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Sample records for range particle irradiation

  1. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  2. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  3. Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-07-01

    Laser ablation of surfaces normally produce high temperature plasmas that are difficult to control. By irradiating small particles in the gas phase, we can better control the size and concentration of the resulting particles when different materials are photofragmented. Here, we irradiate soot with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. Irradiating the original agglomerated particles at fluences ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 J/cm{sup 2} with repetition rates of 20 and 100 Hz produces a large number of small, unagglomerated particles, and a smaller number of spherical agglomerated particles. Mean particle diameters from 20 to 50 nm are produced from soot originally having a mean electric mobility diameter of 265nm. We use a non-dimensional parameter, called the photon/atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding the photofragmentation process. This parameter is the ratio of the number of photons striking the soot particles to the number of the carbon atoms contained in the soot particles, and is a better metric than the laser fluence for analyzing laser-particle interactions. These results suggest that UV photofragmentation can be effective in controlling particle size and morphology, and can be a useful diagnostic for studying elements of the laser ablation process.

  4. A practical alpha particle irradiator for studying internal alpha particle exposure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Man; Lee, Ui-Seob; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    An alpha particle irradiator has been built in the Radiation Bioengineering Laboratory at Seoul National University (SNU) to investigate the cellular responses to alpha emissions from radon and the progeny. This irradiator is designed to have the energy of alpha particles entering target cells similar to that of alpha emissions from the radon progeny Po-218 and Po-214 residing in the human respiratory tract. For the SNU alpha particle irradiator, an irradiation system is equipped with cell dishes of 4µm thick Mylar bottom and a special setup of cells on slide for gamma-H2AX assay. Dose calibration for the alpha particle irradiator was performed by dual approaches, detection and computer simulation, in consideration of the source-to-target distance (STD) and the size of a cell dish. The uniformity of dose among cells in a dish is achieved by keeping the STD and the size of cell dish in certain ranges. The performance of the SNU alpha particle irradiator has been proven to be reliable through the gamma-H2AX assay with the human lung epithelial cells irradiated. PMID:27475622

  5. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  6. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3×105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  7. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  8. Charge collection studies in irradiated HV-CMOS particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Andelković, M.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Cindro, V.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Gorišek, A.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, G.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; McMahon, S.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-04-01

    Charge collection properties of particle detectors made in HV-CMOS technology were investigated before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons. Two different sensor types were designed and processed in 180 and 350 nm technology by AMS. Edge-TCT and charge collection measurements with electrons from 90Sr source were employed. Diffusion of generated carriers from undepleted substrate contributes significantly to the charge collection before irradiation, while after irradiation the drift contribution prevails as shown by charge measurements at different shaping times. The depleted region at a given bias voltage was found to grow with irradiation in the fluence range of interest for strip detectors at the HL-LHC. This leads to large gains in the measured charge with respect to the one before irradiation. The increase of the depleted region was attributed to removal of effective acceptors. The evolution of depleted region with fluence was investigated and modeled. Initial studies show a small effect of short term annealing on charge collection.

  9. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-31

    Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the

  10. Dosimetric Analyses of Single Particle Microbeam in Cell Irradiation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong Jian; Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Lianyun; Zhan, Furu; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-12-01

    Single particle microbeam (SPM) is uniquely capable of delivering precisely the predefined number of charged particles to determined individual cells or sub-cellular targets in situ. It has been recognized as a powerful technique for unveiling ionization irradiation mechanisms of organism. This article describes some investigations on the irradiation quality of SPM of major world laboratories by means of Monte Carlo method based on dosimetry and microdosimetry. Those parameters are helpful not only to improve SPM irradiating cell experiments but also to study the biological effects of cells irradiated by SPM.

  11. Instability of nanoscale metallic particles under electron irradiation in TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. Y.; Zhang, S. G.; Xia, M. X.; Li, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    The stability of nano metallic glass under electron beam in transmission electron microscope (TEM) was investigated. The most common voltage of TEM used in metallic materials characterization was either 200 kV or 300 kV. Both situations were investigated in this work. An amorphous metallic particle with a dimension of a few hundred nanometers was tested under 300 keV electron irradiation. New phase decomposed from the parent phase was observed. Moreover, a crystal particle with the same composition and dimension was tested under 200 keV irradiation. Decomposition process also occurred in this situation. Besides, crystal orientation modification was observed during irradiation. These results proved that the electron beam in TEM have an effect on the stability of nanoscale samples during long time irradiation. Atomic displacement was induced and diffusion was enhanced by electron irradiation. Thus, artifacts would be induced when a nanoscale metallic sample was characterized in TEM.

  12. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  13. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  14. Detectability of active triangulation range finder: a solar irradiance approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng

    2016-06-27

    Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate.

  15. Detectability of active triangulation range finder: a solar irradiance approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng

    2016-06-27

    Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate. PMID:27410637

  16. Development of a focused charged particle microbeam for the irradiation of individual cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberet, Ph.; Balana, A.; Incerti, S.; Michelet-Habchi, C.; Moretto, Ph.; Pouthier, Th.

    2005-01-01

    An irradiation facility, able to expose cellular and subcellular targets to a precise number of particles, has been developed at CENBG for applications in radiobiology. The development of this facility was based on an existing horizontal focused microbeam developed in the early 90's for material analysis. The focusing properties of the line allow the delivering of proton or alpha particle beams in the 1-3.5MeV energy range with a spatial resolution down to about 1μm under vacuum. For irradiation of living cells, a removable stage has been developed to extract the beam into air while preserving the analytical capabilities of the microbeam line under vacuum. This stage includes a high resolution epifluorescence microscope for online visualization of the cells and a motorized stage for cell positioning. Single particle control is ensured by a fast electrostatic deflector triggered by the signal induced by the particles through a transmission detector just before reaching the target. A dedicated software, based on an object-oriented architecture, has been designed to control the entire experiment. This includes semiautomatic calibration procedures (necessary to achieve the micron precision) and semiautomatic irradiation procedures used for targeting a large number of individual cells. In air irradiation of solid track detectors has permitted us to estimate that 99.5% of the particles are delivered on the target at a distance lower than 5μm from the beam center when an alpha particles beam is used. The targeting precision of the overall irradiation procedure, which reflects the alignment precision of the beam center with the target center, has been estimated to be within ±2μm. First experiments involving cells in culture have permitted to estimate an irradiation rate of 2000 cells per hour. This article presents the overall experimental facility and the tests performed for its validation for the irradiation of individual cells in their culture medium.

  17. Comparison of heavy particle with X-irradiation on the hamster lung.

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, K. H.; Leith, J. T.; Powers-Risius, P.; Havens, V.; Lyman, J. T.; Howard, J.; Tobias, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Important new modalities for cancer therapy are being developed, and one of the most promising is heavy charged particle irradiation. We are currently assessing the effects of 375-MeV/nucleon neon irradiation in the plateau region of ionization compared to 230KVp X-rays on the whole thorax of hamsters. Single dose levels for neon irradiation ranged from 150-1000 rad. Dose levels for X-irradiation ranged from 225-1500 rad. The animals were followed for 1 year after irradiation, and the most useful results emerged, using morphometric methods. One year after irradiation, pulmonary parenchyma and nonparenchyma appear morphometrically unchanged. However, the volume density of pulmonary septums, septal cells, all tissue, connective tissue, and alveolar Type II cells was increased while the volume densities of alveoli, empty alveolar space, and capillary lumens were diminished. Most of these changes were dose dependent not clearly demonstrable until a year after irradiation. The relative biologic effect of neon compared to X-irradiation using this techniques is 1.6-1.8. PMID:453334

  18. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-03-12

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

  19. Particle characteristics of different materials after ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Joerg; Schelle, Florian; Kowalczyk, Philip; Frentzen, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The exposition of nanoparticles caused by laser application in dental health care is an open discussion. Based on the fact that nanoparticles can penetrate through the mucosa, the knowledge about particle characteristics after irradiation with an USPL is of high importance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the particle characteristics, especially the size of the ablated debris after USPL irradiation. The irradiation was carried out with an USP Nd:YVO4 laser with a center wavelength of 1064 nm. Based on the pulse duration of 8 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 500 kHz the laser emits an average power of 9 W. The materials investigated were dental tissues and dental restorative materials (composite and amalgam), ceramic and different metals (gold and aluminium). The samples were irradiated with a power density in the order of 300 GW/cm2 at distances of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm. The debris was collected on an object plate. SEM pictures were used for analysis of the ablation debris. Depending on the irradiated material, we observed different kinds of structures: vitreous, flocculent, and pellet-like. The mean particle sizes were 10 x 10 up to 30 x 30 μm2. In addition, a cluster of ablated matter (nanometer range) distributed over the whole irradiated area was found. With increasing distances the cluster structure reduced from multi-layer to mono-layer clusters. Particle sizes in the micrometer and nanometer range were found after irradiation with an USPL. The nanoparticles create a cluster structure which is influenced by increasing distances.

  20. Understanding and simulating the material behavior during multi-particle irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Anamul H.; Toulemonde, M.; Jegou, C.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bouffard, S.; Peuget, S.

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have suggested that the irradiation behavior and damage processes occurring during sequential and simultaneous particle irradiations can significantly differ. Currently, there is no definite answer as to why and when such differences are seen. Additionally, the conventional multi-particle irradiation facilities cannot correctly reproduce the complex irradiation scenarios experienced in a number of environments like space and nuclear reactors. Therefore, a better understanding of multi-particle irradiation problems and possible alternatives are needed. This study shows ionization induced thermal spike and defect recovery during sequential and simultaneous ion irradiation of amorphous silica. The simultaneous irradiation scenario is shown to be equivalent to multiple small sequential irradiation scenarios containing latent damage formation and recovery mechanisms. The results highlight the absence of any new damage mechanism and time-space correlation between various damage events during simultaneous irradiation of amorphous silica. This offers a new and convenient way to simulate and understand complex multi-particle irradiation problems.

  1. Fission product Pd-SiC interaction in irradiated coated particle fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1980-04-01

    Silicon carbide is the main barrier to fission product release from coated particle fuels. Consequently, degradation of the SiC must be minimized. Electron microprobe analysis has identified that palladium causes corrosion of the SiC in irradiated coated particles. Further ceramographic and electron microprobe examinations on irradiated particles with kernels ranging in composition from UO/sub 2/ to UC/sub 2/, including PuO/sub 2 -x/ and mixed (Th, Pu) oxides, and in enrichment from 0.7 to 93.0% /sup 235/U revealed that temperature is the major factor affecting the penetration rate of SiC by Pd. The effects of kernel composition, Pd concentration, other fission products, and SiC properties are secondary.

  2. Long-range attraction of particles adhered to lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric R

    2016-07-01

    Many biological systems fold thin sheets of lipid membrane into complex three-dimensional structures. This microscopic origami is often mediated by the adsorption and self-assembly of proteins on a membrane. As a model system to study adsorption-mediated interactions, we study the collective behavior of micrometric particles adhered to a lipid vesicle. We estimate the colloidal interactions using a maximum likelihood analysis of particle trajectories. When the particles are highly wrapped by a tense membrane, we observe strong long-range attractions with a typical binding energy of 150k_{B}T and significant forces extending a few microns. PMID:27575176

  3. Long-range attraction of particles adhered to lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2016-07-01

    Many biological systems fold thin sheets of lipid membrane into complex three-dimensional structures. This microscopic origami is often mediated by the adsorption and self-assembly of proteins on a membrane. As a model system to study adsorption-mediated interactions, we study the collective behavior of micrometric particles adhered to a lipid vesicle. We estimate the colloidal interactions using a maximum likelihood analysis of particle trajectories. When the particles are highly wrapped by a tense membrane, we observe strong long-range attractions with a typical binding energy of 150 kBT and significant forces extending a few microns.

  4. Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-10-01

    Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

  5. Sample Targeting During Single-Particle Single-Cell Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, A. W.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Michel, K. A.; Brenner, D. J.; Dymnikov, A. D.

    2003-08-01

    An apertured microbeam is used for single-particle single-cell irradiation to study radiobiological effects at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF), Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. The present sample targeting system involves imaging techniques and a stepping motor stage to sequentially position a cell nucleus above a vertical ion beam. An interest expressed by the biology research community in targeting subnuclear components has spurred the development of microbeam II, a next-generation facility to include a focused ion beam and a more precise sample manipulator, a voice coil stage. Sample positioning precision will rely on a feedback circuit incorporating linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position measurements. In addition, post-lens electrostatic deflection is a contender for a point-and-shoot system that could speed up the cell irradiation process for cells within an image frame. Crucial to this development is that ion beam blow up must be minimal during deflection.

  6. Sample Targeting During Single-Particle Single-Cell Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, A.W.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Michel, K.A.; Brenner, D.J.; Dymnikov, A.D.

    2003-08-26

    An apertured microbeam is used for single-particle single-cell irradiation to study radiobiological effects at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF), Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. The present sample targeting system involves imaging techniques and a stepping motor stage to sequentially position a cell nucleus above a vertical ion beam. An interest expressed by the biology research community in targeting subnuclear components has spurred the development of microbeam II, a next-generation facility to include a focused ion beam and a more precise sample manipulator, a voice coil stage. Sample positioning precision will rely on a feedback circuit incorporating linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position measurements. In addition, post-lens electrostatic deflection is a contender for a point-and-shoot system that could speed up the cell irradiation process for cells within an image frame. Crucial to this development is that ion beam blow up must be minimal during deflection.

  7. Early Energetic Particle Irradiation of the HED Parent Body Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Rao, M. N.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that many individual grains within the dark phase of the Kapoeta howardite were irradiated with energetic particles while residing on the surface of the early HED regolith. Particle tracks in these grains vary in density by more than an order of magnitude and undoubtedly were formed by energetic heavy (Fe) ions associated with early solar flares. Early Irradiation of HED Regolith: Concentrations of excess Ne alone are not sufficient to decide between competing galactic and solar irradiation models. However, from recent studies of depth samples of oriented lunar rocks, we have shown that the cosmogenic 21-Ne/22-Ne ratio produced in feldspar differs substantially between Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and solar protons, and that this difference is exactly that predicted from cross-section data. Using Ne literature data and new isotopic data we obtained on acid-etched, separated feldspar from both the light and dark phases of Kapoeta, we derive 21-Ne/22-Ne = 0.80 for the recent GCR irradiation and 21-Ne/22-Ne = 0.68 for the early regolith irradiation. This derived ratio indicates that the early Ne production in the regolith occurred by both galactic and solar protons. If we adopt a likely one-component regolith model in which all grains were exposed to galactic protons but individual grains had variable exposure to solar protons, we estimate that this early GCR irradiation lasted for about 3-6 m.y. More complex two-component regolith models involving separate solar and galactic irradiation would permit this GCR age to be longer. Higher-energy solar protons would permit the GCR to be longer. Higher-energy solar protons would permit the GCR age to be shorter. Further, cosmogenic 126(Xe) in Kapoeta dark is no more than a factor of about 2 higher than that observed in Kapoeta light. Because 126(Xe) can only be formed by galactic protons and not solar protons, these data support a short GCR irradiation for the HED regolith. This would also be

  8. Particle therapy of moving targets-the strategies for tumour motion monitoring and moving targets irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    Particle therapy of moving targets is still a great challenge. The motion of organs situated in the thorax and abdomen strongly affects the precision of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy. The motion is responsible for not only the dislocation of the tumour but also the alterations in the internal density along the beam path, which influence the range of particle beams. Furthermore, in case of pencil beam scanning, there is an interference between the target movement and dynamic beam delivery. This review presents the strategies for tumour motion monitoring and moving target irradiation in the context of hadron therapy. Methods enabling the direct determination of tumour position (fluoroscopic imaging of implanted radio-opaque fiducial markers, electromagnetic detection of inserted transponders and ultrasonic tumour localization systems) are presented. Attention is also drawn to the techniques which use external surrogate motion for an indirect estimation of target displacement during irradiation. The role of respiratory-correlated CT [four-dimensional CT (4DCT)] in the determination of motion pattern prior to the particle treatment is also considered. An essential part of the article is the review of the main approaches to moving target irradiation in hadron therapy: gating, rescanning (repainting), gated rescanning and tumour tracking. The advantages, drawbacks and development trends of these methods are discussed. The new accelerators, called "cyclinacs", are presented, because their application to particle therapy will allow making a breakthrough in the 4D spot scanning treatment of moving organs.

  9. Particle therapy of moving targets-the strategies for tumour motion monitoring and moving targets irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    Particle therapy of moving targets is still a great challenge. The motion of organs situated in the thorax and abdomen strongly affects the precision of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy. The motion is responsible for not only the dislocation of the tumour but also the alterations in the internal density along the beam path, which influence the range of particle beams. Furthermore, in case of pencil beam scanning, there is an interference between the target movement and dynamic beam delivery. This review presents the strategies for tumour motion monitoring and moving target irradiation in the context of hadron therapy. Methods enabling the direct determination of tumour position (fluoroscopic imaging of implanted radio-opaque fiducial markers, electromagnetic detection of inserted transponders and ultrasonic tumour localization systems) are presented. Attention is also drawn to the techniques which use external surrogate motion for an indirect estimation of target displacement during irradiation. The role of respiratory-correlated CT [four-dimensional CT (4DCT)] in the determination of motion pattern prior to the particle treatment is also considered. An essential part of the article is the review of the main approaches to moving target irradiation in hadron therapy: gating, rescanning (repainting), gated rescanning and tumour tracking. The advantages, drawbacks and development trends of these methods are discussed. The new accelerators, called "cyclinacs", are presented, because their application to particle therapy will allow making a breakthrough in the 4D spot scanning treatment of moving organs. PMID:27376637

  10. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β+ emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects. PMID:26217586

  11. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β (+) emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects.

  12. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β (+) emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects. PMID:26217586

  13. Charged-Particle Calibration Of Spacecraft-Ranging Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses determination of effective densities of electrically charged particles along paths of microwave signals transmitted to and from spacecraft and use of those densities to calibrate measured signal-propagation times, used to compute distances between ground stations and spacecraft. Oriented toward selection of method of calibration optimal with respect to three criteria: minimization of range error and of root-mean-square uncertainty in range error; minimization of amount, complexity, and/or cost of equipment; and capability of calibrating changes in group velocities of signals on ranging channel.

  14. Modeling of long range frequency sweeping for energetic particle modes

    SciTech Connect

    Nyqvist, R. M.; Breizman, B. N.

    2013-04-15

    Long range frequency sweeping events are simulated numerically within a one-dimensional, electrostatic bump-on-tail model with fast particle sources and collisions. The numerical solution accounts for fast particle trapping and detrapping in an evolving wave field with a fixed wavelength, and it includes three distinct collisions operators: Drag (dynamical friction on the background electrons), Krook-type collisions, and velocity space diffusion. The effects of particle trapping and diffusion on the evolution of holes and clumps are investigated, and the occurrence of non-monotonic (hooked) frequency sweeping and asymptotically steady holes is discussed. The presented solution constitutes a step towards predictive modeling of frequency sweeping events in more realistic geometries.

  15. Gelation of particles with short-range attraction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peter J; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Ciulla, Fabio; Schofield, Andrew B; Sciortino, Francesco; Weitz, David A

    2008-05-22

    Nanoscale or colloidal particles are important in many realms of science and technology. They can dramatically change the properties of materials, imparting solid-like behaviour to a wide variety of complex fluids. This behaviour arises when particles aggregate to form mesoscopic clusters and networks. The essential component leading to aggregation is an interparticle attraction, which can be generated by many physical and chemical mechanisms. In the limit of irreversible aggregation, infinitely strong interparticle bonds lead to diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). This is understood as a purely kinetic phenomenon that can form solid-like gels at arbitrarily low particle volume fraction. Far more important technologically are systems with weaker attractions, where gel formation requires higher volume fractions. Numerous scenarios for gelation have been proposed, including DLCA, kinetic or dynamic arrest, phase separation, percolation and jamming. No consensus has emerged and, despite its ubiquity and significance, gelation is far from understood-even the location of the gelation phase boundary is not agreed on. Here we report experiments showing that gelation of spherical particles with isotropic, short-range attractions is initiated by spinodal decomposition; this thermodynamic instability triggers the formation of density fluctuations, leading to spanning clusters that dynamically arrest to create a gel. This simple picture of gelation does not depend on microscopic system-specific details, and should thus apply broadly to any particle system with short-range attractions. Our results suggest that gelation-often considered a purely kinetic phenomenon-is in fact a direct consequence of equilibrium liquid-gas phase separation. Without exception, we observe gelation in all of our samples predicted by theory and simulation to phase-separate; this suggests that it is phase separation, not percolation, that corresponds to gelation in models for attractive

  16. Performance of HTGR biso- and triso-coated fertile particles irradiated in capsule HT-34

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.L. Jr.; Tiegs, T.N.; Robbins, J.M.; Kania, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    Experiment HT-34, irradiated in the target region of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), was designed to correlate HTGR Biso- and Triso-coated particle performance with fabrication parameters. Gamma analysis of the irradiated Triso-coated ThO/sub 2/ particles showed that the SiC deposited at the highest coating rate apparently had the best cesium-retention properties. Results of a similar analysis of the irradiated Biso-coated ThO/sub 2/ particles showed no differences in performance that could be related to coating conditions, but all the particles showed a significant loss of cesium (> 50%) at the higher temperatures. Pressure-vessel failures occurred with a significant number of particles; however, fission-gas-content measurements made at room temperature showed that the intact Biso particles from all batches except one became permeable during irradiation.

  17. Understanding and simulating the material behavior during multi-particle irradiations

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Anamul H.; Toulemonde, M.; Jegou, C.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bouffard, S.; Peuget, S.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested that the irradiation behavior and damage processes occurring during sequential and simultaneous particle irradiations can significantly differ. Currently, there is no definite answer as to why and when such differences are seen. Additionally, the conventional multi-particle irradiation facilities cannot correctly reproduce the complex irradiation scenarios experienced in a number of environments like space and nuclear reactors. Therefore, a better understanding of multi-particle irradiation problems and possible alternatives are needed. This study shows ionization induced thermal spike and defect recovery during sequential and simultaneous ion irradiation of amorphous silica. The simultaneous irradiation scenario is shown to be equivalent to multiple small sequential irradiation scenarios containing latent damage formation and recovery mechanisms. The results highlight the absence of any new damage mechanism and time-space correlation between various damage events during simultaneous irradiation of amorphous silica. This offers a new and convenient way to simulate and understand complex multi-particle irradiation problems. PMID:27466040

  18. Understanding and simulating the material behavior during multi-particle irradiations.

    PubMed

    Mir, Anamul H; Toulemonde, M; Jegou, C; Miro, S; Serruys, Y; Bouffard, S; Peuget, S

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested that the irradiation behavior and damage processes occurring during sequential and simultaneous particle irradiations can significantly differ. Currently, there is no definite answer as to why and when such differences are seen. Additionally, the conventional multi-particle irradiation facilities cannot correctly reproduce the complex irradiation scenarios experienced in a number of environments like space and nuclear reactors. Therefore, a better understanding of multi-particle irradiation problems and possible alternatives are needed. This study shows ionization induced thermal spike and defect recovery during sequential and simultaneous ion irradiation of amorphous silica. The simultaneous irradiation scenario is shown to be equivalent to multiple small sequential irradiation scenarios containing latent damage formation and recovery mechanisms. The results highlight the absence of any new damage mechanism and time-space correlation between various damage events during simultaneous irradiation of amorphous silica. This offers a new and convenient way to simulate and understand complex multi-particle irradiation problems. PMID:27466040

  19. Observations of new particle formation in enhanced UV irradiance zones near cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, B.; Werner, F.; Ditas, F.; Shaw, R. A.; Kulmala, M.; Siebert, H.

    2015-10-01

    During the CARRIBA (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiation and tuRbulence in the trade wInd regime over BArbados) campaign, the interaction between aerosol particles and cloud microphysical properties was investigated in detail, which also includes the influence of clouds on the aerosol formation. During two intensive campaigns in 2010 and 2011, helicopter-borne measurement flights were performed to investigate the thermodynamic, turbulent, microphysical, and radiative properties of trade-wind cumuli over Barbados. During these flights, 91 cases with increased aerosol particle number concentrations near clouds were detected. The majority of these cases are also correlated with enhanced irradiance in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral wavelength range. This enhancement reaches values up to a factor of 3.3 greater compared to background values. Thus, cloud boundaries provide a perfect environment for the production of precursor gases for new particle formation. Another feature of cloud edges is an increased turbulence, which may also enhance nucleation and particle growth. The observed events have a mean length of 100 m, corresponding to a lifetime of less than 300 s. This implies that particles with diameters of at least 7 nm grew several nanometers per minute, which corresponds to the upper end of values in the literature (Kulmala et al., 2004). Such high values cannot be explained by sulfuric acid alone; thus extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs) are probably involved here.

  20. Observations of new particle formation in enhanced UV irradiance zones near cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, B.; Werner, F.; Ditas, F.; Shaw, R. A.; Kulmala, M.; Siebert, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the CARRIBA-campaign (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiation and tuRbulence in the trade wInd regime over BArbados) the interaction between aerosol particles and cloud microphysical properties has been investigated in detail which includes also the influence of clouds on the aerosol formation. During two intensive campaigns in 2010 and 2011 helicopter-borne measurement flights have been performed to investigate the thermodynamic, turbulent, microphysical, and radiative properties of trade wind cumuli over Barbados. During these flights 91 cases with increased aerosol particle number concentrations near clouds were detected. The majority of these cases are also correlated with enhanced irradiance in the ultraviolet spectral wavelength range (UV). This enhancement reaches values up to a factor of 3.3 compared to background values. Thus, cloud boundaries provide a perfect environment for the production of precursor gases for new particle formation. Another feature of cloud edges is an increased turbulence which may also enhance nucleation and particle growth. The observed events have a mean length of 100 m corresponding to a lifetime of less than 300 s. This implies that particles with diameters of at least 7 nm grew several nm per minute which corresponds to the upper end of values in the literature (Kulmala et al., 2004). Such high values cannot be explained by sulfuric acid alone, thus probably extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) are involved here.

  1. Dependence of the MeV ion-induced deformation of colloidal silica particles on the irradiation angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang-Wong, J. C.; Morales, U.; Reséndiz, E.; López-Suárez, A.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.

    2008-06-01

    Colloidal silica particles are being intensively studied due to their potential applications in catalysis, intelligent materials, optoelectronic devices and coating technology. For this work, spherical sub-micrometer-sized silica particles were prepared by the Stöber process and deposited onto silicon wafers. The samples were then irradiated at room temperature with Si ions at 8 MeV and fluences up to 5 × 1015 Si/cm2, under different angles θ, ranging from 15° to 75° with respect to the sample normal. The size, size distribution and shape of the silica particles were determined using scanning electron microscopy. After the Si irradiation the as-prepared spherical silica particles turned into ellipsoidal particles, as a result of the increase of the particle dimension perpendicular to the ion beam and a decrease in the direction parallel to the ion beam. This effect increases with the ion fluence, and the dependence of the deformation rate on the irradiation angle is discussed.

  2. Effect of laser irradiation on silica substrate contaminated by aluminum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmier, Stéphanie; Rullier, Jean Luc; Capoulade, Jérémie; Natoli, Jean Yves

    2008-03-01

    A major issue in the use of high-power lasers, such as the Laser Megajoule (LMJ), is laser-induced damage of optical components. One potential damage initiator is particulate contamination, but its effect is hard to distinguish from that of other damage precursors. To do so, we introduced artificial contaminants typical of metallic pollution likely to be present on the optical components of the LMJ chains. More precisely, aluminum particles of two different sizes were placed on a silica sample. These dots were characterized by optical microscopy and profilometry. Then they were exposed to a laser beam with a pulse length of 6.5 ns at 1064 nm and fluences in the range from 1 to 40 J/cm2. Each dot was characterized again with the same techniques and also by photothermal microscopy. To complete the experimental results, we performed numerical simulations with a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamics code. We show that the particle removal by laser irradiation produces a modification of the silica surface that does not evolve into catastrophic damage under subsequent irradiation. However, the effect does depend on the size of the dots. We demonstrate that a procedure exists that removes the dot and leaves the site capable of resisting high fluence.

  3. Experience in charged particle irradiation of tumors of the skull base

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.; Linstadt, D.E.; Bahary, J.P.; Petti, P.L.; Daftari, I. Collier, J.M.; Gutin, P.H.; Gauger, G.; Phillips, T.L.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose was to review the experience at University of California Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in using charged particles to irradiate primary neoplasms of the skull base and those extending to the skull base from the nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses. During the period from 1977 to 1992, 223 patients were irradiated with charged particles at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for tumors either arising in or extending to the skull base, of whom 48 (22%) had recurrent lesions, either post previous surgery or radiotherapy. One hundred twenty-six patients had lesions arising in the cranial base, mostly chordoma (53), chondrosarcoma (27), paraclival meningioma (27) with 19 patients having other histologies such as osteosarcoma or neurofibrosarcoma. There were also 31 patients with primary or recurrent squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx extending to the skull base, 44 patients with major or minor salivary gland tumors, mostly adenocarcinoma, and 22 patients with squamous carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses, all with cranial base extension. Local control and survival appeared improved in tumors arising in the skull base, following the ability with charged particles to deliver high doses (mean of 65 GY-equivalent) with relative sparing of the adjacent normal tissues. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year local control was 85% for meningioma, 78% for chondrosarcoma, 63% for chordoma and 58% for other sarcoma. Follow-up ranged from 4-191 months with a median of 51 months. Charged particle radiotherapy is highly effective in controlling cranial base lesions which have been partially resected. Better tumor localization with CT and MRI, improved 3-D treatment planning and beam delivery techniques have continued to reduce the level of serious complications and increase local control and survival. 35 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Pre-irradiation spatial distribution and stability of boride particles in rapidly solidified boron-doped stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kanani, N.; Arnberg, L.; Harling, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The time temperature behavior of boride particles has been studied in rapidly solidified ultra low carbon and nitrogen modified 316 stainless steel with 0.088% boron and 0.45% zirconium. The results show that the as-splat-cooled specimens exhibit precipitates at the grain boundaries and triple junctions. For temperatures up to about 750/sup 0/C no significant microstructural changes occur for short heat treatment times. In the temperature range of 750 to 950/sup 0/C, however, particles typically 100 to 500 A in diameter containing Zr and B are formed within the grains. Higher temperatures enhance the formation of such particles and give rise to particle networks. The results show that a fine and uniform distribution of the boride particles almost exclusively within the grains can be achieved if proper annealing conditions are chosen. This type of distribution is an important requirement for the homogeneous production of helium during neutron irradiation in fast reactors.

  5. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis

    2010-09-10

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  6. Luminescence imaging of water during proton-beam irradiation for range estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Proton therapy has the ability to selectively deliver a dose to the target tumor, so the dose distribution should be accurately measured by a precise and efficient method. The authors found that luminescence was emitted from water during proton irradiation and conjectured that this phenomenon could be used for estimating the dose distribution. Methods: To achieve more accurate dose distribution, the authors set water phantoms on a table with a spot scanning proton therapy system and measured the luminescence images of these phantoms with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge coupled device camera during proton-beam irradiation. The authors imaged the phantoms of pure water, fluorescein solution, and an acrylic block. Results: The luminescence images of water phantoms taken during proton-beam irradiation showed clear Bragg peaks, and the measured proton ranges from the images were almost the same as those obtained with an ionization chamber. Furthermore, the image of the pure-water phantom showed almost the same distribution as the tap-water phantom, indicating that the luminescence image was not related to impurities in the water. The luminescence image of the fluorescein solution had ∼3 times higher intensity than water, with the same proton range as that of water. The luminescence image of the acrylic phantom had a 14.5% shorter proton range than that of water; the proton range in the acrylic phantom generally matched the calculated value. The luminescence images of the tap-water phantom during proton irradiation could be obtained in less than 2 s. Conclusions: Luminescence imaging during proton-beam irradiation is promising as an effective method for range estimation in proton therapy.

  7. Efficient Methods for Handling Long-Range Forces in Particle-Particle Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangohr, Hans; Price, Andrew R.; Cox, Simon J.; de Groot, Peter A. J.; Daniell, Geoffrey J.; Thomas, Ken S.

    2000-08-01

    A number of problems arise when long-range forces, such as those governed by Bessel functions, are used in particle-particle simulations. If a simple cutoff for the interaction is used, the system may find an equilibrium configuration at zero temperature that is not a regular lattice yet has an energy lower than the theoretically predicted minimum for the physical system. We demonstrate two methods to overcome these problems in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. The first uses a smoothed potential to truncate the interaction in a single unit cell: this is appropriate for phenomenological characterisations, but may be applied to any potential. The second is a new method for summing the unmodified potential in an infinitely tiled periodic system, which is in excess of 20,000 times faster than previous naive methods which add periodic images in shells of increasing radius: this is suitable for quantitative studies. Finally, we show that numerical experiments which do not handle the long-range force carefully may give misleading results: both of our proposed methods overcome these problems.

  8. Non-random distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by particle irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Cooper, P. K.; Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in mammalian cells is dependent on the spatial distribution of energy deposition from the ionizing radiation. For high LET particle radiations the primary ionization sites occur in a correlated manner along the track of the particles, while for X-rays these sites are much more randomly distributed throughout the volume of the cell. It can therefore be expected that the distribution of dsbs linearly along the DNA molecule also varies with the type of radiation and the ionization density. Using pulsed-field gel and conventional gel techniques, we measured the size distribution of DNA molecules from irradiated human fibroblasts in the total range of 0.1 kbp-10 Mbp for X-rays and high LET particles (N ions, 97 keV/microns and Fe ions, 150 keV/microns). On a mega base pair scale we applied conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques such as measurement of the fraction of DNA released from the well (FAR) and measurement of breakage within a specific NotI restriction fragment (hybridization assay). The induction rate for widely spaced breaks was found to decrease with LET. However, when the entire distribution of radiation-induced fragments was analysed, we detected an excess of fragments with sizes below about 200 kbp for the particles compared with X-irradiation. X-rays are thus more effective than high LET radiations in producing large DNA fragments but less effective in the production of smaller fragments. We determined the total induction rate of dsbs for the three radiations based on a quantitative analysis of all the measured radiation-induced fragments and found that the high LET particles were more efficient than X-rays at inducing dsbs, indicating an increasing total efficiency with LET. Conventional assays that are based only on the measurement of large fragments are therefore misleading when determining total dsb induction rates of high LET particles. The possible biological significance of this non

  9. Close Range Remote Sensing of Levitated Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. C.; Higgs, A. J.; Pocock, R. A.

    2014-04-01

    A simple technique is highlighted to demonstrate how to detect and establish the coordinates of moving dust particles, in proximity to a single camera. This could be applied to planetary landers and rovers, or used from low orbit around comets and dusty asteroids. The only requirement would be the addition of a LED flash bulb close to the camera lens resulting in near zero phase illumination lighting conditions. Using this simple low cost, low mass setup, the 3D trajectory, colour, and other physical parameters of micron scale dust particles could be determined.

  10. Cancer Cell Radiobiological Studies Using In-House-Developed α-Particle Irradiator.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jenny; Bauden, Monika Posaric; Nilsson, Jonas M; Strand, Sven-Erik; Elgqvist, Jörgen

    2015-11-01

    An α-particle irradiator, enabling high-precision irradiation of cells for in vitro studies, has been constructed. The irradiation source was a (241)Am source, on which well inserts containing cancer cells growing in monolayer were placed. The total radioactivity, uniformity, and α-particle spectrum were determined by use of HPGe detector, Gafchromic dosimetry film, and PIPS detector measurements, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations were used for dosimetry. Three prostate cancer (LNCaP, DU145, PC3) and three pancreatic cancer (Capan-1, Panc-1, BxPC-3) cell lines were irradiated by α-particles to the absorbed doses 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 Gy. For reference, cells were irradiated using (137)Cs to the absorbed doses 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 Gy. Radiation sensitivity was estimated using a tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric assay with absorbance measurements at 450 nm. The relative biological effectiveness for α-particles relative to γ-irradiation at 37% cell survival for the LNCaP, DU145, PC3, Capan-1, Panc-1, and BxPC-3 cells was 7.9 ± 1.7, 8.0 ± 0.8, 7.0 ± 1.1, 12.5 ± 1.6, 9.4 ± 0.9, and 6.2 ± 0.7, respectively. The results show the feasibility of constructing a desktop α-particle irradiator as well as indicate that both prostate and pancreatic cancers are good candidates for further studies of α-particle radioimmunotherapy. PMID:26560194

  11. Cancer Cell Radiobiological Studies Using In-House-Developed α-Particle Irradiator.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jenny; Bauden, Monika Posaric; Nilsson, Jonas M; Strand, Sven-Erik; Elgqvist, Jörgen

    2015-11-01

    An α-particle irradiator, enabling high-precision irradiation of cells for in vitro studies, has been constructed. The irradiation source was a (241)Am source, on which well inserts containing cancer cells growing in monolayer were placed. The total radioactivity, uniformity, and α-particle spectrum were determined by use of HPGe detector, Gafchromic dosimetry film, and PIPS detector measurements, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations were used for dosimetry. Three prostate cancer (LNCaP, DU145, PC3) and three pancreatic cancer (Capan-1, Panc-1, BxPC-3) cell lines were irradiated by α-particles to the absorbed doses 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 Gy. For reference, cells were irradiated using (137)Cs to the absorbed doses 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 Gy. Radiation sensitivity was estimated using a tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric assay with absorbance measurements at 450 nm. The relative biological effectiveness for α-particles relative to γ-irradiation at 37% cell survival for the LNCaP, DU145, PC3, Capan-1, Panc-1, and BxPC-3 cells was 7.9 ± 1.7, 8.0 ± 0.8, 7.0 ± 1.1, 12.5 ± 1.6, 9.4 ± 0.9, and 6.2 ± 0.7, respectively. The results show the feasibility of constructing a desktop α-particle irradiator as well as indicate that both prostate and pancreatic cancers are good candidates for further studies of α-particle radioimmunotherapy.

  12. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Maija; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  13. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  14. Electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation in the megahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, M.; Coutelou, S.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.; Matsukawa, M.

    2013-09-01

    Low frequency mechanical studies have reported the contribution of stress-induced electrical potentials to bone metabolism. However, the healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity ultrasound is not yet clear. We demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. Electrical potentials were obtained from the output of bovine cortical bone transducers. In the range of 0.7-2.5 MHz, sensitivities of bone transducers were around 1/1000 of a poly (vinylidene fluoride) ultrasonic transducer and did not depend on magnitude and alignment of hydroxyapatite crystallites in bone.

  15. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, N.B.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Alpen, E.L.

    1988-12-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. This study concerns the cell population and cell cycle kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain, and the effects of charged particle irradiations on this cell population. Quantitative high resolution autoradiography was used to study the kinetic parameters in this cell layer. This study should help in understanding the effects of these high-energy heavy ions on normal mammalian brain tissue. The response of the mammalian brain exposure to charged particle ionizing radiation may be extremely variable. It varies from minimal physiological changes to overt tissue necrosis depending on a number of factors such as: the administered dose, dose-rate, the volume of the irradiated tissue, and the biological end-point being examined.

  16. Genotoxicity and gene expression in the nematode C. elegans in response to charged particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, G. A.; Bayeta, E. J.; Jones, T. A.; Lloyd, E. M.; Perez, C. P.; Tian, J.

    We use the simple invertebrate worm, C. elegans, as a test system to investigate the unique biological responses to high LET charged particles, including iron ions. In the germ line, autosomal recessive lethal mutations in a 12 Mbp genetic region have been measured for particles of atomic number (Z) ranging from 1 to 57 and specific energies (E) of from 150 MeV/n to 5 GeV/n. Fluence vs. responses, RBE's and mutation cross sections have been determined as functions of particle type and specific energy. In the 34-cell somatic intestine, anaphase bridges have been similarly quantified over comparable ranges of Z and E. The individual gut cell responses have been mapped in vivo; they show spatial regulation and up to 3-fold differences in radiosensitivity, even amongst sibling cells. Evidence for non-autonomous (bystander) regulation has been obtained and we hypothesize that signals from the germ-line modulate gut responses. Microarray analysis of gene transcription patterns from the 19,000 genes of worms demonstrates striking differences in the identities and magnitudes of expression for genes in worms irradiated with 3 Gray of gamma rays, 250 MeV protons or 1 Gev/n iron ions. Hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrates well-defined groups of highly-correlated responding genes unique to each radiation species. Several clusters involve genes required for extracellular matrix synthesis and include many collagens associated with the exoskeletal cuticle secreted by hypodermal cells. Differentially regulated genes of currently unknown function are being tested for their effects on radiosensitivity using an RNA interference method to knock down their activities prior to radiation exposure. The authors gratefully acknowledge NASA for sponsoring the reported studies.

  17. Response of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes to alpha-particle irradiation at different fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, E.; Meyer, W. E.; Auret, F. D.; Diale, M.; Ngoepe, P. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation experiments have been carried out on 1.9×1016 cm-3 nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC at room temperature using 5.4 MeV alpha-particle irradiation over a fluence ranges from 2.6×1010 to 9.2×1011 cm-2. Current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been carried out to study the change in characteristics of the devices and free carrier removal rate due to alpha-particle irradiation, respectively. As radiation fluence increases, the ideality factors increased from 1.20 to 1.85 but the Schottky barrier height (SBHI-V) decreased from 1.47 to 1.34 eV. Free carrier concentration, Nd decreased with increasing fluence from 1.7×1016 to 1.1×1016 cm-2 at approximately 0.70 μm depth. The reduction in Nd shows that defects were induced during the irradiation and have effect on compensating the free carrier. The free carrier removal rate was estimated to be 6480±70 cm-1. Alpha-particle irradiation introduced two electron traps (E0.39 and E0.62), with activation energies of 0.39±0.03 eV and 0.62±0.08 eV, respectively. The E0.39 as attribute related to silicon or carbon vacancy, while the E0.62 has the attribute of Z1/Z2.

  18. OT2_cceccare_4: Searching for the onset of energetic particle irradiation in Class 0 protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, C.

    2011-09-01

    Several evidences tell us that the first stages of low mass star formation are very violent, characterized by, among other phenomena, an intense irradiation of energetic (MeV) particles. The goal of this proposal is to search for signs of MeV particle irradiation in a sample of low to intermediate mass Class 0 protostars. At this end, we propose to observe a selected list of high J HCO+ and N2H+ lines in a selected sample of sources. Based on the observations obtained within the KP CHESS, we estimate a total observing time of 20.5 hours.

  19. A novel particle separation technique using 20-kHz-order ultrasound irradiation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Hiroya; Yanai, Sayuri; Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound techniques such as washing, fine-particle manipulation and mixing have been investigated. MHz-band ultrasound was usually used in the previous work, and studies of kHz-order ultrasound are very rare. In the usual manipulation technique, μm- order particles are targeted due to wavelength limitations. We discovered an interesting phenomenon that holds promise for a novel particle separation technique using kHz-order ultrasound. Here, particles with sub-mm- or mm-order diameters were flocculated into a swarm in water irradiated by 20-kHz ultrasound. To develop a practical separation process, we investigated the stationary position and dia. of the particle swarms and the sound- pressure profiles in a vessel, as well as the flocculation mechanism, by varying the irradiation frequency, water level, particle diameter and particle amount. The primary stationary position corresponded to the wavelength calculated from the resonant frequency regardless of the particle diameter. Subtle changes in the frequency and water level resulted in a significant change in the stationary position. Based on these results, we propose a new separation process based on the particle diameter for sub-mm- or mm-order particles.

  20. Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy.

