simple and proves that the random number bit rate can be dramatically increased to satisfy practical requirements. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178010 and 11374042), the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. bupt2014TS01).

  17. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  18. Random lasers ensnared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonetti, Marco; López, Cefe

    2012-06-01

    A random laser is formed by a haphazard assembly of nondescript optical scatters with optical gain. Multiple light scattering replaces the optical cavity of traditional lasers and the interplay between gain, scattering and size determines its unique properties. Random lasers studied till recently, consisted of irregularly shaped or polydisperse scatters, with some average scattering strength constant across the gain frequency band. Photonic glasses can sustain scattering resonances that can be placed in the gain window, since they are formed by monodisperse spheres [1]. The unique resonant scattering of this novel material allows controlling the lasing color via the diameter of the particles and their refractive index. Thus a random laser with a priori set lasing peak can be designed [2]. A special pumping scheme that enables to select the number of activated modes in a random laser permits to prepare RLs in two distinct regimes by controlling directionality through the shape of the pump [3]. When pumping is essentially unidirectional, few (barely interacting) modes are turned on that show as sharp, uncorrelated peaks in the spectrum. By increasing angular span of the pump beams, many resonances intervene generating a smooth emission spectrum with a high degree of correlation, and shorter lifetime. These are signs of a phaselocking transition, in which phases are clamped together so that modes oscillate synchronously.

  19. Generating "Random" Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2011-01-01

    One of the author's undergraduate students recently asked him whether it was possible to generate a random positive integer. After some thought, the author realised that there were plenty of interesting mathematical ideas inherent in her question. So much so in fact, that the author decided to organise a workshop, open both to undergraduates and…

  20. Contouring randomly spaced data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.; Morris, W. D.; Hamm, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer program using triangulation contouring technique contours data points too numerous to fit into rectangular grid. Using random access procedures, program can handle up to 56,000 data points and provides up to 20 contour intervals for multiple number of parameters.

  1. Uniform random number generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  2. Randomization and sampling issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The need for randomly selected routes and other sampling issues have been debated by the Amphibian electronic discussion group. Many excellent comments have been made, pro and con, but we have not reached consensus yet. This paper brings those comments together and attempts a synthesis. I hope that the resulting discussion will bring us closer to a consensus.

  3. Research of laser echo signal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Laser echo signal simulator is one of the most significant components of hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation systems for LADAR. System model and time series model of laser echo signal simulator are established. Some influential factors which could induce fixed error and random error on the simulated return signals are analyzed, and then these system insertion errors are analyzed quantitatively. Using this theoretical model, the simulation system is investigated experimentally. The results corrected by subtracting fixed error indicate that the range error of the simulated laser return signal is less than 0.25m, and the distance range that the system can simulate is from 50m to 20km.

  4. On Random Numbers and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Morechai

    2004-01-01

    The term "random" is frequently used in discussion of the theory of evolution, even though the mathematical concept of randomness is problematic and of little relevance in the theory. Therefore, since the core concept of the theory of evolution is the non-random process of natural selection, the term random should not be used in teaching the…

  5. Statistical properties of filtered pseudo-random digital sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    A tutorial presentation of pseudo-random digital sequences, their generation and properties is given. The results of a study of filtered pseudo-random sequences, and their statistical properties are reported. The generator, to be used in a telemetry communications system test unit, must generate its pseudo-random signals by filtering a long digital sequence. Desired signal properties include: (1) approximately Gaussian amplitude probability density function; and (2) signal spectral envelope approximately that of the filter being used in the generator. Filtered maximum-length sequences have been used for this, and similar applications in the past. The results were good for low-pass filtered sequences when the ratio of digital clock frequency to filter cutoff frequency was between fifteen and twenty. However, for higher values of this ratio, a definite skewing of the amplitude density function was observed.

  6. Deterministic-random separation in nonstationary regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, D.; Antoni, J.; Sieg-Zieba, S.; Eltabach, M.

    2016-02-01

    In rotating machinery vibration analysis, the synchronous average is perhaps the most widely used technique for extracting periodic components. Periodic components are typically related to gear vibrations, misalignments, unbalances, blade rotations, reciprocating forces, etc. Their separation from other random components is essential in vibration-based diagnosis in order to discriminate useful information from masking noise. However, synchronous averaging theoretically requires the machine to operate under stationary regime (i.e. the related vibration signals are cyclostationary) and is otherwise jeopardized by the presence of amplitude and phase modulations. A first object of this paper is to investigate the nature of the nonstationarity induced by the response of a linear time-invariant system subjected to speed varying excitation. For this purpose, the concept of a cyclo-non-stationary signal is introduced, which extends the class of cyclostationary signals to speed-varying regimes. Next, a "generalized synchronous average'' is designed to extract the deterministic part of a cyclo-non-stationary vibration signal-i.e. the analog of the periodic part of a cyclostationary signal. Two estimators of the GSA have been proposed. The first one returns the synchronous average of the signal at predefined discrete operating speeds. A brief statistical study of it is performed, aiming to provide the user with confidence intervals that reflect the "quality" of the estimator according to the SNR and the estimated speed. The second estimator returns a smoothed version of the former by enforcing continuity over the speed axis. It helps to reconstruct the deterministic component by tracking a specific trajectory dictated by the speed profile (assumed to be known a priori).The proposed method is validated first on synthetic signals and then on actual industrial signals. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated on envelope-based diagnosis of bearings in variable

  7. Relativistic Weierstrass random walks.

    PubMed

    Saa, Alberto; Venegeroles, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    The Weierstrass random walk is a paradigmatic Markov chain giving rise to a Lévy-type superdiffusive behavior. It is well known that special relativity prevents the arbitrarily high velocities necessary to establish a superdiffusive behavior in any process occurring in Minkowski spacetime, implying, in particular, that any relativistic Markov chain describing spacetime phenomena must be essentially Gaussian. Here, we introduce a simple relativistic extension of the Weierstrass random walk and show that there must exist a transition time t{c} delimiting two qualitative distinct dynamical regimes: the (nonrelativistic) superdiffusive Lévy flights, for tt{c} . Implications of this crossover between different diffusion regimes are discussed for some explicit examples. The study of such an explicit and simple Markov chain can shed some light on several results obtained in much more involved contexts. PMID:20866862

  8. Relativistic Weierstrass random walks.

    PubMed

    Saa, Alberto; Venegeroles, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    The Weierstrass random walk is a paradigmatic Markov chain giving rise to a Lévy-type superdiffusive behavior. It is well known that special relativity prevents the arbitrarily high velocities necessary to establish a superdiffusive behavior in any process occurring in Minkowski spacetime, implying, in particular, that any relativistic Markov chain describing spacetime phenomena must be essentially Gaussian. Here, we introduce a simple relativistic extension of the Weierstrass random walk and show that there must exist a transition time t{c} delimiting two qualitative distinct dynamical regimes: the (nonrelativistic) superdiffusive Lévy flights, for tt{c} . Implications of this crossover between different diffusion regimes are discussed for some explicit examples. The study of such an explicit and simple Markov chain can shed some light on several results obtained in much more involved contexts.

  9. Vortex telegraph noise in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shung, E.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; Coppersmith, S.N.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W.

    1997-11-01

    We cool untwinned single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} with columnar defects down to liquid-He temperatures and study the development of pinning in the strongly interacting Bose glass with local Hall-probe magnetometry. We are able to resolve discrete fluctuations in the local vortex density resulting from reconfigurations of the vortex assembly between metastable states nearby in energy. By varying the applied magnetic field, and therefore the mean vortex density, we gain microscopic information about vortex-vortex interactions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Interactions in random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Toma; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2002-04-01

    The description of thermodynamic properties of copolymers in terms of simple lattice models requires a value for the effective interaction strength between chain segments, in addition to parameters that can be derived from the properties of the corresponding homopolymers. If the monomers are chemically similar, Berthelot's geometric-mean combining rule provides a good first approximation for interactions between unlike segments. In earlier work on blends of polyolefins [1], we found that the small-scale architecture of the chains leads to corrections to the geometric-mean approximation that are important for the prediction of phase diagrams. In this work, we focus on the additional effects due to sequencing of the monomeric units. In order to estimate the effective interaction for random copolymers, the small-scale simulation approach developed in [1] is extended to allow for random sequencing of the monomeric units. The approach is applied here to random copolymers of ethylene and 1-butene. [1] J. Luettmer-Strathmann and J.E.G. Lipson. Phys. Rev. E 59, 2039 (1999) and Macromolecules 32, 1093 (1999).

  11. Wave formation by time delays in randomly coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tae-Wook; Jeong, Seong-Ok; Moon, Hie-Tae

    2004-05-01

    We study the dynamics of randomly coupled oscillators when interactions between oscillators are time delayed due to the finite and constant speed of coupling signals. Numerical simulations show that the time delays, proportional to the Euclidean distances between interacting oscillators, can induce near regular waves in addition to near in-phase synchronous oscillations even though oscillators are randomly coupled. We discuss the stability conditions for the wave states and the in-phase synchronous states.

  12. A random number generator for continuous random variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.

  13. Dynamic computing random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversa, F. L.; Bonani, F.; Pershin, Y. V.; Di Ventra, M.

    2014-07-01

    The present von Neumann computing paradigm involves a significant amount of information transfer between a central processing unit and memory, with concomitant limitations in the actual execution speed. However, it has been recently argued that a different form of computation, dubbed memcomputing (Di Ventra and Pershin 2013 Nat. Phys. 9 200-2) and inspired by the operation of our brain, can resolve the intrinsic limitations of present day architectures by allowing for computing and storing of information on the same physical platform. Here we show a simple and practical realization of memcomputing that utilizes easy-to-build memcapacitive systems. We name this architecture dynamic computing random access memory (DCRAM). We show that DCRAM provides massively-parallel and polymorphic digital logic, namely it allows for different logic operations with the same architecture, by varying only the control signals. In addition, by taking into account realistic parameters, its energy expenditures can be as low as a few fJ per operation. DCRAM is fully compatible with CMOS technology, can be realized with current fabrication facilities, and therefore can really serve as an alternative to the present computing technology.

  14. Dynamic computing random access memory.

    PubMed

    Traversa, F L; Bonani, F; Pershin, Y V; Di Ventra, M

    2014-07-18

    The present von Neumann computing paradigm involves a significant amount of information transfer between a central processing unit and memory, with concomitant limitations in the actual execution speed. However, it has been recently argued that a different form of computation, dubbed memcomputing (Di Ventra and Pershin 2013 Nat. Phys. 9 200-2) and inspired by the operation of our brain, can resolve the intrinsic limitations of present day architectures by allowing for computing and storing of information on the same physical platform. Here we show a simple and practical realization of memcomputing that utilizes easy-to-build memcapacitive systems. We name this architecture dynamic computing random access memory (DCRAM). We show that DCRAM provides massively-parallel and polymorphic digital logic, namely it allows for different logic operations with the same architecture, by varying only the control signals. In addition, by taking into account realistic parameters, its energy expenditures can be as low as a few fJ per operation. DCRAM is fully compatible with CMOS technology, can be realized with current fabrication facilities, and therefore can really serve as an alternative to the present computing technology.

  15. Acquisition signal transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An encoded information transmitter which transmits a radio frequency carrier that is amplitude modulated by a constant frequency waveform and thereafter amplitude modulated by a predetermined encoded waveform, the constant frequency waveform modulated carrier constituting an acquisition signal and the encoded waveform modulated carrier constituting an information bearing signal, the acquisition signal providing enhanced signal acquisition and interference rejection favoring the information bearing signal. One specific application for this transmitter is as a distress transmitter where a conventional, legislated audio tone modulated signal is transmitted followed first by the acquisition signal and then the information bearing signal, the information bearing signal being encoded with, among other things, vehicle identification data. The acquistion signal enables a receiver to acquire the information bearing signal where the received signal is low and/or where the received signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio in an environment where there are multiple signals in the same frequency band as the information bearing signal.

  16. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  17. Note: The design of thin gap chamber simulation signal source based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Kun; Wang, Xu; Li, Feng; Jin, Ge; Lu, Houbing; Liang, Futian

    2015-01-15

    The Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is an important part of ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator. Targeting the feature of the output signal of TGC detector, we have designed a simulation signal source. The core of the design is based on field programmable gate array, randomly outputting 256-channel simulation signals. The signal is generated by true random number generator. The source of randomness originates from the timing jitter in ring oscillators. The experimental results show that the random number is uniform in histogram, and the whole system has high reliability.

