Science.gov

Sample records for randomized double-blind phase

  1. Effects of diazoxide in multiple sclerosis: A randomized, double-blind phase 2 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Villoslada, Pablo; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Arroyo, Rafael; Paul, Friedemann; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Ramo, Cristina; Fernandez, Oscar; Saiz, Albert; Garcia-Merino, Antonio; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Casanova, Bonaventura; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Muñoz, Delicias; Martinez-Rodriguez, Jose Enrique; Lensch, Eckart; Prieto, Jose Maria; Meuth, Sven G; Nuñez, Xavier; Campás, Clara; Pugliese, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the safety of diazoxide and to search for signs of efficacy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (treatment allocation was concealed), 102 patients with RRMS were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of diazoxide (0.3 and 4 mg/d) or placebo for 24 weeks (NCT01428726). The primary endpoint was the cumulative number of new T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions per patient, recorded every 4 weeks from week 4 to week 24. Secondary endpoints included brain MRI variables such as the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and the percentage brain volume change (PBVC); clinical variables such as the percentage of relapse-free patients, relapse rate, and change in the Expanded Disability Status Scale score; and safety and tolerability. Diazoxide was well-tolerated and it produced no serious adverse events other than 1 case of Hashimoto disease. At the 2 doses tested, diazoxide did not improve the primary endpoint or the MRI and clinical variables related to the presence of new lesions or relapses. Patients treated with diazoxide showed reduced PBVC compared with the placebo group, although such changes could be confounded by the higher disease activity of the treated group and the vascular effects of diazoxide. At the doses tested, oral diazoxide did not decrease the appearance of new lesions evident by MRI. The effects in slowing the progression of brain atrophy require further validation. This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with RRMS, diazoxide (0.3 and 4 mg/d) does not significantly change the number of new MRI T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions.

  2. Etanercept in Alzheimer disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Joseph; Brook, Laura; Hopkins, Vivienne; Teeling, Jessica; Püntener, Ursula; Culliford, David; Sharples, Richard; Sharif, Saif; McFarlane, Brady; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Passmore, Peter; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive

    2015-05-26

    To determine whether the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor etanercept is well tolerated and obtain preliminary data on its safety in Alzheimer disease dementia. In a double-blind study, patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease dementia were randomized (1:1) to subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg) once weekly or identical placebo over a 24-week period. Tolerability and safety of this medication was recorded including secondary outcomes of cognition, global function, behavior, and systemic cytokine levels at baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and following a 4-week washout period. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2009-013400-31) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01068353). Forty-one participants (mean age 72.4 years; 61% men) were randomized to etanercept (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21). Etanercept was well tolerated; 90% of participants (18/20) completed the study compared with 71% (15/21) in the placebo group. Although infections were more common in the etanercept group, there were no serious adverse events or new safety concerns. While there were some interesting trends that favored etanercept, there were no statistically significant changes in cognition, behavior, or global function. This study showed that subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg/wk) was well tolerated in this small group of patients with Alzheimer disease dementia, but a larger more heterogeneous group needs to be tested before recommending its use for broader groups of patients. This study shows Class I evidence that weekly subcutaneous etanercept is well tolerated in Alzheimer disease dementia. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Everolimus for previously treated advanced gastric cancer: results of the randomized, double-blind, phase III GRANITE-1 study.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers.

  4. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001). The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16). With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004) and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05). The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83). Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724

  5. Phase I randomized double-blind placebo-controlled single-dose safety studies of Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LILIE L.; MICK, ROSEMARIE; WARE, JEFFREY; METZ, JAMES; LUSTIG, ROBERT; VAPIWALA, NEHA; RENGAN, RAMESH; KENNEDY, ANN R.

    2014-01-01

    In previously performed animal studies and Phase I–II human trials, Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate (BBIC) appeared to be a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. The present study describes the results of two phase I randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials performed in male subjects to assess the safety and toxicity of the original and new formulations of BBIC administered in a single dose as a suspension in orange juice. The dose of BBIC varied from 800–2,000 chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI) units. The BBI concentration in the serum samples collected from the subjects was analyzed by a dot-blot analysis procedure using the 5G2 monoclonal antibody, which is specific for reduced BBI. A total of 41 subjects were enrolled, 20 in the initial BBIC study and 21 in the second BBIC study. In these human trials, no clinically relevant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed. Overall, BBIC was found to be well-tolerated. For these BBIC single-dose phase I trials, there was no dose-limiting toxicity for BBIC, even at the highest dose evaluated, and there were no apparent differences between the clinical trial results for the two formulations of BBIC. The bioavailability of BBI in the second clinical trial, which used the new BBIC formulation, was approximately 40 to 43% of the BBI bioavailability reached in the first clinical trial, which used the original BBIC formulation. The observed bioavailability difference was attributed to the different BBIC formulations used in these two clinical trials. These trials demonstrated that BBIC is safe when administered in a single dose of up to 2,000 CI units. Therefore, the results from the two trials indicate that a multi-dose trial of BBIC may be safely performed with doses of up to 2,000 CI units per day. PMID:24944684

  6. Comparison of Iohexol-380 and Iohexol-350 for Coronary CT Angiography: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Phase 3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Ah; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Yookyung; Sung, Yon Mi; Song, Soon-Young; Oh, Yu-Whan; Yong, Hwan Seok; Lee, Heon; Jeon, Eui-Yong; Jin, Gong-Yong; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choi, Sang-Il

    2016-01-01

    Objective This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of contrast agents iohexol-380 and iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods Volunteers were randomized to receive 420 mgI/kg of either iohexol-350 or iohexol-380 using a flow rate of 4 mL/sec. All adverse events were recorded. Two blinded readers independently reviewed the CT images and conflicting results were resolved by a third reader. Luminal attenuations (ascending aorta, left main coronary artery, and left ventricle) in Hounsfield units (HUs) and image quality on a 4-point scale were calculated. Results A total of 225 subjects were given contrast media (115 with iohexol-380 and 110 with iohexol-350). There was no difference in number of adverse drug reactions between groups: 75 events in 56 (48.7%) of 115 subjects in the iohexol-380 group vs. 74 events in 51 (46.4%) of 110 subjects in the iohexol-350 group (p = 0.690). No severe adverse drug reactions were recorded. Neither group showed an increase in serum creatinine. Significant differences in mean density between the groups was found in the ascending aorta: 375.8 ± 71.4 HU with iohexol-380 vs. 356.3 ± 61.5 HU with iohexol-350 (p = 0.030). No significant differences in image quality scores between both groups were observed for all three anatomic evaluations (all, p > 0.05). Conclusion Iohexol-380 provides improved enhancement of the ascending aorta and similar attenuation of the coronary arteries without any increase in adverse drug reactions, as compared with iohexol-350 using an identical amount of total iodine. PMID:27134522

  7. Effect of rosuvastatin on diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ojeda, Jaime; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Rodríguez-Carrízalez, Adolfo Daniel; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Alatorre-Carranza, María del Pilar; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy affects 50%–66% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress generates nerve dysfunction by causing segmental demyelinization and axonal degeneration. Antioxidants are considered to be the only etiologic management for diabetic polyneuropathy, and statins such as rosuvastatin increase nitric oxide bioavailability and reduce lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of rosuvastatin in diabetic polyneuropathy. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) stage ≥1b. We allocated subjects to two parallel groups (1:1) that received rosuvastatin 20 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were neuropathic symptom score, disability score, and nerve conduction studies, and secondary outcomes were glycemic control, lipid and hepatic profile, lipid peroxidation, and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) levels. Results Both groups were of similar age and duration since diagnosis of diabetes and DPN. We observed improvement of DPN in the rosuvastatin group from stage 2a (88.2%) to stage 1b (41.2%), improvement of neuropathic symptom score from 4.5±2 to 2.4±1.8, and significant (P=0.001) reductions of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (from 40.8±2.2 to 42.1±1.6 seconds) and lipid peroxidation (from 25.4±2 to 12.2±4.0 nmol/mL), with no significant change in glycemic control or β-NGF. Conclusion The severity, symptoms, and nerve conduction parameters of DPN improved after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin. These beneficial effects appear to be attributable to reductions in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:25214797

  8. Imatinib mesylate in scleroderma-associated diffuse skin fibrosis: a phase II multicentre randomized double-blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Prey, S; Ezzedine, K; Doussau, A; Grandoulier, A-S; Barcat, D; Chatelus, E; Diot, E; Durant, C; Hachulla, E; de Korwin-Krokowski, J-D; Kostrzewa, E; Quemeneur, T; Paul, C; Schaeverbeke, T; Seneschal, J; Solanilla, A; Sparsa, A; Bouchet, S; Lepreux, S; Mahon, F-X; Chene, G; Taïeb, A

    2012-11-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a potent inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways which may play a role in systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated skin changes. We aimed primarily at assessing the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in scleroderma skin fibrosis. We performed a phase II double-blinded trial on patients with scleroderma with either morphoea involving > 20% of body surface area or SSc with extensive skin involvement: modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) ≥ 20/51. Each patient was randomized to receive either imatinib mesylate 400 mg or placebo daily for a total of 6 months, and then was followed up 6 months after therapy discontinuation. Skin fibrosis was assessed by mRSS and measurement of the dermal thickness using skin biopsies performed at inclusion and at 6 months of treatment. In addition, quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index and modified Health Assessment Questionnaire for Scleroderma) was recorded at each visit, and pulmonary function before and after intervention. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study with a mean age of 48·9 years (range 30-71): 25 had a diagnosis of a SSc and three of diffuse cutaneous scleroderma. Demographic data, frequency of organ involvement of SSc and mRSS were comparable between groups. At 6 months, the proportion of variation of mRSS from inclusion was not statistically significantly different between the two groups (median +0·10 in imatinib group vs. -0·16 in placebo group, P = 0·098). Similarly, changes in dermal thickness, quality of life and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide were not significantly different between groups. This study failed to demonstrate the efficacy of imatinib 400 mg daily to improve skin fibrosis of diffuse scleroderma after 6 months of treatment based on validated outcome measurements. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Phase 2 Study Evaluating the Novel Antibiotic Cadazolid in Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Carl Erik; Talbot, George H.; Wilcox, Mark; Gerding, Dale N.; Buitrago, Martha; Kracker, Hilke; Charef, Pascal; Cornely, Oliver A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadazolid, a novel fluoroquinolone-oxazolidinone antibiotic, exhibits potent in vitro activity against Clostridium difficile, including the epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active reference group, phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral cadazolid in treatment of adult patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). Eligible patients with first occurrence/first recurrence of CDI were randomized 1:1:1:1 to 250, 500, or 1,000 mg cadazolid twice daily (BID) or oral 125 mg vancomycin four times daily (QID) for 10 days. The primary endpoint was clinical cure at test of cure (48 ± 24 h after the end of treatment; modified intent-to-treat population), defined as resolution of diarrhea with no further CDI treatment required. Secondary endpoints included recurrence rate, sustained clinical response (clinical cure without recurrence), and time to diarrhea resolution. Of 84 patients enrolled, 20, 22, 20, and 22 received 250, 500, or 1,000 mg cadazolid BID or 125 mg vancomycin QID, respectively. The primary endpoint was achieved in 76.5% (80% confidence interval [CI], 58.4, 89.3), 80.0% (63.9, 91.0), 68.4% (51.1, 82.5), and 68.2% (52.3, 81.3) of patients, respectively. There was no evidence of a cadazolid dosage-dependent response. Each dosage of cadazolid resulted in a lower recurrence rate than with vancomycin (18.2 to 25.0% versus 50%). Consequently, higher sustained clinical response rates were observed with cadazolid (46.7 to 60.0%) than with vancomycin (33.3%). The times to diarrhea resolution were similar for cadazolid and vancomycin. Cadazolid was well tolerated, with no safety signal observed. The results of this phase 2 study support further clinical development of cadazolid. (This study has been registered in the United States at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01222702 and in Europe with the European Medicines Agency under registration no. EUDRA-CT 2010-020941-29.) PMID:26248357

  10. Safety and Activity of UR-1505 in Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Double-blind Phase II Exploratory Trial.

    PubMed

    Vives, Roser; Pontes, Caridad; Sarasa, Maria; Millier, Aurelie

    2015-09-01

    UR-1505 is a new small molecule with immune modulator properties intended for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases that has shown anti-inflammatory effects in models of skin inflammation. We compared the activity of UR-1505 ointment against its vehicle in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Secondary objectives included exploring dose response, safety, and local tolerability of UR-1505. Patients with AD lesions on 2 symmetrical topographic areas (arms, leg, or trunk) were included in this unicenter randomized, double-blind, within-patient, controlled Phase II exploratory trial and received simultaneously 2 different treatments (0.5%, 1%, or 2% UR-1505 and vehicle or 0.1% tacrolimus ointment) once daily during 28 days. The primary efficacy end point was the change from baseline in the Investigator Global Assessment score at Day 28. Secondary end points were percentage of area clearance, local Eczema Area Severity Index (local EASI), and local tolerability. A linear mixed model was used, fitting treatment, body side, and group (treatment at the contralateral side) as fixed factors and the patient as a random effect. Twenty-eight patients were randomized and 25 patients were included in the per protocol analysis, with 50 evaluable lesions (n = 13 for vehicle, n = 8 for UR-1505 0.5%, n = 9 for 1% UR-1505, n=8 for 2% UR-1505, and n=12 for tacrolimus). The mean Investigator Global Assessment score change from baseline at Day 28 was -1.7 for vehicle, -1.0, -1.2, and -1.5 for 0.5%, 1%, and 2% UR-1505, respectively, and -2.6% for tacrolimus (P = 0.002). No serious nor causal adverse reactions were reported in this study, but patients reported numerous local symptoms after product applications, especially itching, tingling, tightness, and heat/burning sensations at frequencies that were similar for vehicle, 1% UR-1505, and 2% UR-1505; more frequent with 0.5% UR-1505; and lowest for tacrolimus. This study found that UR-1505 may not be a suitable option for the

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of duloxetine in Japanese fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masato; Osada, Kenichi; Mizuno, Hiromichi; Ochiai, Toshimitsu; Alev, Levent; Nishioka, Kusuki

    2015-08-22

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain and is often accompanied by accessory symptoms. There are limited treatment options for this condition in Japan. Therefore, we conducted a phase III study to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted in Japan. Outpatients who met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia and whose Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain score was ≥4 were randomized to duloxetine 60 mg or placebo once daily for 14 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the change in the BPI average pain score from baseline. Secondary efficacy, quality of life (QoL), and safety outcomes were also evaluated. Mixed-effects model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis and last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis of covariance were used to evaluate the primary efficacy measure. Overall, 393 patients were randomized to receive either duloxetine (n = 196) or placebo (n = 197). The MMRM analysis revealed no significant difference between duloxetine and placebo regarding the change in BPI average pain scores at week 14. Based on LOCF analysis, a statistically significant improvement in the change in BPI average pain scores at week 14 was observed for patients treated with duloxetine compared with placebo. Duloxetine treatment was associated with improved outcomes in nearly all secondary and post hoc analyses. The treatment was generally well tolerated. Somnolence, nausea, and constipation were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events in the duloxetine group. The discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events were similar in both groups. Although the MMRM analysis did not demonstrate superiority of duloxetine over placebo, duloxetine treatment was associated with improved outcomes in secondary and post hoc analyses of the mean change in the BPI average pain score and

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial of lovastatin for various endpoints of melanoma pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Linden, Kenneth G; Leachman, Sancy A; Zager, Jonathan S; Jakowatz, James G; Viner, Jaye L; McLaren, Christine E; Barr, Ronald J; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Wen-Pin; Elmets, Craig A; Tangrea, Joseph A; Lim, Sung-Jig; Cochran, Alistair J; Meyskens, Frank L

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of large cardiovascular clinical trials of lipid-lowering agents that showed a considerable decrease in the incidence of primary melanomas in the active agent arm, we have carried out a randomized, double-blind clinical trial examining the impact of lovastatin on various biomarkers of melanoma pathogenesis. Subjects with at least two clinically atypical nevi were randomized to receive oral lovastatin or placebo for a 6-month period. Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular biomarkers were evaluated for change in the two groups. Eighty subjects were randomized, evaluable, and included in the analyses. Lovastatin showed no benefit in comparison with placebo in the primary endpoint of decreasing the level of histopathologic atypia, nor in any of the secondary endpoints of decreasing clinical atypia, impact on nevus number, nor in showing significant changes in any of the molecular biomarkers. There were no significant differences in adverse event profiles for lovastatin compared with placebo. The lovastatin arm did show a significant and considerable decrease in total serum cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels compared with placebo, an expected result. This finding bolsters confidence in subject compliance. Given the results of this trial, it is concluded that if lovastatin were to lower the incidence of melanoma, it would appear not to be doing so by reversing atypia of precursor atypical nevi over the 6-month time frame studied. Further research into the pathogenesis of melanoma and in other potential chemopreventive agents is needed.

  13. Investigator-reported efficacy of azelaic acid foam 15% in patients with papulopustular rosacea: secondary efficacy outcomes from a randomized, controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James A; Tyring, Stephen; Staedtler, Gerald; Sand, Meike; Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Shakery, Kaweh

    2016-09-01

    Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is characterized by centrofacial papules and pustules commonly associated with erythema. To compare investigator-reported efficacy outcomes for azelaic acid (AzA) foam 15% versus vehicle foam in PPR, a randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-blind phase 3 clinical trial was conducted at 48 US sites. Participants received AzA foam or vehicle foam for 12 weeks. Secondary efficacy outcomes included change in inflammatory lesion count (ILC), therapeutic response rate according to investigator global assessment (IGA), and change in erythema rating. This study was comprised of 961 participants with PPR. The results support the therapeutic superiority of AzA foam over vehicle foam.

  14. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study of eculizumab in patients with refractory generalized myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Howard, James F; Barohn, Richard J; Cutter, Gary R; Freimer, Miriam; Juel, Vern C; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Mellion, Michelle L; Benatar, Michael G; Farrugia, Maria Elena; Wang, Jing Jing; Malhotra, Suneil S; Kissel, John T

    2013-07-01

    Complement activation at the neuromuscular junction is a primary cause of acetylcholine receptor loss and failure of neuromuscular transmission in myasthenia gravis (MG). Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, blocks the formation of terminal complement complex by specifically preventing the enzymatic cleavage of complement 5 (C5). This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving 14 patients with severe, refractory generalized MG (gMG). Six of 7 patients treated with eculizumab for 16 weeks (86%) achieved the primary endpoint of a 3-point reduction in the quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score. Examining both treatment periods, the overall change in mean QMG total score was significantly different between eculizumab and placebo (P = 0.0144). After assessing data obtained from all visits, the overall change in mean QMG total score from baseline was found to be significantly different between eculizumab and placebo (P < 0.0001). Eculizumab was well tolerated. The data suggest that eculizumab may have a role in treating severe, refractory MG. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phase Four, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Controlled Trial of Phentolamine Mesylate in Two- to Five-year-old Dental Patients.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Elliot V; Lindemeyer, Rochelle; Berg, Joel H; Casamassimo, Paul S; Chin, Judith; Marberger, Adam; Lin, Brent P; Hutcheson, Matthew C; Moore, Paul A; Group, Pediatric Soft Tissue Anesthesia Recovery

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using a randomized, double-blind methodology: (1) the safety of phentolamine mesylate (Oraverse) in accelerating the recovery of soft tissue anesthesia following the injection of two percent lidocaine plus 1:100,000 epinephrine in two- to five-year-olds; and (2) efficacy in four- to five-year-olds only. One hundred fifty pediatric dental patients underwent routine dental restorative procedures with two percent lidocaine plus 1:100,000 epinephrine with doses based on body weight. Phentolamine mesylate or a sham injection (two to one ratio) was then administered. Subjects were monitored for safety and, in four- to five-year-olds, for efficacy during the two-hour evaluation period. There were no significant differences in adverse events between the phentolamine and sham injections. Compared to sham, phentolamine was not associated with nerve injury, increased analgesic use, or abnormalities of the oral cavity. Phentolamine was associated with transient decreased blood pressure in some children. In four- and five-year-olds, phentolamine induced more rapid recovery of lip anesthesia by 48 minutes (P<0.0001). Phentolamine was well tolerated and safe in three- to five-year-olds; in four- to five-year-olds, a statistically significant more rapid recovery of lip sensation compared to sham injections was determined.

  16. Effect of Borago Officinalis Extract on Moderate Persistent Asthma: A Phase two Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Khashkhashi Moghaddam, Sara; Saeedi, Parisa; Ghaffari, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Borago officinalis and its derivatives are used in folk medicine to treat asthma because of its special effect on allergic disorders. It suppresses the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and delivers gamma-linolenic acid. The objective of this clinical trial was to determine the effect of Borago officinalis on clinical and physiological findings in moderate persistent asthma. This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 15-90 years with moderate asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60-79% of predicted who presented to a sub-specialty clinic of pulmonary medicine. We randomly allocated subjects to receive either Borago extract (5 mL three times a day) or a matched placebo for one month. The primary outcome was the asthma control test (ACT) score and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test. Secondary outcomes included clinical findings, spirometry, and sputum cytology including inflammatory cells. Thirty-eight subjects with a mean age of 46.8±15.3 years and mean duration of asthma of 71±103 months were enrolled in our study. Cough, dyspnea, wheezing, nocturnal symptoms, and airway hyper-responsiveness reduced significantly in the Borago group after the treatment and ACT scores improved significantly (10.8±5.26 before and 15.4±5.12 after the trial). Flare up of asthma and emergency department visits in the Borago group also decreased significantly (3.6±2.33 to 2±1.86 flare ups per month and 0.62±0.9 to 0.05±0.23 for emergency department visits per month). Physiological parameters including spirometry, FENO, and sputum cytology including eosinophil and neutrophil did not change significantly. Borago improved the clinical findings of asthma, but it was not able to suppress the inflammation involved in asthma.

  17. Effect of Borago Officinalis Extract on Moderate Persistent Asthma: A Phase two Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khashkhashi Moghaddam, Sara; Saeedi, Parisa; Ghaffari, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Borago officinalis and its derivatives are used in folk medicine to treat asthma because of its special effect on allergic disorders. It suppresses the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and delivers gamma-linolenic acid. The objective of this clinical trial was to determine the effect of Borago officinalis on clinical and physiological findings in moderate persistent asthma. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 15–90 years with moderate asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60–79% of predicted who presented to a sub-specialty clinic of pulmonary medicine. We randomly allocated subjects to receive either Borago extract (5 mL three times a day) or a matched placebo for one month. The primary outcome was the asthma control test (ACT) score and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test. Secondary outcomes included clinical findings, spirometry, and sputum cytology including inflammatory cells. Results: Thirty-eight subjects with a mean age of 46.8±15.3 years and mean duration of asthma of 71±103 months were enrolled in our study. Cough, dyspnea, wheezing, nocturnal symptoms, and airway hyper-responsiveness reduced significantly in the Borago group after the treatment and ACT scores improved significantly (10.8±5.26 before and 15.4±5.12 after the trial). Flare up of asthma and emergency department visits in the Borago group also decreased significantly (3.6±2.33 to 2±1.86 flare ups per month and 0.62±0.9 to 0.05±0.23 for emergency department visits per month). Physiological parameters including spirometry, FENO, and sputum cytology including eosinophil and neutrophil did not change significantly. Conclusion: Borago improved the clinical findings of asthma, but it was not able to suppress the inflammation involved in asthma. PMID:28210282

  18. A phase IIb randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ubrogepant for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Voss, Tiffini; Lipton, Richard B; Dodick, David W; Dupre, Nicole; Ge, Joy Yang; Bachman, Robert; Assaid, Christopher; Aurora, Sheena K; Michelson, David

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ubrogepant (MK-1602), a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist (CGRP-RA), for the acute treatment of migraine. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 834 participants to treat one migraine attack with ubrogepant 1 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. The co-primary endpoints were pain freedom and headache response at two hours. The first primary hypothesis tested the dose-response trend for two-hour pain freedom using a logistic regression model. Subsequent hypotheses tested the effects of each dose on the co-primary endpoints, using a closed sequential testing procedure to control for multiplicity. A total of 527 participants received ubrogepant and 113 received placebo. A positive response trend in the proportion of participants achieving two-hour pain freedom was demonstrated (p < 0.001). Ubrogepant 100 mg was significantly superior to placebo for two-hour pain freedom (25.5% vs 8.9%) but not for two-hour headache response. Per the prespecified multiplicity strategy, this nonsignificant result precluded further formal hypothesis testing, although the 50 mg and 25 mg doses demonstrated nominal significance over placebo for two-hour pain freedom (unadjusted p < 0.05). Overall, adverse events were similar between ubrogepant and placebo. This trial supports ubrogepant's efficacy and provides further evidence that CGRP-RAs are viable options for the acute treatment of migraine. © International Headache Society 2016.

  19. Phase 1 Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Dapivirine and Maraviroc Vaginal Rings: a Double-Blind Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beatrice A.; Panther, Lori; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Hoesley, Craig J.; van der Straten, Ariane; Husnik, Marla J.; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Nel, Annalene; Johnson, Sherri; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Rabe, Lorna K.; Dezzutti, Charlene S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Variable adherence limits effectiveness of daily oral and intravaginal tenofovir-containing pre-exposure prophylaxis. Monthly vaginal antiretroviral rings are one approach to improve adherence and drug delivery. Methods MTN-013/IPM 026, a multi-site, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 48 HIV-negative U.S. women, evaluated vaginal rings containing dapivirine (25 mg) and maraviroc (100 mg), dapivirine-only, maraviroc-only, and placebo used continuously for 28 days. Safety was assessed by adverse events. Drug concentrations were quantified in plasma, cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), and cervical tissue. Cervical biopsy explants were challenged with HIV ex vivo to evaluate pharmacodynamics. Results There was no difference in related genitourinary adverse events between treatment arms compared to placebo. Dapivirine and maraviroc concentrations rose higher initially before falling more rapidly with the combination ring compared to relatively stable concentrations with the single drug rings. Dapivirine concentrations in CVF were 1 and 5 log10 greater than cervical tissue and plasma for both rings. Maraviroc was consistently detected only in CVF. Dapivirine and maraviroc CVF and dapivirine tissue concentrations dropped rapidly after ring removal. Cervical tissue showed a significant inverse linear relationship between HIV replication and dapivirine levels. Conclusions In this first study of a combination microbicide vaginal ring, all four rings were safe and well tolerated. Tissue dapivirine concentrations were 1,000 times greater than plasma concentrations and single drug rings had more stable pharmacokinetics. Dapivirine, but not maraviroc, demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue. Since maraviroc concentrations were consistently detectable only in CVF and not in plasma, improved drug release of maraviroc rings is needed. PMID:26034880

  20. Adjunctive Taurine in First-Episode Psychosis: A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Colin P; Allott, Kelly A; Murphy, Brendan P; Yuen, Hok Pan; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; Papas, Alicia; Moral, Jennifer; Pham, Tee; O'Regan, Michaela K; Phassouliotis, Christina; Simpson, Raelene; McGorry, Patrick D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an inhibitory neuromodulatory amino acid in the central nervous system that activates the GABA- and glycine-insensitive chloride channel and inhibits the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. It also functions as a neuroprotective agent and has a role in neural development and neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjunctive taurine in improving symptomatology and cognition among patients with a DSM-IV first-episode psychotic disorder. 121 patients with first-episode psychosis, aged 18-25 years, attending early intervention services consented to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from January 2007 to May 2009. Patients taking low-dose antipsychotic medication were randomly assigned to receive once-daily taurine 4 g or placebo for 12 weeks. The coprimary outcomes were change in symptomatology (measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS] total score) and change in cognition (measured by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia [MATRICS] Consensus Cognitive Battery composite score) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included tolerability and safety and additional clinical and functioning measures. 86 participants (n = 47 taurine; n = 39 placebo) were included in the final analysis. Taurine significantly improved symptomatology measured by the BPRS total score (95% CI, 1.8-8.5; P = .004) and psychotic subscale (95% CI, 0.1-1.5; P = .026) compared to placebo. Additionally, improvements were observed in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (95% CI, 0.1-3.0; P = .047) and Global Assessment of Functioning (95% CI, 0.3-8.8; P = .04) scores. There was no group difference in composite cognitive score (95% CI, -1.7 to 1.0; P = .582). A significant group difference was found on one safety and tolerability item (psychic item 2, asthenia/lassitude/increased fatigability) of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser, with the taurine group showing a

  1. Topical Minocycline Foam for the Treatment of Impetigo in Children: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Chamny, Shlomo; Miron, Dan; Lumelsky, Nadia; Shalev, Hana; Gazal, Elana; Keynan, Rita; Shemer, Avner; Tamarkin, Dov

    2016-10-01

    Currently available treatment options for impetigo are limited by either systemic side effects (for oral therapy) or lack of ease of use (for topical ointment). A novel foam formulation of minocycline for topical use may improve convenience and treatment utilization for pediatric patients with impetigo. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied minocycline foam (FMX-102 1% and 4%) in the treatment of impetigo and to determine the optimal therapeutic active ingredient concentration. In this randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, comparative clinical trial, 32 subjects aged ≥2 years with a clinical diagnosis of pure impetigo, impetigo contagiosa, or uncomplicated blistering impetigo were randomized to treatment with FMX-102 1% or 4%, twice daily for 7 days. Subjects were followed for up to 7 days post-treatment. Clinical cure, defined as ≥80% cured lesions (fully recovered lesions, visually determined by investigators), was achieved by 57.1% and 50.0% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, at the end of treatment (visit 3). Clinical success, defined as the absence of lesions, or the drying or improvement of treated lesions (decrease in size of affected area, lesion number, or both), was demonstrated in 81.3% and 78.6% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, following 3 days of treatment (visit 2), in 92.3% and 100% of the respective subjects at the end of treatment, and in 100% in both groups at follow-up (visit 4). Bacteriologic success rates at the end of treatment, defined as complete pathogen eradication, were 85% and 74% in the FMX-102 1% and 4% groups, respectively. The bacteriologic success rate for MRSA infections was 100% (11/11), with no recurrences. Both FMX-102 1% and 4% were considered well tolerated and safe. Topical minocycline foam may be a safe and effective new treatment option for impetigo in children, including those with MRSA.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1238-1243.

  2. A randomized, double-blind controlled comparison of nefazodone and paroxetine in the treatment of depression: safety, tolerability and efficacy in continuation phase treatment.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, D S; Hawley, C J; Mellors, K

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of nefazodone and paroxetine in the continuation phase of treatment of depression. The study comprised a double-blind, parallel-group comparison over 4 months, of patients who had previously improved following random allocation to nefazodone or paroxetine during an 8-week acute treatment study. Assessments included Clinical Global Impression Scales, Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Patient Global Assessment Scale, in addition to a review of reported adverse events, vital sign measurements, electrocardiograms and clinical laboratory tests. One hundred and eight patients participated in the continuation study (53 received paroxetine, 55 nefazodone) and 73 completed treatment. No clinically relevant differences in antidepressant efficacy were seen. Headache and somnolence were the most common reported adverse events in both treatment groups. Both nefazodone and paroxetine maintain their efficacy in continuation treatment, and both are generally well tolerated.

  3. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the tolerability of rifapentine 600, 900, and 1,200 mg plus isoniazid in the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Bock, Naomi N; Sterling, Timothy R; Hamilton, Carol D; Pachucki, Connie; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Conwell, Donna S; Mosher, Ann; Samuels, Mary; Vernon, Andrew

    2002-06-01

    Once-weekly rifapentine 600 mg plus isoniazid (INH) during the continuation phase treatment of tuberculosis is associated with a relapse rate higher than that of twice-weekly rifampin plus INH. The safety and tolerability of higher rifapentine doses need to be determined. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of rifapentine at three doses (600, 900, and 1,200 mg) plus INH 15 mg/kg once weekly in the continuation phase treatment of culture-positive tuberculosis in 150 human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative adults. Outcome measures were discontinuation of therapy for any reason and adverse events on therapy. Treatment was discontinued in 3 of 52 (6%), 2 of 51 (4%), and 3 of 47 (6%) in the rifapentine 600-, 900-, and 1,200-mg treatment arms, respectively. Only one discontinuation, in the rifapentine 1,200-mg arm, was due to an adverse event possibly associated with study therapy. There was a trend toward more adverse events, possibly associated with study therapy, in the highest-dose arms (p = 0.051). Rifapentine 900-mg, once-weekly dosing appears to be safe and well tolerated and is being evaluated in Phase III efficacy trials of treatment of latent tuberculosis. Further evaluation of the safety and tolerability of rifapentine 1,200 mg is warranted.

  4. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results from a phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, clinical trial with histology.

    PubMed

    Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne P; Gupta, Girish; Ortonne, Jean Paul; Serresi, Stefano; Bichel, Jens; Lee, James H; Fox, Terry L; Alomar, Agustín

    2004-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests imiquimod may be a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). The diagnosis and assessment of most AK lesions is made clinically, without histologic confirmation. A phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream compared with vehicle in the treatment of AK lesions on the face and balding scalp including pretreatment and posttreatment biopsy specimens. A total of 286 patients at 18 centers in 6 European countries with histologically confirmed AK were randomized to either imiquimod 5% cream or vehicle cream. Study cream was applied once per day, 3 days per week, for 16 weeks. Clearance of AK lesions was clinically and histologically assessed at an 8-week posttreatment visit. The complete clearance rate for the imiquimod group was 57.1% versus 2.2% for the vehicle group (P <.001). The partial clearance rate (> or =75% reduction in baseline lesions) for the imiquimod group was 72.1% versus 4.3% for the vehicle group (P <.001). The most common side effects were erythema, scabbing/crusting, and erosions/ulceration. For the imiquimod group the incidence of severe erythema, scabbing/crusting, or erosions/ulceration was 30.6%, 29.9%, and 10.2%, respectively. Imiquimod 5% cream used 3 times per week for 16 weeks is an effective treatment for AK. Clinical clearance was established by both clinical observation and histologic analysis.

  5. Efficacy and safety of luliconazole 5% nail solution for the treatment of onychomycosis: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase III study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Kishida, Hiroshi; Okubo, Akihiro

    2017-03-23

    Onychomycosis is a highly prevalent and intractable disease. The first-line treatment agents are oral preparations, but an effective topical medication has long been desired. The objective was to investigate the efficacy and safety of luliconazole 5% nail solution, an imidazole antifungal agent, for the treatment of patients with onychomycosis. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase III study was conducted in Japanese patients with distal lateral subungual onychomycosis affecting the great toenails, with 20-50% clinical involvement. Patients were randomized (2:1) to luliconazole or vehicle once daily for 48 weeks. The primary end-point was the complete cure rate (clinical cure [0% clinical involvement of the nail] plus mycological cure [negative results on direct microscopy]). The adverse event incidence was monitored to evaluate safety. The complete cure rate significantly favored luliconazole (14.9%, 29/194 subjects) versus vehicle (5.1%, 5/99) (P = 0.012). Similarly, the negative direct microscopy rate was significantly higher with luliconazole (45.4%, 79/174) than with vehicle (31.2%, 29/93) (P = 0.026). There were no serious adverse drug reactions. We conclude that once daily topical luliconazole 5% nail solution demonstrated clinical efficacy and was confirmed to be well tolerated.

  6. Phase II double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of armodafinil for brain radiation-induced fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Page, Brandi R.; Shaw, Edward G.; Lu, Lingyi; Bryant, David; Grisell, David; Lesser, Glenn J.; Monitto, Drew C.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Savona, Steven R.; Shah, Sunjay; Case, Doug; Chan, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Common acute-term side effects of brain radiotherapy (RT) include fatigue, drowsiness, decreased physical functioning, and decreased quality of life (QOL). We hypothesized that armodafinil (a wakefulness-promoting drug known to reduce fatigue and increase cognitive function in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy) would result in reduced fatigue and sleepiness for patients receiving brain RT. Methods A phase II, multi-institutional, placebo-controlled randomized trial assessed feasibility of armodafinil 150 mg/day in participants receiving brain RT, from whom we obtained estimates of variability for fatigue, sleepiness, QOL, cognitive function, and treatment effect. Results From September 20, 2010, to October 20, 2012, 54 participants enrolled with 80% retention and 94% self-reported compliance. There were no grade 4–5 toxicities, and the incidence of grade 2–3 toxicities was similar between treatment arms, the most common of which were anxiety and nausea (15%), headaches (19%), and insomnia (20%). There were no statistically significant differences in end-RT or 4 week post-RT outcomes between armodafinil and placebo in any outcomes (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy [FACIT]-Fatigue, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, FACT-Brain, and FACIT-cognitive function). However, in participants with more baseline fatigue, those treated with armodafinil did better than those who received the placebo on the end-RT assessments for several outcomes. Conclusion Armodafinil 150 mg/day was well tolerated in primary brain tumor patients undergoing RT with good compliance. While there was no overall significant effect on fatigue, those with greater baseline fatigue experienced improved QOL and reduced fatigue when using armodafinil. These data suggest that a prospective, phase III randomized trial is warranted for patients with greater baseline fatigue. PMID:25972454

  7. Cariprazine in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: a fixed-dose, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Durgam, Suresh; Cutler, Andrew J; Lu, Kaifeng; Migliore, Raffaele; Ruth, Adam; Laszlovszky, István; Németh, György; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-12-01

    This phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. This multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study was conducted from April 2010 to December 2011. Patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia were randomized to placebo (n = 153), cariprazine 3 mg/d (n = 155), cariprazine 6 mg/d (n = 157), or aripiprazole 10 mg/d (n = 152) for 6 weeks of double-blind treatment. The primary and secondary efficacy parameters were mean change from baseline to week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score, respectively. Least squares mean differences (LSMDs) in PANSS total score change at week 6 significantly favored cariprazine 3 and 6 mg/d versus placebo (LSMD [95% CI]: 3 mg/d, -6.0 [-10.1 to -1.9], adjusted P = .0044; 6 mg/d, -8.8 [-12.9 to -4.7], adjusted P < .0001). Cariprazine 3 and 6 mg/d were also associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in CGI-S scores (LSMD [95% CI]: 3 mg/d, -0.4 [-0.6 to -0.2], adjusted P = .0044; 6 mg/d, -0.5 [-0.7 to -0.3], adjusted P < .0001). Significant differences from placebo were also observed with aripiprazole on the PANSS (LSMD [95% CI]: -7.0 [-11.0 to -2.9], P = .0008) and CGI-S (LSMD [95% CI]: -0.4 [-0.6 to -0.2], P = .0001). Common treatment-emergent adverse events (≥ 10%) were insomnia (all groups), akathisia (cariprazine 6 mg/d), and headache (placebo, cariprazine 6 mg/d). This study supports the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cariprazine 3 and 6 mg/d in the treatment of patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01104766. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, efficacy and safety study of oxybutynin vaginal ring for alleviation of overactive bladder symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Gittelman, Marc; Weiss, Herman; Seidman, Larry

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a once monthly oxybutynin vaginal ring in women with overactive bladder. This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, 12-week phase 2 study compared oxybutynin vaginal ring (4 or 6 mg daily) to a placebo vaginal ring in women with well-defined overactive bladder symptoms. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to week 12 in the total weekly number of incontinence episodes (stress and urge). Safety was measured in terms of treatment emergent adverse events, laboratory, physical, gynecologic examinations, electrocardiogram and vital signs. After a 3-week post-randomization placebo run-in phase (sample size 720) 445 women entered the treatment phase (safety population). Of these women 323 met all 3 overactive bladder specific baseline characteristics of 10 or more urinary urge incontinence episodes weekly, urinary frequency 8 or more voids per 24 hours and voided volume 3 L or less per 24 hours) (analysis population). Women treated with 4 and 6 mg daily oxybutynin vaginal ring had significantly fewer incontinence episodes weekly (p = 0.036 and p = 0.018, respectively), lower daily urinary frequency (p = 0.014, p = 0.002) and a higher proportion had no incontinence episodes at week 12 (p = 0.026, p = 0.027) compared with placebo. The change in severity of urgency and voided volume was similar for all groups (p >0.05). Except for a higher incidence of dry mouth and urinary tract infections that were not always culture confirmed, the oxybutynin vaginal ring was well tolerated and had a safety profile similar to that of the placebo vaginal ring. The oxybutynin vaginal ring appears to be an effective and safe once monthly treatment option for women with overactive bladder characterized primarily by urinary urge incontinence that merits further evaluation in a phase 3 study. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase III placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of pegfilgrastim to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Yoshimasa; Rai, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Norikazu; Takano, Toshimi; Saeki, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Seigo; Shimazaki, Ryutaro; Ito, Yoshinori; Tokuda, Yutaka; Tamura, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Pegfilgrastim is a pegylated form of filgrastim, a recombinant protein of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, that is used to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). Here, we report the results of a phase III trial of pegfilgrastim in breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) chemotherapy. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine the efficacy of pegfilgrastim in reducing the risk of FN in early-stage breast cancer patients. A total of 351 women (177 in the pegfilgrastim group and 174 in the placebo group) between 20 and 69 years of age with stage I-III invasive breast carcinoma who were to receive TC chemotherapy (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks) as either neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy were enrolled; 346 of these patients were treated with either pegfilgrastim (n = 173) or placebo (n = 173). The incidence of FN was significantly lower in the pegfilgrastim group than in the placebo group (1.2 vs. 68.8 %, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, patients in the pegfilgrastim group required less hospitalization and antibiotics for FN. Most adverse events were consistent with those expected for breast cancer subjects receiving TC chemotherapy. Pegfilgrastim is safe and significantly reduces the incidence of FN in breast cancer patients.

  10. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hille, Andrea . E-mail: ahille@med.uni-goettingen.de; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II extended safety study of two Invisible Condom formulations in Cameroonian women.

    PubMed

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Trottier, Sylvie; Omar, Rabeea F; Nkele, Ngoh N; Fokoua, Séraphin; Mbu, Enow R; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Giguère, Jean-Francois; Piret, Jocelyne; Mwatha, Anthony; Mâsse, Benoît; Bergeron, Michel G

    2010-01-01

    Invisible Condom gel formulations being developed as microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV are advancing through the phases of clinical trials. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, after 8 weeks of vaginal application, the extended safety and acceptability of two Invisible Condom vaginal gel formulations: (i) the polymer alone and (ii) the polymer containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) compared to placebo. This study is a randomized, doubled-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II extended safety study in healthy sexually active women from Yaoundé, Cameroon. Women were randomized into three gel arms: (i) placebo, (ii) polymer alone and (iii) polymer/SLS. Women applied gel intravaginally twice daily for 8 weeks. A total of 194 sexually active women applied placebo (n=41), polymer alone (n=76) and polymer/SLS (n=77). Invisible Condom gel formulations were well tolerated with no reported serious adverse events. The majority of reported adverse events were mild or moderate and mostly similar in all three arms, except for pelvic pain that was 10% higher in the polymer and polymer/SLS arms compared to placebo. Colposcopy showed neither genital ulceration nor mucosal lesions. Nugent score, H(2)O(2)-producing lactobacilli and vaginal pH were not affected by the study products. The gel formulations and applicator were generally acceptable and comfortable. This extended safety study showed that the Invisible Condom gel formulations and applicator were well tolerated and acceptable when applied intravaginally twice daily for 8 weeks. Thus, further phases of clinical development of Invisible Condom as a potential microbicide to prevent sexual transmission of HIV are warranted.

  12. Treatment efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation in slow transit constipation: a two-phase, double-blind randomized controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Dinning, Phil G; Hunt, Linda; Patton, Vicki; Zhang, Teng; Szczesniak, Michal; Gebski, Val; Jones, Mike; Stewart, Peter; Lubowski, David Z; Cook, Ian J

    2015-05-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a potential treatment for constipation refractory to standard therapies. However, there have been no randomized controlled studies examining its efficacy. In patients with slow transit constipation, we evaluated the efficacy of suprasensory and subsensory SNS compared with sham, in a prospective, 18-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-phase crossover study. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who, on more than 2 days/week for at least 2 of 3 weeks, reported a bowel movement associated with a feeling of complete evacuation. After 3 weeks of temporary peripheral nerve evaluation (PNE), all patients had permanent implantation and were randomized to subsensory/sham (3 weeks each) and then re-randomized to suprasensory/sham (3 weeks each) with a 2-week washout period between each arm. Daily stool dairies were kept, and quality of life (QoL; SF36) was measured at the end of each arm. Between November 2006 and March 2012, 234 constipated patients were assessed, of whom 59 were willing and deemed eligible to participate (4 male; median age 42 years). Of the 59 patients, 16 (28%) responded to PNE. Fifty-five patients went on to permanent SNS implantation. The proportion of patients satisfying the primary outcome measure did not differ between suprasensory (30%) and sham (21%) stimulations, nor between subsensory (25%) and sham (25%) stimulations. There were no significant changes in QoL scores. In patients with refractory slow transit constipation, SNS did not improve the frequency of complete bowel movements over the 3-week active period.

  13. WR279,396, a third generation aminoglycoside ointment for the treatment of Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis: a phase 2, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Afif; Buffet, Pierre A; Morizot, Gloria; Ben Massoud, Nathalie; Zâatour, Amor; Ben Alaya, Nissaf; Haj Hamida, Nabil Bel; El Ahmadi, Zaher; Downs, Matthew T; Smith, Philip L; Dellagi, Koussay; Grögl, Max

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is a disfiguring disease that confronts clinicians with a quandary: leave patients untreated or engage in a complex or toxic treatment. Topical treatment of CL offers a practical and safe option. Accordingly, the treatment of CL with WR279,396, a formulation of paromomycin and gentamicin in a hydrophilic base, was investigated in a phase 2 clinical study in Tunisia and France. A phase 2, randomized, double blind, vehicle-controlled study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of topical WR279,396 when applied twice a day for 20 days as treatment for parasitologically confirmed CL. The study protocol established the primary efficacy end point as complete clinical response (CCR) defined as 50% or greater reduction in the ulceration size of an index lesion by day 50 (D50) followed by complete re-epithelialization by D100, and no relapse through D180. Ninety-two subjects were randomized. Leishmania major was identified in 66 of 68 isolates typed (97%). In the intent-to-treat population, 47 of 50 WR279,396 treated participants (94%) met the definition of CCR, compared with 30 of 42 vehicle-placebo participants (71%) [p = 0.0045]. Erythema occurred in 30% and 24% of participants receiving WR279,396 and placebo, respectively [p = 0.64]. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of systemic toxicity. Application of WR279,396 for 20 days was found to be safe and effective in treating L. major CL, and offers great potential as a new, simple, easily applicable, and inexpensive topical therapy for this neglected disease. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703924.

  14. Preventive effect of Goshajinkigan on peripheral neurotoxicity of FOLFOX therapy (GENIUS trial): a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized phase III study.

    PubMed

    Oki, Eiji; Emi, Yasunori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Higashijima, Jun; Kato, Takeshi; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Kon, Masanori; Ogata, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kenichi; Ishida, Hideyuki; Saeki, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Yoshihisa; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Kono, Toru; Tomita, Naohiro; Baba, Hideo; Shirabe, Ken; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-08-01

    Peripheral sensory neurotoxicity is a frequent adverse effect of oxaliplatin therapy. Calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) infusions are frequently used as preventatives, but a recent phase III trial failed to show that they prevent neurotoxicity. We therefore conducted a multicenter randomized phase III trial to compare fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) with and without Goshajinkigan (GJG), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo), to determine GJG's potential for reducing peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer. Patients with colon cancer who were undergoing adjuvant therapy with infusional mFOLFOX6 were randomly assigned to GJG (7.5 mg three times daily) or placebo in a double-blind manner. The primary endpoint was the time to grade 2 or greater neuropathy, which was determined at any point during or after oxaliplatin-based therapy using version 3 of the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE). An interim analysis was performed when 142 of the planned 310 patients had been enrolled and the safety assessment committee recommended that the study be discontinued. One hundred eighty-two patients were evaluable for response. They included 89 patients in the GJG group and 93 patients in the placebo group. The incidence of grade 2 or greater neurotoxicity was 50.6 % in the GJG group and 31.2 % in the placebo group. A Cox proportional hazards analysis indicated that the use of GJG was significantly associated with the incidence of neuropathy (hazard ratio, 1.908; p = 0.007). Goshajinkigan did not prevent oxaliplatin-associated peripheral neuropathy in this clinical trial. The clinical study was therefore terminated.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA®) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic)

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child’s development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA® to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C®. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Results: Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Conclusion: Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted. PMID:27536342

  16. Efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of fibromyalgia without concomitant depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Kenji; Murakami, Masato; Oka, Hiroshi; Onozawa, Kaname; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Osada, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study was conducted at 57 sites between November 2012 and February 2014. Patients aged 20 to 64 years who met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 diagnostic FM criteria and had stably high pain scores during a placebo run-in period were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block size 4) to receive mirtazapine orally (15 mg/d for 1 week and then 30 mg/d) or matching placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score from baseline to endpoint (week 12 or early discontinuation). Of the 430 patients randomized (n = 215 each group), 422 (n = 211 each group) were analyzed for the primary endpoint. At the study endpoint, mirtazapine caused a significantly greater reduction in the mean NRS pain score compared with placebo (difference, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, −0.72 to −0.17; P = 0.0018). The reduction by mirtazapine remained significantly greater compared with placebo from week 6 onward. More patients treated with mirtazapine had their NRS pain score reduced by ≥30% from baseline (45.5% vs 30.8%). Mirtazapine also improved pain-related quality of life assessed by the Japanese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire. Adverse events were more common with mirtazapine than placebo (68.8% vs 56.7%), including somnolence (32.1% vs 7.4%), weight gain (17.7% vs 0.9%), and increased appetite (11.6% vs 3.3%). In conclusion, mirtazapine was an effective and safe treatment for Japanese patients with FM. PMID:27218868

  17. Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Investigate the Immunogenicity and Safety of a West Nile Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbender, Rex; Bevilacqua, Joan; Gregg, Anne M.; Watson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Background. ChimeriVax-WN02 is a live, attenuated chimeric vaccine for protection against West Nile virus. This Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo–controlled, multicenter study assessed the immunogenicity, viremia, and safety of the ChimeriVax-WN02 vaccine. Methods. The 2-part study included adults in general good health. In part 1, subjects aged 18–40 years were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups: ChimeriVax–WN02 3.7- × -105 plaque-forming units (PFU), 3.7 × 104 PFU, 3.7 × 103 PFU, or placebo. In part 2, subjects aged 41–64 and ≥65 years were randomized to receive ChimeriVax-WN02 3.7 × 105 PFU or placebo. Results. In both part 1 and part 2, seroconversion was achieved at day 28 by >96% of subjects in active treatment groups. In part 1, neutralizing antibody titers at day 28 were higher and viremia levels lower with the highest dose, whereas the adverse event profile was similar between the dose groups. In part 2, antibody titers and viremia levels were higher in subjects aged ≥65 years, and more subjects in the 41–64 years cohort experienced adverse events. Conclusions. The ChimeriVax-WN02 vaccine was highly immunogenic in younger adults and the elderly, and it was well tolerated at all dose levels and in all age groups investigated. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT00442169. PMID:21148499

  18. Efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of fibromyalgia without concomitant depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miki, Kenji; Murakami, Masato; Oka, Hiroshi; Onozawa, Kaname; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Osada, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study was conducted at 57 sites between November 2012 and February 2014. Patients aged 20 to 64 years who met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 diagnostic FM criteria and had stably high pain scores during a placebo run-in period were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block size 4) to receive mirtazapine orally (15 mg/d for 1 week and then 30 mg/d) or matching placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score from baseline to endpoint (week 12 or early discontinuation). Of the 430 patients randomized (n = 215 each group), 422 (n = 211 each group) were analyzed for the primary endpoint. At the study endpoint, mirtazapine caused a significantly greater reduction in the mean NRS pain score compared with placebo (difference, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, -0.72 to -0.17; P = 0.0018). The reduction by mirtazapine remained significantly greater compared with placebo from week 6 onward. More patients treated with mirtazapine had their NRS pain score reduced by ≥30% from baseline (45.5% vs 30.8%). Mirtazapine also improved pain-related quality of life assessed by the Japanese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire. Adverse events were more common with mirtazapine than placebo (68.8% vs 56.7%), including somnolence (32.1% vs 7.4%), weight gain (17.7% vs 0.9%), and increased appetite (11.6% vs 3.3%). In conclusion, mirtazapine was an effective and safe treatment for Japanese patients with FM.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study to assess the efficacy and safety of mapatumumab with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ciuleanu, T; Bazin, I; Lungulescu, D; Miron, L; Bondarenko, I; Deptala, A; Rodriguez-Torres, M; Giantonio, B; Fox, N L; Wissel, P; Egger, J; Ding, M; Kalyani, R N; Humphreys, R; Gribbin, M; Sun, W

    2016-04-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of mapatumumab (a human agonistic monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1) in combination with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with advanced HCC (stratified by Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status) were randomized 1:1 to receive sorafenib (400 mg, twice daily per 21-day cycle) and either placebo (placebo-sorafenib arm) or mapatumumab (30 mg/kg on day 1 per 21-day cycle; mapatumumab-sorafenib arm). The primary end point was time to (radiologic) progression (TTP), assessed by blinded independent central review. Key secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival, and objective response. In total, 101 patients were randomized (placebo-sorafenib arm: N = 51; mapatumumab-sorafenib arm: N = 50). There was no significant difference in median TTP between both arms [5.6 versus 4.1 months, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio (one-sided 90% confidence interval) 1.192 (0-1.737)]. No mapatumumab-related benefit was identified when TTP was evaluated in the stratified subgroups. The addition of mapatumumab to sorafenib did not demonstrate improvement in the secondary efficacy end points. The reported frequency of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs was comparable in both treatment arms. The addition of mapatumumab to sorafenib did not improve TTP or other efficacy end points, nor did it substantially change the toxicity profile of sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC. Based on these results, further development of the combination of mapatumumab and sorafenib in HCC is not planned. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Phase 1B, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multiple-dose escalation study of NSI-189 phosphate, a neurogenic compound, in depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    Fava, M; Johe, K; Ereshefsky, L; Gertsik, L G; English, B A; Bilello, J A; Thurmond, L M; Johnstone, J; Dickerson, B C; Makris, N; Hoeppner, B B; Flynn, M; Mischoulon, D; Kinrys, G; Freeman, M P

    2016-01-01

    We wanted to examine tolerability and efficacy of NSI-189, a benzylpiperizine-aminiopyridine neurogenic compound for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). This was a Phase 1B, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, multiple-dose study with three cohorts. The first cohort received 40 mg q.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), the second cohort 40 mg b.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), and the third cohort 40 mg t.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2). Twenty-four patients with MDD were recruited, with the diagnosis and severity confirmed through remote interviews. Eligible patients received NSI-189 or placebo for 28 days in an inpatient setting with assessments for safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy. Outpatient follow-up visits were conducted until day 84 (±3). NSI-189 was relatively well tolerated at all doses, with no serious adverse effects. NSI-189 area under the curve increased in a dose-related and nearly proportional manner across the three cohorts, with a half-life of 17.4–20.5 h. The exploratory efficacy measurements, including Symptoms Of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions—Improvement (CGI-I), and The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) showed a promising reduction in depressive and cognitive symptoms across all measures for NSI-189, with significant improvement in the SDQ and CPFQ, and a medium to large effect size for all measures. These improvements persisted during the follow-up phase. In summary, NSI-189 shows potential as a treatment for MDD in an early phase study. The main limitation of this preliminary study was the small sample size of each cohort. PMID:26643541

  1. A double-blind, randomized, and active-controlled phase III study of Herbiron drink in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in premenopausal females in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Tzu; Jeng, Cherng-Jye; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chen, Shih-Ming; Lee, Chyi-Long; Lin, Willie; Hsu, Chun-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Background About 468 million non-pregnant women are estimated to suffer from iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) worldwide. The highest prevalence of IDA occurs in the Taiwanese population. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Herbiron to increase iron absorption in women with IDA. Design Phase III double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, and parallel comparative study enrolled 124 patients with IDA and consisted of a 2-week run-in period, randomization, 12 weeks of supplementation, and 4 weeks of follow-up. The treatment group received Herbiron drink 50 mL p.o., b.i.d., before meals (daily iron intake: 21 mg/day) plus placebo tablets. The control group received a ferrous sulfate tablet, t.i.d., plus placebo 50-mL drink before meals (daily iron intake: 195 mg/day). Results Both treatments significantly improved hemoglobin and all secondary efficacy endpoints. Most IDA patients treated with Herbiron or ferrous sulfate finished the study in the normal range. Ferrous sulfate treatment induced a rapid rate of hemoglobin synthesis, which plateaued by week 8, whereas Herbiron treatment increased the rate of hemoglobin synthesis more slowly, likely due to its nine-fold lower iron content. Gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and nausea) but not infectious adverse events were significantly more common in the ferrous sulfate group (n=11, 18.3%) than those in the Herbiron group (n=1, 1.6%) (p=0.004). Conclusion Twelve weeks of Herbiron treatment delivering 21mg of iron or ferrous sulfate treatment delivering 195 mg of iron induced normal hemoglobin levels in 62 or 91% of non-pregnant women with IDA in Taiwan, respectively, suggesting dose-dependent and bioavailability effects. PMID:27343206

  2. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results from two phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, vehicle-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Mark; Dinehart, Scott; Whiting, David; Lee, Peter K; Tawfik, Naji; Jorizzo, Joseph; Lee, James H; Fox, Terry L

    2004-05-01

    The immune system plays a critical role in the development and pathogenesis of actinic keratosis (AK). Imiquimod has been shown to stimulate the cutaneous immune response and be effective for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Two phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled studies evaluated the efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream compared with vehicle in the treatment of AK lesions on the face and balding scalp. A total of 436 participants at 24 centers in the United States and Canada were randomized to either imiquimod 5% or vehicle cream. Study cream was applied one time per day, 2 days per week for 16 weeks. Clearance of AK lesions was clinically assessed at an 8-week posttreatment visit. The complete clearance rate was 45.1% for the imiquimod group and 3.2% for the vehicle group. The difference in complete clearance rates (imiquimod minus vehicle) was 41.9% with a 95% confidence interval of 34.9% to 49%. The partial (> or =75%) clearance rate was 59.1% for the imiquimod group and 11.8% for the vehicle group. The difference in partial clearance rates (imiquimod minus vehicle) was 47.3% with a 95% confidence interval of 39.5% to 55.1%. The median percent reduction in AK lesions was 83.3% for the imiquimod group and 0% for the vehicle group. Local skin reactions were common. Severe erythema was reported by 17.7% of participants who received imiquimod and 2.3% of participants who received vehicle. Overall, imiquimod was very well tolerated. Imiquimod 5% cream used 2 times per week for 16 weeks is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for AK.

  3. RESILIENCE: Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Sorafenib With Capecitabine Versus Placebo With Capecitabine in Locally Advanced or Metastatic HER2-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Baselga, José; Zamagni, Claudio; Gómez, Patricia; Bermejo, Begoña; Nagai, Shigenori E; Melichar, Bohuslav; Chan, Arlene; Mángel, Lászlo; Bergh, Jonas; Costa, Frederico; Gómez, Henry L; Gradishar, William J; Hudis, Clifford A; Rapoport, Bernardo L; Roché, Henri; Maeda, Patricia; Huang, Liping; Meinhardt, Gerold; Zhang, Joshua; Schwartzberg, Lee S

    2017-05-22

    Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic/antiproliferative activity. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial, we assessed first- or second-line capecitabine with sorafenib or placebo in patients with locally advanced/metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer resistant to a taxane and anthracycline and with known estrogen/progesterone receptor status. A total of 537 patients were randomized to capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) orally twice per day for days 1 to 14 every 21 days with oral sorafenib 600 mg/d or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were stratified according to hormone receptor status, previous chemotherapies for metastatic breast cancer, and geographic region. Treatment with sorafenib with capecitabine, compared with capecitabine with placebo, did not prolong median PFS (5.5 vs. 5.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.973; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.779-1.217; P = .811) or overall survival (OS; 18.9 vs. 20.3 months; HR, 1.195; 95% CI, 0.943-1.513; P = .140); or enhance overall response rate (ORR; 13.5% vs. 15.5%; P = .515). Any grade toxicities (sorafenib vs. placebo) included palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES; 79.2% vs. 59.6%), diarrhea (47.3% vs. 37.8%), mucosal inflammation (15.4% vs. 6.7%), and hypertension (26.2% vs. 5.6%). Grade 3/4 toxicities included PPES (15.4% vs. 7.1%), diarrhea (4.2% vs. 6.4%), and vomiting (3.5% vs. 0.7%). The combination of sorafenib with capecitabine did not improve PFS, OS, or ORR in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Rates of Grade 3 toxicities were higher in the sorafenib arm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Trial of Ipilimumab Versus Placebo in Asymptomatic or Minimally Symptomatic Patients With Metastatic Chemotherapy-Naive Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Beer, Tomasz M; Kwon, Eugene D; Drake, Charles G; Fizazi, Karim; Logothetis, Christopher; Gravis, Gwenaelle; Ganju, Vinod; Polikoff, Jonathan; Saad, Fred; Humanski, Piotr; Piulats, Josep M; Gonzalez Mella, Pablo; Ng, Siobhan S; Jaeger, Dirk; Parnis, Francis X; Franke, Fabio A; Puente, Javier; Carvajal, Roman; Sengeløv, Lisa; McHenry, M Brent; Varma, Arvind; van den Eertwegh, Alfonsus J; Gerritsen, Winald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ipilimumab increases antitumor T-cell responses by binding to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. We evaluated treatment with ipilimumab in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer without visceral metastases. Patients and Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, phase III trial, patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for up to four doses. Ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo maintenance therapy was administered to nonprogressing patients every 3 months. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results Four hundred patients were randomly assigned to ipilimumab and 202 to placebo; 399 were treated with ipilimumab and 199 with placebo. Median OS was 28.7 months (95% CI, 24.5 to 32.5 months) in the ipilimumab arm versus 29.7 months (95% CI, 26.1 to 34.2 months) in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95.87% CI, 0.88 to 1.39; P = .3667). Median progression-free survival was 5.6 months in the ipilimumab arm versus 3.8 with placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95.87% CI, 0.55 to 0.81). Exploratory analyses showed a higher prostate-specific antigen response rate with ipilimumab (23%) than with placebo (8%). Diarrhea (15%) was the only grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse event (AE) reported in ≥ 10% of ipilimumab-treated patients. Nine (2%) deaths occurred in the ipilimumab arm due to treatment-related AEs; no deaths occurred in the placebo arm. Immune-related grade 3 to 4 AEs occurred in 31% and 2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion Ipilimumab did not improve OS in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The observed increases in progression-free survival and prostate-specific antigen response rates suggest antitumor activity in a patient subset.

  5. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase III study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Gotoh, Minoru; Asako, Mikiya; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Honda, Takayuki; Ohashi, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H1 antihistamine, has been approved in most European countries since 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the superiority of bilastine over placebo in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III study (trial registration number JapicCTI-142600) evaluated the effect of a 2-week treatment period with bilastine (20 mg once daily), fexofenadine (60 mg twice daily), or a matched placebo (double dummy) in patients with PAR. All patients were instructed to record individual nasal and ocular symptoms in diaries daily. The primary endpoint was the mean change in total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) from baseline to Week 2 (Days 10-13). A total of 765 patients were randomly allocated to receive bilastine, fexofenadine, or placebo (256, 254, and 255 patients, respectively). The mean change in TNSS from baseline at Week 2 was significantly decreased by bilastine (-0.98) compared to placebo (-0.63, P = 0.023). Bilastine and fexofenadine showed no significant difference in the primary endpoint. However, the mean change in TNSS from baseline on Day 1 was more significantly decreased by bilastine (-0.99) than by placebo (-0.28, P < 0.001) or fexofenadine (-0.62, P = 0.032). The active drugs also improved instantaneous TNSS 1 h after the first and before the second drug administration on Day 1 (P < 0.05). The study drugs were well tolerated. After 2-week treatment period, bilastine 20 mg once daily was effective and tolerable in Japanese patients with PAR, and exhibited a rapid onset of action. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lanreotide Autogel 90 mg and lymphorrhea prevention after axillary node dissection in breast cancer: a phase III double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, T; Garuchet-Bigot, A; Marin, B; Mollard, J; Loum, O; Fermeaux, V; Jammet, I; Kanoun, D; Maubon, A; Aubard, Y

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Lanreotide Autogel 90 mg PR to prevent lymphorrhea after axillary dissection in breast cancer. A Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed between April 1st, 2008, and December 31st, 2010. The primary endpoint was the lymphorrhea volume (ml) in the axillary drain during the first four postoperative days. The secondary end points were the number of days until axillary drain removal, hospital stay duration (days), lymphorrhea volume (ml) up to days 15, 30 and 180, number of cases with seroma aspiration and number of seroma aspirations, evaluation of wound, arm pain and mobility on days 15, 30 and 180. A total of 148 patients were recruited for the study. Altogether 145 patients were randomized and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. On the day before surgery 73 patients received the placebo and 72 patients received lanreotide. At four postoperative days, there was a tendency towards a reduction of the lymphorrhea volume in the lanreotide group (median 292 ml, range 1-965 ml) as compared to the placebo group (median 337 ml, range 0-1230 ml), although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). There was no significant difference for the secondary end points. In the group with axillary dissection performed alone (n = 24), the lymphorrhea volume was shown to be significantly reduced in the lanreotide group, (p = 0.035) as compared to the placebo group. Our study did not identify any overall significant reduction of lymphorrhea on lanreotide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of collagenase clostridium histolyticum for the treatment of peyronie disease in 2 large double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled phase 3 studies.