    PubMed

    Frey, K; Unholtz, D; Bauer, J; Debus, J; Min, C H; Bortfeld, T; Paganetti, H; Parodi, K

    2014-10-01

    We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced β(+)-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to 'red flag' problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a

  1. Identification of DNA double strand breaks at chromosome boundaries along the track of particle irradiation.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Atsuko; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Sekine, Ryota; Oike, Takahiro; Sato, Hiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Held, Kathryn D; Nakano, Takashi; Shibata, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations arise from misrejoining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) between loci located on two chromosomes. One current model suggests that spatial proximity of potential chromosomal translocation partners influences translocation probability. Ionizing radiation (IR) is a potent inducer of translocations. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that particle irradiation more frequently causes translocations compared with X-ray irradiation. This observation has led to the hypothesis that the high frequency of translocations after particle irradiation may be due to the formation of DSBs at chromosome boundaries along the particle track, because such DSBs can be misrejoined between distinct chromosomes. In this study, we simultaneously visualized the site of IR-induced DSBs and chromosome position by combining Immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Importantly, the frequency of γH2AX foci at the chromosome boundary of chromosome 1 after carbon-ion irradiation was >4-fold higher than that after X-ray irradiation. This observation is consistent with the idea that particle irradiation generates DSBs at the boundaries of two chromosomes along the track. Further, we showed that resolution of γH2AX foci at chromosome boundaries is prevented by inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity, indicating that the DSB repair is NHEJ-dependent. Finally, we found that γH2AX foci at chromosome boundaries after carbon-ion irradiation contain DSBs undergoing DNA-end resection, which promotes repair utilizing microhomology mediated end-joining during translocation. Taken together, our study suggests that the frequency of DSB formation at chromosome boundaries is associated with the incidence of chromosomal translocations, supporting the notion that the spatial proximity between breaks is an important factor in translocation formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identification of DNA double strand breaks at chromosome boundaries along the track of particle irradiation.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Atsuko; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Sekine, Ryota; Oike, Takahiro; Sato, Hiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Held, Kathryn D; Nakano, Takashi; Shibata, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations arise from misrejoining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) between loci located on two chromosomes. One current model suggests that spatial proximity of potential chromosomal translocation partners influences translocation probability. Ionizing radiation (IR) is a potent inducer of translocations. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that particle irradiation more frequently causes translocations compared with X-ray irradiation. This observation has led to the hypothesis that the high frequency of translocations after particle irradiation may be due to the formation of DSBs at chromosome boundaries along the particle track, because such DSBs can be misrejoined between distinct chromosomes. In this study, we simultaneously visualized the site of IR-induced DSBs and chromosome position by combining Immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Importantly, the frequency of γH2AX foci at the chromosome boundary of chromosome 1 after carbon-ion irradiation was >4-fold higher than that after X-ray irradiation. This observation is consistent with the idea that particle irradiation generates DSBs at the boundaries of two chromosomes along the track. Further, we showed that resolution of γH2AX foci at chromosome boundaries is prevented by inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity, indicating that the DSB repair is NHEJ-dependent. Finally, we found that γH2AX foci at chromosome boundaries after carbon-ion irradiation contain DSBs undergoing DNA-end resection, which promotes repair utilizing microhomology mediated end-joining during translocation. Taken together, our study suggests that the frequency of DSB formation at chromosome boundaries is associated with the incidence of chromosomal translocations, supporting the notion that the spatial proximity between breaks is an important factor in translocation formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27113385

  3. Postirradiation examination report of TRISO and BISO coated ThO/sub 2/ particles irradiated in capsules HT-31 and HT-33. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Capsules HT-31 and HT-33 were uninstrumented capsule experiments irradiated in the target position of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experiments were used to evaluate the irradiation performance of (1) fuel fabricated in a 240-mm-diameter coater for production scale-up, (2) TRISO ThO/sub 2/ and BISO ThO/sub 2/ particles, and (3) fuel with certain OPyC variables. A total of 16 BISO particle samples and 32 TRISO particle samples were irradiated to fast neutron fluences ranging from 4.0 to 11.7 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ and heavy metal burnups between 3.5% and 13.2% FIMA at temperatures from 1150/sup 0/ to 1530/sup 0/C.

  4. Long range local effective potential for a three-particle system

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, L.

    1988-07-01

    We derive the long- range behavior of an effective interaction for a system with three identical particles. We start our derivation from the zero range theory in configuration space and we show that the asymptotic effective potential, in the relative distance of the subsystem to the third particle, goes as -exp(-lambdar)/(r/sup 3/2/).

  5. Viruslike particles in the tissues of normal and gamma-irradiated Drosophila melanogaster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.; Bensch, K. G.; Philpott, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    A new finding of viruslike particles in the salivary and accessory glands, muscles, and nerves of normal and gamma-irradiated Drosophila melanogaster is discussed. In morphology and size, the particles seemed identical to those described in earlier reports. On the basis of the available results, it cannot be affirmed that these particles infect only dividing cells, since they are found in all the Drosophila tissues so far examined. Their relation to the aging process is felt to be an interesting subject for further study.

  6. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  7. Development of a High Irradiance LED Configuration for Small Field of View Motion Estimation of Fertilizer Particles

    PubMed Central

    Cool, Simon; Pieters, Jan G.; Mertens, Koen C.; Mora, Sergio; Cointault, Frédéric; Dubois, Julien; van de Gucht, Tim; Vangeyte, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m2 with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications. PMID:26569261

  8. Corrosion under argon irradiation of titanium in the low MeV range: A study coupling AFM and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Ngoc-Long; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Bérerd, Nicolas; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Gorse-Pomonti, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of the corrosion under argon ion irradiation of titanium in the low MeV range (1-9 MeV), associating AFM and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Irradiation with MeV Arn+ (n = 1, 3) ions produces damages on the titanium surface. Large craters form on the oxidized titanium surface whose characteristics vary as a function of the argon energy between 2 and 9 MeV. The superficial oxide grows thicker under irradiation over the same energy range, especially near 3 MeV. It is suggested that collisions cascades play a significant role in the overall damage process.

  9. Contaminant degradation by irradiated semiconducting silver chloride particles: kinetics and modelling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian; Garg, Shikha; Miller, Christopher J; Waite, T David

    2015-05-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of light-mediated formic acid (HCOO(-)) degradation in the presence of semiconducting silver chloride particles are investigated in this study. Our experimental results show that visible-light irradiation of AgCl(s) results in generation of holes and electrons with the photo-generated holes and its initial oxidation product carbonate radical, oxidizing HCOO(-) to form CO2. The HCOO(-) degradation rate increases with increase in silver concentration due to increase in rate of photo-generation of holes while the increase in chloride concentration decreases the degradation rate of HCOO(-) as a result of the scavenging of holes by Cl(-), thereby resulting in decreased holes and carbonate radical concentration. The results obtained indicate that a variety of other solution conditions including dioxygen concentration, bicarbonate concentration and pH influence the availability of holes and hence the HCOO(-) degradation rate in a manner consistent with our understanding of key processes. Based on our experimental results, we have developed a kinetic model capable of predicting AgCl(s)-mediated HCOO(-) photo-degradation over a wide range of conditions.

  10. Dose Rate Calibration of a Commercial Beta-Particle Irradiator Used In Archeological and Geological Dating

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, S.M.

    2004-10-31

    The 801E Multiple Sample Irradiator, manufactured by Daybreak Nuclear Systems, is capable of exposing up to 30 samples to beta radiation by placing each sample one by one directly beneath a heavily shielded ceramic Sr-90/Y-90 source and opening a specially designed shutter. Daybreak Nuclear Systems does not provide the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y dose rate to the sample because of variations of up to 20% in the nominal activity of the beta sources (separately manufactured by AEA Technology). Thus it is left to the end user to determine. Here aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C), in the form of Landauer's Luxel{trademark}, was irradiated to different known doses using a calibrated {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta particle irradiator, and the OSL signal monitored after each irradiation to generate a calibration curve. Comparison of the OSL Signal from the unknown 801E Irradiator dose with the calibration curve enabled the dose and therefore dose rate to be determined. The timing accuracy of the 801E Irradiator was also evaluated and found to be +/- 0.5 seconds. The dose rate of the beta source was found to be 0.147 +/- 0.007 Gy/s.

  11. Accelerator-Based Irradiation Creep of Pyrolytic Carbon Used in TRISO Fuel Particles for the (VHTR) Very Hight Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lumin Wang; Gary Was

    2010-07-30

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the important structural materials in the TRISO fuel particles which will be used in the next generation of gas-cooled very-high-temperature reactors (VHTR). When the TRISO particles are under irradiation at high temperatures, creep of the PyC layers may cause radial cracking leading to catastrophic particle failure. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the creep behavior of PyC during irradiation is required to predict the overall fuel performance.

  12. Effect of Alpha-Particle Irradiation on Brain Glycogen in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, L. S.; Klatzo, Igor; Miquel, Jaime; Tobias, Cornelius; Haymaker, Webb

    1962-01-01

    The studies of Klatzo, Miquel, Tobias and Haymaker (1961) have shown that one of the earliest and most sensitive indications of the effects of alpha-particle irradiation on rat bran is the appearance of glycogen granules mainly in the neuroglia of the exposed area of the brain. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, alpha-amylase soluble granules were demonstrated within 12 hr after irradiation, preceding by approximately 36 hr the first microscopically detectable vascular permeability disturbances, as shown by the fluorescein labeled serum protein technique. These studies suggested that the injurious effects of alpha-particle energy were on cellular elements primarily, according to the physical properties and distribution of the radiation in the tissue, and that the vascular permeability disturbances played a secondary role in pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to correlate the histochemical observations on glycogen with a quantitative assessment of the glycogen in the irradiated brain tissue. It is felt that such a study may contribute to the understanding of radiation injury at the molecular level. A practical aspect of this problem is that the information on biological radiation effects due to accelerated particles from the cyclotron source, is employed in this study, is applicable to radiation from cosmic particles both in free space and entrapped in the Van Allen belts.

  13. The effects of heavy particle irradiation on exploration and response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadesus, G.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.

    Free radicals produced by exposure to heavy particles have been found to produce motor and behavioral toxicity effects in rats similar to those found during aging. The present research was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on the ability to detect novel arrangements in a given environment of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using a test of spatial memory previously demonstrated to be sensitive to aging, open-field activity and reaction to spatial and non-spatial changes were measured in a group that received a dose of 1.5 Gy (n=10) of 56Fe heavy particle radiation or in non- radiated controls. Animals irradiated with 1.5 Gy of56Fe particles exhibited some age-like effects in animals tested, even though they were for the most part, subtle. Animals took longer to enter, visited less and spent significantly less time in the middle and the center portions of the open-field independently of total frequency and duration of activity of both groups. Likewise, irradiated subjects reacted significantly more to novel objects placed in the open-field than did controls. However, irradiated subjects did not vary from controls in their exploration patterns when objects in the open-field were spatially rearranged. Thus, irradiation with a dose of 1.5 Gy of 56Fe high-energy particle radiation elicited age-like effects in general open-field exploratory behavior, but did not elicit age- like effects during the spatial and non-spatial rearrangement tasks. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

  14. The effects of heavy particle irradiation on exploration and response to environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadesus, G.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Free radicals produced by exposure to heavy particles have been found to produce motor and cognitive behavioral toxicity effects in rats similar to those found during aging. The present research was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on the ability of male Sprague-Dawley rats to detect novel arrangements in a given environment. Using a test of spatial memory previously demonstrated to be sensitive to aging, open field activity and reaction to spatial and non-spatial changes were measured in a group that received a dose of 1.5 Gy (n=10) of 56Fe heavy particle radiation or in non-radiated controls (n=10). Animals irradiated with 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles exhibited some age-like effects in rats tested, even though they were, for the most part, subtle. Animals took longer to enter, visited less and spent significantly less time in the middle and the center portions of the open field, independently of total frequency and duration of activity of both groups. Likewise, irradiated subjects spend significantly more time exploring novel objects placed in the open field than did controls. However, irradiated subjects did not vary from controls in their exploration patterns when objects in the open field were spatially rearranged. Thus, irradiation with a dose of 1.5 Gy of 56Fe high-energy particle radiation elicited age-like effects in general open field exploratory behavior, but did not elicit age-like effects during the spatial and non-spatial rearrangement tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  15. Trace the polymerization induced by gamma-ray irradiated silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoik; Ryu, Jungju; Kim, Myungwoong; Im, Seung Soon; Kim, Ick Soo; Sohn, Daewon

    2016-08-01

    A γ-ray irradiation to inorganic particles is a promising technique for preparation of organic/inorganic composites as it offers a number of advantages such as an additive-free polymerizations conducted under mild conditions, avoiding undesired damage to organic components in the composites. Herein, we demonstrated a step-wise formation mechanism of organic/inorganic nanocomposite hydrogel in detail. The γ-ray irradiation to silica particles dispersed in water generates peroxide groups on their surface, enabling surface-initiated polymerization of acrylic acid from the inorganic material. As a result, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) covers the silica particles in the form of a core-shell at the initial stage. Then, PAA-coated silica particles associate with each other by combination of radicals at the end of chains on different particles, leading to micro-gel domains. Finally, the micro-gels are further associated with each other to form a 3D network structure. We investigated this mechanism using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our result strongly suggests that controlling reaction time is critical to achieve specific and desirable organic/inorganic nanocomposite structure among core-shell particles, micro-gels and 3D network bulk hydrogel.

  16. Calculation of dose contributions of electron and charged heavy particles inside phantoms irradiated by monoenergetic neutron.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Miyahara, Nobuyuki

    2008-09-01

    The radiation-transport code PHITS with an event generator mode has been applied to analyze energy depositions of electrons and charged heavy particles in two spherical phantoms and a voxel-based mouse phantom upon neutron irradiation. The calculations using the spherical phantoms quantitatively clarified the type and energy of charged particles which are released through interactions of neutrons with the phantom elements and contribute to the radiation dose. The relative contribution of electrons increased with an increase in the size of the phantom and with a decrease in the energy of the incident neutrons. Calculations with the voxel-based mouse phantom for 2.0-MeV neutron irradiation revealed that the doses to different locations inside the body are uniform, and that the energy is mainly deposited by recoil protons. The present study has demonstrated that analysis using PHITS can yield dose distributions that are accurate enough for RBE evaluation. PMID:18580044

  17. Targeted Cytoplasmic Irradiation with Alpha Particles Induces Mutations in Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-Jun; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, An; Waldren, Charles A.; Geard, Charles R.; Yu, Zengliang; Hei, Tom K.

    1999-04-01

    Ever since x-rays were shown to induce mutation in Drosophila more than 70 years ago, prevailing dogma considered the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, such as mutations and carcinogenesis, as being due mostly to direct damage to the nucleus. Although there was indication that alpha particle traversal through cellular cytoplasm was innocuous, the full impact remained unknown. The availability of the microbeam at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility of Columbia University made it possible to target and irradiate the cytoplasm of individual cells in a highly localized spatial region. By using dual fluorochrome dyes (Hoechst and Nile Red) to locate nucleus and cellular cytoplasm, respectively, thereby avoiding inadvertent traversal of nuclei, we show here that cytoplasmic irradiation is mutagenic at the CD59 (S1) locus of human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells, while inflicting minimal cytotoxicity. The principal class of mutations induced are similar to those of spontaneous origin and are entirely different from those of nuclear irradiation. Furthermore, experiments with radical scavenger and inhibitor of intracellular glutathione indicated that the mutagenicity of cytoplasmic irradiation depends on generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that cytoplasm is an important target for genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly radon, the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. In addition, cytoplasmic traversal by alpha particles may be more dangerous than nuclear traversal, because the mutagenicity is accomplished by little or no killing of the target cells.

  18. CNS-induced deficits of heavy particle irradiation in space: the aging connection.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J A; Shukitt-Hale, B; McEwen, J; Rabin, B M

    2000-01-01

    Our research over the last several years has suggested that young (3 mo) rats exposed to whole-body 56Fe irradiation show neuronal signal transduction alterations and accompanying motor behavioral changes that are similar to those seen in aged (22-24 mo) rats. Since it has been postulated that 1-2% of the composition of cosmic rays contain 56Fe particles of heavy particle irradiation, there may be significant CNS effects on astronauts on long-term space flights which could produce behavioral changes that could be expressed during the mission or at some time after the return. These, when combined with other effects such as weightlessness and exposure to proton irradiations may even supercede mutagenic effects. It is suggested that by determining mechanistic relationships that might exist between aging and irradiation it may be possible to determine the common factor(s) involved in both perturbations and develop procedures to offset their deleterious effects. For example, one method that has been effective is nutritional modification. PMID:11542857

  19. Nanobump arrays fabricated by laser irradiation of polystyrene particle layers on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.M.; Sun, Z.; Luk'yanchuk, B.S.; Hong, M.H.; Shi, L.P.

    2005-04-18

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanobump arrays were fabricated by laser irradiation of a regular lattice of absorptive polystyrene (PS) microspheres on an undoped (100) Si wafer. The experiments were performed with single-pulse 248 nm KrF laser radiation. The structure of the arrays fabricated by this method was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The near-field effects under the absorptive particle are studied. The ablation and thermal processes induced by the optical near-field around the particles are investigated. The formation mechanism of nanobumps is discussed.

  20. SERS study of transformation of phenylalanine to tyrosine under particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Qing; Yao, Guohua; Ke, Zhigang; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Yilin

    2014-08-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering or spectroscopy (SERS) is a very powerful analytical tool which has been widely applied in many scientific research and application fields. It is therefore also very intriguing for us to introduce SERS technique in the radiobiological research, where in many cases only a very few of biomolecules are subjected to changes which however can lead to significant biological effects. The radiation induced biochemical reactions are normally very sophisticated with different substances produced in the system, so currently it is still a big challenge for SERS to analyze such a mixture system which contains multiple analytes. In this context, this work aimed to establish and consolidate the feasibility of SERS as an effective tool in radiation chemistry, and this purpose, we employed SERS as a sensitive probe to a known process, namely, the oxidation of phenylalanine (Phe) under particle irradiation, where the energetic particles were obtained from either plasma discharge or electron-beam. During the irradiation, three types of tyrosine (Tyr), namely, p-Tyr, m-Tyr and o-Tyr were produced, and all these tyrosine isomers together with Phe could be identified and measured based on the SERS spectral analysis of the corresponding enhanced characteristic signals, namely, 1002 cm-1 for Phe, 1161 cm-1 for p-Tyr, 990 cm-1 for m-Tyr, and 970 cm-1 for o-Tyr, respectively. The estimation of the quantities of different tyrosine isomers were also given and verified by conventional method such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As for comparison of different ways of particle irradiation, our results also indicated that electron-beam irradiation was more efficient for converting Phe into Tyr than plasma discharge treatment, confirming the role of hydroxyl radicals in the Phe-Tyr conformation. Therefore, our work has not only demonstrated that SERS can be successfully applied in the radiobiological study, but also given insights into the

  1. Incident particle range dependence of radiation damage in a power bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao-Ming; Li, Xing-Ji; Geng, Hong-Bin; Rui, Er-Ming; Guo, Li-Xin; Yang, Jian-Qun

    2012-10-01

    The characteristic degradations in silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) of type 3DD155 are examined under the irradiations of 25-MeV carbon (C), 40-MeV silicon (Si), and 40-MeV chlorine (Cl) ions respectively. Different electrical parameters are measured in-situ during the exposure of heavy ions. The experimental data shows that the changes in the reciprocal of the gain variation (Δ(1/β)) of 3DD155 transistors irradiated respectively by 25-MeV C, 40-MeV Si, and 40-MeV Cl ions each present a nonlinear behaviour at a low fluence and a linear response at a high fluence. The Δ(1/β) of 3DD155 BJT irradiated by 25-MeV C ions is greatest at a given fluence, a little smaller when the device is irradiated by 40-MeV Si ions, and smallest in the case of the 40-MeV Cl ions irradiation. The measured and calculated results clearly show that the range of heavy ions in the base region of BJT affects the level of radiation damage.

  2. Extended calibration range for prompt photon emission in ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, F.; Boehlen, T. T.; Chin, M. P. W.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrari, A.; Lanza, L.; Mancini-Terracciano, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Ortega, P. G.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Russomando, A.; Sala, P. R.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Voena, C.

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the dose delivered during proton and carbon ion therapy is still a matter of research. Among the possible solutions, several exploit the measurement of the single photon emission from nuclear decays induced by the irradiation. To fully characterize such emission the detectors need development, since the energy spectrum spans the range above the MeV that is not traditionally used in medical applications. On the other hand, a deeper understanding of the reactions involving gamma production is needed in order to improve the physic models of Monte Carlo codes, relevant for an accurate prediction of the prompt-gamma energy spectrum. This paper describes a calibration technique tailored for the range of energy of interest and reanalyzes the data of the interaction of a 80 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. By adopting the FLUKA simulation with the appropriate calibration and resolution a significant improvement in the agreement between data and simulation is reported.

  3. TOF-SIMS evidence of intercalated molecular gases and diffusion-limited reaction kinetics in an alpha particle-irradiated PTFE matrix.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gregory L; Szakal, Christopher; Wetteland, Christopher J; Winograd, Nicholas

    2006-02-01

    The chemical evolution of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) that is brought about by increasing levels of irradiation with alpha particles is accompanied by the emergence and proliferation of functionalized moieties. Families of reaction products specifically identified in the alpha-irradiated polymer matrix include hydride-, hydroxide-, and oxide-functionalized fluorocarbons. The data also indicate the emergence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrazine (N2H4), but no distinct evidence suggesting the formation of perfluorinated amines, amides, or cyanogens is found. In this article we substantiate the speciation of emergent species and reveal evidence of intercalated molecular gases with which alpha particle-generated radicals may react to form the observed products. Furthermore, we present evidence to suggest that the kinetics of alpha particle-induced reaction is limited by the diffusion of radicals within the polymer matrix. That is to say, chemical additives in the polymer matrix are shown to be scavengers of H*, O*, and F* radicals and limit the rates of reaction that produce functionalized fluorocarbon moieties. Above a threshold dose of alpha particles, the concentration of radicals exceeds that of the scavenger species, and free radical diffusion commences as evidenced by a sudden increase in the yield of reaction products. Samples of PTFE were irradiated to alpha doses in the range of 10(7) to 5 x 10(10) rad with 5.5 MeV 4He2+ ions from a tandem accelerator. Residual gas analysis (RGA) was utilized to monitor the liberation of molecular gases from PTFE during alpha particle irradiation of samples in vacuum. Static time-of-flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS), equipped with a 20 keV C60+ source, was employed to probe chemical changes as a function of alpha particle irradiation. Chemical images and high-resolution mass spectra were collected in both the positive and negative polarities.

  4. Neutron irradiation of bacteria in the presence and absence of secondary charged-particle equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Lunec, J.; Cramp, W.A.; Hornsey, S.

    1980-09-01

    The survival rate of Shigella flexneri has been measured for irradiation with 7-MeV neutrons in the presence and absence of secondary charged-particle equilibrium. The data were analyzed to assess the separate response of the cells to the knock-on proton and ..cap alpha..-particle plus heavy-recoil components. A detailed consideration of the frequency of ..cap alpha..-particle and heavy-recoil traversals of the cell has been made to explain our results, and in addition we have applied this approach to analyze the earlier results obtained with mammalian cells. We conclude that of the secondary charged-particles produced by the Hammersmith neutron beam, the highest LET particles, the heavy-recoil nuclei, contribute a minor proportion of damage to bacteria but form a major contribution of damage in mammalian cells. The reduction in oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) with neutrons compared with low LET radiation for mammalian cells is due almost entirely to the influence of the heavy recoils and the contribution of the ..cap alpha..-particle and knock-on protons to the reduction of the OER is relatively minor. For Shigella flexneri the ..cap alpha.. particles and heavy recoils make approximately equal contributions to the reduction in OER.

  5. Formation of long-range ordered quantum dots arrays in amorphous matrix by ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Buljan, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Karlusic, M.; Desnica, U. V.; Radic, N.; Dubcek, P.; Drazic, G.; Salamon, K.; Bernstorff, S.; Holy, V.

    2009-08-10

    We demonstrate the production of a well ordered three-dimensional array of Ge quantum dots in amorphous silica matrix. The ordering is achieved by ion beam irradiation and annealing of a multilayer film. Structural analysis shows that quantum dots nucleate along the direction of the ion beam used for irradiation, while the mutual distance of the quantum dots is determined by the diffusion properties of the multilayer material rather than the distances between traces of ions that are used for irradiation.

  6. Differential Effects of Alpha-Particle Radiation and X-Irradiation on Genes Associated with Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Chen, Jeremy; Kutzner, Barbara; Wilkins, Ruth C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differential effects of alpha-(α-) particle radiation and X-rays on apoptosis and associated changes in gene expression. Human monocytic cells were exposed to α-particle radiation and X-rays from 0 to 1.5 Gy. Four days postexposure, cell death was measured by flow cytometry and 84 genes related to apoptosis were analyzed using real-time PCR. On average, 33% of the cells were apoptotic at 1.5 Gy of α-particle radiation. Transcript profiling showed statistical expression of 15 genes at all three doses tested. Cells exposed to X-rays were <5% apoptotic at ~1.5 Gy and induced less than a 2-fold expression in 6 apoptotic genes at the higher doses of radiation. Among these 6 genes, Fas and TNF-α were common to the α-irradiated cells. This data suggests that α-particle radiation initiates cell death by TNF-α and Fas activation and through intermediate signalling mediators that are distinct from X-irradiated cells. PMID:22091383

  7. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods

  8. Particle Motion Analysis Reveals Nanoscale Bond Characteristics and Enhances Dynamic Range for Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Visser, Emiel W A; van IJzendoorn, Leo J; Prins, Menno W J

    2016-03-22

    Biofunctionalized colloidal particles are widely used as labels in bioanalytical assays, lab-on-chip devices, biophysical research, and in studies on live biological systems. With detection resolution going down to the level of single particles and single molecules, understanding the nature of the interaction of the particles with surfaces and substrates becomes of paramount importance. Here, we present a comprehensive study of motion patterns of colloidal particles maintained in close proximity to a substrate by short molecular tethers (40 nm). The motion of the particles (500-1000 nm) was optically tracked with a very high localization accuracy (below 3 nm). A surprisingly large variation in motion patterns was observed, which can be attributed to properties of the particle-molecule-substrate system, namely the bond number, the nature of the bond, particle protrusions, and substrate nonuniformities. Experimentally observed motion patterns were compared to numerical Monte Carlo simulations, revealing a close correspondence between the observed motion patterns and properties of the molecular system. Particles bound via single tethers show distinct disc-, ring-, and bell-shaped motion patterns, where the ring- and bell-shaped patterns are caused by protrusions on the particle in the direct vicinity of the molecular attachment point. Double and triple tethered particles exhibit stripe-shaped and triangular-shaped motion patterns, respectively. The developed motion pattern analysis allows for discrimination between particles bound by different bond types, which opens the possibility to improve the limit of detection and the dynamic range of bioanalytical assays, with a projected increase of dynamic range by nearly 2 orders of magnitude.

  9. Irradiation of Neurons with High-Energy Charged Particles: An In Silico Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alp, Murat; Parihar, Vipan K.; Limoli, Charles L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a stochastic computational model of microscopic energy deposition events is used to study for the first time damage to irradiated neuronal cells of the mouse hippocampus. An extensive library of radiation tracks for different particle types is created to score energy deposition in small voxels and volume segments describing a neuron’s morphology that later are sampled for given particle fluence or dose. Methods included the construction of in silico mouse hippocampal granule cells from neuromorpho.org with spine and filopodia segments stochastically distributed along the dendritic branches. The model is tested with high-energy 56Fe, 12C, and 1H particles and electrons. Results indicate that the tree-like structure of the neuronal morphology and the microscopic dose deposition of distinct particles may lead to different outcomes when cellular injury is assessed, leading to differences in structural damage for the same absorbed dose. The significance of the microscopic dose in neuron components is to introduce specific local and global modes of cellular injury that likely contribute to spine, filopodia, and dendrite pruning, impacting cognition and possibly the collapse of the neuron. Results show that the heterogeneity of heavy particle tracks at low doses, compared to the more uniform dose distribution of electrons, juxtaposed with neuron morphology make it necessary to model the spatial dose painting for specific neuronal components. Going forward, this work can directly support the development of biophysical models of the modifications of spine and dendritic morphology observed after low dose charged particle irradiation by providing accurate descriptions of the underlying physical insults to complex neuron structures at the nano-meter scale. PMID:26252394

  10. Elimination of the coffee-ring effect by promoting particle adsorption and long-range interaction.

    PubMed

    Crivoi, A; Duan, Fei

    2013-10-01

    A Monte Carlo model has been developed to investigate the transition from the coffee-ring deposition to the uniform coverage in drying pinned sessile colloidal droplets. The model applies the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) approach coupled with the biased random walk (BRW) to simulate the particle migration and agglomeration during the droplet drying process. It is shown that the simultaneous presence of the particle adsorption, long-range attraction, and circulatory motion processes is important for the transition from the coffee-ring effect to the uniform deposition of finally dried particles. The absence of one of the specified factors favors the coffee-ring deposition near the droplet boundary. The strong outward capillary flow on the latest evaporation stage can easily destroy the entire particle pre-ordering at the early drying stages. The formation of a robust particle structure is required to resist the outward flow and alter the coffee-ring effect. PMID:24015843

  11. Investigation of point and extended defects in electron irradiated silicon—Dependence on the particle energy

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, R.; Pintilie, I.; Nistor, L. C.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Makarenko, L. F.

    2015-04-28

    This work is focusing on generation, time evolution, and impact on the electrical performance of silicon diodes impaired by radiation induced active defects. n-type silicon diodes had been irradiated with electrons ranging from 1.5 MeV to 27 MeV. It is shown that the formation of small clusters starts already after irradiation with high fluence of 1.5 MeV electrons. An increase of the introduction rates of both point defects and small clusters with increasing energy is seen, showing saturation for electron energies above ∼15 MeV. The changes in the leakage current at low irradiation fluence-values proved to be determined by the change in the configuration of the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}). Similar to V{sub 3}, other cluster related defects are showing bistability indicating that they might be associated with larger vacancy clusters. The change of the space charge density with irradiation and with annealing time after irradiation is fully described by accounting for the radiation induced trapping centers. High resolution electron microscopy investigations correlated with the annealing experiments revealed changes in the spatial structure of the defects. Furthermore, it is shown that while the generation of point defects is well described by the classical Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL), the formation of small defect clusters is better described by the “effective NIEL” using results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  12. Blue light stress in retinal neuronal (R28) cells is dependent on wavelength range and irradiance.

    PubMed

    Knels, Lilla; Valtink, Monika; Roehlecke, Cora; Lupp, Amelie; de la Vega, Jamlec; Mehner, Mirko; Funk, Richard H W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of wavelength and irradiance in blue light retinal damage. We investigated the impact of blue light emitted from light-emitting diode (LED) modules with peaks at either 411nm (half bandwidth 17nm) or 470nm (half bandwidth 25nm) at defined irradiances of 0.6, 1.5 and 4.5W/m(2) for 411nm and 4.5W/m(2) for 470nm on retinal neuronal (R28) cells in vitro. We observed a reduction in metabolic activity and transmembrane potential of mitochondria when cells were irradiated at 411nm at higher irradiances. Furthermore, production of mitochondrial superoxide radicals increased significantly when cells were irradiated with 411nm light at 4.5W/m(2) . In addition, such irradiation caused an activation of the antioxidative glutathion system. Using vital staining, flow cytometry and western blotting, we were able to show that apoptosis only took place when cells were exposed to 411nm blue light at higher irradiances; necrosis was not observed. Enhanced caspase-3 cleavage product levels confirmed that this effect was dependent on light irradiance. Significant alterations of the above-mentioned parameters were not observed when cells were irradiated with 471nm light despite a high irradiance of 4.5W/m(2) , indicating that the cytotoxic effect of blue light is highly dependent on wavelength. The observed phenomena in R28 cells at 411nm (4.5W/m(2) ) point to an apoptosis pathway elicited by direct mitochondrial damage and increased oxidative stress. Thus, light of 411nm should act via impairment of mitochondrial function by compromising the metabolic situation of these retinal neuronal cells.

  13. Processes responsible for the long-range effects in metals at low-intensity ion and light irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetelbaum, David I.; Semin, Yurii A.; Khabibulov, Vladislav V.; Azov, Aleksei Y.; Trofimov, Aleksei A.

    1999-05-01

    Numerous investigations demonstrated experimentally the possibility of ion irradiation to affect the structure and properties of solids in the layers that are as far from the surface as several micrometer or more ('long-range effect,' LRE). The special kind of LRE is the throughout penetrating alteration of mechanical properties of metal foils (10 - 100 micrometer thick) under low doses (1013 - 1016 cm-2) of ion irradiation ('low-dose long-range effect,' LDLRE). At such doses and ion fluxes used (j less than 10 (mu) A/cm2), substrate heating is small. Therefore, the mechanisms involving macroscopic temperature rise may be excluded (deep diffusion of impurities, plastic strain due to temperature gradients, etc.). As some investigations show, similarly phenomena take place not only for ion irradiation but for many other actions on surface layers of solids: friction, lapping, polishing, chemical and chemical-mechanical etching, plasma-etching, etc. Recently, we established that even such a 'soft' irradiation as one with 0.95 micrometer light causes the increase of microhardness on the back side of 20 micrometer-thick permolloy-79 foil. This phenomenon presents actually the long-range effect for light irradiation; it was named by us 'the effect of mechanical photo-memory of metals' (EMPMM). In this report, we briefly review the regularities of LDLRE and EMPMM. Further, we discuss models of these effects and give some arguments in favor of suggested model of EMPMM basing on our results of molecular-dynamical computation.

  14. Alpha particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T N; Lord, B I; Hendry, J H

    1994-03-01

    Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. ICRP has recommended a dose-weighting factor, wR, of 20 for alpha-particle radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g-1 239Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external gamma irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of 239Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from alpha-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for alpha particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous gamma-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of gamma rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading in the specification of protection guidelines and can greatly

  15. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-02-14

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  16. Hemispheric and Topographic Asymmetry of Magnetospheric Particle Irradiation for Icy Moon Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    All surfaces of icy moons without significant atmospheres, i.e. all except Titan in the giant planet systems, are irradiated by hot plasma and more energetic charged particles from the local magnetospheric environments. This irradiation can significantly impact the chemical composition, albedo, and detectable presence of signs of life on the sensible surfaces, while also limiting lifetimes and science operations of orbital spacecraft for extreme radiation environments as at Europa. Planning of surface remote sensing and lander operations, and interpretation of remote sensing and in-situ measurements, should include consideration of natural shielding afforded by the body of the moon, by any intrinsic or induced magnetic fields as at Ganyrnede, and by topographic structures.

  17. Renal tubulointerstitial changes after internal irradiation with alpha-particle-emitting actinium daughters.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Seshan, Surya V; McDevitt, Michael R; LaPerle, Krista; Sgouros, George; Scheinberg, David A

    2005-09-01

    The effect of external gamma irradiation on the kidneys is well described. However, the mechanisms of radiation nephropathy as a consequence of targeted radionuclide therapies are poorly understood. The functional and morphologic changes were studied chronologically (from 10 to 40 wk) in mouse kidneys after injection with an actinium-225 (225Ac) nanogenerator, a molecular-sized, antibody-targeted, in vivo generator of alpha-particle-emitting elements. Renal irradiation from free, radioactive daughters of 225Ac led to time-dependent reduction in renal function manifesting as increase in blood urea nitrogen. The histopathologic changes corresponded with the decline in renal function. Glomerular, tubular, and endothelial cell nuclear pleomorphism and focal tubular cell injury, lysis, and karyorrhexis were observed as early as 10 wk. Progressive thinning of the cortex as a result of widespread tubulolysis, collapsed tubules, glomerular crowding, decrease in glomerular cellularity, interstitial inflammation, and an elevated juxtaglomerular cell count were noted at 20 to 30 wk after treatment. By 35 to 40 wk, regeneration of simplified tubules with tubular atrophy and loss with focal, mild interstitial fibrosis had occurred. A lower juxtaglomerular cell count with focal cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting increased degranulation, was also observed in this period. A focal increase in tubular and interstitial cell TGF-beta1 expression starting at 20 wk, peaking at 25 wk, and later declining in intensity with mild increase in the extracellular matrix deposition was noticed. These findings suggest that internally delivered alpha-particle irradiation-induced loss of tubular epithelial cells triggers a chain of adaptive changes that result in progressive renal parenchymal damage accompanied by a loss of renal function. These findings are dissimilar to those seen after gamma or beta irradiation of kidneys.

  18. Renal tubulointerstitial changes after internal irradiation with alpha-particle-emitting actinium daughters.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Seshan, Surya V; McDevitt, Michael R; LaPerle, Krista; Sgouros, George; Scheinberg, David A

    2005-09-01

    The effect of external gamma irradiation on the kidneys is well described. However, the mechanisms of radiation nephropathy as a consequence of targeted radionuclide therapies are poorly understood. The functional and morphologic changes were studied chronologically (from 10 to 40 wk) in mouse kidneys after injection with an actinium-225 (225Ac) nanogenerator, a molecular-sized, antibody-targeted, in vivo generator of alpha-particle-emitting elements. Renal irradiation from free, radioactive daughters of 225Ac led to time-dependent reduction in renal function manifesting as increase in blood urea nitrogen. The histopathologic changes corresponded with the decline in renal function. Glomerular, tubular, and endothelial cell nuclear pleomorphism and focal tubular cell injury, lysis, and karyorrhexis were observed as early as 10 wk. Progressive thinning of the cortex as a result of widespread tubulolysis, collapsed tubules, glomerular crowding, decrease in glomerular cellularity, interstitial inflammation, and an elevated juxtaglomerular cell count were noted at 20 to 30 wk after treatment. By 35 to 40 wk, regeneration of simplified tubules with tubular atrophy and loss with focal, mild interstitial fibrosis had occurred. A lower juxtaglomerular cell count with focal cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting increased degranulation, was also observed in this period. A focal increase in tubular and interstitial cell TGF-beta1 expression starting at 20 wk, peaking at 25 wk, and later declining in intensity with mild increase in the extracellular matrix deposition was noticed. These findings suggest that internally delivered alpha-particle irradiation-induced loss of tubular epithelial cells triggers a chain of adaptive changes that result in progressive renal parenchymal damage accompanied by a loss of renal function. These findings are dissimilar to those seen after gamma or beta irradiation of kidneys. PMID:15987754

  19. Particle irradiation induces FGF2 expression in normal human lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Bjornstad K, A.; Chang, E.; McNamara, M.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Lin, S. P.; Aragon, G.; Polansky, J. R.; Lui, G. M.; Blakely, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle Irradiation Induces FGF2 Expression in Normal Human Lens Cells. Particle radiations, including both proton and helium-ion beams, have been used to successfully treat choroidal melanoma, but with the complication of radiation-induced cataract. We have investigated a role for radiation-induced changes in the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) gene expression as part of the mechanism(s) underlying lens cell injury associated with cataract. Normal human lens epithelial (HLE) cells were cultured in vitro on extracellular matrix (ECM) originated from bovine corneal endothelial cells. This study reports evidence for rapid but transient induction of FGF2 transcripts, an increase of between 5- and 8-fold, within 0.5 h after exposure to particle radiation, followed by another wave of increased transcription at 2-3 h postirradiation. Immunofluorescence results confirm the enhanced levels of FGF2 protein rapidly after exposure to protons or helium ions, followed by another wave of increased activity unique to helium at 6 h postirradiation. This second wave of increased immunoreactivity was not observed in the proton-irradiated samples. Total FGF2 protein analysis after helium-ion exposures shows induced expression of three FGF2 isoforms, with an increase of up to 2-fold in the 18-kDa low-molecular-weight species. Studies of the effects of protons on individual FGF2 protein isoforms are in progress. Several mechanisms involving a role for FGF2 in radiation-induced cataract are discussed.

  20. Effect of long-range electrostatic interaction on pore clogging in viscous particle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng; Yang, Mengmeng; Li, Shuiqing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we implement the long-range electrostatic interactions (both Coulomb and dipole interactions) into the discrete-element method simulation of small adhesive particles to investigate their influence on the formation of clogging patterns at single-pore level. The relationship between microscopic interparticle forces and the macroscopic clogging quantities, i.e. the flow permeability and clogging structures, is established. Simulated results indicate that the early-stage capture of charged particles is enhanced by the attraction between these particles and their induced charge on the wall surface. However, further aggregation is suppressed by the repulsive Coulomb interaction between the deposited particles and the suspended ones. Meanwhile, the attraction among polarized particles causes the formation of long particle chains on the surface. These particles chains, bended by flow stress, enhance the bridging phenomenon that leads to a rapid pore clogging. Comparatively, the final clogging structures have lower volume fraction and higher flow permeability in contrast to the neutral case. The results suggest that the controlled charging or polarizing of particles provide a feasible way to tune the formation process and the final state of pore clogging. This work has been funded by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2013CB228506).

  1. Microstructure damage of thin aluminum films by irradiation with alpha particles and fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Sadi, S.; Paulenova, A.; Loveland, W.D.; Watson, P.R.

    2007-07-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the microstructure damage of thin aluminum film surfaces induced by bombardment of alpha particles and fission fragments from {sup 252}Cf source. Different types of defects (dislocations lines, loops, voids, and blisters) and their complex morphologies appeared under both the beam of alpha particles and a mix of alpha particles and fission fragments. The first surface damage became clearly visible only after 250 hr irradiation of a mix of alpha particles and fission fragments (8.65 x 10{sup 8} ff/cm{sup 2} and 1.36 x 10{sup 10} {alpha}/cm{sup 2}). The number of voids and dislocation lines created on the aluminum surface were (3.8 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2} and (2.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}, respectively. Single blisters were observed with the mean diameter of (933 {+-} 22) nm and the mean height of (102 {+-} 15) nm. The first ellipsoidal dislocation loops appeared at the fluence of (1.03 x 10{sup 9} ff/cm{sup 2} and 1.62 x 10{sup 10} {alpha}/cm{sup 2}). However, these ellipsoidal loops were not seen with low energetic alpha particles at the same fluence. Our results suggest that the fission fragments might maximize large voids and dislocations and increase the degradation in depth resolution. (authors)

  2. Single-cell/Single-particle Irradiation Using Heavy-ion Microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    Heavy charged particles transfer their energy to biological organisms through high-density ionization along the particle trajectories. The population of cells exposed to a very low dose of heavy-ion beams contains a few cells hit by a particle, while the majority of the cells receive no radiation damage. At somewhat higher doses, some of the cells receive two or more events according to the Poisson distribution of ion injections. This fluctuation of particle trajectories through individual cells makes interpretation of radiological effects of heavy ions difficult. Furthermore, there has recently been an increasing interest in ionizing radiation-induced “bystander effects”, that is, radiation effects transmitted from hit cells to neighboring un-hit cells. Therefore, we have established a single-cell/single-particle irradiation system using a heavy-ion microbeam apparatus at JAEA-Takasaki to study radiobiological processes in hit cells and bystander cells exposed to low dose and low dose-rate high-LET radiations, in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad-field exposures.

  3. Emergent Ultra-Long-Range Interactions Between Active Particles in Hybrid Active-Inactive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range and magnitude of such interactions has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless, immobile objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our system is a two dimensional colloidal monolayer composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids and a very small fraction of active (sinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction between active particles induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation time scale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  4. A model study on a pair of trapped particles interacting with an arbitrary effective range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Partha; Deb, Bimalendu

    2016-08-01

    We study the effects of the effective range of interaction on the eigenvalues and eigenstates of two particles confined in a three-dimensional (3D) isotropic as well as one- or quasi-one dimensional harmonic (1D) traps. For this we employ model potentials which mimic finite-range s-wave interactions over a wide range of s-wave scattering length a s including the unitarity limits {a}s\\to +/- ∞ . Our results show that when the range is larger than the 3D or 1D harmonic oscillator length scale, the eigenvalues and eigenstates are nearly similar to those of noninteracting two particles in the 3D or 1D trap, respectively. In case of 3D, we find that when the range goes to zero, the results of contact potential as derived by Busch et al (1998 Foundations of Physics 28 549) are reproduced. However, in the case of 1D, such reproducibility does not occur as the range goes to zero. We have calculated the eigenvalues and eigenstates in a 1D harmonic trap taking one dimensional finite-range model potential. We have also calculated the bound state properties of two particles confined in a highly anisotropic quasi-1D trap taking three-dimensional finite-range model potential, and examined whether these quasi-1D results approach towards 1D ones as the aspect ratio η of the radial to axial frequency of the trap increases. We find that if the range is very small compared to the axial size of the trap, then one can reach 1D regime for η ≥slant 10000. However, for a large range, one can almost get 1D results for smaller values of η. This study will be important for the exploration of two-body or many body physics of trapped ultracold atoms interacting with narrow Feshbach resonance for which the effective range can be large.

  5. Measurement of long-range repulsive forces between charged particles at an oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Aveyard, R; Binks, B P; Clint, J H; Fletcher, P D I; Horozov, T S; Neumann, B; Paunov, V N; Annesley, J; Botchway, S W; Nees, D; Parker, A W; Ward, A D; Burgess, A N

    2002-06-17

    Using a laser tweezers method, we have determined the long-range repulsive force as a function of separation between two charged, spherical polystyrene particles (2.7 microm diameter) present at a nonpolar oil-water interface. At large separations (6 to 12 microm between particle centers) the force is found to decay with distance to the power -4 and is insensitive to the ionic strength of the aqueous phase. The results are consistent with a model in which the repulsion arises primarily from the presence of a very small residual electric charge at the particle-oil interface. This charge corresponds to a fractional dissociation of the total ionizable (sulfate) groups present at the particle-oil surface of approximately 3 x 10(-4).

  6. Measurement of Long-Range Repulsive Forces between Charged Particles at an Oil-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveyard, R.; Binks, B. P.; Clint, J. H.; Fletcher, P. D.; Horozov, T. S.; Neumann, B.; Paunov, V. N.; Annesley, J.; Botchway, S. W.; Nees, D.; Parker, A. W.; Ward, A. D.; Burgess, A. N.

    2002-06-01

    Using a laser tweezers method, we have determined the long-range repulsive force as a function of separation between two charged, spherical polystyrene particles ( 2.7μm diameter) present at a nonpolar oil-water interface. At large separations (6 to 12 μm between particle centers) the force is found to decay with distance to the power -4 and is insensitive to the ionic strength of the aqueous phase. The results are consistent with a model in which the repulsion arises primarily from the presence of a very small residual electric charge at the particle-oil interface. This charge corresponds to a fractional dissociation of the total ionizable (sulfate) groups present at the particle-oil surface of approximately 3×10-4.