  18. Universal microbial diagnostics using random DNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Amirali; Lin, Adam Y.; Sheikh, Mona A.; Chen, Allen L.; Atkins, Lisa M.; Johnson, Coreen L.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Baraniuk, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of pathogens is essential for limiting development of therapy-resistant pathogens and mitigating infectious disease outbreaks. Most bacterial detection schemes use target-specific probes to differentiate pathogen species, creating time and cost inefficiencies in identifying newly discovered organisms. We present a novel universal microbial diagnostics (UMD) platform to screen for microbial organisms in an infectious sample, using a small number of random DNA probes that are agnostic to the target DNA sequences. Our platform leverages the theory of sparse signal recovery (compressive sensing) to identify the composition of a microbial sample that potentially contains novel or mutant species. We validated the UMD platform in vitro using five random probes to recover 11 pathogenic bacteria. We further demonstrated in silico that UMD can be generalized to screen for common human pathogens in different taxonomy levels. UMD’s unorthodox sensing approach opens the door to more efficient and universal molecular diagnostics. PMID:27704040

  19. Disorder by Random Crosslinking in Smectic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, Denitza M.; Ostrovskii, Boris I.; Finkelmann, Heino; de Jeu, Wim H.

    2004-10-01

    We present a high-resolution x-ray study of the effects of disorder due to random crosslinking on the one-dimensional translational ordering in smectic elastomers. At a small crosslink density of about 5%, the elastomer network stabilizes the smectic structure against layer-displacement fluctuations, and the algebraically decaying layer ordering extends up to several micrometers. With increasing concentration of crosslinks, the finite size of these domains is strongly reduced, indicating that disordering takes over. Finally, at a crosslink concentration of 20%, the structure factor can be described by a Lorentzian, which signals extended short-range correlations. The findings are discussed in terms of recent theories of randomly quenched disorder.

  20. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Young, John; Chapman, Katie; Nixon, Jane; Patel, Anita; Holloway, Ivana; Mellish, Kirste; Anwar, Shamaila; Breen, Rachel; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Jenni; Farrin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— We developed a new postdischarge system of care comprising a structured assessment covering longer-term problems experienced by patients with stroke and their carers, linked to evidence-based treatment algorithms and reference guides (the longer-term stroke care system of care) to address the poor longer-term recovery experienced by many patients with stroke. Methods— A pragmatic, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial of this system of care. Eligible patients referred to community-based Stroke Care Coordinators were randomized to receive the new system of care or usual practice. The primary outcome was improved patient psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) at 6 months; secondary outcomes included functional outcomes for patients, carer outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Follow-up was through self-completed postal questionnaires at 6 and 12 months. Results— Thirty-two stroke services were randomized (29 participated); 800 patients (399 control; 401 intervention) and 208 carers (100 control; 108 intervention) were recruited. In intention to treat analysis, the adjusted difference in patient General Health Questionnaire-12 mean scores at 6 months was −0.6 points (95% confidence interval, −1.8 to 0.7; P=0.394) indicating no evidence of statistically significant difference between the groups. Costs of Stroke Care Coordinator inputs, total health and social care costs, and quality-adjusted life year gains at 6 months, 12 months, and over the year were similar between the groups. Conclusions— This robust trial demonstrated no benefit in clinical or cost-effectiveness outcomes associated with the new system of care compared with usual Stroke Care Coordinator practice. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 67932305. PMID:26152298

  1. Composite Random Fiber Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picu, Catalin; Shahsavari, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Systems made from fibers are common in the biological and engineering worlds. In many instances, as for example in skin, where elastin and collagen fibers are present, the fiber network is composite, in the sense that it contains fibers of very different properties. The relationship between microstructural parameters and the elastic moduli of random fiber networks containing a single type of fiber is understood. In this work we address a similar target for the composite networks. We show that linear superposition of the contributions to stiffness of individual sub-networks does not apply and interesting non-linear effects are observed. A physical basis of these effects is proposed.

  2. Can randomization be informative?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos A. B.; Campos, Thiago F.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Wechsler, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    In this paper the Pair of Siblings Paradox introduced by Pereira [1] is extended by considering more than two children and more than one child observed for gender. We follow the same lines of Wechsler et al. [2] that generalizes the three prisoners' dilemma, introduced by Gardner [3]. This paper's conjecture is that the Pair of Siblings and the Three Prisoners dilemma are dual paradoxes. Looking at possible likelihoods, the sure (randomized) selection for the former is non informative (informative), the opposite that holds for the latter. This situation is maintained for generalizations. Non informative likelihood here means that prior and posterior are equal.

  3. Within-Subject Testing of the Signaled-Reinforcement Effect on Operant Responding as Measured by Response Rate and Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Doughty, Adam H.

    2005-01-01

    Response rates under random-interval schedules are lower when a brief (500 ms) signal accompanies reinforcement than when there is no signal. The present study examined this signaled-reinforcement effect and its relation to resistance to change. In Experiment 1, rats responded on a multiple random-interval 60-s random-interval 60-s schedule, with…

  4. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Edward W.; Simms, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  5. Scram signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, E.W.; Simms, R.

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  6. Fast random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kunihito; Yamazaki, Taiki; Morikatsu, Shinichiro; Okumura, Haruka; Aida, Hiroki; Uchida, Atsushi; Yoshimori, Shigeru; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Harayama, Takahisa; Davis, Peter

    2010-03-15

    We experimentally demonstrate random bit generation using multi-bit samples of bandwidth-enhanced chaos in semiconductor lasers. Chaotic fluctuation of laser output is generated in a semiconductor laser with optical feedback and the chaotic output is injected into a second semiconductor laser to obtain a chaotic intensity signal with bandwidth enhanced up to 16 GHz. The chaotic signal is converted to an 8-bit digital signal by sampling with a digital oscilloscope at 12.5 Giga samples per second (GS/s). Random bits are generated by bitwise exclusive-OR operation on corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delayed signal. Statistical tests verify the randomness of bit sequences obtained using 1 to 6 bits per sample, corresponding to fast random bit generation rates from 12.5 to 75 Gigabit per second (Gb/s) ( = 6 bit x 12.5 GS/s).

  7. Random recursive trees and the elephant random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürsten, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    One class of random walks with infinite memory, so-called elephant random walks, are simple models describing anomalous diffusion. We present a surprising connection between these models and bond percolation on random recursive trees. We use a coupling between the two models to translate results from elephant random walks to the percolation process. We calculate, besides other quantities, exact expressions for the first and the second moment of the root cluster size and of the number of nodes in child clusters of the first generation. We further introduce another model, the skew elephant random walk, and calculate the first and second moment of this process.

  8. Random recursive trees and the elephant random walk.

    PubMed

    Kürsten, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    One class of random walks with infinite memory, so-called elephant random walks, are simple models describing anomalous diffusion. We present a surprising connection between these models and bond percolation on random recursive trees. We use a coupling between the two models to translate results from elephant random walks to the percolation process. We calculate, besides other quantities, exact expressions for the first and the second moment of the root cluster size and of the number of nodes in child clusters of the first generation. We further introduce another model, the skew elephant random walk, and calculate the first and second moment of this process. PMID:27078296

  9. Random-walk enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  10. Random rough surface photofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissonneau, Vincent; Escoubas, Ludovic; Flory, François; Berginc, Gérard

    2011-10-01

    Random rough surfaces are of primary interest for their optical properties: reducing reflection at the interface or obtaining specific scattering diagram for example. Thus controlling surface statistics during the fabrication process paves the way to original and specific behaviors of reflected optical waves. We detail an experimental method allowing the fabrication of random rough surfaces showing tuned statistical properties. A two-step photoresist exposure process was developed. In order to initiate photoresist polymerization, an energy threshold needs to be reached by light exposure. This energy is brought by a uniform exposure equipment comprising UV-LEDs. This pre-exposure is studied by varying parameters such as optical power and exposure time. The second step consists in an exposure based on the Gray method.1 The speckle pattern of an enlarged scattered laser beam is used to insolate the photoresist. A specific photofabrication bench using an argon ion laser was implemented. Parameters such as exposure time and distances between optical components are discussed. Then, we describe how we modify the speckle-based exposure bench to include a spatial light modulator (SLM). The SLM used is a micromirror matrix known as Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) which allows spatial modulation by displaying binary images. Thus, the spatial beam shape can be tuned and so the speckle pattern on the photoresist is modified. As the photoresist photofabricated surface is correlated to the speckle pattern used to insolate, the roughness parameters can be adjusted.

  11. Random-walk enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chi H; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Goodman, Myron F

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C→U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  12. Random-walk enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C → U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508

  13. Random-walk enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chi H; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Goodman, Myron F

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C→U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508

  14. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  15. Work analysis by random sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Divilbiss, J L; Self, P C

    1978-01-01

    Random sampling of work activities using an electronic random alarm mechanism provided a simple and effective way to determine how time was divided between various activities. At each random alarm the subject simply recorded the time and the activity. Analysis of the data led to reassignment of staff functions and also resulted in additional support for certain critical activities. PMID:626793

  16. Random Selection for Drug Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    Simple random sampling is generally the starting point for a random sampling process. This sampling technique ensures that each individual within a group (population) has an equal chance of being selected. There are a variety of ways to implement random sampling in a practical situation.

  17. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  18. Randomized Response Analysis in Mplus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hox, Joop; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a technique to analyze randomized response data using available structural equation modeling (SEM) software. The randomized response technique was developed to obtain estimates that are more valid when studying sensitive topics. The basic feature of all randomized response methods is that the data are deliberately…

  19. Performance of random multiple access transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinainitisart, N.; Wu, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the Random Multiple Access (RMA) technique, applied to a direct terminal-to-terminal link with a large number of potential users, is determined. The average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived. Under Gaussian assumption, the approximation of the probability of error is given. The analysis shows that the system performance is affected by the sequence length, the number of simultaneous users, and the number of cochannel symbols, but is not sensitive to the thermal noise. The performance of using very small aperture antenna for both transmitting and receiving without a hub station is given.

  20. A biohybrid dynamic random access memory.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jon; Granfeldt, Daniel; Pihl, Johan; Millingen, Maria; Lincoln, Per; Farre, Cecilia; Peterson, Lena; Orwar, Owe

    2006-04-19

    We report that GABA(A) receptors in a patch-clamped biological cell form a short-term memory circuit when integrated with a scanning-probe microfluidic device. Laminar patterns of receptor activators (agonists) provided by the microfluidic device define and periodically update the data input which is read and stored by the receptors as state distributions (based on intrinsic multistate kinetics). The memory is discharged over time and lasts for seconds to minutes depending on the input function. The function of the memory can be represented by an equivalent electronic circuit with striking similarity in function to a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) used in electronic computers. Multiplexed biohybrid memories may form the basis of large-scale integrated biocomputational/sensor devices with the curious ability to use chemical signals including odorants, neurotransmitters, chemical and biological warfare agents, and many more as input signals.

  1. Random cyclic matrices.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sudhir R; Srivastava, Shashi C L

    2008-09-01

    We present a Gaussian ensemble of random cyclic matrices on the real field and study their spectral fluctuations. These cyclic matrices are shown to be pseudosymmetric with respect to generalized parity. We calculate the joint probability distribution function of eigenvalues and the spacing distributions analytically and numerically. For small spacings, the level spacing distribution exhibits either a Gaussian or a linear form. Furthermore, for the general case of two arbitrary complex eigenvalues, leaving out the spacings among real eigenvalues, and, among complex conjugate pairs, we find that the spacing distribution agrees completely with the Wigner distribution for a Poisson process on a plane. The cyclic matrices occur in a wide variety of physical situations, including disordered linear atomic chains and the Ising model in two dimensions. These exact results are also relevant to two-dimensional statistical mechanics and nu -parametrized quantum chromodynamics. PMID:18851127

  2. Structure of random foam.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinelt, Douglas A.; van Swol, Frank B.; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2004-06-01

    The Surface Evolver was used to compute the equilibrium microstructure of dry soap foams with random structure and a wide range of cell-size distributions. Topological and geometric properties of foams and individual cells were evaluated. The theory for isotropic Plateau polyhedra describes the dependence of cell geometric properties on their volume and number of faces. The surface area of all cells is about 10% greater than a sphere of equal volume; this leads to a simple but accurate theory for the surface free energy density of foam. A novel parameter based on the surface-volume mean bubble radius R32 is used to characterize foam polydispersity. The foam energy, total cell edge length, and average number of faces per cell all decrease with increasing polydispersity. Pentagonal faces are the most common in monodisperse foam but quadrilaterals take over in highly polydisperse structures.