    PubMed

    Gelbard, Martin; Goldstein, Irwin; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; McMahon, Chris G; Smith, Ted; Tursi, James; Jones, Nigel; Kaufman, Gregory J; Carson, Culley C

    2013-07-01

    IMPRESS (Investigation for Maximal Peyronie's Reduction Efficacy and Safety Studies) I and II examined the clinical efficacy and safety of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum intralesional injections in subjects with Peyronie disease. Co-primary outcomes in these identical phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled studies included the percent change in the penile curvature abnormality and the change in the Peyronie disease questionnaire symptom bother score from baseline to 52 weeks. IMPRESS I and II examined collagenase C. histolyticum intralesional injections in 417 and 415 subjects, respectively, through a maximum of 4 treatment cycles, each separated by 6 weeks. Men received up to 8 injections of 0.58 mg collagenase C. histolyticum, that is 2 injections per cycle separated by approximately 24 to 72 hours with the second injection of each followed 24 to 72 hours later by penile plaque modeling. Men were stratified by baseline penile curvature (30 to 60 vs 61 to 90 degrees) and randomized to collagenase C. histolyticum or placebo 2:1 in favor of the former. Post hoc meta-analysis of IMPRESS I and II data revealed that men treated with collagenase C. histolyticum showed a mean 34% improvement in penile curvature, representing a mean ± SD -17.0 ± 14.8 degree change per subject, compared with a mean 18.2% improvement in placebo treated men, representing a mean -9.3 ± 13.6 degree change per subject (p <0.0001). The mean change in Peyronie disease symptom bother score was significantly improved in treated men vs men on placebo (-2.8 ± 3.8 vs -1.8 ± 3.5, p = 0.0037). Three serious adverse events (corporeal rupture) were surgically repaired. IMPRESS I and II support the clinical efficacy and safety of collagenase C. histolyticum for the physical and psychological aspects of Peyronie disease. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunogenicity and safety assessment of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine in Korean children: Double-blind, randomized, active-controlled multicenter phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Park, Joon Soo; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Choi, Young Youn; Cha, Sung-Ho; Hong, Young Jin; Kang, Jin Han

    2015-01-01

    A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-control phase III clinical trial was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine. Korean children between the ages of 6 months and 18 y were enrolled and randomized into a study (study vaccine) or a control vaccine group (commercially available trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine) in a 5:1 ratio. Antibody responses were determined using hemagglutination inhibition assay, and post-vaccination immunogenicity was assessed based on seroconversion and seroprotection rates. For safety assessment, solicited local and systemic adverse events up to 28 d after vaccination and unsolicited adverse events up to 6 months after vaccination were evaluated. Immunogenicity was assessed in 337 and 68 children of the study and control groups. In the study vaccine group, seroconversion rates against influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains were 62.0% (95% CI: 56.8-67.2), 53.4% (95% CI: 48.1-58.7), and 54.9% (95% CI: 48.1-60.2), respectively. The corresponding seroprotection rates were 95.0% (95% CI: 92.6-97.3), 93.8% (95% CI: 91.2-96.4), and 95.3% (95% CI: 93.0-97.5). The lower 95% CI limits of the seroconversion and seroprotection rates were over 40% and 70%, respectively, against all strains. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates were not significantly different between the study and control vaccine groups. Furthermore, the frequencies of adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 vaccine groups, and no serious vaccination-related adverse events were noted. In conclusion, the study vaccine exhibited substantial immunogenicity and safety in Korean children and is expected to be clinically effective.

  9. The effect of secukinumab on moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis: Results of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3b study.

    PubMed

    Bagel, Jerry; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Moore, Angela; Ferris, Laura K; Siu, Kimberly; Steadman, Jennifer; Kianifard, Farid; Nyirady, Judit; Lebwohl, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis has not been evaluated in prospective trials of patients without moderate-to-severe body psoriasis. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis. In this 24-week, double-blind, phase 3b study, 102 patients were randomized 1:1 to subcutaneous secukinumab 300 mg or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2, and 3, and then every 4 weeks from week 4 to 20. The primary efficacy variable was 90% improvement of Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI 90) score from baseline to week 12. At week 12, PSSI 90 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 52.9% vs 2.0%) and Investigator's Global Assessment modified 2011 scalp responses of 0 or 1 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 56.9% vs 5.9%) were significantly greater with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (P < .001 for both). In addition, significantly more patients achieved complete clearance of scalp psoriasis at week 12 with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (35.3% vs 0%; P < .001). The median time to 50% reduction in PSSI score was 3.29 weeks with secukinumab 300 mg. The safety profile of secukinumab was consistent with previous phase 3 studies. There was no active comparator arm. Secukinumab is efficacious and well-tolerated for patients with extensive moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Benzoate, a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, for the treatment of early-phase Alzheimer disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Chen, Ping-Kun; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chuo, Liang-Jen; Chen, Yan-Syun; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission is vital for learning and memory. Hypofunction of NMDAR has been reported to play a role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD), particularly in the early phase. Enhancing NMDAR activation might be a novel treatment approach. One of the methods to enhance NMDAR activity is to raise the levels of NMDA coagonists by blocking their metabolism. This study examined the efficacy and safety of sodium benzoate, a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, for the treatment of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild AD. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in four major medical centers in Taiwan. Sixty patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or mild AD were treated with 250-750 mg/day of sodium benzoate or placebo for 24 weeks. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (the primary outcome) and global function (assessed by Clinician Interview Based Impression of Change plus Caregiver Input) were measured every 8 weeks. Additional cognition composite was measured at baseline and endpoint. Sodium benzoate produced a better improvement than placebo in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (p = .0021, .0116, and .0031 at week 16, week 24, and endpoint, respectively), additional cognition composite (p = .007 at endpoint) and Clinician Interview Based Impression of Change plus Caregiver Input (p = .015, .016, and .012 at week 16, week 24, and endpoint, respectively). Sodium benzoate was well-tolerated without evident side-effects. Sodium benzoate substantially improved cognitive and overall functions in patients with early-phase AD. The preliminary results show promise for D-amino acid oxidase inhibition as a novel approach for early dementing processes. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroplastic Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Painful Symptoms Reduction in Chronic Hepatitis C: A Phase II Randomized, Double Blind, Sham Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brietzke, Aline P.; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Dussan-Sarria, Jairo A.; Deitos, Alicia; Laste, Gabriela; Hoppe, Priscila F. T.; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mário R.; de Amorim, Rivadavio F. B.; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pegylated Interferon Alpha (Peg-IFN) in combination with other drugs is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) and is related to severe painful symptoms. The aim of this study was access the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in controlling the painful symptoms related to Peg-IFN side effects. Materials and Methods: In this phase II double-blind trial, twenty eight (n = 28) HCV subjects were randomized to receive either 5 consecutive days of active tDCS (n = 14) or sham (n = 14) during 5 consecutive days with anodal stimulation over the primary motor cortex region using 2 mA for 20 min. The primary outcomes were visual analogue scale (VAS) pain and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels. Secondary outcomes were the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the Brazilian Profile of Chronic Pain: Screen (B-PCP:S), and drug analgesics use. Results: tDCS reduced the VAS scores (P < 0.003), with a mean pain drop of 56% (p < 0.001). Furthermore, tDCS was able to enhance BDNF levels (p < 0.01). The mean increase was 37.48% in the active group. Finally, tDCS raised PPT (p < 0.001) and reduced the B-PCP:S scores and analgesic use (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Five sessions of tDCS were effective in reducing the painful symptoms in HCV patients undergoing Peg-IFN treatment. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS as a promising therapeutic tool to improve the tolerance of the side effects related to the use of Peg-IFN. Future larger studies (phase III and IV trials) are needed to confirm the clinical use of the therapeutic effects of tDCS in such condition. Trial registration: Brazilian Human Health Regulator for Research with the approval number CAAE 07802012.0.0000.5327. PMID:26793047

  12. Symptomatic treatment with lanreotide microparticles in inoperable bowel obstruction resulting from peritoneal carcinomatosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Pascale; Blumberg, Joëlle; Landau, Alain; Lebrun-Jezekova, Daniela; Botton, Estelle; Beatrix, Olivier; Mayeur, Didier; Herve, Robert; Maisonobe, Pascal; Chauvenet, Laure

    2012-12-10

    To investigate the somatostatin analog lanreotide as symptomatic treatment for inoperable bowel obstruction due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. In all, 80 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, inoperable malignant digestive obstruction, and two or more vomiting episodes per day or nasogastric tube (NGT) who were previously treated with intravenous corticosteroids and proton pump inhibitors were randomly assigned to one 30-mg injection of lanreotide microparticles (n = 43) or placebo (n = 37) in a 10-day, double-blind, parallel-group phase. The primary end point was the proportion of patients responding on day 7 (one or fewer episodes of vomiting per day or no vomiting recurrence after NGT removal [for ≥ 3 consecutive days in both cases]). Vomiting frequency/NGT secretion volumes, nausea, abdominal pain, well-being, and safety were also assessed. Patients could then enter an open-label lanreotide-only phase. The study was conducted at 22 European hospitals. More patients receiving lanreotide than placebo were responders; this difference was not statistically significant for the intent-to-treat (ITT) population on the basis of diary cards (primary analysis; 41.9% [18 of 43] v 29.7% [11 of 37], respectively; odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 4.49; P = .24) but was statistically significant for the corresponding supportive per protocol analysis (57.7% [15 of 26] v 30.4% [seven of 23]; P < .05) and ITT analysis, on the basis of investigators' assessments (50.0% [19 of 38] v 28.6% [10 of 35]; P < .05). Improvements in well-being were significantly greater with lanreotide on days 3, 6, and 7. No significant differences were observed for other secondary end points. Only two (mild/moderate) treatment-emergent adverse events were considered related to lanreotide. These results show that lanreotide has some efficacy and is safe in the symptomatic treatment of patients with inoperable bowel obstruction due to peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  13. Human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing: A randomized double-blinded study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial assessed the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on genogroup I.1 human norovirus (HuNoV) inactivation in virus-seeded oysters when ingested by subjects. The safety and efficacy of HPP treatments were assessed in three study phases wi...

  14. Patient-reported outcomes of azelaic acid foam 15% for patients with papulopustular rosacea: secondary efficacy results from a randomized, controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Tyring, Stephen; Solomon, James A; Staedtler, Gerald; Lott, Jason P; Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Shakery, Kaweh

    2016-10-01

    Patient-reported treatment outcomes are important for evaluating the impact of drug therapies on patient experience. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study was conducted in 961 participants to assess patient perception of efficacy, utility, and effect on quality of life (QOL) of an azelaic acid (AzA) 15% foam formulation for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea (PPR). Secondary end points included patient-reported global assessment of treatment response, global assessment of tolerability, and opinion on cosmetic acceptability and practicability of product use. Quality of life assessments included the Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) and Rosacea Quality of Life Index (RosaQOL). Self-reported global assessment of treatment response favored AzA foam over vehicle foam (P<.001), with 57.2% of the AzA foam group reporting excellent or good improvement versus 44.7% in the vehicle foam group. Tolerability was rated excellent or good in 67.8% of the AzA foam group versus 78.2% of the vehicle foam group. Mean overall DLQI scores at end of treatment (EoT) were improved (P=.018) in favor of the AzA foam group compared with the vehicle foam group. Both treatment groups showed improvements in RosaQOL. Treatment with AzA foam was associated with improved QOL and meaningful reductions in the patient-perceived burden of PPR, which correlates with earlier reported primary end points of this study and supports the inclusion of patient perspectives in studies evaluating the effects of topical dermatologic treatments.

  15. Postprandial effects of dark chocolate on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: results of a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    De Gottardi, Andrea; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Seijo, Susana; D'Amico, Mario; Thormann, Wolfgang; Abraldes, Juan G; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Bosch, Jaime

    2012-09-01

    In cirrhosis, hepatic endothelial dysfunction as a result of oxidative stress contributes to the postprandial increase in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). We aimed at testing the hypothesis that dark chocolate, which holds potent antioxidant properties, might attenuate the postprandial increase in HVPG in patients with cirrhosis. In this phase 2, double-blind, controlled study, 22 cirrhotic patients referred for HVPG measurement were included and randomly assigned to receive a liquid meal containing either dark chocolate (active treatment; 85% cocoa, 0.55 g/kg body wt; n = 11) or isocaloric amounts of white chocolate (devoid of cocoa flavonoids; control subjects; n = 11). HVPG, arterial pressure, portal blood flow, serum flavonoids (catechin and epicatechin), and nitric oxide were measured at baseline and 30 min after meal administration. The main outcome measure was the change in HVPG 30 min after the test meal. Postprandial hyperemia was accompanied by a marked increase in HVPG in the white-chocolate group (16.0 ± 4.7-19.7 ± 4.1 mm Hg or +26.4 ± 12.7%; P < 0.0001), whereas the postprandial increase in HVPG was markedly attenuated in the dark-chocolate group (16.9 ± 2.9-18.7 ± 3.5 mm Hg or +11.5 ± 15.9%; P = 0.02 compared with white chocolate). Portal blood flow increased similarly after meals containing dark or white chocolate (median increase: 32% compared with 39%). Plasma flavonoids increased 15-50-fold after dark chocolate consumption. Dark but not white chocolate induced a mild increase in arterial pressure (+8.8 ± 8.8% compared with -0.3 ± 4.9%; P = 0.002). In patients with cirrhosis, dark chocolate blunted the postprandial increase in HVPG by improving flow-mediated hepatic vasorelaxation and ameliorated systemic hypotension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01408966.

  16. Phase II, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a polyclonal anti-Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin in treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Mark E; Holley, H Preston; Lutz, Jon; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Woods, Christopher W; Levine, Donald P; Veney, Naomi; Fowler, Vance G

    2007-12-01

    New treatment modalities are needed for the treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin (Altastaph) is a polyclonal immune globulin preparation that is being developed as adjunctive therapy for persons with S. aureus infections complicated by bacteremia. In a phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 40 subjects with documented S. aureus bacteremia received standard therapy plus either Altastaph at 200 mg/kg of body weight in each of two infusions 24 h apart or placebo. During the 42-day observation period, antibody pharmacokinetics and safety were the primary characteristics studied. Information regarding the resolution of bacteremia and fever was also analyzed. Anti-type-5 and anti-type-8 capsular antibody levels peaked after the second infusion at 550 mug/ml and 419 mug/ml, respectively, and remained above 100 mug/ml at day 28. A total of 316 adverse events were noted in 39 of 40 subjects. Infusion-related adverse events in Altastaph recipients were infrequent and similar to those among recipients of commercial intravenously administered immunoglobulin G products. Five of 21 (23%) subjects in the Altastaph group died, whereas 2 of 18 (11%) subjects in the placebo group died (P = 0.42). Compared to the control patients, the Altastaph recipients had a shorter median time to the resolution of fever (2 days and 7 days, respectively; P = 0.09) and a shorter length of hospital stay (9 days and 14 days, respectively; P = 0.03). However, these findings are exploratory, and there were few differences in the other variables measured. High levels of opsonizing antibodies were maintained for the initial 4 weeks. Although the study was not powered to show efficacy, these preliminary findings and safety profile suggest that Altastaph may be an effective adjunct to antibiotics and warrants further investigation (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00063089).

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of a cell culture-derived inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (NBP607): A randomized, double-blind, multi-center, phase 3 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Lee, Jacob; Woo, Heung Jeong; Wie, Seong-Heon; Lee, Jin-Soo; Kim, Shin Woo; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Hun; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Woo Joo

    2015-10-05

    Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines (CCIVs) have several important advantages over egg-based influenza vaccines, including shorter production time, better preservation of wild-type virus antigenicity and large-scale production capacity. A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was undertaken to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a novel cell culture-derived inactivated, subunit, trivalent influenza vaccine (NBP607, SK Chemicals, Seongnam, Korea) compared to the control vaccine (AgrippalS1, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, Siena, Italy) among healthy adults aged 19 years or older (Clinical trial Number-NCT02344134). Immunogenicity was determined at pre-vaccination, 1 month and 6 month post-vaccination by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were assessed after vaccination. A total of 1156 healthy subjects were recruited. NBP607 met all of the criteria of Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) at 21 days post-vaccination. Contrary to NBP607, the control vaccine did not satisfy the seroconversion criteria for influenza B irrespective of age. Although the geometric mean titer for each influenza subtype declined gradually, seroprotection rate still remained ≥80% for all subtypes up to six month after NBP607 administration. NBP607 recipients met the seroprotection criteria for all three influenza subtypes up to 6 month post-vaccination. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of adverse events between the NBP607 and control groups. NBP607, a novel CCIV, showed excellent immunogenicity that lasted ≥6 months after vaccination and had tolerable safety profiles. In particular, NBP607 was more immunogenic against influenza B compared to the control, an egg-based subunit vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 3 trial of fixed-dose brexpiprazole for the treatment of adults with acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kane, John M; Skuban, Aleksandar; Ouyang, John; Hobart, Mary; Pfister, Stephanie; McQuade, Robert D; Nyilas, Margaretta; Carson, William H; Sanchez, Raymond; Eriksson, Hans

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of brexpiprazole versus placebo in adults with acute schizophrenia. This was a 6-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled double-blind phase 3 study. Patients with acute schizophrenia were randomized to brexpiprazole 1, 2 or 4 mg, or placebo (2:3:3:3) once daily. The primary endpoint was changed from baseline at week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score; the key secondary endpoint was Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) at week 6. Brexpiprazole 4 mg showed statistically significant improvement versus placebo (treatment difference: -6.47, p=0.0022) for the primary endpoint. Improvement compared with placebo was also seen for the key secondary endpoint (treatment difference: -0.38, p=0.0015), and on multiple secondary efficacy outcomes. Brexpiprazole 1 and 2mg also showed numerical improvements versus placebo, although p>0.05. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were headache, insomnia and agitation; incidences of akathisia were lower in the brexpiprazole treatment groups (4.2%-6.5%) versus placebo (7.1%). Brexpiprazole treatment was associated with moderate weight gain at week 6 (1.23-1.89 kg versus 0.35 kg for placebo); there were no clinically relevant changes in laboratory parameters and vital signs. In conclusion, brexpiprazole 4 mg is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment for acute schizophrenia in adults. Clinical Trials.gov NCT01393613; BEACON trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety, tolerability, and immunologic effects of a food allergy herbal formula in food allergic individuals: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose escalation, phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Patil, Sangita P; Yang, Nan; Ko, Jimmy; Lee, Joohee; Noone, Sally; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min

    2010-07-01

    Food allergy is a common and serious health problem. A new herbal product, called food allergy herbal formula 2 (FAHF-2), has been demonstrated to have a high safety profile and potent long-term efficacy in a murine model of peanut-induced anaphylaxis. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of FAHF-2 in patients with food allergy. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose escalation, phase 1 trial, patients received 1 of 3 doses of FAHF-2 or placebo: 2.2 g (4 tablets), 3.3 g (6 tablets), or 6.6 g (12 tablets) 3 times a day for 7 days. Four active and 2 placebo patients were treated at each dose level. Vital signs, physical examination results, laboratory data, pulmonary function test results, and electrocardiogram data were monitored. Immunomodulatory studies were also performed. Nineteen food allergic participants were included in the study. Two patients (1 in the FAHF-2 group and 1 in the placebo group) reported mild gastrointestinal symptoms. One patient withdrew from the study because of an allergic reaction that was unlikely related to the study medication. No significant differences were found in vital signs, physical examination results, laboratory data, pulmonary function test results, and electrocardiogram data obtained before and after treatment visits. Significantly decreased interleukin (IL) 5 levels were found in the active treatment group after 7 days. In vitro studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with FAHF-2 also demonstrated a significant decrease in IL-5 and an increase in culture supernatant interferon gamma and IL-10 levels. FAHF-2 appeared to be safe and well tolerated in patients with food allergy.

  20. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Prucalopride in Men With Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yiannakou, Yan; Piessevaux, Hubert; Bouchoucha, Michel; Schiefke, Ingolf; Filip, Rafal; Gabalec, Libor; Dina, Ion; Stephenson, David; Kerstens, René; Etherson, Kevin; Levine, Amy

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Prucalopride is effective at alleviating symptoms of chronic constipation in women. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 12 weeks of prucalopride treatment compared with placebo in men with chronic constipation. METHODS: This was a multicenter, stratified, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01147926). The primary end point was the proportion of patients with a mean of three or more spontaneous complete bowel movements (SCBMs) per week across the treatment period. Efficacy end points were assessed using daily electronic diaries, global assessment of the severity of constipation and efficacy of treatment, and Patient Assessment of Constipation—Symptoms (PAC-SYM) and Patient Assessment of Constipation—Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) questionnaires. RESULTS: In total, 374 patients were enrolled in the study. Significantly more patients achieved a mean of three or more SCBMs per week in the prucalopride group (37.9%) than in the placebo group (17.7%, P<0.0001). The proportion of patients rating their constipation treatment as “quite a bit” to “extremely” effective at the final on-treatment visit was 46.7 and 30.4% in the prucalopride and placebo groups, respectively. The difference between treatment groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). The proportion of patients with an improvement of at least 1 point in PAC-QOL satisfaction subscale score was 52.7 and 38.8% in the prucalopride and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.0035). Prucalopride had a good safety profile and was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Prucalopride is effective, has a good safety profile, and is well tolerated for the treatment of men with chronic constipation. PMID:25869393

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of prucalopride in men with chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Yiannakou, Yan; Piessevaux, Hubert; Bouchoucha, Michel; Schiefke, Ingolf; Filip, Rafal; Gabalec, Libor; Dina, Ion; Stephenson, David; Kerstens, René; Etherson, Kevin; Levine, Amy

    2015-05-01

    Prucalopride is effective at alleviating symptoms of chronic constipation in women. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 12 weeks of prucalopride treatment compared with placebo in men with chronic constipation. This was a multicenter, stratified, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01147926). The primary end point was the proportion of patients with a mean of three or more spontaneous complete bowel movements (SCBMs) per week across the treatment period. Efficacy end points were assessed using daily electronic diaries, global assessment of the severity of constipation and efficacy of treatment, and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM) and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) questionnaires. In total, 374 patients were enrolled in the study. Significantly more patients achieved a mean of three or more SCBMs per week in the prucalopride group (37.9%) than in the placebo group (17.7%, P<0.0001). The proportion of patients rating their constipation treatment as "quite a bit" to "extremely" effective at the final on-treatment visit was 46.7 and 30.4% in the prucalopride and placebo groups, respectively. The difference between treatment groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). The proportion of patients with an improvement of at least 1 point in PAC-QOL satisfaction subscale score was 52.7 and 38.8% in the prucalopride and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.0035). Prucalopride had a good safety profile and was well tolerated. Prucalopride is effective, has a good safety profile, and is well tolerated for the treatment of men with chronic constipation.

  2. Phase 1b randomized, double-blind study of namilumab, an anti-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor monoclonal antibody, in mild-to-moderate rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, T W J; Batalov, A; Stoilov, R; Lloyd, E; Wagner, T; Saurigny, D; Souberbielle, B; Esfandiari, E

    2017-03-09

    Namilumab (AMG203) is an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to the GM-CSF ligand. This was a phase 1b, randomized, double-blind study (PRIORA) to assess namilumab in active, mild-to-moderate rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The primary outcome was the safety and tolerability of repeated subcutaneous injections of namilumab in patients with mild-to-moderate RA. Adults with mild-to-moderate RA on stable methotrexate doses for ≥12 weeks were eligible. Patients received three subcutaneous injections of namilumab 150 or 300 mg, or placebo on days 1, 15, and 29, with 12 weeks' follow-up. Primary objective was safety/tolerability. Patients in cohort 1 were randomized to namilumab 150 mg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 5). In cohort 2, patients were randomized to namilumab 300 mg (n = 7) or placebo (n = 4). Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar across the three groups (namilumab 150 mg: 63%; namilumab 300 mg: 57%; placebo: 56%). TEAEs in ≥10% of patients were nasopharyngitis (17%) and exacerbation/worsening of RA (13%). No anti-namilumab antibodies were detected. The pharmacokinetics of namilumab were linear and typical of a monoclonal antibody with subcutaneous administration. In a post hoc efficacy, per protocol analysis (n = 21), patients randomized to namilumab showed greater improvement in Disease Activity Score 28 (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein [CRP]), swelling joint counts and tender joint counts compared with placebo. Difference in mean DAS28-CRP changes from baseline between namilumab and placebo favored namilumab at both doses and at all time points. In addition area under the curve for DAS28-CRP was analyzed as time-adjusted mean change from baseline. A significant improvement in DAS28-CRP was shown with namilumab (150 and 300 mg groups combined) compared with placebo at day 43 (p = 0.0117) and also 8 weeks after last dosing at day 99 (p = 0

  3. A randomized double-blinded controlled trial of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Li, Raymond Hang Wun; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Pak Chung, H O; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2017-05-01

    Does the use of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer (FET) increase the ongoing pregnancy rate? The use of hCG in natural cycle FET did not improve the ongoing pregnancy rate. The use of luteal phase support in stimulated cycles has been associated with higher live-birth rates and the results are similar when using hCG or progesterone. This is a randomized double-blinded controlled trial of 450 women recruited between August 2013 and October 2015. Women with regular cycles undergoing natural cycle FET were recruited. Serial serum hormonal concentrations were used to time natural ovulation and at least Day 2 cleavage embryos were replaced. Patients were randomized into either: (i) the treatment group, receiving 1500 IU hCG on the day of FET and 6 days after FET, or (ii) the control group, receiving normal saline on these 2 days. The ongoing pregnancy rate [60/225 (26.7%) in the treatment group vs 70/225 (31.3%) in the control group, odds ratio 1.242 (95% CI 0.825-1.869)], implantation rate and miscarriage rate were comparable between the two groups. In the treatment group, there were significantly more cycles with top quality embryos transferred and a significantly higher serum oestradiol level, but a comparable serum progesterone level, 6 days after FET. However, no significant differences were observed in serum oestradiol and progesterone levels 6 days after FET between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. In the multivariate logistic regression, the number of embryos transferred was the only significant factor predictive of the ongoing pregnancy rate after natural cycle FET. This study only included FET with cleavage stage embryos and only hCG, not vaginal progesterone, was used as luteal phase support. The findings in this study do not support the use of hCG for luteal phase support in natural cycle FET. No external funding was used and there were no competing interests. clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01931384. 23/8/2013. 30/8/2013.

  4. Phase I Randomized Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Study of the Safety and Tolerability of Bremelanotide Coadministered With Ethanol in Healthy Male and Female Participants.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Lucas, Johna; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Jordan, Robert

    2017-03-01

    This was a Phase I study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and hemodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of bremelanotide (BMT) coadministered with ethanol to healthy male and female participants. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-period, 3-way crossover study. Individuals meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria received BMT or placebo with or without ethanol at the research facility for 7 consecutive days. Participants were randomized to receive 1 of 6 treatment paths; each participant received single intranasal doses of BMT (20 mg) or placebo on days 1, 4, and 7, with or without oral ethanol (0.6 g/kg) while in a fasted state. The intranasal 20-mg dose of BMT has an exposure equivalent to ~1 to 2 times the subcutaneous dose currently being evaluated in Phase III studies. Vital signs, self-rated sedation scores, nursing and medical observations, and spontaneous reporting by participants provided the basis for evaluation of adverse events. A physical examination and a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram were performed at baseline and on study day 7. Blood and urine samples were obtained for clinical safety profile laboratory tests. A total of 24 participants were enrolled (12 men; 12 women) and completed the study. Single doses of 20 mg intranasal BMT, administered with or without 0.6 g/kg ethanol, were found to be safe and generally well tolerated with mean maximum ethanol concentrations exceeding 80 mg/dL in women. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions were found between ethanol and BMT either overall or by sex. No significant drug-related hypotensive or orthostatic hypotensive effects were noted. Treatment with BMT did not result in an increased frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events, and no participants discontinued the study because of adverse events. Physical examination, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests disclosed no clinically significant changes. Female sexual dysfunction is a multifactorial

  5. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study of ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: China Continuation study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian; Jin, Jie; Xu, Yan; Wu, Depei; Ke, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Daobin; Lu, Jin; Du, Xin; Chen, Xiequn; Li, Junmin; Liu, Jing; Gupta, Neeraj; Hanley, Michael J; Li, Hongmei; Hua, Zhaowei; Wang, Bingxia; Zhang, Xiaoquan; Wang, Hui; van de Velde, Helgi; Richardson, Paul G; Moreau, Philippe

    2017-07-06

    The China Continuation study was a separate regional expansion of the global, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase III TOURMALINE-MM1 study of ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) following one to three prior therapies. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive ixazomib 4.0 mg or placebo on days 1, 8, and 15, plus lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1-21 and dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22, in 28-day cycles. Randomization was stratified according to number of prior therapies, disease stage, and prior proteasome inhibitor exposure. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). In total, 115 Chinese patients were randomized (57 ixazomib-Rd, 58 placebo-Rd). At the preplanned final analysis for PFS, after median PFS follow-up of 7.4 and 6.9 months, respectively, PFS was improved with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd (median 6.7 vs 4.0 months; HR 0.598; p = 0.035). At the preplanned final analysis of overall survival (OS), after median follow-up of 20.2 and 19.1 months, respectively, OS was improved with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd (median 25.8 vs 15.8 months; HR 0.419; p = 0.001). On the ixazomib-Rd and placebo-Rd arms, respectively, 38 (67%) and 43 (74%) patients reported grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), 19 (33%) and 18 (31%) reported serious AEs, and 4 (7%) and 5 (9%) died on-study. The most frequent grade 3/4 AEs were thrombocytopenia (18%/7% vs 14%/5%), neutropenia (19%/5% vs 19%/2%), and anemia (12%/0 vs 26%/2%). This study demonstrated that PFS and OS were significantly improved with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd, with limited additional toxicity, in patients with RRMM. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01564537.

  6. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate for Prevention of HIV Infection in Women: A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Leigh; Taylor, Doug; Roddy, Ronald; Belai, Ghiorghis; Phillips, Pamela; Nanda, Kavita; Grant, Robert; Clarke, Edith Essie Kekawo; Doh, Anderson Sama; Ridzon, Renee; Jaffe, Howard S; Cates, Willard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this trial was to investigate the safety and preliminary effectiveness of a daily dose of 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) versus placebo in preventing HIV infection in women. Design: This was a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: The study was conducted between June 2004 and March 2006 in Tema, Ghana; Douala, Cameroon; and Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants: We enrolled 936 HIV-negative women at high risk of HIV infection into this study. Intervention: Participants were randomized 1:1 to once daily use of 300 mg of TDF or placebo. Outcome measures: The primary safety endpoints were grade 2 or higher serum creatinine elevations (>2.0 mg/dl) for renal function, grade 3 or 4 aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase elevations (>170 U/l) for hepatic function, and grade 3 or 4 phosphorus abnormalities (<1.5 mg/dl). The effectiveness endpoint was infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2. Results: Study participants contributed 428 person-years of laboratory testing to the primary safety analysis. No significant differences emerged between treatment groups in clinical or laboratory safety outcomes. Study participants contributed 476 person-years of HIV testing to the primary effectiveness analysis, during which time eight seroconversions occurred. Two were diagnosed in participants randomized to TDF (0.86 per 100 person-years) and six in participants receiving placebo (2.48 per 100 person-years), yielding a rate ratio of 0.35 (95% confidence interval = 0.03–1.93), which did not achieve statistical significance. Owing to premature closures of the Cameroon and Nigeria study sites, the planned person-years of follow-up and study power could not be achieved. Conclusion: Daily oral use of TDF in HIV-uninfected women was not associated with increased clinical or laboratory adverse events. Effectiveness could not be conclusively evaluated because of the small number of HIV infections observed during the

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Epratuzumab in Moderately to Severely Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results From Two Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Clowse, Megan E B; Wallace, Daniel J; Furie, Richard A; Petri, Michelle A; Pike, Marilyn C; Leszczyński, Piotr; Neuwelt, C Michael; Hobbs, Kathryn; Keiserman, Mauro; Duca, Liliana; Kalunian, Kenneth C; Galateanu, Catrinel; Bongardt, Sabine; Stach, Christian; Beaudot, Carolyn; Kilgallen, Brian; Gordon, Caroline

    2017-02-01

    Epratuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets CD22, modulates B cell signaling without substantial reductions in the number of B cells. The aim of this study was to report the results of 2 phase III multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, the EMBODY 1 and EMBODY 2 trials, assessing the efficacy and safety of epratuzumab in patients with moderately to severely active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients met ≥4 of the American College of Rheumatology revised classification criteria for SLE, were positive for antinuclear antibodies and/or anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, had an SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score of ≥6 (increased disease activity), had British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 index (BILAG-2004) scores of grade A (severe disease activity) in ≥1 body system or grade B (moderate disease activity) in ≥2 body systems (in the mucocutaneous, musculoskeletal, or cardiorespiratory domains), and were receiving standard therapy, including mandatory treatment with corticosteroids (5-60 mg/day). BILAG-2004 grade A scores in the renal and central nervous system domains were excluded. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive either placebo, epratuzumab 600 mg every week, or epratuzumab 1,200 mg every other week, with infusions delivered for the first 4 weeks of each 12-week dosing cycle, for 4 cycles. Patients across all 3 treatment groups also continued with their standard therapy. The primary end point was the response rate at week 48 according to the BILAG-based Combined Lupus Assessment (BICLA) definition, requiring improvement in the BILAG-2004 score, no worsening in the BILAG-2004 score, SLEDAI-2K score, or physician's global assessment of disease activity, and no disallowed changes in concomitant medications. Patients who discontinued the study medication were classified as nonresponders. In the EMBODY 1 and EMBODY 2 trials of epratuzumab, 793 patients and 791 patients, respectively, were

  8. The efficacy and safety of blonanserin compared with haloperidol in acute-phase schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Esther; Robert, Marta; Peris, Francesc; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Noriko; Terazawa, Yoshikatsu

    2009-01-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic agent with potent dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2) antagonist properties. It may potentially have a lower incidence of adverse events than other antipsychotic agents. To determine the efficacy and safety of three doses of blonanserin compared with placebo and haloperidol in patients with acute-phase schizophrenia. This was a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and haloperidol-controlled, international, multicentre study. Patients with an acute exacerbation of their schizophrenia, with a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score >/=70 and a Clinical Global Impression - Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score >/=4 ('moderately ill') [with no decrease >/=20% or >/=1 point, respectively, during the wash-out period] were randomized into one of five treatment groups (blonanserin 2.5, 5 or 10 mg, haloperidol 10 mg or placebo once daily). Patients were assessed weekly for clinical efficacy, adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and drug compliance, and were assessed biweekly for other safety variables. All 307 randomized patients received at least one dose of study medication and 228 (74.3%) completed the study. The mean reduction in PANSS total score at week 6 was significantly greater with all active treatments compared with placebo (-12.58; p < 0.001); blonanserin 10 mg was significantly superior to blonanserin 2.5 mg (-30.18 vs -20.6; p < 0.001), but blonanserin 5 mg (-27.19) and haloperidol 10 mg (-28.16) were not. All active treatments showed greater efficacy against the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and blonanserin (5 and 10 mg) was more effective against the negative symptoms than haloperidol. Blonanserin was well tolerated at all doses and there was no evidence of clinically important weight gain, orthostatic hypotension, corrected QT interval prolongation or clinically relevant changes in laboratory test results. Haloperidol caused persistent elevation in prolactin levels, but this was not

  9. Efficacy and safety of adalimumab in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: results from a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Gu, J; Zheng, J; Zheng, M; Wang, G; Xi, L-Y; Hao, F; Liu, X-M; Sun, Q-N; Wang, Y; Lai, W; Fang, H; Tu, Y-T; Sun, Q; Chen, J; Gao, X-H; Gu, Y; Teixeira, H D; Zhang, J-Z; Okun, M M

    2017-01-01

    This phase 3 trial is the first to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with the systemic TNF-α inhibitor, adalimumab, for Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. In the 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled Period A, patients were randomized 4 : 1 to receive adalimumab 40 mg every-other-week (following a single 80 mg dose), or placebo every-other-week. In the subsequent 12-week, open-label, Period B, all patients received adalimumab 40 mg every-other-week starting at week 13, following a single, blinded dose at week 12 of adalimumab 80 mg or matching placebo (for patients receiving placebo or adalimumab in Period A respectively). In Period A, efficacy was analysed for all randomized patients and safety for all patients receiving ≥1 dose of the study drug. For the 425 patients in this study (87 placebo; 338 adalimumab), a higher percentage randomized to adalimumab achieved the primary endpoint of ≥75% improvement from baseline in PASI score (PASI 75) at week 12: placebo 11.5% (10/87); adalimumab 77.8% (263/338; P < 0.001). Physician's Global Assessment of clear to minimal was achieved at week 12 by 14.9% placebo (13/87) and 80.5% adalimumab (272/338; P < 0.001). For patients who received adalimumab at any time during the study (All-adalimumab Population), treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were reported by 63.4%; the most common was upper respiratory infection (16.1%). Serious AEs were reported by 3.5% of the All-adalimumab Population, and serious infectious AEs by 1.2%, which include lung infection, pneumonia and tuberculosis [2 (0.5%) patients each]. There was one death (chronic heart failure). In these Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, a significantly greater percentage treated with adalimumab compared with placebo achieved efficacy endpoints at week 12 and efficacy was sustained to week 24. Safety results were consistent with the known adalimumab safety profile; no new safety signals were identified in

  10. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, 28-Day, Polysomnographic Study of Gabapentin in Transient Insomnia Induced by Sleep Phase Advance

    PubMed Central

    Furey, Sandy A.; Hull, Steven G.; Leibowitz, Mark T.; Jayawardena, Shyamalie; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate multiple doses of gabapentin 250 mg on polysomnography (PSG) and participant-reported sleep assessments in a 5-h phase advance insomnia model. Methods: Adults reporting occasional disturbed sleep received gabapentin 250 mg (n = 128) or placebo (n = 128). On Days 1 and 28, participants received medication 30 min before bedtime and were in bed from 17:00 to 01:00, ∼5 h before their habitual bedtime. Sleep was assessed by PSG, a post sleep questionnaire, and the Karolinska Sleep Diary. Next-day residual effects and tolerability were evaluated. On Days 2-27, participants took medication at home 30 min before their habitual bedtime. Results: Treatment-group demographics were comparable. Gabapentin resulted in significantly less PSG wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared with placebo on Day 1 (primary endpoint, mean: 107.0 versus 149.1 min, p ≤ 0.001) and Day 28 (113.6 versus 152.3 min, p = 0.002), and significantly greater total sleep time (TST; Day 1: 347.6 versus 283.9 min; Day 28: 335.3 versus 289.1 min) (p ≤ 0.001). Participant-reported WASO and TST also showed significant treatment effects on both days. Gabapentin was associated with less %stage1 on Day 1, and greater %REM on Day 28, versus placebo. During home use, gabapentin resulted in significantly less participant-reported WASO and higher ratings of sleep quality. Gabapentin was well tolerated (most common adverse events: headache, somnolence) with no evidence of next-day impairment. Conclusion: Gabapentin 250 mg resulted in greater PSG and participant-reported sleep duration following a 5-h phase advance on Day 1 and Day 28 of use without evidence of next-day impairment, and greater sleep duration during at-home use. Citation: Furey SA, Hull SG, Leibowitz MT, Jayawardena S, Roth T. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 28-day, polysomnographic study of gabapentin in transient insomnia induced by sleep phase advance. J Clin Sleep Med 2014

  11. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Single-Dose, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Polysomnographic Study of Gabapentin in Transient Insomnia Induced by Sleep Phase Advance

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Russell P.; Hull, Steven G.; Lankford, D. Alan; Mayleben, David W.; Seiden, David J.; Furey, Sandy A.; Jayawardena, Shyamalie; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effects of single doses of gabapentin 250 and 500 mg on polysomnographic (PSG) and participant-reported sleep measures in a 5-h phase advance insomnia model. Methods: Adults reporting occasional disturbed sleep received gabapentin 500 mg (n = 125), 250 mg (n = 125), or placebo (n = 127) 30 min prior to bedtime and were in bed from 17:00 to 01:00, ∼5 h before their habitual bedtime. Sleep was assessed by PSG, post-sleep questionnaire, and the Karolinska Sleep Diary (KSD). Next-day residual effects (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST] and Stanford Sleepiness Scale [SSS]) and tolerability were assessed. Results: Demographics were comparable among groups. Among PSG endpoints, wake after sleep onset (primary endpoint) (135.7 [placebo], 100.7 [250 mg], and 73.2 [500 mg] min) was significantly lower and total sleep time (TST) (311.4, 356.5, and 378.7 min) significantly greater in both gabapentin groups versus placebo. Latency to persistent sleep was not significantly different among groups. Percent slow wave sleep (12.6%, 15.4%, and 17.0%, respectively) was significantly greater and percent stage 1 (15.1%, 11.8%, and 10.8%, respectively) significantly lower relative to placebo. Gabapentin was associated with significantly higher values of KSD Sleep Quality Index and reported TST versus placebo; no other reported outcomes were significant. Neither gabapentin dose produced evidence of next-day residual effects as measured by DSST and SSS. Adverse events were infrequent (< 5%). Conclusion: Participants with occasional disturbed sleep treated with gabapentin showed significantly longer sleep duration and greater depth (versus placebo) in response to a phase advance manipulation known to disrupt sleep maintenance. Citation: Rosenberg RP, Hull SG, Lankford DA, Mayleben DW, Seiden DJ, Furey SA, Jayawardena S, Roth T. A randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled, multicenter, polysomnographic study of gabapentin in transient

  12. Evaluation of the antipruritic effects of topical pimecrolimus in non-atopic prurigo nodularis: results of a randomized, hydrocortisone-controlled, double-blind phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Dorothee; Lotts, Tobias; Blome, Christine; Braeutigam, Matthias; Phan, Ngoc Quan; Butterfass-Bahloul, Trude; Augustin, Matthias; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    In the treatment of atopic dermatitis, pimecrolimus has high antipruritic effects. To investigate the efficacy of 1% pimecrolimus cream in comparison to 1% hydrocortisone cream in non-atopic prurigo nodularis (PN). A randomized, controlled, double-blind study with intraindividual randomization was done in 30 patients (17 females, 13 males; mean age 58.5 years) with PN. Pruritus intensity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) on both treated sides as early as after 10 days of treatment; scratch lesions improved (p < 0.001). Quality of life as assessed by the Dermatology Life Quality Index improved significantly. However, a significant advantage of pimecrolimus over hydrocortisone was not found. The results suggest that the non-steroid pimecrolimus is an effective alternative for PN treatment.

  13. Eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive therapy in patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures: Results of a phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Michael R; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Harvey, Jay; Rogin, Joanne B; Biraben, Arnaud; Galimberti, Carlo A; Kowacs, Pedro A; Hong, Seung Bong; Cheng, Hailong; Blum, David; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, phase III study was conducted at 173 centers in 19 countries, including the United States and Canada. Eligible patients were aged ≥16 years and had uncontrolled partial-onset seizures despite treatment with 1–2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). After an 8-week baseline period, patients were randomized to once-daily placebo (n = 226), ESL 800 mg (n = 216), or ESL 1,200 mg (n = 211). Following a 2-week titration period, patients received ESL 800 or 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks. Seizure data were captured and documented using event-entry or daily entry diaries. Results Standardized seizure frequency (SSF) during the maintenance period (primary end point) was reduced with ESL 1,200 mg (p = 0.004), and there was a trend toward improvement with ESL 800 mg (p = 0.06), compared with placebo. When data for titration and maintenance periods were combined, ESL 800 mg (p = 0.001) and 1,200 mg (p < 0.001) both reduced SSF. There were no statistically significant interactions between treatment response and geographical region (p = 0.38) or diary version (p = 0.76). Responder rate (≥50% reduction in SSF) was significantly higher with ESL 1,200 mg (42.6%, p < 0.001) but not ESL 800 mg (30.5%, p = 0.07) than placebo (23.1%). Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and TEAEs leading to discontinuation increased with ESL dose. The most common TEAEs were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, headache, and diplopia. Significance Adjunctive ESL 1,200 mg once-daily was more efficacious than placebo in adult patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. The once-daily 800 mg dose showed a marginal effect on SSF, but did not reach statistical significance. Both doses were well tolerated. Efficacy assessment was not affected by

  14. Efficacy of a Novel Sigma-1 Receptor Antagonist for Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase IIa Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Jordi; Videla, Sebastián; Argyriou, Andreas A; Velasco, Roser; Villoria, Jesús; Santos, Cristina; Nadal, Cristina; Cavaletti, Guido; Alberti, Paola; Briani, Chiara; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Cortinovis, Diego; Sust, Mariano; Vaqué, Anna; Klein, Thomas; Plata-Salamán, Carlos

    2017-09-18

    This trial assessed the efficacy of MR309 (a novel selective sigma-1 receptor ligand previously developed as E-52862) in ameliorating oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (oxaipn). A discontinuous regimen of MR309 (400 mg/day, 5 days per cycle) was tested in patients with colorectal cancer receiving FOLFOX in a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Outcome measures included changes in 24-week quantitative measures of thermal sensitivity and total neuropathy score. In total, 124 patients were randomized (1:1) to MR309 or placebo. Sixty-three (50.8%) patients withdrew prematurely before completing 12 planned oxaliplatin cycles. Premature withdrawal because of cancer progression was less frequent in the MR309 group (7.4% vs 25.0% with placebo; p = 0.054). MR309 significantly reduced cold pain threshold temperature [mean treatment effect difference (SE) vs placebo: 5.29 (1.60)°C; p = 0.001] and suprathreshold cold stimulus-evoked pain intensity [mean treatment effect difference: 1.24 (0.57) points; p = 0.032]. Total neuropathy score, health-related quality-of-life measures, and nerve-conduction parameters changed similarly in both arms, whereas the proportion of patients with severe chronic neuropathy (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ≥ 3) was significantly lower in the MR309 group (3.0% vs 18.2% with placebo; p = 0.046). The total amount of oxaliplatin delivered was greater in the active arm (1618.9 mg vs 1453.8 mg with placebo; p = 0.049). Overall, 19.0% of patients experienced at least 1 treatment-related adverse event (25.8% and 11.9% with MR309 and placebo, respectively). Intermittent treatment with MR309 was associated with reduced acute oxaipn and higher oxaliplatin exposure, and showed a potential neuroprotective role for chronic cumulative oxaipn. Furthermore, MR309 showed an acceptable safety profile.

  15. A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of a Multigenic HIV-1 Adenovirus Subtype 35 Vector Vaccine in Healthy Uninfected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Peter; Gill, Dilbinder; Kopycinski, Jakub; Cheeseman, Hannah; Cashin-Cox, Michelle; Naarding, Marloes; Clark, Lorna; Fernandez, Natalia; Bunce, Catherine A.; Hay, Christine M.; Welsh, Sabrina; Komaroff, Wendy; Hachaambwa, Lottie; Tarragona-Fiol, Tony; Sayeed, Eddy; Zachariah, Devika; Ackland, James; Loughran, Kelley; Barin, Burc; Cormier, Emmanuel; Cox, Josephine H.; Fast, Patricia; Excler, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background We conducted a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses of two recombinant replication defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) vectors containing gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase and nef (Ad35-GRIN) and env (Ad35-ENV), both derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates. The trial enrolled 56 healthy HIV-uninfected adults. Methods Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GRIN and Ad35-ENV mixed in the same vial in equal proportions) or Ad35-GRIN was administered intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Participants were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo (10/4 per group, respectively) within one of four dosage groups: Ad35-GRIN/ENV 2×109 (A), 2×1010 (B), 2×1011 (C), or Ad35-GRIN 1×1010 (D) viral particles. Results No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Reactogenicity events reported were dose-dependent, mostly mild or moderate, some severe in Group C volunteers, all transient and resolving spontaneously. IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to any vaccine antigen were detected in 50, 56, 70 and 90% after the first vaccination, and in 75, 100, 88 and 86% of Groups A–D vaccine recipients after the second vaccination, respectively. The median spot forming cells (SFC) per 106 PBMC to any antigen was 78–139 across Groups A–C and 158–174 in Group D, after each of the vaccinations with a maximum of 2991 SFC. Four to five HIV proteins were commonly recognized across all the groups and over multiple timepoints. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional. Env antibodies were detected in all Group A–C vaccinees and Gag antibodies in most vaccinees after the second immunization. Ad35 neutralizing titers remained low after the second vaccination. Conclusion/Significance Ad35-GRIN/ENV reactogenicity was dose-related. HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses were seen in the majority of volunteers immunized with Ad35-GRIN/ENV or Ad35-GRIN and increased after the second vaccination

  16. FOCUS 1: a randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, Phase III trial of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    File, Thomas M; Low, Donald E; Eckburg, Paul B; Talbot, George H; Friedland, H David; Lee, Jon; Llorens, Lily; Critchley, Ian A; Thye, Dirk A

    2011-04-01

    Ceftaroline, the active form of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against important pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including Streptococcus pneumoniae and common Gram-negative pathogens. FOCUS 1 is a randomized, double-blinded, Phase III study that was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil in treating patients with CAP. The primary objective was to determine non-inferiority [lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI) ≥ -10%] in clinical cure rates achieved with ceftaroline fosamil compared with those achieved with ceftriaxone in the clinically evaluable (CE) and modified intent-to-treat efficacy (MITTE) populations. Patients hospitalized in a non-intensive care unit setting with CAP of Pneumonia Outcomes Research Team (PORT) risk class III or IV requiring intravenous (iv) therapy were randomized (1:1) to receive 600 mg of ceftaroline fosamil iv every 12 h or 1 g of ceftriaxone iv every 24 h. Patients also received two 500 mg doses of oral clarithromycin every 12 h administered on day 1. Clinical cure, microbiological response, adverse events (AEs) and laboratory tests were assessed. FOCUS 1 registration number NCT00621504 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00621504). Of 613 enrolled patients, 298 received ceftaroline fosamil and 308 received ceftriaxone. Baseline characteristics between treatment groups were comparable. Clinical cure rates were as follows: CE population, 86.6% (194/224) for ceftaroline fosamil and 78.2% (183/234) for ceftriaxone [difference (95% CI), 8.4% (1.4, 15.4)]; and MITTE population, 83.8% (244/291) for ceftaroline fosamil and 77.7% (233/300) for ceftriaxone [difference (95% CI), 6.2% (-0.2, 12.6)]. Clinical cure rates for CAP caused by S. pneumoniae in the microbiological MITTE population were 88.9% (24/27) and 66.7% (20/30) for ceftaroline fosamil and ceftriaxone, respectively. Both agents were well tolerated, with similar

  17. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase II trial of Allisartan Isoproxil in essential hypertensive population at low-medium risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-hui; Huang, Zhi-jun; Yang, Guo-ping; Zhang, Guo-gang; Zhao, Shui-ping; Guo, Ying; Lu, Shi-juan; Ma, Jian-lin; Meng, Fan-bo; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) is a well-tolerated class of antihypertensive agents, exhibiting effective antihypertensive and cardiovascular protective function. The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy and safety of Allisartan Isoproxil, a newly developed, selective, nonpeptide blocker of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), in essential hypertensive patients at low-medium risk. A Phase II prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial comparing Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg versus placebo was conducted in essential hypertensive patients at low-medium risk at 8 sites in China. After a 2-week placebo baseline period, 275 patients received once-daily treatment with Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg or placebo randomly for 8 weeks. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) was measured at week 2, 4 and 8. By the end of treatment, mean reductions from baseline of SBP and DBP in Allisartan Isoproxil and placebo groups were 14.5/10.4 and 8.3/7.7 mmHg, respectively (P<0.01). The rate of effective blood pressure control in Allisartan Isoproxil group was significantly higher than in placebo group at week 4 (61.3% vs 50.0%, P<0.05) and week 8 (67.2% vs 48.6%, P<0.01). In terms of safety and tolerability, there were no report of death and serious adverse event (SAE) in all subjects. There was no difference of frequency between two groups in adverse event (AE) and adverse drug reaction (ADR) (P>0.05). No one withdraw because of an ADR in two groups. 124 patients received additional 56 weeks treatment with Allisartan Isoproxil and 84 of them completed the study. The rate of effective BP control kept up to 80% since week 24. No significant clinical change was observed and ADRs were generally mild or moderate during the long-term study. Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg was effective and safe for essential hypertension patients at low-medium risk. http://www.chictr.org/cn/ ChiCTR-TRC-10000886.

  18. Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine on cerebellar ataxia (ALCAT trial): study protocol for a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Feil, Katharina; Adrion, Christine; Teufel, Julian; Bösch, Sylvia; Claassen, Jens; Giordano, Ilaria; Hengel, Holger; Jacobi, Heike; Klockgether, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Schöls, Ludger; Stendel, Claudia; Uslar, Ellen; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Berger, Ingrid; Naumann, Ivonne; Bayer, Otmar; Müller, Hans-Helge; Mansmann, Ulrich; Strupp, Michael

    2017-01-10

    Cerebellar ataxia (CA) is a frequent and often disabling condition that impairs motor functioning and impacts on quality of life (QoL). No medication has yet been proven effective for the symptomatic or even causative treatment of hereditary or non-hereditary, non-acquired CA. So far, the only treatment recommendation is physiotherapy. Therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. Based on three observational studies, the primary objective of the acetyl-DL-leucine on ataxia (ALCAT) trial is to examine the efficacy and tolerability of a symptomatic therapy with acetyl-DL-leucine compared to placebo on motor function measured by the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) in patients with CA. An investigator-initiated, multicenter, European, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-treatment 2-period crossover phase III trial will be carried out. In total, 108 adult patients who meet the clinical criteria of CA of different etiologies (hereditary or non-hereditary, non-acquired) presenting with a SARA total score of at least 3 points will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one of two different treatment sequences, either acetyl-DL-leucine (up to 5 g per day) followed by placebo or vice versa. Each sequence consists of two 6-week treatment periods, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. A follow-up examination is scheduled 4 weeks after the end of treatment. The primary efficacy outcome is the absolute change in the SARA total score. Secondary objectives are to demonstrate that acetyl-DL-leucine is effective in improving (1) motor function measured by the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) and SARA subscore items and (2) QoL (EuroQoL 5 dimensions and 5 level version, EQ-5D-5 L), depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI-II) and fatigue (Fatigue Severity Score, FSS). Furthermore, the incidence of adverse events will be investigated. The results of this trial will inform whether symptomatic treatment with the modified amino

  19. Ethnic sensitivity assessment of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol in East Asian asthma patients from randomized double-blind multicentre Phase IIb/III trials.

    PubMed

    Gross, Annette S; Goldfrad, Caroline; Hozawa, Soichiro; James, Mark H; Clifton, Christine S; Sugiyama, Yutaro; Jacques, Loretta

    2015-12-24

    Fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) is a once daily (OD) inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination asthma therapy approved in Japan and the EU. FF/VI efficacy and safety data from asthma studies including patients in East Asia were evaluated to assess ethnic sensitivity. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter Phase IIb/III trials were assessed. Change from baseline relative to placebo or twice-daily fluticasone propionate 500 μg in trough FEV1 was compared between patients from Japan (N = 148) and Not-Japan (N = 3,066; three studies). Adverse events (AEs), laboratory results, and electrocardiograms were compared between patients from Japan + Korea (N = 188) and Not-Japan + Korea (N = 3,840; five studies). For trough FEV1, improvements from baseline (least-squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]) were reported for FF/VI 100/25 μg OD versus placebo at Week 12 (Japan: 0.323 L [0.104-0.542]; Not-Japan: 0.168 L [0.095-0.241]). Improvements from baseline (least-squares mean change [standard error]) were reported with FF/VI 200/25 μg OD at Week 24 (Japan: 0.355 L [0.1152]; Not-Japan: 0.396 L [0.0313]). A greater proportion of patients from Japan + Korea versus Not-Japan + Korea reported AEs in all treatment arms including placebo (FF/VI 100/25 μg: 79% versus 57%; FF/VI 200/25 μg: 64% versus 45%; placebo: 41% versus 23%). There were no notable differences in treatment-related or class-related AEs. No clinically significant changes in electrocardiogram assessments or statistically significant differences in 24 h urinary cortisol excretion were observed between the Japan + Korea and Not-Japan + Korea cohorts. Good efficacy and an acceptable safety profile were observed for FF/VI 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg OD in East Asian asthma patients; these globally recommended doses are appropriate for asthma patients in Japan. Clinicaltrials.gov registration numbers: NCT01165138 , NCT01134042 , NCT01086384 , NCT

  20. A Phase IIa Randomized, Double-Blind Trial of Erlotinib in Inhibiting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Aberrant Crypt Foci of the Colorectum

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, Daniel L.; Meyskens, Frank L.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Zell, Jason; Carroll, Robert; Benya, Richard; Chen, Wen-Pin; Mo, Allen; Tucker, Chris; Bhattacharya, Asmita; Huang, Zhiliang; Arcilla, Myra; Wong, Vanessa; Chung, Jinah; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Szabo, Eva; Rosenberg, Daniel W.; Lipkin, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) progresses through multiple distinct stages that are potentially amenable to chemopreventative intervention. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are efficacious in advanced tumors including CRC. There is significant evidence that EGFR also plays important roles in CRC initiation, and that EGFR inhibitors block tumorigenesis. We performed a double-blind randomized clinical trial to test whether the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib given for up to 30 days had an acceptable safety and efficacy profile to reduce EGFR signaling biomarkers in colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a subset of which progress to CRC, and normal rectal tissue. A total of N=45 patients were randomized to one of three erlotinib doses (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg) with randomization stratified by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. There were no unanticipated adverse events with Erlotinib therapy. Erlotinib was detected in both normal rectal mucosa and ACFs. Colorectal ACF phosphoERK, phosphoEGFR and total EGFR signaling changes from baseline were modest and there was no dose response. Overall, this trial did not meet is primary efficacy endpoint. Colorectal EGFR signaling inhibition by erlotinib is therefore likely insufficient to merit further studies without additional pre-screening stratification or potentially longer duration of use. PMID:25604134

  1. [Sucrose gel for treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized, double-blind, multi-center, parallel-group, phase III clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bing-bing; Zhang, Dai; Chen, Rui; Shi, Hui-rong; Xin, Xiao-ran; Wang, Hui-lan; Pang, Yi-cun; Zhu, Sai-nan; Yao, Chen; Liao, Qin-ping

    2015-12-18

    To evaluate the cure effectiveness and safety of sucrose gel in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis through a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled clinical study. A clinical research method of multi-center, randomly double-blind, and dose group parallel comparison was adopted. In the study, 533 patients with bacterial vaginosis were randomly divided into two groups, which included 214 cases in the control group (5.0 g metronidazole gel) and 319 cases in the trial group (5.0 g sucrose gel ). The patients were treated with different medication according to the group where they were. All the cases in these two groups were treated with drugs vaginally twice in a day, morning and evening separately, for 5 days. The curative effect and safety evaluation were assessed from 7 to 10 days and 21 to 30 days after treatment respectively. The efficacy of the comprehensive clinical treatment showed that the cure rate of metronidazole gel group and sucrose gel group were 70.53% and 80.83% respectively 7 to 10 days after treatment. The recovery rate of Nugent score for vaginal smear were 71.50% and 81.15% respectively. The differences in the efficacy between these two groups were significant statistically (P<0.05). However, the cure rates of metronidazole gel group and sucrose gel group were 63.29% and 61.98% respectively 21 to 30 days after treatment. No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) could be found in the cure rates of the two groups. The clinical comprehensive efficacy and recovery of vaginal bacteria of sucrose gel group in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis were obviously superior to those of metronidazole gel 7 to 10 days after treatment. The susucrose gel could improve the clinical efficacy index and laboratory index of bacterial vaginosis. Other effects included the release of clinical symptoms, and the recovery of the normal micro-environment in the vagina according to the Nugent score. The curative efficacy of sucrose gel was

  2. Efficacy of sapropterin dihydrochloride in increasing phenylalanine tolerance in children with phenylketonuria: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Friedrich K; Burton, Barbara K; Longo, Nicola; Casanova, Mercedes Martinez-Pardo; Gruskin, Daniel J; Dorenbaum, Alex; Kakkis, Emil D; Crombez, Eric A; Grange, Dorothy K; Harmatz, Paul; Lipson, Mark H; Milanowski, Andrzej; Randolph, Linda Marie; Vockley, Jerry; Whitley, Chester B; Wolff, Jon A; Bebchuk, Judith; Christ-Schmidt, Heidi; Hennermann, Julia B

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the ability of sapropterin dihydrochloride (pharmaceutical preparation of tetrahydrobiopterin) to increase phenylalanine (Phe) tolerance while maintaining adequate blood Phe control in 4- to 12-year-old children with phenylketonuria (PKU). This international, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study screened for sapropterin response among 90 enrolled subjects in Part 1. In Part 2, 46 responsive subjects with PKU were randomized (3:1) to sapropterin, 20 mg/kg/d, or placebo for 10 weeks while continuing on a Phe-restricted diet. After 3 weeks, a dietary Phe supplement was added every 2 weeks if Phe control was adequate. The mean (+/-SD) Phe supplement tolerated by the sapropterin group had increased significantly from the pretreatment amount (0 mg/kg/d) to 20.9 (+/-15.4) mg/kg/d (P < .001) at the last visit at which subjects had adequate blood Phe control (<360 micromol/L), up to week 10. Over the 10-week period, the placebo group tolerated only an additional 2.9 (+/-4.0) mg/kg/d Phe supplement; the mean difference from the sapropterin group (+/-SE) was 17.7 +/- 4.5 mg/kg/d (P < .001). No severe or serious related adverse events were observed. Sapropterin is effective in increasing Phe tolerance while maintaining blood Phe control and has an acceptable safety profile in this population of children with PKU.

  3. Clinical efficacy and safety of topiroxostat in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout: a randomized, double-blinded, controlled phase 2b study.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Tomomitsu; Ohashi, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    Topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, is used in Japan for the treatment of hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. In terms of the effectiveness of topiroxostat in lowering serum urate levels, the dose-response relationship has been evaluated; however, it remains to be verified. A randomized, multi-center, double-blinded study of topiroxostat was performed for Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. During the 16-week study, 157 Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout were randomly assigned to receive a placebo, topiroxostat at 120 or 160 mg/day, or allopurinol at 200 mg/day. The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the lowering rate of serum uric acid levels compared to those of baseline at the end of administration. A dose-response relationship (regarding decreases in the serum urate levels) was confirmed for the placebo and topiroxostat at 120 and at 160 mg/day. Moreover, at the end of administration, the lowering rate of serum urate levels was determined to be -44.8% in the topiroxostat 160-mg/day group. No significant difference in the incidence of adverse events was observed among all groups, including the allopurinol group. The serum urate-lowering effect of topiroxostat was found to have a dose-response relationship in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout.

  4. Double-blind randomized phase III study comparing a mixture of natural agents versus placebo in the prevention of acute mucositis during chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Laura; Farneti, Alessia; Di Ridolfi, Paolo; Pinnaro, Paola; Pellini, Raul; Giannarelli, Diana; Vici, Patrizia; Conte, Mario; Landoni, Valeria; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    There is no widely accepted intervention in the prevention of acute mucositis during chemoradiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma. In the present double-blind study, we tested 4 natural agents, propolis, aloe vera, calendula, and chamomile versus placebo. Patients undergoing concomitant chemo-intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were given natural agent or matched placebo; grade 3 mucositis on physical examination according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 was the primary endpoint. Various covariates were tested at logistic regression, including the individual amount of mucosa receiving at least 9.5 Gy per week (V9.5w). One hundred seven patients were randomized from January 2011 to July 2014, and 104 were assessable (51%-49% were assigned to the placebo group and 53%-51% were assigned to the natural agent). Overall, 61 patients developed peak grade 3 mucositis with no difference between arms (P = .65). Conversely, V9.5w (P = .007) and primary site (P = .037) were independent predictors. The selected natural agents do not prevent mucositis, whereas the role of V9.5w is confirmed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate versus chlorproguanil-dapsone: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial in African children, adolescents, and adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Tiono, Alfred B; Dicko, Alassane; Ndububa, Dennis A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Pitmang, Simon; Awobusuyi, Jacob; Pamba, Allan; Duparc, Stephan; Goh, Li-Ean; Harrell, Emma; Carter, Nick; Ward, Stephen A; Greenwood, Brian; Winstanley, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    This multi-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study compared the efficacy and safety of chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) and chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS) in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria). Six hundred patients (>or= 1 year of age) received CDA 2.0/2.5/4.0 mg/kg, and 292 CPG-DDS 2.0/2.5 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days. Day 28 parasitologic cure rate (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-corrected, per-protocol population) was 89.1% (416/467) for CDA, non-inferior but also superior to CPG-DDS, 83.0% (176/212) (treatment difference 6.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 11.9). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genotype was available for 844/892 (95%) patients. Occurrences of a composite hemoglobin safety endpoint (hemoglobin drop >or= 40 g/L or >or= 40% versus baseline, hemoglobin < 50 g/L, or blood transfusion) were CDA 13/44 (30%), CPG-DDS 7/24 (29%) in G6PD-deficient patients versus CDA 4/448 (< 1%), CPG-DDS 6/221 (3%) in G6PD-normal patients. No deaths occurred. CDA was more efficacious than CPG-DDS. However, the hemolytic potential in G6PD-deficient patients does not support further development of CDA.