  7. Evaluating Attenuation of Vibration Response using Particle Impact Damping for a Range of Equipment Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Brent; Parsons, David; Smith, Andrew; Hunt, Ron; LaVerde, Bruce; Towner, Robert; Craigmyle, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Particle dampers provide a mechanism for diverting energy away from resonant structural vibrations. This experimental study provides data from a series of acoustically excited tests to determine the effectiveness of these dampers for equipment mounted to a curved orthogrid panel for a launch vehicle application. Vibration attenuation trends are examined for variations in particle damper fill level, component mass, and excitation energy. A significant response reduction at the component level was achieved, suggesting that comparatively small, strategically placed, particle damper devices might be advantageously used in launch vehicle design. These test results were compared to baseline acoustic response tests without particle damping devices, over a range of isolation and damping parameters. Instrumentation consisting of accelerometers, microphones, and still photography data will be collected to correlate with the analytical results.

  8. Performance of HTGR fertile particles irradiated in HFIR capsule HT-32

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.L. Jr.; Robbins, J.M.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kania, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    The HT-32 experiment was an uninstrumented capsule irradiated for four cycles in the target position of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The experiment was designed to: provide supplemental simulated fuel rods for thermal transport and expansion measurements; test fertile kernels with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ additives for improved fission product retention; study the stability and permeability of low-temperature isotropic (LTI) pyrocarbon coatings; test Biso- and Triso-coatings derived in a large (0.24-m-dia) coating furnace with a frit distributor; investigate the performance of particles with an outer layer of SiC both as loose particles and as resin-bonded fuel rods; and evaluate high-density alumina as a potential high-temperature thermometry sheathing material.

  9. A review of irradiated fuel particle releases from the Windscale Piles, 1950-1957.

    PubMed

    Smith, A D; Jones, S R; Gray, J; Mitchell, K A

    2007-06-01

    Radiological assessments have assumed that the mass of irradiated uranium oxide particles inadvertently released to the atmosphere from the Windscale Piles, two nuclear reactors at Windscale Works, Sellafield, England, during the 1950s was 20 kg. This paper re-examines the assumptions upon which this figure was based and concludes that the value is a realistically conservative estimate of the release, consistent with current radiological protection practice. The mass estimate is derived from a reanalysis of plant data produced at the time. The environmental data on which the initial estimates were based are reconfirmed, and additional support is provided by an interpretation of modelling studies of both the total deposition and milk concentrations resulting from that deposition. Milk-monitoring data from the time are shown to be consistent with the release assumptions used in the dispersion modelling exercise. Finally, the issue of statistical undersampling is addressed using the particle numbers and size distributions produced by the modelling exercise.

  10. Simple experimental method for alpha particle range determination in lead iodide films

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Yuri; Bennett, Paul R.; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Klugerman, Mikhail; Shah, Kanai S.

    2007-05-15

    An experimental method for determining the range of alpha particles in films based on I-V{sub s} analysis has been suggested. The range of 5.5 MeV alpha particles in PbI{sub 2} films determined by this technique is 30{+-}5 {mu}m, and this value is in agreement with the value calculated by SRIM (the stopping and range of ions in matter), r=24 {mu}m in PbI{sub 2}. More than 100 I-V{sub s} of PbI{sub 2} films with different thicknesses and quality have been analyzed, and the influence of alpha particle radiation on PbI{sub 2} I-V{sub s} curves has been studied. Developed analytical methods (dependence of current density on electric field and conception of surface defects) were used, and the method limitations are discussed. It was shown that I-V{sub s} demonstrate the tendency to obey Ohm's law under alpha radiation. On the other hand, dark conductivity of the lead iodide films shows a typical impure character that can lead to an overestimation of the alpha particles' range in PbI{sub 2} films. After films were exposed to alpha radiation, the dark resistivity and I-V shape of some films improved. Also, a weak decrease of the charge carrier concentration, due to a decrease of the ''surface defect'' concentration (''surface refining''), was registered after successive measurements of I-V{sub s}.

  11. Pre- and post-irradiation characterization and properties measurements of ZrC coated surrogate TRISO particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevamurthy, Gokul; Katoh, Yutai; Hunn, John D; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2010-09-01

    Zirconium carbide is a candidate to either replace or supplement silicon carbide as a coating material in TRISO fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels. Six sets of ZrC coated surrogate microsphere samples, fabricated by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method, were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developmental samples available for the irradiation experiment were in conditions of either as-fabricated coated particles or particles that had been heat-treated to simulate the fuel compacting process. Five sets of samples were composed of nominally stoichiometric compositions, with the sixth being richer in carbon (C/Zr = 1.4). The samples were irradiated at 800 and 1250 C with fast neutron fluences of 2 and 6 dpa. Post-irradiation, the samples were retrieved from the irradiation capsules followed by microstructural examination performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis Laboratory. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Gas Reactor program as part of International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative collaboration with Japan. This report includes progress from that INERI collaboration, as well as results of some follow-up examination of the irradiated specimens. Post-irradiation examination items included microstructural characterization, and nanoindentation hardness/modulus measurements. The examinations revealed grain size enhancement and softening as the primary effects of both heat-treatment and irradiation in stoichiometric ZrC with a non-layered, homogeneous grain structure, raising serious concerns on the mechanical suitability of these particular developmental coatings as a replacement for SiC in TRISO fuel. Samples with either free carbon or carbon-rich layers dispersed in the ZrC coatings experienced negligible grain size

  12. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  14. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

  15. Immunohistochemical evidence of rapid extracellular matrix remodeling after iron-particle irradiation of mouse mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhart, E.J.; Gillette, E.L.; Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    1996-02-01

    High-LET radiation has unique physical and biological properties compared to sparsely ionizing radiation. Recent studies demonstrate that sparsely ionizing radiation rapidly alters the pattern of extracellular matrix expression in several tissues, but little is known about the effect of heavy-ion radiation. This study investigates densely ionizing radiation-induced changes in extracellular matrix localization in the mammary glands of adult female BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy 600 MeV iron particles. The basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix proteins of the mammary gland stroma were mapped with respect to time postirradiation using immunofluorescence. Collagen III was induced in the adipose stroma within 1 day, continued to increase through day 9 and was resolved by day 14. Immunoreactive tenascin was induced in the epithelium by day 1, was evident at the epithelial-stromal interface by day 5-9 and persisted as a condensed layer beneath the basement membrane through day 14. These findings parallel similar changes induced by {gamma} irradiation but demonstrate different onset and chronicity. In contrast, the integrity of epithelial basement membrane, which was unaffected by sparsely ionizing radiation, was disrupted by iron-particle irradiation. Laminin inummoreactivity was mildly irregular at 1 h postirradiation and showed discontinuities and thickening from days 1 to 9. Continuity was restored by day 14. Thus high-LET radiation, like sparsely ionizing radiation, induces rapid remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix but also appears to alter the integrity of the epithelial basement membrane, which is an important regulator of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Immunohistochemical evidence of rapid extracellular matrix remodeling after iron-particle irradiation of mouse mammary gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Gillette, E. L.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chaterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    High-LET radiation has unique physical and biological properties compared to sparsely ionizing radiation. Recent studies demonstrate that sparsely ionizing radiation rapidly alters the pattern of extracellular matrix expression in several tissues, but little is known about the effect of heavy-ion radiation. This study investigates densely ionizing radiation-induced changes in extracellular matrix localization in the mammary glands of adult female BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy 600 MeV iron particles. The basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix proteins of the mammary gland stroma were mapped with respect to time postirradiation using immunofluorescence. Collagen III was induced in the adipose stroma within 1 day, continued to increase through day 9 and was resolved by day 14. Immunoreactive tenascin was induced in the epithelium by day 1, was evident at the epithelial-stromal interface by day 5-9 and persisted as a condensed layer beneath the basement membrane through day 14. These findings parallel similar changes induced by gamma irradiation but demonstrate different onset and chronicity. In contrast, the integrity of epithelial basement membrane, which was unaffected by sparsely ionizing radiation, was disrupted by iron-particle irradiation. Laminin immunoreactivity was mildly irregular at 1 h postirradiation and showed discontinuities and thickening from days 1 to 9. Continuity was restored by day 14. Thus high-LET radiation, like sparsely ionizing radiation, induces rapid-remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix but also appears to alter the integrity of the epithelial basement membrane, which is an important regulator of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser

    2016-04-01

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  18. Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems.

    PubMed

    Steimel, Joshua P; Aragones, Juan L; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2016-04-26

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  19. Magnetic Susceptibility Analyses of Nanophase Iron Particle Diameters and Volumes Produced through Laser Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, M. M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2015-12-01

    Micrometeorite impacts greatly modify surfaces exposed to the space environment. This interaction vaporizes the surficial material and allows for the re-precipitation of minerals and iron. Characterizing the recondensed iron or nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) improves our interpretations in remote sensing of planetary surfaces. We irradiated olivine samples with energies simulating micrometeorite impact energies from around the inner Solar System. They revealed npFe0 as single domain (SD) and superparamagnetic (SPM) iron grains varying in size. Spectrally they changed the spectral reflectance of silicate minerals and contribute to "space weathering": (1) darkens the overall reflectance, (2) steepens (or reddens) the spectral slope, and (3) decreases the contrast in the silicate 1 µm band. Using frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility (MS), we revealed patterns of npFe0 sizes. Fresh samples contained some nanophase magnetic sources due to decreasing magnetic susceptibility, when changing frequency from 4 kHz to 16 kHz. Using the fresh olivine as a standard, the lunar analog displayed increased MS at the lower 4 kHz indicating that more iron was transformed into magnetic sources. At 16 kHz, the MS decreased due to SPM particles that were being formed with sizes <10 nm. With the Mercury analog, at higher 16 kHz frequencies the MS increased rather than decreased. We can infer that the excess energy from our laser converted the amount of smaller <10 nm SPM particles by growth into an increasing volume of >10 nm particles. With the asteroid analog, we found a lower MS at 16 kHz, but nothing less MS than the Lunar analog. The 4 kHz MS was similar to the fresh olivine. At the lowest irradiation energy for the asteroid sample we have evidence that we are producing npFe0 particles. Our data compares well with traditional methods of forming npFe0, such as thermal processing of olivine, suggesting that with laser irradiation there is a linear increase of nanoparticles

  20. High Dynamic Velocity Range Particle Image Velocimetry Using Multiple Pulse Separation Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Persoons, Tim; O’Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic velocity range of particle image velocimetry (PIV) is determined by the maximum and minimum resolvable particle displacement. Various techniques have extended the dynamic range, however flows with a wide velocity range (e.g., impinging jets) still challenge PIV algorithms. A new technique is presented to increase the dynamic velocity range by over an order of magnitude. The multiple pulse separation (MPS) technique (i) records series of double-frame exposures with different pulse separations, (ii) processes the fields using conventional multi-grid algorithms, and (iii) yields a composite velocity field with a locally optimized pulse separation. A robust criterion determines the local optimum pulse separation, accounting for correlation strength and measurement uncertainty. Validation experiments are performed in an impinging jet flow, using laser-Doppler velocimetry as reference measurement. The precision of mean flow and turbulence quantities is significantly improved compared to conventional PIV, due to the increase in dynamic range. In a wide range of applications, MPS PIV is a robust approach to increase the dynamic velocity range without restricting the vector evaluation methods. PMID:22346564

  1. Roles of charged particles and reactive species on cell membrane permeabilization induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hokari, Yutaro; Tominami, Kanako; Mokudai, Takayuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    As factors that influence cell membrane permeabilization during direct and indirect atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation, charged particle influx, superoxide anion radicals (O2 -•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plasma-irradiated solution were evaluated. These are the three strong candidate factors and might multiply contribute to cell membrane permeabilization. In particular, a shorter plasma diffusion distance leads to the enhancement of the direct effects such as charged particle influx and further increase cell membrane permeability. In addition, O2 -• dissipates over time (a life span of the order of minutes) in plasma-irradiated water, and the deactivation of a plasma-irradiated solution in term of cell membrane permeabilization occurs in a life span of the same order. These results could promote the understanding of the mechanism of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization.

  2. Emergent ultra–long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active–inactive systems

    PubMed Central

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Particle–particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra–long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials. PMID:27071096

  3. The equilibrium properties and microstructure of mixtures of colloidal particles with long-range, soft repulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.J.; Zukoski, C.F.

    1999-02-15

    Osmotic pressure and elastic moduli of bimodal suspensions of particles experiencing long-range, soft repulsions were measured. At fixed osmotic pressure, the total suspension volume fraction, {phi}, varies linearly as the mixing ratio {phi}{sub l}/{phi} is increased from 0 to 1. Here {phi}{sub l} is the volume fraction of large particles based on total suspension volume. This result suggests the suspensions studied here are phase separated into domains containing primarily small and primarily large particles and is not expected for hard sphere suspensions where, at fixed osmotic pressure, {phi} passes through a maximum as {phi}{sub l}/{phi} is increased. Elastic moduli are well described by a model based on a composite microstructure where the domains of pure large and small particles must have the same osmotic pressure which fixes the local particle volume fraction and hence the elastic modulus in each phase. The existence of phase separation is supported by electron micrographs taken on samples prepared by rapidly drying suspensions with volume fractions near 0.6.

  4. Controlling exchange bias in Fe3O4/FeO composite particles prepared by pulsed laser irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Spherical iron oxide nanocomposite particles composed of magnetite and wustite have been successfully synthesized using a novel method of pulsed laser irradiation in ethyl acetate. Both the size and the composition of nanocomposite particles are controlled by laser irradiation condition. Through tuning the laser fluence, the Fe3O4/FeO phase ratio can be precisely controlled, and the magnetic properties of final products can also be regulated. This work presents a successful example of the fabrication of ferro (ferri) (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) systems with high chemical stability. The results show this novel simple method as widely extendable to various FM/AFM nanocomposite systems. PMID:21711758

  5. Bound States of Spinless Particles in a Short-Range Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, Hassan; de Castro, Antonio Soares

    2015-04-01

    With a general mixing of vector and scalar couplings in a two-dimensional world, a short-range potential is used to explore certain features of the bound states of a spinless particle. Bound-state solutions are found in terms of the Gauss hypergeometric series when the potential parameters obey a certain constraint relation limiting the dosage of a vector coupling. The appearance of the Schiff-Snyder-Weinberg effect for a strong vector coupling and a short-range potential as well as its suppression by the addition of a scalar coupling is discussed.

  6. Damage growth in Si during self-ion irradiation: A study of ion effects over an extended energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, O.W.; El-Ghor, M.K.; White, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Damage nucleation/growth in single-crystal Si during ion irradiation is discussed. For MeV ions, the rate of growth as well as the damage morphology are shown to vary widely along the track of the ion. This is attributed to a change in the dominant, defect-related reactions as the ion penetrates the crystal. The nature of these reactions were elucidated by studying the interaction of MeV ions with different types of defects. The defects were introduced into the Si crystal prior to high-energy irradiation by self-ion implantation at a medium energy (100 keV). Varied damage morphologies were produced by implanting different ion fluences. Electron microscopy and ion-channeling measurements, in conjunction with annealing studies, were used to characterize the damage. Subtle changes in the predamage morphology are shown to result in markedly different responses to the high-energy irradiation, ranging from complete annealing of the damage to rapid growth. These divergent responses occur over a narrow range of dose (2--3 /times/ 10/sup 14/ cm/sup /minus/2/) of the medium-energy ions; this range also marks a transition in the growth behavior of the damage during the predamage implantation. A model is proposed which accounts for these observations and provides insight into ion-induced growth of amorphous layers in Si and the role of the amorphous/crystalline interface in this process. 15 refs, 9 figs.

  7. Neuroimmune response and sleep studies after whole body irradiation with high-LET particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquette, C.; Mathieu, J.; Bertho, J.-M.; Galonnier, M.; Wysoki, J.; Maubert, C.; Balanzat, E.; Gerbin, R.; Aigueperse, J.; Clarençon, D.

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of galactic rays on astronaut cerebral functions after space flight, mice were exposed to different heavy ions (HZE) in whole-body conditions at doses comparable to the galactic flux: 12C, 16O and 20Ne (95 MeV/u, at 42-76 mGy). Animals were also exposed to 42 mGy of 60Co radiation for comparison with HZE. The neuroimmune response, evaluated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) measurement, showed that this cytokine was produced 3 h after irradiation by 16O or 60Co. In contrast, neither 12C (56.7 mGy) nor 20Ne (76 mGy) induced IL-1 production. However, immunohistochemical staining of 12C-irradiated mouse brain tissue showed 2 months later a marked inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus and a diffuse response in parenchyma. Sleep studies were realized before and after exposure to 42 mGy of 16O and 76 mGy of 20Ne: only the 20Ne radiation displayed a small effect. A slight decrease in paradoxical sleep, corresponding to a reduction in the number of episodes of paradoxical sleep, was manifested between 8 and 22 days after exposure. Exposure to 12C and 16O induced no changes either in cellularity of spleen or thymus, or in caspase 3 activity (as much as four months after irradiation). Taken together, these data indicate that the CNS could be sensitive to heavy ions and that responses to HZE impact depend on the nature of the particle, the dose threshold and the time delay to develop biological processes. Differences in responses to different HZE highlight the complex biological phenomena to which astronauts are submitted during space flight.

  8. Induced radioactivities in concrete constituents irradiated by high-energy particles.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Hirayama, H; Ban, S; Taino, M; Ishii, H

    1984-06-01

    The powdered concrete constituents of magnetite ore, pyrites ore, marble, gravel and Portland cement were prepared and irradiated by 12- GeV protons and secondary particles at the slow extracted beam line of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics ( KEK ) 12- GeV proton synchrotron. The saturated activities for individual nuclides produced were calculated, and the time variation of photon exposure rate due to the residual activities was also evaluated for each sample. The exposure rates ranked in the following order: magnetite ore greater than pyrites ore greater than gravel greater than or equal to cement greater than marble. The levels of photon exposure rates from heavy, ordinary and marble concretes were also estimated on the basis of the results obtained for each constituent. It is suggested that the use of marble concrete in the inside wall of accelerator tunnels can reduce considerably the exposure to the accelerator maintenance workers, compared with heavy and ordinary concretes commonly used. PMID:6724935

  9. Induced radioactivities in concrete constituents irradiated by high-energy particles.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Hirayama, H; Ban, S; Taino, M; Ishii, H

    1984-06-01

    The powdered concrete constituents of magnetite ore, pyrites ore, marble, gravel and Portland cement were prepared and irradiated by 12- GeV protons and secondary particles at the slow extracted beam line of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics ( KEK ) 12- GeV proton synchrotron. The saturated activities for individual nuclides produced were calculated, and the time variation of photon exposure rate due to the residual activities was also evaluated for each sample. The exposure rates ranked in the following order: magnetite ore greater than pyrites ore greater than gravel greater than or equal to cement greater than marble. The levels of photon exposure rates from heavy, ordinary and marble concretes were also estimated on the basis of the results obtained for each constituent. It is suggested that the use of marble concrete in the inside wall of accelerator tunnels can reduce considerably the exposure to the accelerator maintenance workers, compared with heavy and ordinary concretes commonly used.

  10. THE IRRADIATION-INDUCED OLIVINE TO AMORPHOUS PYROXENE TRANSFORMATION PRESERVED IN AN INTERPLANETARY DUST PARTICLE

    SciTech Connect

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    2009-11-01

    Amorphization of crystalline olivine to glass with a pyroxene composition is well known from high-energy irradiation experiments. This report is on the first natural occurrence of this process preserved in a chondritic aggregate interplanetary dust particle. The Fe-rich olivine grain textures and compositions and the glass grain compositions delineate this transformation that yielded glass with Fe-rich pyroxene compositions. The average glass composition, (Mg, Fe){sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, is a serpentine-dehydroxylate with O/Si = 3.56 +- 0.25, (Mg+Fe)/Si = 1.53 +- 0.24, and Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.74 +- 0.1. These measured atomic ratios match the ratios that have been proposed for amorphous interstellar silicate grains very well, albeit the measured Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio is lower than was proposed for amorphous interstellar silicate grains, Mg/(Mg+Fe) > 0.9.

  11. Hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroinflammation after cranial irradiation with (56)Fe particles.

    PubMed

    Rola, Radoslaw; Fishman, Kelly; Baure, Jennifer; Rosi, Susanna; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Obenaus, Andre; Nelson, Gregory A; Fike, John R

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to heavy-ion radiation is considered a potential health risk in long-term space travel. In the central nervous system (CNS), loss of critical cellular components may lead to performance decrements that could ultimately compromise mission goals and long-term quality of life. Hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairments occur after exposure to ionizing radiation, and while the pathogenesis of this effect is not yet clear, it may involve the production of newly born neurons (neurogenesis) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We irradiated mice with 0.5-4 Gy of (56)Fe ions and 2 months later quantified neurogenesis and numbers of activated microglia as a measure of neuroinflammation in the dentate gyrus. Results showed that there were few changes after 0.5 Gy, but that there was a dose-related decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and a dose-related increase in numbers of newly born activated microglia from 0.5-4.0 Gy. While those findings were similar to what was reported after X irradiation, there were also some differences, particularly in the response of newly born glia. Overall, this study showed that hippocampal neurogenesis was sensitive to relatively low doses of (56)Fe particles, and that those effects were associated with neuroinflammation. Whether these changes will result in functional impairments or if/how they can be managed are topics for further investigation.

  12. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Neuroinflammation after Cranial Irradiation with 56Fe Particles

    PubMed Central

    Rola, Radoslaw; Fishman, Kelly; Baure, Jennifer; Rosi, Susanna; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Obenaus, Andre; Nelson, Gregory A.; Fike, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to heavy-ion radiation is considered a potential health risk in long-term space travel. In the central nervous system (CNS), loss of critical cellular components may lead to performance decrements that could ultimately compromise mission goals and long-term quality of life. Hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairments occur after exposure to ionizing radiation, and while the pathogenesis of this effect is not yet clear, it may involve the production of newly born neurons (neurogenesis) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We irradiated mice with 0.5–4 Gy of 56Fe ions and 2 months later quantified neurogenesis and numbers of activated microglia as a measure of neuroinflammation in the dentate gyrus. Results showed that there were few changes after 0.5 Gy, but that there was a dose-related decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and a dose-related increase in numbers of newly born activated microglia from 0.5–4.0 Gy. While those findings were similar to what was reported after X irradiation, there were also some differences, particularly in the response of newly born glia. Overall, this study showed that hippocampal neurogenesis was sensitive to relatively low doses of 56Fe particles, and that those effects were associated with neuroinflammation. Whether these changes will result in functional impairments or if/how they can be managed are topics for further investigation. PMID:18494546

  13. Long-term effects of irradiation with iron-56 particles on the nigrostriatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Rice, Onarae V; Grande, Alicia V; Dehktyar, Natasha; Bruneus, Magalie; Robinson, John K; Gatley, Samuel J

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to heavy ions during a Mars mission might damage the brain, thus compromising mission success and the quality of life of returning astronauts. Several workers have suggested that the dopamine system is particularly sensitive to heavy ion radiation, but direct evidence for this notion is lacking. We examined measures of brain dopamine viability at times up to 15 months after acute exposure of rats to (56)Fe (1.2-2.4 Gy). No effects were seen in brain sections stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, the classical marker for dopamine cells and nerve terminals. Locomotion stimulated by cocaine, which directly activates the dopamine system, was reduced at 6 months but not at 12 months. Furthermore, in a visually cued lever-pressing test, reaction times, which are prolonged by dopamine system damage, were identical in irradiated and control animals. However, learning times were increased by irradiation. Our data suggest that the midbrain dopamine system is not especially sensitive to damage by (56)Fe particles at doses much higher than would be associated with travel to and from Mars. PMID:19259693

  14. Long-term effects of irradiation with iron-56 particles on the nigrostriatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Rice, Onarae V; Grande, Alicia V; Dehktyar, Natasha; Bruneus, Magalie; Robinson, John K; Gatley, Samuel J

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to heavy ions during a Mars mission might damage the brain, thus compromising mission success and the quality of life of returning astronauts. Several workers have suggested that the dopamine system is particularly sensitive to heavy ion radiation, but direct evidence for this notion is lacking. We examined measures of brain dopamine viability at times up to 15 months after acute exposure of rats to (56)Fe (1.2-2.4 Gy). No effects were seen in brain sections stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, the classical marker for dopamine cells and nerve terminals. Locomotion stimulated by cocaine, which directly activates the dopamine system, was reduced at 6 months but not at 12 months. Furthermore, in a visually cued lever-pressing test, reaction times, which are prolonged by dopamine system damage, were identical in irradiated and control animals. However, learning times were increased by irradiation. Our data suggest that the midbrain dopamine system is not especially sensitive to damage by (56)Fe particles at doses much higher than would be associated with travel to and from Mars.

  15. Effect of particle settling on lidar profiles of long-range transported Saharan aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Josef; Groß, Silke

    2016-04-01

    A large amount of desert aerosol is transported in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) westwards from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean. Lidar profiles of transported Saharan aerosol may contain some information about the vertically-resolved aerosol microphysics that could be used to characterize processes that affected the measured aerosol during transport. We present modelled lidar profiles of long-range transported Saharan aerosol assuming that initially the SAL is well-mixed and that there is no vertical mixing of air within the SAL as soon as it reaches the Atlantic. We consider Stokes gravitational settling of aerosol particles over the ocean. The lidar profiles are calculated using optical models for irregularly-shaped mineral dust particles assuming settling-induced particle removal as function of distance from the SAL top. Within the SAL we find a decrease of both the backscatter coefficients and the linear depolarization ratios with decreasing distance from the SAL top. For example, the linear depolarization ratio at a wavelength of 532nm decreases from 0.289 at 1000m to 0.256 at 200m and 0.215 at 100m below SAL top. We compare the modelled backscatter coefficients and linear depolarization ratios to ground-based lidar measurements performed during the SALTRACE field campaign in Barbados (Caribbean) and find agreement within the estimated uncertainties. We discuss the uncertainties of our modeling approach in our presentation. Assumed mineral dust particle shapes, assumed particle mixture properties, and assumptions about processes in the SAL over the continent and the ocean are important aspects to be considered. Uncertainties are relevant for the potential of lidar measurements of transported Saharan dust to learn something about processes occuring in the SAL during long-range transport. We also compare our modeling results to modeling results previously published in the literature.

  16. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy after internal {alpha}-particle irradiation of kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Seshan, Surya V.; McDevitt, Michael R.; Sgouros, George; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Scheinberg, David A. . E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Internal irradiation of kidneys as a consequence of radioimmunotherapy, radiation accidents, or nuclear terrorism can result in radiation nephropathy. We attempted to modify pharmacologically, the functional and morphologic changes in mouse kidneys after injection with the actinium ({sup 225}Ac) nanogenerator, an in vivo generator of {alpha}- and {beta}-particle emitting elements. Methods and Materials: The animals were injected with 0.35 {mu}Ci of the {sup 225}Ac nanogenerator, which delivers a dose of 27.6 Gy to the kidneys. Then, they were randomized to receive captopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), L-158,809 (angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker), spironolactone (aldosterone receptor antagonist), or a placebo. Results: Forty weeks after the {sup 225}Ac injection, the placebo-control mice showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (87.6 {+-} 6.9 mg/dL), dilated Bowman spaces, and tubulolysis with basement membrane thickening. Captopril treatment accentuated the functional (BUN 119.0 {+-} 4.0 mg/dL; p <0.01 vs. placebo controls) and histopathologic damage. In contrast, L-158,809 offered moderate protection (BUN 66.6 {+-} 3.9 mg/dL; p = 0.02 vs. placebo controls). Spironolactone treatment, however, significantly prevented the development of histopathologic and functional changes (BUN 31.2 {+-} 2.5 mg/dL; p <0.001 vs. placebo controls). Conclusions: Low-dose spironolactone and, to a lesser extent, angiotensin receptor-1 blockade can offer renal protection in a mouse model of internal {alpha}-particle irradiation.

  17. Lead particle size and its association with firing conditions and range maintenance: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Dermatas, Dimitris; Chrysochoou, Maria

    2007-08-01

    Six firing range soils were analyzed, representing different environments, firing conditions, and maintenance practices. The particle size distribution and lead (Pb) concentration in each soil fraction were determined for samples obtained from the backstop berms. The main factors that were found to influence Pb fragment size were the type of soil used to construct the berms and the type of weapon fired. The firing of high velocity weapons, i.e., rifles, onto highly angular soils induced significant fragmentation of the bullets and/or pulverization of the soil itself. This resulted in the accumulation of Pb in the finer soil fractions and the spread of Pb contamination beyond the vicinity of the backstop berm. Conversely, the use of clay as backstop and the use of low velocity pistols proved to be favorable for soil clean-up and range maintenance, since Pb was mainly present as large metallic fragments that can be recovered by a simple screening process. Other factors that played important roles in Pb particle size distribution were soil chemistry, firing distance, and maintenance practices, such as the use of water spray for dust suppression and deflectors prior to impact. Overall, coarse Pb particles provide much easier and more cost-effective maintenance, soil clean-up, and remediation via physical separation. Fine Pb particles release Pb more easily, pose an airborne Pb hazard, and require the application of stabilization/solidification treatment methods. Thus, to ensure sustainable firing range operations by means of cost-effective design, maintenance, and clean-up, especially when high velocity weapons are used, the above mentioned factors should be carefully considered.

  18. Mechanisms for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew D.; Ireland, Peter J.; Collins, Lance R.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the physical mechanism for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence. We analyze the exact, but unclosed, equation governing the radial distribution function (RDF) and compare the mechanisms it describes for clustering in the dissipation and inertial ranges. We demonstrate that in the limit Str≪1 , where Str is the Stokes number based on the eddy turnover time scale at separation r , the clustering in the inertial range can be understood to be due to the preferential sampling of the coarse-grained fluid velocity gradient tensor at that scale. When Str≳O (1 ) this mechanism gives way to a nonlocal clustering mechanism. These findings reveal that the clustering mechanisms in the inertial range are analogous to the mechanisms that we identified for the dissipation regime [see New J. Phys. 16, 055013 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/5/055013]. Further, we discuss the similarities and differences between the clustering mechanisms we identify in the inertial range and the "sweep-stick" mechanism developed by Coleman and Vassilicos [Phys. Fluids 21, 113301 (2009), 10.1063/1.3257638]. We show that the idea that initial particles are swept along with acceleration stagnation points is only approximately true because there always exists a finite difference between the velocity of the acceleration stagnation points and the local fluid velocity. This relative velocity is sufficient to allow particles to traverse the average distance between the stagnation points within the correlation time scale of the acceleration field. We also show that the stick part of the mechanism is only valid for Str≪1 in the inertial range. We emphasize that our clustering mechanism provides the more fundamental explanation since it, unlike the sweep-stick mechanism, is able to explain clustering in arbitrary spatially correlated velocity fields. We then consider the closed, model equation for the RDF given in Zaichik and

  19. Mechanisms for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Andrew D; Ireland, Peter J; Collins, Lance R

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the physical mechanism for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence. We analyze the exact, but unclosed, equation governing the radial distribution function (RDF) and compare the mechanisms it describes for clustering in the dissipation and inertial ranges. We demonstrate that in the limit Str≪1, where Str is the Stokes number based on the eddy turnover time scale at separation r, the clustering in the inertial range can be understood to be due to the preferential sampling of the coarse-grained fluid velocity gradient tensor at that scale. When Str≳O(1) this mechanism gives way to a nonlocal clustering mechanism. These findings reveal that the clustering mechanisms in the inertial range are analogous to the mechanisms that we identified for the dissipation regime [see New J. Phys. 16, 055013 (2014)]. Further, we discuss the similarities and differences between the clustering mechanisms we identify in the inertial range and the "sweep-stick" mechanism developed by Coleman and Vassilicos [Phys. Fluids 21, 113301 (2009)]. We show that the idea that initial particles are swept along with acceleration stagnation points is only approximately true because there always exists a finite difference between the velocity of the acceleration stagnation points and the local fluid velocity. This relative velocity is sufficient to allow particles to traverse the average distance between the stagnation points within the correlation time scale of the acceleration field. We also show that the stick part of the mechanism is only valid for Str≪1 in the inertial range. We emphasize that our clustering mechanism provides the more fundamental explanation since it, unlike the sweep-stick mechanism, is able to explain clustering in arbitrary spatially correlated velocity fields. We then consider the closed, model equation for the RDF given in Zaichik and Alipchenkov [Phys. Fluids 19, 113308 (2007)] and use this

  20. Mechanisms for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Bragg, Andrew D.; Ireland, Peter J.; Collins, Lance R.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, we consider the physical mechanism for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence. We analyze the exact, but unclosed, equation governing the radial distribution function (RDF) and compare the mechanisms it describes for clustering in the dissipation and inertial ranges. We demonstrate that in the limit Str <<1, where Str is the Stokes number based on the eddy turnover time scale at separation r, the clustering in the inertial range can be understood to be due to the preferential sampling of the coarse-grained fluid velocity gradient tensor at that scale. When Str≳O(1)more » this mechanism gives way to a nonlocal clustering mechanism. These findings reveal that the clustering mechanisms in the inertial range are analogous to the mechanisms that we identified for the dissipation regime. Further, we discuss the similarities and differences between the clustering mechanisms we identify in the inertial range and the “sweep-stick” mechanism developed by Coleman and Vassilicos. We show that the idea that initial particles are swept along with acceleration stagnation points is only approximately true because there always exists a finite difference between the velocity of the acceleration stagnation points and the local fluid velocity. This relative velocity is sufficient to allow particles to traverse the average distance between the stagnation points within the correlation time scale of the acceleration field. We also show that the stick part of the mechanism is only valid for Str<<1 in the inertial range. We emphasize that our clustering mechanism provides the more fundamental explanation since it, unlike the sweep-stick mechanism, is able to explain clustering in arbitrary spatially correlated velocity fields. We then consider the closed, model equation for the RDF given in Zaichik and Alipchenkov and use this, together with the results from our analysis, to predict the analytic form of the RDF in the

  1. Mechanisms for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, Andrew D.; Ireland, Peter J.; Collins, Lance R.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, we consider the physical mechanism for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence. We analyze the exact, but unclosed, equation governing the radial distribution function (RDF) and compare the mechanisms it describes for clustering in the dissipation and inertial ranges. We demonstrate that in the limit Str <<1, where Str is the Stokes number based on the eddy turnover time scale at separation r, the clustering in the inertial range can be understood to be due to the preferential sampling of the coarse-grained fluid velocity gradient tensor at that scale. When Str≳O(1) this mechanism gives way to a nonlocal clustering mechanism. These findings reveal that the clustering mechanisms in the inertial range are analogous to the mechanisms that we identified for the dissipation regime. Further, we discuss the similarities and differences between the clustering mechanisms we identify in the inertial range and the “sweep-stick” mechanism developed by Coleman and Vassilicos. We show that the idea that initial particles are swept along with acceleration stagnation points is only approximately true because there always exists a finite difference between the velocity of the acceleration stagnation points and the local fluid velocity. This relative velocity is sufficient to allow particles to traverse the average distance between the stagnation points within the correlation time scale of the acceleration field. We also show that the stick part of the mechanism is only valid for Str<<1 in the inertial range. We emphasize that our clustering mechanism provides the more fundamental explanation since it, unlike the sweep-stick mechanism, is able to explain clustering in arbitrary spatially correlated velocity fields. We then consider the closed, model equation for the RDF given in Zaichik and Alipchenkov and use this, together with the results from our analysis, to predict the

  2. Estimating Dry-Range Water Retention Properties Using Specific Surface Area and Particle-Size Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, K. A.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    To test whether the slope of the dry-range water retention curve can be correlated directly with particle size and specific surface area, measurements were completed for core samples from the Mojave Desert and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Samples ranged in texture from gravelly sands to silt loams. Each core sample was split into representative, 1-3 g subsamples, with 3 replicates per sample. Specific surface areas were determined by the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method of nitrogen adsorption. A chilled mirror hygrometer was used to measure the relative humidity and temperature of each replicate, which were directly implemented in the Kelvin equation to calculate water potentials. Sample weights obtained immediately after the hygrometer measurements, the oven-dry weights, and the original core bulk densities were used to calculate volumetric water contents. For each sample, about 7 points on the retention curve were determined by allowing the replicates to dry for 15 to 120 minutes in a desiccating chamber and by repeating the hygrometer and weight measurements. Measured water potentials fell in the range of -105 to -106 cm-water and volumetric water contents in the range of 0.05 to 0.007 cm3/cm3, typically below the equilibrium water content under laboratory conditions at about 50 % relative humidity and 22 ° C. Measurements of specific surface area ranged from 0.5 to 25 m2/g. At low water potentials water exists as thin films on solid surfaces rather than filling pores, therefore the dry-range retention slope should be dominated by texture, with structure having negligible influence, and should correlate with specific surface area for samples having similar mineralogies. Initial correlations show that the dry-range retention slope becomes steeper as the mean particle size of the sample decreases and as the clay content increases. The slope also approximates a direct linear proportionality to specific surface area. Correlations

  3. On the mechanism for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Lance; Bragg, Andrew; Ireland, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In this talk, we consider the physical mechanism for the clustering of inertial particles in the inertial range of turbulence. By comparisons with DNS data we demonstrate that the mechanism in the theory of Zaichik et al. (Phys. Fluids 19, 113308, 2007) quantitatively describes the clustering of particles in the inertial range. We then analyze the theory for isotropic turbulence in the limit Reλ --> ∞ . For arbitrary St (Stokes number), there exists a separation in the inertial range beyond which Str << 1 , where Str is the Stokes number based on the eddy turnover timescale at separation r. The inertial-range clustering in this limit can be understood to be due to the preferential sampling of the coarse-grained velocity gradient tensor at that scale. At smaller separations, there may be transitions to Str ~ 1 , where a path history symmetry breaking effect dominates the clustering mechanism, and in some cases Str >> 1 , which implies ballistic behavior and a flat RDF. The scaling for each of these regimes is derived and compared to DNS, where applicable. Finally, we compare the results with the ``sweep-stick'' mechanism by Coleman and Vassilicos (Phys. Fluids 21, 113301, 2009) and discuss the similarities and differences between the two theories.

  4. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  5. Radiation Quality Effects on Transcriptome Profiles in 3-d Cultures After Particle Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Z. S.; Kidane, Y. H.; Huff, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the differential effects of low- and high-LET radiation on 3-D organotypic cultures in order to investigate radiation quality impacts on gene expression and cellular responses. Reducing uncertainties in current risk models requires new knowledge on the fundamental differences in biological responses (the so-called radiation quality effects) triggered by heavy ion particle radiation versus low-LET radiation associated with Earth-based exposures. We are utilizing novel 3-D organotypic human tissue models that provide a format for study of human cells within a realistic tissue framework, thereby bridging the gap between 2-D monolayer culture and animal models for risk extrapolation to humans. To identify biological pathway signatures unique to heavy ion particle exposure, functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used with whole transcriptome profiling. GSEA has been used extensively as a method to garner biological information in a variety of model systems but has not been commonly used to analyze radiation effects. It is a powerful approach for assessing the functional significance of radiation quality-dependent changes from datasets where the changes are subtle but broad, and where single gene based analysis using rankings of fold-change may not reveal important biological information. We identified 45 statistically significant gene sets at 0.05 q-value cutoff, including 14 gene sets common to gamma and titanium irradiation, 19 gene sets specific to gamma irradiation, and 12 titanium-specific gene sets. Common gene sets largely align with DNA damage, cell cycle, early immune response, and inflammatory cytokine pathway activation. The top gene set enriched for the gamma- and titanium-irradiated samples involved KRAS pathway activation and genes activated in TNF-treated cells, respectively. Another difference noted for the high-LET samples was an apparent enrichment in gene sets involved in cycle cycle/mitotic control. It is

  6. Robust Dead Reckoning System for Mobile Robots Based on Particle Filter and Raw Range Scan

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-01-01

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method. PMID:25192318

  7. Robust dead reckoning system for mobile robots based on particle filter and raw range scan.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-09-04

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  8. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junru; Shao, Lijian; Hendrickson, Howard P; Liu, Liya; Chang, Jianhui; Luo, Yi; Seng, John; Pouliot, Mylene; Authier, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Allaben, William; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6.7 Gy gamma-irradiated group; and total body 60Co 7.4 Gy gamma-irradiated group. After animals were euthanized at day 4, 7 and 12 postirradiation, sections of small intestine (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and ileum) were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The intestinal mucosal surface length, villus height and crypt depths were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. Plasma citrulline levels were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total bone marrow cells were counted and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometer. Histopathologically, all segments exhibited conspicuous disappearance of plicae circulares and prominent atrophy of crypts and villi. Intestinal mucosal surface length was significantly decreased in all intestinal segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.02-P < 0.001). Villus height was significantly reduced in all segments on day 4 and 7 (P = 0.02-0.005), whereas it had recovered by day 12 (P > 0.05). Crypt depth was also significantly reduced in all segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.04-P < 0.001). Plasma citrulline levels were dramatically reduced after irradiation, consistent with intestinal mucosal injury. Both 6.7 and 7.4 Gy TBI reduced total number of bone marrow cells. And further analysis showed that the number and function of CD45(+)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitors in bone

  9. Turbulent transport of MeV range cyclotron heated minorities as compared to alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusztai, István; Wilkie, George J.; Kazakov, Yevgen O.; Fülöp, Tünde

    2016-11-01

    We study the turbulent transport of an ion cyclotron resonance heated (ICRH), MeV range minority ion species in tokamak plasmas. Such highly energetic minorities, which can be produced in the three ion minority heating scheme (Kazakov et al (2015) Nucl. Fusion 55 032001), have been proposed to be used to experimentally study the confinement properties of fast ions without the generation of fusion alphas. We compare the turbulent transport properties of ICRH ions with that of fusion born alpha particles. Our theoretical predictions indicate that care must be taken when conclusions are drawn from experimental results: while the effect of turbulence on these particles is similar in terms of transport coefficients, differences in their distribution functions—ultimately their generation processes—make the resulting turbulent fluxes different.

  10. Activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced in germanium by alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Takács, M. P.; Ditrói, F.; Aikawa, M.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the natTi(α,x)51Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with Eα = 20.7 and Eα = 51.25 MeV, Iα = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the 72,73,75Se, 71,72,74,76,78As, and 69Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.

  11. Electrophisiological signatures linked to particle irradiation on rodents within ALTEA-MICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, L.; Altea-Mice Team

    After several dry and test runs we performed in July 2004 a full scale electrophysiological experiment on normal mice that provided a first objective functional measure of heavy ions effect on the visual system Twentytwo mice was studied Electrophysiological signals were recorded from the retina and visual cortex during and with time information with luminance stimulation and beam bursts Repeated bursts of 12 C ions at 200 MeV i e below the Cerenkov threshold were delivered to the retina of dark-adapted mice In particular three- to five hundred 12 C bursts with nominal length of 1-5 ms intensity of 10 3 -10 4 particles burst 200 MeV n and 3 s interval between consecutive bursts were delivered by beam Light stimulation light flashes of 1 ms was performed before and after irradiation Ion bursts evoked a transient electrophysiological signal from the retina with waveform comparable to the response to light but longer latencies and smaller amplitude Variability among animals was high and may be accounted for by differences due to e g anaesthesia in the sensitivity saturation threshold of the cone rod systems contributing to the response or by effects on photoreceptors of the energy locally supplemented by the heat The amplitude of the retinal signal was correlated with the number of particles burst in one mouse with a signal-to-noise ratio and amplitude allowing measurements on the responses to single ion bursts

  12. Cell Cycle Checkpoint Proteins p21 and Hus1 Regulating Intercellular Signaling Induced By Alpha Particle Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Jun; Hang, Haiying

    In recent years, the attentions for radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been paid on the intercellular signaling events connecting the irradiated and non-irradiated cells. p21 is a member of the Cip/Kip family and plays essential roles in cell cycle progression arrest after cellular irradiation. DNA damage checkpoint protein Hus1 is a member of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex and functions as scaffold at the damage sites to facilitate the activation of downstream effectors. Using the medium trasfer method and the cells of MEF, MEF (p21-/-), MEF (p21-/-Hus1-/-) as either medium donor or receptor cells, it was found that with 5cGy alpha particle irradiation, the bystander cells showed a significant induction of -H2AX for normal MEFs (p¡0.05). However, the absence of p21 resulted in deficiency in inducing bystander effects. Further results indicated p21 affected the intercellular DNA damage signaling mainly through disrupting the production or release of the damage signals from irradiated cells. When Hus1 and p21 were both knocked out, an obvious induction of -H2AX recurred in bystander cells and the induction of -H2AX was GJIC (gap junction-mediated intercellular communication) dependent, indicating the interrelationship between p21 and Hus1 regulated the production and relay of DNA damage signals from irradiated cells to non-irradiated bystander cells.

  13. Cell growth kinetics of the human cell line Colo-205 irradiated with photons and astatine-211 alpha-particles.

    PubMed

    Palm, S; Andersson, H; Bäck, T; Claesson, I; Delle, U; Hultborn, R; Jacobsson, L; Köpf, I; Lindegren, S

    2000-01-01

    Cell growth kinetics following Astatine-211 (211At, alpha-particle emitter) and photon irradiation were studied for the human colorectal cell line Colo-205. A growth assay using 96-well plates was chosen. The growth kinetics could be simulated by assuming certain fractions of cells with various proliferative capacities, i.e. from none up to 5 cell doublings, in addition to the defined survivors with remaining unlimited clonogenic capacity. No significant difference in cell growth characteristics was seen between 211At and photon irradiation. The cell doubling time, as calculated from the increment in optical density, was compared with the results from BrdU experiments in the early phases of growth (Tpot = 18.5 +/- 0.6 h for LDR (low dose rate) photon irradiated and 20.3 +/- 0.8 hours for sham-irradiated cells 40-45 hours post-irradiation) confirming the transient accelerated growth of irradiated cells. No statistically significant difference in growth was found between LDR, MDR (medium dose rate) and HDR (high dose rate) photon irradiation.