  3. CONTOURING RANDOMLY SPACED DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    This program prepares contour plots of three-dimensional randomly spaced data. The contouring techniques use a triangulation procedure developed by Dr. C. L. Lawson of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which allows the contouring of randomly spaced input data without first fitting the data into a rectangular grid. The program also allows contour points to be fitted with a smooth curve using an interpolating spline under tension. The input data points to be contoured are read from a magnetic tape or disk file with one record for each data point. Each record contains the X and Y coordinates, value to be contoured, and an alternate contour value (if applicable). The contour data is then partitioned by the program to reduce core storage requirements. Output consists of the contour plots and user messages. Several output options are available to the user such as: controlling which value in the data record is to be contoured, whether contours are drawn by polygonal lines or by a spline under tension (smooth curves), and controlling the contour level labels which may be suppressed if desired. The program can handle up to 56,000 data points and provide for up to 20 contour intervals for a multiple number of parameters. This program was written in FORTRAN IV for implementation on a CDC 6600 computer using CALCOMP plotting capabilities. The field length required is dependent upon the number of data points to be contoured. The program requires 42K octal storage locations plus the larger of: 24 times the maximum number of points in each data partition (defaults to maximum of 1000 data points in each partition with 20 percent overlap) or 2K plus four times the total number of points to be plotted. This program was developed in 1975.

  4. Nimbus 6 Random Access Measurement System applications experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, C. E. (Editor); Taylor, R. (Editor); Gilbert, E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The advantages of a technique in which data collection platforms randomly transmit signal to a polar orbiting satellite, thus eliminating satellite interrogation are demonstrated in investigations of the atmosphere; oceanographic parameters; Arctic regions and ice conditions; navigation and position location; and data buoy development.

  5. How random are random numbers generated using photons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M.; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2015-06-01

    Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined.

  6. Quantum random walk polynomial and quantum random walk measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuanbao; Wang, Caishi

    2014-05-01

    In the paper, we introduce a quantum random walk polynomial (QRWP) that can be defined as a polynomial , which is orthogonal with respect to a quantum random walk measure (QRWM) on , such that the parameters are in the recurrence relations and satisfy . We firstly obtain some results of QRWP and QRWM, in which case the correspondence between measures and orthogonal polynomial sequences is one-to-one. It shows that any measure with respect to which a quantum random walk polynomial sequence is orthogonal is a quantum random walk measure. We next collect some properties of QRWM; moreover, we extend Karlin and McGregor's representation formula for the transition probabilities of a quantum random walk (QRW) in the interacting Fock space, which is a parallel result with the CGMV method. Using these findings, we finally obtain some applications for QRWM, which are of interest in the study of quantum random walk, highlighting the role played by QRWP and QRWM.

  7. Randomness fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting a fault on a power line carrying a line parameter such as a load current. The apparatus monitors and analyzes the load current to obtain an energy value. The energy value is compared to a threshold value stored in a buffer. If the energy value is greater than the threshold value a counter is incremented. If the energy value is greater than a high value threshold or less than a low value threshold then a second counter is incremented. If the difference between two subsequent energy values is greater than a constant then a third counter is incremented. A fault signal is issued if the counter is greater than a counter limit value and either the second counter is greater than a second limit value or the third counter is greater than a third limit value.

  8. Metadisorder for designer light in random systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Disorder plays a critical role in signal transport by controlling the correlation of a system, as demonstrated in various complex networks. In wave physics, disordered potentials suppress wave transport, because of their localized eigenstates, from the interference between multiple scattering paths. Although the variation of localization with tunable disorder has been intensively studied as a bridge between ordered and disordered media, the general trend of disorder-enhanced localization has remained unchanged, and the existence of complete delocalization in highly disordered potentials has not been explored. We propose the concept of “metadisorder”: randomly coupled optical systems in which eigenstates can be engineered to achieve unusual localization. We demonstrate that one of the eigenstates in a randomly coupled system can always be arbitrarily molded, regardless of the degree of disorder, by adjusting the self-energy of each element. Ordered waves with the desired form are then achieved in randomly coupled systems, including plane waves and globally collective resonances. We also devise counterintuitive functionalities in disordered systems, such as “small-world–like” transport from non–Anderson-type localization, phase-conserving disorder, and phase-controlled beam steering. PMID:27757414

  9. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  10. Spatially embedded random networks.

    PubMed

    Barnett, L; Di Paolo, E; Bullock, S

    2007-11-01

    Many real-world networks analyzed in modern network theory have a natural spatial element; e.g., the Internet, social networks, neural networks, etc. Yet, aside from a comparatively small number of somewhat specialized and domain-specific studies, the spatial element is mostly ignored and, in particular, its relation to network structure disregarded. In this paper we introduce a model framework to analyze the mediation of network structure by spatial embedding; specifically, we model connectivity as dependent on the distance between network nodes. Our spatially embedded random networks construction is not primarily intended as an accurate model of any specific class of real-world networks, but rather to gain intuition for the effects of spatial embedding on network structure; nevertheless we are able to demonstrate, in a quite general setting, some constraints of spatial embedding on connectivity such as the effects of spatial symmetry, conditions for scale free degree distributions and the existence of small-world spatial networks. We also derive some standard structural statistics for spatially embedded networks and illustrate the application of our model framework with concrete examples. PMID:18233726

  11. Spatially embedded random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, L.; di Paolo, E.; Bullock, S.

    2007-11-01

    Many real-world networks analyzed in modern network theory have a natural spatial element; e.g., the Internet, social networks, neural networks, etc. Yet, aside from a comparatively small number of somewhat specialized and domain-specific studies, the spatial element is mostly ignored and, in particular, its relation to network structure disregarded. In this paper we introduce a model framework to analyze the mediation of network structure by spatial embedding; specifically, we model connectivity as dependent on the distance between network nodes. Our spatially embedded random networks construction is not primarily intended as an accurate model of any specific class of real-world networks, but rather to gain intuition for the effects of spatial embedding on network structure; nevertheless we are able to demonstrate, in a quite general setting, some constraints of spatial embedding on connectivity such as the effects of spatial symmetry, conditions for scale free degree distributions and the existence of small-world spatial networks. We also derive some standard structural statistics for spatially embedded networks and illustrate the application of our model framework with concrete examples.

  12. Does Random Dispersion Help Survival?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B.

    2015-04-01

    Many species live in colonies that prosper for a while and then collapse. After the collapse the colony survivors disperse randomly and found new colonies that may or may not make it depending on the new environment they find. We use birth and death chains in random environments to model such a population and to argue that random dispersion is a superior strategy for survival.

  13. Leadership statistics in random structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2004-01-01

    The largest component ("the leader") in evolving random structures often exhibits universal statistical properties. This phenomenon is demonstrated analytically for two ubiquitous structures: random trees and random graphs. In both cases, lead changes are rare as the average number of lead changes increases quadratically with logarithm of the system size. As a function of time, the number of lead changes is self-similar. Additionally, the probability that no lead change ever occurs decays exponentially with the average number of lead changes.

  14. A Random Variable Transformation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuermann, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Provides a short BASIC program, RANVAR, which generates random variates for various theoretical probability distributions. The seven variates include: uniform, exponential, normal, binomial, Poisson, Pascal, and triangular. (MVL)

  15. Coherent Doppler lidar signal covariance including wind shear and wind turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of coherent Doppler lidar is determined by the statistics of the coherent Doppler signal. The derivation and calculation of the covariance of the Doppler lidar signal is presented for random atmospheric wind fields with wind shear. The random component is described by a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum. The signal parameters are clarified for a general coherent Doppler lidar system. There are two distinct physical regimes: one where the transmitted pulse determines the signal statistics and the other where the wind field dominates the signal statistics. The Doppler shift of the signal is identified in terms of the wind field and system parameters.

  16. Random diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Mazenko, Gene F

    2008-09-01

    We study the random diffusion model. This is a continuum model for a conserved scalar density field varphi driven by diffusive dynamics. The interesting feature of the dynamics is that the bare diffusion coefficient D is density dependent. In the simplest case, D=D[over ]+D_{1}deltavarphi , where D[over ] is the constant average diffusion constant. In the case where the driving effective Hamiltonian is quadratic, the model can be treated using perturbation theory in terms of the single nonlinear coupling D1 . We develop perturbation theory to fourth order in D1 . The are two ways of analyzing this perturbation theory. In one approach, developed by Kawasaki, at one-loop order one finds mode-coupling theory with an ergodic-nonergodic transition. An alternative more direct interpretation at one-loop order leads to a slowing down as the nonlinear coupling increases. Eventually one hits a critical coupling where the time decay becomes algebraic. Near this critical coupling a weak peak develops at a wave number well above the peak at q=0 associated with the conservation law. The width of this peak in Fourier space decreases with time and can be identified with a characteristic kinetic length which grows with a power law in time. For stronger coupling the system becomes metastable and then unstable. At two-loop order it is shown that the ergodic-nonergodic transition is not supported. It is demonstrated that the critical properties of the direct approach survive, going to higher order in perturbation theory.

  17. Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s-1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s-1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.

  18. Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s‑1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s‑1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.

  19. [Research progress of adventitious respiratory sound signal processing].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-10-01

    Adventitious respiratory sound signal processing has been an important researching topic in the field of computerized respiratory sound analysis system. In recent years, new progress has been achieved in adventitious respiratory sound signal analysis due to the applications of techniques of non-stationary random signal processing. Algorithm progress of adventitious respiratory sound detections is discussed in detail in this paper. Then the state of art of adventitious respiratory sound analysis is reviewed, and development directions of next phase are pointed out.

  20. Calcium Signals Driven by Single Channel Noise

    PubMed Central

    Skupin, Alexander; Kettenmann, Helmut; Falcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Usually, the occurrence of random cell behavior is appointed to small copy numbers of molecules involved in the stochastic process. Recently, we demonstrated for a variety of cell types that intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are sequences of random spikes despite the involvement of many molecules in spike generation. This randomness arises from the stochastic state transitions of individual Ca2+ release channels and does not average out due to the existence of steep concentration gradients. The system is hierarchical due to the structural levels channel - channel cluster - cell and a corresponding strength of coupling. Concentration gradients introduce microdomains which couple channels of a cluster strongly. But they couple clusters only weakly; too weak to establish deterministic behavior on cell level. Here, we present a multi-scale modelling concept for stochastic hierarchical systems. It simulates active molecules individually as Markov chains and their coupling by deterministic diffusion. Thus, we are able to follow the consequences of random single molecule state changes up to the signal on cell level. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we simulate a variety of experiments. Comparisons of simulated and experimental data of spontaneous oscillations in astrocytes emphasize the role of spatial concentration gradients in Ca2+ signalling. Analysis of extensive simulations indicates that frequency encoding described by the relation between average and standard deviation of interspike intervals is surprisingly robust. This robustness is a property of the random spiking mechanism and not a result of control. PMID:20700497

  1. Applications of Savitzky-Golay Filter for Seismic Random Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanping; Dang, Bo; Li, Yue; Lin, Hongbo; Ma, Haitao

    2016-02-01

    This article utilizes Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter to eliminate seismic random noise. This is a novel method for seismic random noise reduction in which SG filter adopts piecewise weighted polynomial via least-squares estimation. Therefore, effective smoothing is achieved in extracting the original signal from noise environment while retaining the shape of the signal as close as possible to the original one. Although there are lots of classical methods such as Wiener filtering and wavelet denoising applied to eliminate seismic random noise, the SG filter outperforms them in approximating the true signal. SG filter will obtain a good tradeoff in waveform smoothing and valid signal preservation under suitable conditions. These are the appropriate window size and the polynomial degree. Through examples from synthetic seismic signals and field seismic data, we demonstrate the good performance of SG filter by comparing it with the Wiener filtering and wavelet denoising methods.

  2. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer–resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism. PMID:24068354

  3. Retroactive Signaling in Short Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sepulchre, Jacques-Alexandre; Merajver, Sofía D.; Ventura, Alejandra C.

    2012-01-01

    In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles. PMID:22848403

  4. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling.

    PubMed

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-11-22

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer-resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism.

  5. Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Statistical Analysis of RTS Noise and Low Frequency Noise in 1M MOSFETs Using an Advanced TEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Sugawa, S.; Watabe, S.; Miyamoto, N.; Teramoto, A.; Toita, M.; Kamata, Y.; Shibusawa, K.; Ohmi, T.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we developed an advanced Test Element Group (TEG) which can measure Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise in over 106 nMOSFETs including various gate sizes with high accuracy in a very short time. We measured and analyzed these noises statistically, as the result, we confirmed that appearance probabilities in the TEG and noise intensities of RTS are dependent on gate sizes.

  7. Randomness versus Nonlocality and Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acín, Antonio; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    The outcomes obtained in Bell tests involving two-outcome measurements on two subsystems can, in principle, generate up to 2 bits of randomness. However, the maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality guarantees the generation of only 1.23 bits of randomness. We prove here that quantum correlations with arbitrarily little nonlocality and states with arbitrarily little entanglement can be used to certify that close to the maximum of 2 bits of randomness are produced. Our results show that nonlocality, entanglement, and randomness are inequivalent quantities. They also imply that device-independent quantum key distribution with an optimal key generation rate is possible by using almost-local correlations and that device-independent randomness generation with an optimal rate is possible with almost-local correlations and with almost-unentangled states.