  6. Phase III randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose intravenous peramivir with oral oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Shigeru; Yen, Muh-Yong; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Hirotsu, Nobuo; Ishida, Tadashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kida, Hiroshi; Shimada, Jingoro

    2011-11-01

    Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are important in controlling influenza. We compared intravenous peramivir, a potent neuraminidase inhibitor, with oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. In a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study, patients aged ≥ 20 years with influenza A or B virus infection were randomly assigned to receive either a single intravenous infusion of peramivir (300 or 600 mg) or oral administration of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 5 days). To demonstrate the noninferiority of peramivir in reducing the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms with hazard model analysis and a noninferiority margin of 0.170, we planned to recruit 1,050 patients in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. A total of 1,091 patients (364 receiving 300 mg and 362 receiving 600 mg of peramivir; 365 receiving oseltamivir) were included in the intent-to-treat infected population. The median durations of influenza symptoms were 78.0, 81.0, and 81.8 h in the groups treated with 300 mg of peramivir, 600 mg of peramivir, and oseltamivir, respectively. The hazard ratios of the 300- and 600-mg-peramivir groups compared to the oseltamivir group were 0.946 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.793, 1.129) and 0.970 (97.5% CI, 0.814, 1.157), respectively. Both peramivir groups were noninferior to the oseltamivir group (97.5% CI, <1.170). The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the 300-mg-peramivir group, but the incidence of severe reactions in either peramivir group was not different from that in the oseltamivir group. Thus, a single intravenous dose of peramivir may be an alternative to a 5-day oral dose of oseltamivir for patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium Supplementation in Patients With Resected Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: ECOG 5597

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Daniel D.; Lee, Sandra J.; Keller, Steven M.; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H.; Johnston, Michael R.; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M.; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. Results The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Conclusion Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:24002495

  8. Clinical benefit of midodrine hydrochloride in symptomatic orthostatic hypotension: a phase 4, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, tilt-table study.

    PubMed

    Smith, William; Wan, Hong; Much, David; Robinson, Antoine G; Martin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Midodrine hydrochloride is a short-acting pressor agent that raises blood pressure in the upright position in patients with orthostatic hypotension. The US Food and Drug Administration's Subpart H approval, under which midodrine was initially approved, requires post-marketing studies to confirm midodrine's clinical benefit in this indication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of midodrine with regard to symptom response. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover, multicenter study (NCT01518946). Following screening, patients aged ≥18 years with severe symptomatic orthostatic hypotension and on a stable dose of midodrine for at least 3 months were randomized to treatment with either their previous midodrine dose or placebo on day 1 and the respective alternate treatment on day 2. The primary endpoint measured time to syncopal symptoms or near-syncope using a 45-min tilt-table test at 1 h post-dose. Thirty-three patients were screened for inclusion: 19 received at least one dose of midodrine and had at least one post-dose measurement of the primary endpoint. The least-squares mean time to syncopal symptoms or near-syncope after tilt-table initiation (mean ± standard error) was 1626.6 ± 186.8 s for midodrine and 1105.6 ± 186.8 s for placebo (difference, 521.0 s; 95 % confidence interval 124.2-971.7 s; p = 0.0131). There were 15 adverse events in 10 patients; all of these were mild or moderate in severity, with none considered by the investigators to be related to midodrine. Midodrine is a well-tolerated and clinically effective treatment for symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

  9. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1.

    PubMed

    Pockaj, Barbara A; Gallagher, James G; Loprinzi, Charles L; Stella, Philip J; Barton, Debra L; Sloan, Jeff A; Lavasseur, Beth I; Rao, Radha M; Fitch, Tom R; Rowland, Kendrith M; Novotny, Paul J; Flynn, Patrick J; Richelson, Elliott; Fauq, Abdul H

    2006-06-20

    Hot flashes can cause significant morbidity in postmenopausal women undergoing or finished with breast cancer treatment. Black cohosh has been used to treat hot flashes, but definitive clinical data about efficacy have been equivocal. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical trial with two 4-week periods, was used to study the efficacy of black cohosh (1 capsule, Cimicifuga racemosa 20 mg BID) for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Participants kept a daily hot flash diary during a baseline week and then during two 4-week crossover treatment periods. Hot flash scores were measured by assigning points (1 to 4 for mild to very severe) to each hot flash based on severity and then adding the points for a given time period. Between October 31, 2003, to March 4, 2004, 132 patients were randomly assigned. Toxicity was minimal and not different by treatment group. Patients receiving black cohosh reported a mean decrease in hot flash score of 20% (comparing the fourth treatment week to the baseline week) compared with a 27% decrease for patients on placebo (P = .53). Mean hot flash frequency was reduced 17% on black cohosh and 26% on placebo (P = .36). Patient treatment preferences were measured after completion of both treatment periods by ascertaining which treatment period, if any, the patient preferred. Thirty-four percent of patients preferred the black cohosh treatment, 38% preferred the placebo, and 28% did not prefer either treatment. This trial failed to provide any evidence that black cohosh reduced hot flashes more than the placebo.

  10. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III chemoprevention trial of selenium supplementation in patients with resected stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: ECOG 5597.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel D; Lee, Sandra J; Keller, Steven M; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H; Johnston, Michael R; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R

    2013-11-20

    Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study of α4β2 agonist ABT-894 in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bain, Earle E; Robieson, Weining; Pritchett, Yili; Garimella, Tushar; Abi-Saab, Walid; Apostol, George; McGough, James J; Saltarelli, Mario D

    2013-02-01

    Dysregulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (NNR) system has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nicotinic agonists improve attention across preclinical species and humans. Hence, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel α4β2 NNR agonist (ABT-894 (3-(5,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-1(S),5 (S)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane)) in adults with ADHD. Participants (N=243) were randomized to one of four dose regimens of ABT-894 (1, 2, and 4 mg once daily (QD)) or 4 mg twice daily (BID) or the active comparator atomoxetine (40 mg BID) vs placebo for 28 days. Following a 2-week washout period, participants crossed over to the alternative treatment condition (active or placebo) for an additional 28 days. Primary efficacy was based on an investigator-rated Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS:Inv) Total score at the end of each 4-week treatment period. Additional secondary outcome measures were assessed. A total of 238 patients were assessed for safety end points, 236 patients were included in the intent-to-treat data set, and 196 were included in the completers data set, which was the prespecified, primary data set for efficacy. Both the 4 mg BID ABT-894 and atomoxetine groups demonstrated significant improvement on the primary outcome compared with placebo. Several secondary outcome measures were also significantly improved with 4 mg BID ABT-894. Overall, ABT-894 was well tolerated at all dose levels. These results provide initial proof of concept for the use of α4β2 agonists in the treatment of adults with ADHD. Further investigation of ABT-894, including higher doses, is therefore warranted.

  12. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Study of α4β2 Agonist ABT-894 in Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Earle E; Robieson, Weining; Pritchett, Yili; Garimella, Tushar; Abi-Saab, Walid; Apostol, George; McGough, James J; Saltarelli, Mario D

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (NNR) system has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nicotinic agonists improve attention across preclinical species and humans. Hence, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel α4β2 NNR agonist (ABT-894 (3-(5,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-1(S),5 (S)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane)) in adults with ADHD. Participants (N=243) were randomized to one of four dose regimens of ABT-894 (1, 2, and 4 mg once daily (QD)) or 4 mg twice daily (BID) or the active comparator atomoxetine (40 mg BID) vs placebo for 28 days. Following a 2-week washout period, participants crossed over to the alternative treatment condition (active or placebo) for an additional 28 days. Primary efficacy was based on an investigator-rated Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS:Inv) Total score at the end of each 4-week treatment period. Additional secondary outcome measures were assessed. A total of 238 patients were assessed for safety end points, 236 patients were included in the intent-to-treat data set, and 196 were included in the completers data set, which was the prespecified, primary data set for efficacy. Both the 4 mg BID ABT-894 and atomoxetine groups demonstrated significant improvement on the primary outcome compared with placebo. Several secondary outcome measures were also significantly improved with 4 mg BID ABT-894. Overall, ABT-894 was well tolerated at all dose levels. These results provide initial proof of concept for the use of α4β2 agonists in the treatment of adults with ADHD. Further investigation of ABT-894, including higher doses, is therefore warranted. PMID:23032073

  13. Direct phase retrieval in double blind Fourier holography.

    PubMed

    Raz, Oren; Leshem, Ben; Miao, Jianwei; Nadler, Boaz; Oron, Dan; Dudovich, Nirit

    2014-10-20

    Phase measurement is a long-standing challenge in a wide range of applications, from X-ray imaging to astrophysics and spectroscopy. While in some scenarios the phase is resolved by an interferometric measurement, in others it is reconstructed via numerical optimization, based on some a-priori knowledge about the signal. The latter commonly use iterative algorithms, and thus have to deal with their convergence, stagnation, and robustness to noise. Here we combine these two approaches and present a new scheme, termed double blind Fourier holography, providing an efficient solution to the phase problem in two dimensions, by solving a system of linear equations. We present and experimentally demonstrate our approach for the case of lens-less imaging.

  14. A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, FIXED-DOSE PHASE III STUDY OF VILAZODONE IN PATIENTS WITH GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Gommoll, Carl; Durgam, Suresh; Mathews, Maju; Forero, Giovanna; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Thase, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Background Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved for treating major depressive disorder in adults. This study (NCT01629966 ClinicalTrials.gov) evaluated the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in patients with GAD randomized (1:1:1) to placebo (n = 223), or vilazodone 20 mg/day (n = 230) or 40 mg/day (n = 227). Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively, analyzed using a predefined mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety outcomes were presented by descriptive statistics. Results The least squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) in HAMA total score change from baseline (MMRM) was statistically significant for vilazodone 40 mg/day versus placebo (–1.80 [–3.26, –0.34]; P = .0312 [adjusted for multiple comparisons]), but not for vilazodone 20 mg/day versus placebo. Mean change from baseline in SDS total score was not significantly different for either dose of vilazodone versus placebo when adjusted for multiplicity; significant improvement versus placebo was noted for vilazodone 40 mg/day without adjustment for multiplicity (P = .0349). The incidence of adverse events was similar for vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (∼71%) and slightly lower for placebo (62%). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and fatigue were reported in ≥5% of patients in either vilazodone group and at least twice the rate of placebo. Conclusions Vilazodone was effective in treating anxiety symptoms of GAD. No new safety concerns were identified. PMID:25891440

  15. Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topical 2 % lidocaine for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Coudert, Amélie E; Ostertag, Agnès; Baaroun, Vanessa; Artaud, Catherine; Ifi-Naulin, Chantal; Druo, Jean-Patick; Princ, Guy; Descroix, Vianney

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy in pain reduction of topical 2 % lidocaine compared to a placebo cream in children with oral mucosal lesions due to trauma or aphthous ulcers or in the prevention of clamp placement pain. The design was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, four-center trial on 64 patients. Pain intensity and relief were measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). One-tailed Student's t test and ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. Independent of the pain origin, application of 2 % lidocaine cream led to a mean reduction in VAS pain intensity of 19.7 mm ± 18.3, which was significantly greater than that obtained with the placebo cream (p = .025). Analyses showed a statistically significant efficacy of the 2 % lidocaine cream (p < .0001). Its efficacy was not associated to any local or systemic adverse drug reaction, as reported by the patients. As the most important population represented in our patients was children whom a rubber dam clamp was placed, we also specifically analysed this population, and we were able to demonstrate a significantly greater efficacy of the 2 % lidocaine cream on the pain caused by the rubber dam clamp placement in comparison to the placebo cream (p < .005). A significant reduction in pain intensity occurred after application of 2 % lidocaine cream, and the effect was significantly greater than that obtained with the placebo cream. Considering the study's limitations, this product appears safe for use in children. For painful benign lesions of the oral mucosa (trauma or aphthous ulcers) or for preventing painful iatrogenic procedures such as rubber dam clamp placement, it is essential to treat or prevent pain onset, especially in the pediatric population for whom a painful experience could end in refusal of dental care. Application of a topical anesthetic in this specific situation is of particular interest, as is defining its efficacy and safety.

  16. Oral 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic diagnosis using fluorescence cystoscopy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A randomized, double-blind, multicentre phase II/III study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiji; Anai, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Furuse, Hiroshi; Kai, Fumitake; Ozono, Seiichiro; Hara, Takahiko; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Oyama, Masafumi; Ueno, Munehisa; Fukuhara, Hideo; Narukawa, Mamoru; Shuin, Taro

    2015-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) following transurethral administration of a hexalated form of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), 5-ALA hexyl ester, is widely performed in Western countries. In this study, effectiveness and safety of the oral administration of 5-ALA is assessed in a phase II/III study of PDD for NMIBC in comparison to those of conventional white-light endoscopic diagnosis. Patients with NMIBC were allocated to two groups that were orally administered 10 and 20 mg/kg of 5-ALA under the double-blind condition. Effectiveness was evaluated by setting the primary endpoint to sensitivity. Safety was also analyzed. Moreover, clinically recommended doses of 5-ALA was also investigated as an investigator-initiated multicenter cooperative clinical trial in which five medical institutions participated. All 62 enrolled patients completed the clinical trial. The sensitivities of PDD were higher (84.4 and 75.8% in the 10 and 20 m g/kg-groups, respectively) than those of conventional endoscopic diagnosis (67.5 and 47.6%, respectively) (p = 0.014 and p < 0.001, respectively). Five episodes of serious adverse events developed in four patients; whereas a causal relationship with the investigational agent was ruled out in all episodes. This investigator-initiated clinical trial confirmed the effectiveness and safety of PDD for NMIBC following oral administration of 5-ALA. Both doses of 5-ALA may be clinically applicable; however, the rate of detecting tumors only by PDD was higher in the 20 mg/kg-group suggesting that this dose would be more useful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Phase III Trial of Duloxetine Monotherapy in Japanese Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Shinichi; Oda, Natsuko; Ochiai, Toshimitsu; Alev, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. A 14-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of Japanese patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) who were randomized to either duloxetine 60 mg once daily or placebo. Objective. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine monotherapy in Japanese patients with CLBP. Summary of Background Data. In Japan, duloxetine is approved for the treatment of depression, diabetic neuropathic pain, and pain associated with fibromyalgia; however, no clinical study of duloxetine has been conducted for CLBP. Methods. The primary efficacy measure was the change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain score from baseline to Week 14. Secondary efficacy measures included BPI pain (worst pain, least pain, pain right now), Patient's Global Impression of Improvement, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, among other measures, and safety and tolerability. Results. In total, 458 patients were randomized to receive either duloxetine (n = 232) or placebo (n = 226). The BPI average pain score improved significantly in the duloxetine group compared with that in the placebo group at Week 14 [−2.43 ± 0.11 vs. −1.96 ± 0.11, respectively; between-group difference (95% confidence interval), − 0.46 [−0.77 to−0.16]; P = 0.0026]. The duloxetine group showed significant improvement in many secondary measures compared with the placebo group, including BPI pain (least pain, pain right now) (between-group difference: −1.69 ± 0.10, P = 0.0009; −2.42 ± 0.12, P P = 0.0230, respectively), Patient's Global Impression of Improvement (2.46 ± 0.07, P = 0.0026), Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (−1.46 ± 0.06, P = 0.0019), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (−3.86 ± 0.22, P = 0.0439). Adverse events occurring at a significantly higher incidence in the duloxetine group were somnolence

  18. Multicenter, Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pravastatin Added to First-Line Standard Chemotherapy in Small-Cell Lung Cancer (LUNGSTAR).

    PubMed

    Seckl, Michael J; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Cullen, Michael; Schmid, Peter; Ngai, Yenting; Muthukumar, Dakshinamoorthy; Thompson, Joyce; Harden, Susan; Middleton, Gary; Fife, Kate M; Crosse, Barbara; Taylor, Paul; Nash, Stephen; Hackshaw, Allan

    2017-02-27

    Purpose Treating small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a therapeutic challenge. Experimental studies show that statins exert additive effects with agents, such as cisplatin, to impair tumor growth, and observational studies suggest that statins combined with anticancer therapies delay relapse and prolong life in several cancer types. To our knowledge, we report the first large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of a statin with standard-of-care for patients with cancer, specifically SCLC. Patients and Methods Patients with confirmed SCLC (limited or extensive disease) and performance status 0 to 3 were randomly assigned to receive daily pravastatin 40 mg or placebo, combined with up to six cycles of etoposide plus cisplatin or carboplatin every 3 weeks, until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS), and secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and toxicity. Results Eight hundred forty-six patients from 91 United Kingdom hospitals were recruited. The median age of recruited patients was 64 years of age, 43% had limited disease, and 57% had extensive disease. There were 758 deaths and 787 PFS events. No benefit was found for pravastatin, either in all patients or in several subgroups. For pravastatin versus placebo, the 2-year OS rate was 13.2% (95% CI, 10.0 to 16.7) versus 14.1% (95% CI, 10.9 to 17.7), respectively, with a hazard ratio of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.16; P = .90. The median OS was 10.6 months v 10.7 months, respectively. The median PFS was 7.7 months v 7.3 months, respectively. The median OS (pravastatin v placebo) was 14.6 months in both groups for limited disease and 9.1 months versus 8.8 months, respectively, for extensive disease. Adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusion Pravastatin 40 mg combined with standard SCLC therapy, although safe, does not benefit patients. Our conclusions are the same as those found in all four much smaller

  19. Perioperative use of etoricoxib reduces pain and opioid side-effects after total abdominal hysterectomy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, Eugene R; Frenkl, Tara L; Hartrick, Craig T; Rawal, Narinder; Kehlet, Henrik; Papanicolaou, Dimitris; Gammaitoni, Arnold; Ko, Amy T; Morgan, Leslie M; Mehta, Anish; Curtis, Sean P; Peloso, Paul M

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of two different doses of etoricoxib delivered perioperatively compared with placebo and standard pain management on pain at rest, pain with mobilization, and use of additional morphine/opioids postoperatively. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, we evaluated postoperative pain following total abdominal hysterectomy over 5 days in patients receiving placebo or etoricoxib administered 90 min prior to surgery and continuing postoperatively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 144), etoricoxib 90 mg/day (n = 142), or etoricoxib 120 mg/day (n = 144). Average Pain Intensity at Rest over days 1-3 (0- to 10-point numerical rating scale [NRS]) was the primary efficacy endpoint. Secondary endpoints included Average Pain Intensity upon Sitting, Standing, and Walking over days 1-3 (0- to 10-point NRS) as well as Average Total Daily Dose of Morphine over days 1-3. This trial is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00788710). The least squares (LS) means (95% CI) for the primary endpoint were 3.26 (2.96, 3.55); 2.46 (2.16, 2.76); and 2.40 (2.11, 2.69) for placebo, etoricoxib 90 mg, and etoricoxib 120 mg, respectively, significantly different for both etoricoxib doses versus placebo (p < 0.001). Patients on etoricoxib 90 mg and 120 mg required ~30% less morphine per day than those on placebo (p < 0.001), which led to more rapid bowel recovery in the active treatment groups by ~10 hours vs. placebo. A greater proportion of patients on etoricoxib (10-30% greater than placebo) achieved mild levels of pain with movement, defined as pain ≤3/10. A key limitation for this study was that movement-evoked pain measurements were not designated as primary endpoints. In patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy, etoricoxib 90 mg and 120 mg dosed preoperatively and then continued postoperatively significantly reduces both resting and movement-related pain

  20. Dietary nitrate provides sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients: a randomized, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Vikas; Khambata, Rayomand S; Robertson, Amy; Caulfield, Mark J; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Single dose administration of dietary inorganic nitrate acutely reduces blood pressure in normotensive healthy volunteers, via bioconversion to the vasodilator nitric oxide. We assessed whether dietary nitrate might provide sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients.We randomly assigned 68 hypertensive patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive daily dietary supplementation for 4-weeks with either dietary nitrate (250mL daily, as beetroot juice) or a placebo (250mL daily, as nitrate-free beetroot juice) following a 2-week run-in period and followed by a 2-week wash-out. We performed stratified randomization of drug-naïve (n=34) and treated (n=34) hypertensive patients aged 18-85 years. The primary end-point was change in clinic, ambulatory and home blood pressure compared to placebo. Daily supplementation with dietary nitrate was associated with reduction in blood pressure measured by 3 different methods. Mean (95% CI) reduction in clinic blood pressure was 7.7/2.4mmHg (3.6-11-8/0.0-4.9,p<0.001 and p=0.050). 24h ambulatory blood pressure was reduced by 7.7/5.2mmHg (4.1-11.2/2.7-7.7,p<0.001 for both). Home blood pressure was reduced by 8.1/3.8mmHg (3.8-12.4/0.7-6.9,p<0.001 and p<0.01) with no evidence of tachyphylaxis over the 4-week intervention period. Endothelial function improved by ~20% (p<0.001) and arterial stiffness was reduced by 0.59m/s (0.24-0.93;p<0.01) after dietary nitrate consumption with no change after placebo. The intervention was well tolerated. This is the first evidence of durable blood pressure reduction with dietary nitrate supplementation in a relevant patient group. These findings suggest a role for dietary nitrate as an affordable, readily-available, adjunctive treatment in the management of hypertensive patients.(Funded by The British Heart Foundation, Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01405898). PMID:25421976

  1. A double blind randomized placebo controlled phase I/II study assessing the safety and efficacy of allogeneic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell in critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities comprises a clinical spectrum that extends from no symptoms to presentation with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Bone marrow derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM- MSCs) may ameliorate the consequences of CLI due to their combinatorial potential for inducing angiogenesis and immunomodulatory environment in situ. The primary objective was to determine the safety of BM- MSCs in patients with CLI. Methods Prospective, double blind randomized placebo controlled multi-center study was conducted in patients with established CLI as per Rutherford classification in category II-4, III-5, or III-6 with infra-inguinal arterial occlusive disease and were not suitable for or had failed revascularization treatment. The primary end point was incidence of treatment – related adverse events (AE). Exploratory efficacy end points were improvement in rest pain, increase in Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI), ankle pressure, healing of ulcers, and amputation rates. Twenty patients (BM-MSC: Placebo = 1:1) were administered with allogeneic BM-MSCs at a dose of 2 million cells/kg or placebo (PlasmaLyte A) at the gastrocnemius muscle of the ischemic limb. Results Improvement was observed in the rest pain scores in both the arms. Significant increase in ABPI and ankle pressure was seen in BM-MSC arm compared to the placebo group. Incidence of AEs in the BM-MSC arm was 13 vs. 45 in the placebo arm where as serious adverse events (SAE) were similar in both the arms (5 in BM-MSC and 4 in the placebo group). SAEs resulted in death, infected gangrene, amputations in these patients. It was observed that the SAEs were related to disease progression and not related to stem cells. Conclusion BM-MSCs are safe when injected IM at a dose of 2 million cells/kg body weight. Few efficacy parameters such as ABPI and ankle pressure showed positive trend warranting further studies. Trial registration NIH website (http

  2. Zonisamide for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dauphinais, Deborah; Knable, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua; Polanski, Mark; Rosenthal, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Objective This is the first multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide for the treatment of bipolar depression. Experimental design One hundred two patients with bipolar disorder, type I or II in the depressed phase of illness were randomized to either adjunctive zonisamide or placebo. The study consisted of three phases, a 7 to 30 day screening and stabilization phase, 6 weeks of blinded treatment and a 1 to 3 week discontinuation phase. MADRS score was the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures included the YMRS, CGI-S, CGI-I, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and an a priori analysis of response and remission. Metabolic parameters including weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also evaluated. Side effects were measured using the SAFTEE. Principal observations There were no statistically significant differences in response between subjects treated with adjunctive zonisamide vs. placebo controls for the primary or secondary outcome measures. There were also no differences between the groups with regard to response rate or remission rate. Conclusions In contrast to preliminary open label studies that suggested a role for zonisamide in bipolar depression, we could not confirm these results in a large double blind controlled study. PMID:27738356

  3. Central venous catheterization: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Mer, Mervyn; Duse, Adriano Gianmaria; Galpin, Jacqueline Suzanne; Richards, Guy Antony

    2009-02-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are extensively used worldwide. Mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications are well described with their use and may be associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased medical costs and mortality. CVCs account for an estimated 90% of all catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and a host of risk factors for CVC-related infections have been documented. The duration of use of CVCs remains controversial and the length of time such devices can safely be left in place has not been fully and objectively addressed in the critically ill patient. Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters have been introduced in an attempt to limit catheter-related infection (CRI) and increase the time that CVCs can safely be left in situ. Recent meta-analyses concluded that antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs appear to be effective in reducing CRI. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study at Johannesburg Hospital over a 4-year period. The study entailed a comparison of standard triple-lumen versus antimicrobial impregnated CVCs on the rate of CRI. Our aim was to determine whether we could safely increase the duration of catheter insertion time from our standard practice of seven days to 14 days, to assess the influence of the antimicrobial impregnated catheter on the incidence of CRI, and to elucidate the epidemiology and risks of CRI. One hundred and eighteen critically ill patients were included in the study which spanned 34 951.5 catheter hours (3.99 catheter years). It was found that antimicrobial catheters did not provide any significant benefit over standard catheters, which the authors feel can safely be left in place for up to 14 days with appropriate infection control measures. The most common source of CRI was the skin. The administration of parenteral nutrition and the site of catheter insertion (internal jugular vein vs subclavian vein) were not noted to be risk factors for CRI. There was no clinical evidence

  4. A Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Safety and Efficacy Study of Lenalidomide in Lumbar Radicular Pain with a Long-Term Open-Label Extension Phase.

    PubMed

    Manning, Donald C; Gimbel, Joseph; Wertz, Robert; Rauck, Richard; Cooper, Alyse; Zeldis, Jerome B; Levinsky, Dale M

    2017-03-01

    This phase II study assessed lenalidomide efficacy and safety. Three-phase core study: 14-day prerandomization, 12-week treatment, and 52-week open-label extension. Fourteen US centers from July 2005 to July 2007. Chronic lumbar radicular pain patients without history of nerve injury or deficit. Subjects were randomized (1:1) to double-blind treatment with lenalidomide 10 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 52-week open-label extension. A 12-week, single-center, randomized-withdrawal (1:2, lenalidomide:placebo), exploratory study with open-label extension was undertaken in 12 subjects from the core extension who were naïve to neuropathic medications and with at least a two-point decrease from baseline average daily Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale score. Of 180 subjects enrolled, 176 had at least one postbaseline measure; 132 completed the 12-week treatment phase. In the core study, no statistically significant difference in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale mean change (-0.02, P  =   0.958) was observed at week 12 between lenalidomide and placebo; proportions achieving pain reduction at week 12 and other secondary measures were comparable between lenalidomide and placebo. In the exploratory study, week 12 mean changes in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale scores were -0.05 (lenalidomide: N = 3) and 2.11 (placebo: N = 8). Mean changes in Brief Pain Inventory-short form interference scores were -3.33 and 8.38, respectively; scores at six months were maintained or decreased in 10 of 12 subjects. While this study does not support lenalidomide use in an unselected lumbar radicular pain population, an immunomodulating agent may relieve pain in select subjects naïve to neuropathic pain medications. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00120120.

  5. Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 24-week multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, S; Park, C-Y; Han, K A; Chung, C H; Ku, B J; Jang, H C; Ahn, C W; Lee, M-K; Moon, M K; Son, H S; Lee, C B; Cho, Y-W; Park, S-W

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the 24-week efficacy and safety of teneligliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that was inadequately controlled with diet and exercise. The present study was designed as a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III study. Patients (n = 142) were randomized 2 : 1 into two different treatment groups as follows: 99 received teneligliptin (20 mg) and 43 received placebo. The primary endpoint was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level from baseline to week 24. Teneligliptin significantly reduced the HbA1c level from baseline compared with placebo after 24 weeks. At week 24, the differences between changes in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FBG) in the teneligliptin and placebo groups were -0.94% [least-squares (LS) mean -1.22, -0.65] and -1.21 mmol/l (-1.72, -0.70), respectively (all p < 0.001). The incidence of hypoglycaemia and adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. This phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study provides evidence of the safety and efficacy of 24 weeks of treatment with teneligliptin as a monotherapy in Korean patients with T2DM.

  6. Double-Blind Phase III Randomized Trial of the Antiprogestin Agent Mifepristone in the Treatment of Unresectable Meningioma: SWOG S9005.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongli; Rankin, Cathryn; Grunberg, Steven; Sherrod, Andy E; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Townsend, Jeannette J; Feun, Lynn G; Fredericks, Ruth K; Russell, Christy A; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F; Stelzer, Keith J; Schott, Anne; Verschraegen, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Progesterone receptors are expressed in approximately 70% of meningiomas. Mifepristone is an oral antiprogestational agent reported to have modest activity in a phase II study. This multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial conducted by SWOG was planned to define the role of mifepristone in the treatment of unresectable meningioma. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive either mifepristone or placebo for 2 years unless disease progressed. Patients who were stable or responding to protocol therapy after 2 years had the option to continue with the same blinded therapy. Serial follow-up allowed assessment of efficacy and toxicity. Time to treatment failure and overall survival were ascertained for all randomly assigned patients. On progression, patients receiving placebo could cross over and receive active drug. Among 164 eligible patients, 80 were randomly assigned to mifepristone and 84 to placebo. Twenty-four patients (30%) were able to complete 2 years of mifepristone without disease progression, adverse effects, or other reasons for discontinuation. Twenty-eight patients (33%) in the placebo arm completed the 2-year study. There was no statistical difference between the arms in terms of failure-free or overall survival. Long-term administration of mifepristone was well tolerated but had no impact on patients with unresectable meningioma. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Double-Blind Phase III Randomized Trial of the Antiprogestin Agent Mifepristone in the Treatment of Unresectable Meningioma: SWOG S9005

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yongli; Rankin, Cathryn; Grunberg, Steven; Sherrod, Andy E.; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Townsend, Jeannette J.; Feun, Lynn G.; Fredericks, Ruth K.; Russell, Christy A.; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F.; Stelzer, Keith J.; Schott, Anne; Verschraegen, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Progesterone receptors are expressed in approximately 70% of meningiomas. Mifepristone is an oral antiprogestational agent reported to have modest activity in a phase II study. This multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial conducted by SWOG was planned to define the role of mifepristone in the treatment of unresectable meningioma. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive either mifepristone or placebo for 2 years unless disease progressed. Patients who were stable or responding to protocol therapy after 2 years had the option to continue with the same blinded therapy. Serial follow-up allowed assessment of efficacy and toxicity. Time to treatment failure and overall survival were ascertained for all randomly assigned patients. On progression, patients receiving placebo could cross over and receive active drug. Results Among 164 eligible patients, 80 were randomly assigned to mifepristone and 84 to placebo. Twenty-four patients (30%) were able to complete 2 years of mifepristone without disease progression, adverse effects, or other reasons for discontinuation. Twenty-eight patients (33%) in the placebo arm completed the 2-year study. There was no statistical difference between the arms in terms of failure-free or overall survival. Conclusion Long-term administration of mifepristone was well tolerated but had no impact on patients with unresectable meningioma. PMID:26527781

  8. Efficacy and safety of Qing-Feng-Gan-Ke Granules in patients with postinfectious cough: study protocol of a novel-design phase III placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hongli; Zhang, Ruiming; Jin, Faguang; Liu, Liangji; Long, Youyu; Cui, Liying; Li, Suyun; Zhong, Yunqing; Mao, Bing

    2015-08-19

    Postinfectious cough (PIC) is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide every year. There is Western medicine for this condition but the treatment effect is often incomplete. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been increasingly prescribed for patients with PIC. Preliminary trials on Qing-Feng-Gan-Ke-Granules (QFGKG) conveyed promising results in treating PIC. This protocol describes an ongoing phase III randomized controlled clinical trial, designed according to a novel methodology of "one study, one primary outcome", with the objective of evaluating the efficacy and safety of QFGKG in patients suffering from PIC. This is a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, comprising two simultaneously conducted study parts, part A and part B, intending to investigate two primary outcomes, i.e. time to cough resolution and cough symptom score, respectively. A total of 480 patients, aged 18 to 65 years, who complain of an ongoing persistent cough that has been lasting ≥ 3 weeks, will be recruited from six participating sites and then randomized to receive QFGKG 12.0 g twice daily or placebo 12.0 g twice daily. Each part will enroll 240 patients, with 180 patients being allocated to the QFGKG group and 60 to the placebo group. Although traditional Chinese medicine is a structured intervention that has shown some promise in treating persistent cough, existing unconvincing evidence has noted limitations. This is a rare well-designed and rigorously-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the effects and safety of a Chinese herbal medicine in patients with postinfectious cough, providing tangible benefits for clinical research. Results of this trial are inclined to be conjectured as more truthful by implementing separate study parts that specifically estimate exclusive primary outcome. It will not only provide robust clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of QFGKG for

  9. Topiramate reduces headache days in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Diener, H-C; Bussone, G; Van Oene, J C; Lahaye, M; Schwalen, S; Goadsby, P J

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate for the prevention of chronic migraine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chronic migraine is a common form of disabling headache presenting in headache subspecialty practice. Preventive treatments are essential for chronic migraine management, although there are few or no controlled empirical trial data on their use in this patient population. Topiramate is approved for the prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults. Patients (18-65 years) who experienced chronic migraine (defined as > or =15 monthly migraine days) for > or =3 months prior to trial entry and had > or =12 migraine days during the 4-week (28-day) baseline phase were randomized to topiramate or placebo for a 16-week, double-blind trial. Topiramate was titrated (25 mg weekly) to a target dose of 100 mg/day, allowing dosing flexibility from 50 to 200 mg/day, according to patient need. Existing migraine preventive treatments, except for antiepileptic drugs, were continued throughout the trial. The primary efficacy measure was the change in number of migraine days from the 28-day baseline phase to the last 28 days of the double-blind phase in the intent-to-treat population, which consisted of all patients who received at least one dose of study medication and had one outcome assessment during the double-blind phase. Health-related quality of life was evaluated with the Migraine Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ, Version 2.1), the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaires, and tolerability was assessed by adverse event (AE) reports and early trial discontinuations. Eighty-two patients were screened. Thirty-two patients in the intent-to-treat population (mean age 46 years; 75% female) received topiramate (mean modal dose +/- SD = 100 +/- 17 mg/day) and 27 patients received placebo. Mean (+/-SD) baseline number of migraine days per 4 weeks was 15

  10. Comparative Efficacy and Durability of Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy for Preventing Recurrent Depression: Design of a Double-Blinded, Fluoxetine- and Pill-Placebo–Controlled, Randomized Trial with 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thase, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and associated with disability and chronicity. Although cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective short-term treatment for MDD, a significant proportion of responders subsequently suffer relapses or recurrences. Purpose This design prospectively evaluates: 1) a method to discriminate CT-treated responders at lower versus higher risk for relapse; and 2) the subsequent durability of 8-month continuation phase therapies in randomized higher risk responders followed for an additional 24-months. The primary prediction is: after protocol treatments are stopped, higher risk patients randomly assigned to continuation phase CT (C-CT) will have a lower risk of relapse/recurrence than those randomized to fluoxetine (FLX). Methods Outpatients, aged 18 to 70 years, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of CT provided by 15 experienced therapists from two sites. Responders (i.e., no MDD and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ≤ 12) were stratified into higher and lower risk groups based on stability of remission during the last 6 weeks of CT. The lower risk group entered follow-up for 32 months; the higher risk group was randomized to 8 months of continuation phase therapy with either C-CT or clinical management plus either double-blinded FLX or pill placebo. Following the continuation phase, higher risk patients were followed by blinded evaluators for 24 months. Results The trial began in 2000. Enrollment is complete (N=523). The follow-up continues. Conclusions The trial evaluates the preventive effects and durability of acute and continuation phase treatments in the largest known sample of CT responders collected worldwide. PMID:20451668

  11. Hydroxyurea: a radiation potentiator in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A randomized double-blind study

    SciTech Connect

    Piver, M.S.; Barlow, J.J.; Vongtama, V.; Blumenson, L.

    1983-12-01

    From June, 1972, to December, 1976, 40 patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics) Stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix were entered into a prospective, double-blind, randomized study to evaluate the possible radiation-potentiating properties (i.e., improved survival) of the S-phase cell cycle-specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, hydroxyurea. All patients were documented to be without aortic lymph node metastasis by pretherapy staging para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All 40 patients were followed up for longer than 5 years (5.2 to 9.2 years) or until death. The double-blind code was not broken until all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 to 5 years. Leukopenia (white blood cell count less than 2,500 mm3) was significantly increased in the patients given hydroxyurea as compared to those given placebo (P less than 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference relative to anemia, thrombocytopenia, radiation-induced skin reaction, and radiation-induced intestinal reaction between the patients given placebo or those given hydroxyurea. Life-table survival for the patients given hydroxyurea was 94% as compared to 53% for the patients given placebo (P . 0.006). Only one (5%) patient given hydroxyurea died of cervical cancer. Of the other patients who died in the group given hydroxyurea, all were confirmed by postmortem examination to have been without recurrent cervical cancer. In contrast, 45% (nine) of the patients given placebo died of cervical cancer.

  12. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Study of Tasquinimod in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Cora; Armstrong, Andrew; Pili, Roberto; Ng, Siobhan; Huddart, Robert; Agarwal, Neeraj; Khvorostenko, Denis; Lyulko, Olexiy; Brize, Arija; Vogelzang, Nicholas; Delva, Rémy; Harza, Mihai; Thanos, Anastasios; James, Nicholas; Werbrouck, Patrick; Bögemann, Martin; Hutson, Thomas; Milecki, Piotr; Chowdhury, Simon; Gallardo, Enrique; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Pouget, Jean-Christophe; Baton, Frédérique; Nederman, Thore; Tuvesson, Helen; Carducci, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Tasquinimod, a novel oral therapy targeting the tumor microenvironment, significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This phase III study was conducted to confirm the phase II results and to detect an overall survival (OS) benefit. Men with chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC and evidence of bone metastases were assigned (2:1) to receive tasquinimod once per day or placebo until progression or toxicity. The primary end point was radiographic PFS (rPFS; time from random assignment to radiologic progression or death) per Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 criteria and RECIST 1.1. The study had 99.9% power to detect an rPFS hazard ratio (HR) of 0.6 with a two-sided alpha error of .05 and 80% power to detect a target HR of 0.8 for OS, the key secondary end point. In all, 1,245 patients were randomly assigned to either tasquinimod (n = 832) or placebo (n = 413) between March 2011 and December 2012 at 241 sites in 37 countries. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups: median age, 71 years; Karnofsky performance status ≥ 90%, 77.3%; and visceral metastases, 21.1%. Estimated median rPFS by central review was 7.0 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 8.2 months) with tasquinimod and 4.4 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 5.5 months) with placebo (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.75; P < .001). Median OS was 21.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 23.0 months) with tasquinimod and 24.0 months (95% CI, 21.4 to 26.9 months) with placebo (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.28; P = .25). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were more frequent with tasquinimod (42.8% v 33.6%), the most common being anemia, fatigue, and cancer pain. In chemotherapy-naïve men with mCRPC, tasquinimod significantly improved rPFS compared with placebo. However, no OS benefit was observed. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dutasteride 0.5 mg once daily in male patients with male pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Eun, Hee Chul; Kwon, Oh Sang; Yeon, Je Ho; Shin, Hyo Seung; Kim, Byung Yoon; Ro, Byung In; Cho, Han Kyong; Sim, Woo Young; Lew, Bark Lynn; Lee, Won-Soo; Park, Hwa Young; Hong, Seung Phil; Ji, Jae Hong

    2010-08-01

    Dutasteride (Avodart) is a dual inhibitor of both type I and type II 5 alpha reductases, and thus inhibits conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key mediator of male pattern hair loss. The aim of this randomized double-blind phase III study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dutasteride (0.5 mg) and placebo for 6 months of treatment in male patients with male pattern hair loss. A total of 153 men, 18 to 49 years old, were randomized to receive 0.5 mg of dutasteride or placebo daily for 6 months. Efficacy was evaluated by the change of hair counts, subject assessment, and photographic assessment by investigators and panels. Mean change of hair counts from baseline to 6 months after treatment start was an increase of 12.2/cm(2) in dutasteride group and 4.7/cm(2) in placebo group and this difference was statistically significant (P = .0319). Dutasteride showed significantly higher efficacy than placebo group by subject self-assessment and by investigator and panel photographic assessment. There was no major difference in adverse events between two groups. The study was limited to 6 months. This study clearly showed that 0.5 mg of dutasteride improved hair growth and was relatively well tolerated for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in heart failure patients with volume overload despite the standard treatment with conventional diuretics: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (QUEST study).

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Masunori; Hori, Masatsugu; Izumi, Tohru; Fukunami, Masatake

    2011-12-01

    Diuretics are recommended to treat volume overload with heart failure (HF), however, they may cause serum electrolyte imbalance, limiting their use. Moreover, patients with advanced HF could poorly respond to these diuretics. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tolvaptan, a competitive vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist developed as a new drug to treat volume overload in HF patients. A phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in treating HF patients with volume overload despite the use of conventional diuretics. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 15 mg/day tolvaptan for 7 consecutive days. Compared with placebo, tolvaptan administered for 7 days significantly reduced body weight and improved symptoms associated with volume overload. The safety profile of tolvaptan was considered acceptable for clinical use with minimal adverse effects. Tolvaptan reduced volume overload and improved congestive symptoms associated with HF by a potent water diuresis (aquaresis).

  15. Doxycycline in early CJD: a double-blinded randomised phase II and observational study

    PubMed Central

    Varges, Daniela; Manthey, Henrike; Heinemann, Uta; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Krasnianski, Anna; Breithaupt, Maren; Fincke, Fabian; Kramer, Katharina; Friede, Tim; Zerr, Inga

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study is to study the therapeutic efficiency of doxycycline in a double-blinded randomised phase II study in a cohort of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Methods From the National Reference Center of TSE Surveillance in Germany, patients with probable or definite sCJD were recruited for a double-blinded randomised study with oral doxycycline (EudraCT 2006-003934-14). In addition, we analysed the data from patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline in a separate group. Potential factors which influence survival such as age at onset, gender, codon 129 polymorphism and cognitive functions were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was survival. Results Group 1: in the double-blinded randomised phase II study, 7 patients in the treatment group were compared with 5 controls. Group 2: 55 patients with sCJD treated with oral doxycycline were analysed and compared with 33 controls by a stratified propensity score applied to a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The results of both studies were combined by means of a random-effects meta-analysis. A slight increase in survival time in the doxycycline treatment group was observed (p=0.049, HR=0.63 (95% CI 0.402 to 0.999)). Conclusions On the basis of our studies, a larger trial of doxycycline should be performed in persons in the earliest stages of CJD. Trial registration number EudraCT 2006-003934-14; Results. PMID:27807198

  16. Phase 2 randomized, flexible crossover, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 and progressive plexiform neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Brigitte C.; Dombi, Eva; Gillespie, Andrea; Wolters, Pamela L.; Belasco, Jean; Goldman, Stewart; Korf, Bruce R.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Martin, Staci; Salzer, Wanda; Fox, Elizabeth; Patronas, Nicholas; Kieran, Mark W.; Perentesis, John P.; Reddy, Alyssa; Wright, John J.; Kim, AeRang; Steinberg, Seth M.; Balis, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background RAS is dysregulated in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) related plexiform neurofibromas (PNs). The activity of tipifarnib, which blocks RAS signaling by inhibiting its farnesylation, was tested in children and young adults with NF1 and progressive PNs. Methods Patients aged 3–25 years with NF1-related PNs and imaging evidence of tumor progression were randomized in a double-blinded fashion to receive tipifarnib (200 mg/m2 orally every 12 h) or placebo (phase A) and crossed over to the opposite treatment arm at the time of tumor progression (phase B). PN volumes were measured with MRI, and progression was defined as ≥20% volume increase. Time to progression (TTP) in phase A was the primary endpoint, and the trial was powered to detect whether tipifarnib doubled TTP compared with placebo. Toxicity, response, and quality of life were also monitored. Results Sixty-two patients were enrolled. Tipifarnib and placebo were well tolerated. On phase A, the median TTP was 10.6 months on the placebo arm and 19.2 months on the tipifarnib arm (P = .12; 1-sided). Quality of life improved significantly compared with baseline on the tipifarnib arm but not on the placebo arm. Volumetric tumor measurement detected tumor progression earlier than conventional 2-dimensional (WHO) and 1-dimensional (RECIST) methods. Conclusions Tipifarnib was well tolerated but did not significantly prolong TTP of PNs compared with placebo. The randomized, flexible crossover design and volumetric PN assessment provided a feasible and efficient means of assessing the efficacy of tipifarnib. The placebo arm serves as an historical control group for phase 2 single-arm trials directed at progressive PNs. PMID:24500418

  17. SEARCH: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sorafenib plus erlotinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andrew X; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Evans, T R Jeffry; Ross, Paul J; Santoro, Armando; Carrilho, Flair Jose; Bruix, Jordi; Qin, Shukui; Thuluvath, Paul J; Llovet, Josep M; Leberre, Marie-Aude; Jensen, Markus; Meinhardt, Gerold; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2015-02-20

    To compare the clinical outcomes of sorafenib plus either erlotinib or placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a multicenter, multinational, randomized, phase III trial. Patients with advanced HCC and underlying Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis, who were naive to systemic treatment (N = 720), were randomly assigned to sorafenib plus either erlotinib (n = 362) or placebo (n = 358). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Median OS was similar in the sorafenib plus erlotinib and sorafenib plus placebo groups (9.5 v 8.5 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.929; P = .408), as was median time to progression (3.2 v 4.0 months, respectively; HR, 1.135; P = .18). In the sorafenib/erlotinib arm versus the sorafenib/placebo arm, the overall response rate trended higher (6.6% v 3.9%, respectively; P = .102), whereas the disease control rate was significantly lower (43.9% v 52.5%, respectively; P = .021). The median durations of treatment with sorafenib were 86 days in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm and 123 days in the sorafenib/placebo arm. In the sorafenib/erlotinib and sorafenib/placebo arms, the rates of treatment-emergent serious AEs (58.0% v 54.6%, respectively) and drug-related serious AEs (21.0% v 22.8%, respectively) were similar. AEs matched the known safety profiles of both agents, but rates of rash/desquamation, anorexia, and diarrhea were higher in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm, whereas rates of alopecia and hand-foot skin reaction were higher in the sorafenib/placebo arm. Withdrawal rates for AEs during cycles 1 to 3 were higher in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm. Adding erlotinib to sorafenib did not improve survival in patients with advanced HCC. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. A Phase III, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Flaxseed for the Treatment of Hot Flashes1:NCCTG N08C7

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Sandhya; Qin, Rui; Terstreip, Shelby A.; Liu, Heshan; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Shah, Tushar R. C.; Tucker, Kenneth F.; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Bury, Martin J.; Carolla, Robert L.; Steen, Preston D.; Vuky, Jacqueline; Barton, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Preliminary data suggest that flaxseed, a rich source of dietary lignans, may be a potentially effective treatment for hot flashes. A phase III randomized, placebo controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of flaxseed in reducing hot flashes. Methods Postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer were randomly assigned to a flaxseed bar (providing 410 mg of lignans) for 6 weeks vs. a placebo bar. Participants completed daily, prospective, hot flash diaries during the baseline week, and then ate one study bar/day for 6 weeks while recording their daily hot flashes. The intra-patient difference in hot flash activity between baseline and the last treatment week was the primary endpoint. Side effects were evaluated through self report and CTC assessment. Results 188 women were enrolled onto this trial. Mean hot flash score was reduced 4.9 in the flaxseed group and 3.5 in the placebo group (p=.29). In both groups, a little over a third of the women received a 50% reduction in their hot flash score. Only one side effect was significantly different between groups, grade 1 pruritis, which was more common in the placebo group (8% versus 1%). Both groups reported abdominal distension, flatulence, diarrhea and nausea. Adherence and ability to detect treatment assignment did not differ between groups. Conclusions The results of this trial do not support the use of 410 mg of lignans for the reduction of hot flashes. The bars were fairly well tolerated, with both groups reporting gastrointestinal effects, likely due to the fiber content. PMID:21900849

  19. A phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of the live, oral adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, in U.S. military recruits.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Robert A; Russell, Kevin L; Abuja, Mary; Bauer, Kristen M; Faix, Dennis J; Hait, Howard; Henrick, Jennifer; Jacobs, Michael; Liss, Alan; Lynch, Julia A; Liu, Qi; Lyons, Arthur G; Malik, Mohammad; Moon, James E; Stubbs, Jeremiah; Sun, Wellington; Tang, Doug; Towle, Andrew C; Walsh, Douglas S; Wilkerson, Deborah

    2013-06-19

    Adenovirus (ADV) types 4 (ADV-4) and 7 (ADV-7) are presently the major cause of febrile acute respiratory disease (ARD) in U.S. military recruits. We conducted a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study of the new vaccine to assess its safety and efficacy. Healthy adults at two basic training sites were randomly assigned to receive either vaccine (two enteric-coated tablets consisting of no less than 4.5 log10 TCID50 of live ADV-4 or ADV-7) or placebo in a 3:1 ratio. Volunteers were observed throughout the approximate eight weeks of their basic training and also returned for four scheduled visits. The primary endpoints were prevention of febrile ARD due to ADV-4 and seroconversion of neutralizing serum antibodies to ADV-7, which was not expected to circulate in the study population during the course of the trial. A total of 4151 volunteers were enrolled and 4040 (97%) were randomized and included in the primary analysis (110 were removed prior to randomization and one was removed after randomization due to inability to swallow tablets). A total of 49 ADV-4 febrile ARD cases were identified with 48 in the placebo group and 1 in the vaccine group (attack rates of 4.76% and 0.03%, respectively). Vaccine efficacy was 99.3% (95% CI, 96.0-99.9; P<0.001). Seroconversion rates for vaccine recipients for ADV-4 and ADV-7 were 94.5% (95% CI, 93.4-95.5%) and 93.8% (95% CI: 93.4-95.2%), respectively. The vaccine was well tolerated as compared to placebo. We conclude that the new live, oral ADV-4 and ADV-7 vaccine is safe and effective for use in groups represented by the study population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Dacetuzumab plus rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide as salvage therapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma relapsing after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Luis; Ansell, Stephen M; Advani, Ranjana; Coiffier, Bertrand; Stuart, Robert; Bartlett, Nancy L; Forero-Torres, Andres; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Belada, David; Ng, Edmund; Drachman, Jonathan G

    2015-01-01

    Single-agent dacetuzumab has demonstrated antitumor activity in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Preclinical data demonstrated improved dacetuzumab antitumor activity in combination with rituximab, ± chemotherapy. We designed a phase 2b, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (R-ICE) + dacetuzumab with R-ICE + placebo in patients with DLBCL who relapsed after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00529503). The primary endpoint was complete response (CR); additional endpoints included failure-free survival and overall survival (OS). Overall, 151 patients were randomized (75 dacetuzumab, 76 placebo). No notable differences between arms in demographics or subsequent treatment parameters were observed. Cytopenias, cough and infection were more frequent with dacetuzumab. Futility analysis failed to demonstrate higher CR rates with dacetuzumab (36% dacetuzumab, 42% placebo); consequently, enrollment was stopped. Unplanned post hoc analysis showed that patients who underwent subsequent autologous stem cell transplant experienced improvement in OS (hazard ratio = 0.195, p = 0.004), which may be explained by potential immunomodulatory effects of dacetuzumab on antigen-presenting cells.

  1. Intravenous aflibercept in patients with platinum-resistant, advanced ovarian cancer: results of a randomized, double-blind, phase 2, parallel-arm study.

    PubMed

    Tew, William P; Colombo, Nicoletta; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Del Campo, Josep M; Oza, Amit; Pereira, Deolinda; Mammoliti, Serafina; Matei, Daniela; Scambia, Giovanni; Tonkin, Katia; Shun, Zhenming; Sternas, Lars; Spriggs, David R

    2014-02-01

    In this randomized phase 2 study, the authors assessed the efficacy and safety of intravenous aflibercept at 2 different doses (2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg) in patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer who developed disease progression after receiving topotecan and/or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous aflibercept at a dose of either 2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg every 2 weeks until they developed disease progression or significant toxicity. The primary endpoint was to evaluate Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor response rates (overall response rate [ORR] = complete responses plus partial responses) and to test the null hypothesis (ORR, >5%). Secondary endpoints included time to tumor progression, safety, progression-free survival/overall survival, drug pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. In total, 67 evaluable patients per cohort were planned based on a Simon 2-stage design, and, if those patients responded, then enrollment could extend to 200 patients. Tumor radiographic response was assessed by investigators and by an independent review committee. After the first 84 evaluable patients, 8 unconfirmed partial responders were noted (ORR, 10%) across both arms; the Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended continuing blinded accrual. At study completion, 215 evaluable patients were accrued, including 1 responder of 106 patients (0.9%) in the 2-mg/kg cohort and 5 responders of 109 patients (4.6%) in the 4-mg/kg cohort according to the independent review committee. The clinical benefit rate (ORR plus stable disease >6 months) was 12.3% and 11% in the 2-mg/kg and 4-mg/kg cohorts, respectively. Treatment-related grade 3 and 4 adverse events included hypertension (25.5% and 27.5% in the 2-mg/kg and 4-mg/kg cohorts, respectively), proteinuria (9.4% and 7.3%, respectively), and fatigue (5.7% and 3.7%, respectively). The gastrointestinal perforation rate was low (3 patients; 1

  2. Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of whole-brain irradiation with concomitant chloroquine for brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Chloroquine (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, has a lysosomotropic effect associated with increased radiationsensibility, which is mediated by the leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, increased apoptosis, autophagy and increased oxidative stress in vitro. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiosensibilization using CLQ concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) to treat patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors. Methods Seventy-three eligible patients were randomized. Thirty-nine patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with 150 mg of CLQ for 4 weeks (the CLQ arm). Thirty-four patients received the same schedule of WBI concomitant with a placebo for 4 weeks (the control arm). All the patients were evaluated for quality of life (QoL) using the EORTC Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) (Mexican version) before beginning radiotherapy and one month later. Results The overall response rate (ORR) was 54% for the CLQ arm and 55% for the control arm (p=0.92). The progression-free survival of brain metastases (BMPFS) rates at one year were 83.9% (95% CI 69.4-98.4) for the CLQ arm and 55.1% (95% CI 33.6-77.6) for the control arm. Treatment with CLQ was independently associated with increased BMPFS (RR 0.31,95% CI [0.1-0.9], p=0.046).The only factor that was independently associated with increased overall survival (OS) was the presence of< 4 brain metastases (RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.12-3.3], p=0.017). WBI was associated with improvements in cognitive and emotional function but also with worsened nausea in both patients groups. No differences in QoL or toxicity were found between the study arms. Conclusion Treatment with CLQ plus WBI improved the control of BM (compared with the control arm) with no increase in toxicity; however, CLQ did not improve the RR or OS. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:24010771

  3. Safety of bazedoxifene in a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase 3 study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We report the safety findings from a 3-year phase 3 study (NCT00205777) of bazedoxifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator under development for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods Healthy postmenopausal osteoporotic women (N = 7,492; mean age, 66.4 years) were randomized to daily doses of bazedoxifene 20 or 40 mg, raloxifene 60 mg, or placebo for 3 years. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse event (AE) reporting and routine physical, gynecologic, and breast examination. Results Overall, the incidence of AEs, serious AEs, and discontinuations due to AEs in the bazedoxifene groups was not different from that seen in the placebo group. The incidence of hot flushes and leg cramps was higher with bazedoxifene or raloxifene compared with placebo. The rates of cardiac disorders and cerebrovascular events were low and evenly distributed among groups. Venous thromboembolic events, primarily deep vein thromboses, were more frequently reported in the active treatment groups compared with the placebo group; rates were similar with bazedoxifene and raloxifene. Bazedoxifene showed a neutral effect on the breast and an excellent endometrial safety profile. The incidence of fibrocystic breast disease was lower with bazedoxifene 20 and 40 mg versus raloxifene or placebo. Reductions in total and low-density lipoprotein levels and increases in high-density lipoprotein levels were seen with bazedoxifene versus placebo; similar results were seen with raloxifene. Triglyceride levels were similar among groups. Conclusion Bazedoxifene showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Trial Registration Trial registration number: NCT00205777; Trial registration date: September 16, 2005 PMID:20569451

  4. Phase Ib Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Dose Escalation Study of Polyphenon E in Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Andrew K.; Schnoll-Sussman, Felice; Bresalier, Robert S.; Abrams, Julian A.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Cheung, Ken; Friedman, Richard A.; Yang, Chung S.; Milne, Ginger L.; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Abdul, Kazeem; Bigg, Michelle; Foreman, Jessica; Su, Tao; Wang, Xiaomei; Ahmed, Aqeel; Neugut, Alfred I.; Akpa, Esther; Lippman, Scott M.; Perloff, Marjorie; Brown, Powel H.; Lightdale, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of the green-tea derived Polyphenon E (Poly E) in patients with Barrett’s Esophagus (BE). Subjects were randomized to a 6-month, twice daily (BID) oral treatment of placebo or Poly E (200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg). Endoscopic evaluation, including biopsies, was performed before and after treatment. The primary objective was to demonstrate safety; secondary objectives investigated catechin accumulation and effects in clinical specimens. Of the 44 enrolled subjects, 11 received placebo, and 33 received Poly E. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered, and a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not reached. The recommended phase 2 dose was 600 mg BID. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) in Poly E-treated subjects were grade 1–2 nausea, grade 1 belching, and grade 1 LDH elevation. No treatment-related AEs were reported in placebo-treated subjects, aside from grade 1 laboratory abnormalities. Pill counts and subject diaries were not consistently collected, and compliance was difficult to determine. However, based on an intention-to-treat analysis there was a significant relationship between Poly E dose and esophageal EGCG level – mean changes (pmol/g) of 0.79 (placebo), 6.06 (200 mg), 35.67 (400 mg), and 34.95 (600 mg); p=0.005. There was a possible relationship between Poly E dose and urine PGE-M concentration. In conclusion, Poly E was well-tolerated, and treatment with Poly E (400 mg and 600 mg) but not Poly E (200 mg) or placebo resulted in clinically relevant and detectable EGCG accumulation in the target organ, esophageal mucosa. PMID:26471236

  5. Doxepin Rinse Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Acute Oral Mucositis Pain in Patients Receiving Head and Neck Radiotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial (NCCTG-N09C6 [Alliance])

    PubMed Central

    Leenstra, James L.; Miller, Robert C.; Qin, Rui; Martenson, James A.; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.; Bearden, James D.; Puri, Dev R.; Stella, Philip J.; Mazurczak, Miroslaw A.; Klish, Marie D.; Novotny, Paul J.; Foote, Robert L.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Painful oral mucositis (OM) is a significant toxicity during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to test the efficacy of doxepin hydrochloride in the reduction of radiotherapy-induced OM pain. Patients and Methods In all, 155 patients were randomly allocated to a doxepin oral rinse or a placebo for the treatment of radiotherapy-related OM pain. Patients received a single dose of doxepin or placebo on day 1 and then crossed over to receive the opposite agent on a subsequent day. Pain questionnaires were administered at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes. Patients were then given the option to continue doxepin. The primary end point was pain reduction as measured by the area under the curve (AUC) of the pain scale using data from day 1. Results Primary end point analysis revealed that the AUC for mouth and throat pain reduction was greater for doxepin (−9.1) than for placebo (−4.7; P < .001). Crossover analysis of patients completing both phases confirmed that patients experienced greater mouth and throat pain reduction with doxepin (intrapatient changes of 4.1 for doxepin-placebo arm and −2.8 for placebo-doxepin arm; P < .001). Doxepin was associated with more stinging or burning, unpleasant taste, and greater drowsiness than the placebo rinse. More patients receiving doxepin expressed a desire to continue treatment than did patients with placebo after completion of each of the randomized phases of the study. Conclusion A doxepin rinse diminishes OM pain. Further studies are warranted to determine its role in the management of OM. PMID:24733799

  6. The 12-month analysis from Basal Cell Carcinoma Outcomes with LDE225 Treatment (BOLT): A phase II, randomized, double-blind study of sonidegib in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Reinhard; Guminski, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf; Dirix, Luc; Lewis, Karl D; Combemale, Patrick; Herd, Robert M; Kaatz, Martin; Loquai, Carmen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Schulze, Hans-Joachim; Plummer, Ruth; Gogov, Sven; Pallaud, Celine; Yi, Tingting; Mone, Manisha; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Cornélis, Frank; Kudchadkar, Ragini; Trefzer, Uwe; Lear, John T; Sellami, Dalila; Migden, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    The hedgehog pathway inhibitor sonidegib demonstrated meaningful tumor shrinkage in more than 90% of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or metastatic BCC in the BCC Outcomes with LDE225 Treatment study. This report provides long-term follow-up data collected up to 12 months after the last patient was randomized. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase II study, patients were randomized 1:2 to sonidegib 200 or 800 mg. The primary end point was objective response rate assessed by central review. Objective response rates in the 200- and 800-mg arms were 57.6% and 43.8% in locally advanced BCC and 7.7% and 17.4% in metastatic BCC, respectively. Among the 94 patients with locally advanced BCC who responded, only 18 progressed or died and more than 50% had responses lasting longer than 6 months. In addition, 4 of 5 responders with metastatic BCC maintained an objective response. Grade 3/4 adverse events and those leading to discontinuation were less frequent with sonidegib 200 versus 800 mg (38.0% vs 59.3%; 27.8% vs 37.3%, respectively). No placebo or comparator arms were used because sonidegib demonstrated efficacy in advanced BCC in a phase I study, and the hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib was not yet approved. With longer follow-up, sonidegib demonstrated sustained tumor responses in patients with advanced BCC. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral Prednisolone in the Treatment of Acute Gout: A Pragmatic, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Timothy Hudson; Cheng, Chi Hung; Janssens, Hein J E M; Man, Chi Yin; Tam, Lai Shan; Choi, Yu Fai; Yau, Wah Hon; Lee, Ka Hing; Graham, Colin Alexander

    2016-04-05

    Two recent double-blind, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) showed that oral steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have similar analgesic effectiveness for management of gout, but the trials had small sample sizes and other methodological limitations. To compare the effectiveness and safety of oral prednisolone versus oral indomethacin in patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with acute gout. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized equivalence trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive either indomethacin or prednisolone. (ISRCTN registry number: ISRCTN45724113). Four EDs in Hong Kong. 416 patients aged 18 years or older. Analgesic effectiveness was defined as changes in pain (at rest or with activity) greater than 13 mm on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Outcomes were measured during the first 2 hours in the ED and from days 1 to 14. 376 patients completed the study. Equivalent and clinically significant within-group reductions in mean pain score were observed with indomethacin and prednisolone in the ED (approximately 10 mm [rest] and 20 mm [activity]) and from days 1 to 14 (approximately 25 mm [rest] and 45 mm [activity]). No major adverse events occurred during the study. During the ED phase, patients in the indomethacin group had more minor adverse events than those in the prednisolone group (19% vs. 6%; P < 0.001). During days 1 to 14, 37% of patients in each group had minor adverse events. Diagnosis of gout was usually based on clinical criteria rather than examination of joint fluid. Oral prednisolone and indomethacin had similar analgesic effectiveness among patients with acute gout. Prednisolone is a safe, effective first-line option for treatment of acute gout. Health and Health Services Research Grant Committee of the Hong Kong Government.