  14. Electron microscopic evaluation and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment: A preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    I J van Rooyen; D E Janney; B D Miller; J L Riesterer; P A Demkowicz

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this presentation a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objective of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. The characterization emphasized fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer, and provided significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentration Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of contain Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. Possible microstructural differences between particles with high and low releases of Ag particles are also briefly discussed, and an initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations or debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation were observed. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  15. Laser-induced removal of co-deposits from graphitic plasma-facing components: Characterization of irradiated surfaces and dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gąsior, P.; Irrek, F.; Petersson, P.; Penkalla, H. J.; Rubel, M.; Schweer, B.; Sundelin, P.; Wessel, E.; Linke, J.; Philipps, V.; Emmoth, B.; Wolowski, J.; Hirai, T.

    2009-06-01

    Laser-induced fuel desorption and ablation of co-deposited layers on limiter plates from the TEXTOR tokamak have been studied. Gas phase composition was monitored in situ, whereas the ex situ studies have been focused on the examination of irradiated surfaces and broad analysis of dust generated by ablation of co-deposits. The size of the dust grains is in the range of few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers. These are fuel-rich dust particles, as determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The presence of deuterium in dust indicates that not all fuel species are transferred to the gas phase during irradiation. This also suggests that photonic removal of fuel and the ablation of co-deposit from plasma-facing components may lead to the redistribution of fuel-containing dust to surrounding areas.

  16. ZnO core spike particles and nano-networks and their wide range of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, S.; Mishra, Y. K.; Gedamu, D.; Kaps, S.; Jin, X.; Koschine, T.; Bathnagar, A.; Adelung, R.

    2011-05-01

    In our approach we are producing a polymer composite material with ZnO core spike particles as concave fillers. The core spike particles are synthesized by a high throughput method. Using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a matrix material the core spike particles achieve not only a high mechanical reinforcement but also influence other material properties in a very interesting way, making such a composite very interesting for a wide range of applications. In a very similar synthesis route a nanoscopic ZnO-network is produced. As a ceramic this network can withstand high temperatures like 1300 K. In addition this material is quite elastic. To find a material with these two properties is a really difficult task, as polymers tend to decompose already at lower temperatures and metals melt. Especially under ambient conditions, often oxygen creates a problem for metals at these temperatures. If this material is at the same time a semiconductor, it has a high potential as a multifunctional material. Ceramic or classical semiconductors like III-V or IIVI type are high temperature stable, but typically brittle. This is different on the nanoscale. Even semiconductor wires like silicon with a very small diameter do not easily built up enough stress that leads to a failure while being bent, because in a first order approximation the maximum stress of a fiber scales with its diameter.

  17. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K.; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Taini; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin; Christen, Hans M.; Stoller, Roger E.; et al

    2016-02-01

    We report that energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters farmore » exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance.« less

  18. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Taini; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin; Christen, Hans M; Stoller, Roger E; Wang, Lumin

    2016-01-01

    Energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters far exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance.

  19. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Taini; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin; Christen, Hans M; Stoller, Roger E; Wang, Lumin

    2016-01-01

    Energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters far exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance. PMID:26829570

  20. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K.; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Taini; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin; Christen, Hans M.; Stoller, Roger E.; Wang, Lumin

    2016-02-01

    Energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters far exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance.

  1. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K.; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Taini; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin; Christen, Hans M.; Stoller, Roger E.; Wang, Lumin

    2016-01-01

    Energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters far exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance. PMID:26829570

  2. First elevated-temperature performance testing of coated particle fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Baldwin; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-05-01

    In the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, 72 coated-particle fuel compacts were taken to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures. This paper discusses the first post-irradiation test of these mixed uranium oxide/uranium carbide fuel compacts at elevated temperature to examine the fuel performance under a simulated depressurized conduction cooldown event. A compact was heated for 400 h at 1600 degrees C. Release of 85Kr was monitored throughout the furnace test as an indicator of coating failure, while other fission product releases from the compact were periodically measured by capturing them on exchangeable, water-cooled deposition cups. No coating failure was detected during the furnace test, and this result was verified by subsequent electrolytic deconsolidation and acid leaching of the compact, which showed that all SiC layers were still intact. However, the deposition cups recovered significant quantities of silver, europium, and strontium. Based on comparison of calculated compact inventories at the end of irradiation versus analysis of these fission products released to the deposition cups and furnace internals, the minimum estimated fractional losses from the compact during the furnace test were 1.9 x 10-2 for silver, 1.4 x 10-3 for europium, and 1.1 x 10-5 for strontium. Other post-irradiation examination of AGR-1 compacts indicates that similar fractions of europium and silver may have already been released by the intact coated particles during irradiation, and it is therefore likely that the detected fission products released from the compact in this 1600 degrees C furnace test were from residual fission products in the matrix. Gamma analysis of coated particles deconsolidated from the compact after the heating test revealed that silver content within each particle varied considerably; a result that is probably not related to the furnace test, because it has also been observed in other as-irradiated AGR-1 compacts. X

  3. Effect of continuous irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves of the NO frequency range on behavioral reactions of male albino rats under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Antipova, O N; Krylova, Ya A

    2014-06-01

    We studied the effect of terahertz waves (NO frequency range, 150.176-150.664 GHz) on stress-induced variations in behavioral reactions of male albino rats during hypokinetic stress. THz irradiation was followed by partial or complete normalization of behavioral reactions of male albino rats after hypokinetic stress. The most significant effect was observed after continuous irradiation for 30 min.

  4. Electronic and Optical Properties of Energetic Particle-IrradiatedIn-rich InGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.X.; Yu, K.M.; Jones, R.E.; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; AgerIII, J.W.; Shan, W.; Haller, E.E.; Lu, Hai; Schaff, William J.; Kemp, W.

    2005-04-13

    We have carried out a systematic study of the effects of irradiation on the electronic and optical properties of InGaN alloys over the entire composition range. High energy electrons, protons, and {sup 4}He{sup +} were used to produce displacement damage doses (D{sub d}) spanning over five orders of magnitude. The free electron concentrations in InN and In-rich InGaN increase with D{sub d} and finally saturate after a sufficiently high D{sub d}. The saturation of carrier density is attributed to the formation of native donors and the Fermi level pinning at the Fermi Stabilization Energy (E{sub FS}), as predicted by the amphoteric native defect model. Electrochemical capacitance-voltage (ECV) measurements reveal a surface electron accumulation whose concentration is determined by pinning at E{sub FS}.

  5. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

  6. Dosimetric characterization of radionuclides for systemic tumor therapy: Influence of particle range, photon emission, and subcellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Ericsson, Thomas; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2006-09-15

    Various radionuclides have been proposed for systemic tumor therapy. However, in most dosimetric analysis of proposed radionuclides the charged particles are taken into consideration while the potential photons are ignored. The photons will cause undesirable irradiation of normal tissue, and increase the probability of toxicity in, e.g., the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties according to particle range, photon emission, and subcellular radionuclide distribution, of a selection of radionuclides used or proposed for radionuclide therapy, and to investigate the possibility of dividing radionuclides into groups according to their dosimetric properties. The absorbed dose rate to the tumors divided by the absorbed dose rate to the normal tissue (TND) was estimated for different tumor sizes in a mathematical model of the human body. The body was simulated as a 70-kg ellipsoid and the tumors as spheres of different sizes (1 ng-100 g). The radionuclides were either assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the entire tumor and normal tissue, or located in the nucleus or the cytoplasm of the tumor cells and on the cell membrane of the normal cells. Fifty-nine radionuclides were studied together with monoenergetic electrons, positrons, and alpha particles. The tumor and normal tissue were assumed to be of water density. The activity concentration ratio between the tumor and normal tissue was assumed to be 25. The radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons combined with a low photon contribution, and the alpha emitters showed high TND values for most tumor sizes. Electrons with higher energy gave reduced TND values for small tumors, while a higher photon contribution reduced the TND values for large tumors. Radionuclides with high photon contributions showed low TND value for all tumor sizes studied. The radionuclides studied could be divided into four main groups according to their TND values: beta emitters, Auger electron

  7. Single-particle irradiation of mammalian cells at the radiological research accelerator facility: induction of chromosomal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geard, C. R.; Brenner, D. J.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Marino, S. A.

    1991-03-01

    Ionizing radiations have been shown to be able to induce the death of mammalian cells and initiate mutagenic or carcinogenic change. While all three end points are related through chromosomal changes, the latter in particular is of profound concern to human populations. We have undertaken a series of studies wherein mammalian cells were irradiated with low fluences of charged particles (protons, deuterons, helium ions) of defined LET from 10 to about 200 keV per micrometer. Frequencies of induced chromosomal changes were related to fluence at each LET, such that the induction of chromosomal changes per cell per charged particle could be estimated. However, for human exposures from densely ionizing radiation, such as the alpha particles from radon daughters, effects are dominated by the traversal of cells by single particles. Conventional experiments inevitably result in cells being exposed to a distribution (Poisson) of particle traversals. As the effect is unlikely to be a linear function of the number of traversals, a preferred approach would be to irradiate cells with exactly one (or any known number) of particles. To this end we are developing a dedicated beam line (microbeam) on a 4.2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator such that individual particles will vertically traverse individual living mammalian cells positioned by a microscope-based imaging system under computer control. "Conventional" low-fluence and "single-particle" studies will be compared, allowing critical evaluations of the potential of individual high LET charged particles to initiate change. This will have particular relevance both to consideration of the human health risks of radon daughter alpha particles and of basic mechanisms of chromosome aberration formation.

  8. Identification of Silver and Palladium in Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles of the AGR-1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    van Rooyen, Y. J.; Lillo, T. M.; Wu, Y. Q.

    2014-03-01

    Evidence of the release of certain metallic fission product through intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles has been seen for decades around the world, as well as in the recent AGR-1 experiment at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). However, understanding the basic mechanism of transport is still lacking. This understanding is important because the TRISO coating is part of the high temperature gas reactor functional containment and critical for the safety strategy for licensing purposes. Our approach to identify fission products in irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM), has led to first-of-a-kind data at the nano-scale indicating the presence of silver at triple points and grain boundaries of the SiC layer in the TRISO particle. Cadmium was also found in the triple junctions. In this initial study, the silver was only identified in SiC grain boundaries and triple points on the edge of the SiC-IPyC interface up to a depth of approximately 0.5 um. Palladium was identified as the main constituent of micron-sized precipitates present at the SiC grain boundaries. Additionally spherical nano-sized palladium rich precipitates were found inside the SiC grains. These nano-sized Pd precipitates were distributed up to a depth of 5 um away from the SiC-IPyC interlayer. No silver was found in the center of the micron-sized fission product precipitates using these techniques, although silver was found on the outer edge of one of the Pd-U-Si containing precipitates which was facing the IPyC layer. Only Pd-U containing precipitates were identified in the IPyC layer and no silver was identified in the IPyC layer. The identification of silver alongside the grain boundaries and the findings of Pd alongside grain boundaries as well as inside the grains, provide significant knowledge for understanding silver and palladium transport in TIRSO fuel, which has been

  9. Electron Microscopic Evaluation and Fission Product Identification of Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles from the AGR-1 Experiment: A Preliminary Review

    SciTech Connect

    IJ van Rooyen; DE Janney; BD Miller; PA DEmkowicz; J Riesterer

    2014-05-01

    Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this paper a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objectives of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. Microstructural characterization focused on fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, the SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer. The results provide significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. An initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations were observed and no debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation was observed for the samples investigated. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  10. Observations and Characteristics of Particles in the 0.5 to 2.5 micron Size Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The size distributions of particles with diameters between ~0.5 and 2.5 microns are difficult to characterize accurately. However, these particles frequently constitute large fractions of the PM2.5 or "fine mode" aerosol mass concentrations; contribute non-negligibly to aerosol extinction; and may represent key cloud-active particles that include giant cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles. Some fraction of these particles is derived from sources in common with true coarse mode particles (diameters between ~2.5 and 10 microns), while the remainder are derived from sources that dominate submicron particles, including cloud processing. In this presentation we review measurements by our group in various U.S.-based field studies to demonstrate the variability in this mode and in its contributions to the aforementioned characteristics of atmospheric relevance. Size-resolved composition data demonstrate the complexity of the aerosol sources contributing to this size range.

  11. Distribution of Pd, Ag & U in the SiC Layer of an Irradiated TRISO Fuel Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas M. Lillo; Isabella J. van Rooyen

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of silver, uranium and palladium in the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of an irradiated TRISO fuel particle was studied using samples extracted from the SiC layer using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. Transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to identify the presence of the specific elements of interest at grain boundaries, triple junctions and precipitates in the interior of SiC grains. Details on sample fabrication, errors associated with measurements of elemental migration distances and the distances migrated by silver, palladium and uranium in the SiC layer of an irradiated TRISO particle from the AGR-1 program are reported.

  12. Recommendations to mitigate against human health risks incurred due to energetic particle irradiation beyond low earth orbit/BLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Bhardwaj, Anil; Ferrari, Franco; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Lal, Ajay K.; Li, Yinghui; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Nymmik, Rikho; Panasyuk, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Reitz, Günther; Pinsky, Lawrence; Shukor, Muszaphar (Sheikh); Singhvi, Ashok K.; Straube, Ulrich; Tomi, Leena; Lawrence, Townsend

    2015-04-01

    An account is provided of the main sources of energetic particle radiation in interplanetary space (Galactic Cosmic Radiation and Solar Energetic Particles) and career dose limits presently utilized by NASA to mitigate against the cancer and non-cancer effects potentially incurred by astronauts due to irradiation by these components are presented. Certain gaps in knowledge that presently militate against mounting viable human exploration in deep space due to the inherent health risks are identified and recommendations made as to how these gaps might be closed within a framework of global international cooperation.

  13. Smooth- and rough-wall boundary layer structure from high spatial range particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, D. T.; Morrill-Winter, C.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.; Schultz, M. P.; Klewicki, J. C.

    2016-10-01

    Two particle image velocimetry arrangements are used to make true spatial comparisons between smooth- and rough-wall boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers across a very wide range of streamwise scales. Together, the arrangements resolve scales ranging from motions on the order of the Kolmogorov microscale to those longer than twice the boundary layer thickness. The rough-wall experiments were obtained above a continuous sandpaper sheet, identical to that used by Squire et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 795, 210 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.196], and cover a range of friction and equivalent sand-grain roughness Reynolds numbers (12 000 ≲δ+≲ 18000, 62 ≲ks+≲104 ). The smooth-wall experiments comprise new and previously published data spanning 6500 ≲δ+≲17 000 . Flow statistics from all experiments show similar Reynolds number trends and behaviors to recent, well-resolved hot-wire anemometry measurements above the same rough surface. Comparisons, at matched δ+, between smooth- and rough-wall two-point correlation maps and two-point magnitude-squared coherence maps demonstrate that spatially the outer region of the boundary layer is the same between the two flows. This is apparently true even at wall-normal locations where the total (inner-normalized) energy differs between the smooth and rough wall. Generally, the present results provide strong support for Townsend's [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1956), Vol. 1] wall-similarity hypothesis in high Reynolds number fully rough boundary layer flows.

  14. Mechanical properties and the evolution of matrix molecules in PTFE upon irradiation with MeV alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Gregory L.; Lakis, Rollin E.; Davis, Charles C.; Szakal, Christopher; Swadener, John G.; Wetteland, Christopher J.; Winograd, Nicholas

    2006-11-01

    The morphology, chemical composition, and mechanical properties in the surface region of α-irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been examined and compared to unirradiated specimens. Samples were irradiated with 5.5 MeV 4He 2+ ions from a tandem accelerator to doses between 1 × 10 6 and 5 × 10 10 Rad. Static time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), using a 20 keV C 60+ source, was employed to probe chemical changes as a function of α dose. Chemical images and high resolution spectra were collected and analyzed to reveal the effects of α particle radiation on the chemical structure. Residual gas analysis (RGA) was utilized to monitor the evolution of volatile species during vacuum irradiation of the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphological variation of samples with increasing α particle dose, and nanoindentation was engaged to determine the hardness and elastic modulus as a function of α dose. The data show that PTFE nominally retains its innate chemical structure and morphology at α doses <10 9 Rad. At α doses ≥10 9 Rad the polymer matrix experiences increased chemical degradation and morphological roughening which are accompanied by increased hardness and declining elasticity. At α doses >10 10 Rad the polymer matrix suffers severe chemical degradation and material loss. Chemical degradation is observed in ToF-SIMS by detection of ions that are indicative of fragmentation, unsaturation, and functionalization of molecules in the PTFE matrix. The mass spectra also expose the subtle trends of crosslinking within the α-irradiated polymer matrix. ToF-SIMS images support the assertion that chemical degradation is the result of α particle irradiation and show morphological roughening of the sample with increased α dose. High resolution SEM images more clearly illustrate the morphological roughening and the mass loss that accompanies high doses of α particles. RGA confirms the supposition

  15. Electrical characterization of 5.4 MeV alpha-particle irradiated 4H-SiC with low doping density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradzah, A. T.; Auret, F. D.; Legodi, M. J.; Omotoso, E.; Diale, M.

    2015-09-01

    Nickel Schottky diodes were fabricated on 4H-SiC. The diodes had excellent current rectification with about ten orders of magnitude between -50 V and +2 V. The ideality factor was obtained as 1.05 which signifies the dominance of the thermionic emission process in charge transport across the barrier. Deep level transient spectroscopy revealed the presence of four deep level defects in the 30-350 K temperature range. The diodes were then irradiated with 5.4 MeV alpha particles up to fluence of 2.6 × 1010 cm-2. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements revealed degraded diode characteristics after irradiation. DLTS revealed the presence of three more energy levels with activation enthalpies of 0.42 eV, 0.62 eV and 0.76 eV below the conduction band. These levels were however only realized after annealing the irradiated sample at 200 °C and they annealed out at 400 °C. The defect depth concentration was determined for some of the observed defects.

  16. On the extent of size range and power law scaling for particles of natural carbonate fault cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    To determine the size range and both type and extent of the scaling laws for particles of loose natural carbonate fault rocks, six granular fault cores from Mesozoic carbonate strata of central Italy were sampled. Particle size distributions of twelve samples were determined by combining sieving and sedimentation methods. Results show that, regardless of the fault geometry, kinematics, and tectonic history, the size of fault rock particles respects a power law distribution across approximately four orders of magnitude. The fractal dimension ( D) of the particle size distribution in the analysed samples ranges between ˜2.0 and ˜3.5. A lower bound to the power law trend is evident in all samples except in those with the highest D-values; in these samples, the smallest analysed particles (˜0.0005 mm in diameter) were also included in the power law interval, meaning that the lower size limit of the power law distribution decreases for increasing D-values and that smallest particles start to be comminuted with increasing strain (i.e. increasing fault displacement and D-values). For increasing D-values, also the largest particles tends to decrease in number, but this evidence may be affected by a censoring bias connected with the sample size. Stick-slip behaviour is suggested for the studied faults on the basis of the inferred particle size evolutions. Although further analyses are necessary to make the results of this study more generalizable, the preliminary definition of the scaling rules for fault rock particles may serve as a tool for predicting a large scale of fault rock particles once a limited range is known. In particular, data from this study may result useful as input numbers in numerical models addressing the packing of fault rock particles for frictional and hydraulic purposes.

  17. Inertial focusing of spherical particles in rectangular microchannels over a wide range of Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Xingyu; Sun, Jiashu

    2015-02-21

    Inertial microfluidics has emerged as an important tool for manipulating particles and cells. For a better design of inertial microfluidic devices, we conduct 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments to determine the complicated dependence of focusing behaviour on the particle size, channel aspect ratio, and channel Reynolds number. We find that the well-known focusing of the particles at the two centers of the long channel walls occurs at a relatively low Reynolds number, whereas additional stable equilibrium positions emerge close to the short walls with increasing Reynolds number. Based on the numerically calculated trajectories of particles, we propose a two-stage particle migration which is consistent with experimental observations. We further present a general criterion to secure good focusing of particles for high flow rates. This work thus provides physical insight into the multiplex focusing of particles in rectangular microchannels with different geometries and Reynolds numbers, and paves the way for efficiently designing inertial microfluidic devices.

  18. STEM-EDS analysis of fission products in neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particles from AGR-1 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, B.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Wu, Y. Q.; Szlufarska, I.; Sridharan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Historic and recent post-irradiation-examination from the German AVR and Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Project have shown that 110 m Ag is released from intact tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. Although TRISO fuel particle research has been performed over the last few decades, little is known about how metallic fission products are transported through the SiC layer, and it was not until March 2013 that Ag was first identified in the SiC layer of a neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel particle. The existence of Pd- and Ag-rich grain boundary precipitates, triple junction precipitates, and Pd nano-sized intragranular precipitates in neutron-irradiated TRISO particle coatings was investigated using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analysis to obtain more information on the chemical composition of the fission product precipitates. A U-rich fission product honeycomb shape precipitate network was found near a micron-sized precipitate in a SiC grain about ∼5 μm from the SiC-inner pyrolytic carbon interlayer, indicating a possible intragranular transport path for uranium. A single Ag-Pd nano-sized precipitate was found inside a SiC grain, and this is the first research showing such finding in irradiated SiC. This finding may possibly suggest a possible Pd-assisted intragranular transport mechanism for Ag and may be related to void or dislocation networks inside SiC grains. Preliminary semi-quantitative analysis indicated the micron-sized precipitates to be Pd2Si2U with carbon existing inside these precipitates. However, the results of such analysis for nano-sized precipitates may be influenced by the SiC matrix. The results reported in this paper confirm the co-existence of Cd with Ag in triple points reported previously.

  19. Sonocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B catalyzed by β-Bi2O3 particles under ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuefu; Dai, Jianfeng; Shi, Gaofeng; Li, Lan; Wang, Guoying; Yang, Hua

    2016-03-01

    β-Bi2O3 particles were synthesized by a polyacrylamide sol-gel method. The sonocatalytic activity of β-Bi2O3 particles was evaluated by degrading Rhodamine B (RhB) under the ultrasonic irradiation, revealing that β-Bi2O3 particles exhibit a good sonocatalytic activity. The effects of various experimental factors including ultrasonic frequency (f), solution temperature (T), catalyst dosage (Ccatalyst) and initial RhB concentration (CRhB) on the sonocatalysis efficiency were investigated. The optimum conditions for sonocatalytic degradation of RhB are obtained to be f=60 kHz, T=40 °C, Ccatalyst=3 g L(-1), and CRhB=5 mg L(-1). The percentage degradation of RhB after sonocatalysis for 90 min is 98.7%. Detected by the photoluminescence technique that of using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule, hydroxyl radicals (OH) are found to be produced on the irradiated by β-Bi2O3 particles. Based on the experimental results, OH radicals are suggested to be the major active species which are responsible for the degradation reaction. PMID:26584995

  20. Comparison of PHITS, GEANT4, and HIBRAC simulations of depth-dependent yields of β(+)-emitting nuclei during therapeutic particle irradiation to measured data.

    PubMed

    Rohling, Heide; Sihver, Lembit; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine

    2013-09-21

    For quality assurance in particle therapy, a non-invasive, in vivo range verification is highly desired. Particle therapy positron-emission-tomography (PT-PET) is the only clinically proven method up to now for this purpose. It makes use of the β(+)-activity produced during the irradiation by the nuclear fragmentation processes between the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue. Since a direct comparison of β(+)-activity and dose is not feasible, a simulation of the expected β(+)-activity distribution is required. For this reason it is essential to have a quantitatively reliable code for the simulation of the yields of the β(+)-emitting nuclei at every position of the beam path. In this paper results of the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation codes PHITS, GEANT4, and the one-dimensional deterministic simulation code HIBRAC are compared to measurements of the yields of the most abundant β(+)-emitting nuclei for carbon, lithium, helium, and proton beams. In general, PHITS underestimates the yields of positron-emitters. With GEANT4 the overall most accurate results are obtained. HIBRAC and GEANT4 provide comparable results for carbon and proton beams. HIBRAC is considered as a good candidate for the implementation to clinical routine PT-PET.

  1. Wide-range particle characterization and elemental concentration in Beijing aerosol during the 2013 Spring Festival.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hui; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Bai; Sun, Jialong; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2014-09-01

    The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles. PMID:24975025

  2. Wide-range particle characterization and elemental concentration in Beijing aerosol during the 2013 Spring Festival.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hui; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Bai; Sun, Jialong; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2014-09-01

    The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles.

  3. A generic model for estimating the risk of deterministic effects of partial organ irradiation by hot particles.

    PubMed

    Scott, B R

    1995-12-01

    A generic (Weibull-type) model is presented for evaluating the risk of a specified deterministic effect of hot-particle (i.e., highly radioactive particle) exposure of the skin, eye, ear, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract. The generic model is a composite of the two-parameter Weibull function used for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of total-organ irradiation and an isoeffect equation for partial-volume (i.e., fractional-volume) irradiation. Isoeffect refers to a constant level of risk rather than a constant level of severity. The generic model provides a way to evaluate the uniform-exposure, isoeffect equivalent dose, H'T,V, to a partial volume V that incurs the same risk as is associated with a nonuniform exposure of volumes within V. When V = 1, the volume is called a reference volume. The reference volume can be associated with a specific organ or mass of tissue. The reference-volume-specific, uniform-exposure, isoeffect equivalent dose, H'T,1, can be used to limit the risk of deterministic effects of hot-particle exposure by requiring that H'T,1 remain below the equivalent dose limit for any reference volume of tissue at risk. Local doses H'T,V, can be converted to isoeffect doses H'T,1 by multiplying H'T,V by a volume weighting factor Wv, where Wv equals Vn. For deterministic effects, n < 1. For stochastic effects, n = 1. For stochastic effects, H'T,1 can be converted to an effective dose by multiplying H'T,1 by an appropriate tissue-weighting factor WT. Results presented apply to circumstances where, at most, only a few hot particles are involved. In such circumstances, it is highly unlikely that local tissue will be irradiated by more than one hot particle. Although the focus of this paper is on hot-particle effects, results presented also apply to partial-organ or partial-tissue irradiation by any radiation source including external beams (e.g., electrons, neutrons, protons, heavy ions, and X-ray and gamma-ray photons). PMID:7493806

  4. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Robiscoe, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick ()similarreverse arrowto)1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target ()similarreverse arrowto)1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Short DNA Fragments Are a Hallmark of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation and May Underlie Their Greater Therapeutic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Dalong; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Rodgers, James E.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Growing interest in proton and heavy ion therapy has reinvigorated research into the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of charged-particle radiation. To improve our understanding of the greater biological effectiveness of high-LET radiations, we have investigated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following exposure of plasmid DNA to low-LET Co-60 gamma photon and electron irradiation and to high-LET Beryllium and Argon ions with atomic force microscopy. The sizes of DNA fragments following radiation exposure were individually measured to construct fragment size distributions from which the DSB per DNA molecule and DSB spatial distributions were derived. We report that heavy charged particles induce a significantly larger proportion of short DNA fragments in irradiated DNA molecules, reflecting densely and clustered damage patterns of high-LET energy depositions. We attribute the enhanced short DNA fragmentation following high-LET radiations as an important determinant of the observed, enhanced biological effectiveness of high-LET irradiations. PMID:27376024

  6. Short DNA Fragments Are a Hallmark of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation and May Underlie Their Greater Therapeutic Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pang, Dalong; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Rodgers, James E; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Growing interest in proton and heavy ion therapy has reinvigorated research into the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of charged-particle radiation. To improve our understanding of the greater biological effectiveness of high-LET radiations, we have investigated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) following exposure of plasmid DNA to low-LET Co-60 gamma photon and electron irradiation and to high-LET Beryllium and Argon ions with atomic force microscopy. The sizes of DNA fragments following radiation exposure were individually measured to construct fragment size distributions from which the DSB per DNA molecule and DSB spatial distributions were derived. We report that heavy charged particles induce a significantly larger proportion of short DNA fragments in irradiated DNA molecules, reflecting densely and clustered damage patterns of high-LET energy depositions. We attribute the enhanced short DNA fragmentation following high-LET radiations as an important determinant of the observed, enhanced biological effectiveness of high-LET irradiations. PMID:27376024

  7. Coloration and darkening of methane clathrate and other ices by charged particle irradiation - Applications to the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1987-01-01

    The results of laboratory experiments simulating the irradiation of hydrocarbon-H2O or hydrocarbon-H2O/NH3 clathrates by charged particles in the outer solar system are reported. Ices produced by condensing and boiling liquid CH4 on an H2O frost surface at 100 K or by cocondensing frosts from gaseous mixtures were exposed to coronal-discharge electron irradiation at 77 K, and the spectral properties of the irradiated surfaces were determined. Significant darkening of the initially white ices was observed at doses of 1 Gerg/sq cm, corresponding to 8-500 yrs of irradiation by Uranian magnetospheric electrons on the surfaces of the principal Uranian satellites, or to total destruction of CH4 in the upper 1 mm of the satellite surfaces after 0.05-3.0 Myr. It is estimated that 10 m or more of icy satellite or comet surfaces would be radiation-hardened to a CH4-free ice-tholin mixture over 4 Gyr.

  8. Estimation of the reliability of heterolasers subjected to ageing under irradiation by a fast particle flux

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatov, Alexandr P; Kochetkov, A A; Konyaev, V P

    2011-02-28

    Relations for estimating the reliability of heterolasers operating under irradiation conditions are calculated based on the probabilistic analysis. The accumulation of defects in their active regions is considered to be the physical cause of their failure. (lasers)

  9. Some new results on the frequency characteristics on quartz crystals irradiated by ionizing and particle radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadur, H.; Parshad, R.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency behavior of AT-cut quartz crystals irradiated by X -, gamma rays and fast neutrons. Initial instability in frequency for gamma and neutron irradiated crystals was found. All the different radiations first give a negative frequency shift at lower doses which are followed by positive frequency shift for increased doses. Results are explained in terms of the fundamental crystal structure. Applications of the frequency results for radiation hardening are proposed.

  10. Three-particle coincidence of the long range pseudorapidity correlation in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bnzarov, I; Bonner, B E; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; DePhillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Garcia-Solis, E J; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jena, C; Jin, F; Jones, C L; Jones, P G; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Kopytine, M; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okada, H; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Rehberg, J M; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; van Leeuwen, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wingfield, E; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xie, W; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y-H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y

    2010-07-01

    We report the first three-particle coincidence measurement in pseudorapidity (Δη) between a high transverse momentum (p⊥) trigger particle and two lower p⊥ associated particles within azimuth |Δϕ|<0.7 in square root of s(NN)=200 GeV d+Au and Au+Au collisions. Charge ordering properties are exploited to separate the jetlike component and the ridge (long range Δη correlation). The results indicate that the correlation of ridge particles are uniform not only with respect to the trigger particle but also between themselves event by event in our measured Δη. In addition, the production of the ridge appears to be uncorrelated to the presence of the narrow jetlike component. PMID:20867701

  11. Eigenenergies of a Relativistic Particle in an Infinite Range Linear Potential Using WKB Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy eigenvalues for a non-relativistic particle in a linear potential well are available. In this paper we obtain the eigenenergies for a relativistic spin less particle in a similar potential using an extension of the well-known WKB method treating the potential as the time component of a four-vector potential. Since genuine bound states do…

  12. Effects of Fe particle irradiation on human endothelial barrier structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Preety; Guida, Peter; Grabham, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Space travel involves exposure to biologically effective heavy ion radiation and there is consequently a concern for possible degenerative disorders in humans. A significant target for radiation effects is the microvascular system, which is crucial to healthy functioning of the tissues. Its pathology is linked to disrupted endothelial barrier function and is not only a primary event in a range of degenerative diseases but also an important influencing factor in many others. Thus, an assessment of the effects of heavy ion radiation on endothelial barrier function would be useful for estimating the risks of space travel. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of high LET Fe particles (1 GeV/n) and is the first investigation of the effects of charged particles on the function of the human endothelial barrier. We used a set of established and novel endpoints to assess barrier function after exposure. These include, trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), morphological effects, localization of adhesion and cell junction proteins (in 2D monolayers and in 3D tissue models), and permeability of molecules through the endothelial barrier. A dose of 0.50 Gy was sufficient to cause a progressive reduction in TEER measurements that were significant 48 hours after exposure. Concurrently, there were morphological changes and a 14% loss of cells from monolayers. Gaps also appeared in the normally continuous cell-border localization of the tight junction protein - ZO-1 but not the Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) in both monolayers and in 3D vessel models. Disruption of barrier function was confirmed by increased permeability to 3 kDa and 10 kDa dextran molecules. A dose of 0.25 Gy caused no detectible change in cell number, morphology, or TEER, but did cause barrier disruption since there were gaps in the cell border localization of ZO-1 and an increased permeability to 3 kDa dextran. These results indicate that Fe particles potently have

  13. A Multi-port Low-Fluence Alpha-Particle Irradiator: Fabrication, Testing and Benchmark Radiobiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Neti, Prasad V. S. V.; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Perumal, Venkatachalam; Azzam, Edouard I.; Howell, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    A new multi-port irradiator, designed to facilitate the study of the effects of low fluences of α particles on monolayer cultures, has been developed. The irradiator consists of four individual planar 241Am α-particle sources that are housed inside a helium-filled Lucite chamber. Three of the radioactive sources consist of 20 MBq of 241Am dioxide foil. The fourth source, used to produce higher dose rates, has an activity of 500 MBq. The four sources are mounted on rotating turntables parallel to their respective 1.5-μm-thick Mylar exit windows. A stainless steel honeycomb collimator is placed between the four sources and their exit windows by a cantilever attachment to the platform of an orbital shaker that moves its table in an orbit of 2 cm. Each exit window is equipped with a beam delimiter to optimize the uniformity of the beam and with a high-precision electronic shutter. Opening and closing of the shutters is controlled with a high-precision timer. Custom-designed stainless steel Mylar-bottomed culture dishes are placed on an adapter on the shutter. The α particles that strike the cells have a mean energy of 2.9 MeV. The corresponding LET distribution of the particles has a mean value of 132 keV/μm. Clonogenic cell survival experiments with AG1522 human fibroblasts indicate that the RBE of the α particles compared to 137Cs γ rays is about 7.6 for this biological end point. PMID:15161346

  14. Comparison of changes over time in leukocyte counts in Yucatan minipigs irradiated with simulated solar particle event-like radiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Muehlmatt, Amy; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    During a major solar particle event (SPE), astronauts in space are at risk of exposure to an increased dose of proton radiation. The whole body distribution of the absorbed SPE proton dose is inhomogeneous, and such an inhomogeneous SPE proton dose can be simulated by electron radiation. Using Yucatan minipigs as an animal model, we compared the time courses of leukocyte count changes after exposure to proton simulated SPE (pSPE) radiation or electron simulated SPE (eSPE) radiation. The results demonstrated that the time required after irradiation to reach the lowest leukocyte counts was generally comparable between the pSPE and eSPE radiation exposures. However, the leukocyte count often recovered faster after electron irradiation compared to proton irradiation at the corresponding doses. In addition, the radiation dose required to achieve comparable magnitudes of leukocyte count decrease was higher in the eSPE animals than for the pSPE animals. In conclusion, based on the magnitude of the decrease and the time required to reach the lowest leukocyte counts after irradiation, the pSPE radiation was more effective than the eSPE radiation in reducing the peripheral leukocyte counts. Lymphocytes appeared to be the most sensitive type of leukocytes in response to either type of SPE radiation. It is particularly noteworthy that following exposure to pSPE radiation at the skin doses >5 Gy, the neutrophils do not recover from the radiation damage at times up to 30 days, and the neutrophils have not recovered to their baseline levels even at 90 days post-irradiation. These results suggest a marked difference in the ability of the neutrophils to recover from pSPE radiation compared the results observed for eSPE radiation. PMID:25774341

  15. Comparison of changes over time in leukocyte counts in Yucatan minipigs irradiated with simulated solar particle event-like radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Steven Wan, X.; Muehlmatt, Amy; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    During a major solar particle event (SPE), astronauts in space are at risk of exposure to an increased dose of proton radiation. The whole body distribution of the absorbed SPE proton dose is inhomogeneous, and such an inhomogeneous SPE proton dose can be simulated by electron radiation. Using Yucatan minipigs as an animal model, we compared the time courses of leukocyte count changes after exposure to proton simulated SPE (pSPE) radiation or electron simulated SPE (eSPE) radiation. The results demonstrated that the time required after irradiation to reach the lowest leukocyte counts was generally comparable between the pSPE and eSPE radiation exposures. However, the leukocyte count often recovered faster after electron irradiation compared to proton irradiation at the corresponding doses. In addition, the radiation dose required to achieve comparable magnitudes of leukocyte count decrease was higher in the eSPE animals than for the pSPE animals. In conclusion, based on the magnitude of the decrease and the time required to reach the lowest leukocyte counts after irradiation, the pSPE radiation was more effective than the eSPE radiation in reducing the peripheral leukocyte counts. Lymphocytes appeared to be the most sensitive type of leukocytes in response to either type of SPE radiation. It is particularly noteworthy that following exposure to pSPE radiation at the skin doses >5 Gy, the neutrophils do not recover from the radiation damage at times up to 30 days, and the neutrophils have not recovered to their baseline levels even at 90 days post-irradiation. These results suggest a marked difference in the ability of the neutrophils to recover from pSPE radiation compared with the results observed for eSPE radiation.

  16. Production of medical isotopes from a thorium target irradiated by light charged particles up to 70 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2015-02-01

    The irradiation of a thorium target by light charged particles (protons and deuterons) leads to the production of several isotopes of medical interest. Direct nuclear reaction allows the production of Protactinium-230 which decays to Uranium-230 the mother nucleus of Thorium-226, a promising isotope for alpha radionuclide therapy. The fission of Thorium-232 produces fragments of interest like Molybdenum-99, Iodine-131 and Cadmium-115g. We focus our study on the production of these isotopes, performing new cross section measurements and calculating production yields. Our new sets of data are compared with the literature and the last version of the TALYS code.

  17. Production of medical isotopes from a thorium target irradiated by light charged particles up to 70 MeV.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2015-02-01

    The irradiation of a thorium target by light charged particles (protons and deuterons) leads to the production of several isotopes of medical interest. Direct nuclear reaction allows the production of Protactinium-230 which decays to Uranium-230 the mother nucleus of Thorium-226, a promising isotope for alpha radionuclide therapy. The fission of Thorium-232 produces fragments of interest like Molybdenum-99, Iodine-131 and Cadmium-115g. We focus our study on the production of these isotopes, performing new cross section measurements and calculating production yields. Our new sets of data are compared with the literature and the last version of the TALYS code.

  18. Production of medical isotopes from a thorium target irradiated by light charged particles up to 70 MeV.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2015-02-01

    The irradiation of a thorium target by light charged particles (protons and deuterons) leads to the production of several isotopes of medical interest. Direct nuclear reaction allows the production of Protactinium-230 which decays to Uranium-230 the mother nucleus of Thorium-226, a promising isotope for alpha radionuclide therapy. The fission of Thorium-232 produces fragments of interest like Molybdenum-99, Iodine-131 and Cadmium-115g. We focus our study on the production of these isotopes, performing new cross section measurements and calculating production yields. Our new sets of data are compared with the literature and the last version of the TALYS code. PMID:25574934

  19. Tilt-Pair Analysis of Images from a Range of Different Specimens in Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Richard; Chen, Shaoxia; Chen, James Z.; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Passmore, Lori A.; Ciccarelli, Luciano; Rubinstein, John L.; Crowther, R. Anthony; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The comparison of a pair of electron microscope images recorded at different specimen tilt angles provides a powerful approach for evaluating the quality of images, image-processing procedures, or three-dimensional structures. Here, we analyze tilt-pair images recorded from a range of specimens with different symmetries and molecular masses and show how the analysis can produce valuable information not easily obtained otherwise. We show that the accuracy of orientation determination of individual single particles depends on molecular mass, as expected theoretically since the information in each particle image increases with molecular mass. The angular uncertainty is less than 1° for particles of high molecular mass (∼ 50 MDa), several degrees for particles in the range 1–5 MDa, and tens of degrees for particles below 1 MDa. Orientational uncertainty may be the major contributor to the effective temperature factor (B-factor) describing contrast loss and therefore the maximum resolution of a structure determination. We also made two unexpected observations. Single particles that are known to be flexible showed a wider spread in orientation accuracy, and the orientations of the largest particles examined changed by several degrees during typical low-dose exposures. Smaller particles presumably also reorient during the exposure; hence, specimen movement is a second major factor that limits resolution. Tilt pairs thus enable assessment of orientation accuracy, map quality, specimen motion, and conformational heterogeneity. A convincing tilt-pair parameter plot, where 60% of the particles show a single cluster around the expected tilt axis and tilt angle, provides confidence in a structure determined using electron cryomicroscopy. PMID:21939668

  20. Metabolic oxygen consumption measurement with a single-cell biosensor after particle microbeam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Zhang, Bo; Messerli, Mark; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Hei, Tom K; Brenner, David J

    2015-03-01

    A noninvasive, self-referencing biosensor/probe system has been integrated into the Columbia University Radiological Research Accelerator Facility Microbeam II end station. A single-cell oxygen consumption measurement has been conducted with this type of oxygen probe in 37° C Krebs-Ringer Bicarbonate buffer immediately before and after a single-cell microbeam irradiation. It is the first such measurement made for a microbeam irradiation, and a six fold increment of oxygen flux induced during a 15-s period of time has been observed following radiation exposure. The experimental procedure and the results are discussed.

  1. Improvement of thermal effects to rabbit atherosclerotic aortas by macro pulse irradiation of a quantum cascade laser in the 5.7 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques mainly consist of cholesteryl esters. Cholesteryl esters have an absorption peak at the wavelength of 5.75 μm originated from C=O stretching vibration mode of ester bond. Our group achieved making cutting difference between atherosclerotic lesions and normal vessels using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range. QCLs are relatively new types of semiconductor lasers that can emit mid-infrared range. They are sufficiently compact and have recently achieved their high-power emission. However, large thermal damage was observed because the QCL worked as a quasi-continuous wave laser due to its short pulse interval. To realize less invasive ablation by the QCL, reducing thermal effects to normal vessels is needed. In this study, we tried improving the thermal effects by changing the pulse structure. First, irradiation effects to rabbit atherosclerotic aortas by macro pulse irradiation (irradiation of pulses at intervals) and conventional continuous pulse irradiation were compared. The macro pulse width and the macro pulse interval were set to 0.54 and 12 ms, respectively, because the thermal relaxation time of rabbit normal and atherosclerotic aortas in the oscillation wavelength was 0.54-12 ms. As a result, ablation depth became longer and coagulation width became shorter by the macro pulse irradiation. In addition, cutting difference between rabbit normal and atherosclerotic aortas was observed by the macro pulse irradiation. Therefore, the macro pulse irradiation achieved the improvement of thermal effects by the QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range. The QCL has the potential of realizing less-invasive laser angioplasty.

  2. Advanced electron microscopic techniques applied to the characterization of irradiation effects and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Lillo, T.M.; Trowbridge, T.L.; Madden, J.M.; Wu, Y.Q.; Goran, D.

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary electron microscopy of coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment was conducted using characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates was performed. Although numerous micro- and nano-sized precipitates observed in the coating layers during initial SEM characterization of the cross-sections, and in subsequent TEM diffraction patterns, were indexed as UPd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, no Ag was conclusively found. Additionally, characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. The electron microscopy team followed a multi-directional and phased approach in the identification of fission products in irradiated TRISO fuel. The advanced electron microscopy techniques discussed in this paper, not only demonstrate the usefulness of the equipment (methods) as relevant research tools, but also provide relevant scientific results which increase the knowledge about TRISO fuel particles microstructure and fission products transport.

  3. Irradiation behavior of the interaction product of U-Mo fuel particle dispersion in an Al matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.S.; Hofman, G.

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation performance of U-Mo fuel particles dispersed in Al matrix is stable in terms of fuel swelling and is suitable for the conversion of research and test reactors from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). However, tests of the fuel at high temperatures and high burnups revealed obstacles caused by the interaction layers forming between the fuel particle and matrix. In some cases, fission gas filled pores grow and interconnect in the interdiffusion layer resulting in fuel plate failure. Postirradiation observations are made to examine the behavior of the interdiffusion layers. The interdiffusion layers show a fluid-like behavior characteristic of amorphous materials. In the amorphous interdiffusion layers, fission gas diffusivity is high and the material viscosity is low so that the fission gas pores readily form and grow. Based on the observations, a pore formation mechanism is proposed and potential remedies to suppress the pore growth are also introduced.