  8. City of Phildelphia: Light emitting diodes for traffic signal displays

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using light emitting diodes (LEDs) for red traffic signals in a demonstration program at 27 signalized intersections in the City of Philadelphia. LED traffic signals have the potential to achieve significant savings over standard incandescent signals in terms of energy usage and costs, signal relamping costs, signal system maintenance costs, tort liability, and environmental impact. Based on successful experience with the demonstration program, the City of Philadelphia is currently developing funding for the conversion of all existing red incandescent traffic signals at approximately 2,700 intersections to LED signals. This program is expected to cost approximately $4.0 million and save about $850,000 annually in energy costs. During late 1993 and early 1994, 212 red LED traffic signals (134 8-inch signals and 78 12-inch signals) were installed at 27 intersections in Philadelphia. The first group of 93 signals were installed at 13 prototypical intersections throughout the City. The remaining group of signals were installed on a contiguous route in West Philadelphia consisting of standard incandescent signals and LED signals interspersed in a random pattern.

  9. True Randomness from Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  10. True Randomness from Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests. PMID:27666514

  11. ERK Signals: Scaffolding Scaffolds?

    PubMed Central

    Casar, Berta; Crespo, Piero

    2016-01-01

    ERK1/2 MAP Kinases become activated in response to multiple intra- and extra-cellular stimuli through a signaling module composed of sequential tiers of cytoplasmic kinases. Scaffold proteins regulate ERK signals by connecting the different components of the module into a multi-enzymatic complex by which signal amplitude and duration are fine-tuned, and also provide signal fidelity by isolating this complex from external interferences. In addition, scaffold proteins play a central role as spatial regulators of ERKs signals. In this respect, depending on the subcellular localization from which the activating signals emanate, defined scaffolds specify which substrates are amenable to be phosphorylated. Recent evidence has unveiled direct interactions among different scaffold protein species. These scaffold-scaffold macro-complexes could constitute an additional level of regulation for ERK signals and may serve as nodes for the integration of incoming signals and the subsequent diversification of the outgoing signals with respect to substrate engagement. PMID:27303664

  12. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  13. Random sequential adsorption on fractals.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-07-28

    Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions.

  14. DS/LPI autocorrelation detection in noise plus random-tone interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami; Polydoros, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is presented of a frequency-noncoherent, two-lag autocorrelation statistic for the wideband detection of random binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals in noise plus random multitone interference. It is shown that this detector is quite robust to the presence or absence of interference and its specific parameter values contrary to an energy detector. The rule assumes knowledge of the data rate and the active scenario under H0. The purpose of the paper is to promote the real-time autocorrelation domain and its samples (lags) as a viable approach for detecting random signals in dense environments.

  15. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302

  16. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology.

  17. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302

  18. Control theory for random systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current knowledge available for designing and predicting the effectiveness of controllers for dynamic systems which can be modeled by ordinary differential equations. A short discussion of feedback control is followed by a description of deterministic controller design and the concept of system state. The need for more realistic disturbance models led to the use of stochastic process concepts, in particular the Gauss-Markov process. A compensator controlled system, with random forcing functions, random errors in the measurements, and random initial conditions, is treated as constituting a Gauss-Markov random process; hence the mean-square behavior of the controlled system is readily predicted. As an example, a compensator is designed for a helicopter to maintain it in hover in a gusty wind over a point on the ground.

  19. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  20. Random Selection for Drug Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    Sampling is the process of choosing some members out of a group or population. Probablity sampling, or random sampling, is the process of selecting members by chance with a known probability of each individual being chosen.

  1. Quantifying randomness in real networks.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-20

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  2. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks—the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain—and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs. PMID:26482121

  3. Diffraction by random Ronchi gratings.

    PubMed

    Torcal-Milla, Francisco Jose; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we obtain analytical expressions for the near-and far-field diffraction of random Ronchi diffraction gratings where the slits of the grating are randomly displaced around their periodical positions. We theoretically show that the effect of randomness in the position of the slits of the grating produces a decrease of the contrast and even disappearance of the self-images for high randomness level at the near field. On the other hand, it cancels high-order harmonics in far field, resulting in only a few central diffraction orders. Numerical simulations by means of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula are performed in order to corroborate the analytical results. These results are of interest for industrial and technological applications where manufacture errors need to be considered.

  4. Cluster randomization and political philosophy.

    PubMed

    Chwang, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research--cases where consent is genuinely impractical to obtain. I argue that once again these cases require no new analytic insight; instead, we should look to political philosophy for guidance. In other words, the most serious ethical problem that arises in cluster randomized research also arises in political philosophy.

  5. Quantum entanglement from random measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Minh Cong; Dakić, Borivoje; Arnault, François; Laskowski, Wiesław; Paterek, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    We show that the expectation value of squared correlations measured along random local directions is an identifier of quantum entanglement in pure states, which can be directly experimentally assessed if two copies of the state are available. Entanglement can therefore be detected by parties who do not share a common reference frame and whose local reference frames, such as polarizers or Stern-Gerlach magnets, remain unknown. Furthermore, we also show that in every experimental run, access to only one qubit from the macroscopic reference is sufficient to identify entanglement, violate a Bell inequality, and, in fact, observe all phenomena observable with macroscopic references. Finally, we provide a state-independent entanglement witness solely in terms of random correlations and emphasize how data gathered for a single random measurement setting per party reliably detects entanglement. This is only possible due to utilized randomness and should find practical applications in experimental confirmation of multiphoton entanglement or space experiments.

  6. Diffraction by random Ronchi gratings.

    PubMed

    Torcal-Milla, Francisco Jose; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we obtain analytical expressions for the near-and far-field diffraction of random Ronchi diffraction gratings where the slits of the grating are randomly displaced around their periodical positions. We theoretically show that the effect of randomness in the position of the slits of the grating produces a decrease of the contrast and even disappearance of the self-images for high randomness level at the near field. On the other hand, it cancels high-order harmonics in far field, resulting in only a few central diffraction orders. Numerical simulations by means of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula are performed in order to corroborate the analytical results. These results are of interest for industrial and technological applications where manufacture errors need to be considered. PMID:27505363

  7. Quasi-Random Sequence Generators.

    1994-03-01

    Version 00 LPTAU generates quasi-random sequences. The sequences are uniformly distributed sets of L=2**30 points in the N-dimensional unit cube: I**N=[0,1]. The sequences are used as nodes for multidimensional integration, as searching points in global optimization, as trial points in multicriteria decision making, as quasi-random points for quasi Monte Carlo algorithms.

  8. Staggered chiral random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, James C.

    2011-02-01

    We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  9. On Pfaffian Random Point Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, V.

    2014-02-01

    We study Pfaffian random point fields by using the Moore-Dyson quaternion determinants. First, we give sufficient conditions that ensure that a self-dual quaternion kernel defines a valid random point field, and then we prove a CLT for Pfaffian point fields. The proofs are based on a new quaternion extension of the Cauchy-Binet determinantal identity. In addition, we derive the Fredholm determinantal formulas for the Pfaffian point fields which use the quaternion determinant.

  10. Stochastic oscillator with random mass: New type of Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, M.

    2014-02-01

    The model of a stochastic oscillator subject to additive random force, which includes the Brownian motion, is widely used for analysis of different phenomena in physics, chemistry, biology, economics and social science. As a rule, by the appropriate choice of units one assumes that the particle’s mass is equal to unity. However, for the case of an additional multiplicative random force, the situation is more complicated. As we show in this review article, for the cases of random frequency or random damping, the mass cannot be excluded from the equations of motion, and, for example, besides the restriction of the size of Brownian particle, some restrictions exist also of its mass. In addition to these two types of multiplicative forces, we consider the random mass, which describes, among others, the Brownian motion with adhesion. The fluctuations of mass are modeled as a dichotomous noise, and the first two moments of coordinates show non-monotonic dependence on the parameters of oscillator and noise. In the presence of an additional periodic force an oscillator with random mass is characterized by the stochastic resonance phenomenon, when the appearance of noise increases the input signal.

  11. Randomness and degrees of irregularity.

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, S; Singer, B H

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental question "Are sequential data random?" arises in myriad contexts, often with severe data length constraints. Furthermore, there is frequently a critical need to delineate nonrandom sequences in terms of closeness to randomness--e.g., to evaluate the efficacy of therapy in medicine. We address both these issues from a computable framework via a quantification of regularity. ApEn (approximate entropy), defining maximal randomness for sequences of arbitrary length, indicating the applicability to sequences as short as N = 5 points. An infinite sequence formulation of randomness is introduced that retains the operational (and computable) features of the finite case. In the infinite sequence setting, we indicate how the "foundational" definition of independence in probability theory, and the definition of normality in number theory, reduce to limit theorems without rates of convergence, from which we utilize ApEn to address rates of convergence (of a deficit from maximal randomness), refining the aforementioned concepts in a computationally essential manner. Representative applications among many are indicated to assess (i) random number generation output; (ii) well-shuffled arrangements; and (iii) (the quality of) bootstrap replicates. PMID:11607637

  12. Signal sciences workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-01

    This meeting is aimed primarily at signal processing and controls. The technical program for the 1997 Workshop includes a variety of efforts in the Signal Sciences with applications in the Microtechnology Area a new program at LLNL and a future area of application for both Signal/Image Sciences. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Seismic and Optical Signal Processing as well as Micro-Impulse Radar Processing highlight the program, while the speakers at the Signal Processing Applications session discuss various applications of signal processing/control to real world problems. For the more theoretical, a session on Signal Processing Algorithms was organized as well as for the more pragmatic, featuring a session on Real-Time Signal Processing.

  13. Digital servo control of random sound test excitation. [in reverberant acoustic chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakich, R. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital servocontrol system for random noise excitation of a test object in a reverberant acoustic chamber employs a plurality of sensors spaced in the sound field to produce signals in separate channels which are decorrelated and averaged. The average signal is divided into a plurality of adjacent frequency bands cyclically sampled by a time division multiplex system, converted into digital form, and compared to a predetermined spectrum value stored in digital form. The results of the comparisons are used to control a time-shared up-down counter to develop gain control signals for the respective frequency bands in the spectrum of random sound energy picked up by the microphones.

  14. Experimental evidence of quantum randomness incomputability

    SciTech Connect

    Calude, Cristian S.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Dumitrescu, Monica; Svozil, Karl

    2010-08-15

    In contrast with software-generated randomness (called pseudo-randomness), quantum randomness can be proven incomputable; that is, it is not exactly reproducible by any algorithm. We provide experimental evidence of incomputability--an asymptotic property--of quantum randomness by performing finite tests of randomness inspired by algorithmic information theory.

  15. Danger signals in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  16. Reliability in aposematic signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In light of recent work, we will expand on the role and variability of aposematic signals. The focus of this review will be the concepts of reliability and honesty in aposematic signaling. We claim that reliable signaling can solve the problem of aposematic evolution, and that variability in reliability can shed light on the complexity of aposematic systems. PMID:20539774

  17. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling. PMID:27807442

  18. Phase Transitions on Random Lattices: How Random is Topological Disorder?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We study the effects of topological (connectivity) disorder on phase transitions. We identify a broad class of random lattices whose disorder fluctuations decay much faster with increasing length scale than those of generic random systems, yielding a wandering exponent of ω = (d - 1) / (2 d) in d dimensions. The stability of clean critical points is thus governed by the criterion (d + 1) ν > 2 rather than the usual Harris criterion dν > 2 , making topological disorder less relevant than generic randomness. The Imry-Ma criterion is also modified, allowing first-order transitions to survive in all dimensions d > 1 . These results explain a host of puzzling violations of the original criteria for equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions on random lattices. We discuss applications, and we illustrate our theory by computer simulations of random Voronoi and other lattices. This work was supported by the NSF under Grant Nos. DMR-1205803 and PHYS-1066293. We acknowledge the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  19. Cryptographic synchronization recovery by measuring randomness of decrypted data

    DOEpatents

    Maestas, Joseph H.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to synchronization of encrypted data communication systems and a method which looks for any lack of pattern or intelligent information in the received data and triggers a resynchronization signal based thereon. If the encrypter/decrypter pairs are out of cryptographic synchronization, the received (decrypted) data resembles pseudorandom data. A method and system are provided for detecting such pseudorandom binary data by, for example, ones density. If the data is sufficiently random the system is resynchronized.

  20. Subset selection under random censorship

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.