  8. Reparative therapy for acute ischemic stroke with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue: a safety assessment: a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Lara, Manuel Lara; Gimeno, Blanca Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the possible beneficial effect of the administration of stem cells in the early stages of stroke. Intravenous administration of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue in patients with acute stroke could be a safe therapy for promoting neurovascular unit repair, consequently supporting better functional recovery. We aim to assess the safety and efficacy of MSC administration and evaluate its potential as a treatment for cerebral protection and repair. A Phase IIa, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, pilot clinical trial. Twenty patients presenting acute ischemic stroke will be randomized in a 1:1 proportion to treatment with allogeneic MSCs from adipose tissue or to placebo (or vehicle) administered as a single intravenous dose within the first 2 weeks after the onset of stroke symptoms. The patients will be followed up for 2 years. Primary outcomes for safety analysis: adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs; neurologic and systemic complications, and tumor development. Secondary outcomes for efficacy analysis: modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS; infarct size; and biochemical markers of brain repair (vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and matrix metalloproteinases 9). To our knowledge, this is the first, phase II, pilot clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of allogeneic MSCs from adipose tissue within the first 2 weeks of stroke. In addition, its results will help us define the best criteria for a future phase III study. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: A randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Purpose To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. Methods From 1998–2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. Results The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Limitations Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. Conclusions BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of the new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria vaccine in healthy Korean adolescents: A comparative active control, double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III study.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young Youn; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin Han

    2017-04-01

    A new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine was developed in Korea, and phase I and II clinical trials were successfully undertaken. We conducted this double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the new Td vaccine. Healthy adolescents 11-12 years of age were enrolled and randomized to receive the new Td vaccine (study group) or a commercially available Td vaccine (control group). Blood samples were collected prior to and 4 weeks after the vaccination. Between the study and control groups, seroprotection rate, booster response, and geometric mean titer of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were compared after the vaccination. All solicited and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events during the 6-week study period were monitored. A total of 164 adolescents received vaccination, and 156 of them were evaluated to assess immunogenicity. The seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer for antibodies against diphtheria were significantly higher in the study group, whereas those against tetanus were significantly higher in the control group. However, all seroprotection rates against diphtheria and tetanus in the study and control groups were high: 100% against diphtheria and tetanus in the study group, and 98.7% against diphtheria and 100% against tetanus in the control group. No significant differences in the frequency of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were observed between the two vaccine groups. The new Td vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and this new Td vaccine can be effectively used for preventing diphtheria and tetanus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Two Phase 1, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Ascending-Dose Studies To Investigate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of an Anti-Influenza A Virus Monoclonal Antibody, MHAA4549A, in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Rong; Derby, Michael A.; Larouche, Richard; Horn, Priscilla; Anderson, Malia; Maia, Mauricio; Carrier, Stephanie; Pelletier, Isabelle; Burgess, Tracy; Kulkarni, Priya; Newton, Elizabeth; Tavel, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalized patients with severe influenza are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. MHAA4549A is a human monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 antibody that binds to a highly conserved stalk region of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin protein and neutralizes all tested seasonal human influenza A virus strains. Two phase 1 trials examined the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of MHAA4549A in healthy volunteers. Both single ascending-dose trials were randomized, double blinded, and placebo controlled. Trial 1 randomized 21 healthy adults into four cohorts receiving a single intravenous dose of 1.5, 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg MHAA4549A or placebo. Trial 2 randomized 14 healthy adults into two cohorts receiving a single intravenous fixed dose of 8,400 mg or 10,800 mg of MHAA4549A or placebo. Subjects were followed for 120 days after dosing. No subject was discontinued in either trial, and no serious adverse events were reported. The most common adverse event in both studies was mild headache (trial 1, 4/16 subjects receiving MHAA4549A and 1/5 receiving placebo; trial 2, 4/8 subjects receiving MHAA4549A and 2/6 receiving placebo). MHAA4549A produced no relevant time- or dose-related changes in laboratory values or vital signs compared to those with placebo. No subjects developed an antitherapeutic antibody response following MHAA4549A administration. MHAA4549A showed linear serum pharmacokinetics, with a mean half-life of 22.5 to 23.7 days. MHAA4549A is safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers up to a single intravenous dose of 10,800 mg and demonstrates linear serum pharmacokinetics consistent with those of a human IgG1 antibody lacking known endogenous targets in humans. (These trials have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01877785 and NCT02284607). PMID:27381392

  12. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase II/III study.

    PubMed

    Hide, Michihiro; Yagami, Akiko; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-04-01

    Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H1-antihistamine, has been widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria with a recommended dose of 20 mg once daily in most European countries since 2010. We evaluated its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II/III study (trial registration No. JapicCTI-142574). Patients (age, 18-74 years) were randomly assigned to receive bilastine 20 mg, 10 mg or placebo once daily for 2 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline (Day -3 to 0) in total symptom score (TSS) at 2 weeks (Day 8-14), consisting of the itch and rash scores. A total of 304 patients were randomly allocated to bilastine 20 mg (101 patients), bilastine 10 mg (100 patients), and placebo (103 patients). The changes in TSS at 2 weeks were significantly decreased by bilastine 20 mg than did placebo (p < 0.001), demonstrating the superiority of bilastine 20 mg. Bilastine 10 mg also showed a significant difference from placebo (p < 0.001). The TSS changes for the bilastine showed significant improvement from Day 1, and were maintained during the treatment period. The Dermatology Life Quality Index scores were also improved in bilastine than in placebo. The bilastine treatments were safe and well tolerated. Two-week treatment with bilastine (20 or 10 mg) once daily was effective and tolerable in Japanese patients with CSU, demonstrating an early onset of action. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  14. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  15. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…

  16. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  17. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…

  18. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  19. Testing the Model: A Phase 1/2 Randomized Double Blind Placebo Control Trial of Targeted Therapeutics: Liposomal Glutathione and Curcumin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Ironson G, Fletcher MA, Klimas N, Schneiderman N.Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral stress management on human immunodeficiency virus ...management on human immunodeficiency virus viral load in gay men treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Psychosom Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;68( 1 ...J, Boulanger C, Kolber M, Mask CW, Sierra EM, Vallejo R, Page JB, Klimas NG, Fletcher MA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pharmacogenomics in

  20. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke PISA, a phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    PubMed Central

    Dippel, Diederik WJ; van Breda, Eric J; van der Worp, H Bart; van Gemert, H Maarten A; Meijer, Ron J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Koudstaal, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    Background Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. In a previous randomized trial we observed that treatment with high-dose acetaminophen (paracetamol) led to a reduction of body temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke, even when they had no fever. The purpose of the present trial was to study whether this effect of acetaminophen could be reproduced, and whether ibuprofen would have a similar, or even stronger effect. Methods Seventy-five patients with acute ischemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation were randomized to treatment with either 1000 mg acetaminophen, 400 mg ibuprofen, or placebo, given 6 times daily during 5 days. Treatment was started within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. Body temperatures were measured at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours, and at 6-hour intervals thereafter. Results No difference in body temperature at 24 hours was observed between the three treatment groups. However, treatment with high-dose acetaminophen resulted in a 0.3°C larger reduction in body temperature from baseline than placebo treatment (95% CI: 0.0 to 0.6 °C). Acetaminophen had no significant effect on body temperature during the subsequent four days compared to placebo, and ibuprofen had no statistically significant effect on body temperature during the entire study period. Conclusions Treatment with a daily dose of 6000 mg acetaminophen results in a small, but potentially worthwhile decrease in body temperature after acute ischemic stroke, even in normothermic and subfebrile patients. Further large randomized clinical trials are needed to study whether early reduction of body temperature leads to improved outcome. PMID:12657165

  1. Prophylactic Efficacy of Hyperimmune Bovine Colostral Antiadhesin Antibodies Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Diarrhea: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 1 Trial.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Stephen J; McKenzie, Robin; Tribble, David R; Porter, Chad K; O'Dowd, Aisling; Cantrell, Joyce A; Sincock, Stephanie A; Poole, Steven T; DeNearing, Barbara; Woods, Colleen M; Kim, Hye; Grahek, Shannon L; Brinkley, Carl; Crabb, Joseph H; Bourgeois, A Louis

    2017-07-01

    Tip-localized adhesive proteins of bacterial fimbriae from diverse pathogens confer protection in animal models, but efficacy in humans has not been reported. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) commonly elaborate colonization factors comprising a minor tip adhesin and major stalk-forming subunit. We assessed the efficacy of antiadhesin bovine colostral IgG (bIgG) antibodies against ETEC challenge in volunteers. Adults were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to take oral hyperimmune bIgG raised against CFA/I minor pilin subunit (CfaE) tip adhesin or colonization factor I (CFA/I) fimbraie (positive control) or placebo. Two days before challenge, volunteers began a thrice-daily, 7-day course of investigational product administered in sodium bicarbonate 15 minutes after each meal. On day 3, subjects drank 1 × 109 colony-forming units of colonization factor I (CFA/I)-ETEC strain H10407 with buffer. The primary efficacy endpoint was diarrhea within 120 hours of challenge. After enrollment and randomization, 31 volunteers received product, underwent ETEC challenge, and were included in the per protocol efficacy analysis. Nine of 11 placebos developed diarrhea, 7 experiencing moderate to severe disease. Protective efficacy of 63% (P = .03) and 88% (P = .002) was observed in the antiadhesin bIgG and positive control groups, respectively. Oral administration of anti-CFA/I minor pilin subunit (CfaE) antibodies conferred significant protection against ETEC, providing the first clinical evidence that fimbrial tip adhesins function as protective antigens.

  2. A single dose of pegfilgrastim compared with daily filgrastim for supporting neutrophil recovery in patients treated for low-to-intermediate risk acute myeloid leukemia: results from a randomized, double-blind, phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Jorge; Szer, Jeffrey; Kassis, Jeannine; Herrmann, Richard; Lazzarino, Mario; Thomas, Xavier; Noga, Stephen J; Baker, Nigel; Dansey, Roger; Bosi, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are often neutropenic as a result of their disease. Furthermore, these patients typically experience profound neutropenia following induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy and this may result in serious, potentially life-threatening, infection. This randomized, double-blind, phase 2 clinical trial compared the efficacy and tolerability of pegfilgrastim with filgrastim for assisting neutrophil recovery following induction and consolidation chemotherapy for de novo AML in patients with low-to-intermediate risk cytogenetics. Methods Patients (n = 84) received one or two courses of standard induction chemotherapy (idarubicin + cytarabine), followed by one course of consolidation therapy (high-dose cytarabine) if complete remission was achieved. They were randomized to receive either single-dose pegfilgrastim 6 mg or daily filgrastim 5 μg/kg, beginning 24 hours after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Results The median time to recovery from severe neutropenia was 22.0 days for both pegfilgrastim (n = 42) and filgrastim (n = 41) groups during Induction 1 (difference 0.0 days; 95% CI: -1.9 to 1.9). During Consolidation, recovery occurred after a median of 17.0 days for pegfilgrastim versus 16.5 days for filgrastim (difference 0.5 days; 95% CI: -1.1 to 2.1). Therapeutic pegfilgrastim serum concentrations were maintained throughout neutropenia. Pegfilgrastim was well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of filgrastim. Conclusion These data suggest no clinically meaningful difference between a single dose of pegfilgrastim and multiple daily doses of filgrastim for shortening the duration of severe neutropenia following chemotherapy in de novo AML patients with low-to-intermediate risk cytogenetics. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00114764 PMID:18616811

  3. A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study comparing siltuximab plus best supportive care (BSC) with placebo plus BSC in anemic patients with International Prognostic Scoring System low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Gartenberg, Gary; Steensma, David P; Schipperus, Martin R; Breems, Dimitri A; de Paz, Raquel; Valcárcel, David; Kranenburg, Britte; Reddy, Manjula; Komrokji, Rami S

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of anemia of inflammation associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study assessed the efficacy and safety of siltuximab, a chimeric anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with low- and intermediate-1-risk MDS who require transfusions for MDS anemia. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to siltuximab 15 mg kg(-1) every 4 weeks + best supportive care (BSC) or placebo + BSC for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was reduction in red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to treat MDS anemia, defined as ≥50% relative decrease and ≥2-unit absolute decrease in RBC transfusions. Fifty and 26 patients were randomized to the siltuximab and placebo groups, respectively. The study did not meet its prespecified hypothesis, with six (12%) patients in the siltuximab group and one (3.8%) in the placebo group having reductions in RBC transfusions (P = 0.271). At the time of the planned futility analysis, the prespecified cutoff criteria were not met, and the study was terminated early due to lack of efficacy. No unexpected safety findings were observed. In conclusion, compared to placebo, treatment with siltuximab did not reduce RBC transfusions in transfusion-dependent patients with low- and intermediate-1-risk MDS. Future studies might explore siltuximab in patients with less iron overload and with elevated IL-6 levels and/or using higher doses for MDS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Treatment of older patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel: subgroup analyses from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial (CLEOPATRA).

    PubMed

    Miles, David; Baselga, José; Amadori, Dino; Sunpaweravong, Patrapim; Semiglazov, Vladimir; Knott, Adam; Clark, Emma; Ross, Graham; Swain, Sandra M

    2013-11-01

    Although the incidence of cancer increases with age, older patients are under-represented in cancer treatment trials, resulting in limited data availability in this patient population. Here we present results from pre-defined subgroup analyses conducted by age group (<65 vs ≥ 65 years) from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients who had not received previous chemotherapy or biological therapy for HER2-positive locally recurrent, unresectable or metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel or with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. Primary endpoint was independently assessed progression-free survival. We performed pre-specified subgroup analyses of progression-free survival according to age. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00567190. 808 patients were enrolled. Of those, 127 patients were 65 years of age or older (placebo arm: 67, pertuzumab arm: 60). Patients in both age groups experienced progression-free survival benefit with treatment in the pertuzumab arm (<65 years: HR: 0.65; 95 % CI 0.53-0.80; ≥65 years: HR: 0.52; 95 % CI 0.31-0.86). Diarrhoea, fatigue, asthenia, decreased appetite, vomiting, and dysgeusia were reported more frequently in patients 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were reported less frequently in the older age group. The efficacy and safety data reported in CLEOPATRA suggest that the combined use of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel should not be limited by patient age.

  5. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ipragliflozin in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycemic control with metformin: Results of a phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Min, Kyung Wan; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Kokubo, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2016-05-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in combination with metformin in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This phase 3, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was carried out at 18 sites in Korea and 12 sites in Taiwan. After an 8-week washout period for patients using drugs other than metformin and a 2-week run-in period, patients were randomized to either 50 mg ipragliflozin or a placebo for 24 weeks while continuing metformin. Efficacy outcomes included the changes in hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and bodyweight from baseline to the end of treatment (with last observation carried forward). Safety outcomes included treatment-emergent adverse events. Between November 2011 and January 2013, 171 patients were randomized to and administered ipragliflozin (n = 87) or a placebo (n = 83). The mean changes (standard deviation) in hemoglobin A1c were -0.94% (0.75%) and -0.47% (0.81%) in the ipragliflozin and placebo groups, respectively (between-group difference -0.46%, P < 0.001). The changes in fasting plasma glucose and bodyweight were also significantly greater in the ipragliflozin group, with between-group differences of -14.1 mg/dL and -1.24 kg, respectively (both P < 0.001). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (ipragliflozin vs placebo) were upper respiratory tract infection (9.2% vs 12.0%) and urinary tract infection (6.9% vs 2.4%). These results show that ipragliflozin is effective and well tolerated when used in combination with metformin in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Ketoprofen versus paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen in the management of fever: results of two randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies in children.

    PubMed

    Kokki, Hannu; Kokki, Merja

    2010-01-01

    Fever is a common symptom in children and one of the major concerns of parents of younger and preschool-age children. To compare the efficacy and safety of ketoprofen with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen in the treatment of febrile conditions in children. Two prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies with two parallel groups in each study were conducted in primary-care outpatient clinics. Children aged 6 months to 6 years presenting with a febrile condition and an oral body temperature of > or =38.8 degrees C or rectal temperature of > or =39 degrees C were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized to receive either ketoprofen syrup 0.5 mg/kg, ibuprofen suspension 5 mg/kg or paracetamol suspension 15 mg/kg every 6 hours by the oral route. The primary outcome measure was the change in temperature at 3 hours (H3), compared with baseline (H0). All three treatments provided similar mean maximum decreases of 1.4-1.5 degrees C in body temperature at H3 compared with H0. Use of ketoprofen was not associated with any increased risk of adverse events compared with the two reference compounds. Ketoprofen 0.5 mg/kg appeared to be equivalent to the standard antipyretic doses of the reference products ibuprofen 5 mg/kg and paracetamol 15 mg/kg. Ketoprofen at the 0.5 mg/kg dose should be an effective and safe option for symptomatic management of fever in children.

  7. Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Dose-Ranging Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, Population Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Oral Torezolid Phosphate in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Prokocimer, P.; Bien, P.; Surber, J.; Mehra, P.; DeAnda, C.; Bulitta, J. B.; Corey, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    Torezolid (TR-700) is the active moiety of the prodrug torezolid phosphate ([TP] TR-701), a second-generation oxazolidinone with 4- to 16-fold greater potency than linezolid against Gram-positive species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A double-blind phase 2 study evaluated three levels (200, 300, or 400 mg) of oral, once-daily TP over 5 to 7 days for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Patients 18 to 75 years old with cSSSI caused by suspected or confirmed Gram-positive pathogens were randomized 1:1:1. Of 188 treated patients, 76.6% had abscesses, 17.6% had extensive cellulitis, and 5.9% had wound infections. S. aureus, the most common pathogen, was isolated in 90.3% of patients (139/154) with a baseline pathogen; 80.6% were MRSA. Cure rates in clinically evaluable patients were 98.2% at 200 mg, 94.4% at 300 mg, and 94.4% at 400 mg. Cure rates were consistent across diagnoses, regardless of lesion size or the presence of systemic signs of infection. Clinical cure rates in patients with S. aureus isolated at baseline were 96.6% overall and 96.8% for MRSA. TP was safe and well tolerated at all dose levels. No patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. Three-stage hierarchical population pharmacokinetic modeling yielded a geometric mean clearance of 8.28 liters/h (between-patient variability, 32.3%), a volume of the central compartment of 71.4 liters (24.0%), and a volume of the peripheral compartment of 27.9 liters (35.7%). Results of this study show a high degree of efficacy at all three dose levels without significant differences in the safety profile and support the continued evaluation of TP for the treatment of cSSSI in phase 3 trials. PMID:21115795

  8. Reactogenicity and safety of a liquid human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in healthy adults, children and infants in China: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Cheng; Li, Yan-Ping; Mo, Zhao-Jun; Luo, Dong; Huang, Teng; Kong, Ji-Lian; Wang, Lao-Hong; Song, Ning-Sheng; Liu, Aixue; Zhang, Helen; Liao, Xueyan; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay

    2013-08-01

    We report the findings of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I studies undertaken to support licensure of the liquid formulation of the human G1P[8] rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA) in China. Healthy adults aged 18-45 y (n=48) and children aged 2-6 y (n=50) received a single dose of the human RV vaccine or placebo. Healthy infants (n=50) aged 6-16 weeks at the time of first vaccination received two oral doses of the human RV vaccine or placebo according to a 0, 1 mo schedule. In infants, blood samples were collected prior to vaccination and one month post-dose 2 to assess anti-RV IgA antibody concentrations using ELISA. Stool samples were collected from all infants on the day of each vaccination, at 7 and 15 d after each vaccination and one month post-dose 2. Stool samples were analyzed by ELISA for detection of RV antigen to assess RV antigen excretion. The reactogenicity profile of the human RV vaccine was found to be comparable to that of placebo in all age groups studied. The anti-RV IgA antibody seroconversion rate in infants after two vaccine doses was 86.7% (95% CI: 59.5-98.3). Vaccine take in infants who received the liquid human RV vaccine was 86.7% (95% CI: 59.5-98.3). A Phase III efficacy study of the human RV vaccine in the infant population in China has now been completed (ROTA-075/NCT01171963).

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of quetiapine in patients with bipolar disorder, mixed or depressed phase, and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. Sherwood; Domingo Davila, S.; Nakamura, Alyson; Carmody, Thomas J.; Rush, A. John; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci; Adinoff, Bryon; Caetano, Raul; Swann, Alan C; Sunderajan, Prabha; Bret, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is common in bipolar disorder (BPD) and associated with treatment non-adherence, violence, and hospitalization. Quetiapine is a standard treatment for BPD. We previously reported improvement in depressive symptoms, but not alcohol use, with quetiapine in BPD and alcohol dependence. However, mean alcohol use was low and a larger effect size on alcohol-related measures was observed in those with higher levels of alcohol consumption. In this study, efficacy of quetiapine in patients with BPD and alcohol dependence was examined in patients with higher mean baseline alcohol use than in the prior study. Methods Ninety outpatients with bipolar I or II disorders, depressed or mixed mood state, and current alcohol dependence were randomized to 12 weeks of sustained release quetiapine (to 600 mg/day) add-on therapy or placebo. Drinking was quantified using the Timeline Follow Back method. Additional assessment tools included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (IDS-SR30), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), liver enzymes, and side effects. Alcohol use and mood were analyzed using a declining-effects random-regression model. Results Baseline and demographic characteristics in the two groups were similar. No significant between-group differences were observed on the primary outcome measure of drinks/day or other alcohol-related or mood measures (p>.05). Overall side effect burden, glucose and cholesterol were similar in the two groups. However, a significant weight increase was observed with quetiapine at week 6 (+2.9 lbs [SE 1.4] quetiapine vs. −2.0 lbs [SE 1.4], p=.03), but not at week 12. Scores on the Barnes Akathisia Scale increased significantly more (p=.04) with quetiapine (+0.40 (SE 0.3)) than placebo (−0.52 (SE 0.3)) at week 6 but not week 12. Retention (survival) in the study was similar in the groups. Conclusions Findings suggest that

  10. Triple-Bead Mixed Amphetamine Salts (SHP465) in Adults With ADHD: Results of a Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Forced-Dose Trial.

    PubMed

    Frick, Glen; Yan, Brian; Adler, Lenard A

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in ADHD. Adults with ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥32 were randomized to 6 weeks of triple-bead MAS (25, 50, or 75 mg) or placebo. The primary endpoint was ADHD-RS-IV total score change from baseline at end of study (EOS). Least squares mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) treatment differences for ADHD-RS-IV total score changes from baseline to EOS significantly favored triple-bead MAS (all doses combined: -10.6 [-13.2, -8.0]; p < .0001); there were no significant differences between triple-bead MAS dosages. The most frequently reported TEAEs with triple-bead MAS (all doses combined) included insomnia, decreased appetite, and dry mouth. Mean ± SD pulse and systolic blood pressure increases at EOS were 3.5 ± 10.33 bpm and 0.3 ± 10.48 mmHg with triple-bead MAS (all doses combined). Triple-bead MAS significantly reduced adult ADHD symptoms; the safety profile was consistent with previous triple-bead MAS studies.

  11. Phase III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Intravenous Calcium and Magnesium to Prevent Oxaliplatin-Induced Sensory Neurotoxicity (N08CB/Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Charles L.; Qin, Rui; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Flynn, Kathleen A.; Atherton, Pamela; Seisler, Drew; Qamar, Rubina; Lewis, Grant C.; Grothey, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cumulative neurotoxicity is a prominent toxicity of oxaliplatin-based therapy. Intravenous calcium and magnesium have been extensively used to reduce oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. This trial was designed to definitively test whether calcium/magnesium decreases oxaliplatin-related neurotoxicity. Patients and Methods In all, 353 patients with colon cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy with FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) were randomly assigned to intravenous calcium/magnesium before and after oxaliplatin, a placebo before and after, or calcium/magnesium before and placebo after. The primary end point was cumulative neurotoxicity measured by the sensory scale of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 tool. Results There were no statistically significant neuropathy differences among the study arms as measured by the primary end point or additional measures of neuropathy, including clinician-determined measurement of the time to grade 2 neuropathy by using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events scale or an oxaliplatin-specific neuropathy scale. In addition, calcium/magnesium did not substantially decrease oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy. Conclusion This study does not support using calcium/magnesium to protect against oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24297951

  12. A randomized double-blind, non-inferiority Phase II trial, comparing dapaconazole tosylate 2% cream with ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, André Alves Moraes; Babadópulos, Tainah; Gobbato, Cintia Aparecida Rodrigues Santiago; Ilha, Jaime de Oliveira; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a new antifungal imidazole, dapaconazole tosylate, in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor (PV). Sixty patients with clinical and mycological diagnosis of PV were randomly assigned to receive either 1 g dapaconazole tosylate 2% cream or 1 g ketoconazole 2% cream. Treatments were applied once a day for 28 days. A dermatologist evaluated efficacy and safety daily, and weekly laboratorial tests were performed. The primary end point was a clinical and mycological cure of lesions after 28 days of treatment. The secondary end point was the time to clinical healing assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log-rank testing. Fifty-three patients adhered to protocol rules. Clinical and mycological cure was achieved in 84.6% (22/26) and 92.6% (25/27) of patients treated with ketoconazole and dapaconazole, respectively (difference [effect size] = 8.0%, Standard error of difference: 8.69%, 95% CI: -6.3 to 22.3%). Median time to healing was 23.5 and 21 days for ketoconazole and dapaconazole, respectively (p = 0.126). Adverse events occurred only in ketoconazole-treated patients (13%; 4/30). Dapaconazole tosylate is non-inferior to ketoconazole when used at a dose of 20 mg/day for 28 consecutive days for the treatment of PV. Dapaconazole also demonstrated a good safety profile.

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 28-day, polysomnographic study of gabapentin in transient insomnia induced by sleep phase advance.

    PubMed

    Furey, Sandy A; Hull, Steven G; Leibowitz, Mark T; Jayawardena, Shyamalie; Roth, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate multiple doses of gabapentin 250 mg on polysomnography (PSG) and participant-reported sleep assessments in a 5-h phase advance insomnia model. Adults reporting occasional disturbed sleep received gabapentin 250 mg (n = 128) or placebo (n = 128). On Days 1 and 28, participants received medication 30 min before bedtime and were in bed from 17:00 to 01:00, ∼5 h before their habitual bedtime. Sleep was assessed by PSG, a post sleep questionnaire, and the Karolinska Sleep Diary. Next-day residual effects and tolerability were evaluated. On Days 2-27, participants took medication at home 30 min before their habitual bedtime. Treatment-group demographics were comparable. Gabapentin resulted in significantly less PSG wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared with placebo on Day 1 (primary endpoint, mean: 107.0 versus 149.1 min, p ≤ 0.001) and Day 28 (113.6 versus 152.3 min, p = 0.002), and significantly greater total sleep time (TST; Day 1: 347.6 versus 283.9 min; Day 28: 335.3 versus 289.1 min) (p ≤ 0.001). Participant-reported WASO and TST also showed significant treatment effects on both days. Gabapentin was associated with less %stage1 on Day 1, and greater %REM on Day 28, versus placebo. During home use, gabapentin resulted in significantly less participant-reported WASO and higher ratings of sleep quality. Gabapentin was well tolerated (most common adverse events: headache, somnolence) with no evidence of next-day impairment. Gabapentin 250 mg resulted in greater PSG and participant-reported sleep duration following a 5-h phase advance on Day 1 and Day 28 of use without evidence of next-day impairment, and greater sleep duration during at-home use.

  14. Double-blind, randomized, phase 2 trial of maintenance sunitinib versus placebo after response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Petros D; Daignault, Stephanie; Tagawa, Scott T; Nanus, David M; Stadler, Walter M; Dreicer, Robert; Kohli, Manish; Petrylak, Daniel P; Vaughn, David J; Bylow, Kathryn A; Wong, Steven G; Sottnik, Joseph L; Keller, Evan T; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud; Smith, David C; Hussain, Maha

    2014-03-01

    Angiogenesis contributes to the progression of urothelial carcinoma (UC). In the current study, the authors investigated the role of maintenance sunitinib in patients with advanced UC. Patients with locally recurrent/metastatic UC and adequate organ function who achieved stable disease or a partial or complete response after 4 to 6 chemotherapy cycles were randomized to sunitinib at a dose of 50 mg/day (28 days on and 14 days off) or placebo. The primary endpoint was the 6-month progression rate. Secondary endpoints were safety, survival, change in serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/soluble VEGF receptor-2 (sVEGFR2), and the activity of sunitinib in patients who developed disease progression while receiving placebo. A total of 38 eligible patients per treatment arm were required to select better therapy with 90% probability (α = .05). A total of 54 eligible patients were randomized to either the sunitinib arm (26 patients) or the placebo arm (28 patients). The median number of cycles received was 2 cycles per treatment arm. The most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events (graded according to version 3.0 of the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) among patients receiving sunitinib were thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, mucositis, fatigue, and hypertension. There were no grade 3 or 4 adverse events noted among > 5% of patients receiving placebo. The 6-month progression rate was 72% versus 64%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.9 months (range, 0.5 months-32.5 months) versus 2.7 months (range, 0.8 months -65 months) for the sunitinib versus placebo arms, respectively. Patients receiving placebo were found to have no changes in their serum VEGF/sVEGFR2 levels over time. Patients treated with sunitinib had no significant change in their VEGF level, but the sVEGFR2 level significantly decreased after cycles 1 and 2 (P < .0001) and at the time of disease progression (P = .0002). A baseline VEGF level that was

  15. Efficacy and safety of NABOTA in post-stroke upper limb spasticity: a phase 3 multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyung Seok; Park, Yoon Ghil; Paik, Nam-Jong; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chun, Min Ho; Yang, Hea-Eun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Yi, Youbin; Seo, Han Gil; Kim, Kwang Dong; Chang, Min Cheol; Ryu, Jae Hak; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2015-10-15

    Botulinum toxin A is widely used in the clinics to reduce spasticity and improve upper limb function for post-stroke patients. Efficacy and safety of a new botulinum toxin type A, NABOTA (DWP450) in post-stroke upper limb spasticity was evaluated in comparison with Botox (onabotulinum toxin A). A total of 197 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were included in this study and randomly assigned to NABOTA group (n=99) or Botox group (n=98). Wrist flexors with modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) grade 2 or greater, and elbow flexors, thumb flexors and finger flexors with MAS 1 or greater were injected with either drug. The primary outcome was the change of wrist flexor MAS between baseline and 4weeks post-injection. MAS of each injected muscle, Disability Assessment Scale (DAS), and Caregiver Burden Scale were also assessed at baseline and 4, 8, and 12weeks after the injection. Global Assessment Scale (GAS) was evaluated on the last visit at 12weeks. The change of MAS for wrist flexor between baseline and 4weeks post-injection was -1.44±0.72 in the NABOTA group and -1.46±0.77 in the Botox group. The difference of change between both groups was 0.0129 (95% confidence interval -0.2062-0.2319), within the non-inferiority margin of 0.45. Both groups showed significant improvements regarding MAS of all injected muscles, DAS, and Caregiver Burden Scale at all follow-up periods. There were no significant differences in all secondary outcome measures between the two groups. NABOTA demonstrated non-inferior efficacy and safety for improving upper limb spasticity in stroke patients compared to Botox. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in Asian patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis: A Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, JianZhong; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Lee, Min-Geol; Zheng, Min; Wang, Gang; Jin, HongZhong; Gu, Jun; Li, RuoYu; Liu, QuanZhong; Chen, Jin; Tu, CaiXia; Qi, ChunMei; Zhu, Hua; Ports, William C; Crook, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. This study assessed tofacitinib efficacy and safety vs placebo in Asian patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis. Patients from China mainland, Taiwan, and Korea were randomized 2:2:1:1 to tofacitinib 5mg (N=88), tofacitinib 10mg (N=90), placebo→5mg (N=44), or placebo→10mg (N=44), twice daily (BID) for 52 weeks. Placebo-treated patients advanced to tofacitinib at Week 16. Co-primary efficacy endpoints: proportions of patients achieving Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) response ('clear' or 'almost clear') and proportion achieving ≥75% reduction from baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI75) at Week 16. At Week 16, more patients achieved PGA and PASI75 responses with tofacitinib 5mg (52.3%; 54.6%) and 10mg (75.6%; 81.1%) BID vs placebo (19.3%; 12.5%; all p<0.0001). Of patients with a Week 16 response, 73.6% and 75.0% maintained PGA response, and 76.8% and 84.9% maintained PASI75 to Week 52 with tofacitinib 5mg and 10mg BID, respectively. Over 52 weeks, 2.2-4.5% of patients across treatment groups experienced serious adverse events, and 1.1-6.8% discontinued due to adverse events. Tofacitinib demonstrated efficacy vs placebo at Week 16 in Asian patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis; efficacy was maintained through Week 52. No unexpected safety findings were observed. [NCT01815424]. Copyright © 2017 The Authors and Pfizer Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase III clinical study of maxacalcitol ointment in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2016-03-01

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) often shows resistance to treatment. Vitamin D3 analog (VitD3 ) has been widely used for the treatment of psoriasis, however, the efficacy and safety of topical VitD3 treatment of PPP are not fully confirmed. Maxacalcitol topical ointment (22-oxacalcitriol [OCT]) was applied twice daily for 8 weeks. Evaluation of efficacy was based on scored skin findings for three main symptoms (erythema, pustules/vesicles and keratinization/scales). The primary and secondary end-points were the total and symptom-specific scores of skin findings, respectively. A total of 188 patients with moderate or severe PPP were enrolled in the study and were randomized into either the OCT group (n = 95) or placebo group (n = 93). The total scores (mean ± standard error) of skin findings at the last observation adjusting for those on day 1 were 5.0 ± 0.20 in the OCT group and 6.9 ± 0.20 in the placebo group. There was a significant decrease in the total score of skin findings in the OCT group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.0001). In particular, the score of pustules/vesicles drastically decreased in the OCT group. In terms of safety, the incidence of adverse reactions in the OCT and placebo groups were 11.6% and 9.7%, respectively. These results indicate that OCT is effective and highly safe in the management of PPP. Topical OCT treatment was found to show a potent action on pustules/vesicles thereby contributing to the cure of PPP.

  18. A phase II, randomized, double blind trial of calcium aluminosilicate clay versus placebo for the prevention of diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Kee, Bryan K; Morris, Jeffrey S; Slack, Rebecca S; Crocenzi, Todd; Wong, Lucas; Esparaz, Ben; Overman, Michael; Glover, Katrina; Jones, Desiree; Wen, Sijin; Fisch, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Calcium aluminosilicate clay (CASAD) is a naturally occurring clay that serves as a cation exchange absorbent. We hypothesized that oral administration of CASAD would reduce the rate of grade 3/4 diarrhea associated with irinotecan use for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) by adsorbing the SN-38 metabolite. Patients receiving irinotecan-based chemotherapy were randomized equally between CASAD and placebo arms in this multicenter trial in order to assess differences in the proportions of patients with grade 3/4 diarrhea within 6 weeks. Additionally, we compared symptom severity between the two arms using the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory. Between May 2009 and May 2012, 100 patients were enrolled. In evaluable patients, 7 of 43 (16 %) on the CASAD arm compared to 3 of 32 (9 %) on the placebo arm experienced grade 3/4 diarrhea (P = 0.70). The rate of any diarrhea among all patients was similar (CASAD arm, 64 % vs. placebo arm, 70 %). The rate of study dropout was 14 % in the CASAD arm and 38 % in the placebo arm (P = 0.01). No differences were found in symptom severity, individual symptom items, and in serious adverse events between the two arms. Compared to placebo, CASAD use was safe but ineffective in preventing diarrhea in metastatic CRC patients treated with irinotecan-containing chemotherapy regimens. There were no distinct signals in terms of patient symptoms between arms, but there was significantly more patient dropout in the placebo arm. Future CASAD trials will focus on the active treatment of diarrhea.

  19. Effects of Evolocumab on Vitamin E and Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From the 52-Week, Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled DESCARTES Study.

    PubMed

    Blom, Dirk J; Djedjos, C Stephen; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Bridges, Ian; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Roth, Eli

    2015-09-25

    Vitamin E transport and steroidogenesis are closely associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) metabolism, and evolocumab can lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to low levels. To determine the effects of evolocumab on vitamin E and steroid hormone levels. After titration of background lipid-lowering therapy per cardiovascular risk, 901 patients with an LDL-C ≥2.0 mmol/L were randomized to 52 weeks of monthly, subcutaneous evolocumab, or placebo. Vitamin E, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadal hormones were analyzed at baseline and week 52. In a substudy (n=100), vitamin E levels were also measured in serum, LDL, high-density lipoprotein, and red blood cell membranes at baseline and week 52. Absolute vitamin E decreased in evolocumab-treated patients from baseline to week 52 by 16% but increased by 19% when normalized for cholesterol. In the substudy, vitamin E level changes from baseline to week 52 mirrored the changes in the lipid fraction, and red blood cell membrane vitamin E levels did not change. Cortisol in evolocumab-treated patients increased slightly from baseline to week 52, but adrenocorticotropic hormone and the cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio did not change. No patient had a cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio <3.0 (nmol/pmol). Among evolocumab-treated patients, gonadal hormones did not change from baseline to week 52. Vitamin E and steroid changes were consistent across subgroups by minimum postbaseline LDL-C <0.4 and <0.6 mmol/L. As expected, vitamin E levels changed similarly to lipids among patients treated for 52 weeks with evolocumab. No adverse effects were observed in steroid or gonadal hormones, even at very low LDL-C levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01516879. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. A Phase III, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial of d-Threo-Methylphenidate HCl in Brain Tumor Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Jerome M. Case, L. Douglas; Atkins, James; Frizzell, Bart; Sanders, George; Griffin, Patricia; Lesser, Glenn; McMullen, Kevin; McQuellon, Richard; Naughton, Michelle; Rapp, Stephen; Stieber, Volker; Shaw, Edward G.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: The quality of life (QOL) and neurocognitive function of patients with brain tumors are negatively affected by the symptoms of their disease and brain radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the effect of prophylactic d-threo-methylphenidate HCl (d-MPH), a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant on QOL and cognitive function in patients undergoing RT. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors were randomly assigned to receive d-MPH or placebo. The starting dose of d-MPH was 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) and was escalated by 5 mg b.i.d. to a maximum of 15 mg b.i.d. The placebo was administered as one pill b.i.d. escalating three pills b.i.d. The primary outcome was fatigue. Patients were assessed at baseline, the end of radiation therapy, and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after brain RT using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with brain and fatigue (FACIT-F) subscales, as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale and Mini-Mental Status Exam. Results: The Mean Fatigue Subscale Score at baseline was 34.7 for the d-MPH arm and 33.3 for the placebo arm (p = 0.61). At 8 weeks after the completion of brain RT, there was no difference in fatigue between patient groups. The adjusted least squares estimate of the Mean Fatigue Subscale Score was 33.7 for the d-MPH and 35.6 for the placebo arm (p = 0.64). Secondary outcomes were not different between the two treatment arms. Conclusions: Prophylactic use of d-MPH in brain tumor patients undergoing RT did not result in an improvement in QOL.

  1. A phase 3 randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of azelaic acid foam 15% in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Elewski, Boni E; Harper, Julie C; Sand, Meike; Staedtler, Gerald; Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Shakery, Kaweh

    2015-07-01

    Rosacea is a chronic relapsing skin disorder primarily affecting the face. Although its etiology is not well defined, rosacea is associated with immune dysregulation and inflammation potentiated by external factors. These manifestations lead to skin sensitivity and impaired quality of life. Azelaic acid (AzA) is approved for the treatment of rosacea in a 15% gel formulation. This phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of AzA in a 15% foam formulation for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea (PPR). Coprimary efficacy end points were treatment success according to investigator global assessment (IGA) and the nominal change in inflammatory lesion count (ILC) from baseline to the end of treatment (EoT). Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated as a measure of safety. The IGA success rate at EoT was significantly greater in the AzA foam group versus vehicle (P<.001; Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test). Likewise, nominal ILC change at EoT in the AzA foam group showed a significantly greater decrease versus vehicle (P<.001; F test). Drug-related AEs were mainly mild to moderate, cutaneous, and local. Overall, the study results support the efficacy and safety of twice-daily AzA foam 15% in patients with PPR.

  2. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Ranging Study of Belimumab in Patients With Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Stohl, William; Furie, Richard A.; Lisse, Jeffrey R.; McKay, James D.; Merrill, Joan T.; Petri, Michelle A.; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Chatham, W. Winn; McCune, W. Joseph; Fernandez, Vivian; Chevrier, Marc R.; Zhong, John; Freimuth, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety, tolerability, biological activity, and efficacy of belimumab in combination with standard of care therapy (SOC) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients with SELENA-SLEDAI score≥4 (N=449) were randomly assigned to belimumab (1, 4, 10 mg/kg) or placebo in a 52-week study. Co-primary endpoints were: 1) percentage change in the SELENA-SLEDAI score at week 24; 2) time to the first SLE flare. Results Significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups were not attained for either primary endpoint and no dose response was observed. Reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI score from baseline was 19.5% in the combined belimumab group versus 17.2% in the placebo group. The median time to first SLE flare was 67 days in the combined belimumab group versus 83 days in the placebo group. However, the median time to first SLE flare during weeks 24–52 was significantly longer with belimumab treatment (154 versus 108 days; P=0.0361). In the subgroup (71.5%) of serologically active patients (ANA ≥1:80 and/or anti-dsDNA ≥30 IU/mL), belimumab treatment resulted in significantly better responses at week 52 than placebo for SELENA-SLEDAI (−28.8% versus −14.2%; P=0.0435); PGA (−32.7% versus −10.7%; P=0.0011); and SF-36 PCS (+3.0 versus +1.2 points; P=0.0410). Treatment with belimumab resulted in 63–71% depletion of naive, activated, and plasmacytoid CD20+ B cells and a 29.4% reduction in anti-dsDNA titers (P ≤0.0017) by week 52. The rates of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were similar in the belimumab and placebo groups. Conclusion Belimumab was biologically active and well tolerated. Belimumab effect on the reduction of SLE disease activity or flares was not significant. However, serologically active SLE patients responded significantly better to belimumab therapy plus SOC than SOC alone. PMID:19714604

  3. Safety and efficacy of golimumab in Chinese patients with active ankylosing spondylitis: 1-year results of a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chunde; Huang, Feng; Khan, Muhammad Asim; Fei, Kaiyin; Wu, Zhong; Han, Chenglong; Hsia, Elizabeth C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of golimumab in Chinese patients with active AS. Two hundred and thirteen patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either s.c. injections of placebo from weeks 0 to 20 followed by golimumab 50 mg from weeks 24 to 48 (group 1, n = 105) or golimumab 50 mg from weeks 0 to 48 (group 2, n = 108), both every 4 weeks. Placebo crossover occurred at week 24, while early escape was at week 16. The primary endpoint was an improvement of at least 20% in the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS20) criteria at week 14. Major secondary endpoints included week 24 ASAS20 response and week 14 change scores for BASFI and BASMI. Golimumab treatment elicited significantly better responses than placebo in week 14 ASAS20 response [49.1% (53/108) vs 24.8% (26/105), respectively, P < 0.001], week 24 ASAS20 response (50.0% vs 22.9%, P < 0.001) and mean improvements in BASFI (-1.26 vs 0.11, P < 0.001) and BASMI (-0.42 vs -0.19, P = 0.021) scores at week 14. Additionally, golimumab treatment led to significant improvements in the mental and physical components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and sleep problems at week 24, all of which were further improved through week 52. During the 16-week placebo-controlled study period, 31.4% and 30.6% of patients had adverse events (AEs) in groups 1 and 2, respectively; similar AE reporting rates were observed through week 24 (34.3% and 32.0%) and among the golimumab-treated patients through week 56 (41.2%). Golimumab significantly reduced clinical symptoms/signs and improved physical function, range of motion and HRQoL in Chinese patients with active AS without unexpected safety concerns. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01248793. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose-Response Trial of the Melatonin Effect on the Pain Threshold of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Luciana Cadore; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Razzolini, Bruna; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Fregni, Felipe; Markus, Regina; Caumo, Wolnei

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that melatonin may produce antinociception through peripheral and central mechanisms. Based on the preliminary encouraging results of studies of the effects of melatonin on pain modulation, the important question has been raised of whether there is a dose relationship in humans of melatonin on pain modulation. Objective The objective was to evaluate the analgesic dose response of the effects of melatonin on pressure and heat pain threshold and tolerance and the sedative effects. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects aged 19 to 47 y were randomized into one of four groups: placebo, 0.05 mg/kg sublingual melatonin, 0.15 mg/kg sublingual melatonin or 0.25 mg/kg sublingual melatonin. We determine the pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the pressure pain tolerance (PPTo). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to measure the heat pain threshold (HPT) and the heat pain tolerance (HPTo). Sedation was assessed with a visual analogue scale and bispectral analysis. Results Serum plasma melatonin levels were directly proportional to the melatonin doses given to each subject. We observed a significant effect associated with dose group. Post hoc analysis indicated significant differences between the placebo vs. the intermediate (0.15 mg/kg) and the highest (0.25 mg/kg) melatonin doses for all pain threshold and sedation level tests. A linear regression model indicated a significant association between the serum melatonin concentrations and changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance (R2 = 0.492 for HPT, R2 = 0.538 for PPT, R2 = 0.558 for HPTo and R2 = 0.584 for PPTo). Conclusions The present data indicate that sublingual melatonin exerts well-defined dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. There is a correlation between the plasma melatonin drug concentration and acute changes in the pain threshold. These results provide additional support for the investigation of melatonin as an analgesic agent. Brazilian Clinical

  5. Efficacy and safety of the Janus Kinase 1 inhibitor PF-04965842 in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, G J; Draelos, Z D; Pariser, D M; Banfield, C; Cox, L; Hodge, M; Kieras, E; Parsons-Rich, D; Menon, S; Salganik, M; Page, K; Peeva, E

    2017-09-26

    PF-04965842 is an oral Janus Kinase 1 inhibitor being investigated for treatment of plaque psoriasis. To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of PF-04965842 in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Patients in this phase 2, placebo-controlled study (NCT02201524) were randomised to receive placebo, 200 mg once-daily (QD), 400 mg QD, or 200 mg twice-daily (BID) PF-04965842 for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) at Week 4. Study enrolment was discontinued on 25 June 2015 due to changes in the sponsor's development priorities. Fifty-nine patients were randomised and received at least one dose of PF-04965842 or placebo. The estimated treatment effect (active-placebo PASI change from baseline) and 90% CI at Week 4 was -5·1 (-9·2, -1·0), -5·6 (-9·6, -1·6) and -10·0 (-14·2, -5·8) for the 200 mg QD, 400 mg QD and 200 mg BID groups, respectively. At Week 4, the proportion of patients achieving PASI75 was 17% for the placebo and 200 mg QD groups, 50% for the 400 mg QD group and 60% for the 200 mg BID group. There were more abnormal laboratory test results of clinical interest (low neutrophil, reticulocyte and platelet counts) in the 200 mg BID group vs the QD treatment groups. No serious infections or bleeding events related to neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, respectively, were reported. These results suggest that treatment with PF-04965842 improves symptoms and is well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase III double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen vs. tamoxifen and fenretinide in postmenopausal women with positive receptors (EB193): an intergroup trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ruta D; Cobleigh, Melody A; Gray, Robert; Graham, Mark L; Norton, Larry; Martino, Silvana; Budd, George Thomas; Ingle, James N; Wood, William C

    2011-12-01

    Fenretinide and tamoxifen have additive antitumor effects preclinically. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind adjuvant trial in breast cancer patients treated for 5 years with tamoxifen, with or without fenretinide. Between October 1995 and October 1999, 426 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomized. Patients were monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Four hundred and nineteen patients were evaluable. The study was terminated early due to slow accrual. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in DFS, TTR or survival. More patients stopped treatment early on the fenretinide arm than on placebo (P = 0.02). Grade 3/4 toxicities, including visual problems and musculoskeletal complaints were more common in patients receiving fenretinide (P = 0.007). A Night Blindness Questionnaire was used to monitor nyctalopia, which was slightly, but not significantly, more common on fenretinide. In this underpowered study, no significant difference was observed in efficacy between treatment groups. This trial provides important toxicity information about fenretinide, a retinoid that has been used in the prevention setting, because it is the only placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study ever performed.

  7. Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Prospective Randomized Trial of Adjuvant Tamoxifen vs. Tamoxifen and Fenretinide in Postmenopausal Women with Positive Receptors (EB193): An Intergroup Trial Coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ruta D.; Cobleigh, Melody A.; Gray, Robert; Graham, Mark L.; Norton, Larry; Martino, Silvana; Budd, George Thomas; Ingle, James N.; Wood, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fenretinide and tamoxifen have additive antitumor effects preclinically. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind adjuvant trial in breast cancer patients treated for five years with tamoxifen, with or without fenretinide. Patients and methods Between October 1995 and October 1999, 426 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomized. Patients were monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Results Four hundred nineteen patients were evaluable. The study was terminated early due to slow accrual. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in DFS, TTR or survival. More patients stopped treatment early on the fenretinide arm than on placebo (p=.02). Grade 3/4 toxicities, including visual problems and musculoskeletal complaints were more common in patients receiving fenretinide (p=.007). A Night Blindness Questionnaire was used to monitor nyctalopia, which was slightly, but not significantly, more common on fenretinide. Conclusions In this underpowered study, no significant difference was observed in efficacy between treatment groups. This trial provides important toxicity information about fenretinide, a retinoid which has been used in the prevention setting, because it is the only placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study ever performed. PMID:20878269

  8. Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Msellati, P.; Meda, N.; Leroy, V.; Likikouet, R.; Van de Perre, P.; Cartoux, M.; Bonard, D.; Ouangre, A.; Combe, P.; Gautier-Charpenti..., L.; Sylla-Koko, F.; Lassalle, R.; Dosso, M.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.; Mandelbrot, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were eligible. A total of 108 women (54 in each group) enrolled from November 1996 to April 1997, with their informed consent. INTERVENTION: Women self administered daily a vaginal suppository of 1% benzalkonium chloride or matched placebo from 36 weeks of pregnancy, and a single intrapartum dose. The neonate was bathed with 1% benzalkonium chloride solution or placebo within 30 minutes after birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events were recorded weekly, with a questionnaire and speculum examination in women through delivery, and examination of the neonate through day 30. The incidence of genital signs and symptoms in the women and cutaneous or ophthalmological events in newborns were compared between groups on an intent to treat basis. RESULTS: The median duration of prepartum treatment was 21 days (range 0-87 days). Compliance was 87% for prepartum and 69% for intrapartum treatment, and 88% for the neonatal bath, without differences between the two groups. In women, the most frequent event was leucorrhoea; the incidence of adverse events did not differ between treatment groups. In children, the incidence of dermatitis and conjunctivitis did not differ between the benzalkonium chloride and placebo groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSION: Vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride is a feasible and well tolerated intervention in west Africa. Its efficacy in preventing vertical HIV transmission remains to be demonstrated. 


 PMID:10754950

  9. Effect of the mGluR5-NAM Basimglurant on Behavior in Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: FragXis Phase 2 Results.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Eriene A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Czech, Christian; Hagerman, Randi J; Hessl, David; Wong, Chin Y; Rabbia, Michael; Deptula, Dennis; John, Amy; Kinch, Russell; Drewitt, Philip; Lindemann, Lothar; Marcinowski, Moritz; Langland, Rachel; Horn, Carsten; Fontoura, Paulo; Santarelli, Luca; Quiroz, Jorge A

    2017-08-17

    Preclinical data suggest that inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptor might hold therapeutic benefits in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Treatment of Fmr1 knockout mice with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been reported to correct a broad range of phenotypes related to FXS. The early short-term clinical trials with mGluR5 NAMs, including basimglurant, assessing the effects in individuals with FXS, were supportive of further exploration in larger, well-controlled trials. We evaluated basimglurant, a potent and selective mGluR5 NAM, in a 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study of 183 adults and adolescents (aged 14-50, mean 23.4 years) with FXS. Individuals with an FMR1 full mutation were randomized to placebo or one of two doses of basimglurant. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in behavioral symptoms using the Anxiety Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS) total score. All treatment arms showed marked behavioral improvements from baseline to week 12 with less improvement in the basimglurant 1.5 mg arm than placebo; however, basimglurant 0.5 mg was inferior to placebo in the ADAMs total score. Treatment with basimglurant was overall well-tolerated. A higher incidence of adverse events classified as psychiatric disorders were reported in patients treated with basimglurant, including three patients with hallucinations or psychosis. In this phase 2 clinical trial, basimglurant did not demonstrate improvement over placebo. Evaluation of the overall risk-benefit in younger patient populations is an important consideration for the design of potential further investigations of efficacy with this class of medications.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 20 September 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.177.

  10. A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Metronidazole Vaginal Gel 1.3% in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Schwebke, Jane R; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Beelen, Andrew P; Sobel, Jack D

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a prevalent infection in women of reproductive age, is associated with increased risk of upper genital tract and sexually transmitted infections, and complications in pregnancy. Currently approved treatments include metronidazole, which requires once or twice daily intravaginal administration for 5 days or twice daily oral administration for 7 days. This phase 3 study determined the safety and efficacy of single-dose metronidazole vaginal gel (MVG) 1.3%. In this double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 651 women with clinical diagnosis of BV were randomized 1:1 to receive MVG 1.3% or vehicle vaginal gel. Primary efficacy measure was clinical cure (normal discharge, negative "whiff test," and <20% clue cells) at day 21. Secondary measures included therapeutic cure (both clinical and bacteriological; day 21) and bacteriologic cure (Nugent score <4), clinical cure, and time to resolution of symptoms (day 7). A total of 487 participants were included in the primary analysis. Clinical and therapeutic cure rates (day 21) were higher in participants treated with MVG 1.3% compared with vehicle gel (37.2% vs. 26.6% [P = 0.010] and 16.8% vs. 7.2% [P = 0.001], respectively). Clinical and bacteriologic cure rates (day 7) were also higher in the MVG 1.3% group (46.0% vs. 20.0% [P < 0.001] and 32.7% vs. 6.3% [P < 0.001], respectively). The median time to resolution of symptoms was shorter in the MVG 1.3% (day 6) than vehicle group (not reached). No serious adverse events were reported, and incidence was similar across treatment groups. Single-dose MVG 1.3% was safe and superior to vehicle gel in producing cure among women with BV.

  11. Oral liarozole in the treatment of patients with moderate/severe lamellar ichthyosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, multinational, placebo-controlled phase II/III trial

    PubMed Central

    Vahlquist, A; Blockhuys, S; Steijlen, P; van Rossem, K; Didona, B; Blanco, D; Traupe, H

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Oral liarozole, a retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agent, may be an alternative to systemic retinoid therapy in patients with lamellar ichthyosis. Objective To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of once-daily oral liarozole in the treatment of moderate/severe lamellar ichthyosis. Methods This was a double-blind, multinational, parallel phase II/III trial (NCT00282724). Patients aged ≥ 14 years with moderate/severe lamellar ichthyosis [Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score ≥ 3] were randomized 3 : 3 : 1 to receive oral liarozole (75 or 150 mg) or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Assessments included: IGA; a five-point scale for erythema, scaling and pruritus severity; Short Form-36 health survey; Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI); and safety parameters. The primary efficacy variable was response rate at week 12 (responder: ≥ 2-point decrease in IGA from baseline). Results Sixty-four patients were enrolled. At week 12, 11/27 (41%; liarozole 75 mg), 14/28 (50%; liarozole 150 mg) and one out of nine (11%; placebo) patients were responders; the difference between groups (liarozole 150 mg vs. placebo) was not significant (P = 0·056). Mean IGA and scaling scores decreased from baseline in both liarozole groups at weeks 8 and 12 vs. placebo; erythema and pruritus scores were similar between treatment groups. Improvement in DLQI score was observed in both liarozole groups. Treatment with liarozole for 12 weeks was well tolerated. Conclusions The primary efficacy variable did not reach statistical significance, possibly owing to the small sample size following premature termination. However, once-daily oral liarozole, 75 and 150 mg, improved scaling and DLQI and was well tolerated in patients with moderate/severe lamellar ichthyosis. PMID:24102348

  12. A phase 2a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential dose-escalation study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ASP015K, a novel Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Papp, K; Pariser, D; Catlin, M; Wierz, G; Ball, G; Akinlade, B; Zeiher, B; Krueger, J G

    2015-09-01

    Many immune-mediated disorders, including psoriasis, involve cytokine signalling via Janus kinase (JAK) enzymes. ASP015K (also designated JNJ-54781532), a novel oral JAK inhibitor, has shown moderate selectivity for JAK3 over JAK1 and JAK2 in enzyme assays. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of escalating, sequentially grouped, doses of ASP015K vs. placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This phase 2a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study (NCT01096862) enrolled 124 patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Five sequential ASP015K cohorts were enrolled, consisting of four twice-daily dosing groups (10, 25, 60, 100 mg) and one once-daily dosing group (50 mg) for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy end point [mean change in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score from baseline to end of treatment (EOT; day 42)] significantly favoured ASP015K (overall treatment effect; P < 0.001) vs. placebo, with greater improvements at higher doses. By EOT, the secondary end points [Physician Static Global Assessment (PSGA) score, percentage of patients achieving PSGA success, and change in percentage, body surface area (BSA)] also improved with ASP015K vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for PSGA score and BSA; P < 0.01 for PSGA success). Epidermal thickness and proliferation decreased from baseline with ASP015K vs. placebo. ASP015K was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events (AEs) reported. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, ASP015K demonstrated dose-dependent improvements in clinical and histological measures of severity over 6 weeks of treatment. At all doses, ASP015K was well tolerated, with no reported serious AEs. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. The effect of ubiquinone and combined antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress markers in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy: A phase IIa, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel; Castellanos-González, José Alberto; Martínez-Romero, Esaú César; Miller-Arrevillaga, Guillermo; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín Paul; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10) and combined antioxidant therapy (CAT) on oxidative stress markers in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) under clinical management. Study design In a randomized, double-blind, phase IIa, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, three study groups were formed and administered medications as follows: Group 1, Coenzyme Q10; Group 2, CAT; and Group 3, placebo. Methods Serum levels of the products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitrites/nitrates, as markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress, were measured. As antioxidants, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were measured. Results Baseline serum levels of LPO and nitrites/nitrates were significantly elevated in the three groups vs. healthy group (P < 0.0001), while final levels in the Coenzyme Q10 and CAT groups were decreased vs. normal levels (P < 0.0001). The baseline TAC was consumed in the three groups (P < 0.0001), while final results in the Coenzyme Q10 and CAT groups improved (P < 0.0001). Baseline catalase activity was increased in all groups vs. normal values (P < 0.001), while final levels in the Coenzyme Q10 (P < 0.001) and CAT groups (P < 0.0001) were decreased. GPx behaved similarly to catalase and improved in the final results (P < 0.0001). Discussion Adjunctive antioxidant treatment for 6 months was effective and safe for improving the oxidative stress in NPDR.

  14. A phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japanese haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Shigematsu, Takashi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujii, Akifumi; Kuramoto, Takuto; Odani, Motoi; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-10-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, in Japanese haemodialysis patients with SHPT. In this phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, etelcalcetide was administered three times per week at an initial dose of 5 mg, and subsequently adjusted to doses between 2.5 and 15 mg at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. A total of 155 SHPT patients with serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels ≥300 pg/mL were assigned to receive etelcalcetide (n = 78) or placebo (n = 77). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with decreased serum iPTH to the target range proposed by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (60-240 pg/mL). The major secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with ≥30% reductions in serum iPTH from baseline. The proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (59.0%) versus placebo (1.3%). Similarly, the proportion of patients meeting the major secondary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (76.9%) versus placebo (5.2%). Serum albumin-corrected calcium, phosphorus and intact fibroblast growth factor-23 levels were decreased in the etelcalcetide group. Nausea, vomiting and symptomatic hypocalcaemia were mild with etelcalcetide. Serious adverse events related to etelcalcetide were not observed. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide. As the only available intravenous calcium-sensing receptor agonist, etelcalcetide is likely to provide a new treatment option for SHPT in haemodialysis patients.