  4. Induction of acute brain injury in mice by irradiation with high-LET charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    The present study was performed to evaluate the induction of acute brain injury in mice after 235 Mev/u carbon ion irradiation. In our study, young outbred Kunming mice were divided into four treatment groups according to the penetration depth of carbon ions. Animals were irradiated with a sublethal dose of carbon ion beams prior to the Bragg curve. An experiment was performed to evaluate the acute alterations in histology, DNA double-strand breaks (DNA DSBs) as well as p53and Bax expression in the brain 96 h post-irradiation. The results demonstrated that various histopathological changes, a significant number of DNA DSBs and elevated p53 and Bax protein expression were induced in the brain following exposure to carbon ions. This was particularly true for mice irradiated with ions having a 9.1 cm-pentration depth, indicating that carbon ions can led to deleterious lesions in the brain of young animals within 96 h. Moreover, there was a remarkable increase in DNA DSBs and in the severity of histopathological changes as the penetration depths of ions increased, which may be associated with the complex track structure of heavy ions. These data reveal that carbon ions can promote serious neuropathological degeneration in the cerebral cortex of young mice. Given that damaged neurons cannot regenerate, these findings warrant further investigation of the adverse effects of the space radiation and the passage of a therapeutic heavy ion beam in the plateau region of the Bragg curve through healthy brain tissue.

  5. Probing novel long-range correlation phenomena in pPb collisions with identified particles at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenyu; CMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Observation of a long-range near-side two-particle correlation (known as the ”Ridge”) in high-multiplicity pp and pPb collisions opened up new opportunities of exploring novel QCD dynamics in small collision systems. To further investigate the origin of this phenomenon, studies of two-particle correlations with identified K0s and Λ/\\barΛ trigger particles in 5.02 TeV pPb collisions are presented, and compared to PbPb collisions over a similar multiplicity range. The K0s and Λ/\\barΛ are cleanly reconstructed via their secondary decay vertices over a wide pseudorapidity and transverse momentum range. The second-order anisotropy harmonics (v2) of K0s and Λ/\\barΛ are extracted from long-range correlations as a function of particle multiplicity and pT. The wide pT coverage and rich sample of high multiplicity pPb events allow: (1) a precise examination of the mass ordering effect of vn at low pT as predicted by hydrodynamics for a collectively expanding medium; (2) exploration of possible constituent quark number scaling of v2 between mesons and baryons as was observed in high-energy nucleus- nucleus collisions.

  6. The role of short-ranged and long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation of colloidal particle in colloid-polymer mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Colloidal Gels i.e. disordered arrested systems has been studied extensively during the past decades both experimentally and computationally. Despite their widespread applications in various industries e.g. cosmetic, food, their physical principals are still far beyond being understood. The interplay between different types of interactions e.g. quantum scale, short-ranged, and long-ranged turned dynamics and thermodynamics of the colloidal systems to one the most intriguing areas in Physics. Many authors have implemented different simulation techniques such as molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) to capture better picture during phase separation in colloidal system with short-ranged attractive force e.g. colloid-polymer mixtures. However, BD neglects multi-body hydrodynamic interactions (HI) and MD is limited considering the time and length scale of gel formation and long-time dynamics. In this presentation we used Core-modified dissipative particle dynamics (CM-DPD) with modified depletion potential, as a coarse-grain model, to address the gel formation process in short ranged-attractive colloidal systems. Due to the possibility to study short- and long-ranged HI separately in this method we studied the effect of each of those interactions on the final morphology and report on one of the controversial question in this field. In the second part of the presentation, we include colloidal-polymer interactions to extend/modify the Asakura-Oosawa potential model to semi-dilute region of polymer solution.

  7. Study of energetic-particle-irradiation induced biological effect on Rhizopus oryzae through synchrotron-FTIR micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinghua; Qi, Zeming; Huang, Qing; Wei, Xiaoli; Ke, Zhigang; Fang, Yusheng; Tian, Yangchao; Yu, Zengliang

    2013-01-01

    Energetic particles exist ubiquitously and cause varied biological effects such as DNA strand breaks, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, cell apoptosis or death. An emerging biotechnology based on ion-beam technique has been developed to serve as an effective tool for mutation breeding of crops and microbes. In order to improve the effectiveness of ion-beam biotechnology for mutation breeding, it is indispensible to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems which is still elusive. A new trend is to conduct more comprehensive research which is based on micro-scaled observation of the changes of the cellular structures and compositions under the interactions. For this purpose, advanced synchrotron FTIR (s-FTIR) microscopy was employed to monitor the cellular changes of single fungal hyphae under irradiation of α-particles from 241Am. Intracellular contents of ROS, MDA, GSSG/GSH and activities of CAT and SOD were measured via biochemical assay. Ion-irradiation on Rhizopus oryzae causes localized vacuolation, autolysis of cell wall and membrane, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and conformational changes of proteins, which have been clearly revealed by the s-FTIR microspectroscopy. The different changes of cell viability, SOD and CAT activities can be explained by the ROS-involved chemical reactions. Evidently, the elevated level of ROS in hyphal cells upon irradiation plays the key role in the caused biological effect. This study demonstrates that s-FTIR microspectroscopy is an effective tool to study the damage of fungal hyphae caused by ionizing radiation and it facilitates the exploit of the mechanism for the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems.

  8. Unrestrained swelling of uranium-nitride fuel irradiated at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1400 K (1980 to 2520 R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohal, R. G.; Tambling, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    Six fuel pins were assembled, encapsulated, and irradiated in the Plum Brook Reactor. The fuel pins employed uranium mononitride (UN) in a stainless steel (type 304L) clad. The pins were irradiated for approximately 4000 hours to burnups of about 2.0 atom percent uranium. The average clad surface temperature during irradiation was about 1100 K (1980 deg R). Since stainless steel has a very low creep strength relative to that of UN at this temperature, these tests simulated unrestrained swelling of UN. The tests indicated that at 1 percent uranium atom burnup the unrestrained diametrical swelling of UN is about 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 percent at 1223, 1264, and 1306 K (2200, deg 2273 deg, and 2350 deg R), respectively. The tests also indicated that the irradiation induced swelling of unrestrained UN fuel pellets appears to be isotropic.

  9. Experimental determination of particle range and dose distribution in thick targets through fragmentation reactions of stable heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Tomitani, Takehiro; Urakabe, Eriko; Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2006-09-01

    In radiation therapy with highly energetic heavy ions, the conformal irradiation of a tumour can be achieved by using their advantageous features such as the good dose localization and the high relative biological effectiveness around their mean range. For effective utilization of such properties, it is necessary to evaluate the range of incident ions and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Several methods have been proposed to derive such physical quantities; one of them uses positron emitters generated through projectile fragmentation reactions of incident ions with target nuclei. We have proposed the application of the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method to a detected annihilation gamma-ray distribution for determination of the range of incident ions in a target and we have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method with computer simulations. In this paper, a water, a polyethylene and a polymethyl methacrylate target were each irradiated with stable (12)C, (14)N, (16)O and (20)Ne beams. Except for a few combinations of incident beams and targets, the MLE method could determine the range of incident ions R(MLE) with a difference between R(MLE) and the experimental range of less than 2.0 mm under the circumstance that the measurement of annihilation gamma rays was started just after the irradiation of 61.4 s and lasted for 500 s. In the process of evaluating the range of incident ions with the MLE method, we must calculate many physical quantities such as the fluence and the energy of both primary ions and fragments as a function of depth in a target. Consequently, by using them we can obtain the dose distribution. Thus, when the mean range of incident ions is determined with the MLE method, the annihilation gamma-ray distribution and the deposited dose distribution can be derived simultaneously. The derived dose distributions in water for the mono-energetic heavy-ion beams of four species were compared with those measured with an

  10. Enhanced α-particle optical potential at low energies, for the mass range A∼45-209

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.; Mănăilescu, C.

    2015-02-24

    An updated optical potential is thus provided for α-particles on nuclei within the mass number range 45≤A≤209, below the Coulomb barrier (B), on the basis of recent high-precision measurements of α-particle induced reaction data below B that made possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the α-particle optical-model potentials. The main revision concerns actually only the surface imaginary potential depth at the lowest α-particle energies well below B, and in fact only for the mass range above A∼130. A further regional point is the underestimation of reaction cross sections for the rare-earth nuclei by using the spherical optical potential unless a 7% larger value of the surface imaginary potential radius is taken into account. Involvement of this potential for further description of both the scattering and α-particles induced reactions is moreover discussed in the present work, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear technology for fusion devices.

  11. External beam re-irradiation, combination chemoradiotherapy, and particle therapy for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Taunk, Neil K.; Moraes, Fabio Y.; Escorcia, Freddy E.; Mendez, Lucas Castro; Beal, Kathryn; Marta, Gustavo N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Glioblastoma is a common aggressive primary malignant brain tumor, and is nearly universal in progression and mortality after initial treatment. Re-irradiation presents a promising treatment option for progressive disease, both palliating symptoms and potentially extending survival. Highly conformal radiation techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated radiosurgery are effective short courses of treatment that allow delivery of high doses of therapeutic radiation with steep dose gradients to protect normal tissue. Patients with higher performance status, younger age, and longer interval between primary treatment and progression represent the best candidates for re-irradiation. Multiple studies are also underway involving combinations of radiation and systemic therapy to bend the survival curve and improve the therapeutic index. In the multimodal treatment of recurrent high-grade glioma, the use of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy should be highly individualized. Here we comprehensively review radiation therapy and techniques, along with discussion of combination treatment and novel strategies. PMID:26781426

  12. An approach to improving transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Jianxin; Mei, Deqing Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei

    2014-08-14

    In existing ultrasonic transportation methods, the long-range transportation of micro-particles is always realized in step-by-step way. Due to the substantial decrease of the driving force in each step, the transportation is lower-speed and stair-stepping. To improve the transporting velocity, a non-stepping ultrasonic transportation approach is proposed. By quantitatively analyzing the acoustic potential well, an optimal region is defined as the position, where the largest driving force is provided under the condition that the driving force is simultaneously the major component of an acoustic radiation force. To keep the micro-particle trapped in the optimal region during the whole transportation process, an approach of optimizing the phase-shifting velocity and phase-shifting step is adopted. Due to the stable and large driving force, the displacement of the micro-particle is an approximately linear function of time, instead of a stair-stepping function of time as in the existing step-by-step methods. An experimental setup is also developed to validate this approach. Long-range ultrasonic transportations of zirconium beads with high transporting velocity were realized. The experimental results demonstrated that this approach is an effective way to improve transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles.

  13. Lipid Liquid-Crystal Phase Change Induced through near-Infrared Irradiation of Entrained Graphene Particles.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew D J; Du, Joanne; Boyd, Ben J; Hawley, Adrian; Notley, Shannon M

    2015-06-23

    Lipid packing is intimately related to the geometry of the lipids and the forces that drive self-assembly. Here, the photothermal response of a cubic liquid-crystalline phase formed using phytantriol in the presence of low concentrations of pristine graphene was evaluated. Small-angle X-ray scattering showed the reversible phase changes from cubic to hexagonal to micellar due to localized heating through irradiation with near-infrared (NIR) light and back to cubic after cooling.

  14. Two trapped particles interacting by a finite-range two-body potential in two spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doganov, Rostislav A.; Klaiman, Shachar; Alon, Ofir E.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2013-03-01

    We examine the problem of two particles confined in an isotropic harmonic trap, which interact via a finite-range Gaussian-shaped potential in two spatial dimensions. We derive an approximative transcendental equation for the energy and study the resulting spectrum as a function of the interparticle interaction strength. Both the attractive and repulsive systems are analyzed. We study the impact of the potential's range on the ground-state energy. We also explicitly verify by a variational treatment that in the zero-range limit the positive δ potential in two dimensions only reproduces the noninteracting results, if the Hilbert space in not truncated, and demonstrate that an extremely large Hilbert space is required to approach the ground state when one is to tackle the limit of zero-range interaction numerically. Finally, we establish and discuss the connection between our finite-range treatment and regularized zero-range results from the literature. The present results indicate that a finite-range interparticle potential is numerically amenable for treating the statics and the nonequilibrium dynamics of interacting many-particle systems (bosons) in two dimensions.

  15. The use of gamma irradiation in preparation of polybutadiene rubber nanopowder; Its effect on particle size, morphology and crosslink structure of the powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Abadchi, Majid; Jalali-Arani, Azam

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of polybutadiene rubber (BR) powder by irradiating of rubber lattices using 60Co radiation and spray-drying of them at the appropriate condition. The influences of absorbed dose on the volume swelling ratio, molecular weight between crosslinks, gel fraction, and glass transition temperature of obtained powder were studied. Morphology, size and size distribution of rubber particles were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analyzer (LPSA) technique, respectively. Results obtained by LPSA revealed that radiation has no effect on particle size of rubber latex but after drying, adherence properties of rubber particle causes increase in particle size of rubber powder, as shown in SEM photograph. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of rubber powders confirmed that with increasing the irradiation dose, characteristic peak corresponds to the >Cdbnd C< double bands decreased. Also Charlesby-Pinner equation was used to evaluate radiation yield.

  16. Effect of shape of Sendust particles on their electromagnetic properties within 0.1-18 GHz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoqi; Wei, Jianqiang; Yang, Weifeng; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Li, Fashen

    2011-10-01

    The microwave permeability dispersion behaviors and microwave-absorbing properties for different shapes of Sendust particles prepared by vibrating ball milling at 35 vol% in paraffin wax matrix have been investigated. The dispersion spectrum of permeability was calculated by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and Bruggeman’s effective medium theory. The calculated results are in agreement with the experiment data. According to the calculation results, the value of ( μ0-1) fr ( μ0 is static permeability, and fr is resonance frequency) for flake particle with larger aspect ratio reached 59.1 GHz and exceeded the Snoek’s limit. Considering the quarter-wavelength model and transmission line theory, the microwave absorption peak was discussed. At the frequency range, the flake particle with larger aspect ratio can make a thinner absorber. It provides a way to decrease layer thickness of magnetic absorber.

  17. Variations on morphology and elemental composition of mineral dust particles from local, regional, and long-range transport meteorological scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coz, Esther; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Casuccio, Gary S.; ArtíñAno, BegoñA.

    2010-06-01

    Mineral dust is the second major source of PM10 in Madrid, reaching up to 80% of the PM10 mass during certain long-range dust transport events. Three different types of scenarios have been found to be associated with the high particle concentration episodes in the city: local anthropogenic, regional recirculation, and African dust transport processes. The present study focuses on the characterization of the individual mineral dust particles related to some chemical and morphological features during these three types of episodes, with special attention to local and regional episodes. To achieve this purpose, four different samples were selectively collected during the 2004-2005 period campaigns, one corresponding to each type of scenario and other sample from an Atlantic ventilated one. Meteorological situation, dust source identification, impact on ambient concentrations, size range distribution, and particle individual analysis have been characterized for each of them. Elemental composition and morphology of more than 30,000 mineral particles were analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy. Particles were grouped into clusters based on their elemental composition, and the aspect ratio (AR) of each cluster or category was compared for each type of episode. The AR was related to the mineralogical crystal structure of each chemical cluster. The dates chosen for microscopy analysis were in good agreement in size distribution and chemical composition with the average of the dates in the entire campaign and with those from previous campaigns. Major differences between local/regional and long-range transported mineral dust were found in the relative abundance between carbonates and silicates, with much higher abundance of calcium carbonates in the first ones. These differences between silicate and carbonate contents were consistent with the results found in previous campaigns and were directly related to the composition of the parent topsoil by studying

  18. New insight into self-irradiation effects on local and long-range structure of uranium-americium mixed oxides (through XAS and XRD).

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Horlait, Denis; Bès, René; Scheinost, Andreas C; Rossberg, Andre; Delahaye, Thibaud; Blanchart, Philippe

    2014-09-15

    Uranium-americium mixed oxides could be used as transmutation targets to lower Am inventory in spent nuclear fuels. Due to (241)Am activity, these materials are subjected to α-self-irradiation which provokes crystallographic disorder. Previous studies on U-Am mixed oxides gave first insight into α-radiation tolerance of these compounds, but have never been carried out for more than a year, whereas these compounds might be stored up to a few years between fabrication and irradiation. In this work, we study effects of self-irradiation on the structure of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) solid solutions (x = 0.15 and 0.20) aged 3 to 4 years. Especially, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are combined to observe these effects from both long-range and local perspectives. Results show that the fluorite-type structure of U-Am mixed oxides withstands (241)Am α-irradiation without major damage. Despite the increase of interatomic distances and crystallographic disorder observed during the first months of storage, the present results show that a steady state is then reached. Thus, no detrimental factors have been identified in this study in terms of structural damage for several-year storage of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) pellets before irradiation. Furthermore, comparison between long-range and local evolution suggests that α-self-irradiation-induced defects are mainly located in low-ordered domains. Based on literature data and present results, the steady state appears related to the equilibrium between radioinduced defect formation and material self-healing. PMID:25162209

  19. Restoring The Azimuthal Symmetry Of Charged Particle Lateral Density In The Range Of KASCADE-Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Gils, H. J.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Klages, H. O.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Nehls, S.

    2010-11-24

    KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. An important observable for analyzing the EAS is the lateral density of charged particles in the intrinsic shower plane. This observable is deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposit - first in the observation plane, by using a Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF), then in the intrinsic shower plane, by applying an adequate mapping procedure. In both steps azimuthal.

  20. Long-range diffusion in beds of nanoporous particles: pitfalls and potentials.

    PubMed

    Vasenkov, Sergey; Kärger, Jörg

    2005-02-01

    Owing to the recent progress in the area of hardware and software of the pulsed field gradient NMR technique, molecular transport in real-life zeolite systems, such as zeolite beds and particles of formulated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts, can be investigated in detail. These studies have revealed a number of important features of molecular transport in zeolites, which are reviewed in the present paper. In particular, the anomalous character of intracrystalline diffusion in MFI-type zeolites, dependence of the tortuosity factor in zeolite beds on diffusion regime and the role of various modes of diffusion in transport limitations arising for catalytic reactions in FCC catalysts will be discussed.

  1. Submicron writing by laser irradiation on metal nano-particle dispersed films toward flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Akira; Aminuzzaman, Mohammod; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2009-02-01

    The requirement for microwiring technology by a wet process has significantly increased recently toward the achievement of printable and flexible electronics. We have developed the metal microwiring with a resolution higher than 1 μm by the laser direct writing technique using Ag and Cu nano-particle-dispersed films as precursors. The technique was applied to the microwiring on a flexible and transparent polymer film. The metallization is caused in a micro-region by focused laser beam, which reduces the thermal damage of the flexible polymer substrate during the metallization process. The laser direct writing technique is based on the efficient and fast conversion of photon energy to thermal energy by direct excitation of the plasmon absorption of a metal nano-particle, which provides Cu microwiring with a low resistivity owing to the inhibition of the surface oxidation of the Cu nano-particle.

  2. Photosensitization of plasmid-DNA loaded with platinum nano-particles and irradiated by low energy X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcel, E.; Kobayashi, K.; Usami, N.; Remita, H.; Le Sech, C.; Lacombe, S.

    2011-01-01

    Damage in DNA plasmids (pBR322) loaded with platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) DNA-NP and irradiated with monochromatic X-rays tuned to the resonant photoabsorption energy of the LIII and MIII electronic inner-shell of platinum - respectively 11556 eV and 2649 eV - and off-resonant X-rays - 11536 eV and 2639 eV- is investigated. In all the experiments, an enhancement of the single and double strand break - SSB and DSB - yields is observed when NP-Pt are present. Amplification effects are almost similar for the irradiations performed at on and off the L or M shell resonance suggesting that a non resonant mechanism is responsible for the major part of the DNA breaks enhancement.The amount of DNA breaks measured in the present work is compared to the results in similar experiments made with complexes of plasmid-DNA containing platinum molecule : chloroterpyridine platinum (PtTC). The average number of PtTC molecules in the solution is the same as in the experiments made with NP-Pt in order to study a possible difference in the radiosensitization efficiency when the high-Z atoms are clustered (NP-Pt) or dispersed in the system (PtTC). A mechanism is suggested involving photoelectrons which can efficiently ionize the platinum atoms. These results are consistent with those observed when DNA-NP complexes are irradiated by fast atomic ions. These findings suggest that any nanoparticle made of high-Z atoms might behaves as radiation enhancer whatever the ionizing radiation is electromagnetic or charged particle source.

  3. Monitoring aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions of long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metternich, P.; Georgii, H.-W.; Groeneveld, K. O.

    1983-04-01

    Collection of atmospheric samples was performed at Malta, a semi-remote environment in the Mediterranean, in case of long-range transport studies of pollutants and natural substances. Using PIXE as a non-destructive trace-element analytical tool, the elemental composition of these samples was determined. Atmospheric concentrations obtained in this study were of one magnitude higher than those observed over the open North Alantic in purely marine air. For most of the anomalously enriched elements in the Mediterranean aerosol, the high concentrations can be explained by long-range transport.

  4. Particle-In-Cell simulation of laser irradiated two-component microspheres in 2 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauw, Viktoria; Ostermayr, Tobias M.; Bamberg, Karl-Ulrich; Böhl, Patrick; Deutschmann, Fabian; Kiefer, Daniel; Klier, Constantin; Moschüring, Nils; Ruhl, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    We examine proton acceleration from spherical carbon-hydrogen targets irradiated by a relativistic laser pulse. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are carried out in 2 and 3 dimensions (2D and 3D) to compare fast proton spectra. We find very different final kinetic energies in 2D and 3D simulations. We show that they are caused by the different Coulomb fields in 2D and 3D. We propose a correction scheme for the proton energies to test this hypothesis. In the case of sub-focus diameter targets comparison of corrected 2D energies with 3D results show good agreement. This demonstrates that caution is required when modeling experiments with simulations of reduced dimensionality.

  5. Improved adhesion for SiO/sub 2/ particles in silica substrates using helium-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Musket, R.G.; Thomas, I.M.

    1988-03-01

    We have examined the effects of irradiation with 200-keV helium ions on the adhesion and optical transmission properties of 220 nm thick antireflective, optical coatings that consisted of layers of spherical, 20 nm diameter silica particles. In the as-deposited state these sol-gel coatings have very low adhesion to the fused silica subtrates. Results for adhesion and optical transmission have been obtained for doses of 10/sup 13/-10/sup 17/ Hecm/sup 2/. Significant improvement in adhesion was found for doses exceeding about 2 /times/ 10/sup 14/ Hecm/sup 2/. Optical transmission measurements for wavelengths of 200-1200 nm showed increasing absorption with dose. We have evidence that the helium ions decompose various contaminants in the coating into two types of degradation products. One is volatile and the other remains in the coating as optically absorbing species. UVoxidative-gas treatment effectively removes the absorbing species.

  6. Transcriptional Response of Human Cells to Microbeam Irradiation with 2.1 MeV Alpha Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Bogner, S.; Spitta, L.; Arenz, A.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Greif, K. D.; Giesen, U.

    Within the next decades an increasing number of human beings in space will be simultaneously exposed to different stimuli especially microgravity and radiation To assess the risks for humans during long-duration space missions the complex interplay of these parameters at the cellular level must be understood Cellular stress protection responses lead to increased transcription of several genes via modulation of transcription factors Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappa B NF- kappa B pathway as a possible anti-apoptotic route represents such an important cellular stress response A screening assay for detection of NF- kappa B-dependent gene activation using the destabilized variant of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein d2EGFP as reporter protein had been developed It consists of Human Embryonic Kidney HEK 293 Cells stably transfected with a receptor-reporter-construct carrying d2EGFP under the control of a NF- kappa B response element Clones positive for Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha TNF- alpha inducible d2EGFP expression were selected as cellular reporters Irradiation was performed either with X-rays 150 kV 19 mA at DLR Cologne or with 2 1 MeV alpha particles LET sim 160 keV mu m at PTB Braunschweig After irradiation the following biological endpoints were determined i cell survival via the colony forming ability test ii time-dependent activation of NF- kappa B dependent d2EGFP gene expression using flow cytometry iii quantitative RT-PCR

  7. Computational Modeling of Cellular Effects Post-Irradiation with Low- and High-Let Particles and Different Absorbed Doses

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of computational methods to improve the understanding of biological responses to various types of radiation is an approach where multiple parameters can be modelled and a variety of data is generated. This study compares cellular effects modelled for low absorbed doses against high absorbed doses. The authors hypothesized that low and high absorbed doses would contribute to cell killing via different mechanisms, potentially impacting on targeted tumour radiotherapy outcomes. Cellular kinetics following irradiation with selective low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles were investigated using the Virtual Cell (VC) radiobiology algorithm. Two different cell types were assessed using the VC radiobiology algorithm: human fibroblasts and human crypt cells. The results showed that at lower doses (0.01 to 0.2 Gy), all radiation sources used were equally able to induce cell death (p>0.05, ANOVA). On the other hand, at higher doses (1.0 to 8.0 Gy), the radiation response was LET and dose dependent (p<0.05, ANOVA). The data obtained suggests that the computational methods used might provide some insight into the cellular effects following irradiation. The results also suggest that it may be necessary to re-evaluate cellular radiation-induced effects, particularly at low doses that could affect therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:23930101

  8. Characterization and irradiation performance of HTGR Biso-coated fertile particles in HFIR experiments HT-28, -29, and -30

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.L. Jr.; Krautwasser, P.; Beatty, R.L.; Kania, M.J.; Morgan, C.S. Jr.; Yust, C.S.

    1980-07-01

    Capsules HT-28, -29, and -30 were irradiated in the target region of the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL to determine the relative fast-neutron stability of pyrolytic carbons that had been prepared in a small laboratory coating furnace with various deposition conditions. The pyrolytic carbon coatings of 22 batches of particles of HTGR design were characterized by various methods, including optical anisotropy measurements, hot gaseous chlorine leaching, plasma oxidation, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, mercury intrusion, immersion density, and, in a few cases, neon-helium permeability measurements. The results of the above measurements were used to quantify microstructural differences between pyrolytic coatings derived at various conditions and to correlate the performance of the coatings with the measured properties. The most consistent results were obtained by comparing various pore size distributions within the coatings (determined from SAXS measurements) with immersion density, mercury intrusion, chlorine leaching, and neon-helium permeability results and with irradiation performance of the coatings. This study also demonstrated that care must be exercised if experiments on coatings containing inert carbon kernels that were codeposited along with dense thoria kernels are to yield meaningful results.

  9. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a significant por...

  10. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE-INDUCED EPITHELIAL TOXICITY IS MODULATED BY UV-IRRADIATION -- NCSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting nearly 20 million individuals in the U.S alone. Asthmatic symptoms can be exacerbated by environmental insults like exposure to particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) account for a portion of PM...

  11. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on diet on object recognition memory in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On long duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learn...

  12. X-ray luminescence spectra of graded-gap Al xGa 1- xAs structures irradiated by alpha particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šilėnas, A.; Požela, J.; Požela, K.; Jucienė, V.; Dapkus, L.

    2011-12-01

    The influence of 241Am alpha particle irradiation on X-ray luminescence spectra of the graded-gap AlxGa1-xAs structures of different thicknesses is investigated. It is observed that the integral X-ray luminescence intensity of nonirradiated thin (15 μm) structure is 1.4 times less than that in the thick (32 μm) structure, and this difference increases to 3 times after 3×1010 cm-2 dose of irradiation by alpha particle. The X-ray luminescence intensity of the energy hν<1.5 eV of thin nonirradiated structure is about 7 times less than that in thick one. The internal graded-gap electric field Fgg is responsible of that large difference, because it shifts the X-ray generated carriers to the narrow-gap surface with great nonradiative surface recombination rate. The alpha particle irradiation increases nonradiative recombination rate and causes a decrease of the X-ray luminescence intensity of all spectra lines in the thin (15 μm) detector. The most significant drop in X-ray luminescence efficiency is observed from the region at narrow-gap surface after the initial stage (109 cm-2 dose) of alpha particle irradiation. In the 32 μm thick detector, the luminescence intensity of the energy hν=1.8 eV does not change up to 2×1010 cm-2 of alpha particle irradiation dose. That means the high irradiation hardness of the thick graded-gap X-ray detector with optical response.

  13. Long-range spatial correlations of particle displacements and the emergence of elasticity.

    PubMed

    Flenner, Elijah; Szamel, Grzegorz

    2015-01-16

    We examine correlations of transverse particle displacements and their relationship to the shear modulus of a glass and the viscosity of a fluid. To this end we use computer simulations to calculate a correlation function of the displacements, S_{4}(q;t), which is similar to functions used to study heterogeneous dynamics in glass-forming fluids. We show that in the glass the shear modulus can be obtained from the long-time, small-q limit of S_{4}(q;t). By using scaling arguments, we argue that a four-point correlation length ξ_{4}(t) grows linearly in time in a glass and grows as sqrt[t] at long times in a fluid, and we verify these results by analyzing S_{4}(q;t) obtained from simulations. For a viscoelastic fluid, the simulation results suggest that the crossover to the long-time sqrt[t] growth of ξ_{4}(t) occurs at a characteristic decay time of the shear stress autocorrelation function. Using this observation, we show that the amplitude of the long-time sqrt[t] growth is proportional to sqrt[η] where η is the viscosity of the fluid.

  14. Key Differences in the Fabrication, Irradiation, and Safety Testing of U.S. and German TRISO-coated Particle Fuel and Their Implications on Fuel Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hobbins, Richard Redfield

    2002-06-01

    High temperature gas reactor technology is achieving a renaissance around the world. This technology relies on high quality production and performance of coated particle fuel. Historically, the irradiation performance of TRISO-coated gas reactor particle fuel in Germany has been superior to that in the United States. German fuel generally displayed in-pile gas release values that were three orders of magnitude lower than U.S. fuel. Thus, we have critically examined the TRISO-coated fuel fabrication processes in the U.S. and Germany and the associated irradiation database with a goal of understanding why the German fuel behaves acceptably, why the U.S. fuel has not faired as well, and what process/ production parameters impart the reliable performance to this fuel form. The postirradiation examination results are also reviewed to identify failure mechanisms that may be the cause of the poorer U.S. irradiation performance. This comparison will help determine the roles that particle fuel process/product attributes and irradiation conditions (burnup, fast neutron fluence, temperature, and degree of acceleration) have on the behavior of the fuel during irradiation and provide a more quantitative linkage between acceptable processing parameters, as-fabricated fuel properties and subsequent in-reactor performance.

  15. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  16. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  17. Gelation and glass transition of particles with short-range attraction induced by adsorbing microgel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Guangcui; Luo, Junhua; Han, Charles C.

    2015-03-01

    Mixed suspensions of large hard polystyrene microsphere and small poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgel is used as model systems to investigate the static and viscoelastic properties of suspensions which go through liquid to gel and to glass transitions. The microgels cause short-range attraction between microspheres through bridging and depletion mechanism whose strength can be tuned by the microgel concentration. Baxter's sticky hard-sphere model is used to extract the effective inter-microsphere interaction introduced by bridging or depletion of microgels despite the fact that the physical mechanisms of bridging attraction and depletion attraction are different at a molecular level. A new state diagram of gelation and even of glass transition was constructed by taking the bridges as a short-ranged attractive interaction With the help of the well-defined bridging bonds, some controversies regarding to the interference between two origins for ergodic to\\ non-ergodic transition in condensed system, i.e. cage effect and bond effect, were clarified. This work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, 2012CB821503).

  18. Humidity influenced capacitance and resistance of an Al/DNA/Al Schottky diode irradiated by alpha particles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA based sensors, especially as humidity and alpha particle sensors have become quite popular in recent times due to flexible and highly optimizable nature of this fundamental biomaterial. Application of DNA electronics allow for more sensitive, accurate and effective sensors to be developed and fabricated. In this work, we examined the effect of different humidity conditions on the capacitive and resistive response of Aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al Schottky barrier structure when bombarded by time-dependent dosages of alpha particles. Based on current-voltage profiles, which demonstrated rectifying behaviours, Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance was calculated. Results observed generally pointed towards a decrease in the resistance value from the pristine to the radiated structures. It was also demonstrated that under the effect of humidity, the capacitance of the DNA thin film increased from 0.05894 to 92.736 nF, with rising relative humidity level. We also observed the occurrence of the hypersensitivity phenomena after alpha irradiation between 2 to 4 min by observing a drop in the series resistance, crucial in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. These observations may also suggest the exciting possibility of utilizing Al/DNA/Al Schottky diodes as potentially sensitive humidity sensors. PMID:27160654

  19. Humidity influenced capacitance and resistance of an Al/DNA/Al Schottky diode irradiated by alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ta’Ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2016-05-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA based sensors, especially as humidity and alpha particle sensors have become quite popular in recent times due to flexible and highly optimizable nature of this fundamental biomaterial. Application of DNA electronics allow for more sensitive, accurate and effective sensors to be developed and fabricated. In this work, we examined the effect of different humidity conditions on the capacitive and resistive response of Aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al Schottky barrier structure when bombarded by time-dependent dosages of alpha particles. Based on current-voltage profiles, which demonstrated rectifying behaviours, Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance was calculated. Results observed generally pointed towards a decrease in the resistance value from the pristine to the radiated structures. It was also demonstrated that under the effect of humidity, the capacitance of the DNA thin film increased from 0.05894 to 92.736 nF, with rising relative humidity level. We also observed the occurrence of the hypersensitivity phenomena after alpha irradiation between 2 to 4 min by observing a drop in the series resistance, crucial in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. These observations may also suggest the exciting possibility of utilizing Al/DNA/Al Schottky diodes as potentially sensitive humidity sensors.

  20. Impacts of long range transported dust and biological particles on clouds and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.; Creamean, J.; Suski, K. J.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Fitzgerald, E.; DeMott, P. J.; Cazorla, A.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols play a profound role in impacting cloud properties and precipitation processes. Some studies suggest air pollution aerosols suppress orographic precipitation, whereas other studies show a precipitation enhancement during periods with long range dust transport. To gain a more complete understanding of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions, we have performed two field studies, CalWater and ICE-T, probing clouds over California and the Caribbean. Ground and aircraft measurements were used to characterize the sources of aerosols seeding clouds and the resulting impact on cloud microphysics. This presentation will focus on how dust and biological aerosols transported from the Sahara, Middle East, and Asia appeared in glaciated high-altitude clouds coincident with elevated ice nuclei (IN) concentrations. Our results suggest that dust and biological IN are persistent components of the upper atmosphere and thus could be playing important roles in affecting orographic precipitation processes over many regions of the world.

  1. Source apportionment of wide range particle size spectra and black carbon collected at the airport of Venice (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Vu, Tuan V.; Beddows, David C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric particles are of high concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate, and large airports are known as significant sources of particles. This study investigates the contribution of the Airport of Venice (Italy) to black carbon (BC), total particle number concentrations (PNC) and particle number size distributions (PNSD) over a large range (14 nm-20 μm). Continuous measurements were conducted between April and June 2014 at a site located 110 m from the main taxiway and 300 m from the runway. Results revealed no significantly elevated levels of BC and PNC, but exhibited characteristic diurnal profiles. PNSD were then analysed using both k-means cluster analysis and positive matrix factorization. Five clusters were extracted and identified as midday nucleation events, road traffic, aircraft, airport and nighttime pollution. Six factors were apportioned and identified as probable sources according to the size profiles, directional association, diurnal variation, road and airport traffic volumes and their relationships to micrometeorology and common air pollutants. Photochemical nucleation accounted for ∼44% of total number, followed by road + shipping traffic (26%). Airport-related emissions accounted for ∼20% of total PNC and showed a main mode at 80 nm and a second mode beyond the lower limit of the SMPS (<14 nm). The remaining factors accounted for less than 10% of number counts, but were relevant for total volume concentrations: nighttime nitrate, regional pollution and local resuspension. An analysis of BC levels over different wind sectors revealed no especially significant contributions from specific directions associated with the main local sources, but a potentially significant role of diurnal dynamics of the mixing layer on BC levels. The approaches adopted in this study have identified and apportioned the main sources of particles and BC at an international airport located in area affected by a complex emission scenario. The

  2. Computational modeling of stress transient and bubble evolution in short-pulse laser irradiated melanosome particles

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, M.; Amendt, P.A.; London, R.A.; Maitland, D.J.; Glinsky, M.E.; Lin, C.P.; Kelly, M.W.

    1997-03-04

    Objective is to study retinal injury by subnanosecond laser pulses absorbed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The absorption centers in the RPE cell are melanosomes of order 1 {mu}m radius. Each melanosome includes many melanin particles of 10-15 nm radius, which are the local absorbers of the laser light and generate a discrete structure of hot spots. This work use the hydrodynamic code LATIS (LAser-TISsue interaction modeling) and a water equation of state to first simulate the small melanin particle of 15 nm responsible for initiating the hot spot and the pressure field. A average melanosome of 1 {mu}m scale is next simulated. Supersonic shocks and fast vapor bubbles are generated in both cases: the melanin scale and the melanosome scale. The hot spot induces a shock wave pressure than with a uniform deposition of laser energy. It is found that an absorption coefficient of 6000 -8000 cm{sup -1} can explain the enhanced shock wave emitted by the melanosome. An experimental and theoretical effort should be considered to identify the mechanism for generating shock wave enhancement.

  3. A simple method to increase the current range of the TERA chip in charged particle therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirio, R.; Fausti, F.; Fanola Guarachi, L.; Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F.; Mazza, G.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Talpacci, E.; Varasteh Anvar, M.; Vignati, A.

    2015-10-01

    The development of the next generation of accelerators for charged particle radiotherapy aims to reduce dimensions and operational complexity of the machines by engineering pulsed beams accelerators. The drawback is the increased difficulty to monitor the beam delivery. Within each pulse, instantaneous currents larger by two to three orders of magnitude than present applications are expected, which would saturate the readout of the monitor chambers. In this paper, we report of a simple method to increase by almost two orders of magnitude the current range of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit chip previously developed by our group to read out monitor ionization chambers.

  4. Total-body irradiation with high-LET particles: acute and chronic effects on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Although the immune system is highly susceptible to radiation-induced damage, consequences of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation remain unclear. This study evaluated the effects of 0.1 gray (Gy), 0.5 Gy, and 2.0 Gy iron ion (56Fe(26)) radiation on lymphoid cells and organs of C57BL/6 mice on days 4 and 113 after whole body exposure; a group irradiated with 2.0 Gy silicon ions (28Si) was euthanized on day 113. On day 4 after 56Fe irradiation, dose-dependent decreases were noted in spleen and thymus masses and all major leukocyte populations in blood and spleen. The CD19(+) B lymphocytes were most radiosensitive and NK1.1(+) natural killer (NK) cells were most resistant. CD3(+) T cells were moderately radiosensitive and a greater loss of CD3(+)/CD8(+) T(C) cells than CD3(+)/CD4(+) T(H) cells was noted. Basal DNA synthesis was elevated on day 4, but response to mitogens and secretion of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were unaffected. Signs of anemia were noted. By day 113, high B cell numbers and low T(C) cell and monocyte percents were found in the 2.0 Gy 56Fe group; the 2.0 Gy 2)Si mice had low NK cells, decreased basal DNA synthesis, and a somewhat increased response to two mitogens. Collectively, the data show that lymphoid cells and tissues are markedly affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation at relatively low doses, that some aberrations persist long after exposure, and that different consequences may be induced by various densely ionizing particles. Thus simultaneous exposure to multiple radiation sources could lead to a broader spectrum of immune dysfunction than currently anticipated.

  5. Quantitative image analysis of laminin immunoreactivity in skin basement membrane irradiated with 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costes, S.; Streuli, C. H.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported that laminin immunoreactivity in mouse mammary epithelium is altered shortly after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy from 600 MeV/nucleon iron ions but is unaffected after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation. This observation led us to propose that the effect could be due to protein damage from the high ionization density of the ion tracks. If so, we predicted that it would be evident soon after radiation exposure in basement membranes of other tissues and would depend on ion fluence. To test this hypothesis, we used immunofluorescence, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and image segmentation techniques to quantify changes in the basement membrane of mouse skin epidermis. At 1 h after exposure to 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions with doses from 0.03 to 1.6 Gy, neither the visual appearance nor the mean pixel intensity of laminin in the basement membrane of mouse dorsal skin epidermis was altered compared to sham-irradiated tissue. This result does not support the hypothesis that particle traversal directly affects laminin protein integrity. However, the mean pixel intensity of laminin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in epidermal basement membrane at 48 and 96 h after exposure to 0.8 Gy 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. We confirmed this effect with two additional antibodies raised against affinity-purified laminin 1 and the E3 fragment of the long-arm of laminin 1. In contrast, collagen type IV, another component of the basement membrane, was unaffected. Our studies demonstrate quantitatively that densely ionizing radiation elicits changes in skin microenvironments distinct from those induced by sparsely ionizing radiation. Such effects may might contribute to the carcinogenic potential of densely ionizing radiation by altering cellular signaling cascades mediated by cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  6. Detection of bone and bone-plus-bullet particles in backspatter from close-range shots to heads.

    PubMed

    Burnett, B R

    1991-11-01

    A victim was shot in the head with a 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol using Winchester Silvertip hollow-point ammunition. Of interest in this case was the distance from the muzzle of the weapon to the victim's head, since the wound characteristics were equivocal for firing distance. Two other handguns (revolvers) were involved in this shooting, in addition to a revolver owned by the victim. The handguns were sampled using tape lifts, and the casings were sampled by washing them in distilled water, followed by vacuum filtration of the washing water through 0.2-microns-pore Nuclepore filters. These materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Calcium-phosphorous (bone) particles were detected on the 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol, on two casings found at the scene, and on one of the revolvers. Two of the calcium-phosphorous particles on the casings had associated bullet fragments. Test shots on live pigs destined for slaughter showed that bone particles are a feature of backspatter from close-range shots to heads. Contamination of nearby surfaces by bone fragments and bone-plus-bullet fragments, as well as other organic debris, appears to be quite heavy.

  7. Faecal particle size in free-ranging primates supports a 'rumination' strategy in the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus).

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Hashimoto, Chie; Bernard, Henry; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Fritz, Julia; Tsubokawa, Keiko; Yayota, Masato; Murai, Tadahiro; Iwata, Yuji; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    In mammalian herbivores, faecal particle size indicates chewing efficiency. Proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) are foregut fermenters in which regurgitation and remastication (i.e. rumination) was observed in the wild, but not with the same consistency as found in ruminants and camelids. To test whether this species has exceptional chewing efficiency among primates, as ruminants have among mammals, we compared faecal particle size in free-ranging specimens with those of 12 other primate species. The discrete mean faecal particle size (dMEAN) increased with body mass (M) as dMEAN (mm) = 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.49-0.87) M((0.33 (0.23-0.43)) in simple-stomached species. At 0.53 ± 0.09 mm, dMEAN of proboscis monkeys was particularly small for their average M (15 kg) and significantly smaller than values of two other foregut fermenting primate species. While we cannot exclude other reasons for the exceptional chewing efficiency in proboscis monkeys, this represents circumstantial evidence for regular use of rumination in this species. Thus, proboscis monkeys might be a model for convergent evolution towards rumination in a non-ungulate taxon. PMID:24380969

  8. Observation of chemical modification of Asian Dust particles during long-range transport by the combined use of quantitative ED-EPMA and ATR-FT-IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Chul; Eom, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Hae-Jin; Malek, Md Abdul; Kim, HyeKyeong; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-10-01

    In our previous works, it was demonstrated that the combined use of quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), which is also known as low-Z particle EPMA, and attenuated total reflectance FT-IR (ATR-FT-IR) imaging has great potential for a detailed characterization of individual aerosol particles. In this study, individual Asian Dust particles collected during an Asian Dust storm event on 11 November 2011 in Korea were characterized by the combined use of low-Z particle EPMA and ATR-FT-IR imaging. The combined use of the two single-particle analytical techniques on the same individual particles showed that Asian Dust particles had experienced extensive chemical modification during long-range transport. Overall, 109 individual particles were classified into four particle types based on their morphology, elemental concentrations, and molecular species and/or functional groups of individual particles available from the two analytical techniques: Ca-containing (38%); NaNO3-containing (30%); silicate (22%); and miscellaneous particles (10%). Among the 41 Ca-containing particles, 10, 8, and 14 particles contained nitrate, sulfate, and both, respectively, whereas only two particles contained unreacted CaCO3. Airborne amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles were observed in this Asian Dust sample for the first time, where their IR peaks for the insufficient symmetric environment of CO32- ions of ACC were clearly differentiated from those of crystalline CaCO3. This paper also reports the field observations of CaCl2 particles converted from CaCO3 for the Asian Dust sample collected in the planetary boundary layer. Thirty three particles contained NaNO3, which are the reaction products of sea-salt and NOx/HNO3, whereas no genuine sea-salt particles were encountered, indicating that sea-salt particles are more reactive than CaCO3 particles. Some silicate particles were observed to contain nitrate, sulfate, and water. Among 24 silicate

  9. The coming revolution in particle physics: Report of the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Appel et al.