    1983-03-01

    Suppose we want to model the situation commonly taking place, for example, in industrial life-testing in which two-component series system is understudy. The system functions if and only if both the Type A component and the Type B component are functioning. The distribution or an unknown parameter in the distribution of the Type A component is of interest. Let X/sub 1/, X/sub 2/, ..., X/sub n/ be independent and identically distributed random variables denoting lifelengths of n Type A components with a continuous distribution function F, and let Y/sub 1/, Y/sub 2/, ..., Y/sub n/ be independent and identically distributed random variables denoting lifelengths of n Type B components also with a continuous distribution function H(.). Failure of the Type B component causes the system failure, thereby making it impossible to observe the failure time of the Type A component. The random variables Y/sub 1/, Y/sub 2/, ..., Y/sub n/ are referred to as time-to-censorship or censoring random variables, and the distribution function H(.) as the censoring distribution. We assume that (X/sub 1/, Y/sub 1/), (X/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/), ..., (X/sub n/, Y/sub n/) is an independent and identically distributed sequence of random pairs defined on a common probability space. Our observations consist of the minima, Z/sub 1/ - min (X/sub 1/, Y/sub 1/), Z/sub 2/ = min (X/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/), ..., Z/sub n/ = min (X/sub n/, Y/sub n/, which are i.i.d. random variables. It is the objective of this paper to formulate a k-sample selection problem under random censorship.

  1. Random sub-Nyquist polarimetric modulator.

    PubMed

    Asensio Ramos, A

    2016-02-20

    We show that it is possible to measure polarization with a polarimeter that gets rid of the seeing while still measuring at a frequency well below that of the seeing. We study a standard polarimeter made of two retarders and a beam splitter. The retarders are modulated at ∼500  Hz, a frequency comparable to that of the variations of the refraction index in the earth's atmosphere, which is usually termed as seeing in astronomical observations. However, we assume that the camera is slow so that our measurements are time integrations of these modulated signals. In order to recover the time variation of the seeing and obtain the Stokes parameters we use the theory of compressed sensing to solve the demodulation by imposing a sparsity constraint on the Fourier coefficients of the seeing. We demonstrate the feasibility of this sub-Nyquist polarimeter using numerical simulations, both in the case without noise and with noise. We show that a sensible modulation scheme is obtained by randomly changing the fast axis of the modulators or their retardances in specific ways. We finally demonstrate that the value of the Stokes parameters can be recovered with great precision at almost maximum efficiency although it slightly degrades when the signal-to-noise ratio of the observations increases, a consequence of the multiplexing under the presence of photon noise.

  2. Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E.

    2003-08-01

    Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices hat H with Gaussian independent random entries Higeqj is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with langle|Hii|2rangle ~ 1 and langle|Hi\

  3. On Convergent Probability of a Random Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Y.-F.; Ching, W.-K.

    2006-01-01

    This note introduces an interesting random walk on a straight path with cards of random numbers. The method of recurrent relations is used to obtain the convergent probability of the random walk with different initial positions.

  4. Wave propagation through a random medium - The random slab problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquista, C.

    1978-01-01

    The first-order smoothing approximation yields integral equations for the mean and the two-point correlation function of a wave in a random medium. A method is presented for the approximate solution of these equations that combines features of the eiconal approximation and of the Born expansion. This method is applied to the problem of reflection and transmission of a plane wave by a slab of a random medium. Both the mean wave and the covariance are calculated to determine the reflected and transmitted amplitudes and intensities.

  5. EDITORIAL: Nano and random lasers Nano and random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.; Noginov, Mikhail A.

    2010-02-01

    The field of extreme miniature sources of stimulated emission represented by random lasers and nanolasers has gone through an enormous development in recent years. Random lasers are disordered optical structures in which light waves are both multiply scattered and amplified. Multiple scattering is a process that we all know very well from daily experience. Many familiar materials are actually disordered dielectrics and owe their optical appearance to multiple light scattering. Examples are white marble, white painted walls, paper, white flowers, etc. Light waves inside such materials perform random walks, that is they are scattered several times in random directions before they leave the material, and this gives it an opaque white appearance. This multiple scattering process does not destroy the coherence of the light. It just creates a very complex interference pattern (also known as speckle). Random lasers can be made of basically any disordered dielectric material by adding an optical gain mechanism to the structure. In practice this can be achieved with, for instance, laser dye that is dissolved in the material and optically excited by a pump laser. Alternative routes to incorporate gain are achieved using rare-earth or transition metal doped solid-state laser materials or direct band gap semiconductors. The latter can potentially be pumped electrically. After excitation, the material is capable of scattering light and amplifying it, and these two ingredients form the basis for a random laser. Random laser emission can be highly coherent, even in the absence of an optical cavity. The reason is that random structures can sustain optical modes that are spectrally narrow. This provides a spectral selection mechanism that, together with gain saturation, leads to coherent emission. A random laser can have a large number of (randomly distributed) modes that are usually strongly coupled. This means that many modes compete for the gain that is available in a random

  6. Acoustic Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  7. Reliable Signal Transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollman, Roy

    Stochasticity inherent to biochemical reactions (intrinsic noise) and variability in cellular states (extrinsic noise) degrade information transmitted through signaling networks. We analyzed the ability of temporal signal modulation - that is dynamics - to reduce noise-induced information loss. In the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium (Ca(2 +)) , and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF- κB) pathways, response dynamics resulted in significantly greater information transmission capacities compared to nondynamic responses. Theoretical analysis demonstrated that signaling dynamics has a key role in overcoming extrinsic noise. Experimental measurements of information transmission in the ERK network under varying signal-to-noise levels confirmed our predictions and showed that signaling dynamics mitigate, and can potentially eliminate, extrinsic noise-induced information loss. By curbing the information-degrading effects of cell-to-cell variability, dynamic responses substantially increase the accuracy of biochemical signaling networks.

  8. Mitochondria and cell signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Stephen W. G.; Green, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria have long been considered as crucial organelles, primarily for their roles in biosynthetic reactions such as ATP synthesis. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that mitochondria are intimately involved in cell signalling pathways. Mitochondria perform various signalling functions, serving as platforms to initiate cell signalling, as well as acting as transducers and effectors in multiple processes. Here, we discuss the active roles that mitochondria have in cell death signalling, innate immunity and autophagy. Common themes of mitochondrial regulation emerge from these diverse but interconnected processes. These include: the outer mitochondrial membrane serving as a major signalling platform, and regulation of cell signalling through mitochondrial dynamics and by mitochondrial metabolites, including ATP and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, defects in mitochondrial control of cell signalling and in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis might underpin many diseases, in particular age-related pathologies. PMID:22448037

  9. Cover times of random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  10. Random walk through fractal environments.

    PubMed

    Isliker, H; Vlahos, L

    2003-02-01

    We analyze random walk through fractal environments, embedded in three-dimensional, permeable space. Particles travel freely and are scattered off into random directions when they hit the fractal. The statistical distribution of the flight increments (i.e., of the displacements between two consecutive hittings) is analytically derived from a common, practical definition of fractal dimension, and it turns out to approximate quite well a power-law in the case where the dimension D(F) of the fractal is less than 2, there is though, always a finite rate of unaffected escape. Random walks through fractal sets with D(F)< or =2 can thus be considered as defective Levy walks. The distribution of jump increments for D(F)>2 is decaying exponentially. The diffusive behavior of the random walk is analyzed in the frame of continuous time random walk, which we generalize to include the case of defective distributions of walk increments. It is shown that the particles undergo anomalous, enhanced diffusion for D(F)<2, the diffusion is dominated by the finite escape rate. Diffusion for D(F)>2 is normal for large times, enhanced though for small and intermediate times. In particular, it follows that fractals generated by a particular class of self-organized criticality models give rise to enhanced diffusion. The analytical results are illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Random root movements in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

  12. Visual Categorization with Random Projection.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Rosa I; Rutter, David; Cakmak, Maya; Vempala, Santosh S

    2015-10-01

    Humans learn categories of complex objects quickly and from a few examples. Random projection has been suggested as a means to learn and categorize efficiently. We investigate how random projection affects categorization by humans and by very simple neural networks on the same stimuli and categorization tasks, and how this relates to the robustness of categories. We find that (1) drastic reduction in stimulus complexity via random projection does not degrade performance in categorization tasks by either humans or simple neural networks, (2) human accuracy and neural network accuracy are remarkably correlated, even at the level of individual stimuli, and (3) the performance of both is strongly indicated by a natural notion of category robustness.

  13. Fast Randomized STDMA Link Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sergio; Gras, Oriol; Friderikos, Vasilis

    In this paper a fast randomized parallel link swap based packing (RSP) algorithm for timeslot allocation in a spatial time division multiple access (STDMA) wireless mesh network is presented. The proposed randomized algorithm extends several greedy scheduling algorithms that utilize the physical interference model by applying a local search that leads to a substantial improvement in the spatial timeslot reuse. Numerical simulations reveal that compared to previously scheduling schemes the proposed randomized algorithm can achieve a performance gain of up to 11%. A significant benefit of the proposed scheme is that the computations can be parallelized and therefore can efficiently utilize commoditized and emerging multi-core and/or multi-CPU processors.

  14. A Randomized Experiment Comparing Random and Cutoff-Based Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R.; Galindo, Rodolfo; Wong, Vivian C.; Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review past studies comparing randomized experiments to regression discontinuity designs, mostly finding similar results, but with significant exceptions. The latter might be due to potential confounds of study characteristics with assignment method or with failure to estimate the same parameter over methods. In this study, we…

  15. Relatively Random: Context Effects on Perceived Randomness and Predicted Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the effect of context on people's judgments about sequences of chance outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether sequences were produced by random, mechanical processes (such as a roulette wheel) or skilled human action (such as basketball shots). Sequences with lower alternation rates were judged more likely to…

  16. Relatively random: context effects on perceived randomness and predicted outcomes.

    PubMed

    Matthews, William J

    2013-09-01

    This article concerns the effect of context on people's judgments about sequences of chance outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether sequences were produced by random, mechanical processes (such as a roulette wheel) or skilled human action (such as basketball shots). Sequences with lower alternation rates were judged more likely to result from human action. However, this effect was highly context-dependent: A moderate alternation rate was judged more likely to indicate a random physical process when encountered among sequences with lower alternation rates than when embedded among sequences with higher alternation rates. Experiment 2 found the same effect for predictions of the next outcome following a streak: A streak of 3 at the end of the sequence was judged less likely to continue by participants who had encountered shorter terminal streaks in previous trials than by those who had encountered longer ones. These contrast effects (a) help to explain variability in the types of sequences that are judged to be random and that elicit the gambler's fallacy, and urge caution about attempts to establish universal parameterizations of these effects; (b) are congruent with theories of sequence judgment that emphasize the importance of people's actual experiences with sequences of different kinds; (c) provide a link between models of sequence judgment and broader accounts of psychophysical/economic judgment; and (d) may offer new insight into individual differences in randomness judgments and sequence predictions.

  17. Novel digital signal processing and detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.

    1981-09-01

    In the area of narrowband signal processing, design rules are developed for optimum decimator and interpolator, a new efficient scheme using recursive filter for decimation/interpolation is proposed, and a novel approach to the computation of narrowband spectra is shown to yield substantial saving over conventional approaches. Results on the implementation of recursive filters with poles near the unit circle that produces significantly reduced roundoff error include a transformation technique, a scheme to modify the quantizer error spectrum, and a new computationally efficient low noise filter structure. In the area of nonclassical signal detection, several results were derived on nonparametric sequential procedures and on the quantization of signal for detection. In addition, a programmable charge transfer device filter is developed, several problems concerning ADPCM are investigated, results are obtained on FFT roundoff error including the prime factor algorithm, and an effective method of generating random sequences is studied.

  18. Identifying Potential Noise Sources within Acoustic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Victoria; Lewalle, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    We test a new algorithm for its ability to detect sources of noise within random background. The goal of these tests is to better understand how to identify sources within acoustic signals while simultaneously determining the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm in question. Unlike previously published algorithms, the antenna method does not pinpoint events by looking for the most energetic portions of a signal. The algorithm searches for the ideal lag combinations between three signals by taking excerpts of possible events. The excerpt with the lowest calculated minimum distance between possible events is how the algorithm identifies sources. At the minimum distance, the events are close in time and frequency. This method can be compared to the cross correlation and denoising methods to better understand its effectiveness. This work is supported in part by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL, as well as the Syracuse University MAE department.