  15. A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Metronidazole Vaginal Gel 1.3% in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwebke, Jane R.; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Beelen, Andrew P.; Sobel, Jack D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a prevalent infection in women of reproductive age, is associated with increased risk of upper genital tract and sexually transmitted infections, and complications in pregnancy. Currently approved treatments include metronidazole, which requires once or twice daily intravaginal administration for 5 days or twice daily oral administration for 7 days. This phase 3 study determined the safety and efficacy of single-dose metronidazole vaginal gel (MVG) 1.3%. Methods In this double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 651 women with clinical diagnosis of BV were randomized 1:1 to receive MVG 1.3% or vehicle vaginal gel. Primary efficacy measure was clinical cure (normal discharge, negative “whiff test,” and <20% clue cells) at day 21. Secondary measures included therapeutic cure (both clinical and bacteriological; day 21) and bacteriologic cure (Nugent score <4), clinical cure, and time to resolution of symptoms (day 7). Results A total of 487 participants were included in the primary analysis. Clinical and therapeutic cure rates (day 21) were higher in participants treated with MVG 1.3% compared with vehicle gel (37.2% vs. 26.6% [P = 0.010] and 16.8% vs. 7.2% [P = 0.001], respectively). Clinical and bacteriologic cure rates (day 7) were also higher in the MVG 1.3% group (46.0% vs. 20.0% [P < 0.001] and 32.7% vs. 6.3% [P < 0.001], respectively). The median time to resolution of symptoms was shorter in the MVG 1.3% (day 6) than vehicle group (not reached). No serious adverse events were reported, and incidence was similar across treatment groups. Conclusions Single-dose MVG 1.3% was safe and superior to vehicle gel in producing cure among women with BV. PMID:26222750

  16. Single-dose fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: results of a randomized, double-blind phase III trial†

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C.; Jordan, K.; Green, S. A.; Camacho, E.; Khanani, S.; Beckford-Brathwaite, E.; Vallejos, W.; Liang, L. W.; Noga, S. J.; Rapoport, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish the role of antiemetic therapy with neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists (RAs) in nonanthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC)-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens, this study evaluated single-dose intravenous (i.v.) fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with non-AC MEC. Patients and methods In this international, phase III, double-blind trial, adult cancer subjects scheduled to receive ≥1 non-AC MEC on day 1 were randomized to a regimen comprising single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant 150 mg or placebo along with ondansetron and dexamethasone on day 1; control regimen recipients received ondansetron on days 2 and 3. Primary end points were the proportion of subjects achieving a complete response (CR; no vomiting and no use of rescue medication) in the delayed phase (25–120 h after MEC initiation) and safety. Secondary end points included CR in the overall and acute phases (0–120 and 0–24 h after MEC initiation, respectively) and no vomiting in the overall phase. Nausea and the Functional Living Index-Emesis were assessed as exploratory end points. Results The fosaprepitant regimen improved CR significantly in the delayed (78.9% versus 68.5%; P < 0.001) and overall (77.1% versus 66.9%; P < 0.001) phases, but not in the acute phase (93.2% versus 91.0%; P = 0.184), versus control. In the overall phase, the proportion of subjects with no vomiting (82.7% versus 72.9%; P < 0.001) and no significant nausea (83.2% versus 77.9%; P = 0.030) was also significantly improved with the fosaprepitant regimen. The fosaprepitant regimen was generally well tolerated. Conclusion Single-dose fosaprepitant added to a 5-HT3 RA and dexamethasone was well tolerated and demonstrated superior control of CINV (primary end point achieved) associated with non-AC MEC. This is the first study to evaluate NK1 RA therapy as an i.v. formulation in a well-defined non-AC MEC population. Clinical

  17. Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling (HLXL)-Dan, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Multi-site, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Phase II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Lixing; Hochberg, Marc; Lee, David Y.W.; Gilpin, Adele M.K.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Langenberg, Patrica; Chen, Kevin; Li, Edmund K.; Tam, Lai Shan; Berman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy and safety of Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling (HLXL)-Dan, a traditional Chinese medicine, in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design A multi-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II dose-escalation clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients who fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria were randomized to receive either HLXL or placebo. Clinical assessments included measurement of knee pain and function with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), patient global assessment (PGA), and knee pain scores every 2 weeks. A Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) was established to review the data for ensuring the quality of the trial. Results In the first stage, 28 participants were randomized to receive either low-dose HLXL-Dan (2,400mg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The results showed no statistical difference between the two groups. The study was then re-designed following the recommendation of DSMB. Ninety-two patients were enrolled in the second stage and were randomized to receive either high-dose HLXL-Dan (4,000mg/day for week 1–2, and 5,600mg/day for week 3–8) or placebo for 8 weeks. All outcome assessments showed significant improvements for both groups after 8 weeks but no significant between-group differences. The change (mean ± SD) of WOMAC pain and WOMAC function scores of HLXL and placebo group after 8 weeks were −1.2±1.7 VS −1.4±1.5, and −1.1±1.6 VS −1.3±1.5 respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Although safe to use, an 8-week treatment of HLXL-Dan was not superior to placebo for reduction in pain or functional improvement in patients with knee OA. Clinical trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00755326) PMID:26099553

  18. Atacicept in multiple sclerosis (ATAMS): a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Kappos, Ludwig; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Freedman, Mark S; Boyko, Alexey; Radü, Ernst Wilhelm; Mikol, Daniel D; Lamarine, Marc; Hyvert, Yann; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Plitz, Thomas; van Beek, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Depletion of B lymphocytes is associated with suppression of inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of atacicept, a recombinant fusion protein that suppresses B-cell function and antibody production. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, 36-week, phase 2 trial (ATAMS) in Australia, Canada, Europe, and the USA, patients aged 18-60 years with relapsing multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned via an interactive voice response system in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, stratified by geographical region, to receive weekly subcutaneous injections with atacicept (25, 75, or 150 mg) or placebo. Both patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted MRI per patient per scan between weeks 12 and 36. Efficacy endpoints were analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who completed week 36 were eligible to participate in a long-term extension study (ATAMS EXT), consisting of a double-blind phase followed by an open-label phase, for a total study time of up to 5 years. The study was terminated early after the independent data and safety monitoring board noted an increased annualised relapse rate with atacicept. The protocol was subsequently amended to include a 60-week safety follow-up, to allow treatment with approved multiple sclerosis drugs, and to change the primary endpoint to gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions per scan during the entire double-blind period of ATAMS. Both the trial and the extension are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00642902 (ATAMS) and NCT00853762 (ATAMS EXT). Between April 23, 2008, and early study termination on Sept 11, 2009, 255 patients were randomly assigned: 63 to placebo, 63 to atacicept 25 mg, 64 to 75 mg, and 65 to 150 mg. 90 (35%) patients completed the week 36 treatment visit, 26 (10%) discontinued before study termination (including one who dropped out before

  19. Randomized, Double-Blind Phase II Trial With Prospective Classification by ATM Protein Level to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Olaparib Plus Paclitaxel in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yung-Jue; Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Keun-Wook; Cho, Jae Yong; Song, Eun-Kee; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yeul Hong; Park, Joon Oh; Chun, Hoo Geun; Zang, Dae Young; Fielding, Anitra; Rowbottom, Jacqui; Hodgson, Darren; O'Connor, Mark J; Yin, Xiaolu; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-11-20

    Gastric cancer cell lines, particularly those with low levels of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a key activator of DNA damage response, are sensitive to the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib. We compared the efficacy of olaparib plus paclitaxel (olaparib/paclitaxel) with paclitaxel alone in patients with recurrent or metastatic gastric cancer and assessed whether low ATM expression is predictive of improved clinical outcome for olaparib/paclitaxel. In this phase II, double-blind study (Study 39; NCT01063517), patients were randomly assigned to oral olaparib 100 mg twice per day (tablets) plus paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) per day intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28-day cycle) or placebo plus paclitaxel (placebo/paclitaxel), followed by maintenance monotherapy with olaparib (200 mg twice per day) or placebo. The study population was enriched to 50% for patients with low or undetectable ATM levels (ATMlow). Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred twenty-three of 124 randomly assigned patients received treatment (olaparib/paclitaxel, n = 61; placebo/paclitaxel, n = 62). The screening prevalence of ATMlow patients was 14%. Olaparib/paclitaxel did not lead to a significant improvement in PFS versus placebo/paclitaxel (overall population: hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; median PFS, 3.91 v 3.55 months, respectively; ATMlow population: HR, 0.74; median PFS, 5.29 v 3.68 months, respectively). However, olaparib/paclitaxel significantly improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo/paclitaxel in both the overall population (HR, 0.56; 80% CI, 0.41 to 0.75; P = .005; median OS, 13.1 v 8.3 months, respectively) and the ATMlow population (HR, 0.35; 80% CI, 0.22 to 0.56; P = .002; median OS, not reached v 8.2 months, respectively). Olaparib/paclitaxel was generally well tolerated, with no unexpected safety findings. Olaparib/paclitaxel is active in the treatment of patients with metastatic gastric cancer, with a greater OS benefit in

  20. Efficacy and safety of adalimumab among patients with moderate to severe psoriasis with co-morbidities: Subanalysis of results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Alexa B; Bensimon, Arielle G; Guerin, Annie; Yu, Andrew P; Wu, Eric Q; Okun, Martin M; Bao, Yanjun; Gupta, Shiraz R; Mulani, Parvez M

    2011-02-01

    Psoriasis is associated with a variety of major physical and mental co-morbidities. To assess the incremental burden of co-morbidities on patient-reported outcomes and evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in psoriasis patients with co-morbidities. Data were obtained from the initial 16-week, double-blind treatment period of REVEAL (Randomized controlled EValuation of adalimumab Every other week dosing in moderate to severe psoriasis triAL), a randomized, multicenter, phase III clinical trial. Patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomized in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive adalimumab 80 mg (two 40 mg injections administered subcutaneously) at baseline followed by one 40 mg injection every other week from week 1 to week 15 or placebo. Clinical severity (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI]) and patient-reported outcomes (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI], Short Form 36 [SF-36] health survey, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment [WPAI] questionnaire) were assessed during the trial. The effect of selected co-morbidities (i.e. hypertension, psoriatic arthritis, hyperlipidemia, obesity, depression, other forms of arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and other cardiovascular diseases) on patient-reported outcomes was evaluated using multivariate analysis of covariance models. Subgroup analyses were performed by co-morbidity type to statistically compare the clinical efficacy, patient-reported outcome benefits, and safety of adalimumab with placebo in the presence of these conditions. Study co-morbidities were each independently associated with significantly greater impairment on at least one general patient-reported outcome measured at baseline (all p < 0.05), with the exception of hyperlipidemia. During the 16-week study, adalimumab patients demonstrated significantly greater PASI 75 response rates (defined as a reduction of at least 75% in PASI scores from baseline) compared with placebo patients for all co-morbidity subgroups

  1. A randomized, double-blind, phase II study of ramucirumab plus docetaxel vs placebo plus docetaxel in Japanese patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer after disease progression on platinum-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Kiyotaka; Hosomi, Yukio; Kasahara, Kazuo; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nishio, Makoto; Ohe, Yuichiro; Koue, Toshiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Enatsu, Sotaro; Lee, Pablo; Ferry, David; Tamura, Tomohide; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Ramucirumab plus docetaxel prolongs survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with disease progression after platinum-based therapy. This phase II, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study assessed efficacy and safety of second-line ramucirumab-docetaxel in Japanese patients with NSCLC. Patients with NSCLC with progression after platinum-based therapy (28 Japanese sites; 19 December, 2012 to 22 May, 2015) were randomized (computer-generated sequence) to ramucirumab 10mg/kg or placebo, followed by docetaxel 60mg/m(2) (Day 1, 21-day cycle). Prior epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) monotherapy was prohibited in the primary population, but EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients who were treated with EGFR-TKI were enrolled as a separate exploratory population. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary outcomes included overall survival, tumor response rates, and safety. Investigator tumor assessments were used for the efficacy endpoints. In the primary population (N=160 randomized, n=157 treated), median (95% CI) PFS was longer with ramucirumab-docetaxel (5.22 [3.52-6.97] months; n=76) than with placebo-docetaxel (4.21 [2.83-5.62] months; n=81); hazard ratio 0.83 (95% CI 0.59-1.16). Median (95% CI) overall survival was 15.15 (12.45-26.55) months with ramucirumab-docetaxel and 14.65 (11.93-24.44) months with placebo-docetaxel (hazard ratio [95% CI] 0.86 [0.56-1.32]). Objective response rate (28.9% vs 18.5%) and disease control rate (78.9% vs 70.4%) were numerically greater with ramucirumab-docetaxel than with placebo-docetaxel. Incidence and severity of most adverse events were similar, but febrile neutropenia was more common with ramucirumab-docetaxel (34.2%) than with placebo-docetaxel (19.8%). Second-line ramucirumab-docetaxel improved PFS similar to that seen in the REVEL trial with a manageable safety profile in Japanese patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  2. Efficacy and safety of eflornithine (CPP-1X)/sulindac combination therapy versus each as monotherapy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): design and rationale of a randomized, double-blind, Phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Burke, Carol A; Dekker, Evelien; Samadder, N Jewel; Stoffel, Elena; Cohen, Alfred

    2016-08-02

    Molecular studies suggest inhibition of colorectal mucosal polyamines (PAs) may be a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) using low-dose eflornithine (DFMO, CPP-1X), combined with maximal PA export using low-dose sulindac, results in greatly reduced levels of normal mucosal PAs. In a clinical trial, this combination (compared with placebo) reduced the 3-year incidence of subsequent high-risk adenomas by >90 %. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is characterized by marked up-regulation of ODC in normal intestinal epithelial and adenoma tissue, and therefore PA reduction might be a potential strategy to control progression of FAP-related intestinal polyposis. CPP FAP-310, a randomized, double-blind, Phase III trial was designed to examine the safety and efficacy of sulindac and DFMO (alone or in combination) for preventing a clinically relevant FAP-related progression event in individuals with FAP. Eligible adults with FAP will be randomized to: CPP-1X 750 mg and sulindac 150 mg, CPP-1X placebo and sulindac 150 mg, or CPP-1X 750 mg and sulindac placebo once daily for 24 months. Patients will be stratified based on time-to-event prognosis into one of the three treatment arms: best (ie, longest time to first FAP-related event [rectal/pouch polyposis]), intermediate (duodenal polyposis) and worst (pre-colectomy). Stage-specific, "delayed time to" FAP-related events are the primary endpoints. Change in polyp burden (upper and/or lower intestine) is a key secondary endpoint. The trial is ongoing. As of February 1, 2016, 214 individuals have been screened; 138 eligible subjects have been randomized to three treatment groups at 15 North American sites and 6 European sites. By disease strata, 26, 80 and 32 patients are included for assessment of polyp burden in the rectum/pouch, duodenal polyposis and pre-colectomy groups, respectively. Median age is 40 years; 59 % are men. The most common reasons for

  3. Clinical efficacy and safety of topiroxostat in Japanese male hyperuricemic patients with or without gout: an exploratory, phase 2a, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, T; Sasaki, T; Hashimoto, H; Sakamoto, R; Ohashi, T

    2016-06-01

    In Japan, although topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, has been used for the treatment of patients with hyperuricemia including gout, no published randomized controlled studies evaluating the dose-dependent relationship with respect to the serum urate-lowering efficacy have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent relationship with serum urate-lowering efficacy and safety of topiroxostat in Japanese hyperuricemic patients including gout. We conducted an exploratory, phase 2a, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, 8-week, placebo-controlled study in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. The study arms were placebo and topiroxostat 40, 60, 80 or 120 mg/day. The primary efficacy endpoint was the per cent change in serum urate level from baseline to the final visit. One hundred and eighty-seven eligible patients were randomized and 186 received at least one dose of the study drug. The study results demonstrated a dose-dependent serum urate reduction effect ranging from 40 to 120 mg/day (P < 0·001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test). The mean per cent change in serum urate level from baseline at the final visit was -30·8% in the 120-mg group and 1·6% with placebo, with a between-group difference of -32·4% ([95% confidence interval, -38·9% to -25·9%]; P < 0·001). Incidences of overall adverse events (AEs) in the topiroxostat groups were comparable to those in the placebo group; however, the incidence of AEs in the 120-mg group was statistically lower than that in the placebo group. The incidences of gouty arthritis were not statistically but numerically higher in the topiroxostat 80- and 120-mg groups. A dose-dependent serum urate-lowering efficacy of topiroxostat was observed in Japanese hyperuricemic male patients with or without gout. Further clinical studies aimed at evaluating the long-term safety and clinical efficacy are warranted. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and

  4. Comparison of topiroxostat and allopurinol in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout: a phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, T; Ogawa, Y; Hashimoto, H; Ohashi, T; Sakamoto, R

    2016-06-01

    There are no clinical reports that have compared topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, with allopurinol in serum urate-lowering efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of topiroxostat and allopurinol in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. A phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel-group study conducted in Japan. Patients who had inadequate serum urate levels (a gout patient: serum urate level ≥416·4 μmol/L; an asymptomatic hyperuricemic patient with specific complications (urinary lithiasis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and/or diabetes): serum urate level ≥475·8 μmol/L; and an asymptomatic hyperuricemic patient with no specific complications: serum urate level ≥535·3 μmol/L) were randomized to topiroxostat 120 mg/day or allopurinol 200 mg/day, with an equal allocation ratio, for 16 weeks. To prevent the onset of gouty arthritis by rapid serum urate reduction, these doses were increased in a stepwise manner. The primary efficacy endpoint was the per cent change in serum urate level from baseline to the final visit. Overall, 206 patients were randomly assigned to topiroxostat and allopurinol. Two hundred and three patients (allopurinol: n = 105, topiroxostat: n = 98) received at least one dose of the study drug and had their serum urate level assessed at least once. The baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. The mean age of patients was 53·0 ± 11·4 years and 99% of patients were male. The primary efficacy endpoint was -34·3 ± 11·1% in the allopurinol group (n = 105) and -36·3 ± 12·7% in the topiroxostat group (n = 98). Non-inferiority of the serum urate-lowering efficacy of topiroxostat to allopurinol was proved by the predefined non-inferiority margin (95% confidence interval, -5·3 to 1·3%). The overall incidences of adverse events and adverse drug reactions were similar between both groups. Topiroxostat 120 mg

  5. MTRX1011A, a humanized anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Phase I randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study incorporating pharmacodynamic biomarker assessments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the humanized anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody MTRX1011A in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled Phase 1 study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In the single ascending dose (SAD) portion of the study, patients received single doses of a placebo or MTRX1011A at 0.3, 1.0, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/kg intravenously (IV) or 1.0 and 3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC), followed by five weeks of evaluation. In the multi-dose (MD) portion of the study, placebo or MTRX1011A was administered weekly for eight doses at 1.5 or 3.5 mg/kg SC, or 5 mg/kg IV, followed by eight weeks of evaluation. Results MTRX1011A was well tolerated in the SAD phase up to 7 mg/kg IV and in the MD phase up to 1.5 mg/kg SC. At weekly doses of 3.5 mg/kg SC and 5 mg/kg IV, a moderate pruritic papular rash was observed in some MTRX1011A-treated patients, which was considered a dose-limiting toxicity for this clinical indication. No serious adverse events occurred in any cohort. Reduction in disease activity was modest. PD assessments demonstrated that MTRX1011A induced a dose-dependent down-modulation of CD4 expression on peripheral blood CD4 T cells, CD4 receptor occupancy, increases in serum sCD4-MTRX1011A complexes and up-regulation of CD69 on T cells, but was non-depleting. Conclusions The maximum tolerated dose of MTRX1011A was 1.5 mg/kg SC administered weekly. At this dose MTRX1011A did not achieve maximum PD activity expected to be required for reduction in disease activity. PMID:22029963

  6. A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Quetiapine and Divalproex for Adolescent Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbello, Melissa P.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Adler, Caleb M.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Barzman, Drew H.; Nelson, Erik; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of quetiapine and divalproex for the treatment of adolescent mania. Method: Fifty adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, were randomized to quetiapine (400-600 mg/day) or divalproex (serum level 80-120 [micro]g/mL) for 28 days for this double-blind study,…

  7. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase II trial to assess the safety and efficacy of ceftolozane-tazobactam plus metronidazole compared with meropenem in adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Lucasti, Christopher; Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Yankelev, Sara; Steenbergen, Judith; Friedland, Ian; Solomkin, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Ceftolozane-tazobactam (TOL-TAZ) is a novel antibacterial with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other common Gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, that are associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). This prospective, double-blind, randomized, multicenter, phase II trial assessed patient clinical and microbiological responses to and the safety of TOL-TAZ plus metronidazole compared with those of meropenem. Hospitalized adults with cIAIs that required surgical intervention were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous (i.v.) TOL-TAZ (1.5 g [containing 1,000 mg TOL and 500 mg TAZ] every 8 h [q8h]) with or without i.v. metronidazole (500 mg q8h) or i.v. meropenem (1 g q8h) for 4 to 7 days. The primary endpoint was the clinical response at the test-of-cure visit in the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) and microbiologically evaluable (ME) populations. Secondary measures included the patients' microbiological response and safety. In total, 82 patients received TOL-TAZ (90.2% with metronidazole), and 39 received meropenem. For the mMITT population, clinical cure was seen in 83.6% of the patients (51/61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9 to 91.8) who received TOL-TAZ and 96.0% of the patients (24/25; 95% CI, 79.6 to 99.9) who received meropenem (difference, -12.4%; 95% CI, -34.9% to 11.1%); in the ME population, clinical cure was seen in 88.7% and 95.8% of the patients (difference, -7.1%; 95% CI, -30.7% to 16.9%) who received TOL-TAZ and meropenem, respectively. TOL-TAZ demonstrated microbiological success against Escherichia coli (89.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%), and P. aeruginosa (100%). The adverse event rates were similar in the groups (50.0% with TOL-TAZ and 48.8% with meropenem). TOL-TAZ in combination with metronidazole was well tolerated and resulted in clinical and microbiological success rates supportive of further clinical development in

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Chinese healthy population aged >2 years: A randomized, double-blinded, active control, phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yujia; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Li, Chanjuan; Li, Yanping; Xia, Jielai

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen causing invasive diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Vaccines have become the most effective way to prevent pneumococcal infections. This phase III trial was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Chinese healthy population aged >2 years. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, active-controlled, multicenter trial in which 1660 healthy population (>2 years of age) were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive 2 intramuscular doses of either the treatment vaccine or the active control vaccine, PNEUMOVAX 23. The surveillance period was 30 days. The primary end point was the 2-fold increase rate of anti-pneumococcal antibody for all 23 included serotypes in each group. In the intention-to-treat cohort, the 2-fold increase rate of anti-pneumococcal antibody for 23 included serotypes varied from 62.47% to 97.01% in the treatment group, and from 51.49% to 95.77% in the control group. According to −10% non-inferiority margin and 95% confidence intervals of rate difference, almost all included serotypes of the treatment group reached non-inferiority to control group except for serotype 6B, the lower limit of rate difference of which was −10.00%, equal to the non-inferiority margin. The 2-fold increase rates of anti-pneumococcal antibody were significantly higher in the treatment group for serotype 2, 3, 4, 10A, 11A and 20. Furthermore, for all 23 serotypes, IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) at day 30 were significantly higher in treatment group for serotype 2, 3, 4, 9V, 10A, 11A, 15B, 18C, 19A, 22F and 33F. Higher geometric mean fold increase (GMFI) were also observed in the treatment group correspondingly. Serious adverse events occurred in 3 of 830 participants in the treatment group (0.36%) and 2 of 830 participants in the control group (0.24%). No death occurred during the trial. The frequencies of both solicited and

  9. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Phase II Trial To Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam plus Metronidazole Compared with Meropenem in Adult Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Yankelev, Sara; Steenbergen, Judith; Friedland, Ian; Solomkin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ceftolozane-tazobactam (TOL-TAZ) is a novel antibacterial with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other common Gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, that are associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). This prospective, double-blind, randomized, multicenter, phase II trial assessed patient clinical and microbiological responses to and the safety of TOL-TAZ plus metronidazole compared with those of meropenem. Hospitalized adults with cIAIs that required surgical intervention were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous (i.v.) TOL-TAZ (1.5 g [containing 1,000 mg TOL and 500 mg TAZ] every 8 h [q8h]) with or without i.v. metronidazole (500 mg q8h) or i.v. meropenem (1 g q8h) for 4 to 7 days. The primary endpoint was the clinical response at the test-of-cure visit in the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) and microbiologically evaluable (ME) populations. Secondary measures included the patients' microbiological response and safety. In total, 82 patients received TOL-TAZ (90.2% with metronidazole), and 39 received meropenem. For the mMITT population, clinical cure was seen in 83.6% of the patients (51/61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9 to 91.8) who received TOL-TAZ and 96.0% of the patients (24/25; 95% CI, 79.6 to 99.9) who received meropenem (difference, −12.4%; 95% CI, −34.9% to 11.1%); in the ME population, clinical cure was seen in 88.7% and 95.8% of the patients (difference, −7.1%; 95% CI, −30.7% to 16.9%) who received TOL-TAZ and meropenem, respectively. TOL-TAZ demonstrated microbiological success against Escherichia coli (89.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%), and P. aeruginosa (100%). The adverse event rates were similar in the groups (50.0% with TOL-TAZ and 48.8% with meropenem). TOL-TAZ in combination with metronidazole was well tolerated and resulted in clinical and microbiological success rates supportive of further clinical development in

  10. Diclofenac epolamine plus heparin plaster versus diclofenac epolamine plaster in mild to moderate ankle sprain: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Kwarecki, Jacek; Samokhin, Anatoly V; Mautone, Giuseppe; Rovati, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In general sports, ankle sprain is the most frequently reported ankle injury and can cause chronic lateral ankle pain and tenderness. Treatment with NSAIDs is preferred, and several topical NSAID formulations are now available, helping to avoid the systemic adverse events typically associated with oral preparations. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a newly developed fixed-dose diclofenac epolamine (diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine, DHEP)/heparin plaster (Flectoparin® Tissugel) with that of a DHEP (Flector EP Tissugel®) or placebo plaster in the treatment of mild to moderate ankle sprain in adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III study conducted in the emergency medical centres of hospitals or private clinics in Europe. Outpatients aged 18-65 years who had suffered an acute ankle sprain (O'Donoghue grade I or II in severity, with external lateral ligament involvement) within the previous 48 hours and had peri-malleolar oedema were eligible for inclusion. A total of 430 patients were randomized to receive a DHEP/heparin 1.3%/5600 IU (n = 142), DHEP 1.3% (n = 146) or placebo (n = 142) plaster, applied once daily to the injured ankle for a total of 7 days. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline in pain on movement on day 3, as measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS). The DHEP/heparin plaster was associated with a significantly (p = 0.002) greater mean reduction from baseline in pain on movement after 3 days of treatment than the DHEP plaster (-24.2 vs -18.8 mm VAS), with each active treatment providing significantly (p ≤ 0.005) greater pain relief than placebo (-13.7 mm VAS). Both DHEP/heparin and DHEP were also effective in relieving other measures of pain, with DHEP/heparin recipients experiencing significantly less daily pain while leaning on the injured limb than DHEP recipients (p < 0.001). In addition, oedema was reduced to a

  11. Prospective randomized double-blind multicentre phase II study comparing gemcitabine and cisplatin plus sorafenib chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin plus placebo in locally advanced and/or metastasized urothelial cancer: SUSE (AUO-AB 31/05).

    PubMed

    Krege, Susanne; Rexer, Heidrun; vom Dorp, Frank; de Geeter, Patrick; Klotz, Theodor; Retz, Margitte; Heidenreich, Axel; Kühn, Michael; Kamradt, Joern; Feyerabend, Susan; Wülfing, Christian; Zastrow, Stefan; Albers, Peter; Hakenberg, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Fenner, Martin; Heinzer, Hans; Schrader, Mark

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine and cisplatin in combination with sorafenib, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, compared with chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment in advanced urothelial cancer. The study was a randomized phase II trial. Its primary aim was to show an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) of 4.5 months by adding sorafenib to conventional chemotherapy. Secondary objectives were objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The patients included in the trial had histologically confirmed locally advanced and/or metastatic urothelial cancer of the bladder or upper urinary tract. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1250 mg/qm on days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (70 mg/qm on day 1) repeated every 21 days, was administered to all patients in a double-blind randomization of additional sorafenib (400 mg twice daily) vs placebo (two tablets twice daily) on days 3-21. Treatment continued until progression or unacceptable toxicity, the maximum number of cycles was limited to eight. The response assessment was repeated after every two cycles. Between October 2006 and October 2010, 98 of 132 planned patients were recruited. Nine patients were ineligible. The final analysis included 40 patients in the sorafenib and 49 patients in the placebo arm. There were no significant differences between the two arms concerning ORR (sorafenib: complete response [CR] 12.5%, partial response [PR] 40%; placebo: CR 12%, PR 35%), median PFS (sorafenib: 6.3 months, placebo: 6.1 months) or OS (sorafenib: 11.3 months, placebo: 10.6 months). Toxicity was moderately higher in the sorafenib arm. Diarrrhoea occurred significantly more often in the sorafenib arm and hand-foot syndrome occurred only in the sorafenib arm. The study was closed prematurely because of slow recruitment. Although the addition of sorafenib to standard chemotherapy showed acceptable toxicity, the trial failed to show a 4.5 months improvement in PFS. © 2013 The Authors

  12. Meniett device in meniere disease: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Nguyen, Yann; De Seta, Daniele; Bouccara, Didier; Sterkers, Olivier; Ferrary, Evelyne; Bernardeschi, Daniele

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of portable Meniett low-pressure pulse generator (Medtronic Xomed, Jacksonville, FL) in Meniere disease. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial carried out in 17 academic medical centers. One hundred twenty-nine adults presenting Meniere disease (American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria) not controlled by conventional medical treatment were included. The protocol included three phases: 1) placement of a transtympanic tube and evaluation of its effect (if resolution of symptoms, the patient was excluded); 2) randomization: 6-weeks treatment with Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) or placebo device; 3) removal of the device and 6-week follow-up period. The evaluation criteria were the number of vertigo episodes (at least 20 minutes with a 12-hour free interval) and the impact on daily life as assessed by self-questionnaires. Ninety-seven patients passed to the second phase of the study: 49 and 48 patients received the Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) or the placebo device, respectively. In the placebo group, the number of vertigo episodes decreased from 4.3 ± 0.6 (mean ± standard error of the mean) during the first phase to 2.6 ± 0.5 after 6 weeks of treatment, and to 1.8 ± 0.8 after the removal of the device. Similar results were observed in the Meniett device (Medtronic Xomed) group: 3.2 ± 0.4 episodes during the first phase, 2.5 ± after 6 weeks of Meniett device (Medtronic Xomed) treatment, and 1.5 ± 0.2 after the third phase. An improvement of symptoms was evidenced in all patients, with no difference between the Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) and the placebo device groups. The decrease in the number of vertigo episodes could be explained by an effect of the medical care. 1b. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:470-475, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Efficacy and safety of fasiglifam (TAK-875), a G protein-coupled receptor 40 agonist, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Enya, K; Nakaya, R; Ohira, T; Matsuno, R

    2015-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of fasiglifam 25 and 50 mg in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. This phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study included 192 patients randomized to once-daily treatment with fasiglifam 25 mg (n = 63) or 50 mg (n = 62) or placebo (n = 67) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 24. At week 24, both fasiglifam groups had significantly reduced HbA1c levels compared with the placebo group (p < 0.0001). The least squares mean change from baseline in HbA1c was 0.16% with placebo, -0.57% with fasiglifam 25 mg and -0.83% with fasiglifam 50 mg. The percentage of patients who achieved an HbA1c target of <6.9% at week 24 was also significantly higher (p < 0.05) for fasiglifam 25 mg (30.2%) and 50 mg (54.8%) compared with placebo (13.8%). Fasiglifam significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose levels at all assessment points, starting from week 2. The incidence and types of treatment-emergent adverse events in each fasiglifam group were similar to those in the placebo group, and hypoglycaemia was reported in 1 patient receiving fasiglifam 50 mg. There were no clinically meaningful changes in body weight in any treatment group. Fasiglifam significantly improved glycaemic control and was well tolerated, with a low risk of hypoglycaemia in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise; however, in a recent review of data from overall fasiglifam global clinical trials, concerns about liver safety arose and the clinical development of fasiglifam was terminated after this trial was completed. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Efficacy and safety of alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled Phase 3 study in mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Pan, Changyu; Han, Ping; Ji, Qiuhe; Li, Chengjiang; Lu, Juming; Yang, Jinkui; Li, Wenhui; Zeng, Jiaoe; Hsieh, An-Tsz; Chan, Juliana

    2017-04-01

    This study determined the efficacy and safety of once-daily oral alogliptin in patients from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this Phase 3 multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled 16-week trial, 506 patients were randomized to receive once-daily alogliptin 25 mg or placebo: 185 in the monotherapy group, 197 in the add-on to metformin group, and 124 in the add-on to pioglitazone group. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline (CFB) in HbA1c at Week 16; other efficacy measures included CFB to Week 16 in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), incidence of marked hyperglycemia (FPG ≥11.1 mmol/L), and the incidence of clinical HbA1c ≤6.5 % (48 mmol/mol) and ≤7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) at Week 16. Safety was assessed throughout the trial. Alogliptin monotherapy provided a significantly greater decrease in HbA1c from baseline to Week 16 compared with placebo (-0.58 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] -0.78 %, -0.37 %; P < 0.001). As an add-on to metformin or pioglitazone, alogliptin also significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo (-0.69 % [95 % CI -0.87 %, -0.51 %; P < 0.001] and -0.52 % [95 % CI -0.75 %, -0.28 %; P < 0.001], respectively). In any treatment group versus placebo, alogliptin led to greater decreases in FPG (P ≤ 0.004) and a higher percentage of patients who achieved an HbA1c target of ≤6.5 % and ≤7.0 % (P ≤ 0.003). No weight gain was observed in any treatment group. A similar percentage of patients experienced drug-related, treatment-emergent adverse events in the alogliptin and placebo arms. Four and two patients in the alogliptin and placebo arms, respectively, experienced mild or moderate hypoglycemia. Alogliptin 25 mg once daily reduced HbA1c and FPG and enhanced clinical response compared with placebo when used as monotherapy or as an add-on to metformin or pioglitazone. Therapy with alogliptin was well tolerated. © 2016 The Authors. Journal

  15. Efficacy and safety of 400 and 800 mg etodolac vs. 1,000 mg paracetamol in acute treatment of migraine: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, multicenter, phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Vesile; Ertaş, Mustafa; Baykan, Betül; Sirin, Hadiye; Özge, Aynur

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of etodolac, in acute migraine attacks in comparison with paracetamol (acetaminophen). We designed a randomized, double-blind, crossover phase III clinical trial for patients diagnosed with migraine for at least 1 year, according to ICHD-II criteria. Two hundred and twenty-nine adult patients having 2 to 8 attacks monthly from 17 centers were included. The patients were instructed to use 3 attack treatment packages consisting of 1,000 mg paracetamol, 400 mg etodolac, and 800 mg etodolac on 3 migraine attacks of moderate-severe intensity each in a 3-month treatment period, interchangeably. Any pain medication was used in 1,570 migraine attacks while study treatments were used in 1,047 attacks. The results for 1,000 mg paracetamol, 400 mg etodolac, and 800 mg etodolac were as follows: response of headache at 2 hours 44.9%, 48.3% and 46.1%; pain-free at 2 hours 19.2%, 19.3% and 24.1%; sustained pain-free from 2 to 24 hours 34.3%, 38.3% and 41.1%; relapse rates in 2 to 24 hours 7.3%, 14.3% and 9.7%. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding the headache response, pain-free, sustained pain-free, and relapse rates. Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia, or photophobia decreased similarly in all groups within 24 hours of treatment administration. Drug-related adverse events were noted in 8 patients with 1,000 mg paracetamol, in 9 patients with 400 mg etodolac and in 9 patients for 800 mg etodolac during the study. Our study showed that etodolac is a safe and effective alternative in acute migraine treatment and showed comparable efficacy to paracetamol 1,000 mg. Etodolac may be considered as an alternative option for acute treatment of migraine. © 2012 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  16. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Dronabinol for the treatment of cannabis dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Brooks, Daniel J; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-07-01

    Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P=.02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P=.02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions.

  18. Dronabinol for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20 mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline followback method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P = .02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P= .02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions. PMID:21310551

  19. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase III study of shortening the dosing interval of subcutaneous tocilizumab monotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to subcutaneous tocilizumab every other week: Results of the 12-week double-blind period.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Ishii, Tomonori; Kaneko, Motohide; Miwa, Hiroko; Ohsawa, Shino

    2017-06-16

    To determine the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) monotherapy every week (qw) versus every other week (q2w) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to TCZ-SC q2w. Adult patients in Japan with inadequate response to TCZ-SC q2w were randomized to either TCZ-SC 162 mg qw monotherapy or TCZ-SC 162 mg q2w monotherapy for 12 weeks (double-blind). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in adjusted Disease Activity Score 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) at week 12. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were assessed. TCZ-SC qw was superior to TCZ-SC q2w for adjusted mean change in DAS28-ESR from baseline to week 12. The difference in the change in DAS28-ESR between TCZ-SC qw and q2w was -1.21 (95%CI: -2.13, -0.30, p = .0108). A higher proportion of patients receiving TCZ-SC qw achieved DAS28-ESR remission/low disease activity than TCZ-SC q2w. Adverse events were 71.4% and 66.7% for TCZ-SC qw and q2w, respectively; infection was the most common event with one fatal case with TCZ-SC qw. In patients with inadequate response to TCZ-SC q2w, shortening the dosing interval to qw improved efficacy with acceptable tolerability. Occurrence of infection for both TCZ q2w and qw is important and needs careful attention.

  20. Dronabinol and lofexidine for cannabis use disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Brooks, Daniel; Glass, Andrew; Mahony, Amy; Nunes, Edward V; Bisaga, Adam; Dakwar, Elias; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Sullivan, Maria A; Choi, Jean C

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis use disorder is associated with substantial morbidity and, after alcohol, is the most common drug bringing adolescents and adults into treatment. At present, there are no FDA-approved medications for cannabis use disorder. Combined pharmacologic interventions might be particularly useful in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and promoting abstinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, and lofexidine, an alpha-2 agonist, in treating cannabis dependence. One hundred fifty six cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled and following a 1-week placebo lead-in phase 122 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 11-week trial. Participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg three times a day and lofexidine 0.6 mg three times a day or placebo. Medications were maintained until the end of week eight, were then tapered over two weeks and patients were monitored off medications during the last study week. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow-back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 3 weeks of abstinence during the maintenance phase of the trial (27.9% for the medication group and 29.5% for the placebo group), although both groups showed a reduction over time. Based on this treatment study, the combined intervention did not show promise as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Fulranumab as an Adjunctive Therapy in Patients With Inadequately Controlled, Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Dose-ranging, Dose-loading Phase II Study.

    PubMed

    Sanga, Panna; Polverejan, Elena; Wang, Steven; Kelly, Kathleen M; Thipphawong, John

    2016-06-01

    Fulranumab is an investigational, fully human recombinant monoclonal antibody (IgG2) that neutralizes the biological actions of human nerve growth factor. Low back pain is a common cause of noncancer chronic pain and represents one of the most significant socioeconomic health-related problems in developed countries. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effect of fulranumab in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Patients (aged 18-80 years) were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections every 4 weeks in 1 of 5 parallel treatment groups: placebo or fulranumab 1mg (1mgQ4wk), 3mg (3mgQ4wk), 3mg after a 6mg loading dose (6mgLD+3mgQ4wk), or 10mg (10mgQ4wk) every 4 weeks. A total of 385 patients (median age, 53 years; women, 54%) received at least 1 injection of study medication. No statistically significant differences were observed in improvement of pain intensity scores between the fulranumab treatment regimens and the placebo group at week 12 (primary end point; mean [SD], placebo: -2.0 [2.17], 1mgQ4wk: -1.9 [2.14], 3mgQ4wk: -2.2 [1.89], 6mgLD+3mgQ4wk: -2.0 [1.72] and 10mgQ4wk: -2.1 [2.18]). Results for secondary efficacy parameters (change in the Oswestry Disability Index, Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and Patient Global Assessment scales) were consistent with the primary outcome. A placebo effect was observed; the overall percentage of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the placebo (76%) and fulranumab treatment groups (77%-90%). Across all phases, the most common TEAEs in at least 10% of patients (combined fulranumab group vs placebo) were arthralgia (15% vs 12%), back pain (15% vs 18%), upper respiratory tract infection (15% vs 8%), paresthesia (14% vs 8%), diarrhea (12% vs 4%), headache (12% vs 8%), hypoesthesia (11% vs 5%), pain in extremity (11% vs 8%), sinusitis (10% vs 5%), and nasopharyngitis (10% vs 9%). Across all phases, neurologic

  2. Zonisamide for Bipolar Disorder, Mania or Mixed States: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Adjunctive Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dauphinais, Deborah; Knable, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua; Polanski, Mark; Rosenthal, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Objective This is the first multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide for the treatment of bipolar mania or mixed state. Experimental design One hundred four patients with Bipolar Disorder, Type I, II or NOS, in a manic, hypomanic or mixed state of illness were randomized to either adjunctive zonisamide or placebo. The study consisted of three phases: a 7 to 30 day screening and stabilization phase, 6 weeks of blinded treatment and a 1 to 3 week discontinuation phase. The primary outcome variable for manic and hypomanic patients was the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) both the YMRS and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) served as primary outcome variables for patients in mixed states. Secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and an a priori analysis of response and remission. Metabolic parameters including weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also analyzed. Side effects were measured using the SAFTEE. Principal observations There were no statistically significant differences for any of the primary or secondary outcome measures between zonisamide and placebo-treated patients. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies that suggested efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide in bipolar mania or mixed state, these results were not confirmed in this double blind controlled study. PMID:22506436

  3. Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride nasal spray 0.6% in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled study in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shailen R; Nayak, Anjuli; Ratner, Paul; Roland, Peter; Michael Wall, G

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) is an allergen-induced inflammatory reaction that occurs during periods of high pollen count. Current treatments for SAR include allergen avoidance, systemic antihistamines, and steroidal and nonsteroidal intranasal sprays. Olopatadine is a selective antihistamine and an inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators from human mast cells. An intranasal formulation of olopatadine has been developed for the treatment of SAR. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of olopatadine hydrochloride nasal spray 0.6% (OLO) relative to azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray 0.1% (AZE) and an inactive vehicle in the treatment of SAR. This Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted at 21 centers across the United States. Eligible patients were aged > or =12 years and had a history of SAR and verified allergy to a prevalent local allergen. After a run-in period during which inactive vehicle was administered, patients were randomly assigned to OLO, AZE (active control), or inactive vehicle (identical to OLO; placebo control), 2 sprays in each nostril BID for 16 days. The timing of enrollment was correlated with the start of the allergy season at each site. Symptoms were recorded twice daily in an electronic diary. Efficacy assessments included changes in mean daily reflective total nasal symptom scores (TNSS). Tolerability was evaluated based on adverse events (AEs) and nasal, physical, and cardiovascular parameters. A total of 544 patients were randomized. The mean age was 36 years (range, 12-77 years); men and boys represented 32.2% of the population; and the patients were predominantly white (75.4%). The mean reductions from baseline in reflective TNSS were 26.8%, 29.9%, and 18.4% with OLO, AZE, and inactive vehicle, respectively (P = 0.003 OLO vs inactive vehicle; 95% CI, -2.5% to 8.7% OLO vs AZE [non-inferiority]). The most commonly reported treatment

  4. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Scott; Thomas, Ronald G; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A; Brewer, James B; Rissman, Robert A; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S

    2015-10-20

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood-brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of triheptanoin in alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Hainque, Elodie; Caillet, Samantha; Leroy, Sandrine; Flamand-Roze, Constance; Adanyeguh, Isaac; Charbonnier-Beaupel, Fanny; Retail, Maryvonne; Le Toullec, Benjamin; Atencio, Mariana; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Brochard, Vanessa; Habarou, Florence; Ottolenghi, Chris; Cormier, Florence; Méneret, Aurélie; Ruiz, Marta; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Roubergue, Anne; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Vidailhet, Marie; Mochel, Fanny; Roze, Emmanuel

    2017-10-02

    Based on the hypothesis of a brain energy deficit, we investigated the safety and efficacy of triheptanoin on paroxysmal episodes in patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood due to ATP1A3 mutations. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of triheptanoin, at a target dose corresponding to 30% of daily calorie intake, in ten patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood due to ATP1A3 mutations. Each treatment period consisted of a 12-week fixed-dose phase, separated by a 4-week washout period. The primary outcome was the total number of paroxysmal events. Secondary outcomes included the number of paroxysmal motor-epileptic events; a composite score taking into account the number, severity and duration of paroxysmal events; interictal neurological manifestations; the clinical global impression-improvement scale (CGI-I); and safety parameters. The paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used to analyze treatment effects. In an intention-to-treat analysis, triheptanoin failed to reduce the total number of paroxysmal events (p = 0.646), including motor-epileptic events (p = 0.585), or the composite score (p = 0.059). CGI-I score did not differ between triheptanoin and placebo periods. Triheptanoin was well tolerated. Triheptanoin does not prevent paroxysmal events in Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. We show the feasibility of a randomized placebo-controlled trial in this setting. The study has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT002408354 ) the 03/24/2015.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ronald G.; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A.; Brewer, James B.; Rissman, Robert A.; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Methods: Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Results: Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions: Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood–brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. PMID:26362286

  7. The effects of metoclopramide on postoperative ileus. A randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, E D; Hersh, T; Brinner, R A; Barnett, S M; Boyle, L P

    1979-01-01

    Metoclopramide or placebo was administered postoperatively in a randomized, double-blind fashion to 115 patients undergoing laparotomy. The effect of metoclopramide on postoperative adynamic ileus (PAI) was evaluated. The patients were stratified into two groups: Group A--those with laparotomy without a gastrointestinal anastomosis or ostomy procedure, and group B--those with laparotomy undergoing an anastomosis or ostomy procedure. Metoclopramide reduced nausea and emesis postoperatively. However, the only significant effect on postoperative adynamic ileus was an earlier return to tolerance of solid foods in the patients in Group A. PMID:582360

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, efficacy study of alpha BRAIN® administered orally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Todd M; Leech, Jarrett; deBros, Guy B; Murphy, Cynthia A; Budson, Andrew E; Vassey, Elizabeth A; Solomon, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    Alpha BRAIN® is a nootropic supplement that purports to enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this self-described cognitive enhancing nootropic on cognitive functioning in a group of healthy adults by utilizing a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled design. A total of 63-treatment naïve individuals between 18 and 35 years of age completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. All participants completed a 2-week placebo run in before receiving active product, Alpha BRAIN® or new placebo, for 6 weeks. Participants undertook a battery of neuropsychological tests at randomization and at study completion. Primary outcome measures included a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of sleep. Compared with placebo, Alpha BRAIN® significantly improved on tasks of delayed verbal recall and executive functioning. Results also indicated significant time-by-group interaction in delayed verbal recall for the Alpha BRAIN® group. The use of Alpha BRAIN® for 6 weeks significantly improved recent verbal memory when compared with controls, in a group of healthy adults. While the outcome of the study is encouraging, this is the first randomized controlled trial of Alpha BRAIN®, and the results merit further study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. New treatment for faecal incontinence using zinc-aluminium ointment: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, G; Zarate, A J; Inostroza, G; Meneses, X; Falloux, E; Molina, O; Molina, M E; Bellolio, F; Zúñiga, A

    2012-05-01

    In a randomized double-blind study the therapeutic effect of a novel zinc-aluminium ointment was compared with placebo in patients with faecal incontinence. A randomized double-blind trial was performed. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive the ointment or a placebo. All were evaluated prior to and 3 weeks after ointment application, using the Wexner incontinence score and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) score. Fifty patients were randomized and six were lost to follow-up, leaving 24 in the treatment and 20 in the placebo group. The average ages were 61.3 and 60.7 years. The respective Wexner scores prior to intervention were 16.6 and 16.7. They decreased significantly after treatment to 8.5 and 13.1 (P<0.001 and P=0.002 respectively). There was a significant difference in the final scores, favouring the treatment group (P=0.001). The FIQL scores for the treatment group were also significantly better in all parameters compared with those of the placebo group. The study shows that the zinc-aluminium based ointment decreases faecal incontinence significantly compared with placebo. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. A Randomized, Double-blind Evaluation of Buprenorphine Taper Duration in Primary Prescription Opioid Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Dunn, Kelly E.; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Patrick, Mollie E.; Badger, Gary J.; Heil, Sarah H.; Brooklyn, John R.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although abuse of prescription opioids (POs) is a significant public health problem, few experimental studies have investigated the treatment needs of this growing population. OBJECTIVE To evaluate, following brief stabilization with a combination of buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate, the relative efficacy of 1-, 2-, and 4-week buprenorphine tapering regimens and subsequent naltrexone hydrochloride therapy in PO-dependent outpatients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A double-blind, 12-week randomized clinical trial was conducted in an outpatient research clinic. Following a brief period of buprenorphine stabilization, 70 PO-dependent adults were randomized to receive 1-, 2-, or 4-week tapers followed by naltrexone therapy. INTERVENTION During phase 1 (weeks 1–5 after randomization), participants visited the clinic daily; during phase 2 (weeks 6–12), visits were reduced to thrice weekly. Participants received behavioral therapy and urine toxicology testing throughout the trial. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The percentage of participants negative for illicit opioid use, retention, naltrexone ingestion, and favorable treatment response (ie, retained in treatment, opioid abstinent, and receiving naltrexone at the end of the study). RESULTS Opioid abstinence at the end of phase 1 was greater in the 4-week compared with the 2- and 1-week taper conditions (P = .02), with 63% (n = 14), 29% (n = 7), and 29% (n = 7) of participants abstinent in the 4-, 2-, and 1-week conditions, respectively. Abstinence at the end of phase 2 was also greater in the 4-week compared with the 2- and 1-week conditions (P = .03), with 50% (n = 11), 16% (n = 4), and 20% (n = 5) of participants abstinent in the 4-, 2-, and 1-week conditions, respectively. There were more treatment responders in the 4-week condition (P = .03), with 50% (n = 11), 17% (n = 4), and 21% (n = 5) of participants in the 4-, 2-, and 1-week groups considered responders at the end

  11. Twelve-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative phase II/III study of benzoyl peroxide gel in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Igarashi, Atsuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-03-11

    A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel, administrated once daily for 12 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Efficacy was evaluated by counting all inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. All 609 subjects were randomly assigned to receive the study products (2.5% and 5% BPO and placebo), and 607 subjects were included in the full analysis set, 544 in the per protocol set and 609 in the safety analyses. The median rates of reduction from baseline to the last evaluation of the inflammatory lesion counts, the primary end-point, in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 72.7% and 75.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than that in the placebo group (41.7%). No deaths or other serious adverse events were observed. The incidences of adverse events in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 56.4% and 58.8%, respectively; a higher incidence than in the placebo group, but there was no obvious difference between the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Most adverse events did not lead to study product discontinuation. The results suggested that both 2.5% and 5% BPO are useful for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  12. Comparison of the tolerability of recombinant human hyaluronidase + normal saline and recombinant human hyaluronidase + lactated ringer's solution administered subcutaneously: A phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dychter, Samuel S.; Ebel, David; Mead, Tonya R.; Yocum, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) (150 U) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to facilitate subcutaneous fluid administration in adults and children. Objective: This Phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study was designed to compare the tolerability, flow rate, and safety profile of subcutaneous infusions of normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions following subcutaneous administration of rHuPH20. Methods: Healthy volunteers received 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U) in each thigh, followed by simultaneous gravity-driven subcutaneous infusions of 500 mL of LR solution into 1 thigh and NS solution into the contralateral thigh. Subjects rated infusion-site discomfort in each thigh using a 100-mm (0 = no pain to 100 = most severe pain) visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline (ie, after catheter placement/ rHuPH20 injection and just prior to the start of the infusions) and at the following times: after infusion of 250 mL, after infusion of 500 mL (end of infusion), and when thigh circumference returned to within 5% of baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The primary tolerability end point was the maximal increase from baseline in infusion-site discomfort on the VAS. Secondary end points included infusion flow rate, change in thigh circumference, subject preference for leftversus right-thigh infusion, and safety profile measures. Results: Fifteen subjects (14 women, 1 man; mean age, 41 years [range, 20–60 years]) were included in the study. Mean (SD) maximal increase from baseline VAS pain score was significantly greater with NS solution than with LR solution (20.0 [19.4] vs 9.4 [18.3] mm, respectively; P = 0.005). Mean infusion flow rate was not significantly different between the NS and LR solutions (384.1 [118.1] vs 395.8 [132.8] mL/h). No significant differences between solutions were observed in mean maximal change in thigh circumference (5.2% [1.6%] vs 5.3% [1.5%]). All subjects expressed

  13. Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of glycerol phenylbutyrate in hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rockey, Don C; Vierling, John M; Mantry, Parvez; Ghabril, Marwan; Brown, Robert S; Alexeeva, Olga; Zupanets, Igor A; Grinevich, Vladimir; Baranovsky, Andrey; Dudar, Larysa; Fadieienko, Galyna; Kharchenko, Nataliya; Klaryts'ka, Iryna; Morozov, Vyacheslav; Grewal, Priya; McCashland, Timothy; Reddy, K Gautham; Reddy, K Rajender; Syplyviy, Vasyl; Bass, Nathan M; Dickinson, Klara; Norris, Catherine; Coakley, Dion; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Scharschmidt, Bruce F

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) lowers ammonia by providing an alternate pathway to urea for waste nitrogen excretion in the form of phenylacetyl glutamine, which is excreted in urine. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial enrolled 178 patients with cirrhosis, including 59 already taking rifaximin, who had experienced two or more hepatic encephalopathy (HE) events in the previous 6 months. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HE events. Other endpoints included the time to first event, total number of events, HE hospitalizations, symptomatic days, and safety. GPB, at 6 mL orally twice-daily, significantly reduced the proportion of patients who experienced an HE event (21% versus 36%; P = 0.02), time to first event (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56; P < 0.05), as well as total events (35 versus 57; P = 0.04), and was associated with fewer HE hospitalizations (13 versus 25; P = 0.06). Among patients not on rifaximin at enrollment, GPB reduced the proportion of patients with an HE event (10% versus 32%; P < 0.01), time to first event (HR = 0.29; P < 0.01), and total events (7 versus 31; P < 0.01). Plasma ammonia was significantly lower in patients on GPB and correlated with HE events when measured either at baseline or during the study. A similar proportion of patients in the GPB (79%) and placebo groups (76%) experienced adverse events. Conclusion: GPB reduced HE events as well as ammonia in patients with cirrhosis and HE and its safety profile was similar to placebo. The findings implicate ammonia in the pathogenesis of HE and suggest that GPB has therapeutic potential in this population. (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00999167). (Hepatology 2014;59:1073-1083) PMID:23847109

  14. Tetrodotoxin alleviates acute heroin withdrawal syndrome: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Jing; Lu, Chang-Li; Kang, Lin; Xie, Liang; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Bo; Zhong, Sheng

    2011-08-01

    1. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a powerful sodium channel blocker extracted from the puffer fish. The efficacy and safety of TTX as monotherapy for the treatment of acute heroin withdrawal syndrome were evaluated in the present study. This 7-day, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out between December 2008 and October 2009. In total, 216 patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnosis of heroin addiction were recruited. After providing written informed consent, subjects were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment in one of the following groups: 5 μg TTX group (group 1), 10 μg TTX group (group 2) or the placebo group (group 3). 2. Evidence suggests that both 5 and 10 μg TTX significantly reduced withdrawal symptoms by day 3 compared with placebo, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events in the three groups. 3. In conclusion, this clinical trial shows that TTX (5 and 10 μg given t.i.d.) is effective in alleviating opiate withdrawal symptoms with few side-effects.

  15. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of HNVAC, an MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, in Phase I single centre and Phase II/III multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel assignment studies.

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, V H; Sampath, G; Hegde, Nagendra R; Mohan, V Krishna; Ella, Krishna M

    2014-07-31

    The clinical evaluation of the MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine HNVAC in adults aged 18-65 years is reported. In the Phase I randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre study, 160 subjects were parallelly assigned 3:1 to vaccine:placebo groups (n=60:20) with both the aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations. A single dose of both the formulations containing 15 μg of haemagglutinin protein showed minimal adverse reactions, the most common of which were pain at injection site (11.67%) and fever (10.00%). Both formulations produced 74-81% seroprotection (SRP: titre of ≥40), 67-70% seroconversion (SRC: four-fold increase in titres between days 0 and 21), and a four-fold increase in geometric mean titres (GMT). Aluminium hydroxide did not have a significant effect either on immunogenicity or on reactogenicity. Nevertheless, based on its recognized positive effects on the stability and immunogenicity of many vaccines, and its marginal benefit in both pre-clinical and Phase I studies of HNVAC, alum adjuvanted HNVAC was further tested in a staggered Phase II/III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre study of 200 and 195 subjects, respectively, parallelly assigned 4:1 to adjuvanted vaccine and placebo groups. In these studies, the most common adverse reactions were pain at injection site (6.88% and 5.77% in Stage 1 and Stage 2, respectively) and fever (7.50% and 7.05%, respectively), and a single dose resulted in 87-90% SRP, 85-86% SRC, and a nearly six-fold increase in GMT, meeting or exceeding licensing criteria. It is concluded that HNVAC is safe and immunogenic to adults of 18-65 years.

  16. A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of Analgesic Efficacy and Tolerability of Q8003 vs Oxycodone or Morphine for Moderate-to-Severe Postoperative Pain Following Bunionectomy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Patricia; Riff, Dennis; Kelen, Robin; Stern, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Objective Compare the efficacy and tolerability of the dual-opioid, Q8003® (morphine/oxycodone combination) 12 mg/8 mg to morphine 12 mg or oxycodone 8 mg in subjects following bunionectomy surgery. Design This was a randomized, double-blind study. Setting Hospitalized patients. Patients Healthy men or women aged ≥18 years with moderate or severe pain (score ≥2 on a 4-point Likert scale) and ≥4 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale following surgery. Interventions Study medication was initiated after surgery and was given for 48 hours. Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was mean sum of the pain intensity difference (SPID) scores from the postsurgical baseline. Results Five hundred twenty-two subjects were randomized; 31 (5.9%) discontinued, including 19 (3.6%) for adverse events. The mean total morphine equivalent dose (MED) was 182.7 mg from Q8003 12 mg/8 mg, 92.4 mg for morphine 12 mg, and 92.1 mg for oxycodone 8 mg. SPID from baseline over 24 hours and SPID from baseline over 48 hours were significantly (P < 0.02) higher for Q8003 12 mg/8 mg vs morphine 12 mg or oxycodone 8 mg. Significantly (P < 0.015) fewer subjects in the Q8003 group required ibuprofen rescue medication, used lower doses of rescue medication, and had a longer median time to first use of rescue medication. Oxygen desaturation <90% occurred in 5.3% with Q8003, 2.8% with morphine 12 mg, and 2.3% with oxycodone 8 mg, and the cumulative median dose at first desaturation was twofold greater with Q8003. Conclusion Q8003 provided superior efficacy to its individual components at twice the MED with only a modest increase in the incidence of adverse events. PMID:23802706

  17. A randomized, double-blind, phase II, exploratory trial evaluating the palliative benefit of either continuing pamidronate or switching to zoledronic acid in patients with high-risk bone metastases from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C; Kuchuk, I; Bouganim, N; Smith, S; Mazzarello, S; Vandermeer, L; Dranitsaris, G; Dent, S; Gertler, S; Verma, S; Song, X; Simos, S; Cella, D; Clemons, M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest switching from pamidronate to a more potent bone-targeted agent is associated with biomarker and palliative response in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Until now, this has not been addressed in a double-blind, randomized trial. Breast cancer patients with high-risk bone metastases, despite >3 months of pamidronate, were randomized to either continue pamidronate or switch to zoledronic acid every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving a fall in serum C-telopeptide (sCTx) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included difference in mean sCTx, pain scores, quality of life, toxicity, and skeletal-related events (SREs). Seventy-three patients entered the study; median age 61 years (range 37-87). Proportion of patients achieving a fall in sCTx over the 12-week evaluation period was 26/32 (81 %) with zoledronic acid and 18/29 (62 %) with pamidronate (p = 0.095). Mean decrease in sCTx (mean difference between groups = 50 ng/L, 95 % CI 18-84; p = 0.003) was significantly greater in patients who received zoledronic acid. Quality of life, pain scores, toxicity, and frequency of new SREs were comparable between the two arms. While a switch from pamidronate to zoledronic acid resulted in reduction in mean sCTx, there were no significant differences between the arms for proportion of patients achieving a reduction in sCTx, quality of life, pain scores, toxicity or SREs. Given the lack of palliative improvement, the current data do not support a switching strategy.

  18. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized Trial From the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: A two-arm, double-blind, randomized trial was performed to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma who were undergoing external beam radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream daily. The primary study endpoint was the provider-assessed maximal grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints included provider-assessed Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse event monitoring. The patient-reported outcome measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and a quality-of-life self-assessment. An assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 176 patients were enrolled between September 21, 2007, and December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary endpoint showed no difference in the mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs. 1.3 for placebo; p = .18). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity was greater in the placebo group (p = .04), primarily from pruritus. For the patient-reported outcome measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for the MMF group showed less itching (p = .008), less irritation (p = .01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (p = .02), and less annoyance with skin problems (p = .04). The group's maximal Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (p = .02) and less itching (p = .002). Conclusion: Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy might experience reduced acute skin toxicity compared with patients receiving placebo.

  19. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase 3 Double-Blind, Randomized Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A 2-arm, double-blinded, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma receiving external beam radiotherapy to breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to daily apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream. Primary study end point was provider-assessed maximum grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 radiation dermatitis. Secondary end points included provider-assessed CTCAE grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse-event monitoring. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and quality of life self-assessment. Assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results In total, 176 patients were enrolled from September 21, 2007 through December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary end point showed no difference in mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs 1.3 for placebo; P=.18). CTCAE toxicity was greater in placebo group (P=.04), primarily from pruritus. For PRO measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for MMF group showed less itching (P=.008), less irritation (P=.01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (P=.02), and less annoyance with skin problems (P=.04); the group's maximum Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (P=.02) and less itching (P=.002). Conclusion Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy may experience reduced acute skin toxicity in comparison to placebo. PMID:20800381

  20. Concomitant or sequential administration of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine and yellow fever 17D vaccine: randomized double-blind phase II evaluation of safety and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Nasveld, Peter E; Marjason, Joanne; Bennett, Sonya; Aaskov, John; Elliott, Suzanne; McCarthy, Karen; Kanesa-Thasan, Niranjan; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Reid, Mark

    2010-11-01

    A randomized, double-blind, study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) co-administered with live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D strain; Stamaril®, Sanofi Pasteur) or administered successively. Participants (n = 108) were randomized to receive: YF followed by JE-CV 30 days later, JE followed by YF 30 days later, or the co-administration of JE and YF followed or preceded by placebo 30 days later or earlier. Placebo was used in a double-dummy fashion to ensure masking. Neutralizing antibody titers against JE-CV, YF-17D and selected wild-type JE strains was determined using a 50% serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization test. Seroconversion was defined as the appearance of a neutralizing antibody titer above the assay cut-off post-immunization when not present pre-injection at day 0, or a least a four-fold rise in neutralizing antibody titer measured before the pre-injection day 0 and later post vaccination samples. There were no serious adverse events. Most adverse events (AEs) after JE vaccination were mild to moderate in intensity, and similar to those reported following YF vaccination. Seroconversion to JE-CV was 100% and 91% in the JE/YF and YF/JE sequential vaccination groups, respectively, compared with 96% in the co-administration group. All participants seroconverted to YF vaccine and retained neutralizing titers above the assay cut-off at month six. Neutralizing antibodies against JE vaccine were detected in 82-100% of participants at month six. These results suggest that both vaccines may be successfully co-administered simultaneously or 30 days apart.

  1. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Atwal, Tegpal; Bi, Yan; Chari, Suresh T; Clemens, Magdalen A; Enders, Felicity T

    2015-08-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP) tumor necrosis factor-α mediates multi-organ failure; in animal models its blockade with pentoxifylline ameliorates AP. The efficacy of pentoxifylline in predicted severe AP (pSAP) was tested in a double-blinded, randomized, control trial. Twenty-eight patients with pSAP were randomized within 72 hours of diagnosis to pentoxifylline or placebo. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The pentoxifylline group had fewer intensive care unit admissions and shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays of longer than 4 days (all P < .05). Patients receiving pentoxifylline had no adverse effects. Pentoxifylline within 72 hours of pSAP is safe; a larger study of pentoxifylline in AP is needed to confirm efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01292005. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Periprostatic anaesthesic infiltration for prostatic biopsy: a prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled study].

    PubMed

    Valero, Gonzalo; González, E U Roxana

    2005-06-01

    A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of periprostatic infiltration with lidocaine to reduce pain of prostatic biopsy. In a thirteen months period of time, 115 patients were randomized to receive 10 ml of lidocaine 1% (n=60) or saline (n=55). Evaluating the pain with visual analogue scale (0-10), the first group referred average pain of 3.83 and the second group of 6.87, being this difference clearly significant (p<0.005). There were not complications from anesthesic puncture. The periprostatic infiltration is easy to perform without complications and it is effective in reducing the pain of this procedure. It should be used as a routine procedure in prostatic biopsy.

  3. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  4. Weight change in older depressed patients during acute pharmacotherapy with paroxetine and nortriptyline: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Weber, E; Stack, J; Pollock, B G; Mulsant, B; Begley, A; Mazumdar, S; Reynolds CF3rd

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined weight change in 32 elderly patients treated for 12 weeks with either nortriptyline or paroxetine during acute-phase pharmacotherapy. Random assignment to treatment and double-blind assessment of weight change were performed, including ascertainment of premorbid (i.e., pre-depression) weight. Pretreatment severity of depression was correlated with weight loss during the depressive episode and depression-related weight loss, in turn, correlated with weight regained during antidepressant treatment. There was no differential weight change associated with nortriptyline vs. paroxetine. Rather, subjects in both groups approximated their premorbid weights by 12 weeks of acute-phase pharmacotherapy with either agent. However, additional investigation of weight change during continuation and maintenance pharmacotherapy is necessary and would be clinically useful for the long-term management of elderly patients with depression.

  5. Mucolytic Effectiveness of Tyloxapol in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Koppitz, Martin; Eschenburg, Charlotte; Salzmann, Emilia; Rosewich, Martin; Schubert, Ralf; Zielen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mucoactive drugs should increase the ability to expectorate sputum and, ideally, have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucolytic activity of Tyloxapol compared to saline (0.9%) in COPD. Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover, clinical trial was carried out. Patients were randomly assigned to either inhale 5 ml Tyloxapol 1% or saline 0.9% solution three times daily for 3 weeks and vice versa for another 3 weeks. 28 patients (18 male, 10 female, 47 to 73 years old, median age 63.50) were screened, 21 were treated and 19 patients completed the study per protocol. Results A comparison of the two treatment phases showed that the primary endpoint sputum weight was statistically significant higher when patients inhaled Tyloxapol (mean 4.03 g, 95% CI: 2.34–5.73 g at week 3) compared to saline (mean 2.63 g, 95% CI: 1.73–3.53 g at week 3). The p-value at three weeks of treatment was 0.041 between treatment arms. Sputum cells decreased during the Tyloxapol treatment after 3 weeks, indicating that Tyloxapol might have some anti-neutrophilic properties. Lung function parameters (FVC, FEV1, RV, and RV/TLC) remained stable during the study, and no treatment effect was shown. Interestingly, there was a mean increase in all inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) during the saline treatment from day 1 to week 3, whereas during the Tyloxapol treatment, all cytokines decreased. Due to the small sample size and the large individual variation in sputum cytokines, these differences were not significant. However, analyses confirmed that Tyloxapol has significant anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. Despite the high number of inhalations (more than 1000), only 27 adverse events (20 during the Tyloxapol and seven during saline) were recorded. Eleven patients experienced AEs under Tyloxapol and six under saline treatment, which indicates that inhalation of saline or Tyloxapol is a very safe procedure

  6. Davunetide for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.; Lang, Anthony E.; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Schneider, Lon S.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Williams, David R.; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R.; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V.; Heuer, Hilary W.; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J.; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an eightamino acid peptide that promotes microtubule stability and decreases tau phosphorylation in pre-clinical studies. Since PSP is tightly linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be an effective treatment for PSP.The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of davunetide in PSP. Methods A phase 2/3 double-blind, parallel group, clinical trial of davunetide 30 mg or placebo (randomized 1:1) administered intranasally twice daily for 52 weeks was conducted at 48centers. Participants met modifiedNNIPPS criteria for possible or probable PSP. Co-primary endpointswere the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England ADL(SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. Data from all individuals who received at least one dose of medication and had a post-baseline efficacy assessment were compared using a rank-based method.Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and the change in regional brain volumeon MRI. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110720. Findings 360 participants were screened, 313 were randomized and 243 (77.6%) completed the study. There were no group differences in PSPRS (mean difference: 0.49 [95% CI: −1.5, 2.5], p = 0.72) or SEADL (1% [−2, 4%], p = 0.76) change from baseline (CFB) and mean 52 week CFB PSPRS scores were similar between the davunetide (11.3 [9.8,12.8]) and placebo groups (10.9 [9.1, 13.0]). There wereno differences in any of the secondary or exploratory endpoints. There were 11deaths in the davunetide group and tenin the placebo group. There were more nasal adverse events in the davunetide group. Interpretation Davunetide is well tolerated but is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease modifying therapy are feasible in PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed therapies. Funding Allon Therapeutics PMID:24873720

  7. Psychomotor and subjective effects of bilastine, hydroxyzine, and cetirizine, in combination with alcohol: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and positive-controlled and placebo-controlled Phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    García-Gea, Consuelo; Martínez, Joan; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Gich, Ignasi; Valiente, Román; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of concomitant administration of alcohol and bilastine versus alcohol alone on the central nervous system. Twenty-four healthy young volunteers of both sexes participated in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover, and positive-controlled and placebo-controlled clinical trials. At 1-week intervals, subjects received six different treatments: (i) placebo; (ii) alcohol 0.8 g/kg alone (ALC); (iii) ALC in combination with: bilastine 20 mg (B20 + A); (iv) bilastine 80 mg (B80 + A); (v) cetirizine 10 mg (CET + A); and (vi) hydroxyzine 25 mg (HYD + A). Psychomotor performance tests (fine motor, finger tapping, nystagmus, critical flicker-fusion frequency, temporal estimation, 'd2' cancellation, and simple reaction time) and subjective self-reports (drunkenness, drowsiness, mental slowness, clumsiness, anger, attentiveness, competence, happiness, hostility, interest, and extroversion) were carried out at baseline and multiple points thereafter. All active treatments induced a significant psychomotor impairment. The greatest and most lasting impairment was observed with HYD + A followed by B80 + A and CET + A. In contrast, objective measures showed less impairment with B20 + A and ALC, both with a similar magnitude. Self-reports showed a subjective perception of performance impairment in all active treatments. Concomitant administration of bilastine (at therapeutic dose) and alcohol does not produce greater central nervous system depressant effects than ACL alone. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine HCl with different epinephrine concentration for local anesthesia in participants undergoing surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover, phase IV trial.