    2004-06-22

    In early 2003, the Fermilab Director formed a committee (Appendix A) to examine options for the long-range future of Fermilab. Specifically, the committee was asked to respond to a charge (Appendix B), which laid out the assumptions, which were to underlie our discussions. The committee met a few times during the spring of 2003 and formulated a plan of action. It identified a number of issues that deserved attention, and a subcommittee was formed to focus on each. We agreed that in addressing these key issues, a broader participation was appropriate. The manner in which that was achieved varied from subcommittee to subcommittee to group. In some cases the expanded membership participated in all the discussions, in others, particular presentations were solicited and heard. Some subgroups met regularly over several months, others convened only for a small number of discussions. We have attempted to list participants in Appendix C. General presentations indicating the purpose of the work were given, for example at the Fermilab Users Annual Meeting. Towards the end of the summer some sense of direction developed and a series of open meetings was organized by the different subgroups. These meetings of two and more hour's duration gave the broader laboratory and user community a further chance to react to perceived directions and to make their opinions known. They were extremely well attended. In all, nearly 100 people have participated in the process including the development of initial drafts and proto-recommendations. A larger number attended the various open sessions. It is therefore likely, even expected, that the general thrusts of this report are no surprise. Nevertheless, the committee met in a number of plenary closed sessions including a two-day retreat in which all the issues were discussed and a common view was developed. The Director and Deputy Director heard and interacted with the discussions in most of these meetings. In attempting to converge, we have

  10. Age/Radiation Parallels in the Effects of 56Fe Particle Irradiation and Protection by Berry Diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, James; Bielinski, Donna; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    Exposing young rats to particles of high-energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2% blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats, perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A subsequent study has shown that whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation; these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets. The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information, while the blueberry-supplemented animals showed enhanced learning that was dependent on striatal functioning. Additional experiments in cell models to examine possible mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects have shown that, in addition to the well known free radical scavenging effects of berries, it appears that berry fruit can directly reduce stress signaling and enhance protective signals, suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the beneficial effects observed. Enhancements of "protective" signals (e.g., extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK) include those that are involved in neuronal communication, neurogenesis, and learning and memory. Reductions in stress signaling include inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytokines, among others, induced by oxidative and inflammatory stressors. We have found these changes in both BV2 mouse microglial and hippocampal cells. We believe that the possible addition of colorful fruits such as berry fruits to the diet can possibly

  11. Ultraviolet and charged particle irradiation of proposed solar cell coverslide materials and conductive coatings for the Helios spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, J.; Nicoletta, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Coverslide materials consisting of Corning 7940 fused silica, multilayers of titanium and manganese oxides (blue reflector), and indium oxide (conductive-coating) were exposed to 16 UVSC up to 800 EUVSH in vacuum. Slight changes in optical transmittance and optical absorptance were found in the (200-360) millimicron regions of the fused silica and conductive coating respectively. Exposure to 4 KeV protons and 4.5 KeV electrons in vacuum, produced decreases of several percent in transmittance, (200-360) millimicron region in the fused silicas after total fluxes less or = 10 to the 14th power particles/sq cm. Sheet resistance of the conductive coating increased above 1.0 kilo-ohm/square after a total flux less or = 10 to the 14th power particles/sq cm. Solar cells with coverglasses utilizing the indium oxide conductive coating were exposed to 1 Mev electrons and 1 Mev protons in air and in vacuum. Total fluxes ranged from 10 to the 11th power particles/sq cm to 10 to the 15th power particle/sq cm. There was no appreciable degradation in the resistance of the conductive coating during or after these tests.

  12. Application of a Halbach magnetic array for long-range cell and particle separations in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Joo H.; Driscoll, Harry; Super, Michael; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we describe a versatile application of a planar Halbach permanent magnet array for an efficient long-range magnetic separation of living cells and microparticles over distances up to 30 mm. A Halbach array was constructed from rectangular bar magnets using 3D-printed holders and compared to a conventional alternating array of identical magnets. We theoretically predicted the superiority of the Halbach array for a long-range magnetic separation and then experimentally validated that the Halbach configuration outperforms the alternating array for isolating magnetic microparticles or microparticle-bound bacterial cells at longer distances. Magnetophoretic velocities (ymag) of magnetic particles (7.9 μm diameter) induced by the Halbach array in a microfluidic device were significantly higher and extended over a larger area than those induced by the alternating magnet array (ymag = 178 versus 0 μm/s at 10 mm, respectively). When applied to 50 ml tubes (˜30 mm diameter), the Halbach array removed >95% of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells bound with 1 μm magnetic particles compared to ˜70% removed using the alternating array. In addition, the Halbach array enabled manipulation of 1 μm magnetic beads in a deep 96-well plate for ELISA applications, which was not possible with the conventional magnet arrays. Our analysis demonstrates the utility of the Halbach array for the future design of devices for high-throughput magnetic separations of cells, molecules, and toxins.

  13. Irradiation with heavy-ion particles changes the cellular distribution of human histone acetyltranferase HAT1

    SciTech Connect

    Lebel, E.A.; Tafrov, S.; Boukamp, P.

    2010-06-01

    Hat1 was the first histone acetyltransferase identified, however its biological function is still unclear. In this report, we show that the human Hat1 has two isoforms. Isoform a has 418 amino acids (aa) and is localized exclusively in the nuclear matrix of normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). Isoform b has 334 aa and is located in thecytoplasm, the nucleoplasm, attached to the chromatin and to the nuclear matrix. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the bulk of Hat1 is confined to the nucleus, with much lesser amounts in the cytoplasm. Cells undergoing mitotic division have an elevated amount of Hat1 compared to non-mitotic ones. NHKs exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or to a beam of high mass and energy (HZE) ion particles expressed bright nuclear staining for Hat1, a phenotype that was not observed in NHKs exposed to &947;-rays. We established that the enhanced nuclear staining for Hat1 in response to these treatments is regulated by the PI3K and the MAPK signaling pathways. Our observations clearly implicate Hat1 in the cellular response assuring the survival of the treated cells.

  14. Signaling factors and pathways of α-particle irradiation induced bilateral bystander responses between Beas-2B and U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Ping; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Cuiping; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-07-01

    Although radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated for decades for their potential health risk, the underlying gene regulation is still largely unclear, especially the roles of immune system and inflammatory response in RIBE. In the present study, macrophage U937 cells and epithelial Beas-2B cells were co-cultured to disclose the cascades of bystander signaling factors and intercellular communications. After α-particle irradiation, both ERK and p38 pathways were activated in Beas-2B cells and were associated with the autocrine and paracrine signaling of TNF-α and IL-8, resulting in direct damage to the irradiated cells. Similar upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells after co-culture with α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. This upregulation was dependent on the activation of NF-κB pathway and was responsible for the enhanced damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. Interestingly, the increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in the bystander U937 cells were clearly relayed on the activated ERK and p38 pathways in the irradiated Beas-2B cells, and the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in co-cultured Beas-2B cells was also partly due to the activated NF-κB pathway in the bystander U937 cells. With the pretreatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), the aggravated damage in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells could be largely alleviated. Our results disclosed novel signaling cascades of macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses that the release of TNF-α and IL-8 regulated by MAPK and NF-κB pathways synergistically increased cellular injury after α-particle irradiation. PMID:27155559

  15. Functional Consequences of Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Neural Stem Cells and the Brain Exposed to Charged Particle Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Bertrand P.; Giedzinski, Erich; Izadi, Atefeh; Suarez, Tatiana; Lan, Mary L.; Tran, Katherine K.; Acharya, Munjal M.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Raber, Jacob; Parihar, Vipan K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Redox homeostasis is critical in regulating the fate and function of multipotent cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we investigated whether low dose charged particle irradiation could elicit oxidative stress in neural stem and precursor cells and whether radiation-induced changes in redox metabolism would coincide with cognitive impairment. Results: Low doses (<1 Gy) of charged particles caused an acute and persistent oxidative stress. Early after (<1 week) irradiation, increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were generally dose responsive, but were less dependent on dose weeks to months thereafter. Exposure to ion fluences resulting in less than one ion traversal per cell was sufficient to elicit radiation-induced oxidative stress. Whole body irradiation triggered a compensatory response in the rodent brain that led to a significant increase in antioxidant capacity 2 weeks following exposure, before returning to background levels at week 4. Low dose irradiation was also found to significantly impair novel object recognition in mice 2 and 12 weeks following irradiation. Innovation: Data provide evidence that acute exposure of neural stem cells and the CNS to very low doses and fluences of charged particles can elicit a persisting oxidative stress lasting weeks to months that is associated with impaired cognition. Conclusions: Exposure to low doses of charged particles causes a persistent oxidative stress and cognitive impairment over protracted times. Data suggest that astronauts subjected to space radiation may develop a heightened risk for mission critical performance decrements in space, along with a risk of developing long-term neurocognitive sequelae. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1410–1422. PMID:23802883

  16. Computer simulation of heat and mass transfer in tissue during high-intensity long-range laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Director, L B; Frid, S E; Mendeleev VYa; Scovorod'Ko, S N

    1998-09-11

    Three-dimensional transient finite difference numerical model of the biological tissue irradiated by powerful laser beam is developed. It is used to simulate the thermal behavior of tissue assuming that radiation wavelength is chosen to give rise for volumetric heat sources. A three-dimensional seven-flow model is used to calculate radiation propagation. Evaporation and burn-out of tissue resulting in a through hole along the axis of the beam are taken into account. Besides the water boiling and corresponding changes of thermal and optical tissue properties the model takes into account one of the heat steam transfer mechanisms. Estimates are carried out for the effects of diffusion transfer and vaporization of water from the tissue surface. Kinetics of protein denaturation process are calculated by Arrenius equation. The problem is solved numerically using discrete grid technique and adaptive time-step control algorithm.

  17. OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES FROM {sup 3}He-RICH EVENTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOGRAPHIC LONGITUDE

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Mason, G. M.; Haggerty, D. K; Cohen, C. M. S.; Nitta, N. V.; Gomez-Herrero, R.

    2013-01-01

    A prevailing model for the origin of {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events attributes particle acceleration to processes associated with the reconnection between closed magnetic field lines in an active region and neighboring open field lines. The open field from the small reconnection volume then provides a path along which accelerated particles escape into a relatively narrow range of angles in the heliosphere. The narrow width (standard deviation <20 Degree-Sign ) of the distribution of X-ray flare longitudes found to be associated with {sup 3}He-rich SEP events detected at a single spacecraft at 1 AU supports this model. We report multispacecraft observations of individual {sup 3}He-rich SEP events that occurred during the solar minimum time period from 2007 January through 2011 January using instrumentation carried by the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft and the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find that detections of {sup 3}He-rich events at pairs of spacecraft are not uncommon, even when their longitudinal separation is >60 Degree-Sign . We present the observations of the {sup 3}He-rich event of 2010 February 7, which was detected at all three spacecraft when they spanned 136 Degree-Sign in heliographic longitude. Measured fluences of {sup 3}He in this event were found to have a strong dependence on longitude which is well fit by a Gaussian with standard deviation {approx}48 Degree-Sign centered at the longitude that is connected to the source region by a nominal Parker spiral magnetic field. We discuss several mechanisms for distributing flare-accelerated particles over a wide range of heliographic longitudes including interplanetary diffusion perpendicular to the magnetic field, spreading of a compact cluster of open field lines between the active region and the source surface where the field becomes radial and opens out into the heliosphere, and distortion of the interplanetary field by a preceding coronal mass

  18. The influence of nano silica particles on gamma-irradiation ageing of elastomers based on chlorosulphonated polyethylene and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, G.; Marinović-Cincović, M.; Tanasić, Lj.; Jovanović, V.; Samaržija-Jovanović, S.; Vukić, N.; Budinski-Simendić, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this work was to study gamma irradiation ageing of rubber blends based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) reinforced by silica nano particles. The NBR/CSM compounds (50: 50, w/w) filled with different content of filler (0-100 phr) were crosslinked by sulfur. The vulcanization characteristics were assessed using the rheometer with an oscillating disk. The vulcanizates were prepared in a hydraulic press. The obtained materials were exposed to the different irradiation doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kGy). The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) and swelling numbers were assessed before and after gamma irradiation ageing.

  19. The emission probabilities of long range alpha particles from even-even 244-252Cm isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B.

    2014-10-01

    The alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of the Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold reaction valley plot and by calculating the relative yield for the charge minimized fragments. In the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cm isotope, the highest yield is found for the fragment combination 110Ru+4He+130Sn, which possess near doubly magic nuclei 130Sn. For the ternary fission of 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes with 4He as the light charged particle, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn as the heavier fragment. The emission probabilities and kinetic energies of long range alpha particles have been computed for the 242,244,246,248Cm isotopes and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The relative yields for the 4He accompanied ternary fission (equatorial and collinear) of 242-252Cm isotopes are compared with the corresponding yield for binary fission. The effect of deformation and orientation of fragments in the 4He accompanied ternary fission of 244-252Cm isotopes are studied. Our study reveals that the ground state deformation has as an important role in the alpha accompanied ternary fission as that of the shell effect.

  20. Implementation of a target volume design function for intrafractional range variation in a particle beam treatment planning system

    PubMed Central

    Inaniwa, T; Miki, K; Shirai, T; Noda, K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Treatment planning for charged particle therapy in the thoracic and abdominal regions should take account of range uncertainty due to intrafractional motion. Here, we developed a design tool (4Dtool) for the target volume [field-specific target volume (FTV)], which accounts for this uncertainty using four-dimensional CT (4DCT). Methods: Target and normal tissue contours were input manually into a treatment planning system (TPS). These data were transferred to the 4Dtool via the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Contours at the reference phase were propagated to other phases by deformable image registration. FTV was calculated using 4DCT on the 4Dtool. The TPS displays FTV contours using digital imaging and communications in medicine files imported from the PACS. These treatment parameters on the CT image at the reference phase were then used for dose calculation on the TPS. The tool was tested in single clinical case randomly selected from patients treated at our centre for lung cancer. Results: In this clinical case, calculation of dose distribution with the 4Dtool resulted in the successful delivery of carbon-ion beam at the reference phase of 95% of the prescribed dose to the clinical target volume (CTV). Application to the other phases also provided sufficient dose to the CTV. Conclusion: The 4Dtool software allows the design of the target volume with consideration to intrafractional range variation and is now in routine clinical use at our institution. Advances in knowledge: Our alternative technique represents a practical approach to four-dimensional treatment planning within the current state of charged particle therapy. PMID:25168286

  1. Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso after irradiation with a simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Reitz, Guenther

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are com-pounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself. Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrap-olation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over-or under-estimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be pre-dicted to within about a +10In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The first focus of the pre-sented experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on the results of the passive dosimetry using the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable to

  2. Co-culturing with High-Charge and Energy Particle Irradiated Cells Increases Mutagenic Joining of Enzymatically Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Nonirradiated Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhentian; Doho, Gregory; Zheng, Xuan; Jella, Kishore Kumar; Li, Shuyi; Wang, Ya; Dynan, William S

    2015-09-01

    Cell populations that have been exposed to high-charge and energy (HZE) particle radiation, and then challenged by expression of a rare-cutting nuclease, show an increased frequency of deletions and translocations originating at the enzyme cut sites. Here, we examine whether this effect also occurs in nonirradiated cells that have been co-cultured with irradiated cells. Human cells were irradiated with 0.3-1.0 Gy of either 600 MeV/u (56)Fe or 1,000 MeV/u (48)Ti ions or with 0.3-3.0 Gy of 320 kV X rays. These were co-cultured with I-SceI-expressing reporter cells at intervals up to 21 days postirradiation. Co-culture with HZE-irradiated cells led to an increase in the frequency of I-SceI-stimulated translocations and deletions in the nonirradiated cells. The effect size was similar to that seen previously in directly irradiated populations (maximum effect in bystander cells of 1.7- to 4-fold depending on ion and end point). The effect was not observed when X-ray-irradiated cells were co-cultured with nonirradiated cells, but was correlated with an increase in γ-H2AX foci-positive cells in the nonirradiated population, suggesting the presence of genomic stress. Transcriptional profiling of a directly irradiated cell population showed that many genes for cytokines and other secretory proteins were persistently upregulated, but their induction was not well correlated with functional effects on repair in co-cultured cells, suggesting that this transcriptional response alone is not sufficient to evoke the effect. The finding that HZE-irradiated cells influence the DNA double-strand break repair fidelity in their nonirradiated neighbors has implications for risk in the space radiation environment.

  3. Fission-product behaviour in irradiated TRISO-coated particles: Results of the HFR-EU1bis experiment and their interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrachin, M.; Dubourg, R.; de Groot, S.; Kissane, M. P.; Bakker, K.

    2011-08-01

    It is important to understand fission-product (FP) and kernel micro-structure evolution in TRISO-coated fuel particles. FP behaviour, while central to severe-accident evaluation, impacts: evolution of the kernel oxygen potential governing in turn carbon oxidation (amoeba effect and pressurization); particle pressurization through fission-gas release from the kernel; and coating mechanical resistance via reaction with some FPs (Pd, Cs, Sr). The HFR-Eu1bis experiment irradiated five HTR fuel pebbles containing TRISO-coated UO 2 particles and went beyond current HTR specifications (e.g., central temperature of 1523 K). This study presents ceramographic and EPMA examinations of irradiated urania kernels and coatings. Significant evolutions of the kernel (grain structure, porosity, metallic-inclusion size, intergranular bubbles) as a function of temperature are shown. Results concerning FP migration are presented, e.g., significant xenon, caesium and palladium release from the kernel, molybdenum and ruthenium mainly present in metallic precipitates. The observed FP and micro-structural evolutions are interpreted and explanations proposed. The effect of high flux rate and high temperature on fission-gas behaviour, grain-size evolution and kernel swelling is discussed. Furthermore, Cs, Mo and Zr behaviour is interpreted in connection with oxygen-potential. This paper shows that combining state-of-the-art post-irradiation examination and state-of-the-art modelling fundamentally improves understanding of HTR fuel behaviour.

  4. SYNCHROTRON POLARIZATION AND SYNCHROTRON SELF-ABSORPTION SPECTRA FOR A POWER-LAW PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION WITH FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S. E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.dz

    2011-12-10

    We have derived asymptotic forms for the degree of polarization of the optically thin synchrotron and for synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) spectra assuming a power-law particle distribution of the form N({gamma}) {approx} {gamma}{sup -p} with {gamma}{sub 1} < {gamma} < {gamma}{sub 2}, especially for a finite high-energy limit, {gamma}{sub 2}, in the case of an arbitrary pitch angle. The new results inferred concern more especially the high-frequency range x >> {eta}{sup 2} with parameter {eta} = {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub 1}. The calculated SSA spectra concern instantaneous photon emission where cooling effects are not considered. They have been obtained by also ignoring likely effects such as Comptonization, pair creation and annihilation, as well as magnetic photon splitting. To that aim, in addition to the two usual absorption frequencies, a third possible one has been derived and expressed in terms of the Lambert W function based on the analytical asymptotic form of the absorption coefficient, {alpha}{sub {nu}}, for the high-frequency range {nu} >> {nu}{sub 2} (with {nu}{sub 2} the synchrotron frequency corresponding to {gamma}{sub 2}). We have shown that the latter frequency may not have realistic applications in astrophysics, except in the case of an adequate set of parameters allowing one to neglect Comptonization effects. More detailed calculations and discussions are presented.

  5. Depth Dose Distribution Study within a Phantom Torso after Irradiation with a Simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis; Reitz, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are compounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrapolation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over- or underestimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be predicted to within about a +10% accuracy using space radiation transport models for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and trapped radiation behind shielding. However for solar particle event (SPE) with steep energy spectra and for extra-vehicular activities on the surface of the moon where only tissue shielding is present, transport models predict that there are large differences in model assumptions in projecting organ doses. Therefore experimental verification of SPE induced organ doses may be crucial for the design of lunar missions. In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field

  6. SYNCHROTRON AND SYNCHROTRON SELF-ABSORPTION FOR A POWER-LAW PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION: ASYMPTOTIC FORMS FOR FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S.

    2009-12-10

    We calculate and plot the synchrotron power, P {sub n}u, the absorption coefficient, alpha{sub n}u, and the source function, S {sub n}u, for a power-law distribution of charged particles with Lorentz parameter values gamma{sub 1} <= gamma <= gamma{sub 2}. For this purpose, we define parametric functions Z{sub p} (x, eta), H{sub p} (x, eta), and Y{sub p} (x, eta) with eta = gamma{sub 2}/gamma{sub 1}, such that P {sub n}u propor to Z{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta), alpha{sub n}u propor to H{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta), and S {sub n}u propor to Y{sub p} (gamma{sup -2} {sub 1}nu/nu{sub 0}, eta). Corresponding asymptotic forms are also calculated and plotted for three frequency ranges, i.e., x << 1, 1 << x << eta{sup 2}, and x >> eta{sup 2}, especially in the case of finite parameter eta. Asymptotic forms of the middle range are possible for functions Z{sub p} and Y{sub p} for p>1/3, and for function H{sub p} for all positive values of index p. A characteristic value, eta {sub c}(p, epsilon) (with epsilon << 1), is then defined for each of the above functions so that for eta approx> eta {sub c}(p, epsilon) the middle range asymptotic forms could be considered. Further calculation details are also presented and discussed.

  7. Role of composition, bond covalency, and short-range order in the disordering of stannate pyrochlores by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Shamblin, Jacob; Park, Sulgiye; Zhang, Fuxiang; Trautmann, Christina; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2016-08-01

    A2S n2O7 (A =Nd ,Sm,Gd,Er,Yb,and Y) materials with the pyrochlore structure were irradiated with 2.2 GeV Au ions to systematically investigate disordering of this system in response to dense electronic excitation. Structural modifications were characterized, over multiple length scales, by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Transformations to amorphous and disordered phases were observed, with disordering dominating the structural response of materials with small A -site cation ionic radii. Both the disordered and amorphous phases were found to possess weberite-type local ordering, differing only in that the disordered phase exhibits a long-range, modulated arrangement of weberite-type structural units into an average defect-fluorite structure, while the amorphous phase remains fully aperiodic. Comparison with the behavior of titanate and zirconate pyrochlores showed minimal influence of the high covalency of the Sn-O bond on this phase behavior. An analytical model of damage accumulation was developed to account for simultaneous amorphization and recrystallization of the disordered phase during irradiation.

  8. Determination of integral cross sections of 3H in Al foils monitors irradiated by protons with energies ranging from 40 to 2600 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Chauzova, M. V.; Chauzova, M. V.; Kashirin, I. A.; Malinovskiy, S. V.; Pavlov, K. V.; Rogov, V. I.; Titarenko, A. Yu.; Zhivun, V. M.; Mashnik, S. G.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The results of 3H production in Al foil monitors (˜ 59 mg/cm2 thickness) are presented. These foils have been irradiated in 15×15 mm polyethylene bags of ˜ 14 mg/cm2 thickness together with foils of Cr (˜ 395 mg/cm2 thickness) and 56Fe (˜ 332 mg/cm2 thickness) by protons of different energies in a range of 0.04 - 2.6 GeV. The diameters of all the foils were 10.5 mm. The irradiations were carried out at the ITEP accelerator U-10 under the ISTC Project # 3266 in 2006-2009. 3H has been extracted from Al foils using an A307 Sample Oxidizer. An ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus1220 was used to measure the 3H β-spectra and the SpectraDec software package was applied for spectra processing, deconvolution and 3H activity determination. The values of the Al (p, x)3H reaction cross sections obtained in these experiments are compared with data measured at other labs and with results of simulations by the MCNP6 radiation transport code using the CEM03.03 event generator.

  9. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; 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    2016-04-29

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270  nb^{-1}. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η|<2.4) and over the full azimuth (ϕ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (p_{T}). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δη|>2.0), near-side (Δϕ≈0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δη-Δϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0particle multiplicity, with an overall correlation strength similar to that found in earlier pp data at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities N_{ch}∼180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies. PMID:27176516

  10. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in p p Collisions at √{s }=13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.; Cms Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270 nb-1 . The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η | <2.4 ) and over the full azimuth (ϕ ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (pT ). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δ η | >2.0 ), near-side (Δ ϕ ≈0 ) structure emerges in the two-particle Δ η -Δ ϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0 particle multiplicity, with an overall correlation strength similar to that found in earlier p p data at √{s }=7 TeV . The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities Nch˜180 , a region so far unexplored in p p collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in p p , p Pb , and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  11. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV.

    PubMed

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Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Bhattacharya, S; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Low, J F; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Jung, K; Kumar, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Verwilligen, P; Woods, N

    2016-04-29

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270  nb^{-1}. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η|<2.4) and over the full azimuth (ϕ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (p_{T}). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δη|>2.0), near-side (Δϕ≈0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δη-Δϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0particle multiplicity, with an overall correlation strength similar to that found in earlier pp data at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities N_{ch}∼180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  12. Long range transport of smoke particles from Canadian forest fires to the Mediterranean basin during June 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iorio, T.; Anello, F.; Bommarito, C.; Cacciani, M.; Denjean, C.; De Silvestri, L.; Di Biagio, C.; di Sarra, A.; Ellul, R.; Formenti, P.; Gómez-Amo, J.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Pace, G.; Piacentino, S.; Schioppo, R.; Sferlazzo, D.

    2013-12-01

    23, as also revealed by MODIS, OMI, and CALIOP images and data. The circulation systems of those days was favorable to the long range eastward transport of these aerosol plumes towards Europe, down to the Mediterranean Sea. A further confirmation of the advection of Canadian airmasses over the Mediterranean central region during this period is provided by measurements made at Gozo. The Gozo AERONET Cimel data analysis on June 27 shows a single scattering albedo with spectral characteristics typical of biomass burning, with the contribution of fine particles to the total AOD growing progressively up to 92% in the early afternoon. At Capo Granitola the AOD peaked at about 0.8 in the late afternoon of June 27, with elevated values (> 2) of the AE. The ATR42 overflew the area on those days and additional observational evidence will be sought in its data.

  13. Effect of different sulphur precursors on morphology and band-gap on the formation of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) particles with microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Bharati; Vijaylakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2016-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising semiconductor material for ecological cost effective thin film Photovoltaic (PV) devices. As it contains earth abundant and non-toxic elements, it has the advantages over commercially available CIGS and CdTe thin film PV devices. In the present work, the pure phase Cu2ZnSnS4 particles were successfully synthesised with microwave irradiation. The morphology and phase study was carried out for the samples prepared with two different sulphur precursors viz. thiourea and thioacetamide (TAA). CZTS particles with thiourea as sulphur precursor are more crystalline than CZTS particles with TAA. The band gap of 1.654eV and 1.713eV were calculated for the samples prepared with thiourea and TAA respectively.

  14. mFISH analysis of irradiated human fibroblasts: a comparison among radiations with different quality in the low-dose range.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, F; Nieri, D; Tanzarella, C; Cherubini, R; De Nadal, V; Gerardi, S; Sgura, A; Antoccia, A

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation aimed to characterise the shape of dose-response curve and determining the frequency distribution of various aberration types as a function of dose and radiation quality in AG01522 primary human fibroblasts in the 0.1- to 1-Gy dose range. For this purpose, the cells were irradiated with 7.7 and 28.5 keV µm(-1) low-energy protons, 62 keV µm(-1 4)He(2+) ions (LNL Radiobiology facility) or X rays and samples collected for 24-colour mFISH analysis. X rays and 7.7 keV µm(-1) protons displayed a quadratic dose-response curve solely for total and simple exchanges, whereas for high-linear energy transfer radiations, a linear dose-response curve was observed for all the aberration categories, with the exception of complex exchanges.

  15. mFISH analysis of irradiated human fibroblasts: a comparison among radiations with different quality in the low-dose range.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, F; Nieri, D; Tanzarella, C; Cherubini, R; De Nadal, V; Gerardi, S; Sgura, A; Antoccia, A

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation aimed to characterise the shape of dose-response curve and determining the frequency distribution of various aberration types as a function of dose and radiation quality in AG01522 primary human fibroblasts in the 0.1- to 1-Gy dose range. For this purpose, the cells were irradiated with 7.7 and 28.5 keV µm(-1) low-energy protons, 62 keV µm(-1 4)He(2+) ions (LNL Radiobiology facility) or X rays and samples collected for 24-colour mFISH analysis. X rays and 7.7 keV µm(-1) protons displayed a quadratic dose-response curve solely for total and simple exchanges, whereas for high-linear energy transfer radiations, a linear dose-response curve was observed for all the aberration categories, with the exception of complex exchanges. PMID:25897136

  16. Electrical characterization of deep levels created by bombarding nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC with alpha-particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, Ezekiel; Meyer, Walter E.; Auret, F. Danie; Paradzah, Alexander T.; Legodi, Matshisa J.

    2016-03-01

    Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS were used to investigate the effect of alpha-particle irradiation on the electrical properties of nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC. The samples were bombarded with alpha-particles at room temperature (300 K) using an americium-241 (241Am) radionuclide source. DLTS revealed the presence of four deep levels in the as-grown samples, E0.09, E0.11, E0.16 and E0.65. After irradiation with a fluence of 4.1 × 1010 alpha-particles-cm-2, DLTS measurements indicated the presence of two new deep levels, E0.39 and E0.62 with energy levels, EC - 0.39 eV and EC - 0.62 eV, with an apparent capture cross sections of 2 × 10-16 and 2 × 10-14 cm2, respectively. Furthermore, irradiation with fluence of 8.9 × 1010 alpha-particles-cm-2 resulted in the disappearance of shallow defects due to a lowering of the Fermi level. These defects re-appeared after annealing at 300 °C for 20 min. Defects, E0.39 and E0.42 with close emission rates were attributed to silicon or carbon vacancy and could only be separated by using high resolution Laplace-DLTS. The DLTS peaks at EC - (0.55-0.70) eV (known as Z1/Z2) were attributed to an isolated carbon vacancy (VC).

  17. [The boundary ranges of the free flight of particles of gunpowder and metals in shots from a hand firearm].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L; Isakov, V D; Krivozheĭko, A G

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of equations of external ballistics and probability theory the largest possible distances of free (independent) flight of gunshot powder and metal particles having different forms and sizes were calculated. Experimental control of the calculated data for different types of battle and sports hand fire-arms was carried out. The correspondence of the calculated data to maximal free (independent) particle flight in blank shots was stated. In experiments with cartridges equipped with bullets the distances of free particle flight were significantly lesser (by 53-65%) which may be connected with effect of gunshot projectile on the process of particle distribution. Reversed adapted formulas and calculation variants are presented.

  18. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  19. General bottom-up construction of spherical particles by pulsed laser irradiation of colloidal nanoparticles: a case study on CuO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongqiang; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Pyatenko, Alexander; Li, Xiangyou; Swiatkowska-Warkocka, Zaneta; Katou, Yukiko; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    The development of a general method to fabricate spherical semiconductor and metal particles advances their promising electrical, optical, magnetic, plasmonic, thermoelectric, and optoelectric applications. Herein, by using CuO as an example, we systematically demonstrate a general bottom-up laser processing technique for the synthesis of submicrometer semiconductor and metal colloidal spheres, in which the unique selective pulsed heating assures the formation of spherical particles. Importantly, we can easily control the size and phase of resultant colloidal spheres by simply tuning the input laser fluence. The heating-melting-fusion mechanism is proposed to be responsible for the size evolution of the spherical particles. We have systematically investigated the influence of experimental parameters, including laser fluence, laser wavelength, laser irradiation time, dispersing liquid, and starting material concentration on the formation of colloidal spheres. We believe that this facile laser irradiation approach represents a major step not only for the fabrication of colloidal spheres but also in the practical application of laser processing for micro- and nanomaterial synthesis.

  20. Radiation Stability of Triple Coatings Based on Transition-Metal Nitrides Under Irradiation By Alpha Particles and Argon Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Kislitsyn, S. B.; Uglov, V. V.; Klopotov, A. A.; Gorlachev, I. D.; Klopotov, V. D.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2016-05-01

    The data on the influence of irradiation of (Ti, Cr)N1-x coatings by helium and argon ions on their surface structure are presented. The (Ti, Cr)N1-x coatings 50-300 nm in thickness were formed on carbon steel substrates by vacuum-arc deposition. Irradiation of the coated specimens was performed in a DC-60 heavy-ion accelerator by low-energy 4He+1, 4He+2 and 40Ar5+ ions and high-energy 40Ar5+ ions up to the fluence 1.0·1017 ion/cm2 at the irradiation temperature not higher than 150°C. It is shown that irradiation of the (Ti, Cr)N1-x coating surface by 4He+1, 4He+2 and 40Ar5+ ions with the energy 20 keV/charge does not give rise to any noticeable structural changes nor any surface blistering, while its irradiation by 40Ar5+ ions with the energy 1.50 MeV/amu causes blistering.

  1. Pixel pitch and particle energy influence on the dark current distribution of neutron irradiated CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Belloir, Jean-Marc; Goiffon, Vincent; Virmontois, Cédric; Raine, Mélanie; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Molina, Romain; Magnan, Pierre; Gilard, Olivier

    2016-02-22

    The dark current produced by neutron irradiation in CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) is investigated. Several CIS with different photodiode types and pixel pitches are irradiated with various neutron energies and fluences to study the influence of each of these optical detector and irradiation parameters on the dark current distribution. An empirical model is tested on the experimental data and validated on all the irradiated optical imagers. This model is able to describe all the presented dark current distributions with no parameter variation for neutron energies of 14 MeV or higher, regardless of the optical detector and irradiation characteristics. For energies below 1 MeV, it is shown that a single parameter has to be adjusted because of the lower mean damage energy per nuclear interaction. This model and these conclusions can be transposed to any silicon based solid-state optical imagers such as CIS or Charged Coupled Devices (CCD). This work can also be used when designing an optical imager instrument, to anticipate the dark current increase or to choose a mitigation technique.

  2. Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence efficiencies for high-energy heavy charged particle irradiation in Al2O3:C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yukihara, E. G.; Gaza, R.; McKeever, S. W. S.; Soares, C. G.

    2004-01-01

    The thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TL and OSL) response to high energy heavy-charged particles (HCPs) was investigated for two types of Al2O3:C luminescence dosimeters. The OSL signal was measured in both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed mode. The efficiencies of the HCPs at producing TL or OSL, relative to gamma radiation, were obtained using four different HCPs beams (150 MeV/u 4He, 400 MeV/u 12C, 490 MeV/u 28Si, and 500 MeV/u 56Fe). The efficiencies were determined as a function of the HCP linear energy transfer (LET). It was observed that the efficiency depends on the type of detector, measurement technique, and the choice of signal. Additionally, it is shown that the shape of the CW-OSL decay curve from Al2O3:C depends on the type of radiation, and, in principle, this can be used to extract information concerning the LET of an unknown radiation field. The response of the dosimeters to low-LET radiation was also investigated for doses in the range from about 1-1000 Gy. These data were used to explain the different efficiency values obtained for the different materials and techniques, as well as the LET dependence of the CW-OSL decay curve shape. c2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser Irradiated Impact Experiments Show that Nanophase Iron Particles Formed by Shock-Induced Melting Rather than Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. J.; Xie, Z. D.; Li, X. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the laser irradiated results of chondrite, Impact melting fractionation of ferromagnesian silicates induced by meteorites may be the major origin of np-Fe0, rather than vapour deposition origin only, especially for np-Fe0 in agglutinatic glasses.

  4. Membrane-Dependent Bystander Effect Contributes to Amplification of the Response to Alpha-Particle Irradiation in Targeted and Nontargeted Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanot, Maite; Hoarau, Jim; Carriere, Marie; Angulo, Jaime F.; Khodja, Hicham

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Free radicals are believed to play an active role in the bystander response. This study investigated their origin as well as their temporal and spatial impacts in the bystander effect. Methods and Materials: We employed a precise alpha-particle microbeam to target a small fraction of subconfluent osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). gammaH2AX-53BP1 foci, oxidative metabolism changes, and micronuclei induction in targeted and bystander cells were assessed. Results: Cellular membranes and mitochondria were identified as two distinct reactive oxygen species producers. The global oxidative stress observed after irradiation was significantly attenuated after cells were treated with filipin, evidence for the primal role of membrane in the bystander effect. To determine the membrane's impact at a cellular level, micronuclei yield was measured when various fractions of the cell population were individually targeted while the dose per cell remained constant. Induction of micronuclei increased in bystander cells as well as in targeted cells and was attenuated by filipin treatment, demonstrating a role for bystander signals between irradiated cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Conclusions: A complex interaction of direct irradiation and bystander signals leads to a membrane-dependent amplification of cell responses that could influence therapeutic outcomes in tissues exposed to low doses or to environmental exposure.

  5. Differential Superiority of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation to X-Rays: Studies on Biological Effectiveness and Side Effect Mechanisms in Multicellular Tumor and Normal Tissue Models

    PubMed Central

    Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on the radiobiology of carbon ions compared to X-rays using multicellular models of tumors and normal mucosa. The first part summarizes basic radiobiological effects, as observed in cancer cells. The second, more clinically oriented part of the review, deals with radiation-induced cell migration and mucositis. Multicellular spheroids from V79 hamster cells were irradiated with X-rays or carbon ions under ambient or restricted oxygen supply conditions. Reliable oxygen enhancement ratios could be derived to be 2.9, 2.8, and 1.4 for irradiation with photons, 12C+6 in the plateau region, and 12C+6 in the Bragg peak, respectively. Similarly, a relative biological effectiveness of 4.3 and 2.1 for ambient pO2 and hypoxia was obtained, respectively. The high effectiveness of carbon ions was reflected by an enhanced accumulation of cells in G2/M and a dose-dependent massive induction of apoptosis. These data clearly show that heavy charged particles are more efficient in sterilizing tumor cells than conventional irradiation even under hypoxic conditions. Clinically relevant doses (3 Gy) of X-rays induced an increase in migratory activity of U87 but not of LN229 or HCT116 tumor cells. Such an increase in cell motility following irradiation in situ could be the source of recurrence. In contrast, carbon ion treatment was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in migration with all cell lines and under all conditions investigated. The radiation-induced loss of cell motility was correlated, in most cases, with corresponding changes in β1 integrin expression. The photon-induced increase in cell migration was paralleled by an elevated phosphorylation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor and AKT-ERK1/2 pathway. Such a hyperphosphorylation did not occur during 12C+6 irradiation under all conditions registered. Comparing the gene toxicity of X-rays with that of particles using the γH2AX technique in organotypic cultures of the oral mucosa, the

  6. Differential Superiority of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation to X-Rays: Studies on Biological Effectiveness and Side Effect Mechanisms in Multicellular Tumor and Normal Tissue Models.

    PubMed

    Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on the radiobiology of carbon ions compared to X-rays using multicellular models of tumors and normal mucosa. The first part summarizes basic radiobiological effects, as observed in cancer cells. The second, more clinically oriented part of the review, deals with radiation-induced cell migration and mucositis. Multicellular spheroids from V79 hamster cells were irradiated with X-rays or carbon ions under ambient or restricted oxygen supply conditions. Reliable oxygen enhancement ratios could be derived to be 2.9, 2.8, and 1.4 for irradiation with photons, (12)C(+6) in the plateau region, and (12)C(+6) in the Bragg peak, respectively. Similarly, a relative biological effectiveness of 4.3 and 2.1 for ambient pO2 and hypoxia was obtained, respectively. The high effectiveness of carbon ions was reflected by an enhanced accumulation of cells in G2/M and a dose-dependent massive induction of apoptosis. These data clearly show that heavy charged particles are more efficient in sterilizing tumor cells than conventional irradiation even under hypoxic conditions. Clinically relevant doses (3 Gy) of X-rays induced an increase in migratory activity of U87 but not of LN229 or HCT116 tumor cells. Such an increase in cell motility following irradiation in situ could be the source of recurrence. In contrast, carbon ion treatment was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in migration with all cell lines and under all conditions investigated. The radiation-induced loss of cell motility was correlated, in most cases, with corresponding changes in β1 integrin expression. The photon-induced increase in cell migration was paralleled by an elevated phosphorylation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor and AKT-ERK1/2 pathway. Such a hyperphosphorylation did not occur during (12)C(+6) irradiation under all conditions registered. Comparing the gene toxicity of X-rays with that of particles using the γH2AX technique in organotypic cultures of the oral

  7. Differential Superiority of Heavy Charged-Particle Irradiation to X-Rays: Studies on Biological Effectiveness and Side Effect Mechanisms in Multicellular Tumor and Normal Tissue Models.

    PubMed

    Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on the radiobiology of carbon ions compared to X-rays using multicellular models of tumors and normal mucosa. The first part summarizes basic radiobiological effects, as observed in cancer cells. The second, more clinically oriented part of the review, deals with radiation-induced cell migration and mucositis. Multicellular spheroids from V79 hamster cells were irradiated with X-rays or carbon ions under ambient or restricted oxygen supply conditions. Reliable oxygen enhancement ratios could be derived to be 2.9, 2.8, and 1.4 for irradiation with photons, (12)C(+6) in the plateau region, and (12)C(+6) in the Bragg peak, respectively. Similarly, a relative biological effectiveness of 4.3 and 2.1 for ambient pO2 and hypoxia was obtained, respectively. The high effectiveness of carbon ions was reflected by an enhanced accumulation of cells in G2/M and a dose-dependent massive induction of apoptosis. These data clearly show that heavy charged particles are more efficient in sterilizing tumor cells than conventional irradiation even under hypoxic conditions. Clinically relevant doses (3 Gy) of X-rays induced an increase in migratory activity of U87 but not of LN229 or HCT116 tumor cells. Such an increase in cell motility following irradiation in situ could be the source of recurrence. In contrast, carbon ion treatment was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in migration with all cell lines and under all conditions investigated. The radiation-induced loss of cell motility was correlated, in most cases, with corresponding changes in β1 integrin expression. The photon-induced increase in cell migration was paralleled by an elevated phosphorylation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor and AKT-ERK1/2 pathway. Such a hyperphosphorylation did not occur during (12)C(+6) irradiation under all conditions registered. Comparing the gene toxicity of X-rays with that of particles using the γH2AX technique in organotypic cultures of the oral

  8. Fission products silver, palladium, and cadmium identification in neutron-irradiated SiC TRISO particles using a Cs-Corrected HRTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, I. J.; Olivier, E. J.; Neethling, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    Electron microscopy investigations of selected coated particles from the first advanced gas reactor experiment at Idaho National Laboratory provided important information on fission product distribution and chemical composition in the silicon-carbide (SiC) layer. Silver precipitates were nano-sized, and therefore high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to provide more information at the atomic level. Based on gamma-ray analysis, this particle which was irradiated to an average burnup of 19.38% fissions per initial metal atom, may have released as much as 10% of its available Ag-110 m inventory during irradiation. The HRTEM investigation focused on silver, palladium, and cadmium due to interest in silver transport mechanisms and possible correlation with palladium and silver previously found. Palladium, silver, and cadmium were found to co-exist in some of the SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions. This study confirmed palladium both at inter and intragranular sites. Phosphor was identified in SiC grain boundaries and triple points.

  9. A Supra-Thermal Energetic Particle detector (STEP) for composition measurements in the range approximately 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectral and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are discussed.

  10. A supra-thermal energetic particle detector /STEP/ for composition measurements in the range of about 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A novel detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectra and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are also discussed.

  11. Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Schery, Stephen D., Wasiolek, Piotr; Rodgers, John

    1999-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  12. Particle Formation from Pulsed Laser Irradiation of SootAggregates studied with scanning mobility particle sizer, transmissionelectron microscope and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Michelsen, Hope A.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.; vanPoppel, Laura H.; Dansson, Mark A.; Buseck, Peter R.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2007-02-20

    We investigated the physical and chemical changes induced in soot aggregates exposed to laser radiation using a scanning mobility particle sizer, a transmission electron microscope, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope to perform near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Laser-induced nanoparticle production was observed at fluences above 0.12 J/cm(2) at 532 nm and 0.22 J/cm(2) at 1064 nm. Our results indicate that new particle formation proceeds via (1) vaporization of small carbon clusters by thermal or photolytic mechanisms, followed by homogeneous nucleation, (2) heterogeneous nucleation of vaporized carbon clusters onto material ablated from primary particles, or (3) both processes.

  13. The transition probability and the probability for the left-most particle's position of the q-totally asymmetric zero range process

    SciTech Connect

    Korhonen, Marko; Lee, Eunghyun

    2014-01-15

    We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.

  14. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-10-16

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km(-1). By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, -0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function.

  15. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  16. Rheology dynamics of the blood and plasma of rats after transdermal laser irradiation of the tail vein in the infrared range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, I. V.; Mansurov, V. A.; Gorbunova, N. B.; Batai, L. E.; Ulashchik, V. S.; Orlovich, V. A.

    2012-05-01

    Single transdermal laser irradiation of the tail vein of males of white mongrel rats with an average mass of 350-400 g in three different regimes has been carried out. The irradiation doses were chosen to be intermediate between therapeutic and surgical ones, and the radiation wavelengths were 806 nm and 2 μm. The dynamics of the packed cell volume, deformability and cytometric indices of erythrocytes, and of the plasma and blood viscosity have been investigated. The rheological and cytometric changes in the blood caused by the irradiation stayed for several days. The observed rheologial changes are due to the removal of irradiation-damaged erythrocytes and the arrival in the blood channel of young and highly deformable red cells.