  19. Fractal Signals & Space-Time Cartoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetama, -Hc, Jakob, , Dr; Maksoed, Wh-

    2016-03-01

    In ``Theory of Scale Relativity'', 1991- L. Nottale states whereas ``scale relativity is a geometrical & fractal space-time theory''. It took in comparisons to ``a unified, wavelet based framework for efficiently synthetizing, analyzing ∖7 processing several broad classes of fractal signals''-Gregory W. Wornell:``Signal Processing with Fractals'', 1995. Furthers, in Fig 1.1. a simple waveform from statistically scale-invariant random process [ibid.,h 3 ]. Accompanying RLE Technical Report 566 ``Synthesis, Analysis & Processing of Fractal Signals'' as well as from Wornell, Oct 1991 herewith intended to deducts =a Δt + (1 - β Δ t) ...in Petersen, et.al: ``Scale invariant properties of public debt growth'',2010 h. 38006p2 to [1/{1- (2 α (λ) /3 π) ln (λ/r)}depicts in Laurent Nottale,1991, h 24. Acknowledgment devotes to theLates HE. Mr. BrigadierGeneral-TNI[rtd].Prof. Ir. HANDOJO.

  20. Telephone multiline signaling using common signal pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, R. R.; Toole, P. C.; Belt, J. L.; Leininger, D. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An operator can rapidly and automatically produce coded electrical signals by manipulating mechanical thumb wheel switches so as to instruct a service center to connect any number of telephone lines to the console thus enabling the operator to listen and/or talk over several lines simultaneously. The system includes an on-site console having several mechanically operated thumb wheel switches to which the desired lines to be connected can be dialed in. Electrical coded signals are fed to a number of banks of line AND gates representing units, tens and hundreds, a group of channel gates, and a command gate. These signals are gated out in a controlled manner to an encoder which generates tones that are transmitted over a single line to a communication service center.

  1. Random photonic crystal optical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth Lima, A., Jr.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Currently, optical cross-connects working on wavelength division multiplexing systems are based on optical fiber delay lines buffering. We designed and analyzed a novel photonic crystal optical memory, which replaces the fiber delay lines of the current optical cross-connect buffer. Optical buffering systems based on random photonic crystal optical memory have similar behavior to the electronic buffering systems based on electronic RAM memory. In this paper, we show that OXCs working with optical buffering based on random photonic crystal optical memories provides better performance than the current optical cross-connects.

  2. Truncations of random orthogonal matrices.

    PubMed

    Khoruzhenko, Boris A; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-10-01

    Statistical properties of nonsymmetric real random matrices of size M, obtained as truncations of random orthogonal N×N matrices, are investigated. We derive an exact formula for the density of eigenvalues which consists of two components: finite fraction of eigenvalues are real, while the remaining part of the spectrum is located inside the unit disk symmetrically with respect to the real axis. In the case of strong nonorthogonality, M/N=const, the behavior typical to real Ginibre ensemble is found. In the case M=N-L with fixed L, a universal distribution of resonance widths is recovered.

  3. Truncations of random orthogonal matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoruzhenko, Boris A.; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-10-01

    Statistical properties of nonsymmetric real random matrices of size M , obtained as truncations of random orthogonal N×N matrices, are investigated. We derive an exact formula for the density of eigenvalues which consists of two components: finite fraction of eigenvalues are real, while the remaining part of the spectrum is located inside the unit disk symmetrically with respect to the real axis. In the case of strong nonorthogonality, M/N=const , the behavior typical to real Ginibre ensemble is found. In the case M=N-L with fixed L , a universal distribution of resonance widths is recovered.

  4. Neutron transport in random media

    SciTech Connect

    Makai, M.

    1996-08-01

    The survey reviews the methods available in the literature which allow a discussion of corium recriticality after a severe accident and a characterization of the corium. It appears that to date no one has considered the eigenvalue problem, though for the source problem several approaches have been proposed. The mathematical formulation of a random medium may be approached in different ways. Based on the review of the literature, we can draw three basic conclusions. The problem of static, random perturbations has been solved. The static case is tractable by the Monte Carlo method. There is a specific time dependent case for which the average flux is given as a series expansion.

  5. Molecular random tilings as glasses

    PubMed Central

    Garrahan, Juan P.; Stannard, Andrew; Blunt, Matthew O.; Beton, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that p-terphenyl-3,5,3′,5′-tetracarboxylic acid adsorbed on graphite self-assembles into a two-dimensional rhombus random tiling. This tiling is close to ideal, displaying long-range correlations punctuated by sparse localized tiling defects. In this article we explore the analogy between dynamic arrest in this type of random tilings and that of structural glasses. We show that the structural relaxation of these systems is via the propagation–reaction of tiling defects, giving rise to dynamic heterogeneity. We study the scaling properties of the dynamics and discuss connections with kinetically constrained models of glasses. PMID:19720990

  6. Synchronizability of random rectangular graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada, Ernesto Chen, Guanrong

    2015-08-15

    Random rectangular graphs (RRGs) represent a generalization of the random geometric graphs in which the nodes are embedded into hyperrectangles instead of on hypercubes. The synchronizability of RRG model is studied. Both upper and lower bounds of the eigenratio of the network Laplacian matrix are determined analytically. It is proven that as the rectangular network is more elongated, the network becomes harder to synchronize. The synchronization processing behavior of a RRG network of chaotic Lorenz system nodes is numerically investigated, showing complete consistence with the theoretical results.

  7. Frequency-space prediction filtering for acoustic clutter and random noise attenuation in ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Frequency-space prediction filtering (FXPF), also known as FX deconvolution, is a technique originally developed for random noise attenuation in seismic imaging. FXPF attempts to reduce random noise in seismic data by modeling only real signals that appear as linear or quasilinear events in the aperture domain. In medical ultrasound imaging, channel radio frequency (RF) signals from the main lobe appear as horizontal events after receive delays are applied while acoustic clutter signals from off-axis scatterers and electronic noise do not. Therefore, FXPF is suitable for preserving only the main-lobe signals and attenuating the unwanted contributions from clutter and random noise in medical ultrasound imaging. We adapt FXPF to ultrasound imaging, and evaluate its performance using simulated data sets from a point target and an anechoic cyst. Our simulation results show that using only 5 iterations of FXPF achieves contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements of 67 % in a simulated noise-free anechoic cyst and 228 % in a simulated anechoic cyst contaminated with random noise of 15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our findings suggest that ultrasound imaging with FXPF attenuates contributions from both acoustic clutter and random noise and therefore, FXPF has great potential to improve ultrasound image contrast for better visualization of important anatomical structures and detection of diseased conditions.

  8. Optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses several optical configurations used for signal processing. Electronic-to-optical transducers are outlined, noting fixed window transducers and moving window acousto-optic transducers. Folded spectrum techniques are considered, with reference to wideband RF signal analysis, fetal electroencephalogram analysis, engine vibration analysis, signal buried in noise, and spatial filtering. Various methods for radar signal processing are described, such as phased-array antennas, the optical processing of phased-array data, pulsed Doppler and FM radar systems, a multichannel one-dimensional optical correlator, correlations with long coded waveforms, and Doppler signal processing. Means for noncoherent optical signal processing are noted, including an optical correlator for speech recognition and a noncoherent optical correlator.

  9. Multi-parameter sensor based on random fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Zhang, Mingjiang; Lu, Ping; Mihailov, Stephen; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a concept of utilizing random fiber lasers to achieve multi-parameter sensing. The proposed random fiber ring laser consists of an erbium-doped fiber as the gain medium and a random fiber grating as the feedback. The random feedback is effectively realized by a large number of reflections from around 50000 femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation regions over a 10cm standard single mode fiber. Numerous polarization-dependent spectral filters are formed and superimposed to provide multiple lasing lines with high signal-to-noise ratio up to 40dB, which gives an access for a high-fidelity multi-parameter sensing scheme. The number of sensing parameters can be controlled by the number of the lasing lines via input polarizations and wavelength shifts of each peak can be explored for the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing with one sensing probe. In addition, the random grating induced coupling between core and cladding modes can be potentially used for liquid medical sample sensing in medical diagnostics, biology and remote sensing in hostile environments.

  10. Signal conditioner test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, W. H.; Stigberg, J. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system was developed for testing components contained in a signal conditioning module with a transistor and capacitor included in a circuit. The system includes a housing with a socket into which the module to be tested is plugged. A test switch is provided for selectively connecting a variable load to either a transistor or capacitor in the circuit for testing the operation. A signal generating circuit is provided for generating signals for use in testing the components of the module.

  11. Optical technique for measurement of random water wave surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorrell, F. Y.; Withers, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    An optical system using the refraction of a vertical light ray has been developed for measuring the slope of random wind-generated water waves. The basic elements of the system are photovoltaic cells which are connected to individual amplifiers so that when the refracted light beam is incident on a cell, the output of the cell is amplified and then supplied as input to a comparator. The comparator then provides a specified voltage output, independent of the incident light intensity, as long as it is above a designated background value. The comparators are designed to give output voltages comparable with standard TTL. This arrangement provides a high signal from the cell when it experiences incident light, and a low signal when there is only background light, with the high and low signals at TTL voltage levels.

  12. Garnet Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

  13. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  14. Universality in random quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, Jaroslav; Alber, Gernot; Jex, Igor

    2015-12-01

    Networks constitute efficient tools for assessing universal features of complex systems. In physical contexts, classical as well as quantum networks are used to describe a wide range of phenomena, such as phase transitions, intricate aspects of many-body quantum systems, or even characteristic features of a future quantum internet. Random quantum networks and their associated directed graphs are employed for capturing statistically dominant features of complex quantum systems. Here, we develop an efficient iterative method capable of evaluating the probability of a graph being strongly connected. It is proven that random directed graphs with constant edge-establishing probability are typically strongly connected, i.e., any ordered pair of vertices is connected by a directed path. This typical topological property of directed random graphs is exploited to demonstrate universal features of the asymptotic evolution of large random qubit networks. These results are independent of our knowledge of the details of the network topology. These findings suggest that other highly complex networks, such as a future quantum internet, may also exhibit similar universal properties.

  15. Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Undecidability Theorem and Quantum Randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2005-04-01

    As scientific folklore has it, Kurt Godel was once annoyed by question whether he sees any link between his Undecidability Theorem (UT) and Uncertainty Relationship. His reaction, however, may indicate that he probably felt that such a hidden link could indeed exist but he was unable clearly formulate it. Informational version of UT (G.J.Chaitin) states impossibility to rule out algorithmic compressibility of arbitrary digital string. Thus, (mathematical) randomness can only be disproven, not proven. Going from mathematical to physical (mainly quantum) randomness, we encounter seemingly random acts of radioactive decays of isotopes (such as C14), emission of excited atoms, tunneling effects, etc. However, our notion of quantum randomness (QR) may likely hit similarly formidable wall of physical version of UT leading to seemingly bizarre ideas such as Everett many world model (D.Deutsch) or backward causation (J.A.Wheeler). Resolution may potentially lie in admitting some form of Aristotelean final causation (AFC) as an ultimate foundational principle (G.W.Leibniz) connecting purely mathematical (Platonic) grounding aspects with it physically observable consequences, such as plethora of QR effects. Thus, what we interpret as QR may eventually be manifestation of AFC in which UT serves as delivery vehicle. Another example of UT/QR/AFC connection is question of identity (indistinguishability) of elementary particles (are all electrons exactly the same or just approximately so to a very high degree?).

  17. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  18. Signal Processor for Multirate PSK Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helgesen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Any of six different data formats at any of five different data rates from phase-shift-key (PSK) modulated input signal extracted by digital radio receiver. Subcarrier Demodulator is Costas loop with hard limiter in inphase arm. There are six low-pass filters, each selectable for rate and format of data to be processed.

  19. Slit-Robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Blockus, Heike; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Slits are secreted proteins that bind to Roundabout (Robo) receptors. Slit-Robo signaling is best known for mediating axon repulsion in the developing nervous system. However, in recent years the functional repertoire of Slits and Robo has expanded tremendously and Slit-Robo signaling has been linked to roles in neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression among other processes. Likewise, our mechanistic understanding of Slit-Robo signaling has progressed enormously. Here, we summarize new insights into Slit-Robo evolutionary and system-dependent diversity, receptor-ligand interactions, signaling crosstalk and receptor activation. PMID:27578174

  20. Precision signal power measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelstein, R.

    1972-01-01

    Accurate estimation of signal power is an important Deep Space Network (DSN) consideration. Ultimately, spacecraft power and weight is saved if no reserve transmitter power is needed to compensate for inaccurate measurements. Spectral measurement of the received signal has proved to be an effective method of estimating signal power over a wide dynamic range. Furthermore, on-line spectral measurements provide an important diagnostic tool for examining spacecraft anomalies. Prototype equipment installed at a 64-m-diameter antenna site has been successfully used to make measurements of carrier power and sideband symmetry of telemetry signals received from the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft.