    PubMed

    Karm, Myong-Hwan; Park, Fiona Daye; Kang, Moonkyu; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kang, Jeong Wan; Kim, Seungoh; Kim, Yong-Deok; Kim, Cheul-Hong; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Woo; Hong, Sung-Woon; Lim, Mi Hyoung; Nam, Seung Kwan; Cho, Jae Min

    2017-05-01

    The most commonly impacted tooth is the third molar. An impacted third molar can ultimately cause acute pain, infection, tumors, cysts, caries, periodontal disease, and loss of adjacent teeth. Local anesthesia is employed for removing the third molar. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 or 1:200,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. Sixty-five healthy participants underwent surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars in 2 separate visits while under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with different epinephrine concentration (1:80,000 or 1:200,000) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial. Visual analog scale pain scores obtained immediately after surgical extraction were primarily evaluated for the 2 groups receiving different epinephrine concentrations. Visual analog scale pain scores were obtained 2, 4, and 6 hours after administering an anesthetic. Onset and duration of analgesia, onset of pain, intraoperative bleeding, operator's and participant's overall satisfaction, drug dosage, and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for the 2 groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in any measurements except hemodynamic factors (P >.05). Changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate following anesthetic administration were significantly greater in the group receiving 1:80,000 epinephrine than in that receiving 1:200,000 epinephrine (P ≤.01). The difference in epinephrine concentration between 1:80,000 and 1:200,000 in 2% lidocaine liquid does not affect the medical efficacy of the anesthetic. Furthermore, 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine has better safety with regard to hemodynamic parameters than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Therefore, we suggest using 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine rather than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of impacted

  9. Effect of a single dose of the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab on inflammation and troponin T release in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Kleveland, Ola; Kunszt, Gabor; Bratlie, Marte; Ueland, Thor; Broch, Kaspar; Holte, Espen; Michelsen, Annika E; Bendz, Bjørn; Amundsen, Brage H; Espevik, Terje; Aakhus, Svend; Damås, Jan Kristian; Aukrust, Pål; Wiseth, Rune; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-08-07

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) contributes to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and is involved in myocardial injury during ischaemia-reperfusion. Interleukin-6 is therefore a potential therapeutic target in myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that the IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab would attenuate inflammation, and secondarily reduce troponin T (TnT) release in non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). In a two-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 117 patients with NSTEMI were randomized at a median of 2 days after symptom onset to receive placebo (n = 59) or tocilizumab (n = 58), administered as a single dose prior to coronary angiography. High sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein and hsTnT were measured at seven consecutive timepoints between Days 1 and 3. The area under the curve (AUC) for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was the primary endpoint. The median AUC for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein during hospitalization was 2.1 times higher in the placebo than in the tocilizumab group (4.2 vs. 2.0 mg/L/h, P < 0.001). Also, the median AUC for hsTnT during hospitalization was 1.5 times higher in the placebo group compared with the tocilizumab group (234 vs. 159 ng/L/h, P = 0.007). The differences between the two treatment groups were observed mainly in (i) patients included ≤2 days from symptom onset and (ii) patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). No safety issues in the tocilizumab group were detected during 6 months of follow-up. Tocilizumab attenuated the inflammatory response and primarily PCI-related TnT release in NSTEMI patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Evaluation of Bioequivalence Between the New Procaterol Hydrochloride Hydrate Dry Powder Inhaler and the Approved Dry Powder Inhaler in Patients With Asthma in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Crossover Comparison Study: A Phase 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Ryo; Suzaki, Yuki; Sato, Kyoko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Tokimatsu, Issei; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kadota, Junichi; Ohashi, Kyoichi

    2017-09-08

    Procaterol hydrochloride hydrate (procaterol) is a β2 -adrenergic receptor agonist that induces a strong bronchodilatory effect. The procaterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) has been frequently used in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety between the new procaterol DPI (new DPI) and the approved procaterol DPI (approved DPI). This study was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover comparison to evaluate the pharmacodynamic equivalence of the new DPI and the approved DPI in patients with bronchial asthma. Primary efficacy variables were area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 during the 480-minute measurement period. Patients were divided into 2 groups, New-DPI-First (n = 8) and Approved-DPI-First (n = 8), according to the investigational medical product that was administered first. Patients inhaled 20 μg of procaterol in each period. FEV1 was measured by a spirometer at predose and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, and 480 minutes after each investigational medical product administration. Equivalence was evaluated by confirming that the 2-sided 90%CIs for the difference between the new and the approved DPI in means of AUC (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 were within the acceptance criteria of -0.15 to 0.15 L. The difference in means of AUC (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 was 0.041 L and 0.033 L, respectively, and the 90%CI was 0.004 to 0.078 L and -0.008 to 0.074 L, respectively. These CIs were both within the acceptance criteria. The new DPI was assessed as being bioequivalent to the approved DPI. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. [Enzyme therapy in treatment of mastopathy. A randomized double-blind clinical study].

    PubMed

    Rammer, E; Friedrich, F

    1996-01-01

    In this randomized double-blind clinical study the efficacy of an enzyme preparation (Wobenzym) was compared with hormone therapy (Lynestrenol) in 29 women with mastopathy. There was a significantly greater decrease in number of hardenings of the mammary gland after 2 months of enzyme therapy than Lynestrenol therapy: improvement in the former group was 100%, in the latter group 78.6%. No significant difference was observed regarding the numbers of lumps, or number and size of cysts, sensitivity to touch, feeling of tension, spontaneous pain, and pain on pressure. The efficacy of both medicines is valued as good. Wobenzym therapy was tolerated very well. No side effects appeared at all. Enzyme therapy is an alternative, low-risk therapy for the management of mastopathy, which does not interfere with the already upset hormonal balance of the patients.

  12. Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Autism: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Keeratitanont, Keattichai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in individuals with autism. Twenty patients with autism received 5 consecutive days of both sham and active tDCS stimulation (1 mA) in a randomized double-blind crossover trial over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F3) for 20 minutes in different orders. Measures of CARS, ATEC, and CGAS were administered before treatment and at 7 days posttreatment. The result showed statistical decrease in CARS score (P < 0.001). ATEC total was decreased from 67.25 to 58 (P < 0.001). CGAS was increased at 7 days posttreatment (P = 0.042). Our study suggests that anodal tDCS over the F3 may be a useful clinical tool in autism. PMID:25530675

  13. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  14. Effect of Neem containing Toothpaste on Plaque and Gingivitis--A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Abhishek, K N; Supreetha, S; Sam, George; Khan, S Nubesh; Chaithanya, K H; Abdul, Nishad

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of toothpaste containing neem on plaque and gingivitis. Randomized, double blind clinical trial was designed. Thirty first year dental students volunteered to participate in the study. Neem containing tooth paste was used as an intervention. Clinical examination was carried out using Silness and Loe plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index (GI). Independent t-test and paired t-test was used for the intergroup and the intragroup comparison. Out of 30 participants, 22 (73.3%) were females and eight (26.7%) were males. A statistically significant difference was found between the test and control group after intervention with respect to the PI and GI. Neem containing toothpaste can be used as an adjunct for maintenance of oral hygiene. Regular brushing with neem toothpaste might act as an adjunct to maintenance of good oral hygiene, and thus improve oral health.

  15. A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Trial to Quantitate Photoprotective Effects of an Antioxidant Combination Product

    PubMed Central

    Lima, XT; Alora-Palli, Maria Beatrice; Beck, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of multiple antioxidants may result in synergistic increases in skin protection. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, controlled study, the authors evaluated the effect of an antioxidant combination product in women with mild-to-moderate photoaging over 20 weeks. Changes on Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity levels and Minimal Erythema Dose were measured throughout the study. Results: Both Minimal Erythema Dose and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity levels increased in women receiving the antioxidant combination product, with the difference from baseline being statistically significant as early as Week 4. Similar findings were observed in women who received the control product, which had modest antioxidant activity. The comparisons between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Oral ingestion of a combination of antioxidants can lead to improvement on objective measurements, such as Minimal Erythema Dose and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity levels, when compared to baseline values. PMID:22708005

  16. Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Two New Leprosy Skin Test Antigens: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivoire, Becky L.; Groathouse, Nathan A.; TerLouw, Stephen; Neupane, Kapil Dev; Ranjit, Chaman; Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Khadge, Saraswoti; Kunwar, Chatra B.; Macdonald, Murdo; Hawksworth, Rachel; Thapa, Min B.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Tibbals, Melinda; Smith, Carol; Dube, Tina; She, Dewei; Wolff, Mark; Zhou, Eric; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mason, Robin; Sizemore, Christine; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. Methods A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose) and 0.1 µg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. Findings In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens

  17. Cardiovascular benefits from ancient grain bread consumption: findings from a double-blinded randomized crossover intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Sereni, Alice; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Maggini, Niccolò; Marcucci, Rossella; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Ancient grain varieties have been shown to have some beneficial effects on health. Forty-five clinically healthy subjects were included in a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial aimed at evaluating the effect of a replacement diet with bread derived from ancient grain varieties versus modern grain variety on cardiovascular risk profile. After 8 weeks of intervention, consumption of bread obtained by the ancient varieties showed a significant amelioration of various cardiovascular parameters. Indeed, the ancient varieties were shown to result in a significant reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and blood glucose, whereas no significant differences during the phase with the modern variety were reported. Moreover, a significant increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells were reported after the consumption of products made from the ancient "Verna" variety. The present results suggest that a dietary consumption of bread obtained from ancient grain varieties was effective in reducing cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. The Efficacy and Safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA or Solifenacin Compared with Placebo in Solifenacin Naïve Patients with Refractory Overactive Bladder: Results from a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Phase 3b Trial.

    PubMed

    Herschorn, Sender; Kohan, Alfred; Aliotta, Philip; McCammon, Kurt; Sriram, Rajagopalan; Abrams, Steven; Lam, Wayne; Everaert, Karel

    2017-07-01

    In this double-blind, randomized study we compared the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA or solifenacin vs placebo in patients with overactive bladder who had urinary incontinence and an inadequate response to or were intolerant of an anticholinergic. Post hoc analysis was done to compare the effects of onabotulinumtoxinA vs solifenacin. Solifenacin naïve patients were randomized to onabotulinumtoxinA 100 U, solifenacin 5 mg, (which could escalate to 10 mg at week 6 according to predefined criteria) or placebo. Patients could request treatment 2 (open label onabotulinumtoxinA) after fulfilling prespecified criteria. End points included a change from baseline in the number of urinary incontinence episodes per day and the proportion of patients with a 100% reduction (dry) in the number of incontinence episodes per day as co-primaries, other urinary symptoms and quality of life, all at week 12, and adverse events. The change from baseline in incontinence episodes per day was significantly greater with onabotulinumtoxinA or solifenacin vs placebo (-3.19 or -2.56, respectively, vs -1.33, both p <0.001). The incontinence reduction was significantly greater for onabotulinumtoxinA vs solifenacin (p = 0.022). At week 12, 33.8% (vs placebo p <0.001), 24.5% (vs placebo p = 0.028) and 11.7% of patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA, solifenacin and placebo, respectively, were dry. After treatment 2, which was open label onabotulinumtoxinA, 43.2%, 37.6% and 41.9% of patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA, solifenacin and placebo groups, respectively, were dry. Significant improvements in other urinary symptoms and quality of life were observed for both active treatments. Urinary tract infection in 25.5% of cases and urinary retention in 6.9% were more common with onabotulinumtoxinA. The efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA and solifenacin was significantly higher than that of placebo. However, onabotulinumtoxinA showed significantly greater decreases in urinary incontinence than

  19. Efficacy and Safety of 5-Fluorouracil 0.5%/Salicylic Acid 10% in the Field-Directed Treatment of Actinic Keratosis: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stockfleth, Eggert; von Kiedrowski, Ralph; Dominicus, Rolf; Ryan, John; Ellery, Adam; Falqués, Meritxell; Ivanoff, Nathalie; Azeredo, Rosario Rodriguez

    2017-03-01

    Due to the high prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK) and potential for lesions to become cancerous, clinical guidelines recommend that all are treated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% as field-directed treatment of AK lesions. This multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study (NCT02289768) randomized adults, with a 25 cm(2) area of skin on their face, bald scalp, or forehead covering 4-10 clinically confirmed AK lesions (grade I/II), 2:1 to treatment or vehicle applied topically once daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with complete clinical clearance (CCC) of lesions in the treatment field 8 weeks after the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints included partial clearance (PC; ≥75% reduction) of lesions. Safety outcomes were assessed. Of 166 patients randomized, 111 received 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% and 55 received vehicle. At 8 weeks after the end of treatment, CCC was significantly higher with 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% than with vehicle [49.5% vs. 18.2%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 3.9 (95% CI) 1.7, 8.7; P = 0.0006]. Significantly more patients achieved PC of lesions with treatment than with vehicle [69.5% vs. 34.6%, respectively; OR 4.9 (95% CI 2.3, 10.5); P < 0.0001]. Treatment-emergent adverse events, predominantly related to application- and administration-site reactions, were more common with 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% than with vehicle (99.1% vs. 83.6%). Compared with vehicle, field-directed treatment of AK lesions with 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% was effective in terms of CCC. Safety outcomes were consistent with the known and predictable safety profile. NCT02289768. Almirall S.A.

  20. Efficacy and safety of HL301 in the treatment of acute bronchitis and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Jae; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Kim, Do Jin; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Jae Yeol

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy and safety of Chinese herbs for symptomatic treatment of bronchitis is not well established. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination product of seven herbs (HL301) for the treatment of acute bronchitis (AB) and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial design. A total of 160 patients with AB or with AECB were randomized to receive placebo or one of three doses of HL301 (0.6 g/day, 1.2 g/day, or 1.8 g/day) for a total of 7 days. The primary study endpoint was the change in bronchitis severity score (BSS) from the baseline visit (visit 2) to the end of treatment visit (visit 3). Other efficacy variables were percentage BSS systemic sign efficacy after treatment and change in individual BSS parameters after treatment. Changes in BSS from visit 2 to visit 3 in the three treatment groups (4.63 ± 2.24, 4.08 ± 1.63, and 4.15 ± 1.74 in the HL301 0.6 g/day, 1.2 g/day, and 1.8 g/day groups, respectively) were higher than that of the placebo group (2.88 ± 2.57) in the per protocol set (PPS) (P < .05), and it was also valid in the full analysis set (FAS). The number of participants whose symptoms (measured by BSS) improved at least 30% after treatment was higher in all three treatment groups compared to the placebo group in both the FAS and the PPS (P < .05, for all). Three different doses of HL301 (0.6 g/day, 1.2 g/day, and 1.8 g/day) were effective in decreasing the BSS index compared to placebo. HL301 may be effective for symptomatic treatment of both AB and AECB. Essential components of HL301 have not been delineated in the study and patients with AB and AECB were indiscriminately enrolled in the present study. Respective evaluation of the efficacy of HL301 for AB and AECB will be necessary in the future.

  1. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function.

  2. Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study of Losartan in Children with Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun; Loeys, Tom; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Strehlau, Juergen; Wells, Thomas G.; Santoro, Emanuela; Manas, Denise; Gleim, Gilbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: No large, randomized, double-blind trials in children with proteinuria treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers have previously been reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 12-week, double-blind, multinational study investigated the effects of losartan 0.7 to 1.4 mg/kg per day compared with placebo (normotensive stratum) or amlodipine 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg per day up to 5 mg/d (hypertensive stratum) on proteinuria (morning-void urinary protein-creatinine ratio, baseline ≥0.3 g/g) in 306 children up to 17 years of age. Results: Twelve weeks of treatment with losartan significantly reduced proteinuria compared with amlodipine/placebo: losartan −35.8% (95% confidence interval: −27.6% to −43.1%) versus amlodipine/placebo 1.4% (95% confidence interval: −10.3% to 14.5%), P ≤ 0.001. Significance remained after adjustment for differences across treatment groups in change in BP (losartan produced incremental systolic and diastolic BP reductions versus amlodipine of 5.4 and 4.6 mmHg, respectively; and versus placebo of 3.8 and 4.0 mmHg, respectively). Proteinuria reduction was consistently observed in the normotensive (−34.4% losartan; 2.6% placebo) and hypertensive (−41.5% losartan; 2.4% amlodipine) strata, and in all prespecified subgroups, including age, gender, race, Tanner stage, weight, prior therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, as well as among the most common etiologies of proteinuria. Adverse event incidence was low and comparable in all groups. Conclusions: Losartan significantly lowered proteinuria and was well tolerated after 12 weeks in children aged 1 to 17 years with proteinuria with or without hypertension, a population that has not previously been rigorously studied. PMID:20089489

  3. Safety and efficacy of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active- and vehicle-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Alió Sáenz, Alessandra B

    2011-12-01

    Topical fixed-combination therapy containing 1% clindamycin as 1.2% clindamycin phosphate (CLNP) and 3% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is an effective treatment for acne vulgaris (acne). To demonstrate that the combination of 1.2% CLNP with lower strength BPO (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%) in a gel formulation is superior to each individual ingredient, CLNP 1.2% and BPO 3%, and vehicle gel. A total of 1,319 patients with acne, aged 12 years or older, were enrolled and randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%, CLNP 1.2% gel, BPO 3% gel, or vehicle gel once-daily in a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled study. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 or early termination. Assessment of efficacy was evaluated using a six-point Investigator's Static Global Assessment (ISGA) and Subject's Global Assessment (SGA) of acne severity and lesion counts (inflammatory, non-inflammatory, and total). Safety assessments included skin tolerability and adverse events (AEs). A greater proportion of subjects who used CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% gel (39%) had a two grade improvement in ISGA from baseline to week 12 compared with CLNP 1.2% (25%; P<0.001), BPO 3% (30%; P=0.016), and vehicle (18%; P<0.001). CLNP 1.2%- BPO 3% was superior to CLNP 1.2% and vehicle alone in the absolute reduction from baseline to week 12 in all three lesion types (P<0.001 all pair-wise comparisons). CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% was superior to BPO 3% alone in the absolute reduction from baseline to week 12 in inflammatory (P=0.015) and total (P=0.032) lesion counts. The incidence of product-related AEs was low and similar in all study groups (1% with CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%, 2% with CLNP 1.2%, 2% with BPO 3%, and 2% with vehicle). Local tolerability assessments showed similar minimal changes from baseline to week 12 in all study groups. CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% gel provides superior efficacy to improve ISGA score and reduce inflammatory and total lesion counts compared with the individual active

  4. Decreased organ failure in patients with severe SIRS and septic shock treated with the platelet-activating factor antagonist TCV-309: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase II trial. TCV-309 Septic Shock Study Group.

    PubMed

    Poeze, M; Froon, A H; Ramsay, G; Buurman, W A; Greve, J W

    2000-10-01

    Sepsis and organ failure remain the main cause of death on the ICU. Sepsis is characterized by a severe inflammatory response, in which platelet-activating factor (PAF) is considered to play an important role. This study investigated whether treatment with the PAF-antagonist TCV-309 reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with septic shock. The study was conducted as a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled multicenter study. The included patients had to fulfill the SIRS criteria with a clinical suspicion of infection, an admission APACHE II score greater than 15, and shock, defined as a mean arterial pressure <70 mmHg and/or a decrease > or =40 mmHg despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Patients received 1.0 mg/kg TCV-309 or placebo, twice daily, intravenously during 14 days. The prospectively set goals were MOF score, recovery from shock, mortality, and assessment of the safety of the medication. A total of 98 patients were included of which 97 were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. The overall survival at day 56 of TCV-309 treated patients was similar compared to placebo treated patients (51.0% vs. 41.7%, P = 0.47). In contrast, the mean percentage of failed organs per patient present after 14 days in the TCV-309 treated patients was significantly lower compared to the placebo treated patients (11.9% vs. 25.1%, P = 0.04), leading to a reduced need for vasopressors, dialysis, and ventilatory support. Furthermore, the mean APACHE-II score during treatment with TCV-309 was significantly lower and the number of patients recovered from shock after day 14 was significantly higher in the TCV-309 treated patient group (2/32 vs. 9/29, P = 0.01). The number of adverse events was not significantly different between the TCV-309 and placebo treated patients. TCV-309 did not change overall mortality of septic shock, however a substantial reduction in organ dysfunction and morbidity, frequently associated with septic shock was achieved, without significant

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of a Vi polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV) in healthy infants, children, and adults in typhoid endemic areas: a multicenter, 2-cohort, open-label, double-blind, randomized controlled phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vadrevu Krishna; Varanasi, Vineeth; Singh, Anit; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M; Venkatesan, Ramasamy; Ella, Krishna M

    2015-08-01

    Enteric fever caused by Salmonella Typhi remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Typbar-TCV is a single-dose typhoid Vi polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for persons ≥6 months of age. Six hundred fifty-four healthy subjects aged 2-45 years enrolled in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) received a single dose of Typbar-TCV or comparator "Vi polysaccharide" (Typbar), and 327 healthy subjects aged 6-23 months received a single dose of Typbar-TCV in an open-label trial (OLT); both received single- or multidose presentations from different lots. After 2 years, subsets in each group received a booster dose. The primary objective included analysis of geometric mean titer (GMTs) and 4-fold rise of anti-Vi serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers over baseline (seroconversion [SCN]) 42 days after immunization. Typbar-TCV recipients in the RCT attained higher anti-Vi IgG GMTs 42 days after immunization (SCN, 97%; GMT, 1293 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1153-1449]) than recipients of Typbar (SCN, 93%; GMT, 411 [95% CI, 359-471]) (P < .001). Typbar-TCV was highly immunogenic in the OLT (SCN, 98%; GMT, 1937 [95% CI, 1785-2103]). Two years after vaccination, anti-Vi titers remained higher in Typbar-TCV subjects (GMT, 82 [95% CI, 73-92]); and exhibited higher avidity (geometric mean avidity index [GMAI], 60%) than in Typbar recipients (GMT, 46 [95% CI, 40-53]; GMAI 46%) in the RCT (P < .001). OLT Typbar-TCV recipients achieved GMT of 48 (95% CI, 42-55) and GMAI of 57%. Typbar-TCV induced multiple IgG subclasses and strong booster responses in all ages. No serious vaccine-attributable adverse events were observed. Single-dose Typbar-TCV is well tolerated and induces robust and long-lasting serum anti-Vi IgG across age groups. CTRI/2011/08/001957, CTRI/2014/01/004341. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved

  6. Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Plus Metronidazole for Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections in an Era of Multidrug Resistance: Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Trial (ASPECT-cIAI)

    PubMed Central

    Solomkin, Joseph; Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Popejoy, Myra; Friedland, Ian; Steenbergen, Judith; Yoon, Minjung; Collins, Sylva; Yuan, Guojun; Barie, Philip S.; Eckmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among pathogens causing complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) supports the development of new antimicrobials. Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a novel antimicrobial therapy, is active against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods. ASPECT-cIAI (Assessment of the Safety Profile and Efficacy of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections) was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Hospitalized patients with cIAI received either ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g) plus metronidazole (500 mg) every 8 hours or meropenem (1 g) every 8 hours intravenously for 4–14 days. The prospectively defined objectives were to demonstrate statistical noninferiority in clinical cure rates at the test-of-cure visit (24–32 days from start of therapy) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (primary) and microbiologically evaluable (secondary) populations using a noninferiority margin of 10%. Microbiological outcomes and safety were also evaluated. Results. Ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem in the primary (83.0% [323/389] vs 87.3% [364/417]; weighted difference, −4.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −8.91 to .54) and secondary (94.2% [259/275] vs 94.7% [304/321]; weighted difference, −1.0%; 95% CI, −4.52 to 2.59) endpoints, meeting the prespecified noninferiority margin. In patients with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, clinical cure rates were 95.8% (23/24) and 88.5% (23/26) in the ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole and meropenem groups, respectively, and 100% (13/13) and 72.7% (8/11) in patients with CTX-M-14/15 ESBLs. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was similar in both treatment groups (44.0% vs 42.7%); the most common AEs in either group were nausea and diarrhea. Conclusions. Treatment with ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to

  7. Canagliflozin provides durable glycemic improvements and body weight reduction over 104 weeks versus glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin: a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Arias, Pablo; Langslet, Gisle; Xie, John; Balis, Dainius A; Millington, Dawn; Vercruysse, Frank; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2015-03-01

    To assess the efficacy/safety of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, compared with glimepiride over 104 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. In this randomized, double-blind study, patients (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride (titrated up to 6 or 8 mg/day) during a 52-week core period followed by a 52-week extension. At week 104, reductions from baseline in A1C were -0.65%, -0.74%, and -0.55% (-7.1, -8.1, and -6.0 mmol/mol) with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and glimepiride, respectively. Durability analyses showed sustained A1C lowering with both canagliflozin doses versus glimepiride. Reductions in body weight (-4.1%, -4.2%, and 0.9%, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (-2.0, -3.1, and 1.7 mmHg, respectively) were seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg compared with glimepiride at week 104. The overall adverse event (AE) incidence was 73.3%, 77.9%, and 78.4% with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and glimepiride; the incidence of AE-related discontinuations was low across groups (6.2%, 9.5%, and 7.3%, respectively). Incidences of genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were higher with canagliflozin than glimepiride; these were generally mild to moderate in intensity and led to few discontinuations. Fewer patients had hypoglycemia episodes with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg than glimepiride (6.8%, 8.2%, and 40.9%). Mild decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate occurred initially with canagliflozin; these attenuated over 104 weeks. Canagliflozin provided durable glycemic improvements compared with glimepiride and was generally well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving background treatment with metformin over 104 weeks. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Efficacy of an oral contraceptive containing EE 0.03 mg and CMA 2 mg (Belara) in moderate acne resolution: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Plewig, Gerd; Cunliffe, William J; Binder, Natascha; Höschen, Kornelia

    2009-07-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effects of the monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) 0.03 mg and chlormadinone acetate (CMA) 2 mg (EE/CMA) on papulopustular acne of the face, décolleté (low neck) and back; on moderate comedonal acne of the face; and on seborrhea, alopecia and hirsutism. Three hundred seventy-seven women were randomized (2:1) to receive EE/CMA (n=251) or placebo (n=126) for six medication cycles. Due to the placebo-controlled, double-blind design of the trial, condoms were supplied for contraception. The primary efficacy end point was defined as a reduction of at least 50% in the number of papules and/or pustules of the face from admission to Medication Cycle 6. In total, 64.1% (161/251) of subjects treated with EE/CMA responded compared with 43.7% (55/126) of those taking placebo (p=.0001). The median reduction in papules/pustules on the face at Cycle 6 compared with admission was 63.6% (EE/CMA) compared with 45.3% (placebo group). For comedonal lesions of the face, the reduction in lesion numbers was 54.8% (EE/CMA) compared with 32.4% (placebo). Moderate papulopustular acne of the décolleté decreased by 92.9% (EE/CMA) vs. 50% (placebo group) and of the back by 86.0% and 58.3%, respectively. For these skin conditions, the p values for the relative difference between groups vs. baseline were <.05 at Cycles 3 and 6, in favor of EE/CMA. As part of a self-assessment rating, at least 70.5% (EE/CMA) vs. 41.3% (placebo) reported an at least satisfactory improvement of their moderate acne. Even 39.8% of women taking EE/CMA reported an "excellent improvement" or "complete resolution" of moderate acne compared with 12.7% taking placebo. In addition to its contraceptive efficacy described elsewhere, EE/CMA is an effective treatment for moderate papulopustular acne and other androgen-related skin disorders.

  9. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…

  10. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  11. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  12. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  14. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  15. The Beyond Ageing Project Phase 2--a double-blind, selective prevention, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids and sertraline in an older age cohort at risk for depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cockayne, Nicole L; Duffy, Shantel L; Bonomally, Rosalind; English, Amelia; Amminger, Paul G; Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen M; Naismith, Sharon L; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-06-03

    Late-life depression is associated with high rates of morbidity, premature mortality, disability, functional decline, caregiver burden and increased health care costs. While clinical and public health approaches are focused on prevention or early intervention strategies, the ideal method of intervention remains unclear. No study has set out to evaluate the role of neurobiological agents in preventing depressive symptoms in older populations at risk of depression. Subjects with previously reported sub-threshold depressive symptoms, aged 60 to 74 years, will be screened to participate in a single-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial with three parallel groups involving omega-3 fatty acid supplementation or sertraline hydrochloride, compared with matching placebo. Subjects will be excluded if they have current depression or suicide ideation; are taking antidepressants or any supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid; or have a prior history of stroke or other serious cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, significant psychiatric disease (other than depression) or neurodegenerative disease. The trial will consist of a 12 month treatment phase with follow-up at three months and 12 months to assess outcome events. At three months, subjects will undergo structural neuroimaging to assess whether treatment effects on depressive symptoms correlate with brain changes. Additionally, proton spectroscopy techniques will be used to capture brain-imaging markers of the biological effects of the interventions. The trial will be conducted in urban New South Wales, Australia, and will recruit a community-based sample of 450 adults. Using intention-to-treat methods, the primary endpoint is an absence of clinically relevant depression scores at 12 months between the omega-3 fatty acid and sertraline interventions and the placebo condition. The current health, social and economic costs of late-life depression make prevention imperative from a public

  16. It is possible to perform a double-blind hyperbaric session: a double-blinded randomized trial performed on healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jansen, T; Mortensen, C R; Tvede, M F

    2009-01-01

    In hyperbaric medicine, blinded trials are remarkably few, making results susceptible to criticism. The scopes of the present study are to present a method for a double-blinded randomized clinical study and evaluate the validity of the method in a hyperbaric setting. Twenty-two healthy volunteers with no diving experience were included. The volunteers were randomized either to a "therapeutic pressure" group (15 msw, 253 kPa) or to a "placebo" group (2 msw, 120 kPa). The two profiles were made equal regarding noise, temperature and ventilation. The volunteers were asked whether they had been exposed to placebo or therapeutic pressure. They were asked to present their certainness of the answer on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Fisher's exact test calculates a probability of P = 0,328, which indicates that the volunteers have no valid opinion as to whether they were exposed to 15 msw or to 2 msw. It is found that it is possible to perform a blinded treatment on healthy volunteers with no prior diving experience.

  17. Effects of acupuncture for initiation of labor: a double-blind randomized sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ajori, Ladan; Nazari, Leila; Eliaspour, Dariush

    2013-05-01

    This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether use of acupuncture could initiate labor at term and thus reduce post-term induction. Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 80 women at 38 weeks of gestation or greater were randomized to acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. Acupuncture points LI4, SP6 and BL67 were needled bilaterally. The primary outcome was initiation of labor. The time from acupuncture to delivery, mode of delivery, fetal and maternal outcome and Apgar scores were recorded. The trial is registered at irct.ir, number IRCT201111218151N1. Eighty women were randomized and 75 women completed the study procedure. Age, BMI, parity and gestational age were similar in both groups. Spontaneous labor was initiated in 94.7 % of acupuncture group and 89.2 % of sham acupuncture group (p = 0.430). There were no statistically significant difference between groups for time from enrollment to delivery (p = 0.06). According to this study, it seems that acupuncture was not effective in labor initiation compared to sham acupuncture.

  18. Tap Water Versus Sterile Normal Saline in Wound Swabbing: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mun Che; Cheung, Kin; Leung, Polly

    2016-01-01

    The use of tap water as a wound-cleansing agent is becoming more common in clinical practice, especially in community settings. The aim of this study was to test whether there are differences in wound infection and wound healing rates when wounds are cleansed with tap water or sterile normal saline. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Subjects were recruited from the community nursing service of a local hospital in Hong Kong. The target sample included subjects who were aged 18 years or more, and receiving chronic or acute wound care treatment. Subjects were randomly assigned to wound cleansing with tap water (experimental group) or sterile normal saline (control group). Wound assessment was conducted at each home visit, and an assessment of wound size was conducted once a week. The main outcome measures, occurrence of a wound infection and wound healing, were assessed over a period of 6 weeks. Twenty-two subjects (11 subjects in each group) with 30 wounds participated in the study; 16 wounds were managed with tap water cleansing and 14 were randomly allocated to management with the sterile normal saline group. Analysis revealed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the proportions of wound infection and wound healing. Study findings indicate that tap water is a safe alternative to sterile normal saline for wound cleansing in a community setting.

  19. The effect of Neuragen PN® on Neuropathic pain: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole) pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo) per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p < .05) greater pain reduction. Fifty six of sixty subjects (93.3%) receiving Neuragen PN® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0%) subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601 PMID:20487567

  20. Randomized, double-blind trial of CO2 versus air insufflation in children undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Mahkovic, Dora; Orel, Rok; Mamula, Petar

    2016-05-01

    Studies in adults have shown that postprocedural abdominal pain is reduced with the use of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) instead of air for insufflation during colonoscopy. The aim of our study was to compare postprocedural abdominal pain and girth in children undergoing colonoscopy using CO(2) or air for insufflation. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study that included 76 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy for various indications. Patients were randomly assigned to either CO(2) or air insufflation. At 2, 4, and 24 hours after the examination, the patients' pain was assessed by using the 11-point numerical rating scale. The waist circumference was measured 10 minutes and 2 and 4 hours after colonoscopy. A significantly higher proportion of patients had no pain after colonoscopy in the CO(2) group compared with the air group (82 vs 37% at 2 hours and 95% vs. 63% at 4 hours, P < .001). Mean abdominal pain scores 2 and 4 hours after the procedure were statistically significantly lower in the CO(2) group compared with the control air group (0.5 vs 2.6 at 2 hours and 0.1 vs 1.2 at 4 hours, P < .001). There was no difference in waist circumference between the 2 groups at all time intervals. The results of this randomized trial show clear benefits of CO(2) insufflation for colonoscopy in reducing postprocedural discomfort. ( NCT02407639.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Pirfenidone in Chinese Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Dai, Hua Ping; Kang, Jian; Chen, Bao Yuan; Sun, Tie Ying; Xu, Zuo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lacks effective treatment. Pirfenidone has been used to treat IPF patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) exerts antioxidant and antifibrotic effects on IPF cases. This study is a double-blind, modified placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial of pirfenidone in Chinese IPF patients. We randomly assigned the enrolled Chinese IPF patients with mild to moderate impairment of pulmonary function to receive either oral pirfenidone (1800 mg per day) and NAC (1800 mg per day) or placebo and NAC (1800 mg per day) for 48 weeks. The primary endpoints were the changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and walking distance and the lowest SPO2 during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) at week 48. The key secondary endpoint was the progression-free survival time. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as number NCT01504334. Eighty-six patients were screened, and 76 cases were enrolled (pirfenidone + NAC: 38; placebo + NAC: 38). The effect of pirfenidone treatment was significant at the 24th week, but this effect did not persist to the 48th week. At the 24th week, the mean decline in both FVC and ΔSPO2 (%) during the 6MWT in the pirfenidone group was lower than that in the control group (−0.08 ± 0.20 L vs −0.22 ± 0.29 L, P = 0.02 and −3.44% ± 4.51% vs −6.29% ± 6.06%, P = 0.03, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between these 2 groups at the 48th week (−0.15 ± 0.25 L vs −0.25 ± 0.28 L, P = 0.11 and −4.25% ± 7.27% vs −5.31% ± 5.49%, P = 0.51, respectively). The pirfenidone treatment group did not achieve the maximal distance difference on the 6MWT at either the 24th or the 48th week. But pirfenidone treatment prolonged the progression-free survival time in the IPF patients (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.092–3.242, P = 0.02). In the pirfenidone group, the adverse event (AE) rate (52.63%) was

  2. Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Pirfenidone in Chinese Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Dai, Hua Ping; Kang, Jian; Chen, Bao Yuan; Sun, Tie Ying; Xu, Zuo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lacks effective treatment. Pirfenidone has been used to treat IPF patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) exerts antioxidant and antifibrotic effects on IPF cases.This study is a double-blind, modified placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial of pirfenidone in Chinese IPF patients. We randomly assigned the enrolled Chinese IPF patients with mild to moderate impairment of pulmonary function to receive either oral pirfenidone (1800 mg per day) and NAC (1800 mg per day) or placebo and NAC (1800 mg per day) for 48 weeks. The primary endpoints were the changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and walking distance and the lowest SPO2 during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) at week 48. The key secondary endpoint was the progression-free survival time. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as number NCT01504334.Eighty-six patients were screened, and 76 cases were enrolled (pirfenidone + NAC: 38; placebo + NAC: 38). The effect of pirfenidone treatment was significant at the 24th week, but this effect did not persist to the 48th week. At the 24th week, the mean decline in both FVC and ΔSPO2 (%) during the 6MWT in the pirfenidone group was lower than that in the control group (-0.08 ± 0.20 L vs -0.22 ± 0.29 L, P = 0.02 and -3.44% ± 4.51% vs -6.29% ± 6.06%, P = 0.03, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between these 2 groups at the 48th week (-0.15 ± 0.25 L vs -0.25 ± 0.28 L, P = 0.11 and -4.25% ± 7.27% vs -5.31% ± 5.49%, P = 0.51, respectively). The pirfenidone treatment group did not achieve the maximal distance difference on the 6MWT at either the 24th or the 48th week. But pirfenidone treatment prolonged the progression-free survival time in the IPF patients (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.092-3.242, P = 0.02). In the pirfenidone group, the adverse event (AE) rate (52.63%) was higher than that in the control group (26.3%, P = 0.03). Rash was more common in the pirfenidone group (39

  3. Safety and Effectiveness of two treatment regimes with tranexamic acid to minimize inflammatory response in elective cardiopulmonary bypass patients: a randomized double-blind, dose-dependent, phase IV clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients, fibrinolysis may enhance postoperative inflammatory response. We aimed to determine whether an additional postoperative dose of antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TA) reduced CPB-mediated inflammatory response (IR). Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, dose-dependent, parallel-groups study of elective CPB patients receiving TA. Patients were randomly assigned to either the single-dose group (40 mg/Kg TA before CPB and placebo after CPB) or the double-dose group (40 mg/Kg TA before and after CPB). Results 160 patients were included, 80 in each group. The incident rate of IR was significantly lower in the double-dose-group TA2 (7.5% vs. 18.8% in the single-dose group TA1; P = 0.030). After adjusting for hypertension, total protamine dose and temperature after CPB, TA2 showed a lower risk of IR compared with TA1 [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10-0.83), (P = 0.013)]. Relative risk for IR was 2.5 for TA1 (95% CI: 1.02 to 6.12). The double-dose group had significantly lower chest tube bleeding at 24 hours [671 (95% CI 549-793 vs. 826 (95% CI 704-949) mL; P = 0.01 corrected-P significant] and lower D-dimer levels at 24 hours [489 (95% CI 437-540) vs. 621(95% CI: 563-679) ng/mL; P = 0.01 corrected-P significant]. TA2 required lower levels of norepinephrine at 24 h [0.06 (95% CI: 0.03-0.09) vs. 0.20(95 CI: 0.05-0.35) after adjusting for dobutamine [F = 6.6; P = 0.014 corrected-P significant]. We found a significant direct relationship between IL-6 and temperature (rho = 0.26; P < 0.01), D-dimer (rho = 0.24; P < 0.01), norepinephrine (rho = 0.33; P < 0.01), troponin I (rho = 0.37; P < 0.01), Creatine-Kinase (rho = 0.37; P < 0.01), Creatine Kinase-MB (rho = 0.33; P < 0.01) and lactic acid (rho = 0.46; P < 0.01) at ICU arrival. Two patients (1.3%) had seizure, 3 patients (1.9%) had stroke, 14 (8.8%) had acute kidney failure, 7 (4.4%) needed dialysis, 3 (1.9%) suffered myocardial infarction and 9 (5.6%) patients died. We

  4. Pharmacokinetics of two 6-day frovatriptan dosing regimens used for the short-term prevention of menstrual migraine: A phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover, single-centre study in healthy female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wade, Andrew; Pawsey, Stephen; Whale, Holly; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of once- and twice-daily frovatriptan given for 6 days, a regimen that has previously been reported to reduce the incidence and severity of menstrual migraine when administered during the perimenstrual period. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study carried out in healthy premenopausal female volunteers aged >or=18 years (equal number taking or not taking estrogen-containing contraceptives [ECCs]) who were admitted to a clinical pharmacology unit. Women alternately received frovatriptan once daily (day 1: 5 mg; days 2-6: 2.5 mg) and twice daily (day 1: 5 mg [10 mg total]; days 2-6: 2.5 mg [5 mg total]) in a randomized treatment sequence. Dosing was also random with respect to the menstrual cycle. Whole blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 6 (predose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 [before evening dose], 13, 14, 16 and 18 hours post-dose) and on days 2-5 (samples were taken before the morning dose). A final sample was drawn at 24 hours after the last treatment on day 6. A fully validated liquid chromatography assay coupled to a tandem mass spectroscopy assay measured drug concentrations (simultaneous measurement of frovatriptan and its metabolites). Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental approach. Safety and tolerability were measured by monitoring adverse events, haematology and biochemistry, vital signs, ECG results and physical examination findings. Twenty-six healthy women participated in the study and 24 (12 ECC users and 12 ECC nonusers) completed the study. One ECC user during period 1 and one nonuser during period 2 withdrew before completion; both were taking frovatriptan once daily. Most women were White (n = 21), three were Black, and one each was Hispanic or Asian; mean +/- SD age was 25.4 +/- 4.9 years; and mean +/- SD weight was 61.9 +/- 6.5 kg. For both once- and twice-daily dosing, time to reach maximum blood concentration

  5. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  6. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of low-level laser therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Jamie; Chong, Su L; Amirjani, Nasim; Chan, K Ming

    2004-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is effective in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In a double-blind randomized controlled trial of LLLT, 15 CTS patients, 34 to 67 years of age, were randomly assigned to either the control group (n = 8) or treatment group (n =7). Both groups were treated three times per week for 5 weeks. Those in the treatment group received 860 nm galium/aluminum/arsenide laser at a dosage of 6 J/cm2 over the carpal tunnel, whereas those in the control group were treated with sham laser. The primary outcome measure was the Levine Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire, and the secondary outcome measures were electrophysiological data and the Purdue pegboard test. All patients completed the study without adverse effects. There was a significant symptomatic improvement in both the control (P = 0.034) and treatment (P =0.043) groups. However, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measures between the two groups. Thus, LLLT is no more effective in the reduction of symptoms of CTS than is sham treatment.

  7. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Tanay, A.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.; Brown, B.W.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1985-04-01

    Twenty-six patients participated in a randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis. All 26 patients, for whom therapy with gold compounds and penicillamine had failed, would ordinarily have been considered candidates for cytotoxic or antimetabolite drug therapy. Thirteen patients randomly assigned to receive full-dose total lymphoid irradiation (2000 rad) and 11 patients assigned to receive control low-dose total lymphoid irradiation (200 rad) completed radiotherapy. Alleviation of joint disease activity was significantly greater in the high-dose group as judged by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, and functional assessment (global composite score) at 3 and 6 months after radiotherapy. The high-dose group had a marked reduction in both T-lymphocyte function and numbers, but this finding was not observed in the low-dose group. Complications seen in the high-dose but not low-dose group included transient neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pericarditis, and pleurisy.

  8. Trimethoprim as adjuvant treatment in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shibre, Teshome; Alem, Atalay; Abdulahi, Abdulreshid; Araya, Mesfin; Beyero, Teferra; Medhin, Girmay; Deyassa, Negusse; Negash, Alemayehu; Nigatu, Alemayehu; Kebede, Derege; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2010-07-01

    Various infectious agents, such as Toxoplasma gondii, have been hypothesized to be potentially relevant etiological factors in the onset of some cases of schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment trial in an attempt to explore the hypothesis that the symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to infection of the central nervous system with toxoplasma gondii. Systematically selected patients with ongoing and at least moderately severe schizophrenia from Butajira, in rural Ethiopia, were randomly allocated to trimethoprim or placebo, which were added on to participants' regular antipsychotic treatments. Trial treatments were given for 6 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess outcome. Ninety-one patients were included in the study, with 80 cases (87.9%) positive for T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody. Seventy-nine subjects (87.0%) completed the trial. The mean age of subjects was 35.3 (SD = 8.0) years, with a mean duration of illness of 13.2 (SD = 6.7) years. Both treatment groups showed significant reduction in the overall PANSS score with no significant between-group difference. In this sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia, trimethoprim used as adjuvant treatment is not superior to placebo. However, it is not possible to draw firm conclusion regarding the etiological role of toxoplasmosis on schizophrenia based on this study because the timing and the postulated mechanisms through which toxoplasmosis produces schizophrenia are variable.

  9. Efficacy of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride for Relieving Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Berkiten, Güler; Saltürk, Ziya; Ataç, Enes; Atar, Yavuz; Uyar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine dihydrochloride as a treatment for chronic tinnitus. Methods. A total of 97 chronic tinnitus patients were evaluated in this randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After assessing for eligibility, 82 patients were randomly assigned into placebo or trimetazidine groups according to the medication. The trimetazidine group received 20×3 mg/day per oral trimetazidine dihydrochloride and the placebo group received 20×3 mg/day per oral placebo for 3 months. Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and audiometric results were used to determine the effectiveness of trimetazidine treatment. Results. The study group comprised 82 tinnitus subjects, 42 (51%) of whom received trimetazidine dihydrochloride and 40 (49%) who received placebo. There was no significant difference between placebo and trimetazidine groups in THI grade and VAS (both pre- and posttreatment scores) (P>0.05) and no significant improvement was observed in subjective loudness score in either group (P>0.05). Additionally there was no significant difference between groups in pre- and posttreatment pure tone hearing thresholds at all measured frequencies (P>0.05). Conclusion. Trimetazidine dihydrochloride therapy was ineffective for relieving chronic tinnitus. PMID:27230273

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Andrew; McDermott, Michael; Kieburtz, Karl; de Blieck, Elisabeth A; Beal, Flint; Marder, Karen; Ross, Christopher; Shoulson, Ira; Gilbert, Peter; Mallonee, William M; Guttman, Mark; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Kumar, Rajeev; LeDoux, Mark S; Jenkins, Mary; Rosas, H Diana; Nance, Martha; Biglan, Kevin; Como, Peter; Dubinsky, Richard M; Shannon, Kathleen M; O'Suilleabhain, Padraig; Chou, Kelvin; Walker, Francis; Martin, Wayne; Wheelock, Vicki L; McCusker, Elizabeth; Jankovic, Joseph; Singer, Carlos; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Suchowersky, Oksana; Factor, Stewart A; Higgins, Donald S; Molho, Eric; Revilla, Fredy; Caviness, John N; Friedman, Joseph H; Perlmutter, Joel S; Feigin, Andrew; Anderson, Karen; Rodriguez, Ramon; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Margolis, Russell L; Farbman, Eric S; Raymond, Lynn A; Suski, Valerie; Kostyk, Sandra; Colcher, Amy; Seeberger, Lauren; Epping, Eric; Esmail, Sherali; Diaz, Nancy; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Diamond, Alan; Frank, Samuel; Hanna, Philip; Hermanowicz, Neal; Dure, Leon S; Cudkowicz, Merit

    2017-01-10

    To test the hypothesis that chronic treatment of early-stage Huntington disease (HD) with high-dose coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) will slow the progressive functional decline of HD. We performed a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with early-stage HD (n = 609) were enrolled at 48 sites in the United States, Canada, and Australia from 2008 to 2012. Patients were randomized to receive either CoQ 2,400 mg/d or matching placebo, then followed for 60 months. The primary outcome variable was the change from baseline to month 60 in Total Functional Capacity score (for patients who survived) combined with time to death (for patients who died) analyzed using a joint-rank analysis approach. An interim analysis for futility revealed a conditional power of <5% for the primary analysis, prompting premature conclusion in July 2014. No statistically significant differences were seen between treatment groups for the primary or secondary outcome measures. CoQ was generally safe and well-tolerated throughout the study. These data do not justify use of CoQ as a treatment to slow functional decline in HD. NCT00608881. This article provides Class I evidence that CoQ does not slow the progressive functional decline of patients with HD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Preconditioning with hyperbaric oxygen in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized double-blind pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Gerardo; Casarotto, Andrea; Nasole, Emanuele; Camporesi, Enrico; Salvia, Roberto; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Zanini, Sara; Malleo, Giuseppe; Di Tano, Andrea; Rubini, Alessandro; Zanon, Vincenzo; Mangar, Devanand; Bassi, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    In a prospective randomized double-blind study, we evaluated the post-operative biological and clinical effects of a single preoperative hyperbaric-treatment the day before surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Twenty one patients were randomized and divided into two groups: group-A (10 patients, 48%) were exposed to a HyperBaric Oxygen (HBO) session the day before intervention [Pre-Intervention Day (PID)], group-B (11 patients, 52%) breathed air for 40 min in a hyperbaric chamber pressurized to 1.15 ATA (placebo group). For all patients blood samples were obtained before HBO treatment or the placebo procedure (T0); at the end of HBO session or placebo procedure (T1); on the first post-operative day (POD)(T2) and on seventh POD(T3) day, measuring interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α, recording postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), biliary-fistula, fever, intra-abdominal abscess, bleeding, pulmonary complications, delayed gastric emptying and requirement for post-operative antibiotics. The results of the present pilot study suggest that a single preoperative hyperbaric oxygen treatment on the day before surgery may reduce the complication rate in pancreatic resection. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Efficiency of antibacterial suture material in cardiac surgery: a double-blind randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Isik, Isil; Selimen, Deniz; Senay, Sahin; Alhan, Cem

    2012-02-01

    Postoperative surgical site infections (SSI) still greatly affect mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular surgery. SSI may be related to the suture material. In this prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blinded study, the effect of antibacterial suture material on SSI in cardiac surgical patients was investigated. We randomly allocated 510 patients into 2 groups. Antibacterial suture materials were used for wound closure in 170 patients (triclosan-coated suture group), and routine suture materials were used in 340 patients (noncoated suture group). All patients were evaluated for SSI on days 10, 20, and 30 following cardiac surgery. Preoperative risk factors and laboratory findings were comparable for the 2 groups. Sternal infection occurred in 4 (2.4%) of the patients in the triclosan-coated suture group and in 3.5% of the noncoated suture group (P > .05). Leg wound infection occurred in 5 (3.5%) of the patients in the triclosan-coated suture group and in 3.8% of the noncoated suture group (P > .05). Only diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor of SSI. Both noncoated and triclosan-coated suture materials are safe. Larger studies may be needed to show the benefit and cost-effectiveness, if any, of triclosan-coated materials over noncoated materials.

  13. Phenobarbital for acute alcohol withdrawal: a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Jonathan; Clements, Carter; Simon, Barry; Vieaux, Jules; Graffman, Sarah; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Cisse, Bitou; Lam, Joseph; Alter, Harrison

    2013-03-01

    Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AAWS) is encountered in patients presenting acutely to the Emergency Department (ED) and often requires pharmacologic management. We investigated whether a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) phenobarbital combined with a standardized lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol decreases intensive care unit (ICU) admission in ED patients with acute alcohol withdrawal. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of i.v. phenobarbital (10 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline) or placebo (100 mL normal saline). All patients were placed on the institutional symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol. The primary outcome was initial level of hospital admission (ICU vs. telemetry vs. floor ward). There were 198 patients enrolled in the study, and 102 met inclusion criteria for analysis. Fifty-one patients received phenobarbital and 51 received placebo. Baseline characteristics and severity were similar in both groups. Patients that received phenobarbital had fewer ICU admissions (8% vs. 25%, 95% confidence interval 4-32). There were no differences in adverse events. A single dose of i.v. phenobarbital combined with a symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol resulted in decreased ICU admission and did not cause increased adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Isotretinoin versus placebo in the treatment of cystic acne. A randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Peck, G L; Olsen, T G; Butkus, D; Pandya, M; Arnaud-Battandier, J; Gross, E G; Windhorst, D B; Cheripko, J

    1982-04-01

    Thirty-three patients with treatment-resistant cystic and conglobate acne entered a randomized, double-blind protocol testing the efficacy of isotretinoin versus placebo. There was an overall 57% increase in the number of cystic lesions in seventeen patients who initially received placebo. Sixteen of these seventeen patients then received isotretinoin, with a resultant 98% improvement. The sixteen patients who had been randomly assigned to receive initial therapy with isotretinoin had a 95% improvement. Twenty-seven of the thirty-two patients treated with isotretinoin cleared completely. The average maximum dosage of isotretinoin received by these patients was 1.2 mg/kg/day. Eighteen patients received only one 4-month course of isotretinoin. Fifteen patients received two courses. These included twelve patients with predominantly truncal acne who responded partially to the first course, and three patients who had cleared completely after one course of therapy but had mild relapses after an average of six months off of treatment. All patients are now in remission averaging 38 months in duration. Skin biopsies and quantitative measurement of sebum production during therapy indicated a profound inhibition of sebaceous gland size and function, which may be central to the mechanism of action of isotretinoin in acne.

  15. Magnesium in metabolic syndrome: a review based on randomized, double-blind clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Jaquez-Chairez, Francia O; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence shows the effect of magnesium on serum glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, as well as on blood pressure, which strongly suggests that magnesium might play an important role in metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review of clinical evidence derived from randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials, regarding the efficacy of magnesium supplementation on the components of MetS. Using the electronic databases of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to May 2016, we looked for randomized controlled trials focused on the effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels, as well as its effects on high blood pressure, irrespective of the magnesium salt used, and with a duration of at least four weeks. Crossover studies, irrespective of blinding criteria, were not included. Results of this review show that magnesium supplementation in individuals with hypomagnesemia can be effective in the treatment of MetS.

  16. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894

  17. Tramadol versus codeine/acetaminophen after pediatric tonsillectomy: A prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Postier, Andrea C; Foster, Laurie Pane; Lander, Timothy A; Tibesar, Robert J; Lu, Yi; Sidman, James D

    2015-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common pediatric surgical procedures performed in the United States. The postoperative period can be particularly painful, and there is currently no consensus on an optimal analgesic regimen. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of the single drug tramadol versus codeine/acetaminophen post-tonsillectomy. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Large, Midwestern US pediatric hospital. Eighty-four children aged 4-15 years who underwent a tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy) procedure were randomized and 74 were included in the analysis. Group 1 received liquid codeine/acetaminophen for 10 days post-tonsillectomy (5 days scheduled, followed by 5 days as-needed). Group 2 received liquid tramadol for 10 days post-tonsillectomy (5 days scheduled, followed by 5 days as-needed). Efficacy and side effects were evaluated using a 10-day take-home diary that was completed by parents. Children in both study arms reported adequate post-tonsillectomy pain management without significant differences between groups in pain scores. Oversedation was significantly higher on the day of surgery in the codeine/acetaminophen group, and itching was experienced by significantly more children in the tramadol group during the postoperative period. As part of multimodal analgesia, scheduled plus as-needed tramadol may be considered for children in the postoperative setting due to its analgesic properties, low potential for side effects, and good safety profile.

  18. [A randomized, double blind trial of prophylactic fibrinogen to reduce bleeding in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Atefyekta, Reza; Azimaraghi, Omid; Marashi, Seyed Mojtaba; Aghajani, Yasaman; Ghadimi, Fatemeh; Spahn, Donat R; Movafegh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative bleeding has a great clinical importance and can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effect of prophylactic administration of fibrinogen concentrate on post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery bleeding. A total of 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the fibrinogen group received 1g of fibrinogen concentrate 30min prior to the operation, while patients in the control group received placebo. Post-operative bleeding volumes, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, INR, hemoglobin and transfused blood products in both groups were recorded. A strict red blood cell transfusion protocol was used in all patients. There were no significant differences between intra-operative packed red blood cells infusion in the studied groups (1.0±1.4 in fibrinogen group, and 1.3±1.1 in control group). Less postoperative bleeding was observed in the fibrinogen group (477±143 versus 703±179, p=0.0001). Fifteen patients in the fibrinogen group and 21 in the control group required post-op packed red blood cells infusion (p=0.094). No thrombotic event was observed through 72h after surgery. Prophylactic fibrinogen reduces post-operative bleeding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized, double blind trial of prophylactic fibrinogen to reduce bleeding in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Atefyekta, Reza; Azimaraghi, Omid; Marashi, Seyed Mojtaba; Aghajani, Yasaman; Ghadimi, Fatemeh; Spahn, Donat R; Movafegh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative bleeding has a great clinical importance and can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effect of prophylactic administration of fibrinogen concentrate on post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery bleeding. A total of 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the fibrinogen group received 1g of fibrinogen concentrate 30 min prior to the operation, while patients in the control group received placebo. Post-operative bleeding volumes, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, INR, hemoglobin and transfused blood products in both groups were recorded. A strict red blood cell transfusion protocol was used in all patients. There were no significant differences between intra-operative packed red blood cells infusion in the studied groups (1.0±1.4 in fibrinogen group, and 1.3±1.1 in control group). Less postoperative bleeding was observed in the fibrinogen group (477±143 versus 703±179, p=0.0001). Fifteen patients in the fibrinogen group and 21 in the control group required post-op packed red blood cells infusion (p=0.094). No thrombotic event was observed through 72 h after surgery. Prophylactic fibrinogen reduces post-operative bleeding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Attentional bias modification training for insomnia: A double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Lancee, Jaap; Yasiney, Samya L.; Brendel, Ruben S.; Boffo, Marilisa; Clarke, Patrick J. F.; Salemink, Elske

    2017-01-01

    Background Attentional bias toward sleep-related information is believed to play a key role in insomnia. If attentional bias is indeed of importance, changing this bias should then in turn have effects on insomnia complaints. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial we investigated the efficacy of attentional bias modification training in the treatment of insomnia. Method We administered baseline, post-test, and one-week follow-up measurements of insomnia severity, sleep-related worry, depression, and anxiety. Participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for insomnia were randomized into an attentional bias training group (n = 67) or a placebo training group (n = 70). Both groups received eight training sessions over the course of two weeks. All participants kept a sleep diary for four consecutive weeks (one week before until one week after the training sessions). Results There was no additional benefit for the attentional bias training over the placebo training on sleep-related indices/outcome measures. Conclusions The absence of the effect may be explained by the fact that there was neither attentional bias at baseline nor any reduction in the bias after the training. Either way, this study gives no support for attentional bias modification training as a stand-alone intervention for ameliorating insomnia complaints. PMID:28423038

  1. Rhus Coriaria L. (Sumac) in Patients with Hyperlipidemia; A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hajmohammadi, Zahra; Shams, Mesbah; Zibainejad, Mohammad Javad; Nimrouzi, Majid; Fardidi, Pouya; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipid lowering effect of sumac is investigated in multiple animal studies with promising results. However, its clinical efficacy is not investigated adequately. This study is aimed to evaluate the lipid lowering effect of sumac in patients with Hyperlipidemia in a double blind randomized controlled trial. Methods: Eighty patients with Hyperlipidemia according to NCEP-ATP III criteria were randomly allocated to receive the Rhus Coriaria L. (1000 mg/day) or placebo for two months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the serum triglyceride, total LDL, and HDL cholesterol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures along with serum biochemistry profile including fasting blood sugar, liver and kidney function tests and complete blood count were evaluated before the enrolment of patients and after the intervention. Results: No significant difference was observed between the sumac and placebo groups in term of mean reductions in total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. A significant increase in mean serum HDL cholesterol level was observed in the sumac group (41.18±8.2 vs. 44.65±8.4, P=0.001) after 2 months of intervention. Conclusion: The study showed significant HDL cholesterol increasing effect of sumac supplementation in patients with Hyperlipidemia. PMID:27840476

  2. Probiotic Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Borges, Natália A; Carmo, Flávia L; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; de Brito, Jessyca S; Dolenga, Carla J; Ferreira, Dennis C; Nakao, Lia S; Rosado, Alexandre; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2017-09-06

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota profile and inflammatory markers in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-six HD patients were assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments: probiotic (n = 23; Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterialongum, 90 billion colony-forming units per day) or placebo (n = 23) daily for 3 months. Blood and feces were collected at baseline and after intervention. The inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were analyzed by immunoenzymatic assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Uremic toxins plasma levels (indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and indole-3-acetic acid) were obtained by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Routine laboratory parameters were measured by standard techniques. Fecal pH was measured by the colorimetric method, and the gut microbiota profile was assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Sixteen patients remained in the probiotic group (11 men, 53.6 ± 11.0 year old, 25.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) and 17 in the placebo group (10 men, 50.3 ± 8.5 year old, 25.2 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)). After probiotic supplementation there was a significant increase in serum urea (from 149.6 ± 34.2 mg/dL to 172.6 ± 45.0 mg/dL, P = .02), potassium (from 4.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L to 4.8 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .02), and indoxyl sulfate (from 31.2 ± 15.9 to 36.5 ± 15.0 mg/dL, P = .02). The fecal pH was reduced from 7.2 ± 0.8 to 6.5 ± 0.5 (P = .01). These parameters did not change significantly in placebo group. Changes in the percentage delta (Δ) between groups were exhibited with no statistical differences observed. The inflammatory markers and gut profile were not altered by supplementation. Aprobiotic supplementation failed to reduce uremic toxins and

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Commercially Available Freeze Dried Powdered Probiotics on Mutans Streptococci Count: A Randomized, Double Blind, Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anup; Ganta, Shravani; Sidiq, Mohsin; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti; Acharya, Siddharth; Singh, Kushpal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Probiotic approaches are being considered to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and are an alternative and promising way to combat infections by using harmless bacteria to displace pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available freeze dried powdered probiotics on mutans streptococci count among 12–15 year-old Indian schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases of in-vitro (phase I) and in-vivo (phase II) study, which was a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled clinical trial. A total of 33 schoolchildren between 12–15 years were included in the study. They were randomly allocated to three groups. Group A included 11 children using freeze dried Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium lactis. Group B included 11 children using freeze dried lactic acid bacillus only. Group C included 11 children using placebo powder. The study was conducted over a period of three weeks and examination and sampling of the subjects were done on days 0 (baseline), seven, 14 and 21. Results: For both the intervention groups A and B, statistically significant reduction (P<0.05) in salivary mutans streptococci counts was recorded up to the second week. Conclusion: Oral administration of probiotics showed a short-term effect on reduction of mutans streptococci count and showed a preventive role in caries development. PMID:27252756

  4. T Cell Vaccination Benefits Relapsing Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Karussis, Dimitrios; Shor, Hagai; Yachnin, Julia; Lanxner, Naama; Amiel, Merav; Baruch, Keren; Keren-Zur, Yael; Haviv, Ofra; Filippi, Massimo; Petrou, Panayiota; Hajag, Shalom; Vourka-Karussis, Urania; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi; Khoury, Salim; Abramsky, Oded; Atlan, Henri; Cohen, Irun R.; Abulafia-Lapid, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    Background T-cell vaccination (TCV) for multiple sclerosis (MS) refers to treatment with autologous anti-myelin T-cells, attenuated by irradiation. Previously published clinical trials have been all open-labeled. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of TCV in progressive MS, in a double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Methodology Twenty-six patients with relapsing-progressive MS were enrolled in the study (mean age: 39±9.8 years; mean EDSS: 4.4±1.7). T-cell lines reactive to 9 different peptides of the myelin antigens, MBP, MOG and PLP were raised from the patients' peripheral blood. The patients were randomized into two groups: 19 were treated with TCV (four subcutaneous injections of 10–30×106 T-cells, attenuated by irradiation, on days 1, 30, 90 and 180) and 7 patients were treated with sham injections. Twenty-four patients (17 in the TCV group and 7 in the placebo) were eligible for per-protocol analysis. Results At one year following the inclusion, an increase in the EDSS (+0.50) and an increase in 10-meter walking time (+0.18 sec), were observed in the placebo group; in the TCV group there was a decrease in the EDSS (−0.44; p<0.01) and in the 10-meter walking time (0.84 sec; p<0.005). Sixteen of the 17 patients (94.1%) in the TCV group remained relapse-free during the year of the study, as compared to 42.9% in the placebo group (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03 with adjustment). The proportion of patients with any relapse during the year of the study in the TCV-group, was reduced by 89.6%., as compared to the placebo-treated group. MRI parameters did not change significantly. Conclusions This is the first controlled, double-blind trial with TCV in progressive MS. The results demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the procedure, and provide significant indications of clinical efficacy. Further studies with larger groups of subjects are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01448252 PMID:23272061

  5. Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of oral metronidazole and tinidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Indu M; Basavareddy, Asha; Mukherjee, Deepali; Meher, Bikash Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral metronidazole and tinidazole in patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using Amsel's criteria. This was a randomized double-blind study, conducted by the Departments of Pharmacology and Gynecology of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients diagnosed with BV received either tablet metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 5 days or tablet tinidazole 500 mg once daily + one placebo for 5 days and instructed to come for follow-up at the 1(st) week and 4(th) week. They were categorized as cured, partially cured, and not cured based on Amsel's criteria at the end of the study and compared between two groups using Chi-square test. A total 120 women were enrolled in the study, of which 114 completed the study. The treatment arms were comparable. The cure rate with low-dose tinidazole was significantly more compared to metronidazole at 4(th) week (P = 0.0013), but not at 1(st) week (P = 0.242). The adverse drug reactions were less with tinidazole compared to metronidazole. Tinidazole at lower dose offers a better efficacy than metronidazole in long-term cure rates and in preventing relapses with better side effect profile.

  6. Baclofen for stroke patients with persistent hiccups: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238

  7. Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of oral metronidazole and tinidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Indu M.; Basavareddy, Asha; Mukherjee, Deepali; Meher, Bikash Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral metronidazole and tinidazole in patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using Amsel's criteria. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized double-blind study, conducted by the Departments of Pharmacology and Gynecology of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients diagnosed with BV received either tablet metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 5 days or tablet tinidazole 500 mg once daily + one placebo for 5 days and instructed to come for follow-up at the 1st week and 4th week. They were categorized as cured, partially cured, and not cured based on Amsel's criteria at the end of the study and compared between two groups using Chi-square test. Results: A total 120 women were enrolled in the study, of which 114 completed the study. The treatment arms were comparable. The cure rate with low-dose tinidazole was significantly more compared to metronidazole at 4th week (P = 0.0013), but not at 1st week (P = 0.242). The adverse drug reactions were less with tinidazole compared to metronidazole. Conclusion: Tinidazole at lower dose offers a better efficacy than metronidazole in long-term cure rates and in preventing relapses with better side effect profile. PMID:28066102

  8. The effect of Breezy candy on halitosis: a double-blind, controlled, and randomized study.

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo; Katz, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Halitosis (bad breath) is a common condition that is socially crippling for vast parts of the population and results from malodorous volatile sulfur compounds, which are by-products of oral bacteria. In this doubled-blind, randomized study, 75 subjects with halitosis were evaluated. The participants were treated with or without abrasive microcapsules (candy) containing zinc gluconate 0.5%, propolis 2%, and a combination of both (zinc 0.25% and propolis 1%). The halitosis was assessed by a Halimeter, a portable instrument that measures the emission of volatile sulfur compounds at different time exposures to the treatments. Breezy candy (which is sugar-free) was found effective in the treatment of halitosis for up to 4 hours. While treatment with regular candy (group 1, traditional candy without abrasive particles) showed reduction in malodor of 10%, Breezy candy showed reduction of up to 60% in malodor (P < .0001). Since this was not a longitudinal study, the total duration of the effect was not assessed. Breezy candy in the abrasive form with zinc additive had the best potential to positively affect malodor when treating patients with halitosis. The combined effect of abrasion by microcapsules with zinc supplement represents a novel and successful approach for the treatment of halitosis.