  17. Differential Radiosensitivity Phenotypes of DNA-PKcs Mutations Affecting NHEJ and HRR Systems following Irradiation with Gamma-Rays or Very Low Fluences of Alpha Particles

    PubMed Central

    Little, John B.; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Shih, Hung-Ying; Xie, Xian-Jin; Wilson Jr., Paul F.; Brogan, John R.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Chen, David J.; Bedford, Joel S.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined cell-cycle dependence of chromosomal aberration induction and cell killing after high or low dose-rate γ irradiation in cells bearing DNA-PKcs mutations in the S2056 cluster, the T2609 cluster, or the kinase domain. We also compared sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) production by very low fluences of α-particles in DNA-PKcs mutant cells, and in homologous recombination repair (HRR) mutant cells including Rad51C, Rad51D, and Fancg/xrcc9. Generally, chromosomal aberrations and cell killing by γ-rays were similarly affected by mutations in DNA-PKcs, and these mutant cells were more sensitive in G1 than in S/G2 phase. In G1-irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant cells, both chromosome- and chromatid-type breaks and exchanges were in excess than wild-type cells. For cells irradiated in late S/G2 phase, mutant cells showed very high yields of chromatid breaks compared to wild-type cells. Few exchanges were seen in DNA-PKcs-null, Ku80-null, or DNA-PKcs kinase dead mutants, but exchanges in excess were detected in the S2506 or T2609 cluster mutants. SCE induction by very low doses of α-particles is resulted from bystander effects in cells not traversed by α-particles. SCE seen in wild-type cells was completely abolished in Rad51C- or Rad51D-deficient cells, but near normal in Fancg/xrcc9 cells. In marked contrast, very high levels of SCEs were observed in DNA-PKcs-null, DNA-PKcs kinase-dead and Ku80-null mutants. SCE induction was also abolished in T2609 cluster mutant cells, but was only slightly reduced in the S2056 cluster mutant cells. Since both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and HRR systems utilize initial DNA lesions as a substrate, these results suggest the possibility of a competitive interference phenomenon operating between NHEJ and at least the Rad51C/D components of HRR; the level of interaction between damaged DNA and a particular DNA-PK component may determine the level of interaction of such DNA with a relevant HRR component. PMID:24714417

  18. Differential radiosensitivity phenotypes of DNA-PKcs mutations affecting NHEJ and HRR systems following irradiation with gamma-rays or very low fluences of alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Fen; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Little, John B; Kato, Takamitsu A; Shih, Hung-Ying; Xie, Xian-Jin; Wilson, Paul F; Brogan, John R; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Chen, David J; Bedford, Joel S; Chen, Benjamin P C

    2014-01-01

    We have examined cell-cycle dependence of chromosomal aberration induction and cell killing after high or low dose-rate γ irradiation in cells bearing DNA-PKcs mutations in the S2056 cluster, the T2609 cluster, or the kinase domain. We also compared sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) production by very low fluences of α-particles in DNA-PKcs mutant cells, and in homologous recombination repair (HRR) mutant cells including Rad51C, Rad51D, and Fancg/xrcc9. Generally, chromosomal aberrations and cell killing by γ-rays were similarly affected by mutations in DNA-PKcs, and these mutant cells were more sensitive in G1 than in S/G2 phase. In G1-irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant cells, both chromosome- and chromatid-type breaks and exchanges were in excess than wild-type cells. For cells irradiated in late S/G2 phase, mutant cells showed very high yields of chromatid breaks compared to wild-type cells. Few exchanges were seen in DNA-PKcs-null, Ku80-null, or DNA-PKcs kinase dead mutants, but exchanges in excess were detected in the S2506 or T2609 cluster mutants. SCE induction by very low doses of α-particles is resulted from bystander effects in cells not traversed by α-particles. SCE seen in wild-type cells was completely abolished in Rad51C- or Rad51D-deficient cells, but near normal in Fancg/xrcc9 cells. In marked contrast, very high levels of SCEs were observed in DNA-PKcs-null, DNA-PKcs kinase-dead and Ku80-null mutants. SCE induction was also abolished in T2609 cluster mutant cells, but was only slightly reduced in the S2056 cluster mutant cells. Since both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and HRR systems utilize initial DNA lesions as a substrate, these results suggest the possibility of a competitive interference phenomenon operating between NHEJ and at least the Rad51C/D components of HRR; the level of interaction between damaged DNA and a particular DNA-PK component may determine the level of interaction of such DNA with a relevant HRR component.

  19. Differences in photoluminescence properties and thermal degradation between nanoparticle and bulk particle BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ phosphors under UV?VUV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bitao; Xin, Shuangyu; Li, Fenghua; Zhang, Jiachi; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-05-01

    BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) phosphors used for plasma display panels and three-band fluorescence lamps are exposed to an oxidizing environment at about 500 degrees C, which is currently unavoidable in actual applications. We investigated the mechanism of the luminance degradation of BAM caused by annealing at 500 degrees C based on the difference in luminance degradation of bulk particle and nanoparticle samples under various excitation source irradiations. When the samples were excited by the different light sources, more than 30% degradation of luminance occurred under 147 nm while less than 10% degradation occurred under 254 nm both for nanoparticle and bulk particle samples. In addition, the luminescence degradation of nanophosphors shows a different tendency compared to the bulk phosphors. With a model based on the particle size and excitation light penetration depth, we demonstrate that the degradation is still mainly ascribed to the oxidized of divalent Eu. The differences in luminescence properties between nanophosphors and bulk phosphors are also illustrated by this model. As a result, the potential industrial applications of nanophosphors are evaluated.

  20. Interactions of secondary particles with thorium samples in the setup QUINTA irradiated with 6 GeV deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khushvaktov, J.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A. A.; Chilap, V. V.; Furman, V. I.; Sagimbaeva, F.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tichy, P.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.; Vespalec, R.; Vrzalova, J.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Wagner, V.; Zavorka, L.; Zeman, M.

    2016-08-01

    The natural uranium assembly, QUINTA, was irradiated with 6 GeV deuterons. The 232Th samples were placed at the central axis of the setup QUINTA. The spectra of gamma rays emitted by the activated 232Th samples have been analysed and more than one hundred nuclei produced have been identified. For each of those products, reaction rates have been determined. The ratio of the weight of produced 233U to 232Th is presented. Experimental results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations by FLUKA code.

  1. A simple analysis of extinction spectra of cancerous and normal prostate tissues in near infrared range using a size discrete particle distribution and Mie scattering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The extinction spectra and optical coefficients of human cancerous and normal prostate tissues were investigated in the spectral range of 750 nm - 860 nm. The scattering coefficient (μs) was determined from the extinction measurements on thin prostate tissue and Beer's law. The absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μs') were extracted from integrate sphere intensity measurements on prostate tissue of which the thickness is in the multiple scattering range. The anisotropy factor (g) was calculated using the extracted values of μs and μs'. A micro-optical model of soft biological tissue was introduced to simulate the numerical computation of the absolute magnitudes of its scattering coefficients from the refractive index and a particle distribution function based on the Mie theory. A key assumption of the model is that the refractive index variations caused by microscopic tissue elements can be treated as particles with sizes distributed according to a skewed log-normal distribution function. The particle distribution and mean particle size of the two types of tissues were then calculated. Results show that the mean diameter of the particle size of cancerous tissue is larger than that of the cancerous tissue, which is responsible for larger reduced scattering coefficient of normal tissue in comparison with cancerous tissue. The results can be explained the change of tissue during prostate cancer evolution defined by Gleason Grade. The difference of the particles distribution and optical coefficients of cancerous and normal prostate tissues may present a potential criterion for prostate cancer detection.

  2. Macrophage reactivity to different polymers demonstrates particle size- and material-specific reactivity: PEEK-OPTIMA(®) particles versus UHMWPE particles in the submicron, micron, and 10 micron size ranges.

    PubMed

    Hallab, Nadim James; McAllister, Kyron; Brady, Mark; Jarman-Smith, Marcus

    2012-02-01

    Biologic reactivity to orthopedic implant debris is generally the main determinant of long-term clinical performance where released polymeric particles of Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) remain the most prevalent debris generated from metal-on-polymer bearing total joint arthroplasties. Polymeric alternatives to UHMWPE such as polyetherether-ketone (PEEK) may have increased wear resistance but the bioreactivity of PEEK-OPTIMA particles on peri-implant inflammation remains largely uncharacterized. We evaluated human monocyte/macrophage responses (THP-1s and primary human) when challenged by PEEK-OPTIMA, UHMWPE, and X-UHMWPE particles of three particle sizes (0.7 um, 2 um, and 10 um) at a dose of 20 particles-per-cell at 24- and 48-h time points. Macrophage responses were measured using cytotoxicity assays, viability assays, proliferation assays and cytokine analysis (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α). In general, there were no significant differences between PEEK-OPTIMA, UHMWPE, and X-UHMWPE particles on macrophage viability or proliferation. However, macrophages demonstrated greater cytotoxicity responses to UHMWPE and X-UHMWPE than to PEEK-OPTIMA at 24 and 48 h, where 0.7 μm-UHMWPE particles produced the highest amount of cytotoxicity. Particles of X-UHMWPE more than PEEK-OPTIMA and UHMWPE induced IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α at 24 h, p < 0.05 (no significant differences at 48 h). On average, cytokine production was more adversely affected by larger 10 μm particles than by 0.7 and 2 μm sized particles. While limitations of in vitro analysis apply to this study, PEEK-OPTIMA particles were more biocompatible than UHMWPE particles, in that they induced less inflammatory cytokine responses and thus, in part, demonstrates that PEEK-OPTIMA implant debris does not represent an increased inflammatory risk over that of UHMWPE.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulation of an electronegative plasma under direct current bias studied in a large range of electronegativity

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Raimbault, J.-L.; Chabert, P.; Aanesland, A.; Meige, A.

    2013-04-15

    A one-dimensional electronegative plasma situated between two symmetrical parallel electrodes under DC bias is studied by Particle-In-Cell simulation with Monte Carlo Collisions. By varying the electronegativity {alpha}{identical_to}n{sub -}/n{sub e} from the limit of electron-ion plasmas (negative ion free) to ion-ion plasmas (electron free), the sheaths formation, the negative ion flux flowing towards the electrodes, and the particle velocities at the sheath edges are investigated. Depending on {alpha}, it is shown that the electronegative plasma behavior can be described by four regimes. In the lowest regime of {alpha}, i.e., {alpha} < 50, negative ions are confined by two positive sheaths within the plasma, while in the higher regimes of {alpha}, a negative sheath is formed and the negative ion flux can be extracted from the bulk plasma. In the two intermediate regimes of {alpha}, i.e., 50 < {alpha} < 10{sup 5}, both the electron and the negative ion fluxes are involved in the neutralization of the positive ions flux that leaves the plasma. In particular, we show that the velocity of the negative ions entering the negative sheath is affected by the presence of the electrons, and is not given by the modified Bohm velocity generally accepted for electronegative plasmas. For extremely high electronegativity, i.e., {alpha} > 10{sup 5}, the presence of electrons in the plasma is marginal and the electronegative plasma can be considered as an ion-ion plasma (electron free).

  4. Production and optical constraints of ice tholin from charged particle irradiation of (1:6) C2H6/H2O at 77 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Cheng, L.; Chyba, C.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.; Meisse, C.; Tuminello, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    Fifty separate irradiations of a 6:1 mixture of H2O/C2H6 ice conducted over a 5-month period have yielded sufficient tholin for the determination of its physical constants in the 0.06 to 40 micron range. While the imaginary part of the refractive index k was obtained by transmission measurements on thin-film samples and Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA), the real part of the refractive index was obtained by KKA and ellipsometry; these data may prove useful in cometary and outer solar system spectrometric interpretation.

  5. Irradiation creep of candidate materials for advanced nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Hoffelner, W.

    2013-10-01

    In the present paper, irradiation creep results of an intermetallic TiAl alloy and two ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are summarized. In situ irradiation creep measurements were performed using homogeneous implantation with α- and p-particles to maximum doses of 0.8 dpa at displacement damage rates of 2-8 × 10-6 dpa/s. The strains of miniaturized flat dog-bone specimens were monitored under uniaxial tensile stresses ranging from 20 to 400 MPa at temperatures of 573, 673 and 773 K, respectively. The effects of material composition, ODS particle size, and bombarding particle on the irradiation creep compliance was studied and results are compared to literature data. Evolution of microstructure during helium implantation was investigated in detail by TEM and is discussed with respect to irradiation creep models.

  6. Mariner 4 - A study of the cumulative flux of dust particles over a heliocentric range of 1-1.56 AU 1964-1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. M.; Bohn, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Between December 1964 and December 1967, the Mariner 4 dust particle experiment obtained data concerning the distribution of minute zodiacal dust cloud particles over a heliocentric range of 1-1.56 AU. The first measurement was over the complete heliocentric range, while the two additional measurements were made between 1.1 and 1.25 AU in 1966, and between 1.2 and 1.5 AU in 1967. The initial results of these measurements presented the mean cumulative flux for the respective data periods. The results of a detailed study and comparison of the three measurements are presented, with particular emphasis on the variation of the flux as a function of heliocentric range. A small, but statistically significant, increase in the flux is observed between 1.15 and 1.4 AU. The initial reports showed a lower cumulative flux for the latter two measurements. However, a detailed analysis containing corrections for spacecraft attitude indicate that all three measurements yield similar results, and that the particles detected were in low inclination orbits.

  7. The effects of leaf area density variation on the collection efficiency of black carbon in the size range of ultrafine particles (UFP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Lin, M.; Khlystov, A.; Katul, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon is mainly produced in the ultra-fine particle (UFP) size range of 10-100 nm from combustion processes and is now receiving significant attention given its role in global and regional climate change, cloud physics, human health and respiratory related diseases. Likewise, the role of vegetated surfaces in removing UFP is drawing increased attention, prompting interest in the relationship between leaf area density and UFP collection efficiency. Here, carbonaceous particles, mainly black carbon, were generated by burning candles during "sooting burn" to explore the effects of leaf area density (LAD) variation on the collection efficiency of black carbon in the UFP size range. Three scenarios were explored in a wind tunnel: (1) Juniperus Chinensis branches that are uniformly distributed within the test section; (2) LAD that is linearly increasing with downwind distance and (3) LAD that is decreasing with downwind distance. The total leaf area index (LAI) was maintained constant in all three cases. Particle concentrations were measured at multiple locations within the vegetated volume for a range of sizes of UFP (12.6-102 nm) using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The measured concentration can be used to evaluate the performance of a size-resolving model that couples the turbulent flow field and the collection efficiency for the variable LAD. The model assumes that (i) the mean longitudinal momentum balance is controlled only by the interplay between drag force and the pressure gradient, and (ii) the dominant collection mechanism for UFP is Brownian diffusion. Hence, other collection mechanisms such as inertial impaction, interception and phoretic effects are negligible. Good agreement was found between the model calculations of the UFP collection efficiency by the vegetation and the wind tunnel measurements for all three cases and across a wide range of wind speeds and particle size. It was shown that variations in leaf area density lead to a

  8. In situ ion irradiation of zirconium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Christopher J.; Motta, Arthur T.; Kirk, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a candidate material for use in one of the layers of TRISO coated fuel particles to be used in the Generation IV high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor, and thus it is necessary to study the effects of radiation damage on its structure. The microstructural evolution of ZrCx under irradiation was studied in situ using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Samples of nominal stoichiometries ZrC0.8 and ZrC0.9 were irradiated in situ using 1 MeV Kr2+ ions at various irradiation temperatures (T = 20 K-1073 K). In situ experiments made it possible to continuously follow the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation using diffraction contrast imaging. Images and diffraction patterns were systematically recorded at selected dose points. After a threshold dose during irradiations conducted at room temperature and below, black-dot defects were observed which accumulated until saturation. Once created, the defect clusters did not move or get destroyed during irradiation so that at the final dose the low temperature microstructure consisted only of a saturation density of small defect clusters. No long-range migration of the visible defects or dynamic defect creation and elimination were observed during irradiation, but some coarsening of the microstructure with the formation of dislocation loops was observed at higher temperatures. The irradiated microstructure was found to be only weakly dependent on the stoichiometry.

  9. Hydrophobization of polymer particles by tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma irradiation using a barrel-plasma-treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Keisuke; Danno, Masato; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Nishizawa, Hideki; Honda, Yuji; Abe, Takayuki

    2013-11-01

    In this study, tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma-treatments of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) powder were performed using a polygonal barrel-plasma-treatment system to improve the PMMA's hydrophobicity. Characterization of the treated samples showed that the PMMA particle surfaces were fluorinated by the CF4 treatment. The smooth surfaces of the particles changed into nano-sized worm-like structures after the plasma-treatment. The hydrophobicity of the treated PMMA samples was superior to that of the untreated samples. It was noted that the hydrophobicity of the treated samples and the surface fluorination level depended on the plasma-treatment time and radiofrequency (RF) power; high RF power increased the sample temperature, which in turn decreased the hydrophobicity of the treated samples and the surface fluorination because of the thermal decomposition of PMMA. The water-repellent effects were evaluated by using paper towels to show the application of the plasma-treated PMMA particles, with the result that the paper towel coated with the treated sample was highly water-repellent.

  10. Particle simulations of mode conversion between slow mode and fast mode in lower hybrid range of frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guozhang; Xiang, Nong; Wang, Xueyi; Huang, Yueheng; Lin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The propagation and mode conversion of lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated by using the nonlinear δf algorithm in a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code based on the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme [Lin et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 657 (2005)]. The characteristics of the simulated waves, such as wavelength, frequency, phase, and group velocities, agree well with the linear theoretical analysis. It is shown that a significant reflection component emerges in the conversion process between the slow mode and the fast mode when the scale length of the density variation is comparable to the local wavelength. The dependences of the reflection coefficient on the scale length of the density variation are compared with the results based on the linear full wave model for cold plasmas. It is indicated that the mode conversion for the waves with a frequency of 2.45 GHz (ω ˜ 3ωLH, where ωLH represents the lower hybrid resonance) and within Tokamak relevant amplitudes can be well described in the linear scheme. As the frequency decreases, the modification due to the nonlinear term becomes important. For the low-frequency waves (ω ˜ 1.3ωLH), the generations of the high harmonic modes and sidebands through nonlinear mode-mode coupling provide new power channels and thus could reduce the reflection significantly.

  11. Preparation of aqueous colloidal mesostructured and mesoporous silica nanoparticles with controlled particle size in a very wide range from 20 nm to 700 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironori; Urata, Chihiro; Ujiie, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Particle size control of colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMPS) in a very wide range is quite significant for the design of CMPS toward various applications, such as catalysis and drug delivery. Various types of CMPS and their precursors (colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles (CMSS)) with different particle sizes (ca. 20-700 nm) were newly prepared from tetraalkoxysilanes with different alkoxy groups (Si(OR)4, R = Me, Et, Pr, and Bu) in the presence of alcohols (R'OH, R' = Me, Et, Pr, and Bu) as additives. CMSS with larger particle size were obtained by using tetrabutoxysilane (TBOS) and by increasing the amount of BuOH, which is explained by both the difference in the hydrolysis rates of tetraalkoxysilanes themselves and the effect of added alcohols on the hydrolysis rates of tetraalkoxysilanes. Larger amounts of alcohols with longer alkyl chains decrease the hydrolysis rates of tetraalkoxysilanes and the subsequent formation rates of silica species. Thus, the preferential particle growth of CMSS to nucleation occurs, and larger CMSS are formed. Highly dispersed CMPS were prepared by the removal of surfactants of CMSS by dialysis which can lead to the preparation of CMPS without aggregation. Therefore, the particle size control through the tuning of the hydrolysis rate of tetraalkoxysilanes can be conducted by a one-pot and easy approach. Even larger CMPS (ca. 700 nm in size) show relatively high dispersibility. This dispersibility will surely contribute to the design of materials both retaining nanoscale characteristics and avoiding various nanorisks.Particle size control of colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMPS) in a very wide range is quite significant for the design of CMPS toward various applications, such as catalysis and drug delivery. Various types of CMPS and their precursors (colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles (CMSS)) with different particle sizes (ca. 20-700 nm) were newly prepared from tetraalkoxysilanes with

  12. Thermophysical properties of gases, liquids, and solids composed of particles interacting with a short-range attractive potential.

    PubMed

    Hess, S; Kröger, M

    2001-07-01

    A short-range polynomial interaction potential is introduced which has both a repulsive core and an attractive part. It is cut off smoothly such that its first and second derivatives vanish at the cutoff distance. The potential therefore enables efficient simulation studies of a model material that exhibits similarities to a full (but computationally expensive) classical Lennard-Jones system. Thermophysical properties of the model are calculated by (nonequilibrium) molecular dynamics computer simulations and compared with analytical results. Among the quantities studied is the pressure as a function of the density for various temperatures. Equations of state for the fluid and the solid are tested. The coexistence of gaseous, (metastable) liquid, and fcc solid phases is found for a range of temperatures. Bulk and shear moduli are computed. The response of the system to a shear deformation with a constant shear rate is analyzed. The liquid shows viscoelastic behavior that can be described with a Maxwell model. The solid behaves as an elastic medium up to a finite deformation and then undergoes a transition to plastic flow, which is stick-slip-like at small shear rates and continuous at higher ones. PMID:11461234

  13. Long range transport of fine particle windblown soils and coal fired power station emissions into Hanoi between 2001 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Stelcer, Eduard; Bac, Vuong Thu

    2010-10-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), source fingerprints and their contributions have been measured and reported previously at Hanoi, Vietnam, from 25 April 2001 to 31 December 2008. In this study back trajectories are used to identify long range transport into Hanoi for two of these sources, namely, windblown dust ( Soil) from 12 major deserts in China and emissions from 33 coal fired power plants ( Coal) in Vietnam and China. There were 28 days of extreme Soil events with concentrations greater than 6 μg m -3 and 25 days of extreme Coal with concentrations greater than 30 μg m -3 from a total of 748 sampling days during the study period. Through the use of back trajectories it was found that long range transport of soil from the Taklamakan and Gobi desert regions (more than 3000 km to the north west) accounted for 76% of the extreme events for Soil. The three local Vietnamese power stations contributed to 15% of the extreme Coal events, while four Chinese power stations between 300 km and 1700 km to the north-east of Hanoi contributed 50% of the total extreme Coal events measured at the Hanoi sampling site.

  14. Effect of particle water on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation from benzene-NO2-NaCl irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Luo, Hao; Jia, Long; Ge, Shuangshuang

    2016-09-01

    Ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are important pollutants in the urban atmosphere. Benzene is one of the most important aromatic species in urban air, which could produce O3 and SOA in the presence of NOx (x = 1, 2) and UV light. A series of experiments was carried out to study the effect of particle water on O3 and SOA formation from benzene under various humid conditions in an indoor smog chamber. The results show that the peak O3 concentrations decreased with the increase of RH or the mass concentration of liquid NaCl particles. The peak O3 concentration reduced by 30% as RH increased from 9% to 87% with the similar initial concentrations of NaCl (about 46 μg m-3), and decreased by 10% as the initial NaCl concentrations increased from 36.0 μg m-3 to 152.1 μg m-3 at about 73% RH. The relationships between liquid water content (LWC) and O3 or SOA were investigated. The results show that LWC is the key factor that leads to an opposite effect on O3 and SOA formation from benzene. The peak O3 concentration exponentially decreased 37% as LWC0 increased from zero to 349.8 μg m-3. Heterogeneous reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) with particle water is the major reason for the decrease of O3. The yields of SOA increased from 5.2 to 10.5% as LWC0 increased from zero to 349.8 μg m-3. The relative intensities of bands Osbnd H, Cdbnd O, Csbnd OH and NO3- increased by 22.9, 6.8, 6.7 and 13.1 times respectively as compared with dry condition. Alcohols or hydrates are confirmed to be the major contributors to SOA with increasing LWC.

  15. Development and application of a water calorimeter for the absolute dosimetry of short-range particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, J.; Rossomme, S.; Sarfehnia, A.; Vynckier, S.; Palmans, H.; Kacperek, A.; Seuntjens, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe a new design of water calorimeter built to measure absorbed dose in non-standard radiation fields with reference depths in the range of 6-20 mm, and its initial testing in clinical electron and proton beams. A functioning calorimeter prototype with a total water equivalent thickness of less than 30 mm was constructed in-house and used to obtain measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams and cyclotron-based 60 MeV monoenergetic and modulated proton beams. Corrections for the conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and non-water materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Absorbed dose to water was measured with an associated type A standard uncertainty of approximately 0.4% and 0.2% for the electron and proton beam experiments, respectively. In terms of thermal stability, drifts were on the order of a couple of hundred µK min-1, with a short-term variation of 5-10 µK. Heat transfer correction factors ranged between 1.021 and 1.049. The overall combined standard uncertainty on the absorbed dose to water was estimated to be 0.6% for the 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams, as well as for the 60 MeV monoenergetic protons, and 0.7% for the modulated 60 MeV proton beam. This study establishes the feasibility of developing an absorbed dose transfer standard for short-range clinical electrons and protons and forms the basis for a transportable dose standard for direct calibration of ionization chambers in the user’s beam. The largest contributions to the combined standard uncertainty were the positioning (⩽0.5%) and the correction due to conductive heat transfer (⩽0.4%). This is the first time that water calorimetry has been used in such a low energy proton beam.

  16. Development and application of a water calorimeter for the absolute dosimetry of short-range particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, J.; Rossomme, S.; Sarfehnia, A.; Vynckier, S.; Palmans, H.; Kacperek, A.; Seuntjens, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe a new design of water calorimeter built to measure absorbed dose in non-standard radiation fields with reference depths in the range of 6–20 mm, and its initial testing in clinical electron and proton beams. A functioning calorimeter prototype with a total water equivalent thickness of less than 30 mm was constructed in-house and used to obtain measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams and cyclotron-based 60 MeV monoenergetic and modulated proton beams. Corrections for the conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and non-water materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Absorbed dose to water was measured with an associated type A standard uncertainty of approximately 0.4% and 0.2% for the electron and proton beam experiments, respectively. In terms of thermal stability, drifts were on the order of a couple of hundred µK min‑1, with a short-term variation of 5–10 µK. Heat transfer correction factors ranged between 1.021 and 1.049. The overall combined standard uncertainty on the absorbed dose to water was estimated to be 0.6% for the 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams, as well as for the 60 MeV monoenergetic protons, and 0.7% for the modulated 60 MeV proton beam. This study establishes the feasibility of developing an absorbed dose transfer standard for short-range clinical electrons and protons and forms the basis for a transportable dose standard for direct calibration of ionization chambers in the user’s beam. The largest contributions to the combined standard uncertainty were the positioning (⩽0.5%) and the correction due to conductive heat transfer (⩽0.4%). This is the first time that water calorimetry has been used in such a low energy proton beam.

  17. On the reaction of adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to horizontally incidenting optical radiation of various wavelengths ranges and different irradiances and to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum.

    PubMed

    Leuterer, G; Gothe, R

    1991-01-01

    The valence of horizontally incidenting light/optical radiation for host-seeking-inclined ixodid ticks was investigated by exposing male and female adults of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to narrow-band monochromatic radiation in the wavelength range of 300-801 nm at irradiances corresponding to an overcast to clear sunny day, a cloudy day and a full-moon night as well as to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum of 190-2600 nm within a test chamber from which other stimuli were excluded. It was demonstrated that independent of sex, adult ticks of R. e. mimeticus and H. truncatum responded to a wide wavelength spectrum in the visible and UV range, even at irradiances corresponding to a full-moon night. Interspecific differences existed in the degree and extent of the response as well as in the spectral sensitivity. Ticks of H. truncatum consistently showed a faster and stronger response and reacted phototactically positively in higher percentages than adults of R. e. mimeticus. Independent of wavelength range and irradiance, predominantly only few R. e. mimeticus ticks were stimulated to positive phototaxis, whereas at least 33.3% (in most cases, 50%) and maximally greater than 80% of H. truncatum adults reacted phototactically positively. Spectral sensitivity maxima were demonstrated at the yellow and red light and at the UV-A waveband width for R. e. mimeticus and at the violet, blue, green and yellow light wavelength for H. truncatum. With decreasing irradiance, the spectral sensitivity shifted to the blue wavelength range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1866424

  18. Irradiated interplanetary dust particles as a possible solution for the deuterium/hydrogen paradox of Earth's oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. K.; Kasting, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Determining the source of Earth's oceans is a longstanding problem in planetary science. Possible sources of water include water ice or water of hydration of silicate minerals in the original material from which the bulk Earth accreted and water brought in by late-arriving planetesimals during the heavy bombardment period (4.5-3.8 Gyr ago) [Chyba, 1989, 1991]. Comets are an attractive source of water because their origin in the outer solar system is consistent with the long timescale for heavy bombardment. However, the high deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio of the three comets that have been studied, Halley, Hyakutake, and Hale-Bopp, indicates that Earth must have had a source with a low-D/H ratio as well. Here we suggest that solar wind-implanted hydrogen on interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) provided the necessary low-D/H component of Earth's water inventory.

  19. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Wang, S. J.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2013-11-01

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  20. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.; Wang, S. J.

    2013-11-15

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  1. A survey of approximately 1 MeV/nucleon solar flare particle abundances, in the Z ? 1-26 range, during the 1973-1977 solar minimum period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.; Hovestadt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The abundances of the major elements over the range H-Fe in solar flare energetic particles near 1 MeV/nucleon were surveyed for a large number of flares during the period 1973-1977; observations were carried out by the IMP 8 spacecraft in interplanetary space. The survey considered two types of solar flare events: (1) large events from which the average boundaries were deduced, and (2) events which have significant abundance differences from average. In addition, two He-3-rich events with abundance features that are different from previous examples are reported: one case with no enhancements of heavy ions, and a second case in which, compared to O, the heavy-ion enhancements are confined to the charge range Si-Fe rather than the usual case in which all elements Ne-Fe are enriched.

  2. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  3. SU-E-T-519: Emission of Secondary Particles From a PMMA Phantom During Proton Irradiation: A Simulation Study with the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A; Chen, Y; Ahmad, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy exhibits several advantages over photon therapy due to depth-dose distributions from proton interactions within the target material. However, uncertainties associated with protons beam range in the patient limit the advantage of proton therapy applications. To quantify beam range, positron-emitting nuclei (PEN) and prompt gamma (PG) techniques have been developed. These techniques use de-excitation photons to describe the location of the beam in the patient. To develop a detector system for implementing the PG technique for range verification applications in proton therapy, we studied the yields, energy and angular distributions of the secondary particles emitted from a PMMA phantom. Methods: Proton pencil beams of various energies incident onto a PMMA phantom with dimensions of 5 x 5 x 50 cm3 were used for simulation with the Geant4 toolkit using the standard electromagnetic packages as well as the packages based on the binary-cascade nuclear model. The emitted secondary particles are analyzed . Results: For 160 MeV incident protons, the yields of secondary neutrons and photons per 100 incident protons were ~6 and ~15 respectively. Secondary photon energy spectrum showed several energy peaks in the range between 0 and 10 MeV. The energy peaks located between 4 and 6 MeV were attributed to originate from direct proton interactions with 12C (~ 4.4 MeV) and 16O (~ 6 MeV), respectively. Most of the escaping secondary neutrons were found to have energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Isotropic emissions were found for lower energy neutrons (<10 MeV) and photons for all energies, while higher energy neutrons were emitted predominantly in the forward direction. The yields of emitted photons and neutrons increased with the increase of incident proton energies. Conclusions: A detector system is currently being developed incorporating the yields, energy and angular distributions of secondary particles from proton interactions obtained from this study.

  4. Efficiency of Cu2O/BiVO4 particles prepared with a new soft procedure on the degradation of dyes under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera-Ruiz, Eduardo; García-Pérez, Ulises M.; de la Garza-Galván, María; Zambrano-Robledo, Patricia; Bermúdez-Reyes, Bárbara; Peral, José

    2015-02-01

    Cu2O/BiVO4 composites with different concentrations of Cu2O were synthesized by a simple impregnation method at 200 °C under N2 atmosphere for 4 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection absorption and vis photoluminescence. The morphology of the as-synthesized composites with different weight ratios of Cu2O is composed by quasi-spherical and dendrite-like particles. The photocatalytic performance of the Cu2O/BiVO4 composites was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange solutions under visible-LED irradiation. The results obtained show that the photocatalytic behavior of the p-n heterojunction Cu2O/BiVO4 composites was better than pure Cu2O and BiVO4. The variation of the reaction parameters, such as solution pH and presence of O2, improved the photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/BiVO4 composite. Meanwhile, a possible mechanism for methyl orange photocatalytic degradation over Cu2O/BiVO4 photocatalysts was proposed. The chemical stability and reusability of Cu2O/BiVO4 powders were also investigated.

  5. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.; VanDevender, J. Pace

    1999-01-01

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  6. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  7. Exclusive experiment on nuclei with backward emitted particles by electron-nucleus collision in {approximately} 10 GeV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Takagi, F.

    1994-04-01

    Since the evidence of strong cross section in proton-nucleus backward scattering was presented in the early of 1970 years, this phenomena have been interested from the point of view to be related to information on the short range correlation between nucleons or on high momentum components of the wave function of the nucleus. In the analysis of the first experiment on protons from the carbon target under bombardment by 1.5-5.7 GeV protons, indications are found of an effect analogous to scaling in high-energy interactions of elementary particles with protons. Moreover it is found that the function f(p{sup 2})/{sigma}{sub tot}, which describes the spectra of the protons and deuterons emitted backward from nuclei in the laboratory system, does not depend on the energy and the type of the incident particle or on the atomic number of the target nucleus. In the following experiments the spectra of the protons emitted from the nuclei C, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd and Pb were measured in the inclusive reactions with incident particles of negative pions (1.55-6.2 GeV/c) and protons (6.2-9.0 GeV/C). The cross section f is described by f = E/p{sup 2} d{sup 2}{sigma}/dpd{Omega} = C exp ({minus}Bp{sup 2}), where p is the momentum of hadron. The function f depends linearly on the atomic weight A of the target nuclei. The slope parameter B is independent of the target nucleus and of the sort and energy of the bombarding particles. The invariant cross section {rho} = f/{sigma}{sub tot} is also described by exponential A{sub 0} exp ({minus}A{sub 1p}{sup 2}), where p becomes independent of energy at initial particle energies {ge} 1.5 GeV for C nucleus and {ge} 5 GeV for the heaviest of the investigated Pb nuclei.

  8. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  9. Effects of Low-Dose Alpha-Particle Irradiation in Human Cells: The Role of Induced Genes and the Bystander Effect. Final Technical Report (9/15/1998-5/31/2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Little, John B.

    2013-09-17

    This grant was designed to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the bystander effect of radiation (initially described in this laboratory) whereby damage signals are passed from irradiated to non-irradiated cells in a population. These signals induce genetic effects including DNA damage, mutations and chromosomal aberrations in the nonirradiated cells. Experiments were carried out in cultured mammalian cells, primarily human diploid cells, irradiated with alpha particles. This research resulted in 17 publications in the refereed literature and is described in the Progress Report where it is keyed to the publication list. This project was initiated at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and continued in collaboration with students/fellows at Colorado State University (CSU) and the New Jersey Medical School (NJMS).

  10. Operating a triple stack microchannel plate-phosphor assembly for single particle counting in the 12-300 K temperature range.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Stefan; Schmidt, Henning T; Reinhed, Peter; Fischer, Daniel; Thomas, Richard D; Cederquist, Henrik; Liljeby, Leif; Bagge, Lars; Leontein, Sven; Blom, Mikael

    2007-11-01

    An assembly consisting of a stack of three microchannel plates (MCPs) and a phosphor screen anode has been operated over the temperature range from 300 to 12 K. We report on measurements at 6.4 kHz (using an alpha source) and with dark counts only (15 Hz). Without any particle source, the MCP bias current decreased by a factor of 2.1 x 10(3) when the temperature was lowered from 300 to 12 K. Using the alpha source, and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to monitor the phosphor screen anode, we first observed an increase in the decay time of the phosphor from 12 to 45 mus when the temperature was decreased from 300 to 100 K while the decay time then decreased and reached a value of 5 mus at 12 K. The pulse height distribution from the PMT was measured between 300 and 12 K and shows a spectrum typical for a MCP phosphor setup at 300 K and 12 K but is strongly degraded for intermediate temperatures. We conclude that the present MCP-phosphor detector assembly is well suited for position-sensitive particle counting operation at temperatures down to at least 12 K even for count rates beyond 6 kHz. This result is crucial and an important part of ongoing developments of new instrumentation for investigations of, e.g., interactions involving complex molecular ions with internal quantum state control.

  11. Transfer of a weakly bound electron in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles. I. Long-range interaction effects in the ionic-covalent coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V. S. Narits, A. A.

    2013-10-15

    Ion-pair formation processes are studied in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles possessing small electron affinities. Nonadiabatic transitions from a Rydberg covalent term to an ionic term of a quasi-molecule are considered using the modified Landau-Zener theory supplemented with calculation of survival factors of an anion decaying in the Coulomb field of a positive ion core. Using the technique of irreducible tensor operators and the momentum representation of the wavefunction of a highly excited atom, exact expressions are obtained for transition matrix elements and the ionic-covalent coupling parameter. The approach developed in the paper provides the description beyond the scope of a conventional assumption about a small variation of the wavefunction of the Rydberg atom on the range of electron coordinates determined by the characteristic radius of the wavefunction of the anion. This allows one to correctly consider long-range effects of the interaction between a weakly bound electron and the neutral core of a negative ion in processes under study. It is shown by the example of thermal collisions of Xe(nf) atoms with CH{sub 3}CN molecules that this is very important for a reliable quantitative description of anion formation with a low binding energy. The results are compared with experiments and calculations performed within the framework of a number of approximate methods.

  12. Construction of a cytogenetic dose-response curve for low-dose range gamma-irradiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using three-color FISH.

    PubMed

    Suto, Yumiko; Akiyama, Miho; Noda, Takashi; Hirai, Momoki

    2015-12-01

    In order to estimate biological doses after low-dose ionizing radiation exposure, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using three differentially colored chromosome painting probes was employed to detect exchange-type chromosome aberrations. A reference dose response curve was constructed using blood samples from a female donor whose lymphocytes consistently exhibited a low frequency of cells at the second mitosis under routine culture conditions. Aberration yields were studied for a total of about 155 thousand metaphases obtained from seven dose-points of gamma irradiations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300mGy). In situ hybridization was performed using commercially available painting probes for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. With the aid of an automated image-capturing method, exchange-type aberrations involving painted chromosomes were detected with considerable accuracy and speed. The results on the exchange-type aberrations (dicentrics plus translocations) at the seven dose-points showed a good fit to the linear-quadratic model (y=0.0023+0.0015x+0.0819x(2), P=0.83). A blind test proved the reproducibility of the reference dose-response relationship. In the control experiments using blood samples from another donor, the estimated doses calculated on the basis of the present reference curve were proved to be in good agreement with the actual physical doses applied. The present dose-response curve may serve as a means to assess the individual differences in cytogenetical radio-sensitivities.

  13. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10–130 Å on the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-15

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10–130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Z{sub eff} and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}, when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3–2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10–18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength

  14. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10-130 Å on the large helical device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-01

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10-130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Zeff and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (≤180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 μm thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 μm thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 μm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 μm Be and 3.3 μm PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of λ ≤ 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 μm PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 10(13) cm(-3), when the 0.5 μm PET filter is used. The iron n = 3-2 Lα transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10-18 Å. Each transition in the Lα array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength response of the used

  15. Crystallization of sputter-deposited amorphous Ge films by electron irradiation: Effect of low-flux pre-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okugawa, M.; Nakamura, R.; Ishimaru, M.; Yasuda, H.; Numakura, H.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effect of low-flux electron irradiation with 125 keV to sputter-deposited amorphous germanium on the amorphous structure and electron-induced crystallization microstructure by TEM following our previous study on the effect of aging at room temperature. In samples aged for 3 days, coarse, spherical particles about 100 nm in diameter appear dominantly. By low-flux pre-irradiation to the samples, a reduction in the size and number of coarse particles, embedded in the matrix with fine nanograins of the diamond cubic structure, was noted with the increase in fluence. The crystal structure of these coarse particles was found to be not cubic but hexagonal. In samples aged for 4 months, a similar tendency was observed. In samples aged for 7 months, on the other hand, the homogeneous diamond cubic structured nanograins were unchanged by pre-irradiation. These results indicate that pre-irradiation as well as aging modifies the amorphous structure, preventing the appearance of a hexagonal phase. The elimination of a certain amount of medium-range ordered clusters by pre-irradiation, included in as-deposited samples and the samples aged for 4 months, apparently gives rise to a reduction in the size and number of coarse particles with a metastable hexagonal structure.

  16. Phase diffusionless γ↔α transformations and their effect on physical, mechanical and corrosion properties of austenitic stainless steels irradiated with neutrons and charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimkin, O. P.

    2016-04-01

    The work presents relationships of γ→α' and α'→γ-transformations in reactor 12Cr18Ni10Ti and 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 austenitic stainless steels induced by cold work, irradiation and/or temperature. Energy and mechanical parameters of nucleation and development of deformation-induced martensitic α'-phase in the non-irradiated and irradiated steels are given. The mechanisms of localized static deformation were investigated and its effect on martensitic γ→α' transformation is determined. It has been shown that irradiation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel with heavy Kr ions (1.56MeV/nucleon, fluence of 1·1015 cm-2) results in formation of α'-martensite in near-surface layer of the sample. Results of systematic research on reversed α'→γ-transformation in austenitic metastable stainless steels irradiated with slow (VVR-K) and fast (BN-350) neutrons are presented. The effect of annealing on strength and magnetic characteristics was determined. It was found that at the temperature of 400 °C in the irradiated with neutrons samples (59 dpa) an increase of ferromagnetic α'-phase and microhardness was observed. The obtained results could be used during assessment of operational characteristics of highly irradiated austenitic steels during transportation and storage of Fuel Assemblies for fast nuclear reactors.

  17. Line-Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry: An Optical Approach for Quantifying a Wide Range of Blood Flow Speeds in Live Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tyson N.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Chen, Yeni; Conolly, Steven M.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Liepmann, Dorian; Wang, Rong A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to measure blood velocities is critical for studying vascular development, physiology, and pathology. A key challenge is to quantify a wide range of blood velocities in vessels deep within living specimens with concurrent diffraction-limited resolution imaging of vascular cells. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has shown tremendous promise in analyzing blood velocities hundreds of micrometers deep in animals with cellular resolution. However, current analysis of TPLSM-based data is limited to the lower range of blood velocities and is not adequate to study faster velocities in many normal or disease conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed line-scanning particle image velocimetry (LS-PIV), which used TPLSM data to quantify peak blood velocities up to 84 mm/s in live mice harboring brain arteriovenous malformation, a disease characterized by high flow. With this method, we were able to accurately detect the elevated blood velocities and exaggerated pulsatility along the abnormal vascular network in these animals. LS-PIV robustly analyzed noisy data from vessels as deep as 850 µm below the brain surface. In addition to analyzing in vivo data, we validated the accuracy of LS-PIV up to 800 mm/s using simulations with known velocity and noise parameters. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, these blood velocity measurements are the fastest recorded with TPLSM. Partnered with transgenic mice carrying cell-specific fluorescent reporters, LS-PIV will also enable the direct in vivo correlation of cellular, biochemical, and hemodynamic parameters in high flow vascular development and diseases such as atherogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vascular anomalies. PMID:22761686

  18. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Giffin, Paxton K; Parsons, Michael S; Unz, Ronald J; Waggoner, Charles A

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m(3)/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  19. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  20. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wéra, A.-C.; Riquier, H.; Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  1. Control of Surface Plasmon Resonance of Au/SnO2 by Modification with Ag and Cu for Photoinduced Reactions under Visible-Light Irradiation over a Wide Range.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Kominami, Hiroshi

    2016-03-18

    Gold particles supported on tin(IV) oxide (0.2 wt% Au/SnO2) were modified with copper and silver by the multistep photodeposition method. Absorption around λ=550 nm, attributed to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au, gradually shifted to longer wavelengths on modification with Cu and finally reached λ=620 nm at 0.8 wt% Cu. On the other hand, the absorption shifted to shorter wavelength with increasing amount of Ag and reached λ=450 nm at 0.8 wt% Ag. These Cu- and Ag-modified 0.2 wt% Au/SnO2 materials (Cu-Au/SnO2 and Ag-Au/SnO2) and 1.0 wt% Au/SnO2 were used for mineralization of formic acid to carbon dioxide in aqueous suspension under irradiation with visible light from a xenon lamp and three kinds of light-emitting diodes with different wavelengths. The reaction rates for the mineralization of formic acid over these materials depend on the wavelength of light. Apparent quantum efficiencies of Cu-Au/SnO2, Au/SnO2, and Ag-Au/SnO2 reached 5.5% at 625 nm, 5.8% at 525 nm, and 5.1% at 450 nm, respectively. These photocatalysts can also be used for selective oxidation of alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. Broad responses to visible light in formic acid mineralization and selective alcohol oxidation were achieved when the three materials were used simultaneously.

  2. Alloy development for irradiation performance in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harling, O. K.; Grant, N. J.

    1980-12-01

    The development of improved structural alloys for the fusion reactor first wall application is addressed. Several new alloys were produced by rapid solidification. Emphasis in alloy design and production was placed on producing austenitic Type 316SS with fine dispersions of TiC and Al2O3 particles. Results of mechanical and microstructural tests are presented. A number of neutron irradiations were initiated on samples fabricated from alloys produced. A dual beam, heavy ion, and helium ion, irradiation was completed using several alloys and a range of temperatures, damage rates, and total doses. Modeling of irradiation phenomena was continued with emphasis on understanding the effect of recoil resolution on relatively stable second phase particles. The microstructure of several ZrB2 doped stainless steels was characterized.

  3. Exposure to O-16 particle irradiation causes age-like decrements in rats through increased oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation, disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication, and alters cognitive behaviors. Even though exposure to these highly charged particles occurs at low fluence rates, p...