  1. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  2. Phase Retrieval with Signal Bias. Section 7.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, Samuel T.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a uniform measurement bias, due to background light, stray light, detector dark current, or detector offset, on phase retrieval wavefront sensing algorithms is analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the root-mean-square error of the retrieved phase can be more sensitive to an unaccounted-for signal bias than to random noise in practical scenarios. Three methods for reducing the impact of signal bias are presented

  3. Random trinomial tree models and vanilla options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Bayram, Kamola

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we introduce and study random trinomial model. The usual trinomial model is prescribed by triple of numbers (u, d, m). We call the triple (u, d, m) an environment of the trinomial model. A triple (Un, Dn, Mn), where {Un}, {Dn} and {Mn} are the sequences of independent, identically distributed random variables with 0 < Dn < 1 < Un and Mn = 1 for all n, is called a random environment and trinomial tree model with random environment is called random trinomial model. The random trinomial model is considered to produce more accurate results than the random binomial model or usual trinomial model.

  4. Coherent Doppler lidar signal spectrum with wind turbulence.

    PubMed

    Frehlich, R; Cornman, L

    1999-12-20

    The average signal spectrum (periodogram) for coherent Doppler lidar is calculated for a turbulent wind field. Simple approximations are compared with the exact calculation. The effects of random errors in the zero velocity reference, the effects of averaging spectral estimates by use of multiple lidar pulses, and the effects of the range dependence of the lidar signal power over the range gate are included. For high spatial resolution measurements the lidar signal power is concentrated around one spectral estimate (spectral bin), and correct interpretation of the contribution from turbulence is difficult because of the effects of spectral leakage. For range gates that are larger than the lidar pulse volume, the signal power is contained in many spectral bins and the effects of turbulence can be determined accurately for constant signal power over the range gate and for the far-field range dependence of the signal power.

  5. Random density matrices versus random evolution of open system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Carlos; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2015-10-01

    We present and compare two families of ensembles of random density matrices. The first, static ensemble, is obtained foliating an unbiased ensemble of density matrices. As criterion we use fixed purity as the simplest example of a useful convex function. The second, dynamic ensemble, is inspired in random matrix models for decoherence where one evolves a separable pure state with a random Hamiltonian until a given value of purity in the central system is achieved. Several families of Hamiltonians, adequate for different physical situations, are studied. We focus on a two qubit central system, and obtain exact expressions for the static case. The ensemble displays a peak around Werner-like states, modulated by nodes on the degeneracies of the density matrices. For moderate and strong interactions good agreement between the static and the dynamic ensembles is found. Even in a model where one qubit does not interact with the environment excellent agreement is found, but only if there is maximal entanglement with the interacting one. The discussion is started recalling similar considerations for scattering theory. At the end, we comment on the reach of the results for other convex functions of the density matrix, and exemplify the situation with the von Neumann entropy.

  6. Random walk with random resetting to the maximum position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Satya N.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory

    2015-11-01

    We study analytically a simple random walk model on a one-dimensional lattice, where at each time step the walker resets to the maximum of the already visited positions (to the rightmost visited site) with a probability r , and with probability (1 -r ) , it undergoes symmetric random walk, i.e., it hops to one of its neighboring sites, with equal probability (1 -r )/2 . For r =0 , it reduces to a standard random walk whose typical distance grows as √{n } for large n . In the presence of a nonzero resetting rate 0

  7. Random walk with random resetting to the maximum position.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Satya N; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory

    2015-11-01

    We study analytically a simple random walk model on a one-dimensional lattice, where at each time step the walker resets to the maximum of the already visited positions (to the rightmost visited site) with a probability r, and with probability (1-r), it undergoes symmetric random walk, i.e., it hops to one of its neighboring sites, with equal probability (1-r)/2. For r=0, it reduces to a standard random walk whose typical distance grows as √n for large n. In the presence of a nonzero resetting rate 0

  8. MBA Quality Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Randall S.

    1998-01-01

    A study identified quality signals for master's programs in business administration (MBAs). Traditional scholarly oriented academic signals are apparently not valued as such by external customer groups. MBA academic quality appears to be a multidimensional construct, with subdimensions of real-worldness; placement; student satisfaction; and…

  9. Growth factor signalling.

    PubMed

    de Laat, S W; Boonstra, J; Defize, L H; Kruijer, W; van der Saag, P T; Tertoolen, L G; van Zoelen, E J; den Hertog, J

    1999-01-01

    Signalling between cells in the developing vertebrate embryo is essential for normal embryonic development. In the mid 1970's, signal transduction research started at the Hubrecht Laboratory with special emphasis on analysis of the signalling mechanisms that direct cell proliferation and differentiation. The introduction of in vitro model systems contributed tremendously to the success of the signal transduction research at the Hubrecht Laboratory. Initially neuroblastoma cell lines, and later embryonal carcinoma and embryonal stem cells played an important role in identification of the molecular key players in developmental signalling. For instance, embryonal carcinoma cells were used to identify and characterise polypeptide growth factors. Growth factor signalling research was extended to analysis of growth factor receptor activation. Moreover, the second messenger systems that are linked to growth factor receptors were studied, as well as the nuclear responses to growth factor receptor activation. Finally, the role of growth factor signalling in differentiation was established using embryonal carcinoma cells. Here, we will review work that was characteristic for the growth factor receptor signalling research that was done at the Hubrecht Laboratory between 1980 and the early 1990's.

  10. Research on key technologies of LADAR echo signal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui; Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    LADAR echo signal simulator is one of the most significant components of hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation systems for LADAR, which is designed to simulate the LADAR return signal in laboratory conditions. The device can provide the laser echo signal of target and background for imaging LADAR systems to test whether it is of good performance. Some key technologies are investigated in this paper. Firstly, the 3D model of typical target is built, and transformed to the data of the target echo signal based on ranging equation and targets reflection characteristics. Then, system model and time series model of LADAR echo signal simulator are established. Some influential factors which could induce fixed delay error and random delay error on the simulated return signals are analyzed. In the simulation system, the signal propagating delay of circuits and the response time of pulsed lasers are belong to fixed delay error. The counting error of digital delay generator, the jitter of system clock and the desynchronized between trigger signal and clock signal are a part of random delay error. Furthermore, these system insertion delays are analyzed quantitatively, and the noisy data are obtained. The target echo signals are got by superimposing of the noisy data and the pure target echo signal. In order to overcome these disadvantageous factors, a method of adjusting the timing diagram of the simulation system is proposed. Finally, the simulated echo signals are processed by using a detection algorithm to complete the 3D model reconstruction of object. The simulation results reveal that the range resolution can be better than 8 cm.

  11. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  12. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    PubMed

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  13. Design and implementation of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors output signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Liu, Cong-Zhan; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) detectors' pre-amplifier onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding a random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of the signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of the adjacent signals contain negative exponential distribution statistically.

  14. Detection of Patterns Within Randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Christen, Markus

    The identification of jittered regular signals (="patterns#) embedded in a noisy background is an important and difficult task, particularly in the neurosciences. Traditional methods generally fail to capture such signals. Staircase-like structures in the log-log correlation plot, however, are reliable indicators of such signal components.We provide a number of applications of this method and derive an analytic relationship between the length of the pattern n and the maximal number of steps s(n,m) that are observable at a chosen embedding dimension m. For integer linearly independent patterns and small jitter and noise, the length of the embedded pattern can be calculated from the number of steps. The method is demonstrated to have a huge potential for experimental applications.

  15. MERTIS: background signal removal and signal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säuberlich, Thomas; Paproth, Carsten; Helbert, Jörn; Hiesinger, Harald

    2009-08-01

    MERTIS (MERcury Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer) is an advanced infrared remote sensing instrument that is part of the ESA mission BepiColombo to planet Mercury. The enabling technology that allows sending the first spectrometer for the thermal infrared spectral range to Mercury is an uncooled microbolometer. With this detector the instrument can be operated in the hot environment of Mercury without the need of a cryogenic cooling system. The challenge is the calibration of the instrument. A radiometric and a spectroscopic breadboard model of MERTIS were used to develop proper calibration methods and to derive system parameters that support the setup of an end-to-end simulation which can process spectra of planetary analog materials from the DLR Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) as input signal in order to create a realistic representation of the MERTIS output signal. In the context of the calibration we are reporting on the ongoing efforts to remove the background signal which is contained in the raw image data sets and actually being the dominating signal portion. A background measuring method with using a shutter together with a noise reduction method based on a pixel-by-pixel correlation approach - are discussed and related to the remaining errors of the emissivity spectra which were calculated from raw images of laboratory experiments using onground calibration data sets. The results of the error evaluation and new emissivity spectra from the PEL for high temperatures of planetary analog materials are input parameters for the end-to-end simulation of MERTIS. Regarding the instrument's SNR a comparison of the simulation results and the experimental data is given and the effect of the noise reduction method.

  16. Markov random field surface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Rasmus R; Baerentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    A method for implicit surface reconstruction is proposed. The novelty in this paper is the adaptation of Markov Random Field regularization of a distance field. The Markov Random Field formulation allows us to integrate both knowledge about the type of surface we wish to reconstruct (the prior) and knowledge about data (the observation model) in an orthogonal fashion. Local models that account for both scene-specific knowledge and physical properties of the scanning device are described. Furthermore, how the optimal distance field can be computed is demonstrated using conjugate gradients, sparse Cholesky factorization, and a multiscale iterative optimization scheme. The method is demonstrated on a set of scanned human heads and, both in terms of accuracy and the ability to close holes, the proposed method is shown to have similar or superior performance when compared to current state-of-the-art algorithms.

  17. Knot probabilities in random diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarella, Jason; Chapman, Harrison; Mastin, Matt

    2016-10-01

    We consider a natural model of random knotting—choose a knot diagram at random from the finite set of diagrams with n crossings. We tabulate diagrams with 10 and fewer crossings and classify the diagrams by knot type, allowing us to compute exact probabilities for knots in this model. As expected, most diagrams with 10 and fewer crossings are unknots (about 78% of the roughly 1.6 billion 10 crossing diagrams). For these crossing numbers, the unknot fraction is mostly explained by the prevalence of ‘tree-like’ diagrams which are unknots for any assignment of over/under information at crossings. The data shows a roughly linear relationship between the log of knot type probability and the log of the frequency rank of the knot type, analogous to Zipf’s law for word frequency. The complete tabulation and all knot frequencies are included as supplementary data.

  18. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  19. Percolation on correlated random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, E.; Cioli, C.; Guadagnini, E.

    2011-09-01

    We consider a class of random, weighted networks, obtained through a redefinition of patterns in an Hopfield-like model, and, by performing percolation processes, we get information about topology and resilience properties of the networks themselves. Given the weighted nature of the graphs, different kinds of bond percolation can be studied: stochastic (deleting links randomly) and deterministic (deleting links based on rank weights), each mimicking a different physical process. The evolution of the network is accordingly different, as evidenced by the behavior of the largest component size and of the distribution of cluster sizes. In particular, we can derive that weak ties are crucial in order to maintain the graph connected and that, when they are the most prone to failure, the giant component typically shrinks without abruptly breaking apart; these results have been recently evidenced in several kinds of social networks.

  20. Image segmentation using random features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Geoff; Gao, Junbin; Antolovich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for selecting random features via compressed sensing to improve the performance of Normalized Cuts in image segmentation. Normalized Cuts is a clustering algorithm that has been widely applied to segmenting images, using features such as brightness, intervening contours and Gabor filter responses. Some drawbacks of Normalized Cuts are that computation times and memory usage can be excessive, and the obtained segmentations are often poor. This paper addresses the need to improve the processing time of Normalized Cuts while improving the segmentations. A significant proportion of the time in calculating Normalized Cuts is spent computing an affinity matrix. A new algorithm has been developed that selects random features using compressed sensing techniques to reduce the computation needed for the affinity matrix. The new algorithm, when compared to the standard implementation of Normalized Cuts for segmenting images from the BSDS500, produces better segmentations in significantly less time.

  1. Random walk near the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1988-07-01

    The random walk of a particle on a three-dimensional semi-infinite lattice is considered. In order to study the effect of the surface on the random walk, it is assumed that the velocity of the particle depends on the distance to the surface. Moreover it is assumed that at any point the particle may be absorbed with a certain probability. The probability of the return of the particle to the starting point and the average time of eventual return are calculated. The dependence of these quantities on the distance to the surface, the probability of absorption and the properties of the surface is discussed. The method of generating functions is used.