  9. A double blind randomized controlled trial of Maharishi Vedic vibration technology in subjects with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nader, T A; Smith, D E; Dillbeck, M C; Schanbacher, V; Dillbeck, S L; Gallois, P; Beall-Rougerie, S; Schneider, R H; Nidich, S I; Kaplan, G P; Belok, S

    2001-04-01

    To explore ancient Vedic medical techniques, one hundred and seventy-six subjects with arthritis participated in a controlled study through the non-pharmacologic approach known as the Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology (MVVT). Using a double-blinded and randomized experimental design, the findings showed significant reductions of pain and stiffness, and improvement in range of motion in the study sample. One hundred percent relief of symptoms was the most commonly reported category of improvement due to treatment. For the group as a whole, differences in mean response of treatment and control conditions with respect to relief of pain, limitation of motion, and reduction in stiffness were highly significant: t values ranged from a low of 5.609 in stiffness to a high of 20.950 in pain, p = 0.000009 to <10-49 respectively. Analysis by sub-categories of peripheral arthritis, painful conditions of the spine, and rheumatoid arthritis likewise produced significant results. Mechanisms of action were proposed, drawing on Maharishi Vedic Science, developments in quantum field theory, and specifically the theories of chaos and self-organizing systems as they relate to physiological functioning. The instantaneous relief of pain and improvement in function in such a high proportion of subjects with chronic arthritis is unparalleled in modern medical science

  10. [Preemptive randomized, double-blind study with lornoxicam in gynecological surgery].

    PubMed

    Trampitsch, E; Pipam, W; Moertl, M; Sadjak, A; Dorn, C; Sittl, R; Likar, R

    2003-01-01

    Lornoxicam is a non opioid analgesic belonging to the oxicam group. The aim of this study was to determine whether lornoxicam has a preemptive analgesic effect. This study was carried out in a randomized, double-blind fashion with 66 patients divided into three groups undergoing gynecological operations. Group I was administered 8 mg of lornoxicam i.v. preoperatively followed by an 8-mg bolus every 8 h for a total dose of 24 mg in the first 24 h. Group II was administered 8 mg of lornoxicam i.v. bolus before the end of the operation followed by 8 mg every 8 h for a total dose of 24 mg in the first 24 h. Group III was administered placebo before and after the operation and for the first 24 h. The effectiveness was assessed postoperatively using the visual analogue scale (at rest, on exertion) and by calculating the total analgesic consumption of morphine hydrochloride in the first 24 h following operation. Vital signs and side effects were documented. Groups I and II demonstrated significantly reduced pain scores compared to group III at various points in time. Group I also demonstrated a weakly significant reduction in analgesic consumption of morphine hydrochloride postoperatively compared to groups II and III. Lornoxicam administered preemptively appears to improve the quality of postoperative analgesia and lead to reduced consumption of opioid analgesics postoperatively in patients undergoing gynecological operations.

  11. Citicoline Combination Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Roohi-Azizi, Mahtab; Arabzadeh, Somaye; Amidfar, Meysam; Salimi, Samrand; Zarindast, Mohammad Reza; Talaei, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    Residual symptoms of major depressive disorder are a source of long-term morbidity. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate this morbidity and enhance patient quality of life. Citicoline has been used for vascular accidents and has been effective in cognitive rehabilitation. It has been used successfully to reduce craving in patients with substance abuse disorder and for mood management of bipolar disorder. Here, we test citicoline effectiveness as an adjuvant therapy in major depression. A double-blind randomized trial was designed on 50 patients with major depressive disorder who were under treatment with citalopram. Patients were allocated to 2 groups and received citicoline (100 mg twice a day) or placebo as an adjuvant treatment for 6 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Significantly greater improvement was observed in the HDRS scores of the citicoline group compared with the placebo group from baseline to weeks 2, 4, and 6 (Ps = 0.030, 0.032, and 0.021, respectively). Repeated-measures general linear model demonstrated a significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS score (F2.10,101.22 = 3.12, P = 0.04). Remission rate was significantly higher in the citicoline group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.045). Citicoline was an effective adjuvant to citalopram in the therapy of major depressive disorder.

  12. Ibuprofen and paracetamol for pain relief during medical abortion: a double-blind randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Livshits, Anna; Machtinger, Ronit; David, Liat Ben; Spira, Maya; Moshe-Zahav, Aliza; Seidman, Daniel S

    2009-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug vs. paracetamol in pain relief during medical abortion and to evaluate whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs interfere with the action of misoprostol. A prospective double-blind controlled study. University-affiliated tertiary hospital. One hundred twenty women who underwent first-trimester termination of pregnancy. Patients received 600 mg mifepristone orally, followed by 400 microg of oral misoprostol 2 days later. They were randomized to receive ibuprofen or paracetamol when pain relief was necessary. Patients completed a questionnaire about side effects and pain score and returned for an ultrasound follow-up examination 10-14 days after medical abortion. Success rates, as defined by no surgical intervention, and pain scores were assessed. Ibuprofen was found to be statistically significantly more effective for pain relief after medical abortion compared with paracetamol. There was no difference in the failure rate of medical abortion, and the frequency of surgical intervention was slightly higher in the group that received paracetamol (16.3% vs. 8.5%). Ibuprofen was found to be more effective than paracetamol for pain reduction during medical abortion. A history of surgical or medical abortion was predictive for high pain scores. Despite its anti-prostaglandin effects, ibuprofen use did not interfere with the action of misoprostol.

  13. Infliximab for chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis: a subset analysis from a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Robert P; Judson, Marc A; Lower, Elyse E; Drent, Marjolein; Costabel, Ulrich; Flavin, Susan; Lo, Kim Hung; Barnathan, Elliot S

    2016-01-15

    Limited evidence exists demonstrating an effective treatment for chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis. To determine infliximab's effectiveness in sarcoidosis. We conducted a subset analysis from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis to determine infliximab's effectiveness. Patients with chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis received infliximab (3 or 5 mg/kg) or placebo over 24 weeks. Of 138 patients, the subset analysis evaluated 17 patients with chronic facial and another 9 patients with nonfacial skin involvement. The SASI evaluated lesions for degree of erythema, desquamation, induration, and percentage of area involved. Facial and nonfacial lesions were scored in a blinded manner. Among 5 placebo-treated and 12 infliximab-treated patients, an improvement was observed with infliximab versus placebo in change from baseline to weeks 12 and 24 in desquamation (P<0.005) and induration (P<0.01) at week 24. Erythema, percentage of area involved and the evaluation of paired photographs did not reveal significant differences. Sample size; more extensive disease in placebo patients; chronic therapy upon enrollment; lung as primary organ of sarcoidosis involvement; limited investigator experience with SASI. Infliximab appears to be a beneficial treatment for chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis. The SASI scoring system demonstrated significant improvement versus placebo in lesion desquamation and induration.

  14. Efficacy and safety of foscarnet for recurrent orolabial herpes: a multicentre randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D; Rosenthal, D; Aoki, F Y; Portnoy, J

    1988-01-01

    Foscarnet sodium (trisodium phosphonoformate hexahydrate) has been shown to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro and to be efficacious for topical treatment of experimental HSV infection in animals. To assess its clinical efficacy in the treatment of recurrent orolabial herpes a multicentre collaborative, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. The study patients were randomly assigned to receive either 3% foscarnet cream (78 patients) or placebo (cream vehicle) (75 patients) and were asked to start treatment at the earliest indication of a recurrence. Efficacy was evaluated in 143 patients (74 in the foscarnet group and 69 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference in time to healing or duration of virus shedding between the two groups. However, in the subgroup of patients who started treatment before vesicles appeared, the duration of virus shedding was shorter in the foscarnet group than in the placebo group (p = 0.04), and the proportion of lesions that evolved to the vesicular stage was smaller (p = 0.03). No significant difference in the incidence of local or systemic adverse effects was noted between the two groups. We conclude that the beneficial effect of foscarnet was limited to a subgroup of patients who started treatment in the prevesicular stage. PMID:2962712

  15. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, consumer rechallenge test of Olean salted snacks.

    PubMed

    Zorich, N L; Biedermann, D; Riccardi, K A; Bishop, L J; Filloon, T G

    1997-10-01

    Olestra is a zero-calorie fat substitute that is neither digested nor absorbed. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, crossover rechallenge study was conducted to compare the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of chips made with Olean brand of olestra or conventional triglycerides in subjects who had previously experienced gastrointestinal symptoms they attributed to consuming Olean. A total of 57 male or female subjects received 2 oz of Olean potato chips or triglyceride potato chips at each of four weekly site visits. The occurrence of gastrointestinal effects after product consumption was noted in follow-up telephone interviews 3 to 5 days after each visit. There was no significant difference in the frequency of any gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal cramping, diarrhea, loose stools) following consumption of Olean chips or triglyceride chips, and the severity of diarrhea, loose stools, and abdominal cramping was similar. We conclude that consumption of a 2-oz serving of Olean chips is no more likely to result in reports of gastrointestinal symptoms than consumption of triglyceride snacks as a part of the usual diet, even in individuals who have claimed intolerance to Olean. The data suggest that subjects who previously experienced symptoms that they attributed to consuming products made with Olean may have mistakenly attributed their symptoms to these products.

  16. Effects of naproxen on experimental rhinovirus colds. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sperber, S J; Hendley, J O; Hayden, F G; Riker, D K; Sorrentino, J V; Gwaltney, J M

    1992-07-01

    To determine whether naproxen, a propionic acid inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, alters the course of experimental rhinovirus colds. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Rhinovirus challenge model in volunteers cloistered in individual hotel rooms. Eighty-seven healthy young adults with serum neutralizing antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:2 to the challenge virus; 79 were evaluable. Thirty-nine participants received naproxen (loading dose, 400 mg or 500 mg followed by 200 mg or 500 mg three times daily for 5 days). Forty participants received placebo. Treatment was started 6 hours after viral challenge. Daily measurement of viral titers, symptoms, nasal mucus production, and nasal tissue use; incidence of infection and illness; and measurement of homotypic serum neutralizing antibody responses. Viral titers and serum homotypic antibody responses were similar in the naproxen and placebo groups. Significant reductions in headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough occurred in the naproxen group. A 29% reduction was noted in the total (5-day) symptom score in the naproxen group (95% CI, 16% to 42%). Naproxen treatment did not alter virus shedding or serum neutralizing antibody responses in participants with experimental rhinovirus colds, but it had a beneficial effect on the symptoms of headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough. Prostaglandins may be among the inflammatory mediators that play a role in the pathogenesis of rhinovirus colds.

  17. Pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression: qualitative systematic review of double-blind randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Spanemberg, Lucas; Massuda, Raffael; Lovato, Lucas; Paim, Leonardo; Vares, Edgar Arrua; Sica da Rocha, Neusa; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes

    2012-06-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) is the best study design for treatment-related issues, yet these studies may present a number of biases and limitations. The objective of this study is to carry out a qualitative analysis of RCT methodology in the treatment of bipolar depression (BD). A systematic review covering the last 20 years was performed on PubMed selecting double-blind RCTs for BD. The identification items of the articles, their design, methodology, outcome and grant-related issues were all analyzed. Thirty articles were included, all of which had been published in journals with an impact factor >3. While almost half studies (46.7%) used less than 50 patients as a sample, 70% did not describe or did not perform sample size calculation. The Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) method was used in 2/3 of the articles and 53.4% of the studies had high sample losses (>20%). Almost half the items were sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry and 33.3% were sponsored by institutions or research foundations. Articles on the pharmacological treatment of BD have several limitations which hinder the extrapolation of the data to clinical practice. Methodological errors and biases are common and statistical simplifications compromise the consistency of the findings.

  18. Tolerance of low-frequency ultrasound sonophoresis: a double-blind randomized study on humans.

    PubMed

    Maruani, Annabel; Vierron, Emilie; Machet, Laurent; Giraudeau, Bruno; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Boucaud, Alain

    2012-05-01

    Sonophoresis [low-frequency ultrasound (US)] has been used in animals and in vitro to investigate enhanced percutaneous absorption of drugs. No study focused on its clinical human tolerance has been published as yet. We aimed to assess the bioeffects of low-frequency US in vivo on human skin in a double-blind randomized-controlled study. We applied pulse-mode US at 36 kHz for 5 min in a step procedure of increasing dosage, from 1.57 to 3.50 W/cm(2), and placebo. The primary outcome was toxic effects of the procedure, defined as a pain score >40 on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale or necrosis. Erythema (scored from 0 to 3 in severity) was also evaluated. The secondary outcomes were measurements of skin thickness by high-resolution skin imaging, of skin capacitance and temperature. We included 34 healthy volunteers. We found no pain score >38 and no skin necrosis with either US or placebo. Erythema was systematically observed immediately after US application, but after 1 day, we observed three cases in the knee group. The most frequent adverse effect was tinnitus. We observed no marked increase in temperature or cutaneous thickness after US or placebo. Cutaneous capacitance increased immediately after both applications. Such data demonstrating good tolerance of sonophoresis can be useful before the initiation of a clinical trial of the therapeutic use of low-frequency sonophoresis in humans. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The brain signature of paracetamol in healthy volunteers: a double-blind randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Kastler, Adrian; Macian, Nicolas; Pereira, Bruno; Valabrègue, Romain; Lehericy, Stéphane; Boyer, Louis; Dubray, Claude; Jean, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Background Paracetamol’s (APAP) mechanism of action suggests the implication of supraspinal structures but no neuroimaging study has been performed in humans. Methods and results This randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial in 17 healthy volunteers (NCT01562704) aimed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. We used behavioral measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli with APAP or placebo administration. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that activity in response to noxious stimulation diminished with APAP compared to placebo in prefrontal cortices, insula, thalami, anterior cingulate cortex, and periaqueductal gray matter. Conclusion These findings suggest an inhibitory effect of APAP on spinothalamic tracts leading to a decreased activation of higher structures, and a top-down influence on descending inhibition. Further binding and connectivity studies are needed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain, especially in the context of repeated administration to patients with pain. PMID:26229445

  20. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation for Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahsa; Vahedi, Homayoon; Janani, Leila; Poustchi, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Reza; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the common gastrointestinal disorders with unknown etiology. In experimental models, it is proposed that soy isoflavones may suppress the clinical and psychological symptoms of IBS by alteration of gut barrier tight junctions. METHODS We conducted this study to evaluate the effects of soy isoflavones on IBS symptoms and patients’ quality of life. In a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 67 patients with IBS were allocated to consume either soy isoflavones capsules or a placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was a significant reduction in symptoms severity score and the secondary outcome was a significant improvement in quality of life. RESULTS 45 participants completed the study. There was no significant changes in mean differences of symptoms severity score between the two groups; however soy isoflavone supplementation could significantly improve the quality of life scores (p=0.009). CONCLUSION Soy isoflavones supplementation could improve the quality of life in patients with IBS; however it did not suppress the symptoms severity in 6 weeks. Further research with a longer duration is needed to determine the sustained clinical efficacy. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02026518 PMID:26396720

  1. Pterostilbene on Metabolic Parameters: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Riche, Daniel M.; Riche, Krista D.; Blackshear, Chad T.; McEwen, Corey L.; Sherman, Justin J.; Wofford, Marion R.; Griswold, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6–8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (−7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (−7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (−0.62 kg/m2; P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227. PMID:25057276

  2. A double blind randomized trial of ketofol versus propofol for endodontic treatment of anxious pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mittal, N; Goyal, A; Gauba, K; Kapur, A; Jain, K

    2013-01-01

    To find out the safe and efficient sedative agent for primary molar pulpectomy in uncooperative pediatric patients. This double blind randomized trial enrolled 40 anxious and healthy 2-6 year olds. All subjects received IV propofol (1-1.5 mg/kg) or ketofol (1-1.5 mg/kg propofol with 0.25 mg/kg ketamine) as per group assignment after oral midazolam premedication (0.5 mg/kg). Sedation maintenance was done with propofol infusion at 25-75 microg/kg/min titrated to a predefined Worse level as per Houpt's sedation rating scale. Additional bolus/es was/were administered in the dosage similar to induction dose in case of inadequate sedation. Primary outcomes were intraoperative and postoperative adverse events. Secondary outcomes were vital signs, success of procedure, operator satisfaction, sedation quality, treatment time, recovery time and total propofol dose. Significantly greater incidence of respiratory depression was reported for ketofol group (11/20; 55%) when compared to propofol group (3/20; 15%) (p = 0.008). Desaturation was the most common adverse respiratory event with significantly greater incidence in ketofol group (9/20; 45%) when compared to propofol only group (3/20; 15%) (p = 0.033). No significant differences regarding secondary outcomes were reported in two groups. Both the regimen exhibited similar sedation profile while propofol alone emerged as a safer option.

  3. Evidence for primary laryngeal inhalant allergy: a randomized, double-blinded crossover study.

    PubMed

    Roth, Douglas F; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Carroll, Thomas L; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2013-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports, no controlled studies to date link allergen exposure with a change in vocal function or dysphonia. The aim of this study was to determine whether allergen exposure in susceptible individuals impairs vocal function. The study was a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which subjects serve as their own controls. The participants were 5 inhalant allergic adults with suspected dysphonia from allergies, without evidence of reactive lower airways based on methacholine challenge. All subjects were exposed to 2 experimental conditions in which they were challenged with (1) orally inhaled diluent placebo on 1 day, and (2) orally inhaled allergen on another day. Conditions were randomly ordered across subjects and separated by at least 48 hours. Phonatory threshold pressure (PTP) at the 80th percentile pitch was measured prior to diluent and allergen challenge, and 15 and 60 minutes postchallenge to assess potential change in vocal function after challenge testing. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect for treatment (allergen vs placebo, p = 0.013) with greater PTP required post-allergen challenge compared to placebo and an effect size of 0.821. A primary causal relationship between allergen exposure and impaired vocal function, as assessed by PTP, was observed in adults with documented allergy independent of asthma or nasal exposure. The current design establishes a safe model for laryngeal inhalant allergen challenge. Copyright © 2013 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  4. Effect of botulinum toxin concentration on reduction in sweating: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Rystedt, Alma; Karlqvist, Mattias; Bertilsson, Maria; Naver, Hans; Swartling, Carl

    2013-11-01

    Dose-response studies of botulinum toxin for reduction of sweating are sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate concentrations of Botox®, Dysport®, Xeomin® and NeuroBloc®, respectively, in order to achieve the greatest reduction in sweating, thus reducing the costs and increasing the safety of treatment. Four concentrations of each product were investigated. Intradermal injections of all products and concentrations were applied to the backs of 20 consenting subjects, in a randomized, double-blind manner. Areas of anhidrotic and hypohidrotic skin were measured with an iodine-starch test after 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Optimal concentrations were found to be 25 U/ml for Botox and Xeomin, approximately 100 U/ml for Dysport, and 50 U/ml for NeuroBloc. When comparing the mean anhidrotic area per unit for 100 U/ml of each product, the calculated dose conversion ratios were 1:1.6:1.2:1.3 (Botox:Dysport:Xeomin:NeuroBloc). If, instead, the optimal concentration for each product was compared, the dose conversion ratios were 1:4.8:1.3:2.2. Thus, it is crucial to consider botulinum toxin concentration in a treatment regimen.

  5. Drinking Rainwater: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study of Water Treatment Filters and Gastroenteritis Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Shelly; Sinclair, Martha; Forbes, Andrew; Cunliffe, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether drinking untreated rainwater, a practice that is on the rise in developed countries because of water shortages, contributes to community gastroenteritis incidence. Methods. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial in Adelaide, Australia. Sham or active water treatment units were installed, and participants recorded incidences of illness in a health diary for 12 months. The primary outcome was highly credible gastroenteritis (HCG; characterized by a specified number of loose stools or vomiting alone or in combination with abdominal pain or nausea in a 24-hour period), and we used generalized estimating equations to account for correlations between numbers of HCG events for individuals in the same family. Results. Participants reported 769 episodes during the study (0.77 episodes/person/year), with an HCG incidence rate ratio (active vs sham) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82, 1.33). Blinding of the participants was effective (index = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.58, 0.72). Conclusions. Our results suggest that consumption of untreated rainwater does not contribute appreciably to community gastroenteritis. However, our findings may not be generalizable to susceptible and immunocompromised persons because these groups were specifically excluded from the study. PMID:20724681

  6. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Kim, Soeun; Cederblom, Lisa; Moe, Ardis; Ling, Walter; Steven, Shoptaw

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare modafinil to placebo for reducing methamphetamine (MA) use, improving retention, and reducing depressive symptoms and MA cravings. Rates of adverse events and cigarette smoking with modafinil versus placebo were also compared. Methods Following a 2-week, non-medication lead-in period, 71 treatment-seeking MA dependent participants were randomly assigned to modafinil (400 mg once daily; N= 34) or placebo (once daily; N= 37) for 12-weeks under double-blind conditions. Participants attended clinic thrice weekly to provide urine samples analyzed for MA-metabolite, to complete research assessments, and to receive contingency management and weekly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) sessions. Results There were no statistically significant effects for modafinil on MA use, retention, depressive symptoms, or MA cravings in pre-planned analyses. Outcomes for retention and MA use favored modafinil in a post hoc analysis among participants with low CBT attendance and among participants with baseline high frequency of MA use (MA use on >18 of past 30 days), but did not reach statistical significance in these small subgroups. Modafinil was safe and well tolerated and did not increase cigarette smoking. Conclusions Modafinil was no more effective than placebo at 400 mg daily in a general sample of MA users. A post hoc analysis showing a trend favoring modafinil among subgroups with baseline high frequency MA use and low CBT attendance suggests that further evaluation of modafinil in MA users is warranted. PMID:20092966

  7. Double-blind prospective randomized study comparing polyethylene glycol to lactulose for bowel preparation in colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Menacho, Aline Moraes; Reimann, Adriano; Hirata, Lie Mara; Ganzerella, Caroline; Ivano, Flavio Heuta; Sugisawa, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the most frequent exam used to evaluate colonic mucosa, allowing the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The appropriate bowel preparation is indispensable for the realization of colonoscopy. Therefore, it is necessary the use of laxative medications, preferentially by oral administration. To compare two medications used in bowel preparation in adult patients going to ambulatory colonoscopy and to analyze the patients' profile. A double-blind prospective study with 200 patients, randomized in two groups: one that received polyethilene glycol and another that received lactulose. The patients answered to questionnaires to data compilation, as tolerance, symptoms and complications related to preparation. Besides, it was also evaluated the prepare efficacy related to the presence of fecal residue. Intestinal habit alterations and abdominal pain were the main reasons to realize the exams and hypertension was the most prevalent comorbidity. Ten percent of the ones who received lactulose didn't get to finish the preparation and 50% considered the taste "bad, but tolerable". The most common subjective symptom after the medication was nausea, especially after lactulose. During the exam, most of the patients who used lactulose had a "light discomfort" and the ones who used polyethilene glycol considered the discomfort as "tolerable". The quality of the preparation was good in 75%, undependable of the medication that was used. Polyethilene glycol was more tolerable when compared to lactulose, without difference on the quality of the preparation.

  8. DOUBLE-BLIND PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL TO LACTULOSE FOR BOWEL PREPARATION IN COLONOSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    MENACHO, Aline Moraes; REIMANN, Adriano; HIRATA, Lie Mara; GANZERELLA, Caroline; IVANO, Flavio Heuta; SUGISAWA, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Colonoscopy is the most frequent exam used to evaluate colonic mucosa, allowing the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The appropriate bowel preparation is indispensable for the realization of colonoscopy. Therefore, it is necessary the use of laxative medications, preferentially by oral administration. Aim To compare two medications used in bowel preparation in adult patients going to ambulatory colonoscopy and to analyze the patients' profile. Methods A double-blind prospective study with 200 patients, randomized in two groups: one that received polyethilene glycol and another that received lactulose. The patients answered to questionnaires to data compilation, as tolerance, symptoms and complications related to preparation. Besides, it was also evaluated the prepare efficacy related to the presence of fecal residue. Results Intestinal habit alterations and abdominal pain were the main reasons to realize the exams and hypertension was the most prevalent comorbidity. Ten percent of the ones who received lactulose didn't get to finish the preparation and 50% considered the taste "bad, but tolerable". The most common subjective symptom after the medication was nausea, especially after lactulose. During the exam, most of the patients who used lactulose had a "light discomfort" and the ones who used polyethilene glycol considered the discomfort as "tolerable". The quality of the preparation was good in 75%, undependable of the medication that was used. Conclusion Polyethilene glycol was more tolerable when compared to lactulose, without difference on the quality of the preparation. PMID:24676290

  9. Pterostilbene on metabolic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Riche, Daniel M; Riche, Krista D; Blackshear, Chad T; McEwen, Corey L; Sherman, Justin J; Wofford, Marion R; Griswold, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (-7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (-0.62 kg/m(2); P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227.

  10. Magnesium sulfate improves postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic gynecologic surgeries: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Angela M; Rosado, Giovanna M C; Neto, Jose de S; Guimarães, Gabriel M N; Ashmawi, Hazem A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the analgesic effect of intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate to ketorolac during laparoscopic surgeries. Double-blind randomized controlled trial. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Sixty women submitted to laparoscopic gynecologic oncology surgeries. Intravenous ketorolac 30 mg in bolus followed by saline infusion (group K), intravenous magnesium sulfate 20 mg/kg in bolus followed by magnesium 2 mg kg(-1) h(-1) (group M) or intravenous saline solution 20 mL in bolus followed by saline infusion during the entire procedure (group S). Postoperative pain, nausea, vomiting, sedation, opioid consumption, time to first dose of analgesic. Magnesium sulfate reduced opioid consumption compared with placebo in the postoperative, but not in the intraoperative, period. Nausea, not vomiting, was reduced in ketorolac but not in the magnesium group. Pain intensity was higher in placebo than in the other 2 groups during all periods of observation. In the first 60 minutes, pain intensity was lower in the magnesium than in the ketorolac or the placebo group. Intraoperative magnesium sulfate improves postoperative pain control, acting as an opioid-sparing adjuvant, and is similar to ketorolac 30 mg administered in the beginning of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pimecrolimus cream 1% for papulopustular rosacea: a randomized vehicle-controlled double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, S; Merkl, J; Hildebrandt, B; Wollenberg, A; Braeutigam, M; Ring, J; Hofmann, H

    2007-04-01

    Rosacea remains difficult to treat, despite many therapeutic options. To investigate the effect of pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel; Novartis Pharma, Nuremberg, Germany) in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Forty patients with rosacea (25 men and 15 women, mean age 58 years) were enrolled in a randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-blind study. For 4-8 weeks, patients applied pimecrolimus cream or vehicle twice daily to the involved areas on the face. Rosacea severity score, subjective severity assessment and quality of life assessment were obtained, along with photographic documentation. Both treatment groups of 20 patients showed an improvement after 4 weeks. The differences were not significant (P > 0 x 05) with regard to mean absolute values, mean percentage changes from baseline, or mean absolute values as differences from baseline for the total score or scores of the different clinical signs (erythema, papulation, scaling and pustules). In the subjective severity score and the quality of life assessment, there was also no significant difference between pimecrolimus and the vehicle (P > 0 x 05). Treatment of rosacea for 4-8 weeks with the topical calcineurin inhibitor pimecrolimus cream 1% was not more efficacious than treatment with the vehicle cream.

  12. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Prummel, M.F.; Mourits, M.; Blank, L.; Berghout, A.; Koornneef, L.; Wiersinga, W.M. )

    1993-10-16

    Corticosteriods are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, the authors did a double-blind randomized trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with a 3-month course of oral prednisone and sham irradiation, and 28 received retrobulbar irradiation (20 Gy) and placebo capsules. Therapeutic outcome, assessed twenty-four weeks after the start of treatment, was determined by the change in the highest NOSPECS class. A successful outcome was observed in 14 prednisone-treated and in 13 irradiated patients. Responders to treatment (but not nonresponders) in both groups showed improvements in total and subjective eye score and a decrease in eye-muscle volume. Response to either treatment was due largely to changes in soft-tissue involvement and eye-muscle motility. Radiotherapy and oral prednisone appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. In view of its better tolerability, radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of first choice.

  13. A prospective double blind randomized controlled study on the use of ethanol locks in HPN patients.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Bradley R; Bonnes, Sara L; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Mundi, Manpreet S; Hurt, Ryan T

    2017-05-17

    Ethanol lock therapy (ELT) has been shown to reduce the rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in high-risk home parenteral nutrition (HPN) patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether ELT therapy for all patients newly started on HPN would reduce the incidence of CRBSI. This study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that was carried out from July 2014 to April 2016. The study participants were patients newly started on HPN, and they were randomly assigned to either treatment with ELT or our current standard of care with saline heparin locks. The primary outcome was occurrence of CRBSI. Thirty eight patients that were newly started on HPN were randomized to either treatment with ELT (n = 18) or to our current standard of care with heparin locks (n = 20). Four patients in the ELT group and one patient in the control arm had a CRBSI (p = 0.17). No significant adverse side effects were noted during the study. This study did not show improvement in the rate of CRBSI with ELT in all patients started on HPN. ELT therapy may be most helpful to reduce in CRBSI in high-risk HPN patients, but further studies with a randomized control trial design of high-risk patients are needed to further clarify this important issue in HPN patients. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov prior to patient enrollment (NCT02227329). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Acupoint Application in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris: Study Protocol of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yulan; Li, Dehua; Lv, Junling; Leng, Junyan; Zhang, Linglin; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Hailong; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) is a major syndrome of ischemic heart disease (IHD). CSAP manifests as chest pain or discomfort and affects patients' quality of life. Acupoint application (AP) has been reported to be effective for managing the symptoms of CSAP, but the evidence is not convincing. Therefore, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of AP in the treatment of CSAP. Methods and Analysis. Two hundred participants with CSAP will be randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 ratio into 4 groups. All participants will receive 12 sessions of treatment in 4 weeks and the same basic treatment procedure. The participants will be visited and assessed for 12 weeks, including a 4-week screening, a 4-week treatment phase, and a 4-week follow-up phase. The primary outcome is the change in the total frequency of self-reported angina attack at 4th week compared with the baseline. The secondary outcomes include the intensity of angina pain, consumption of nitroglycerin or Suxiao Jiuxin pills, CCS angina classification, SAQ, SAS and SDS score. Ethics. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee on TCM (number 2013kl-001). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02029118. PMID:25250055

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin to treat Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660

  16. Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Trial of Cyclophosphamide versus Methylprednisolone in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brochet, Bruno; Deloire, Mathilde S. A.; Perez, Paul; Loock, Timothé; Baschet, Louise; Debouverie, Marc; Pittion, Sophie; Ouallet, Jean-Christophe; Clavelou, Pierre; de Sèze, Jérôme; Collongues, Nicolas; Vermersch, Patrick; Zéphir, Hélène; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Labauge, Pierre; Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Ruet, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options are limited in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Open-label studies suggested efficacy of monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CPM) without induction for delaying progression but no randomized trial was conducted so far. Objective To compare CPM to methylprednisolone (MP) in SPMS. Methods Randomized, double-blind clinical trial on two parallel groups. Patient with SPMS, with a documented worsening of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score during the last year and an EDSS score between 4·0 and 6·5 were recruited and received one intravenous infusion of treatment (CPM: 750 mg /m2 body surface area—MP: 1g) every four weeks for one year, and every eight weeks for the second year. The primary endpoint was the time to EDSS deterioration, when confirmed sixteen weeks later, analyzed using a Cox model. Results Due to recruitment difficulties, the study was terminated prematurely after 138 patients were included (CPM, n = 72; MP, n = 66). In the CPM group, 33 patients stopped treatment prematurely, mainly due to tolerability, compared with 22 in the MP group. Primary endpoint: the hazard ratio for EDSS deterioration in the CPM in comparison with the MP group was 0.61 [95% CI: 0·31–1·22](p = 0·16). According to the secondary multistate model analysis, patients in the CPM group were 2.2 times more likely ([1·14–4.29]; p = 0.02) to discontinue treatment than those in the MP group and 2.7 times less likely (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.17–0.84; p = 0.02) to experience disability progression when they did not stop treatment prematurely. Safety profile was as expected. Conclusion Although the primary end-point was negative, secondary analysis suggested that CPM decreases the risk of progression in SPMS, but its use may be limited by low tolerability. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00241254 PMID:28045953

  17. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter evaluation of pramipexole extended release once daily in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Schapira, Anthony H V; Rascol, Olivier; Barone, Paolo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Salin, Laurence; Haaksma, Monika; Juhel, Nolwenn; Poewe, Werner

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pramipexole extended release (ER) administered once daily in early Parkinson's disease (PD). Pramipexole immediate release (IR) administered three times daily (TID) is an efficacious and generally well-tolerated treatment for PD. A pramipexole ER formulation is now available. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo and active comparator-controlled trial in subjects with early PD. The primary efficacy and safety evaluation of pramipexole ER compared with placebo took place at week 18. Two hundred fifty-nine subjects were randomized 2:2:1 to treatment with pramipexole ER once daily, pramipexole IR TID, or placebo. Levodopa rescue was required by 7 subjects in the placebo group (14%), 3 subjects in the pramipexole ER group (2.9%, P = 0.0160), and 1 subject in the pramipexole IR group (1.0%, P = 0.0017). Adjusted mean [standard error (SE)] change in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II [activities of daily living (ADL)] + III (motor) scores from baseline to week 18, including post-levodopa rescue evaluations, was -5.1 (1.3) in the placebo group, -8.1 (1.1) in the pramipexole ER group (P = 0.0282), and -8.4 (1.1) in the pramipexole IR group (P = 0.0153). Adjusted mean (SE) change in UPDRS ADL + motor scores, censoring post-levodopa rescue data, was -2.7 (1.3) in the placebo group, -7.4 (1.1) in the pramipexole ER group (P = 0.0010), and -7.5 (1.1) in the pramipexole IR group (P = 0.0006). Adverse events more common with pramipexole ER than placebo included somnolence, nausea, constipation, and fatigue. Pramipexole ER administered once daily was demonstrated to be efficacious compared with placebo and provided similar efficacy and tolerability as pramipexole IR administered TID. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Effects of Piracetam on Pediatric Breath Holding Spells: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    ABBASKHANIAN, Ali; EHTESHAMI, Sara; SAJJADI, Sadegh; REZAI, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective Breath holding spells (BHS) are common paroxysmal non-epileptic events in the pediatric population which are very stressfull despite their harmless nature. There has been no specific treatment found for the spells yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of piracetam (2-oxo-l-pyrrolidine) on these children. Materials & Methods In this randomized double blind clinical trial study, 150 children with severe BHS referred to our pediatric outpatient service were enrolled from August 2011 to July 2012. The patients were randomized into two equal groups. One received 40mg/kg/day piracetam and the other group received placebo, twice daily. Patients were followed monthly for three months. The number of attacks/month before and after treatment were documented. Results Of the enrolled patients, 86 were boys. The mean age of the patients was 17 months (range, 6 to 24 months). In the piracetam group, 1 month after treatment an 81% response to treatment was found. In the placebo group, none of the patients had complete remission and 7% of the cases had partial remission. Overall, control of breath-holding spells was observed in 91% of the patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 16% in the group taking placebo at the end of the study. There was no significant difference detected between the groups regarding the prevalence of drug side effects. Conclusion A significant difference was detected between piracetam and placebo in prevention and controlling BHS. Piracetam (40mg/kg/day) had a good effect on our patients. PMID:24665274

  19. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghoshegir, S Ashraffodin; Mazaheri, Mohammad; Ghannadi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Babaeian, Mahmoud; Tanhaee, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise) from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day). Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch), 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day). The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation) total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1) and 10.96 (4.1), respectively (P = 0.6). They were 7.04 (4.1) and 12.30 (4.3) by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001), 2.44 (4.2) and 13.05 (5.2) by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001), and 1.08 (3.8) and 13.30 (6.2) by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001). This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12.

  20. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshegir, S. Ashraffodin; Mazaheri, Mohammad; Ghannadi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Babaeian, Mahmoud; Tanhaee, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise) from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day). Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch), 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day). The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. Results: The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation) total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1) and 10.96 (4.1), respectively (P = 0.6). They were 7.04 (4.1) and 12.30 (4.3) by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001), 2.44 (4.2) and 13.05 (5.2) by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001), and 1.08 (3.8) and 13.30 (6.2) by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12. PMID:25767516

  1. Randomized double-blind controlled trial of bovine lactoferrin for prevention of diarrhea in children

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Theresa J.; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Baiocchi, Nelly; Pecho, Iris; Campos, Miguel; Prada, Ana; Valdiviezo, Gladys; Lluque, Angela; Lai, Dejian; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of bovine lactoferrin on prevention of diarrhea in children. Study design We conducted a community-based randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial comparing supplementation with bovine lactoferrin versus placebo. Previously weaned children were enrolled at 12–18 months and followed for 6 months with daily home visits for data collection and supplement administration. Anthropometric measures were done monthly. Results 555 children were randomized: 277 to lactoferrin and 278 to placebo; 65 dropped out; 147,894 doses were administered (92% compliance). Overall there were 91,446 child-days of observation and 1,235 diarrhea episodes lasting 6,219 days. The main pathogens isolated during diarrheal episodes were norovirus (35.0%), enteropathogenic E. coli (11.4%), Campylobacter (10.6%), enteroaggregative E. coli (8.4%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (6.9%) and Shigella (6.6%). The diarrhea incidence was not different between groups: 5.4 vs. 5.2 episodes/child/year for lactoferrin and placebo, respectively (p=0.375). However, the diarrhea longitudinal prevalence was lower in the lactoferrin group (6.6% vs. 7.0%, p=0.017) as well as the median duration of episodes (4.8 vs. 5.3 days, p=0.046), proportion of episodes with moderate or severe dehydration (1.0% vs. 2.6%, p=0.045) and liquid stools load (95.0 vs. 98.6) liquid stools/child/year, p<0.001). There were no adverse events related to the intervention. Conclusions Although there was no decrease in diarrhea incidence, longitudinal prevalence and severity were decreased with lactoferrin. PMID:22939927

  2. Bifidobacterium lactis in Treatment of Children with Acute Diarrhea. A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Said, Reem Nabil; Mosallam, Dalia Sayed; Barakat, Nahla Abdel Moniem; Sabry, Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatment for children diarrhea. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, researches were often limited to certain strains. AIM: To test Bifidobacterium lactis on morbidity of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 children (1 - 23 months) admitted with acute diarrhea to the Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University and were randomly assigned to receive in addition to usual treatment of diarrhea according to WHO guidelines; one of two treatments either milk formula non-supplemented (n = 25) or supplemented (n = 25) with Bifidobacterium lactis 14.5 × 106 CFU/100 ml daily for one week. Primary outcomes were frequency and duration of diarrhea and hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of fever and vomiting episodes. Safety and tolerance were also recorded. RESULTS: On admission, patients’ characteristics of both groups (50 cases) were similar. For children who received the probiotics for one week; mean duration of diarrhoea was shorter than in controls (3.12 ± 0.92 vs. 4.10 ± 0.94 days) (P = 0.02), number of motions per day was less than in controls (3.96 ± 0.62 vs. 4.46 ± 0.85) (P = 0.04) and discharge from hospital <2 days was more frequent than in controls (72% vs. 44%) (P = 0.048). There was no effect on fever (P = 0.63) or vomiting (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in supplemented milk formula decreased significantly frequency, duration of diarrhea, and hospital stay than usual treatment alone in children with acute diarrhea. Additional researches on other uncommon local probiotic species should be encouraged. PMID:27275258

  3. The Effect of Nefopam on Postoperative Fentanyl Consumption: A Randomized, Double-blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jee Youn; Lee, Shin Young; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, So Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Nefopam is a non-opioid, non-steroidal, centrally acting analgesic drug. The concomitant use of opioids and nefopam is believed to have many advantages over the administration of opioids alone for postoperative pain management. We conducted a randomized, double-blind study to determine the fentanyl-sparing effect of co-administration of nefopam with fentanyl for postoperative pain management via patient controlled analgesia (PCA). Methods Ninety female patients who underwent laparoscopic total hysterectomy under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 groups, Group A, fentanyl 1,000 µg; Group B, fentanyl 500 µg + nefopam 200 mg; and Group C, fentanyl 500 µg + nefopam 400 mg, in a total volume of 100 ml PCA to be administered over the first 48 h postoperatively without basal infusion. The primary outcome was total fentanyl consumption during 48 h; secondary outcomes included pain scores and incidence of side effects. Results Eighty-one patients were included in the analysis. The overall fentanyl-sparing effects of PCA with concomitant administration of nefopam during the first 48 h postoperatively were 54.5% in Group B and 48.9% group C. Fentanyl use was not significantly different between Groups B and C despite the difference in the nefopam dose. There were no differences among the three groups in terms of PCA-related side effects, although the overall sedation score of Group B was significantly lower than that of Group A. Conclusions The concomitant administration of nefopam with fentanyl for postoperative pain management may allow reduction of fentanyl dose, thereby reducing the risk of opioid-related adverse effects. PMID:27103966

  4. Interferential and horizontal therapies in chronic low back pain: a randomized, double blind, clinical study.

    PubMed

    Zambito, A; Bianchini, D; Gatti, D; Viapiana, O; Rossini, M; Adami, S

    2006-01-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is one of the most frequent medical problems. Electrical nerve stimulation is frequently used but its efficacy remains controversial. Twenty-six men and 94 women with CLBP associated with either degenerative disk disease or previous multiple vertebral osteoporotic fractures were randomly assigned to either interferential currents (IFT), horizontal therapy (HT) or sham HT administered for 10, 40 and 40 minutes, respectively, daily for 5 days per week for two weeks together with a standard flexion-extension stretching exercise program, Blind efficacy assessment were obtained at baseline and at week 2, 6 and 14 and included a functional questionnaire (Backill), the standard visual analog scale (VAS) and the mean analgesic consumption. At week 2 a significant and similar improvement in both the VAS and Backill score was observed in all three groups. The Backill score continued to improve only in the two active groups with changes significantly greater than those observed in control patients at week 14. The pain VAS score returned to baseline values at week 6 and 14 in the control group while in the IFT and HT groups it continued to improve (p< 0.01 vs controls). The use of analgesic medications significantly improved at week 14 versus pretreatment assessment and over control patients only in the HT group. This randomized double-blind controlled study provides the first evidence that IFT and HT therapy are significantly effective in alleviating both pain and disability in patients with CLBP. The placebo effect is remarkable at the beginning of the treatment but it tends to vanish within a couple of weeks.

  5. Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Risperidone versus Divalproex in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Findling, Robert L.; Parnes, Stephanie; Carbray, Julie A.; Mohammed, Tahseen; Janicak, Philip G; Sweeney, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative effects of risperidone and divalproex in pediatric mania. Methods This is a double-blind randomized outpatient clinical trial with 66 children and adolescents (mean age=10.9± 3.3 years; age range = 8 to 18 years) with mania who were randomly assigned to either risperidone (0.5–2 mg/day, n = 33) or divalproex (60–120 μg/ml, n = 33) for a 6-week period. Measures included the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Child Depression Rating Scale- Revised (CDRS-R). Results Mixed-effects regression models, with interaction between time and the active drug as predictors, found that the risperidone group had more rapid improvement than the divalproex group (p<0.05), although final scores did not differ significantly between groups. Mixed models using only those subjects who completed the 6-week study found similar results. The response rate on YMRS was 78.1% for risperidone and 45.5% for divalproex (p<.01). The remission rate for risperidone was 62.5%, compared with 33.3% for divalproex (p<.05). Improvement on the CDRS-R was significantly higher for the risperidone group relative to the divalproex group (p < .05). There were no significant differences between groups in safety, but subject retention was significantly higher at study endpoint in the risperidone group (p<0.01). Drop out rate was 24% in risperidone group and 48% in divalproex group, with increased irritability being the most common reason for drop out in the latter. There was no significant weight gain in either group. Conclusion Results suggest that risperidone was associated with more rapid improvement and greater reduction in manic symptoms compared to divalproex. Although the results suggest that both drugs are safe, risperidone’s lower attrition rate and lower rate of adverse events may suggest better toleration. Clinical trials with larger samples are required to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:20868458

  6. [Postoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in shoulder surgery (randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial)].

    PubMed

    Likar, R; Molnar, M; Pipam, W; Koppert, W; Quantschnigg, B; Disselhoff, B; Sittl, R

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 days of TENS therapy postoperatively after shoulder operations would result in better pain relief and/or reduced analgesic intake when compared to placebo. The study was carried out randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled. Thirty patients were randomized to two groups. The verum group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 6 mA and the placebo group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 0 mA. The pain was assessed pre-operatively using the Hamburg Pain Adjective List. Premedication and Anaesthesia were standardized. TENS was applied to the patients immediately postoperatively for 8 hours and then on the following days 5 times daily for 45 minutes. The effectiveness was evaluated postoperatively using a visual analogue scale (rest, activity), the Hamburg Pain Adjective List and postoperative analgesic consumption. The visual analogue scale at rest and on activity showed no significant difference between the groups. Postoperative analgesic consumption of morphine hydrochloride in the first 24 hours was at time 8 hours postoperative significantly and at all other time points markedly less in the verum group compared to the placebo group. The sensory secondary scale score of the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" was significantly lower postoperatively compared to preoperatively in the verum group. We were able to show in this study that TENS applied postoperatively after shoulder surgery clearly reduced analgesic consumption in the first 72 hours. Furthermore there was a significant difference in the pain scores using the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" in favour of the verum group. TENS applied postoperatively is a effective, simple modality with few side-effects.

  7. Lidocaine for systemic sclerosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc) is an orphan disease with the highest case-specific mortality of any connective-tissue disease. Excessive collagen deposit in affected tissues is a key for the disease's pathogenesis and comprises most of the clinical manifestations. Lidocaine seems to be an alternative treatment for scleroderma considering that: a) the patient's having excessive collagen deposits in tissues affected by scleroderma; b) the patient's demonstrating increased activity of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of collagen; and c) lidocaine's reducing the activity of prolyl hydroxylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lidocaine in treating scleroderma. Methods A randomized double-blind clinical trial included 24 patients with scleroderma randomized to receive lidocaine or placebo intravenously in three cycles of ten days each, with a one-month interval between them. Outcomes: cutaneous (modified Rodnan skin score), oesophageal (manometry) and microvascular improvement (nailfold capillaroscopy); improvement in subjective self-assessment and in quality of life (HAQ). Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for any outcome after the treatment and after 6-months follow-up. Improvement in modified Rodnan skin score occurred in 66.7% and 50% of placebo and lidocaine group, respectively (p = 0.408). Both groups showed an improvement in subjective self-assessment, with no difference between them. Conclusions Despite the findings of a previous cohort study favouring the use of lidocaine, this study demonstrated that lidocaine at this dosage and means of administration showed a lack of efficacy for treating scleroderma despite the absence of significant adverse effects. However, further similar clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine when administered in different dosages and by other means. PMID:21299861

  8. Effect of a Prebiotic Formulation on Frailty Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buigues, Cristina; Fernández-Garrido, Julio; Pruimboom, Leo; Hoogland, Aldert J.; Navarro-Martínez, Rut; Martínez-Martínez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Mascarós, Mari Carmen; Peris, Carlos; Cauli, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre® (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV), Numansdorp, The Netherlands) to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin). Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks’ duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre® or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9–10 a.m.) dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis). The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre® administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). No significant effects were observed in functional and cognitive behavior or sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota–muscle–brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome. PMID:27314331

  9. Prevention of COPD exacerbation by lysozyme: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Sakata, Yukinori; Shibata, Kai; Miyagishi, Hideaki; Marukawa, Yasuhiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Lysozyme (mucopeptide N-acetyl-muramyl hydrolase) is widely used as a mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agent in Japan. We evaluated the effects of long-term lysozyme administration on COPD exacerbation. Methods In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and one or more episodes of COPD exacerbation in the previous year before enrollment were selected. Lysozyme (270 mg) or placebo was administered orally for 52 weeks as an add-on to the standard therapies such as bronchodilators. COPD exacerbation, pulmonary function, and COPD assessment test scores were analyzed. An exacerbation was defined as worsening of more than one symptom of COPD (cough, sputum volume, purulent sputum, or breathlessness) leading to a change in medication. The primary endpoint was exacerbation rate. Results A total of 408 patients were randomly assigned to the lysozyme and placebo groups. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. The exacerbation rate was not significantly different between the two groups (1.4 vs 1.2; P=0.292, Poisson regression). However, a subgroup analysis showed that lysozyme might reduce exacerbation rate in patients with airway-dominant phenotype (1.2 vs 1.6). Moreover, the median time to first exacerbation was longer in patients with airway-dominant phenotype in the lysozyme group than that in the placebo group. The levels of improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and COPD assessment test scores were not statistically different between the groups, but were always greater in the lysozyme group than in the placebo group over the 52 weeks of the study. Conclusion The effects of using lysozyme as an add-on to standard COPD therapy were not significantly different compared with placebo and were insufficient to prevent COPD exacerbation. PMID:27143873

  10. Does a mineral wristband affect balance? A randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Beckman, Anders; Persson, Liselott

    2015-06-26

    Having good balance is a facilitating factor in the performance of everyday activities. Good balance is also essential in various sport activities in order to both get results and prevent injury. A common measure of balance is postural sway, which can be measured both antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally. There are several companies marketing wristbands whose intended function is to improve balance, strength and flexibility. Randomized controlled trials have shown that wristbands with holograms have no effect on balance but studies on wristbands with minerals seem to be lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate if the mineral wristband had any effect on postural sway in a group of healthy individuals. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. The study group consisted of 40 healthy persons. Postural sway was measured antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally on a force plate, to compare: the mineral wristband, a placebo wristband, and without any wristband. The measurements were performed for 30 s, in four situations: with open eyes and closed eyes, standing on a firm surface and on foam. Analyses were made with multilevel technique. The use of wristband with or without minerals did not alter postural sway. Closed eyes and standing on foam both prolonged the dependent measurement, irrespective if it was medio-lateral or antero-posterior. Wearing any wristband (mineral or placebo) gave a small (0.22-0.36 mm/s) but not statistically significant reduction of postural sway compared to not wearing wristband. This study showed no effect on postural sway by using the mineral wristband, compared with a placebo wristband or no wristband. Wearing any wristband at all (mineral or placebo) gave a small but not statistically significant reduction in postural sway, probably caused by sensory input.

  11. Cool water vs warm water immersion for minimal sedation colonoscopy: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Falt, P; Šmajstrla, V; Fojtík, P; Tvrdík, J; Urban, O

    2013-01-01

    Water-aided insertion as an alternative colonoscopy technique reduces patient discomfort. Warm water has been used in most published trials, but the use of cool water is easier and, if equally effective, could support the use of the water-aided technique in routine practice. A double-blind, randomized, single-centre study was performed in which 201 patients were randomized to either cool (20-24 °C) or warm (37 °C) water immersion insertion. The primary outcome was caecal intubation time. The success rate of minimal sedation and patient discomfort were also assessed. The caecal intubation time for cool and warm water was similar (6.9 ± 3.5 vs 7.0 ± 3.4 min, P = 0.64). The respective success rates of minimal sedation colonoscopy (89.1% vs 90%, P = 1.00) and discomfort (P = 0.51) were no different. All other outcomes except a greater need for abdominal compression in the cool water arm (P = 0.04) were similar including the total procedure time, terminal ileum intubation rate, adenoma detection, length of the inserted scope, water volume, non-standard position rate, difficulty of the procedure and the patient's temperature sensation. The use of cool water did not modify the caecal intubation time compared with warm water. Exception for abdominal compression, all other end-points were no different. Cool water immersion is an alternative to the technically more demanding warm water immersion colonoscopy. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Efficacy and safety of eperisone in patients with low back pain: a double blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cabitza, P; Randelli, P

    2008-01-01

    Eperisone hydrochloride (4'-ethyl-2-methyl-3-piperidinopropiophenone hydrochloride) is an antispastic agent used for treatment of diseases characterized by muscle stiffness and pain. The aim of this research was to investigate the efficacy of eperisone in patients with acute low back pain and spasticity of spinal muscles. The study design was a randomized, double-blind (double-dummy) study in 160 patients with low back pain and no Rx finding of major spinal diseases, randomly assigned to a treatment with oral eperisone 100 mg three times daily (t.i.d.) or thiocolchicoside 8 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) for 12 consecutive days. Analgesic activity was evaluated by scoring "spontaneous pain" (VAS) and pain on movement and pression (4-digit scale), while muscle relaxant activity of the medication was evaluated by means of the "hand-to-floor" distance and the Lasegue's manoeuvre. All the measures were done at the inclusion day and after 3, 7 and 12 days of treatment. The two medications had comparable analgesic and muscle relaxant efficacy. Sponta-neous pain and pain on movement/pressure were significantly reduced by both treatments. Moreover, both eperisone- and thiocolchicoside-treated patients showed a clinically evident muscle relaxation as proved by a progressive reduction in the "hand-to-floor" distance and increase in the articular excursion (Lasegue's manoeuvre). Only 5% of eperisone-treated patients showed minor gastrointestinal side effects, while the incidence of side effects in the thiocolchicoside group was 21.25%. Moreover, in the thiocolchicoside-treated patients also diarrhoea was present, which reached a moderate intensity in some cases. In conclusions, eperisone represents a valuable and safer alternative to other muscle relaxant agents for treatment of low back pain.

  13. Placebo effect of medication cost in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Espay, Alberto J; Norris, Matthew M; Eliassen, James C; Dwivedi, Alok; Smith, Matthew S; Banks, Christi; Allendorfer, Jane B; Lang, Anthony E; Fleck, David E; Linke, Michael J; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2015-02-24

    To examine the effect of cost, a traditionally "inactive" trait of intervention, as contributor to the response to therapeutic interventions. We conducted a prospective double-blind study in 12 patients with moderate to severe Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations (mean age 62.4 ± 7.9 years; mean disease duration 11 ± 6 years) who were randomized to a "cheap" or "expensive" subcutaneous "novel injectable dopamine agonist" placebo (normal saline). Patients were crossed over to the alternate arm approximately 4 hours later. Blinded motor assessments in the "practically defined off" state, before and after each intervention, included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor subscale, the Purdue Pegboard Test, and a tapping task. Measurements of brain activity were performed using a feedback-based visual-motor associative learning functional MRI task. Order effect was examined using stratified analysis. Although both placebos improved motor function, benefit was greater when patients were randomized first to expensive placebo, with a magnitude halfway between that of cheap placebo and levodopa. Brain activation was greater upon first-given cheap but not upon first-given expensive placebo or by levodopa. Regardless of order of administration, only cheap placebo increased activation in the left lateral sensorimotor cortex and other regions. Expensive placebo significantly improved motor function and decreased brain activation in a direction and magnitude comparable to, albeit less than, levodopa. Perceptions of cost are capable of altering the placebo response in clinical studies. This study provides Class III evidence that perception of cost is capable of influencing motor function and brain activation in Parkinson disease. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Magnetic resonance therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gökşen, Nurgül; Çaliş, Mustafa; Doğan, Serap; Çaliş, Havva T; Özgöçmen, Salih

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (MRT) works based on the electromagnetic fields. To investigate efficacy of MRT in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients who had mild to moderate knee OA at a single knee joint and between 30-75-years-old were randomized by blinded chip cards (1:1). The treatment group received ten sessions of one hour daily MRT, controls received placebo MRT. All patients underwent clinical examination at baseline, after 2 weeks, and 12 weeks. Imaging included blindly assessed ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) of the knee. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. Both groups improved significantly but the average change from baseline in outcome parameters was similar in MRT group (on VAS-pain,-2.6; WOMAC-pain, -2.09; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.81; WOMAC-physical, -1.96) compared to placebo after two weeks (VAS-pain,-1.6; WOMAC-pain, -1.91; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.27; WOMAC-physical, -1.54). Also changes were quite similar at the 12th week after the treatment. SF-36 components at 12th week improved but changes were not significant. Imaging arm also failed to show significant differences between groups in terms of cartilage thickness on US and MR scores. No adverse events were recorded. MRT is safe, but not superior to placebo in terms of improvement in clinical or imaging parameters after a 10-day course of treatment in mild to moderate knee OA. The present study does not promote use of a 10-day course of MRT in mild to moderate knee OA.

  15. [Tolerance and adequacy of a 100% lactose infant formula. A controlled randomized double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Girardet, J-P; Fournier, V; Bakhache, P; Beck, L; Kempf, C; Lachambre, E

    2012-07-01

    Lactose has beneficial nutritional effects in infancy, particularly on calcium retention and on Bifidobacterium colon microflora development. The objective of this controlled, prospective, randomized double-blind study was to assess the adequacy and safety of an infant formula containing only lactose as carbohydrate, as compared to a usual formula. Healthy non-breast-fed infants aged under 7 days were randomized to be fed exclusively with a conventional formula containing lactose (9.6 g/100 kcal) and maltodextrin (1.6 g/100 kcal) or the isocaloric-isoprotein study formula containing 100% lactose (11.2 g/100 kcal) for 120 days. Primary outcome was daily weight gain at D0 and D120. Weight, length, body mass index, formula consumption, tolerance, and safety were assessed monthly. The non-inferiority of the study formula was rejected if the difference in weight gain was higher than 2.5 g/day in the control group. One hundred and seventy-eight infants were enrolled. Mean daily weight gain in the study group differed by 0.71 g/day (95% CI: -2.23; 0.82) indicating the non-inferiority of the study formula. Growth was normal and similar in the two groups, but formula intake was decreased in the study group, leading to a decrease in energy and protein intakes. Tolerance was good and adverse events did not differ between the two groups. The 100% lactose study infant formula was safe and non-inferior to a conventional formula in ensuring normal growth during the first 4 months of life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  17. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of silymarin in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Rastegarpanah, Mansoor; Malekzadeh, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Maryam; Elahi, Elham; Chaharmahali, Meghedi; Safarnavadeh, Tahereh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of silymarin in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. A randomized double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 80 UC patients whose disease had been documented and were in remission state between September 2009 and October 2010. Patients were assigned to silymarin group (42 cases) and placebo group (38 cases) using a random number table. Either silymarin (140 mg) or placebo (lactose mono-hydrate, corn starch magnesium stearate) tablets were given once daily for 6 months along with their standard therapy. The efficacies were assessed by disease activity index (DAI), frequency difference of the disease flare-up, and paraclinical data. Ten patients (4 in the silymarin group due to nausea and 6 in the placebo group due to disease flare-up and abdominal pain) discontinued the study. An improvement in hemoglobin level (11.8±1.6 g/dL vs. 13.4±1.2 g/dL,P<0.05) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (23.7±11.5 mm/h vs.10.8±3.2 mm/h,P<0.05) was observed in the silymarin group but not in the placebo group. DAI significantly decreased in the silymarin group and reached from 11.3±3.5 to 10.7±2.8 (P<0.05). Thirty-five out of 38 patients in the silymarin group were in complete remission with no flare-up after 6 months as compared to 21 out of 32 patients in the placebo group (P=0.5000). Silymarin as a natural supplement may be used in UC patients to maintain remission.

  18. Pulsed electromagnetic fields in knee osteoarthritis: a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Giovanni; Marino, Natale; Sciortino, Davide; Bagnato, Gian Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness of a wearable pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) device in the management of pain in knee OA patients. Methods. In this randomized [with equal randomization (1:1)], double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients with radiographic evidence of knee OA and persistent pain higher than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited. The trial consisted of 12 h daily treatment for 1 month in 60 knee OA patients. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in pain intensity, assessed through VAS and WOMAC scores. Secondary outcomes included quality of life assessment through the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form version 2 (SF-36 v2), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and changes in intake of NSAIDs/analgesics. Results. Sixty-six patients were included, and 60 completed the study. After 1 month, PEMF induced a significant reduction in VAS pain and WOMAC scores compared with placebo. Additionally, pain tolerance, as expressed by PPT changes, and physical health improved in PEMF-treated patients. A mean treatment effect of −0.73 (95% CI − 1.24 to − 0.19) was seen in VAS score, while the effect size was −0.34 (95% CI − 0.85 to 0.17) for WOMAC score. Twenty-six per cent of patients in the PEMF group stopped NSAID/analgesic therapy. No adverse events were detected. Conclusion. These results suggest that PEMF therapy is effective for pain management in knee OA patients and also affects pain threshold and physical functioning. Future larger studies, including head-to-head studies comparing PEMF therapy with standard pharmacological approaches in OA, are warranted. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01877278 PMID:26705327

  19. Effect of calcium on premenstrual syndrome: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Araste, Fahimeh Ezzati; Ebrahimi, Reihaneh; Nazari, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Objective Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects millions of women and is known as the most important disorder among them. The very aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low dose calcium on severity of PMS. Methods This study can be considered as a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Female students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences diagnosed with PMS in 2014 participated in the present study. Sixty-six female students diagnosed with PMS were involved in the experimental and control groups. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive 500 mg of calcium daily or placebo for two months. Severity of PMS was detected by Daily Record of Severity of Problems, which was used to measure symptoms during one menstrual cycle before and two menstrual cycles after the intervention. Results No signifcant differences were observed in the mean scores of PMS symptoms between calcium and placebo groups before the treatment (P=0.74). However, signifcant differences were noticed between the two intervention groups in the first (P=0.01) and second menstrual cycles (P=0.001) after the intervention. The differences were significant in subgroups of anxiety, depression, emotional changes, water retention, and somatic changes in calcium group compared with placebo group in the menstrual cycle before the intervention and two menstrual cycles after the intervention and among menstrual cycles (0, cycle 1, cycle 2) in calcium group (P=0.01). Conclusion Overall, the results of the present study suggest that treatment with calcium supplements is an effective method for reducing mood disorders during PMS. PMID:28217679

  20. Double-blind, randomized, pilot study assessing the resolution of postburn pruritus.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Rachelska, Grazyna; Parnell, Laura K S; LaSalle, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Provase®, a nonprescription moisturizer with a blend of protease enzymes, would reduce postburn itching in adult burn survivors relative to a control moisturizer. This was a prospective, single-center, double-blinded, pilot study where 23 burn survivors were randomized to either the treatment group, who applied Provase, or the control group, who applied the base moisturizer used in Provase every 8 hours for 4 weeks. Twelve were randomized to the treatment and 11 to the control groups with 9 participants in each group completing the study. There was no difference between groups with respect to gender, ethnicity, causative factor, TBSA burned, or time postinjury. Participant's pruritus and scar were reevaluated on a weekly basis for 4 consecutive weeks. Relative to baseline, there was a significant reduction of itch duration in minutes at weeks 3 and 4, the number of days per week that itch was experienced at weeks 2, 3, and 4, and the number of itch episodes per day at week 2 for the treatment group. The itch TBSA reduced significantly relative to baseline for the treatment group at week 1, 2, and 3. The affective itch characteristics were significantly reduced for the treatment group for bothersome at weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4; for annoying at week 4; and for unbearable at weeks 2, 3, and 4. Although this was a pilot study and not powered for statistical differences, there were statistically significant differences for itch duration, weekly frequency, itch episodes per day, itch TBSA, and reported affective burden of itch after treatment. Further investigation is recommended with a larger sample size treated for a longer period of time where participants are stratified based on acute or chronic itch.

  1. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Coblation versus Dissection Tonsillectomy in Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Singh; Anand, T S; Payal, Garg; Pranjal, Kulshreshtha

    2012-09-01

    This randomized double blind study was conducted prospectively to determine whether coblation tonsillectomy fared better than the conventional dissection method in terms of postoperative pain, bleeding, and rapidity of healing in adult Indian patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Sixty adult patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications were randomized to have one tonsil removed by subcapsular radiofrequency ablation method and the other by conventional dissection method. The operative time and blood loss was noted for each side. Patients were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and then on 7th and 20th postoperative day for postoperative pain (by visual analog scale), bleeding, and tonsillar fossa healing. Statistical comparison was done using appropriate tests. The two groups were demographically matched. It took longer to perform the coblation procedure (15 vs 11 min) (P > 0.05). The operative blood loss on the radiofrequency side was 11 ml, vs 34 ml on the conventional side (P = 0.009). 77% patients said that the coblation side was less painful for the overall 20-day recovery period. There were significant differences seen at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h in terms of postoperative pain scores. Beyond that, the pain was consistently less on the coblation side, but the difference was not significant. There was no case of reactionary or secondary hemorrhage in either arm. The healing took longer on the radiofrequency side. Coblation tonsillectomy is an easy to learn technique with significantly reduced operative blood loss and postoperative pain. Longer operative times maybe further reduced with experience.

  2. Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Todd; Comi, Richard; Sluss, Patrick; Keisari, Ronit; Manwar, Simone; Kim, Janice; Larson, Robin; Baron, John A

    2007-12-01

    In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels. However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 200 mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast. Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher (by 1.80 microU/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-3.28) after caffeine intake than after placebo. The homeostasis model assessment index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% (95% confidence interval, 7%-62%) by caffeine. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration.

  3. Efficacy of Bosentan in patients after Fontan procedures: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiao-Ke; Lu, Rong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Chang-Dong; Xiao, Shu-Na; Liu, Mei; Wang, Bin; Dong, Nian-Guo

    2016-08-01

    Fontan surgery is a widely used palliative procedure that significantly improves the survival period of patients with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). However, it does not decrease postoperative complication rate. Previous studies suggested that elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and vascular resistance lead to decreased exercise tolerance and myocardial dysfunction. Therapy with endothelial receptor antagonists (Bosentan) has been demonstrated to improve the patients' prognosis. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed to explore the efficacy of Bosentan in treating patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Eligible participants were randomly divided into Bosentan group and control group. Liver function was tested at a local hospital and the results were reported to the phone inspector every month. If the results suggested abnormal liver function, treatment would be adjusted or terminated. All the participants finished the follow-up study, with no patients lost to follow-up. Unblinding after 2-year follow-up, no mortality was observed in either group. However, secondary end-points were found to be significantly different in the comparable groups. The cardiac function and 6-min walking distance in the Bosentan group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P=0.018 and P=0.027). Bosentan could improve New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional status and improve the results of the 6-min walking test (6MWT) in Fontan patients post-surgery, and no other benefits were observed. Furthermore, a primary meta-analysis study systematically reviewed all the similar clinical trails worldwide and concluded an overall NYHA class improvement in Fontan patients who received Bosentan treatments.

  4. Electromagnetic effects on forearm disuse osteopenia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Joseph A; Short, Walter H; Sheehe, Paul R; Hickman, Rebecca M; Feiglin, David H

    2011-05-01

    A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, feasibility and dosing study was undertaken to determine if a common pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment could moderate the substantial osteopenia that occurs after forearm disuse. Ninety-nine subjects were randomized into four groups after a distal radius fracture, or carpal surgery requiring immobilization in a cast. Active or identical sham PEMF transducers were worn on the distal forearm for 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 8 weeks starting after cast removal ("baseline") when bone density continues to decline. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone geometry were measured in the distal forearm by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at entry ("baseline") and 8, 16, and 24 weeks later. Significant average BMD losses after baseline were observed in the affected forearm at all time points (5-7% distally and 3-4% for the radius/ulna shaft). However, after adjusting for age, gender, and baseline BMD there was no evidence of a positive effect of active versus sham PEMF treatment on bone loss by DXA or pQCT for subjects completing all visits (n = 82, ∼20 per group) and for an intent-to-treat analysis (n = 99). Regardless of PEMF exposure, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was normal at baseline and 8 weeks, while serum c-terminal collagen teleopeptide (CTX-1) was markedly elevated at baseline and less so at 8 weeks. Although there was substantial variability in disuse osteopenia, these results suggested that the particular PEMF waveform and durations applied did not affect the continuing substantial disuse bone loss in these subjects. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Dexamethasone for Parapneumonic Pleural Effusion: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tagarro, Alfredo; Otheo, Enrique; Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Navarro, María-Luisa; Velasco, Rosa; Ruiz, Marta; Penín, María; Moreno, David; Rojo, Pablo; Madero, Rosario

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether dexamethasone (DXM) decreases the time to recovery in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 children, ranging in age from 1 month to 14 years, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pleural effusion. Patients received either intravenous DXM (0.25?mg/kg/dose) or placebo every 6 hours over a period of 48 hours, along with antibiotics. The primary endpoint was the time to recovery in hours, defined objectively. We also evaluated complications and adverse events. Among the 60 randomized patients (mean age, 4.7 years; 58% female), 57 (95%) completed the study. Compared with placebo recipients, the patients receiving DXM had a shorter time to recovery, after adjustment by severity group and stratification by center (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.10-3.45; P?=?.021). The median time to recovery for patients receiving DXM was 68 hours (2.8 days) shorter than patients receiving placebo (109 hours vs 177 hours; P?=?.037). In exploratory subgroup analysis, the median time to recovery for patients with simple effusion receiving DXM was 76 hours (3.1 days) shorter than for patients with simple effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.017). The median time to recovery for patients with complicated effusion receiving DXM was 14 hours (0.5 days) shorter than for patients with complicated effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.66). The difference in the effect of DXM in the 2 severity groups was not statistically significant (P?=?.138 for interaction). There were no significant differences in complications or adverse events attributable to the study drugs, except for hyperglycemia. In this trial, DXM seemed to be a safe and effective adjunctive therapy for parapneumonic pleural effusion. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01261546. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, food allergy challenge to olestra snacks.

    PubMed

    Burks, A W; Christie, L; Althage, K A; Kesler, J M; Allgood, G S

    2001-10-01

    Following approval of the fat replacer olestra for use in preparing savory snacks, Procter & Gamble implemented a postmarketing surveillance program to monitor marketplace introduction. Three and one-half percent of all health effects reported by consumers to the surveillance toll-free number were allergy-type symptoms (e.g., rash, itching, edema, hives, dyspnea). Because of these reports, we investigated whether olestra or some component of olestra snacks was a likely allergen in some subset of the population. A single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover food challenge study was conducted to confirm or refute the allergenicity of olestra snacks. Of the 65 subjects who reported symptoms consistent with immediate hypersensitivity to olestra's postmarketing surveillance program, 14 men and women traveled to the Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute to participate in this study. Each subject underwent a standard skin prick test at the beginning of the study, to help determine what component, if any, of the olestra product was allergenic. Following the skin prick test, subjects ate in random order, olestra-containing potato chips and regular fat-containing potato chips. The dose of potato chips consumed at each challenge was at least the amount alleged to have caused the symptoms that prompted the consumer to phone the postmarketing surveillance toll-free number. No subject experienced an allergic reaction after consuming the olestra-containing chips. Nor did any subject elicit a positive response to olestra following the skin prick testing. Two subjects had positive reactions consistent with immediate hypersensitivity after consuming the regular-fat, placebo potato chips. The results of this study confirm that olestra is unlikely to have an allergenic potential. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Adjunctive Bright Light Therapy for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sit, Dorothy K; McGowan, James; Wiltrout, Christopher; Diler, Rasim Somer; Dills, John Jesse; Luther, James; Yang, Amy; Ciolino, Jody D; Seltman, Howard; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Terman, Michael; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-10-03

    Patients with bipolar disorder have recurrent major depression, residual mood symptoms, and limited treatment options. Building on promising pilot data, the authors conducted a 6-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of adjunctive bright light therapy at midday for bipolar depression. The aims were to determine remission rate, depression symptom level, and rate of mood polarity switch, as well as to explore sleep quality. The study enrolled depressed adults with bipolar I or II disorder who were receiving stable dosages of antimanic medication (excluding patients with hypomania or mania, mixed symptoms, or rapid cycling). Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either 7,000-lux bright white light or 50-lux dim red placebo light (N=23 for each group). Symptoms were assessed weekly with the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Scale With Atypical Depression Supplement (SIGH-ADS), the Mania Rating Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Remission was defined as having a SIGH-ADS score of 8 or less. At baseline, both groups had moderate depression and no hypomanic or manic symptoms. Compared with the placebo light group, the group treated with bright white light experienced a significantly higher remission rate (68.2% compared with 22.2%; adjusted odds ratio=12.6) at weeks 4-6 and significantly lower depression scores (9.2 [SD=6.6] compared with 14.9 [SD=9.2]; adjusted β=-5.91) at the endpoint visit. No mood polarity switches were observed. Sleep quality improved in both groups and did not differ significantly between them. The data from this study provide robust evidence that supports the efficacy of midday bright light therapy for bipolar depression.

  8. Melatonin improves sleep in children with epilepsy: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A

    2015-05-01

    Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia, is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Eleven prepubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6-11 years with epilepsy were randomized by a software algorithm to receive placebo or a 9-mg sustained release (SR) melatonin formulation for four weeks, followed by a one-week washout and a four-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents, and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. The primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. The secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on electroencephalogram (EEG), and reaction time (RT) measures on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Statistical tests appropriate for crossover designs were used for the analysis. Data were analyzed from 10 subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (mean difference, MD, of 11.4 min and p = 0.02) and WASO (MD of 22 min and p = 0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, slow-wave sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. SR melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed, but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Alendronate Treatment for Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Alison M.; Kelly, Marilyn H.; Brillante, Beth A.; Kushner, Harvey; Wientroub, Shlomo; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare skeletal disorder, resulting in deformity, fracture, functional impairment, and pain. Bisphosphonates have been advocated as a potential treatment. Objective: To determine the efficacy of alendronate for treatment of FD. Design: Two-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Clinical research center. Patients: Forty subjects with polyostotic FD (24 adults, 16 children). Subjects were randomized and stratified by age. Interventions: Study drug was administered over a 24 month period in 6 month cycles (6 months on, 6 months off). Alendronate dosing was stratified: 40 mg daily for subjects >50 kg, 20 mg for 30–50 kg, 10 mg for 20–30 kg. Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoints were bone turnover markers, including serum osteocalcin, and urinary NTX-telopeptides. Secondary endpoints included areal bone mineral density (aBMD), pain, skeletal disease burden score, and functional parameters including the 9-min walk test and manual muscle testing. Results: Clinical data was collected on 35 subjects who completed the study. There was a decline in NTX-telopeptides in the alendronate group (P = .006), but no significant difference in osteocalcin between groups. The alendronate group had an increase in areal BMD in normal bone at the lumbar spine (P = .006), and in predetermined regions of FD (P < .001). There were no significant differences in pain scores, skeletal disease burden scores, or functional parameters between the groups. Conclusions: Alendronate treatment led to a reduction in the bone resorption marker NTX-telopeptides, and improvement in aBMD, but no significant effect on serum osteocalcin, pain, or functional parameters. PMID:25033066

  10. Cerebrolysin and Recovery After Stroke (CARS): A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Hoemberg, Volker; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Cristian Dinu; Vester, Johannes C; Rahlfs, Volker W; Doppler, Edith; Meier, Dieter; Moessler, Herbert; Guekht, Alla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate whether stroke patients who receive Cerebrolysin show improved motor function in the upper extremities at day 90 compared with patients who receive a placebo. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study. Patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (30 mL/d) or a placebo (saline) once daily for 21 days, beginning at 24 to 72 hours after stroke onset. The patients also participated in a standardized rehabilitation program for 21 days that was initiated within 72 hours after stroke onset. The primary end point was the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90. The nonparametric effect size on the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90 indicated a large superiority of Cerebrolysin compared with the placebo (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.79; P<0.0001). The multivariate effect size on global status, as assessed using 12 different outcome scales, indicated a small-to-medium superiority of Cerebrolysin (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.65; P<0.0001). The rate of premature discontinuation was <5% (3.8%). Cerebrolysin was safe and well tolerated. Cerebrolysin had a beneficial effect on function and global outcome in early rehabilitation patients after stroke. Its safety was comparable with that of the placebo, suggesting a favorable benefit/risk ratio. Because this study was exploratory and had a relatively small sample size, the results should be confirmed in a large-scale, randomized clinical trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Unique identifier: 2007-000870-21. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Melatonin improves sleep in children with epilepsy: randomized, double-blind cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Methods Eleven pre-pubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6–11 years with epilepsy were randomized by software algorithm to receive placebo or 9 mg sustained release melatonin for 4 weeks, followed by a 1-week washout and 4-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. Primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. Secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on EEG and reaction time measures on psychomotor vigilance task. Statistical tests appropriate for cross-over designs were used for analysis. Results Data were analyzed from ten subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (Mean difference (MD): 11.4 min, p= 0.02) and WASO (MD 22 min, p=0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, Slow-wave sleep duration and REM latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. Conclusion Sustained-release melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. PMID:25862116

  12. Nutmeg extracts for painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Motilal, Shastri; Maharaj, Rohan G

    2013-04-01

    Current treatment strategies for painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) include oral medications, which are costly and may have adverse effects. Topical therapies have been used for PDN with some benefit. Nutmeg has certain properties that may be effective in ameliorating neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether topical nutmeg extracts can reduce pain or improve the quality of life in PDN sufferers. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It was conducted at a primary care center in Trinidad, Caribbean. Seventy-four (74) diabetic subjects who met criteria for painful neuropathy were recruited. Participants were randomized to receive either topical nutmeg extracts (NEMM; mace oil [2%], nutmeg oil [14%], methyl salicylate [6%], menthol [6%], and coconut oil) or placebo (MM; methyl salicylate [6%], menthol [6%], coconut oil, and alcohol). Outcome measures of pain and quality of life were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory for Diabetic Painful Neuropathy and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. An intention-to-treat analysis was done for 24 male and 50 female subjects (30-85 years) with an average duration of diabetes of 11 years. Significant reductions in worst and average pain scores were seen within each group (p ≤ 0.001). Similarly significant reductions were also noted for interference with walking, sleep, and mood scores as well as burning, pins and needles, and tingling scores within each group (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between both groups after 4 weeks for any outcome measure. In this trial topical, nutmeg extracts did not add to the improvements observed in PDN symptoms during 4 weeks treatment with preparations containing menthol and methyl salicylate. Further research designed to test the individual components of the topical therapies used in this study may clarify their benefit.

  13. The Role of Probiotics in the Treatment of Dysentery: a Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Alireza; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Nasri, Elahe; Soleimani, Zahra; Sharif, Mohammad Reza

    2017-03-21

    Diarrhea is considered as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, even though one of the main reasons of death following diarrhea is initiated by dysentery. In recent years, the consumption of probiotics has been proposed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea. Despite most of the studies on probiotics have focused on acute watery diarrhea, few studies in the field of dysentery have found beneficial effects of probiotics. This study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients were randomly placed into control and case groups. In the intervention group, the patients received probiotics in the form of Kidilact® sachet, which contained high amounts of 7-strain friendly bacteria strains of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Streptococcus thermophiles. On the other hand, the patients in the control group received placebo sachets on a daily basis for 5 days. It is notable that the treatment protocol of acute dysentery was done on both groups. The results of this study showed significant differences in the duration of blood in diarrhea between probiotic consumers (2.62 days) and the control group (3.16 days) (P value = 0.05). Additionally, significant differences in the average length of hospitalization in probiotic consumers (3.16 days) and control (3.66 days), (P value = 0.02) could be claimed that the consumption of probiotics is effective in reducing the duration of dysentery and diarrhea. The results of this study suggest that the use of probiotics can be effective in reducing the duration of blood in diarrhea. This study was also recorded in the Iran center of clinical trials registration database (IRCT2014060617985N1).

  14. Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide antihypertensive treatment in high sodium intake population: a randomized double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Puhong; Wang, Hongyi; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Xi, Yang; Wu, Yangfeng; Yan, Lijing L; Li, Xian; Sun, Ningling

    2017-10-01

    To compare the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of telmisartan 40 mg/day and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg/day in high sodium intake patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension in China. In this randomized, double-blind trial, eligible patients were randomly divided into telmisartan and HCTZ groups with three follow-ups scheduled on days 15, 30, and 60 after enrollment to compare BP decrease, hypokalemia, and other adverse events after intervention. A total of 1333 mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients with average sodium intake of 5909 mg/day were enrolled from 14 county hospitals in China. Baseline characteristics were well balanced. At 15, 30, and 60 days of follow-up, average SBP/DBP reduction in telmisartan and HCTZ group was 12.5/8.0, 14.3/9.1, 12.8/7.2, 11.0/5.8, 13.6/7.1, and 11.5/5.3 mmHg, respectively. Telmisartan showed greater BP response than HCTZ at three visits, with statistical significance for DBP (P < 0.001) regardless of the adjustment for baseline BP, sodium excretion, and pulse pressure (PP). SBP reduction was positively related to increasing urinary sodium and PP levels for patients in both groups but increased faster with increasing PP in HCTZ than in telmisartan (P = 0.0238 for group × PP). Compared with telmisartan, HCTZ showed more hypokalemia (0.4 vs. 4.5%, P < 0.001). Both telmisartan and HCTZ were effective for the treatment of hypertensive patients with high sodium intake. Telmisartan showed better DBP-lowering effect and less hypokalemia than HCTZ among high sodium intake patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the plausible superiority effect of hydrochlorothiazide among patients with large PP.

  15. Can Acupuncture Affect the Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure? A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Cho, Ki-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension. Design The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Subjects were randomly divided into an active acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. Each patient received real or sham acupuncture treatment twice a week for 8 weeks. Acupuncture needles were inserted at bilateral ST 36 plus PC 6; placebo points. Subjects Thirty-three (33) patients with essential hypertension were the subjects. Outcome measures Twenty-four (24)-hour ambulatory BP was assessed before and after treatment. Results After the treatment period, there was a significant increase in nocturnal diastolic BP dipping compared to that at baseline (10.20±7.56 mm Hg versus 5.21±10.19 mm Hg, p=0.038) in the active acupuncture group but not in the sham acupuncture group. The nocturnal diastolic BP dipping response to active acupuncture treatment was significantly different from the response seen with the sham acupuncture treatment (p=0.041). The number of dippers also increased from 4 to 8 in the active acupuncture group. Average systolic and diastolic BP was not changed significantly except for nighttime diastolic BP (90.32±11.47 mm Hg to 87.83±9.16 mm Hg, p=0.041). Conclusions It is suggested that acupuncture treatment could be useful for improving the circadian rhythm of BP in patients with hypertension. PMID:22906144

  16. Efficacy of Peppermint oil in diarrhea predominant IBS - a double blind randomized placebo - controlled study.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Roy, P K; Miah, A R; Mollick, S H; Khan, M R; Mahmud, M C; Khatun, S

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is associated with considerable sufferings of patient and Peppermint oil is volatile oil, its active principle is menthol-contain a cyclic monoterpine which has anti-spasmotic properties due to its ability to block calcium channel of intestinal smooth muscles. This study observed the efficacy of peppermint oil for relieving the symptoms and changes of quality of life (QOL) in diarrhea predominant IBS. This was a prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled study conducted in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University during July 2008 to September 2009. Patients who fulfilled ROME II were initially selected but those had red flag signs or any organic disease was excluded from the study. Seventy four patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either peppermint oil or placebo three times daily for six weeks. Changes of symptoms were assessed three week interval during treatment and two weeks after the end of treatment. Data were analyzed by paired and unpaired 't' test. Finally sixty five patients completed the trial. It was observed that, at six weeks of therapy abdominal pain is markedly improved (mean±SD) 4.94±1.30 in peppermint oil group compared with 6.15±1.24 in placebo group and the difference was statistically highly significant (p>0.001). But two weeks after end of trials pain score again increased (6.09±1.93). Other symptoms and quality of life did not improve significantly. So the study result concludes that peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant IBS transiently.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Paliperidone Palmitate 3-Month Formulation for Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Noninferiority Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Ravenstijn, Paulien; Janik, Adam; Schotte, Alain; Hough, David; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase-3 study was designed to test the noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation (PP3M) to the currently marketed 1-month formulation (PP1M) in patients (age 18–70 years) with schizophrenia, previously stabilized on PP1M. Methods: After screening (≤3 weeks) and a 17-week, flexible-dosed, open-label phase (PP1M: day 1 [150mg eq. deltoid], day 8 [100mg eq. deltoid.], weeks 5, 9, and 13 [50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq., deltoid/gluteal]), clinically stable patients were randomized (1:1) to PP3M (fixed-dose, 175, 263, 350, or 525mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) or PP1M (fixed-dose, 50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) for a 48-week double-blind phase. Results: Overall, 1016/1429 open-label patients entered the double-blind phase (PP3M: n=504; PP1M: n=512) and 842 completed it (including patients with relapse). PP3M was noninferior to PP1M: relapse rates were similar in both groups (PP3M: n=37, 8%; PP1M: n=45, 9%; difference in relapse-free rate: 1.2% [95% CI:-2.7%; 5.1%]) based on Kaplan-Meier estimates (primary efficacy). Secondary endpoint results (changes from double-blind baseline in positive and negative symptom score total and subscale scores, Clinical Global Impression-Severity, and Personal and Social Performance scores) were consistent with primary endpoint results. No clinically relevant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic exposures between PP3M and PP1M. Both groups had similar tolerability profiles; increased weight was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (double-blind phase; 21% each). No new safety signals were detected. Conclusion: Taken together, PP3M with its 3-month dosing interval is a unique option for relapse prevention in schizophrenia. PMID:26902950

  18. Rhodiola rosea therapy for major depressive disorder: a study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun J; Li, Qing S.; Soeller, Irene; Xie, Sharon X; Amsterdam, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), a botanical of both western and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used as a folk remedy for improving stamina and reducing stress. However, few controlled clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of R. rosea for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study seeks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of R. rosea in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study design. Methods / Design Subjects with MDD not receiving antidepressant therapy will be randomized to either R. rosea extract 340–1,360 mg daily; sertraline 50–200 mg daily, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be change over time in the mean 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating score. Secondary outcome measures will include safety and quality of life ratings. Statistical procedures will include mixed-effects models to assess efficacy for primary and secondary outcomes. Discussion This study will provide valuable preliminary information on the safety and efficacy data of R. rosea versus conventional antidepressant therapy of MDD. It will also inform additional hypotheses and study design of future, fully powered, phase III clinical trials with R. rosea to determine its safety and efficacy in MDD. PMID:25610752

  19. Efficacy and safety of extended- versus immediate-release pramipexole in Japanese patients with advanced and L-dopa-undertreated Parkinson disease: a double-blind, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Yamamoto, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Sadako; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Kagimura, Tatsuro; Sarashina, Akiko; Rascol, Olivier; Schapira, Anthony H V; Barone, Paolo; Hauser, Robert A; Poewe, Werner

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels of pramipexole extended-release (ER) and pramipexole immediate-release (IR), and to assess the effects of overnight switching from an IR to an ER formulation, in L-dopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease (PD). After a 1- to 4-week screening/enrollment, 112 patients who had exhibited L-dopa-related problems or were receiving suboptimal L-dopa dosage were randomized in double-blind, double-dummy, 1:1 fashion to pramipexole ER once daily or pramipexole IR 2 to 3 times daily for 12 weeks, both titrated to a maximum daily dose of 4.5 mg. Successful completers of double-blind treatment were switched to open-label pramipexole ER, beginning with a 4-week dose-adjustment phase. Among the double-blind treatment patients (n = 56 in each group), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Parts II+III total scores decreased significantly from baseline and to a similar degree with pramipexole ER and IR formulations. In each group, 47 double-blind patients (83.9%) reported adverse events (AEs), requiring withdrawal of 3 ER patients (5.4%) and 2 IR patients (3.6%). Trough plasma levels at steady state (at the same doses and dose-normalized concentrations) were also similar with both formulations. Among open-label treatment patients (n = 53 from IR to ER), 83% were successfully switched (no worsening of PD symptoms) to pramipexole ER. In L-dopa-treated patients, pramipexole ER and pramipexole IR demonstrated similar efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels. Patients can be safely switched overnight from pramipexole IR to pramipexole ER with no impact on efficacy.

  20. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study of lurasidone for the maintenance of efficacy in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Rajiv; Cucchiaro, Josephine; Phillips, Debra; Hernandez, David; Mao, Yongcai; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of lurasidone as maintenance treatment for schizophrenia. Method: Adults experiencing an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia initially received 12–24 weeks of open-label treatment with lurasidone (40–80 mg/d, flexibly dosed). Patients who maintained clinical stability for ⩾12 weeks were randomized in double-blind fashion to placebo or lurasidone (40–80 mg/d, flexibly dosed) for an additional 28-week treatment period. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to relapse (based on Kaplan–Meier survival analysis). Results: A total of 676 patients enrolled in the open-label phase; 285 met protocol-specified stabilization criteria and were randomized to lurasidone (N=144) or placebo (N=141). During the open-label phase, mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score decreased from 90.1 to 54.4 in patients who met clinical stability criteria and were randomized. In the double-blind phase, lurasidone significantly delayed time to relapse compared with placebo (log-rank test, p=0.039), reflecting a 33.7% reduction in risk of relapse (Cox hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.663 (0.447–0.983); p=0.041). Probability of relapse at the double-blind week 28 endpoint (based on Kaplan–Meier analysis) was 42.2% in the lurasidone group and 51.2% in the placebo group. Minimal changes in weight, lipid, glucose, and prolactin were observed throughout the study. Conclusions: This multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study demonstrated the efficacy of lurasidone for the maintenance treatment of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26645209

  1. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Fibrinogen Concentrate Supplementation After Complex Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, Marco; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Crapelli, Giulia Beatrice; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative bleeding after heart operations is still a common finding, leading to allogeneic blood products transfusion. Fibrinogen and coagulation factors deficiency are possible determinants of bleeding. The experimental hypothesis of this study is that a first-line fibrinogen supplementation avoids the need for fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and reduces the need for any kind of transfusions. Methods and Results This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. One-hundred sixteen patients undergoing heart surgery with an expected cardiopulmonary bypass duration >90 minutes were admitted to the study. Patients in the treatment arm received fibrinogen concentrate after protamine administration; patients in the control arm received saline solution. In case of ongoing bleeding, patients in the treatment arm could receive prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and those in the control arm saline solution. The primary endpoint was avoidance of any allogeneic blood product. Patients in the treatment arm had a significantly lower rate of any allogeneic blood products transfusion (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.84, P=0.015). The total amount of packed red cells and FFP units transfused was significantly lower in the treatment arm. Postoperative bleeding was significantly (P=0.042) less in the treatment arm (median, 300 mL; interquartile range, 200 to 400 mL) than in the control arm (median, 355 mL; interquartile range, 250 to 600 mL). Conclusions Fibrinogen concentrate limits postoperative bleeding after complex heart surgery, leading to a significant reduction in allogeneic blood products transfusions. No safety issues were raised. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01471730. PMID:26037084

  2. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Sertraline for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hantsoo, Liisa; Ward-O’Brien, Deborah; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Price, Lawrence H.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Postpartum depression (PMD) occurs in roughly 10% of postpartum women and negatively impacts the mother and her offspring, but there are few placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant treatment in this population. Objectives To compare the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline to placebo for treating PMD. Methods This was a single-center, 6-week, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sertraline with a one-week placebo lead-in. Participants (n=38) were women with depression onset within 3 months of delivery; a subset (n=27) met strict DSM-IV criteria for PMD (onset within 4 weeks of delivery). Participants were prescribed sertraline 50 mg or placebo daily, to a maximum of 200 mg/day. Primary outcome variables were the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scores, which were used to determine rates of response and remission. Results Sertraline produced a significantly greater response rate (59%) than placebo (26%) and a more than 2-fold increased remission rate (53% vs. 21%). Mixed models did not reveal significant group by time effects, although in the subset of women who met DSM-IV criteria, there was a statistically significant group by time effect for the HAM-D, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and CGI. Conclusions Women with PMD are more likely to have a remission of their depression with sertraline treatment, a finding that is more pronounced in women who have onset of depression within 4 weeks of childbirth. These data support the continued use of 4 weeks for the DSM-5 postpartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder. PMID:24173623

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of rifaximin to prevent travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Herbert L; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Ericsson, Charles D; de la Cabada, Francisco Javier; Ke, Shi; DuPont, Margaret W; Martinez-Sandoval, Francisco

    2005-05-17

    Travelers' diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. To evaluate nonabsorbable rifaximin for prevention of travelers' diarrhea. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Guadalajara, Mexico. U.S. students. On arrival in Guadalajara, Mexico, 210 U.S. adults received rifaximin (200 mg/d, 200 mg twice daily, or 200 mg 3 times daily) or placebo for 2 weeks. Participants were followed daily for 3 weeks for enteric disease and symptoms and daily for 5 weeks for drug side effects. Changes in intestinal coliform flora were studied. Travelers' diarrhea developed in 14.74% of participants taking rifaximin and 53.70% of those taking placebo (rate ratio, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43]). Rifaximin provided 72% and 77% protection against travelers' diarrhea and antibiotic-treated travelers' diarrhea, respectively (P < 0.001 for both), and all rifaximin doses were superior to placebo. In the groups that did not report travelers' diarrhea, rifaximin significantly reduced the occurrence of mild diarrhea (P = 0.02) and moderate and severe intestinal problems (P = 0.009 for pain or cramps; P = 0.02 for excessive gas). Rates of adverse events were comparable in the rifaximin and placebo groups. Minimal changes in coliform flora were found during rifaximin therapy. Rifaximin safely prevented travelers' diarrhea in Mexico, where most cases are caused by diarrhea-producing Escherichia coli. A study is needed in Asia to determine whether rifaximin can prevent diarrhea caused by invasive bacterial pathogens. Rifaximin prevents travelers' diarrhea with minimal changes in fecal flora, and more liberal chemoprophylaxis against this disease should be considered. Future studies should evaluate whether rifaximin is effective in preventing postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

  4. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using lidocaine patch 5% in traumatic rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, Nichole K; Horton, Zachary A; Bettendorf, Matthew; Frye, Ira; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    The lidocaine patch 5% was developed to treat postherpetic neuralgia. Anecdotal experience at our institution suggests the lidocaine patch 5% decreases narcotic usage in patients with traumatic rib fractures. This trial was developed to define the patch's efficacy. Patients with rib fractures admitted to the trauma service at our Level I trauma center were enrolled and randomized in a 1 to 1 double-blind manner to receive a lidocaine patch 5% or placebo patch. Fifty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled from January 2007 to August 2008. Demographic and clinical information were recorded. The primary outcomes variable was total narcotic use, analyzed using the 1-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The secondary outcomes variables included non-narcotic pain medication, average pain score, pulmonary complications, and length of stay. Significance was defined based on a 1-sided test for the primary outcome and 2-sided tests for other comparisons, at p < 0.05. Thirty-three patients received the lidocaine patch 5% and 25 received the placebo patch. There were no significant differences in age, number of rib fractures, gender, trauma mechanism, preinjury lung disease, smoking history, percent of current smokers, and need for placement of chest tube between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups. There was no difference between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups, respectively, with regard to total IV narcotic usage: median, 0.23 units versus 0.26 units; total oral narcotics: median, 4 units versus 7 units; pain score: 5.6 +/- 0.4 versus 6.0 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM); length of stay: 7.8 +/- 1.1 versus 6.2 +/- 0.7; or percentage of patients with pulmonary complications: 72.7% versus 72.0%. The lidocaine patch 5% does not significantly improve pain control in polytrauma patients with traumatic rib fractures.

  5. Esomeprazole treatment of frequent heartburn: two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Peura, David A; Traxler, Barry; Kocun, Christopher; Lind, Tore

    2014-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of a 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg for the treatment of frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications without consulting a health care provider. Adults with frequent heartburn ≥ 2 days per week in the past 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 14-day double-blind treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg once daily or placebo in 2 identical multicenter studies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01370525, NCT01370538). The primary efficacy outcome was percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days across 14 days. Secondary efficacy outcomes included heartburn resolution, defined as heartburn ≤ 2 days over 14 days, and percentages of subjects reporting ≤ 1 day with heartburn in the first and final weeks of treatment. Subjects recorded data in daily self-assessment diaries. The percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days over 14 days was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in subjects receiving esomeprazole 20 mg compared with placebo in study 1 (N = 331; 46.13% vs. 33.07%, respectively) and study 2 (N = 320; 48.00% vs 32.75%, respectively). Significantly more subjects treated with esomeprazole 20 mg had heartburn resolution over 14 days and in the first and final weeks compared with placebo. Within the first 4 days, the proportion of subjects with heartburn-free days was significantly greater with esomeprazole 20 mg versus placebo. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with a safety pattern consistent with the known profile for esomeprazole. A 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg once daily was effective for treating frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications.

  6. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B; Madsen, M R; Vestersgaard-Andersen, T; Lindholt, J S

    2010-10-01

    Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study included 88 patients recruited by surgeons from outpatient clinics. The participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h before each test and then received either a placebo or oral caffeine (6 mg/kg). After 75 min, pain-free and maximal walking distance on a treadmill, perceived pain, reaction times, postural stability, maximal isometric knee extension strength, submaximal knee extension endurance and cognitive function were measured. The analysis was by intention to treat. Caffeine increased the pain-free walking distance by 20.0 (95 per cent confidence interval 3.7 to 38.8) per cent (P = 0.014), maximal walking distance by 26.6 (12.1 to 43.0) per cent (P < 0.001), muscle strength by 9.8 (3.0 to 17.0) per cent (P = 0.005) and endurance by 21.4 (1.2 to 45.7) per cent (P = 0.004). However, postural stability was reduced significantly, by 22.1 (11.7 to 33.4) per cent with eyes open (P < 0.001) and by 21.8 (7.6 to 37.8) per cent with eyes closed (P = 0.002). Neither reaction time nor cognition was affected. In patients with moderate intermittent claudication, caffeine increased walking distance, maximal strength and endurance, but affected balance adversely.

  7. Comparison of two doses of ketoprofen to treat pain: a double-blind, randomized, noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Riou, Bruno; Plaisance, Patrick; Lecomte, François; Soulat, Louis; Orcel, Philippe; Mazoit, Jean-Xavier

    2014-02-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two doses of ketoprofen (200 mg vs. 300 mg/day) in ambulatory emergency patients with pain related to traumatic and nontraumatic bone and joint diseases. We tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the lower dose was not lower than that of the higher dose in a double-blind, randomized, noninferiority trial. Patients included in the study were aged 18-65 years with closed benign trauma of the motor system or acute noninfectious rheumatologic conditions, with a resting pain intensity ≥3/10 on a numeric pain scale (NPS), requiring ketoprofen for 5 days. The main end-point was based on two efficacy co-criteria: (i) mean change from baseline of resting pain intensity at the end of the day over 5 days and (ii) total intake of concomitant analgesics. We included 409 patients: 200 in the 200-mg group and 209 in the 300-mg group. The mean change in pain intensity at rest (difference between groups: 0.0, 95% CI -0.4 to 0.4; P = 1.00) and in analgesic consumption (difference between groups: -0.6, 95% CI -1.9 to 0.6; P = 0.33) was not significantly different between the two groups, and the differences were lower than the predefined inferiority margins (0.5 and 1.5, respectively), thus demonstrating noninferiority. No significant difference was noted in the incidence of adverse events (21% vs. 20%, P = 0.71). The efficacy of the 200-mg daily dose of ketoprofen in relieving pain in emergency cases was not inferior to that of the 300-mg dose.

  8. (Ab)normal saline and physiological Hartmann's solution: a randomized double-blind crossover study.

    PubMed

    Reid, Fiona; Lobo, Dileep N; Williams, Robert N; Rowlands, Brian J; Allison, Simon P

    2003-01-01

    In this double-blind crossover study, the effects of bolus infusions of 0.9% saline (NaCl) and Hartmann's solution on serum albumin, haematocrit and serum and urinary biochemistry were compared in healthy subjects. Nine young adult male volunteers received 2-litre intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline and Hartmann's solution on separate occasions, in random order, each over 1 h. Body weight, haematocrit and serum biochemistry were measured pre-infusion and at 1 h intervals for 6 h. Biochemical analysis was performed on pooled post-infusion urine. Blood and plasma volume expansion, estimated by dilutional effects on haematocrit and serum albumin, were greater and more sustained after saline than after Hartmann's solution (P <0.01). At 6 h, body weight measurements suggested that 56% of the infused saline was retained, in contrast with only 30% of the Hartmann's solution. Subjects voided more urine (median: 1,000 compared with 450 ml) of higher sodium content (median: 122 compared with 73 mmol) after Hartmann's than after saline (both P =0.049), despite the greater sodium content of the latter. The time to first micturition was less after Hartmann's than after saline (median: 70 compared with 185 min; P =0.008). There were no significant differences between the effects of the two solutions on serum sodium, potassium, urea or osmolality. After saline, all subjects developed hyperchloraemia (>105 mmol/l), which was sustained for >6 h, while serum chloride concentrations remained normal after Hartmann's (P <0.001 for difference between infusions). Serum bicarbonate concentration was significantly lower after saline than after Hartmann's (P =0.008). Thus excretion of both water and sodium is slower after a 2-litre intravenous bolus of 0.9% saline than after Hartmann's solution, due possibly to the more physiological [Na(+)]/[Cl(-)] ratio in Hartmann's solution (1.18:1) than in saline (1:1) and to the hyperchloraemia caused by saline.

  9. Probiotics for standard triple Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori.The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration.A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P < 0.001). Additionally, presence and intensity of epigastric pain, bloating, flatulence, taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, rash, and diarrhea were monitored over the study period. At 15 days postinclusion, probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P < 0.001).Adding probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease.

  10. Randomized, Double-blind Study with Glycerol and Paraffin in Uremic Xerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balaskas, Elias; Szepietowski, Jacek C.; Bessis, Didier; Ioannides, Dimitrios; Ponticelli, Claudio; Ghienne, Corinne; Taberly, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Uremic xerosis is a bothersome condition that is poorly responsive to moisturizing and emollient therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A randomized, double-blind, intraindividual (left versus right comparison), multicentric clinical study was performed on 100 patients with moderate to severe uremic xerosis for 7 days, during which the patients applied twice daily an emulsion combining glycerol and paraffin (test product) on one allocated lower leg, and the emulsion alone (comparator) on the other lower leg. This was followed by an open-labeled use of the test product on all of the xerotic areas for 49 days. The main efficacy parameter was treatment response on each lower leg, as defined by a reduction from baseline of at least two grades in a five-point clinical score on day 7. Results Among the 99 patients analyzed, the test product was highly effective with a treatment response in 72 patients (73%), whereas 44 patients (44%) responded to the comparator (P < 0.0001, intergroup analysis). This was associated with an objective reduction in the density and thickness of the scales on day 7 (P < 0.0001 compared with the comparator) and a substantial improvement of the uremic pruritus (75%) and quality of life of the patients at study end (P < 0.001, intragroup analysis). The test product was very well tolerated, with product-related local intolerance (exacerbated pruritus, local burning, or erythema) occurring in only five patients (5%). Conclusions Uremic xerosis can be managed successfully when an appropriate emollient therapy is used. PMID:21258039

  11. Effect of endovenous lidocaine on analgesia and serum cytokines: double-blinded and randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Michele Purper; Godoy, Maria Celoni de Mello; Schlosser, Rochelle Silveira; Ortiz, Rafael Purper; Godoy, Jõao Pedro Mello; Santiago, Eduardo Sagrillo; Rigo, Flávia Karine; Beck, Verônica; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Menezes, Miriam Seligman

    2016-12-01

    This trial aimed to compare postoperative analgesia, opioid consumption, duration of ileus and hospital stay, and cytokine levels in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies who received intravenous lidocaine in comparison with a control group. Prospective, longitudinal, double-blind, and randomized study. Operating room and postoperative recovery area. Forty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients older than 17 years, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, under general anesthesia. The first group received intravenous lidocaine during the procedure until 1 hour postoperatively, whereas the second group received saline. Both groups received dipyrone and morphine patient-controlled analgesia. Pain was assessed by Visual Numeric Scale at rest and when coughing at different times after the end of the surgery. Blood samples were taken at the end of procedure and 24 hours later. The total morphine patient-controlled analgesia demand, the time for the first flatus, and the length of hospital stay were also recorded. Groups were similar in relation to sex (P= .2), age (P= .5), weight (P= .08), and length of surgery (P= .6). No differences were observed regarding the intensity of postoperative pain between the groups, either at rest (P= .76) or when coughing (P= .31), in morphine consumption (P= .9), and in the duration of ileus (P= .5) or length of hospital stay (P= .9). The inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1 (P= .02), IL-6 (P< .01), interferon-γ (P< .01), and tumor necrosis factor α (P< .01) showed significant reduction in the lidocaine group against the placebo group, except IL-10 (P= .01), that, because of its anti-inflammatory effects, increased its concentration. Intravenous lidocaine was not able to reduce postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and duration of ileus or length of hospital stay. However, its anti-inflammatory effect was noticeable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of oxytocin nasal spray in Prader Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Einfeld, Stewart L; Smith, Ellie; McGregor, Iain S; Steinbeck, Kate; Taffe, John; Rice, Lauren J; Horstead, Siân K; Rogers, Naomi; Hodge, M Antoinette; Guastella, Adam J

    2014-09-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a significant reduction in the number of oxytocin-producing neurons (42%) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. A number of animal studies and observations of humans show that lesions in this region can produce PWS-like symptoms. Given the evidence for potential oxytocin deficiency, we tested the effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on PWS symptoms. Thirty individuals with PWS aged 12-30 years participated in an 18-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants received 8 weeks of oxytocin and 8 weeks of placebo with a minimum 2-week washout period. The first 11 participants received the following oxytocin doses: 24 IU (twice daily) B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 18 IU B.I.D for participants 13-15 years. The dose was increased for the remaining 18 participants to 40 IU B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 32 IU B.I.D for 13-15 years. Measures used to assess changes were standardized well-accepted measures, including the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Monitor, Parent, Teacher, and Adult; The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; The Dykens Hyperphagia questionnaire; Reading The Mind in the Eyes Test; Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Movie Stills. Oxytocin had little impact on any measure. The only significant difference found between the baseline, oxytocin, and placebo measures was an increase in temper outbursts (P = 0.023) with higher dose oxytocin. The lack of effect of oxytocin nasal spray may reflect the importance of endogenous release of oxytocin in response to exogenous oxytocin.

  13. Use of probiotics in HIV-infected children: a randomized double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Trois, Lívia; Cardoso, Edmundo Machado; Miura, Ernani

    2008-02-01

    HIV/AIDS is an infection characterized by immune cell dysfunction and subsequent immunodeficiency, as well as intestinal disorder. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements that beneficially affect the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance and promoting health benefits. The goals of this study were to determine whether the use of probiotics could improve the immune response determined by CD4 cells mm(-3) counts and reduce liquid stool episodes. A randomized double-blind controlled trial with 77 HIV-infected children (2-12 years), divided into two groups: one receiving probiotics (formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum with Streptococcus thermophilus -2.5 x 10(10) colony forming units) and the other, a standard formula (control group), for 2 months. The CD4 counts (cells mm(-3)) were collected at the beginning and end of the study. The quality and number of stools were assessed by a questionnaire (watery to normal stool consistency). There was an increase in the mean CD4 count in the probiotics group (791 cells mm(-3)) and a small decrease in the control group (538 cells mm(-3)). The change from baseline in mean CD4 cell count was +118 cells mm(-3) vs. -42 cells mm(-3) for children receiving the probiotic formula and control formula, respectively (p = 0.049). A similar reduction in liquid stool consistency in both the groups (p < 0.06), with a slight enhancement in the probiotics group, was observed, but without significant difference (p < 0.522). The incidence of loose-soft stools showed a small decrease in both groups (p < 0.955) and there was an increase in the incidence of normal stool consistency in both the groups (p < 0.01). Our study showed that probiotics have immunostimulatory properties and might be helpful in the treatment of HIV-infected children.

  14. Tolerability of long-term prophylaxis with fansidar: a randomized double-blind study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Stemberger, H; Leimer, R; Wiedermann, G

    1984-12-01

    A randomized double-blind study was performed to compare the side effects of long-term chemoprophylaxis of malaria with Fansidar (1 tablet a week) with those of a 300-mg weekly chloroquine regimen. This study was designed as a field trial with Austrian industrial workers in Nigeria and included 173 volunteers, 86 taking Fansidar and 87 taking chloroquine for 6 to 22 months. Only a few complaints were reported during that time, gastrointestinal disorders predominating in the Fansidar group and insomnia in the chloroquine group (3 cases each). The other complaints in both groups included one case each of skin rash and of visual disturbance, as well as one case of facial erythema after alcohol consumption in the Fansidar group and one of hair loss in the chloroquine group. Laboratory checks were performed at 3-monthly intervals, and included white and red cell counts, platelet counts and determination of GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase. There were no signs of drug-associated liver damage. In the Fansidar group there occurred a slight and transient decrease in the red cell count and in the chloroquine group a slight and transient decrease in the white cell count. Although statistically significant, these changes were without clinical significance. It is noteworthy that there were no cases of leucopenia in the Fansidar group. With the exception of one volunteer, who had discontinued his prophylactic drug regimen, malaria did not occur. Antibodies against blood stage parasites as determined by the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), however, could be found at different stages of the study, which indicates that these two antimalarials are not causal prophylactic agents.

  15. Mifepristone versus placebo to treat uterine myoma: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Josep Lluis Carbonell; Acosta, Rita; Pérez, Yasmirian; Rodriguez, Barbara; Seigler, Isabel; Sanchez, Carlos; Tomasi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and quality of life of 5 mg mifepristone per day compared with a placebo in treating uterine fibroids. Design Randomized, double-blind clinical study. Location Eusebio Hernández Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital, Havana, Cuba. Subjects One hundred twenty-four subjects with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Treatment One daily capsule of 5 mg mifepristone or a mifepristone placebo over 3 months. Variables in evaluating safety Changes in fibroid and uterine volumes, changes in symptom prevalence and intensity, and changes in quality of life. Results Three months into treatment, fibroid volume was reduced by 28.5% in the mifepristone group with an increase of 1.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.031). There were significant differences between the groups with respect to pelvic pain prevalence (P = 0.006), pelvic pressure (P = 0.027), rectal pain (P = 0.013), hypermenorrhea (P < 0.001), and metrorrhagia (P = 0.002) at the end of treatment. Amenorrhea was 93.1% and 4.3% in the mifepristone and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Treatment side effects were significantly greater in the mifepristone group. Estradiol levels did not differ significantly between the placebo and mifepristone groups at the end of treatment. Improvement in quality of life was significantly greater in the categories of “symptoms” (P = 0.004) and “activity” (P = 0.045) in the mifepristone group. Conclusion The 5 mg dosage of mifepristone presented significantly superior efficacy compared to the placebo. PMID:23843709

  16. Randomized double-blind comparison of cognitive and EEG effects of lacosamide and carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Loring, David W; Boyd, Alan; Echauz, Javier; LaRoche, Suzette; Velez-Ruiz, Naymee; Korb, Pearce; Byrnes, William; Dilley, Deanne; Borghs, Simon; De Backer, Marc; Story, Tyler; Dedeken, Peter; Webster, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Differential effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is more commonly determined by tolerability than efficacy. Cognitive effects of AEDs can adversely affect tolerability and quality of life. This study evaluated cognitive and EEG effects of lacosamide (LCM) compared with carbamazepine immediate-release (CBZ-IR). A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, two-period crossover, fixed-dose study in healthy subjects compared neuropsychological and EEG effects of LCM (150mg, b.i.d.) and CBZ-IR (200mg, t.i.d.). Testing was conducted at screening, predrug baseline, the end of each treatment period (3-week titration; 3-week maintenance), and the end of each washout period (4weeks after treatment). A composite Z-score was derived for the primary outcome variable (computerized cognitive tests and traditional neuropsychological measures) and separately for the EEG measures. Other variables included individual computer, neuropsychological, and EEG scores and adverse events (AEs). Subjects included 60 healthy adults (57% female; mean age: 34.4years [SD: 10.5]); 44 completed both treatments; 41 were per protocol subjects. Carbamazepine immediate-release had worse scores compared with LCM for the primary composite neuropsychological outcome (mean difference=0.33 [SD: 1.36], p=0.011) and for the composite EEG score (mean difference=0.92 [SD: 1.77], p=0.003). Secondary analyses across the individual variables revealed that CBZ-IR was statistically worse than LCM on 36% (4/11) of the neuropsychological tests (computerized and noncomputerized) and 0% of the four EEG measures; none favored CBZ-IR. Drug-related AEs occurred more with CBZ-IR (49%) than LCM (22%). Lacosamide had fewer untoward neuropsychological and EEG effects and fewer AEs and AE-related discontinuations than CBZ-IR in healthy subjects. Lacosamide exhibits a favorable cognitive profile.

  17. Topical symphytum herb concentrate cream against myalgia: a randomized controlled double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horàcek, Ondrej; Kàlal, Jan; Kucera, Alexander; Hladìkova, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness and tolerability of the topical Symphytum product Traumaplant (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested against a 1% reference product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n=111). The primary efficacy parameter in this double-blind, reference- controlled, randomized, multicenter study of 215 patients with pain in the lower and upper back was pain in motion, assessed with the aid of a visual analogue scale. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain at rest, pain on palpation, and functional impairment. With high concentrations of the treatment product, amelioration of pain on active motion (P<5 x 10 -9 ), pain at rest (P<.001), and pain on palpation (P=5 x 10 -5 ) was significantly more pronounced than that attained with the reference product and was clinically highly relevant. A number needed to treat of 3.2 was calculated from the study results. Global efficacy was significantly better (P=1 x 10 -8 ) and onset of effects was faster (P=4 x 10 -7 ) with the high-concentration product. Tolerability of the highly concentrated study product was good to excellent in all patients. Study results confirm the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical (Symphytum cream. As a new finding, applicability in certain forms of back pain can be concluded.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pridopidine in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    We examined the effects of 3 dosages of pridopidine, a dopamine-stabilizing compound, on motor function and other features of Huntington's disease, with additional evaluation of its safety and tolerability. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in outpatient neurology clinics at 27 sites in the United States and Canada. Two hundred twenty-seven subjects enrolled from October 24, 2009, to May 10, 2010. The intervention was pridopidine, either 20 (n=56), 45 (n=55), or 90 (n=58) mg daily for 12 weeks or matching placebo (n=58). The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline to week 12 in the Modified Motor Score, a subset of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score. Measures of safety and tolerability included adverse events and trial completion on the assigned dosage. After 12 weeks, the treatment effect (relative to placebo, where negative values indicate improvement) of pridopidine 90 mg/day on the Modified Motor Score was -1.2 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.5 to 0.1 points; P = .08). The effect on the Total Motor Score was -2.8 points (95% CI, -5.4 to -0.1 points; nominal P = .04). No significant effects were seen in secondary outcome measures with any of the active dosages. Pridopidine was generally well tolerated. Although the primary analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant treatment effect, the overall results suggest that pridopidine may improve motor function in Huntington's disease. The 90 mg/day dosage appears worthy of further study. Pridopidine was well tolerated.

  19. Effect of steroids for nasal polyposis surgery: A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Ecevit, Mustafa Cenk; Erdag, Taner Kemal; Dogan, Ersoy; Sutay, Semih

    2015-09-01

    Although medical intervention is the first option for treatment of nasal polyps, surgery is still a therapeutic option for symptomatic cases that do not respond or partially respond to medical intervention. However, there is a need for high-level evidence for the preoperative use of steroids in nasal polyposis surgery. We aimed to assess the perioperative effect of preoperative use of oral prednisolone for advanced-stage diffuse nasal polyposis. Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated for smell, nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, facial pressure, headache, butanol smell threshold, and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) before and after the use of study drug. Perioperative bleeding volume, visibility of operative field, operative time, hospital stay, and complication rate were also evaluated. The improvement in the corticosteroid group (CG) in the VAS scores, butanol thresholds, and PNIF values showed statistically significant differences compared to the placebo group (PG) (P < .05). The perioperative bleeding volume, visibility score, operative time, and hospital stay for CG/PG were 141 mL/384 mL, 2.4/3.4, 61 min/71.6 min, and 1.1 day/1.8 day, respectively (P < .05). The difference between the complication rates for the two groups did not show any statistically significant difference (P = .214). Preoperative administration of systemic corticosteroids improves the perioperative visibility by reducing blood loss and shortens the operation time. We recommend the use of preoperative corticosteroid for the safety of the patients. The optimum dose and duration have not been established and require further studies. 1b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Metoclopramide for Hypersalivation Associated With Clozapine.

    PubMed

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Miodownik, Chanoch; Mirkin, Vitaly; Gaiduk, Yulia; Yankovsky, Yan; Bersudsky, Yuly; Lerner, Paul P; Bergman, Joseph; Lerner, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Hypersalivation is a frequent, disturbing, and uncomfortable adverse effect of clozapine therapy that frequently leads to noncompliance. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of metoclopramide (dopamine D2 antagonist, antiemetic medication) as an option for management of hypersalivation associated with clozapine (HAC). A 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in university-based research clinics from January 2012 to May 2014, on 58 inpatients treated with clozapine who were experiencing hypersalivation. The subjects were randomly divided into placebo and metoclopramide groups. The starting dose was 10 mg/d. Participants who did not respond were up-titrated 10 mg/d weekly to a total of 30 mg/d during the third week. The number of placebo capsules was increased accordingly up to 3 capsules per day. Primary outcome was the change from baseline to the end of study in the severity of hypersalivation as measured with the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and the Drooling Severity Scale. Secondary outcomes included Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale and adverse effect scales. Significant improvement on the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale was demonstrated in the metoclopramide group from the end of the second week (P < 0.004), and on the Drooling Severity Scale (P < 0.02) in the third week. Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale scores revealed major improvement. Twenty subjects (66.7%) treated with metoclopramide reported significant decline or total disappearance of HAC in comparison to 8 patients (28.6%) who received placebo (P = 0.031). No adverse effects to metoclopramide were reported. Metoclopramide was found to be safe and effective for the treatment of HAC.

  1. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05). Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) and body temperature did not change. Conclusion This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition. PMID:27980393

  2. Modest heterologous protection after Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite immunization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Walk, Jona; Reuling, Isaie J; Behet, Marije C; Meerstein-Kessel, Lisette; Graumans, Wouter; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Siebelink-Stoter, Rianne; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Janssen, Thorsten; Teelen, Karina; de Wilt, Johannes H W; de Mast, Quirijn; van der Ven, André J; Diez Benavente, Ernest; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G; Huynen, Martijn A; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Bijker, Else M; Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2017-09-13

    A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135.C10 and NF166.C8 clones. Cellular and humoral immune assays were performed as well as genetic characterization of the parasite clones. NF54-CPS immunization induced complete protection in 5/5 volunteers against NF54 challenge infection at 14 weeks post-immunization, but sterilely protected only 2/10 and 1/9 volunteers against NF135.C10 and NF166.C8 challenge infection, respectively. Post-immunization plasma showed a significantly lower capacity to block heterologous parasite development in primary human hepatocytes compared to NF54. Whole genome sequencing showed that NF135.C10 and NF166.C8 have amino acid changes in multiple antigens targeted by CPS-induced antibodies. Volunteers protected against heterologous challenge were among the stronger immune responders to in vitro parasite stimulation. Although highly protective against homologous parasites, NF54-CPS-induced immunity is less effective against heterologous parasite clones both in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that whole sporozoite-based vaccine approaches require more potent immune responses for heterologous protection. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov, under identifier NCT02098590 .

  3. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05). Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) and body temperature did not change. This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition.

  4. [Different inhaler devices in acute asthma attacks: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study].

    PubMed

    Chong Neto, Herberto J; Chong-Silva, Débora C; Marani, Daniele M; Kuroda, Flávia; Olandosky, Márcia; Noronha, Lúcia de

    2005-01-01

    To verify the efficacy, side effects, and cost of treatment of acute asthma attacks, using different inhaler devices. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Salbutamol was administered via a nebulizer, a metered-dose inhaler (attached to a commercially available spacer device), a homemade non-valved spacer device, or a dry powder inhaler. Assessments were made at zero, 20, 40 and 60 minutes, followed by the application of salbutamol and placebo with another device. Forty children (mean age of 11+/-3.5 years) with acute asthma attacks, were evaluated. Clinical score, forced expiratory volume in one second and side effects were analyzed. The costs for medication and spacer devices were calculated. There is no difference between groups regarding clinical score and variation of forced expiratory volume in one second. There was a major variation in the heart rate response to the nebulizer (35%) compared to the commercially available spacer and dry powder inhaler (15 and 17%) and between the homemade spacer and the commercially available spacer (28 and 15%) (p = 0.004). The nebulizer and homemade spacer caused more tremor (p = 0.02). The cost of treatment was higher for the nebulizer and commercially available spacer (p = 0.0001). The nebulizer was more expensive and used more medicine, showing the same efficiency. The homemade spacer was cheaper, but presented more side effects. The commercially available spacer was as expensive as the nebulizer, although safer. The dry powder inhaler was cheaper, but, just as the homemade spacer, it also caused tachycardia.

  5. Effects of cooking plant oils on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Kei; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Sawazaki, Shigeki

    2006-05-01

    One-third of the total population seems to develop minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) during their lifetime. However, well-controlled dietary intervention studies to prevent minor RAS are very rare. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the prevalence of RAS decreased with perilla oil (rich in alpha-linolenic acid). Thirty subjects (8 men and 22 women) who had minor RAS at least once a month were randomly allocated to a soybean oil group or a perilla oil group in a double-blind manner (experimental phase) after a run-in phase of 4 mo during which subjects used a reference oil, the most popular cooking oil in Japan, or a 50/50 mixture of soybean oil and rapeseed oil. During the experimental phase, subjects were asked to use soybean oil or perilla oil as the sole cooking oil for 8 mo. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of the experimental phase for fatty acid analysis of total plasma phospholipid fraction. Occurrence and needed days for healing of minor RAS were recorded during the two phases and compared. alpha-Linolenic acid concentrations in the plasma phospholipid fraction increased significantly in both groups during the experimental phase to a similar extent. The prevalence of minor RAS in the experimental phase decreased significantly in both groups compared with the run-in phase to a similar extent, without intergroup differences. Perilla oil, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid, was not superior to soybean oil in preventing minor RAS. There was a possibility that avoiding rapeseed oil might be beneficial for prevention of minor RAS.

  6. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of rifaximin in patients with abdominal bloating and flatulence.

    PubMed

    Sharara, Ala I; Aoun, Elie; Abdul-Baki, Heitham; Mounzer, Rawad; Sidani, Shafik; Elhajj, Ihab

    2006-02-01

    To study the efficacy of rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic, in relieving chronic functional symptoms of bloating and flatulence. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial consisting of three 10-day phases: baseline (phase 1), treatment with rifaximin 400 mg b.i.d. or placebo (phase 2), and post-treatment period (phase 3). Primary efficacy variable was subjective global symptom relief at the end of each phase. A symptom score was calculated from a symptom diary. Lactulose H2-breath test (LHBT) was performed at baseline and end of study. One hundred and twenty-four patients were enrolled (63 rifaximin and 61 placebo). Baseline characteristics were comparable and none had an abnormal baseline LHBT. Rome II criteria were met in 58.7% and 54.1%, respectively. At the end of phase 2, there was a significant difference in global symptom relief with rifaximin versus placebo (41.3% vs 22.9%, p = 0.03). This improvement was maintained at the end of phase 3 (28.6% vs 11.5%, p = 0.02). Mean cumulative and bloating-specific scores dropped significantly in the rifaximin group (p < 0.05). Among patients with IBS, a favorable response to rifaximin was noted (40.5% vs 18.2%; p = 0.04) persisting by the end of phase 3 (27% vs 9.1%; p = 0.05). H2-breath excretion dropped significantly among rifaximin responders and correlated with improvement in bloating and overall symptom scores (p = 0.01). No adverse events were reported. Rifaximin is a safe and effective treatment for abdominal bloating and flatulence, including in IBS patients. Symptom improvement correlates with reduction in H2-breath excretion. Future trials are needed to examine the efficacy of long-term or cyclic rifaximin in functional colonic disorders.

  7. A double-blind randomized study of cisapride in the treatment of nonulcer dyspepsia. The Canadian Cisapride Nud Study Group.

    PubMed

    Champion, M C; MacCannell, K L; Thomson, A B; Tanton, R; Eberhard, S; Sullivan, S N; Archambault, A

    1997-03-01

    Cisapride is a substituted benzamide with gastrointestinal prokinetic effects presumed to be due to the enhancement of the physiological release of acetylcholine at the myenteric plexus. In a multicentre study, 189 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) received single-blind placebo treatment for two weeks. A total of 123 patients with no or minimal response to placebo and epigastric pain of at least moderate severity and frequency were randomly assigned to one of the three parallel double-blind treatments for six weeks: cisapride 10 mg tid, cisapride 20 mg tid or placebo. The severity and frequency of individual symptoms (epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting anorexia, postprandial discomfort, regurgitation, lower abdominal pain, bloating and constipation) were assessed on a four- and five-point categorical scale, respectively, by the investigator at three on treatment visits and by patients in a daily diary. Analysis of investigator and patient assessments for differences in symptom severity x frequency composite scores among the three treatment groups showed no statistically significant differences for individual symptoms or symptom clusters. As assessed by the investigator, and compared with baseline, cisapride 20 mg tid significantly (P < 0.05) improved epigastric pain, bloating and early satiety as well as improved the total symptom cluster. Investigator evaluation of the five most severe and frequent symptoms for each patient showed statistically significant improvement in each treatment group. For patient diary assessments, statistically significant within-treatment improvement of the total symptom cluster, the five most severe symptoms cluster, bloating and early satiety was observed for both cisapride 20 mg and placebo, whereas epigastric pain significantly (P < 0.05) improved in all three treatment groups. Investigator evaluation of global response (good+excellent) rate at the end of the six week treatment period was 38% for cisapride 20 mg, 47

  8. Progesterone and Postpartum Smoking Relapse: A Pilot Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sharon S; Allen, Alicia M; Lunos, Scott; Tosun, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a strong motivator to quit smoking, yet postpartum relapse rates are high. Growing evidence suggests a role of sex hormones in drug abuse behavior and given the precipitous drop in sex hormones at delivery, they may play a role in postpartum relapse. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility and potential role of exogenous progesterone in postpartum smoking relapse. This 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial randomized 46 abstinent postpartum women to active progesterone (PRO; 200mg twice a day) versus placebo (PBO) for 4 weeks. Participants were followed for relapse for 12 weeks. Main study outcomes include abstinence (point prevalence), feasibility (compliance per number of clinic visits attended, pill counts and Electronic Data Capture [EDC] completed) and self-reported acceptability. Safety was also measured by depressive symptom scores, adverse events, and breastfeeding. Overall retention rate was 87% at week 12. At week 4, abstinence rates were 75% in the PRO group and 68.2% in the PBO group (p = .75). Medication adherence was 68% and clinic visit attendance was 80%, with no differences by randomization. Depressive symptom scores, adverse events, and breastfeeding did not vary by randomization. Although the study was not powered to evaluate abstinence rates, we did observe a higher prevalence of abstinence at week 4 in the PRO group. Further, exogenous progesterone was well tolerated and did not adversely affect depressive symptoms or breastfeeding. Thus, the results of this pilot study indicate further investigation into progesterone as a postpartum relapse prevention strategy is warranted. This innovative pilot trial determined the feasibility of delivering exogenous progesterone as a potential prevention of postpartum smoking relapse. We observed high retention and moderate adherence rates, as well as high acceptability among participants. Further, though not statistically significant, more women in the treatment

  9. Bromelain and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes: An exploratory randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ley, Chit Moy; Ni, Qing; Liao, Xing; Gao, Huai-Lin; Robinson, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    To assess whether the dietary supplement (bromelain) has the potential to reduce plasma fibrinogen and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with diabetes. This randomized placebo controlled, double blind, parallel design, efficacy study was carried out in China and investigated the effect of 12 weeks of bromelain (1,050 mg/day) on plasma fibrinogen. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) recruited 68 Chinese diabetic patients [32 males and 36 females; Han origin, mean age of 61.26 years (standard deviation (SD), 12.62 years)] with at least one CVD risk factor. Patients were randomized into either bromelain or placebo group. While bromelain group received bromelain capsule, the placebo group received placebo capsule which consisted inert ingredient and has no treatment effect. Subjects were required to take 1,050 mg (3×350 mg) of either bromelain or starch-filled placebo capsules, two to be taken (2×350 mg) after breakfast and another (350 mg) after dinner, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma fibrinogen, CVD risk factors and anthropometric indicators were determined at baseline and at 12 weeks. The change in the fibrinogen level in the bromelain group at the end of the study showed a mean reduction of 0.13 g/L (standard deviation (SD) 0.86g/L) compared with the mean reduction of 0.36 g/L (SD 0.96 g/L) for the placebo group. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in fibrinogen between the placebo and bromelain groups (mean difference=0.23g/L (SD 0.22 g/L), =0.291). Similarly, the difference in mean change in other CVD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure), blood glucose, C-reactive protein and anthropometric measures between the bromelain and placebo groups was also not statistically significant. Statistical differences in fibrinogen between bromelain and placebo groups before the trial despite randomization may have influenced the results of this study. This RCT failed to show a beneficial effect in reducing fibrinogen

  10. Tribulus terrestris versus placebo in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A prospective, randomized, double blind study.

    PubMed

    Santos, C A; Reis, L O; Destro-Saade, R; Luiza-Reis, A; Fregonesi, A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris herbal medicine in the erectile dysfunction treatment and to quantify its potential impact on serum testosterone levels. Prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study including thirty healthy men selected from 100 patients who presented themselves spontaneously complaining of erectile dysfunction, ≥ 40 years of age, nonsmokers, not undergoing treatment for prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction, no dyslipidemia, no phosphodiesterase inhibitor use, no hormonal manipulation and, if present hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus should be controlled. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and serum testosterone were obtained before randomization and after 30 days of study. Patients were randomized into two groups of fifteen subjects each. The study group received 800 mg of Tribulus terrestris, divided into two doses per day for thirty days and the control group received placebo administered in the same way. The groups were statistically equivalent in all aspects evaluated. The mean (SD) age was 60 (9.4) and 62.9 (7.9), P = .36 for intervention and placebo groups, respectively. Before treatment, the intervention group showed mean IIEF-5 of 13.2 (5-21) and mean total testosterone 417.1 ng/dl (270.7-548.4 ng/dl); the placebo group showed mean IIEF-5 of 11.6 (6-21) and mean total