  2. Random modelling of contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Hessami, H; Jannot, A S; Mintsa, J; Rachdi, M; Taramasco, C

    2013-03-01

    Modelling contagious diseases needs to include a mechanistic knowledge about contacts between hosts and pathogens as specific as possible, e.g., by incorporating in the model information about social networks through which the disease spreads. The unknown part concerning the contact mechanism can be modelled using a stochastic approach. For that purpose, we revisit SIR models by introducing first a microscopic stochastic version of the contacts between individuals of different populations (namely Susceptible, Infective and Recovering), then by adding a random perturbation in the vicinity of the endemic fixed point of the SIR model and eventually by introducing the definition of various types of random social networks. We propose as example of application to contagious diseases the HIV, and we show that a micro-simulation of individual based modelling (IBM) type can reproduce the current stable incidence of the HIV epidemic in a population of HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). PMID:23525763

  3. Equations of the Randomizer's Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzałko, Jarosław; Grabski, Juliusz; Perlikowski, Przemysław; Stefanski, Andrzej; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    Basing on the Newton-Euler laws of mechanics we derive the equations which describe the dynamics of the coin toss, the die throw, and roulette run. The equations for full 3D models and for lower dimensional simplifications are given. The influence of the air resistance and energy dissipation at the impacts is described. The obtained equations allow for the numerical simulation of the randomizer's dynamics and define the mapping of the initial conditions into the final outcome.

  4. Ray methods in random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, J.; Fainberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    We review ray-optical methods of analyzing short-wavelength propagation in random media. The advantages and limitations of ray methods are discussed, and results of the statistical theory of ray segment fluctuations pertinent to ray tracing are summarized. The standard method of Monte Carlo ray tracing is compared to a new method which takes into account recent results on the statistics of ray segment fluctuations.

  5. Random drift and culture change.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Hahn, Matthew W.; Shennan, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the frequency distributions of cultural variants, in three different real-world examples--first names, archaeological pottery and applications for technology patents--follow power laws that can be explained by a simple model of random drift. We conclude that cultural and economic choices often reflect a decision process that is value-neutral; this result has far-reaching testable implications for social-science research. PMID:15306315

  6. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  7. Approximating random quantum optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, B.; Laumann, C. R.; Läuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2013-06-01

    We report a cluster of results regarding the difficulty of finding approximate ground states to typical instances of the quantum satisfiability problem k-body quantum satisfiability (k-QSAT) on large random graphs. As an approximation strategy, we optimize the solution space over “classical” product states, which in turn introduces a novel autonomous classical optimization problem, PSAT, over a space of continuous degrees of freedom rather than discrete bits. Our central results are (i) the derivation of a set of bounds and approximations in various limits of the problem, several of which we believe may be amenable to a rigorous treatment; (ii) a demonstration that an approximation based on a greedy algorithm borrowed from the study of frustrated magnetism performs well over a wide range in parameter space, and its performance reflects the structure of the solution space of random k-QSAT. Simulated annealing exhibits metastability in similar “hard” regions of parameter space; and (iii) a generalization of belief propagation algorithms introduced for classical problems to the case of continuous spins. This yields both approximate solutions, as well as insights into the free energy “landscape” of the approximation problem, including a so-called dynamical transition near the satisfiability threshold. Taken together, these results allow us to elucidate the phase diagram of random k-QSAT in a two-dimensional energy-density-clause-density space.

  8. Mixed interactions in random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Toma; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2002-03-01

    The description of thermodynamic properties of copolymers in terms of simple lattice models requires a value for the mixed interaction strength (ɛ_12) between unlike chain segments, in addition to parameters that can be derived from the properties of the corresponding homopolymers. If the monomers are chemically similar, Berthelot's geometric-mean combining rule provides a good first approximation for ɛ_12. In earlier work on blends of polyolefins [1], we found that the small-scale architecture of the chains leads to corrections to the geometric-mean approximation that are important for the prediction of phase diagrams. In this work, we focus on the additional effects due to sequencing of the monomeric units. In order to estimate the mixed interaction ɛ_12 for random copolymers, the small-scale simulation approach developed in [1] is extended to allow for random sequencing of the monomeric units. The approach is applied here to random copolymers of ethylene and 1-butene. [1] J. Luettmer-Strathmann and J.E.G. Lipson. Phys. Rev. E 59, 2039 (1999) and Macromolecules 32, 1093 (1999).

  9. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-12-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full-waveform inversion and linearized ray tomography, (iii) applicability in any spatial dimension and to inversions with a large number of model parameters, (iv) low computational costs that are mostly a fraction of those required for synthetic recovery tests, and (v) the ability to quantify both spatial resolution and inter-parameter trade-offs. Using synthetic full-waveform inversions as benchmarks, we demonstrate that auto-correlations of random-model applications to the Hessian yield various resolution measures, including direction- and position-dependent resolution lengths, and the strength of inter-parameter mappings. We observe that the required number of random test models is around 5 in one, two and three dimensions. This means that the proposed resolution analyses are not only more meaningful than recovery tests but also computationally less expensive. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in 3D real-data full-waveform inversions for the western Mediterranean and Japan. In addition to tomographic problems, resolution analysis by random probing may be used in other inverse methods that constrain continuously distributed properties, including electromagnetic and potential-field inversions, as well as recently emerging geodynamic data assimilation.

  10. Topological insulators in random potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, Andreas; Fehske, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities on the two-dimensional surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs). Modeling weak and strong TIs using a generic four-band Hamiltonian, which allows for a breaking of inversion and time-reversal symmetries and takes into account random local potentials as well as the Zeeman and orbital effects of external magnetic fields, we compute the local density of states, the single-particle spectral function, and the conductance for a (contacted) slab geometry by numerically exact techniques based on kernel polynomial expansion and Green's function approaches. We show that bulk disorder refills the surface-state Dirac gap induced by a homogeneous magnetic field with states, whereas orbital (Peierls-phase) disorder preserves the gap feature. The former effect is more pronounced in weak TIs than in strong TIs. At moderate randomness, disorder-induced conducting channels appear in the surface layer, promoting diffusive metallicity. Random Zeeman fields rapidly destroy any conducting surface states. Imprinting quantum dots on a TI's surface, we demonstrate that carrier transport can be easily tuned by varying the gate voltage, even to the point where quasibound dot states may appear.

  11. Compressive sensing optical coherence tomography using randomly accessible lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfouche, Mark; Satyan, Naresh; Vasilyev, Arseny; Yariv, Amnon

    2014-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel a compressive sensing swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system that enables high speed images to be taken while maintaining the high resolution offered from a large bandwidth sweep. Conventional SSOCT systems sweep the optical frequency of a laser ω(t) to determine the depth of the reflectors at a given lateral location. A scatterer located at delay τ appears as a sinusoid cos (ω(t)τ ) at the photodetector. The finite optical chirp rate and the speed of analog to digital and digital to analog converters limit the acquisition rate of an axial scan. The proposed acquisition modality enables much faster image acquisition rates by interrogating the beat signal at randomly selected optical frequencies while preserving resolution and depth of field. The system utilizes a randomly accessible laser, a modulated grating Y-branch laser, to sample the interference pattern from a scene at randomly selected optical frequencies over an optical bandwidth of 5 THz , corresponding to a resolution of 30 μm in air. The depth profile is then reconstructed using an l1 minimization algorithm with a LASSO constraint. Signal-dependent noise sources, shot noise and phase noise, are analyzed and taken into consideration during the recovery. Redundant dictionaries are used to improve the reconstruction of the depth profile. A compression by a factor of 10 for sparse targets up to a depth of 15 mm in noisy environments is shown.

  12. Multiple scattering and intensity fluctuations in optical coherent tomography of randomly inhomogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmin, V. L. Meglinski, I. V.

    2007-08-15

    An expression for signal intensity fluctuations in optical coherent tomography has been obtained for the first time in the framework of the theory of the multiple scattering of low-coherent optical radiation in a random medium. The contribution of the multiple scattering of low-coherent radiation backscattered from a randomly inhomogeneous layer, as well as the speckles of the interference component in optical coherent tomography, has been calculated.

  13. The use of random decrement technique for identification of structural modes of vibration. [tested on a generalized payload and the space shuttle model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to obtain the free responses of a structure from its random responses due to some unknown or known random input or inputs, using the random-decrement technique without changing time correlation between signals. The algorithm is tested using random responses from a 'generalized payload' model and from the 'Space Shuttle' model. The resulting free responses are then used to identify the modal characteristics of the two systems.

  14. Interferometric SAR imaging by transmitting stepped frequency chaotic noise signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Gu, Xiang; Zhai, Wenshuai; Dong, Xiao; Shi, Xiaojin; Kang, Xueyan

    2015-10-01

    Noise radar has been applied in many fields since it was proposed more than 50 years ago. However, it has not been applied to interferometric SAR imaging yet as far as we know. This paper introduces our recent work on interferometric noise radar. An interferometric SAR system was developed which can transmit both chirp signal and chaotic noise signal (CNS) at multiple carrier frequencies. An airborne experiment with this system by transmitting both signals was carried out, and the data were processed to show the capability of interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The results shows that although the interferometric phase quality of CNS is degraded due to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is lower compared with that of chirp signal, we still can get satisfied DEM after multi-looking processing. Another work of this paper is to apply compressed sensing (CS) theory to the interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The CS theory states that if a signal is sparse, then it can be accurately reconstructed with much less sampled data than that regularly required according to Nyquist Sampling Theory. To form a structured random matrix, if the transmitted signal is of fixed waveform, then random subsampling is needed. However, if the transmitted signal is of random waveform, then only uniform subsampling is needed. This is another advantage of noise signal. Both the interferometric phase images and the DEMs by regular method and by CS method are processed with results compared. It is shown that the degradation of interferometric phases due to subsampling is larger than that of amplitude image.

  15. CSF-1 signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J A

    1997-08-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) or macrophage-CSF (M-CSF) is a growth factor involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and activation of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Its receptor is the homodimeric, tyrosine kinase product of the c-fms proto-oncogene, which contains a so-called kinase insert domain. This review focuses mainly on recent studies of signal transduction events that are initiated on interaction of CSF-1 and its receptor. A summary is given of the tyrosine autophosphorylation sites on c-Fms identified to date, including their interaction with various substrates and their possible significance for signal transduction and cellular function. In addition, the signal transduction pathways that have been identified to lie downstream of activated c-Fms are reviewed. Although it is apparent that there have been many recent significant developments in our understanding of CSF-1 signaling, a number of examples are mentioned of significant discrepancies in the literature, some possible reasons for which can sometimes be offered. It is also apparent that any particular biochemical response or signal transduction pathway, even though widespread in other ligand receptor/cellular systems, including those with similar receptor structures to c-Fms, may not be relevant to CSF-1 signaling. The relevance of any potentially important molecular signaling pathway activated by CSF-1 in cells in vitro will ultimately have to be related to the functions of monocytes/macrophages in vivo.

  16. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Without doubt, the electrical signaling is costly, and the possible co-existence of such type of signals and photosynthesis in plant cell is discussed. PMID:21558815

  17. Decoding dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Bibb, James A

    2005-07-29

    Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that is important for many physiological functions including motor control, mood, and the reward pathway. In this issue of Cell, the laboratories of Marc Caron and Li-Huei Tsai identify two very different molecules--beta-arrestin 2 and Par-4, respectively--that unexpectedly are involved in dopamine signaling via the D2 receptor. These two new signaling pathways mediate the actions of dopamine on behavior and facilitate crosstalk between different signaling pathways that are activated by binding of dopamine to the D2 receptor.

  18. Detectability of auditory signals presented without defined observation intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, C. S.; Nichols, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Ability to detect tones in noise was measured without defined observation intervals. Latency density functions were estimated for the first response following a signal and, separately, for the first response following randomly distributed instances of background noise. Detection performance was measured by the maximum separation between the cumulative latency density functions for signal-plus-noise and for noise alone. Values of the index of detectability, estimated by this procedure, were approximately those obtained with a 2-dB weaker signal and defined observation intervals. Simulation of defined- and non-defined-interval tasks with an energy detector showed that this device performs very similarly to the human listener in both cases.

  19. Scale invariance of human electroencephalogram signals in sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shi-Min; Jiang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Yang, Hui-Jie; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical properties of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of humans in sleep. By using a modified random walk method, we demonstrate that scale-invariance is embedded in EEG signals after a detrending procedure is applied. Furthermore, we study the dynamical evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the detrended EEG signals by nonextensive statistical modeling. It displays a scale-independent property, which is markedly different from the usual scale-dependent PDF evolution and cannot be described by the Fokker-Planck equation.

  20. Relationships between digital signal processing and control and estimation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Research areas associated with digital signal processing and control and estimation theory are identified. Particular attention is given to image processing, system identification problems (parameter identification, linear prediction, least squares, Kalman filtering), stability analyses (the use of the Liapunov theory, frequency domain criteria, passivity), and multiparameter systems, distributed processes, and random fields.