  4. Experimental validation of a combined electromagnetic and thermal model for a microwave drying of capillary porous materials inside a rectangular wave guide (effects of irradiation time, particle sizes and initial moisture content).

    PubMed

    Ratanadecho, P; Aoki, K; Akahori, M

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the experimental validation of a combined electromagnetic and thermal model for a microwave drying of capillary porous materials inside a rectangular wave guide is presented. The effects of the irradiation time, particle sizes and the variation of initial moisture content on the microwave drying kinetics are clarified in detail, considering the interference between incident and reflected waves in the capillary porous materials. The established model has allowed us to determine the space-time evolution of electric field, temperature and moisture content within capillary porous materials during microwave drying process.

  5. A comparative study on the capacity of a range of food-grade particles to form stable O/W and W/O Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Duffus, Laudina J; Norton, Jennifer E; Smith, Paul; Norton, Ian T; Spyropoulos, Fotios

    2016-07-01

    Whilst literature describing edible Pickering emulsions is becoming increasingly available, current understanding of these systems still suffers from a lack of consistency in terms of the (processing and formulation) conditions within which these structures have been studied. The current study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the behaviour of different edible Pickering candidates and their ability to stabilise emulsion droplets, under well-controlled and uniform experimental conditions, in order to clearly identify the particle properties necessary for successful Pickering functionality. More specifically, an extensive investigation into the suitability of various food-grade material to act as Pickering particles and provide stable oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was carried out. Polysaccharide and flavonoid particles were characterised in terms of their size, ζ-potential, interfacial activity and wettability, under equivalent conditions. Particles were subsequently used to stabilise 20% w/w O/W and W/O emulsions, in the absence of added surfactant or other known emulsifying agents, through different processing routes. All formed Pickering emulsions were shown to resist significant droplet size variation and remain stable at particle concentrations between 2 and 3% w/w. The main particle prerequisites for successful Pickering stabilisation were: particle size (200nm - 1μm); an affinity for the emulsion continuous phase and a sufficient particle charge to extend stability. Depending upon the employed emulsification process, the resulting emulsion formation and stability behaviour can be reasonably predicted a priori from the evaluation of specific particle characteristics.

  6. Irradiation performance of HTGR fuel in HFIR experiment HRB-13

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-03-01

    Irradiation capsule HRB-13 tested High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel under accelerated conditions in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The ORNL part of the capsule was designed to provide definitive results on how variously misshapen kernels affect the irradiation performance of weak-acid-resin (WAR)-derived fissile fuel particles. Two batches of WAR fissile fuel particles were Triso-coated and shape-separated into four different fractions according to their deviation from spericity, which ranged from 9.6 to 29.7%. The fissile particles were irradiated for 7721 h. Heavy-metal burnups ranged from 80 to 82.5% FIMA (fraction of initial heavy-metal atoms). Fast neutron fluences (>0.18 MeV) ranged from 4.9 x 10/sup 25/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ to 8.5 x 10/sup 25/ neutrons/m/sup 2/. Postirradiation examination showed that the two batches of fissile particles contained chlorine, presumably introduced during deposition of the SiC coating.

  7. Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn

    2012-05-01

    The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Five irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These five compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The five compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. Approximately 40 to 80 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to mid-plane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 830 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

  8. Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2012-09-01

    The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Six irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These six compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The six compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. From 36 to 79 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to midplane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 931 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

  9. Synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Jiang, Heng; Gong, Hong; Zhang, Jun

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Nanosize BPO{sub 4} are prepared under microwave-irradiation conditions. ► This reaction is only performed at less than 640 W power for 2.5–5 min. ► The particles of sample irradiated at 400 W are 40–90 nm in size and well dispersed. ► A simple, fast and green procedure for synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} is developed. -- Abstract: Nanosize BPO{sub 4} was synthesized using H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (85%) as raw materials under microwave irradiation. This reaction was performed at powers lower than 640 W and irradiation time ranging from 2.5 min to 5 min, which were only a fraction of the time required for conventional synthetic procedures. The structure of the as-prepared BPO{sub 4} is analogous to that of a high cristobalite. The particle sizes of the samples irradiated at 640 and 400 W range from 40 nm to 90 nm and 30 nm to 60 nm, respectively. The effects of different conditions on the experimental outcome are also discussed.

  10. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Munzer, R. H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasar, C.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-03-01

    The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the overall shape of charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range (- 3.5 < η < 5) allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from 162 ± 22(syst.) to 17170 ± 770(syst.) in 80-90% and 0-5% central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe dNch / dη at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb-Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

  11. Effect of microwave irradiation on TATB explosive.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weifei; Zhang, Tonglai; Huang, Yigang; Yang, Li; Li, Gang; Li, Haibo; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Hui

    2009-09-15

    Finished TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) explosive safety under 800W microwave irradiation was experimented. No burning, deflagration and detonation were observed during 30-min continuous irradiation and no remarkable change were observed after irradiation according to HPLC, particles size analysis, and differential thermal analysis. Wet TATB sampled from synthesis line was irradiated with microwave vacuum method and irradiated TATB was measured to accord with military standard specifications including appearance, moisture and volatile, chloride content, HPLC, mean particle size, DTA exothermic peak, ash, acetone soluble content, PH value, etc. Microwave vacuum desiccation was deemed laborsaving, energy-efficient, and practicable compared to conventional processing method. PMID:19324496

  12. Effect of microwave irradiation on TATB explosive.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weifei; Zhang, Tonglai; Huang, Yigang; Yang, Li; Li, Gang; Li, Haibo; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Hui

    2009-09-15

    Finished TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) explosive safety under 800W microwave irradiation was experimented. No burning, deflagration and detonation were observed during 30-min continuous irradiation and no remarkable change were observed after irradiation according to HPLC, particles size analysis, and differential thermal analysis. Wet TATB sampled from synthesis line was irradiated with microwave vacuum method and irradiated TATB was measured to accord with military standard specifications including appearance, moisture and volatile, chloride content, HPLC, mean particle size, DTA exothermic peak, ash, acetone soluble content, PH value, etc. Microwave vacuum desiccation was deemed laborsaving, energy-efficient, and practicable compared to conventional processing method.

  13. Irradiation as an alternative route for protein crosslinking: Cosolvent free BSA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varca, Gustavo H. C.; Queiroz, Rodrigo G.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies reported the development of protein-based nanoparticles by the use of ɣ-irradiation for the production of advanced drug carriers and biomaterials at nanolevel. Basically, the technique combines protein aggregation by means of protein desolvation using a cosolvent, followed by crosslinking using irradiation. We hereby report the effect irradiation dose over the development of protein-based nanoparticles combined or not with cosolvents. BSA was used as a model protein and the samples were irradiated in phosphate buffer (pH=7.2) using a gammacell in absence or presence of ethanol or methanol at 30% and 40% (v/v) respectively. The irradiation dose effect was evaluated following the exposition of BSA to 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy over particle size and protein crosslinking, as determined by photon correlation microscopy and fluorescence measurements. Optimized effects were achieved at 10 kGy, under the assayed dose range, with regard to higher particle size and protein crosslinking levels. The use of irradiation was suitable for the synthesis of BSA nanoparticles and tuning of particle size was achieved by controlling the absorbed dose. While the use of ethanol provided an additional control over BSA particle size if compared to the use of methanol at the concentrations assayed, the possibility to perform BSA crosslinking in absence of cosolvents unraveled a novel one-step procedure for the synthesis of protein nanoparticles with no toxicity generated by the use of cosolvents or monomers.

  14. Structural composition of organic matter in particle-size fractions of soils along a climo-biosequence in the main range of Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh-Haghighi, Amir Hossein; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Hamdan, Jol; Zainuddin, Norhazlin

    2016-09-01

    Information on structural composition of organic matter (OM) in particle-size fractions of soils along a climo-biosequence is sparse. The objective of this study was to examine structural composition and morphological characteristics of OM in particle-size fractions of soils along a climo-biosequence in order to better understand the factors and processes affecting structural composition of soil organic matter. To explore changes in structural composition of OM in soils with different pedogenesis, the A-horizon was considered for further analyses including particle-size fractionation, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Due to the increase in the thickness of organic layer with increasing elevation, the A-horizon was situated at greater depth in soils of higher elevation. The relationship between relative abundances of carbon (C) structures and particle-size fractions was examined using principal component analysis (PCA). It was found that alkyl C (20.1-73.4%) and O-alkyl C (16.8-67.7%) dominated particle-size fractions. The proportion of alkyl C increased with increasing elevation, while O-alkyl C showed an opposite trend. Results of PCA confirmed this finding and showed the relative enrichment of alkyl C in soils of higher elevation. Increase in the proportion of alkyl C in 250-2000 μm fraction is linked to selective preservation of aliphatic compounds derived from root litter. SEM results showed an increase in root contribution to the 250-2000 μm fraction with increasing elevation. For the <53 μm fraction, pedogenic process of podzolization is responsible for the relative enrichment of alkyl C. This study demonstrates that changes in structural composition of OM in particle-size fractions of soils along the studied climo-biosequence are attributed to site-specific differences in pedogenesis as a function of climate and vegetation.

  15. Dose response of micronuclei induced by combination radiation of α-particles and γ-rays in human lymphoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ruiping; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao; Shao, Chunlin

    2013-01-01

    Combination radiation is a real situation of both nuclear accident exposure and space radiation environment, but its biological dosimetry is still not established. This study investigated the dose-response of micronuclei (MN) induction in lymphocyte by irradiating HMy2.CIR lymphoblast cells with α-particles, γ-rays, and their combinations. Results showed that the dose-response of MN induced by γ-rays was well-fitted with the linear-quadratic model. But for α-particle irradiation, the MN induction had a biphasic phenomenon containing a low dose hypersensitivity characteristic and its dose response could be well-stimulated with a state vector model where radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was involved. For the combination exposure, the dose response of MN was similar to that of α-irradiation. However, the yield of MN was closely related to the sequence of irradiations. When the cells were irradiated with α-particles at first and then γ-rays, a synergistic effect of MN induction was observed. But when the cells were irradiated with γ-rays followed by α-particles, an antagonistic effect of MN was observed in the low dose range although this combination radiation also yielded a synergistic effect at high doses. When the interval between two irradiations was extended to 4h, a cross-adaptive response against the other irradiation was induced by a low dose of γ-rays but not α-particles.

  16. Low-temperature irradiation behavior of uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Hayes, S. L.; Clark, C. R.; Wiencek, T. C.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Strain, R. V.; Kim, K.-H.

    2002-08-01

    Irradiation tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance of a series of high-density uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy, aluminum matrix dispersion fuels. Fuel plates incorporating alloys with molybdenum content in the range of 4-10 wt% were tested. Two irradiation test vehicles were used to irradiate low-enrichment fuels to approximately 40 and 70 at.% 235U burnup in the advanced test reactor at fuel temperatures of approximately 65 °C. The fuel particles used to fabricate dispersion specimens for most of the test were produced by generating filings from a cast rod. In general, fuels with molybdenum contents of 6 wt% or more showed stable in-reactor fission gas behavior, exhibiting a distribution of small, stable gas bubbles. Fuel particle swelling was moderate and decreased with increasing alloy content. Fuel particles with a molybdenum content of 4 wt% performed poorly, exhibiting extensive fuel-matrix interaction and the growth of relatively large fission gas bubbles. Fuel particles with 4 or 6 wt% molybdenum reacted more rapidly with the aluminum matrix than those with higher-alloy content. Fuel particles produced by an atomization process were also included in the test to determine the effect of fuel particle morphology and microstructure on fuel performance for the U-10Mo composition. Both of the U-10Mo fuel particle types exhibited good irradiation performance, but showed visible differences in fission gas bubble nucleation and growth behavior.

  17. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  18. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Flegal, Matthew; Blimkie, Melinda; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Gregoire, Eric; Klokov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO) at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation. PMID:24317437

  19. The lack of cytotoxic effect and radioadaptive response in splenocytes of mice exposed to low level internal β-particle irradiation through tritiated drinking water in vivo.

    PubMed

    Flegal, Matthew; Blimkie, Melinda; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Gregoire, Eric; Klokov, Dmitry

    2013-12-05

    Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO) at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  20. OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2006 DECEMBER 13 AND 14 SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS IN THE 80 MeV n{sup -1}-3 GeV n{sup -1} RANGE FROM SPACE WITH THE PAMELA DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Borisov, S.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Consiglio, L.; Carlson, P.; Castellini, G.; and others

    2011-12-01

    We present the space spectrometer PAMELA observations of proton and helium fluxes during the 2006 December 13 and 14 solar particle events. This is the first direct measurement of the solar energetic particles in space with a single instrument in the energy range from {approx}80 MeV n{sup -1} up to {approx}3 GeV n{sup -1}. For the December 13 event, measured energy spectra of solar protons and helium are compared with results obtained by neutron monitors and other detectors. Our measurements show a spectral behavior different from those derived from the neutron monitor network. No satisfactory analytical fitting was found for the energy spectra. During the first hours of the December 13 event, solar energetic particles spectra were close to the exponential form, demonstrating rather significant temporal evolution. Solar He with energy up to 1 GeV n{sup -1} was recorded on December 13. For the December 14 event, energy of solar protons reached 600 MeV, whereas the maximum energy of He was below 100 MeV n{sup -1}. The spectra were slightly bent in the lower energy range and preserved their form during the second event. Differences in the particle flux appearance and temporal evolution of these two events may argue for special conditions leading to the acceleration of solar particles up to relativistic energies.

  1. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Ploger, Scott A.; Morris, Robert N.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Harp, Jason M.; Winston, Philip L.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; van Rooyen, Isabella J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Silva, Chinthaka M.

    2015-10-23

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.6% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuel including the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructures was evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that it was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocarbon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 1 × 10–4 to 5 × 10–4 for 154Eu and 8 × 10–7 to 3 × 10–5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs fractional release from compacts was <3 × 10–6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98 × 105 in the experiment experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs fractional release in two capsules to approximately 10–5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that

  2. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Charles A. Baldwin; Philip L. Winston; Jason M. Harp; Scott A. Ploger; Tyler Gerczak; Isabella J. van Rooyen; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva

    2014-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.5% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuel–including the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructures–was evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that it was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocrabon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 1×10 4 to 5×10 4 for 154Eu and 8×10 7 to 3×10 5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs release from compacts was <3×10 6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98×105 experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs release in two capsules to approximately 10 5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that released cesium during irradiation, where SiC corrosion was found adjacent to IPyC cracks. Palladium, silver, and uranium were found in the SiC layer of irradiated particles, and characterization

  3. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Ploger, Scott A.; Morris, Robert N.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Harp, Jason M.; Winston, Philip L.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; van Rooyen, Isabella J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; et al

    2015-10-23

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.6% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuel including the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructures was evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that itmore » was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocarbon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 1 × 10–4 to 5 × 10–4 for 154Eu and 8 × 10–7 to 3 × 10–5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs fractional release from compacts was <3 × 10–6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98 × 105 in the experiment experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs fractional release in two capsules to approximately 10–5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that released cesium during irradiation, where SiC corrosion was found adjacent to IPyC cracks. In conclusion, palladium, silver, and

  4. A comparison of the immune response and respiratory stress effect of three clone sizes of virus and three ranges of aerosol particle size using the lentogenic Newcastle disease vaccine strain AG68L.

    PubMed

    Allan, W H; Borland, L J

    1980-04-01

    The lentogenic Newcastle disease vaccine strain AG68L was used to produce three clones of virus by the selection of large, medium and small plaques which were purified and used as vaccines. The immunising and stress effects on the respiratory tract produced by each clone was determined by measuring the response to aerosol vaccination using monodisperse aerosol clouds. It was found that the clone derived from the small plaque was the least stressing although it retained good immunising qualities. The stress effect was not influenced by the aerosol particle size on which the virus was carried, over the mean particle size range of 1.0 to 4.0 mum.

  5. Heavy ion irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pilling, Sergio; Farenzena, Lucio; da Silveira, Enio Frota

    Icy grain mantles consist of small molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen atoms (e.g. H2O, CO, CO2, NH3). Such ices, present in different astrophysical environments (giant planets satellites, comets, dense clouds, and protoplanetary disks), are subjected to irradiation of different energetic particles: UV radiation, ion bombardment (solar and stellar wind as well as galactic cosmic rays), and secondary electrons due to cosmic ray ionization of H2. The interaction of these particles with astrophysical ice analogs has been the object of research over the last decades. However, there is a lack of information on the effects induced by the heavy ion component of cosmic rays in the electronic energy loss regime. The aim of the present work is to simulate of the astrophysical environment where ice mantles are exposed to the heavy ion cosmic ray irradiation. Sample ice films at 13K were irradiated by nickel ions with energies in the 1-10 MeV/u range and analyzed by means of FTIR spectrometry. Nickel ions were used because their energy deposition is similar to that deposited by iron ions, which are particularly abundant cosmic rays amongst the heaviest ones. In this work the effects caused by nickel ions on condensed gases are studied (destruction and production of molecules as well as associated cross sections, sputtering yields) and compared with respective values for light ions and UV photons.

  6. Proton and photon absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and foetus from top-down irradiation geometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Absorbed-dose conversion coefficients are calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months when the mother's body is exposed to protons and photons from top-down (TOP) direction. It provides data sets in addition to other standard irradiation geometries published previously. The TOP-irradiation geometry is considered here, because high-energy particles are often peaked from the TOP direction onboard aircrafts. The results show that absorbed-doses from high-energy particles could be underestimated significantly if isotropic (ISO) irradiation geometry is assumed. For protons of 100 GeV, absorbed-doses from TOP irradiation are approximately 2.3-2.9 times higher than the doses from ISO irradiation for different foetal ages. For 10 GeV photons, foetal doses from TOP irradiation are approximately 6.8-12 times higher than the doses from ISO irradiation. The coefficients from TOP-irradiation geometry are given in wide energy ranges, from 100 MeV to 100 GeV for protons and from 50 keV to 10 GeV for photons. They can, therefore, be used in various applications whenever exposure from the TOP-irradiation direction is concerned.

  7. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres containing bupivacaine: comparison between gamma and beta irradiation effects.

    PubMed

    Montanari, L; Cilurzo, F; Selmin, F; Conti, B; Genta, I; Poletti, G; Orsini, F; Valvo, L

    2003-07-31

    The beta- and gamma-irradiation effects on stability of microspheres made of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 copolymer (PLGA) containing bupivacaine (BU) were studied. Microspheres containing 10, 25, and 40% w/w, respectively, of BU were prepared by spray drying and irradiated in air with beta- and gamma-irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy. Morphology (atomic force microscopy, particle-size analysis), physico-chemical characteristics (DSC and FT-IR spectroscopy), drug content and in vitro dissolution profile of microspheres were all determined; the stability of irradiated microspheres was evaluated over a 9-month period. The decrease of BU content in gamma-irradiated microspheres was almost always constant independent of the amount of BU per sample, therefore it was in inverse proportion to drug loading (range between 5 and 15%). BU release rate increased immediately after irradiation and increased slightly until 90 days of storage. As far as beta-irradiated microspheres are concerned, BU content decreased in a significant way (approximately 3%) only in microspheres containing 10% w/w of BU. Immediately after irradiation, drug release rate in beta-irradiated microspheres increased less than in the corresponding gamma-irradiated microspheres, and it did not change further over the following storage period. BU-loaded microspheres have been shown to be more stable against beta- than gamma-irradiation. AFM revealed that the surface roughness of the irradiated microspheres increases depending on irradiation. As such, if a parameter is quantifiable, it is proposed as a marker of degradation due to ionizing radiation. PMID:12880695

  8. Study on the synthesis and formation mechanism of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} particles by microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Honglie He, Xiancong

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} microparticles were fabricated by low-cost chemical method. • The ball cactus-like shaped microparticles are with a diameter about 250 nm. • The optical band energy of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} microparticles is obtained to be about 1.5 eV. • The CuS nuclei firstly form, and serve as the growth point for Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) particles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method. The structure, shape, composition, and optical properties of these particles were investigated with X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and UV–vis-NIR spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared particles had single phase, stoichiometric composition, and a ball cactus-like shape with a diameter about 250 nm, when reaction time is 10 min. The formation mechanism of the CZTS particles was investigated by evaluation of samples prepared with different reaction time. According to the proposed growth mechanism of CZTS particles, the copper sulfide nuclei firstly forms, and serves as the starting point for the nucleation and growth of CZTS.

  9. Langevin model for real-time Brownian dynamics of interacting nanodefects in irradiated metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dudarev, S. L.; Arakawa, K.; Mori, H.; Yao, Z.; Jenkins, M. L.; Derlet, P. M.

    2010-06-01

    In situ real-time electron microscope observations of metals irradiated with ultrahigh-energy electrons or energetic ions show that the dynamics of microstructural evolution in these materials is strongly influenced by long-range elastic interactions between mobile nanoscale radiation defects. Treating long-range interactions is also necessary for modeling microstructures formed in ex situ high-dose-rate ion-beam irradiation experiments, and for interpolating the ion-beam irradiation data to the low-dose-rate limit characterizing the neutron irradiation environments of fission or fusion power plants. We show that simulations, performed using an algorithm where nanoscale radiation defects are treated as interacting Langevin particles, are able to match and explain the real-time dynamics of nanodefects observed in in situ electron microscope experiments.

  10. Induction of chromosomal damage in CHO-K1 cells and their repair-deficient mutant XRS5 by x-ray and particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasonova, E.; Ritter, S.; Fomenkova, T.; Kraft, G.

    The cytogenetic effects of X-rays and Au ions were investigated in repair-proficient CHO-K1 cells and their radiosensitive mutant strain xrs5, which shows a defect in the rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. Both cell lines were synchronized by mitotic shake off, irradiated in G_1-phase with either 250 kV X-rays or 780 MeV/u Au ions (LET: 1150 keV/mum) and chromosome aberrations were analyzed in first post-irradiation metaphases. Isoeffective doses of X-rays for the induction of aberrant cells and aberrations per cell were about 14 times lower for xrs5 than for CHO-K1 cells. After high LET radiation the difference in the cytogenetic response of both cell lines was drastically diminished. Furthermore, the analysis of the aberration types induced by sparsely and densely ionizing radiation showed for both cell lines specific changes in the spectrum of aberration types as LET increases. The experimental results are discussed with respect to the different types of lesions induced by sparsely and densely ionizing radiation.

  11. Three-micron extinction of the Titan haze in the 250-700 km altitude range: Possible evidence of a particle-aging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtin, Régis; Kim, Sang Joon; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    2015-01-01

    Context. The chemical nature of the Titan haze is poorly understood. The investigation carried out by the Cassini-Huygens suite of instruments is bringing new insights into this question. Aims: This work aims at deriving the vertical variation of the spectral structure of the 3.3-3.4 μm absorption feature of the Titan haze from Cassini VIMS solar occultation data recorded between 250 and 700 km altitude. Methods: We computed the transmittance of Titan's atmosphere using a spherical shell model and a radiative transfer code including the influence of CH4, CH3D, and C2H6, as well as the effects of absorption and scattering by the haze particles. We derived the haze extinction from a comparison of the synthetic spectra with the VIMS solar occultation spectra. Results: We find a marked change in the relative amplitudes of the 3.33 and 3.38 μm features, which are characteristic of aromatic (double C=C chains or rings) or aliphatic (single C-C chains) structural groups, respectively. The pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics (uncorrected for the absolute band strengths) varies from 3.3 ± 1.9 at 580-700 km to 0.9 ± 0.1 at 350-450 km, and is 0.5 ± 0.1 around 250 km. The structural change from the aromatic to the aliphatic type between 580 and 480 km appears to correspond to a spontaneous aging of the particles - a transition between unannealed and hardened particles - while the further decrease of the pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics below 480 km may be related to the coating of the core particles by condensates such as heavy alkanes. VIMS transmission spectra data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A21

  12. Economics of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.

    1993-07-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.

  13. Dose to lung from inhaled tritiated particles.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R B; Hong, A

    2001-09-01

    Tritiated particulate materials are of potential hazard in fission, fusion, and other tritium handling facilities. The absorbed fractions (fraction of energy emitted that is absorbed by the target region) are calculated for tritiated particles deposited in the alveolar-interstitial (AI) region of the respiratory tract. The energy absorbed by radiologically sensitive tissue irradiated by tritiated particles, in regions of the lung other than in the AI region, is negligible. The ICRP Publication 71 assumes the absorbed fraction is unity for tritium deposited in the AI region. We employed Monte Carlo methods in a model to evaluate the energy deposition in the wall of the alveolar sac from particles of tritiated beryllium, tritiated graphite, titanium tritide, tritiated iron hydroxide and zirconium tritide. For the five materials examined, the absorbed fraction in alveolar tissue ranged from 0.31 to 0.61 for particles of 1 microm physical diameter and 0.07 to 0.21 for 5 microm diameter particles. The dose to alveolar tissue, for an acute inhalation of tritiated particles by an adult male worker, was calculated based on the ICRP 66 lung model and the particle dissolution model of Mercer (1967). For particles of 5 microm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), the committed equivalent dose to alveolar tissue, calculated for the five materials, ranged from 32-42%, respectively, of the committed equivalent dose derived assuming the absorbed fractions were unity. PMID:11513464

  14. Irradiation-induced effects of proton irradiation on zirconium carbides with different stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Huang; B.R. Maier; T.R. Allen

    2014-10-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in deep burn TRISO fuel particles for hightemperature, gas-cooled reactors. Zirconium carbide has a cubic B1 type crystal structure along with a very high melting point (3420 ?C), exceptional hardness and good thermal and electrical conductivities. Understanding the ZrC irradiation response is crucial for establishing ZrC as an alternative component in TRISO fuel. Until now, very few studies on irradiation effects on ZrC have been released and fundamental aspects of defect evolution and kinetics are not well understood although some atomistic simulations and phenomenological studies have been performed. This work was carried out to understand the damage evolution in float-zone refined ZrC with different stoichiometries. Proton irradiations at 800 ?C up to doses of 3 dpa were performed on ZrCx (where x ranges from 0.9 to 1.2) to investigate the damage evolution. The irradiation-induced defects, such as density of dislocation loops, at different stoichiometries and doses which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented and discussed.

  15. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: 1. Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. 2. Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. 3. Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tristructural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S.-produced fuel.

  16. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel.

  17. Localization in a random XY model with long-range interactions: Intermediate case between single-particle and many-body problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burin, Alexander L.

    2015-09-01

    Many-body localization in an XY model with a long-range interaction is investigated. We show that in the regime of a high strength of disordering compared to the interaction an off-resonant flip-flop spin-spin interaction (hopping) generates the effective Ising interactions of spins in the third order of perturbation theory in a hopping. The combination of hopping and induced Ising interactions for the power-law distance dependent hopping V (R ) ∝R-α always leads to the localization breakdown in a thermodynamic limit of an infinite system at α <3 d /2 where d is a system dimension. The delocalization takes place due to the induced Ising interactions U (R ) ∝R-2 α of "extended" resonant pairs. This prediction is consistent with the numerical finite size scaling in one-dimensional systems. Many-body localization in an XY model is more stable with respect to the long-range interaction compared to a many-body problem with similar Ising and Heisenberg interactions requiring α ≥2 d which makes the practical implementations of this model more attractive for quantum information applications. The full summary of dimension constraints and localization threshold size dependencies for many-body localization in the case of combined Ising and hopping interactions is obtained using this and previous work and it is the subject for the future experimental verification using cold atomic systems.

  18. Microstructural change on electron irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, H.; Akasaka, N.; Takahashi, H.; Shibahara, I.; Onose, S.

    1992-09-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels were irradiated in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) to study their response to irradiation. Fe-13Cr with 0.25 wt% Y2O3 as dispersed particles and containing additions of either 0.45% Nb, 0.45% V and 0.67% Zr were irradiated at 673 and 723 K up to 15 dpa. The Y2O3 particles in all specimens were stable under these irradiation conditions. During irradiation, two types of dislocations were formed but observable voids were not formed. Furthermore, plate-like and granular-like precipitates formed in both the irradiated and nonirradiated regions.

  19. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  20. Effect of UV radiations to control particle size of Mn-Zn spinel ferrite nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen Ramiza, F.; Ajmal, S. K.; Khan, M. B.; Nasim, A.; Jamil, Y.; Kashif, K.; Amira, S.

    2016-08-01

    MnxZn1-xFe2O4 (0.0 < x < 1.0) ferrite nano particles were synthesized for concentration varying from 0.27 to 0.87 to obtain chemically homogenous powder for obtaining fine particle size by co precipitation technique. Keeping in view the interest of scientists for particle size, the present work focus on the impact of UV radiation to control the particle size of prepared fine magnetic particles. The particles were digested for ninety minutes at a temperature of 90oC. The samples were divided into four equal quantities and were subjected to different doses of UV radiation. The chemically produced samples of Mn-Zn ferrite nano particles were analyzed by XRD which confirmed cubic spinel structure of the material. The average crystallite size (t), lattice parameter (a) and other structural parameters of UV-irradiated MnxZni-xFe2O4 spinel ferrite were calculated from XRD data. The spinel peak of the irradiated sample when compared with the control sample, shifted from 35.38 to 35.15. In few samples, additional peaks supporting the ferrite structure were also observed. The variation in the particle sizes observed for various doses of UV irradiation were in the range of 17.6 to 6.2 nm, whereas the particle size of the control was 8.82nm. The experiment was repeated for different concentrations, at the same digestion temperature and time revealed the similar results indicating that UV radiations can have a remarkable effect to control the phase and size of nano size fine magnetic ferrite particles. The present work successfully document the impact of UV to control the particle size.

  1. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  2. Influenza virus subpopulations: interferon induction-suppressing particles require expression of NS1 and act globally in cells; UV irradiation of interferon-inducing particles blocks global shut-off and enhances interferon production.

    PubMed

    Malinoski, Christopher P; Marcus, Philip I

    2013-02-01

    Influenza virus populations contain several subpopulations of noninfectious biologically active particles that are measured by the unique phenotypes they express. Two of these subpopulations were studied: (1) interferon (IFN)-inducing particles (IFP) and (2) IFN induction-suppressing particles (ISP). ISP are dominant in cells coinfected with one or more IFP; they completely suppress IFN production in cells otherwise programmed to induce it. Influenza virus ISP were shown to act in host cells in a nonspecific and global manner, suppressing IFN induction independent of the family of viruses serving as IFN inducers. ISP must be present within the first 3 h of coinfection with IFP to be maximally effective; by 7 hpi IFN induction/production is refractory to the action of superinfecting ISP. UV target and thermal inactivation analyses revealed that ISP activity was dependent solely on the expression of the NS gene. Low doses of UV radiation enhanced by ∼10-fold the already high IFN-inducing capacity of a virus that expressed truncated NS1. There was no change in the number of IFP, implying that the production of IFN/cell had increased. We postulated that preventing degradation of cellular RNA pol II by viral polymerase prolonged the transcription of cellular mRNA, including IFN mRNA, to enhance the IFN-inducing capacity of the cell without any increase in the number of IFP. These studies point to the dueling roles of IFP and ISP in modulating IFN induction/production, the former activity being critical to the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccines.

  3. Apportioned contributions of PM2.5 fine aerosol particles over the Maldives (northern Indian Ocean) from local sources vs long-range transport.

    PubMed

    Budhavant, Krishnakant; Andersson, August; Bosch, Carme; Kruså, Martin; Murthaza, Ahmed; Zahid; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-12-01

    Urban-like plumes of gases and particulate matter originating from the South Asian region are frequently observed over the Indian Ocean, especially during the dry winter period. However, in addition to the strong sources on mainland South Asia, there are also local Maldivian emissions. The local contributions to the load of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Maldivian capital Malé was assessed using the well-established Maldives Climate Observatory at Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) to represent local background, recording the long-range transported component for a full-year synoptic campaign at both sites in 2013. The year-round levels in both Malé and MCOH are strongly influenced by the seasonality of the monsoon cycle, including precipitation patterns and air-mass transport pathways, with lower levels during the wet summer season. The annual-average PM2.5 levels in Malé are higher (avg. 19 μg/m3) than at MCOH (avg. 13 μg/m3) with the difference being the largest during the summer, when local emissions play a larger role. The 24-h World Health Organization (WHO) PM2.5 health guideline was surpassed for the weeklong collections in 71% of the cases in Malé and in 74% of the cases for Hanimaadhoo. This study shows that in the dry/winter season 90±11% of PM2.5 levels in Malé could be from long-range transport with only 8±11% from local emissions while in the wet/monsoon season the relative contributions are about equal. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) showed similar seasonal patterns as bulk mass PM2.5. The relative contribution of total carbonaceous matter to bulk mass PM2.5 was 17% in Malé and 13% at MCOH, suggesting larger contributions from incomplete combustion practices in the Malé local region.

  4. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Piper, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  5. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos Piper, Ben

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  6. Alpha Particles Induce Apoptosis through the Sphingomyelin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Seideman, Jonathan H.; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; McDevitt, Michael R.; Howell, Roger W.; Kolesnick, Richard N.; Scheinberg, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET a particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with a particles emitted by the 225Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on α-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated a particles using a planar 241Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five α-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that a particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:21631289

  7. Alpha particles induce apoptosis through the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed

    Seideman, Jonathan H; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A; McDevitt, Michael R; Howell, Roger W; Kolesnick, Richard N; Scheinberg, David A

    2011-10-01

    The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET α particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with α particles emitted by the ²²⁵Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on α-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated α particles using a planar ²⁴¹Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five α-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that α particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis.

  8. Alpha particles induce apoptosis through the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed

    Seideman, Jonathan H; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A; McDevitt, Michael R; Howell, Roger W; Kolesnick, Richard N; Scheinberg, David A

    2011-10-01

    The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET α particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with α particles emitted by the ²²⁵Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on α-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated α particles using a planar ²⁴¹Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five α-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that α particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:21631289

  9. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building

  10. Irradiation and food processing.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  11. Reductions of {sup 56}Fe heavy-particle irradiation-induced deficits in striatal muscarinic receptor sensitivity by selective cross-activation/inhibition of second-messenger systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, J.A.; Villalobos-Molina, R.; Rabin, B.M.; Dalton, T.K.; Harris, A.; Kandasamy, S.

    1994-07-01

    Recent experiments have revealed radiation-induced losses of sensitivity of rodent neostriatal muscarinic receptors to stimulation by cholinergic agonists that appears as reduction in oxotremorine enhancement of K{sup +}-evoked dopamine release. These losses were postulated to be the result of radiation-induced alterations early in phosphoinositide-mediated signal transduction. Additional findings indicated that if the ligand-receptor-G protein interface was bypassed no radiation deficits were seen. In the present study, radiation-induced deficits in K{sup +}-evoked dopamine release were examined in perifused striatal tissue obtained from rats exposed to 0,0.1 or 1.0 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles. Results showed that these deficits could be reduced by co-applying combinations of various pharmacological agents that were known to have differential effects on various second messengers such as 1,4,5-inositoltrisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). Combinations included oxotremorine-carbachol, and either oxotremorine or carbachol with arginine vasopressin or arachidonic acid. These results are discussed in terms of putative radiation-induced changes in receptor-containing membranes which alter receptor-G protein coupling/uncoupling. 49 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Validation of the Physics Analysis used to Characterize the AGR-1 TRISO Fuel Irradiation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James W.; Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Chang, Gray S.

    2015-05-01

    The results of a detailed physics depletion calculation used to characterize the AGR-1 TRISO-coated particle fuel test irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory are compared to measured data for the purpose of validation. The particle fuel was irradiated for 13 ATR power cycles over three calendar years. The physics analysis predicts compact burnups ranging from 11.30-19.56% FIMA and cumulative neutron fast fluence from 2.21?4.39E+25 n/m2 under simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor conditions in the ATR. The physics depletion calculation can provide a full characterization of all 72 irradiated TRISO-coated particle compacts during and post-irradiation, so validation of this physics calculation was a top priority. The validation of the physics analysis was done through comparisons with available measured experimental data which included: 1) high-resolution gamma scans for compact activity and burnup, 2) mass spectrometry for compact burnup, 3) flux wires for cumulative fast fluence, and 4) mass spectrometry for individual actinide and fission product concentrations. The measured data are generally in very good agreement with the calculated results, and therefore provide an adequate validation of the physics analysis and the results used to characterize the irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel.

  13. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  14. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors.

    PubMed

    Niklas, M; Zimmermann, F; Schlegel, J; Schwager, C; Debus, J; Jäkel, O; Abdollahi, A; Greilich, S

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis.

  15. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklas, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Schlegel, J.; Schwager, C.; Debus, J.; Jäkel, O.; Abdollahi, A.; Greilich, S.

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis.

  16. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors.

    PubMed

    Niklas, M; Zimmermann, F; Schlegel, J; Schwager, C; Debus, J; Jäkel, O; Abdollahi, A; Greilich, S

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis. PMID:27499388

  17. The All-Particle Spectrum of Primary Cosmic Rays in the Wide Energy Range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV Observed with the Tibet-III Air-Shower Array

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, X. H.; Guo, H. W.; Hu, Haibing; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; He, M.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.

    2008-05-10

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV using 5.5 x 10{sup 7} events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm{sup -2}). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.

  18. Environmental remediation by an integrated microwave/UV illumination technique. 8. Fate of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, alkoxycarbonyl and phenolic substrates in a microwave radiation field in the presence of TiO2 particles under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hojo, Fukuyo; Hidaka, Hisao; Serpone, Nick

    2004-04-01

    Thermal and nonthermal effects originating when a system is subjected to a microwave radiation field in the TiO2-photocatalyzed transformation of model substances containing various functional groups (e.g., benzoic acid, phthalic acid, o-formylbenzoic acid, phthalaldehyde, succinic acid, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, and phenol) have been examined under simultaneous irradiation by ultraviolet (UV) and microwave (MW) radiations. Characteristics of the microwave effects and the fate of each substrate during the microwave-assisted photocatalytic process were monitored by UV absorption spectroscopy, HPLC methods, total organic carbon assays, and identification of intermediates using electrospray mass spectral techniques. Microwave thermal and nonthermal effects were delineated by comparing results from MW-generated internal heat versus conventional external heating, and at constant ambient temperature under a microwave field. Factors involved in the nonthermal component of the microwave radiation were inferred for the initial adsorption of the substrate and its subsequent degradation occurring on the surface of TiO2 particles. Microwave effects bear on the mechanism through which a model substrate undergoes oxidative degradation. A characteristic feature of these effects was briefly examined by considering the behavior of polar (dipole moments) substrates in a microwave radiation field.

  19. Track Structure in DNA Irradiated with Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Michael K.; Becker, David; Sevilla, Michael D.; Zimbrick, John D.

    2005-04-01

    The spatial properties of trapped radicals produced in heavy ion-irradiated solid DNA at 77 K have been probed using pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER) techniques. Salmon testes DNA hydrated to twelve water molecules per nucleotide was irradiated with 40Ar ions of energy 100 MeV/nucleon and LET ranging from 300 to 400 keV/?. Irradiated samples were maintained at cryogenic temperature at all times. PELDOR measurements were made using a refocused echo detection sequence that allows dipolar interaction between trapped radicals to be observed. The EPR spectrum is attributed to electron loss/gain DNA base radicals and neutral carbon-centered radicals that likely arise from sugar damage. We find a radical concentration of 13.5*1018 cm-3 in the tracks and a track radius of 6.79 nm. The cross section of these tracks is 144 nm2 yielding a lineal radical density of 2.6 radicals/nm. Based upon the yields previously determined for particles having calculated LET values of 300-400 keV/mm and our measured lineal density, we obtain an LET of 270 keV/mm, which is in good agreement with the calculated range of values. These measurements of radical density and spatial extent provide the first direct experimental determination of track characteristics in irradiated DNA.

  20. Irradiation history of lunar cores and the development of the regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Dust, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed studies by the nuclear particle track method of lunar core sections 70009, 70008, 60007, 60010, and 60009 indicate that the irradiation and depositional histories of individual lunar cores vary greatly. The presence of layers a few cm thick which have remained largely undisturbed for periods ranging from 1 to 100 m.y. is a common feature although the development of the regolith usually proceeds through the accumulation of smaller increments of heavily irradiated material that do not result in distinct layers. Typical accumulation rates are on the order of 1 cm/m.y.

  1. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  2. Irradiation records in regolith materials, II: Solar wind and solar energetic particle components in helium, neon, and argon extracted from single lunar mineral grains and from the Kapoeta howardite by stepwise pulse heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, R. L.; Becker, R. H.; Pepin, R. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    2002-09-01

    High-resolution stepped heating has been used to extract light noble gases implanted in a suite of 13 individual lunar ilmenite and iron grains and in the Kapoeta howardite by solar wind (SW) and solar energetic particle (SEP) irradiation. Isotopic analyses of gases evolved at low temperatures from the lunar grains confirm the neon and argon compositions obtained by Pepin et al. (Pepin R. O., Becker R. H., and Schlutter D. J., "Irradiation records in regolith materials, I: Isotopic compositions of solar-wind neon and argon in single lunar regolith grains", Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta63, 2145-2162, 1999) in an initial study of 11 regolith grains, primarily ilmenites. Combination of the data sets from both investigations yields 20Ne/ 22Ne = 13.85 ± 0.04, 21Ne/ 22Ne = 0.0334 ± 0.0003, and 36Ar/ 38Ar = 5.80 ± 0.06 for the lunar samples; the corresponding 36Ar/ 38Ar ratio in Kapoeta is 5.74 ± 0.06. The neon ratios agree well with those measured by Benkert et al. (Benkert J.-P., Baur H., Signer P., and Wieler R., "He, Ne, and Ar from the solar wind and solar energetic particles in lunar ilmenites and pyroxenes", J. Geophys. Res. (Planets)98, 13147-13162, 1993) in gases extracted from bulk lunar ilmenite samples by stepped acid etching and attributed by them to the SW. The 36Ar/ 38Ar ratios, however, are significantly above both Benkert et al.'s (1993) proposed SW value of 5.48 ± 0.05 and a later estimate of 5.58 ± 0.03 from an acid-etch analysis of Kapoeta (Becker R. H., Schlutter D. J., Rider P. E., and Pepin R. O., "An acid-etch study of the Kapoeta achondrite: Implications for the argon-36/argon-38 ratio in the solar wind", Meteorit. Planet. Sci.33, 109-113, 1998). We believe, for reasons discussed here and in our earlier report, that 5.80 ± 0.06 ratio most nearly represents the wind composition. The 3He/ 4He ratio in low-temperature gas releases, not measured in the first particle suite, is found in several grains to be indistinguishable from Benkert et al

  3. Charge-collection efficiency of single-crystal CVD diamond detector for low-energy charged particles with energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of a diamond detector created from a single-crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition was studied for application in detecting charged particles having energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV. Energy peaks of different low-energy ions were clearly observed. However, we observed that the pulse height for individual incident ions decreases with increasing atomic number of the ions. We estimated the charge collection efficiency of the generated charge carriers by the incident charged particles. The charge collection efficiencies are 97.0 ± 0.7% for 2 MeV helium-ions (He+). On the other hand, compared with that of He+, silicon-ions (Si+) and gold-ions (Au3+) show low charge collection efficiency: 70.6 ± 2.2% and 29.5 ± 4.2% for 2 MeV-Si+ and 2 MeV-Au3+, respectively. We also found that the charge collection efficiency decreases as the generated charge density inside the diamond crystal increases.

  4. Modeling precipitate evolution in zirconium alloys during irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, J. D.

    2016-08-01

    The second phase precipitates (SPPs) in zirconium alloys are critical in controlling their performance. During service, SPPs are subject to both thermal and irradiation effects that influence volume fraction, number, and size. In this paper, a model has been developed to capture the combined effect of thermal and irradiation exposure on the Zr(Fe,Cr)2 precipitates in Zircaloy. The model includes irradiation induced precipitate destabilization integrated into a classical size class model for nucleation, growth and coarsening. The model has been applied to predict the effect of temperature and irradiation on SPP evolution. Increasing irradiation displacement rate is predicted to strongly enhance the loss of particles that arises from coarsening alone. The effect of temperature is complex due to competition between coarsening and irradiation damage. As temperature increases, coarsening is predicted to become increasingly important compared to irradiation induced dissolution and may increase resistance to irradiation induced dissolution by increasing particle size.

  5. β-ray irradiation effects on silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, A.; Agnello, S.; Buscarino, G.; Boizot, B.; Cannas, M.; Gelardi, F. M.

    2015-04-01

    By electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, we examine the amplitude of the signal typically due to a combination of NBOHC (Non Bridging Hole Center) and POR (Peroxy Radical) defects induced by β-ray irradiation (from 1.2 to 1200 MGy) in silica nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 7 to 20 nm. Our data indicate that the signal line-shapes recorded at different doses is quite independent from the particles sizes and from the dose. Furthermore, for each considered nanoparticles size, the concentration of defects is also almost constant with respect to dose, and it does not change significantly if measured after 2 or 9 months from the irradiation. By contrast, we observed that the concentration of NBOHC+POR decreases on increasing the specific surface, indicating that the content of the defects depends on the nanoparticles size. Such dependence can be explained by a shell model in which the detected defects are located in the inner part of the nanoparticles.

  6. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  7. Origin and impact of particle-to-particle variations in composition measurements with the nano-aerosol mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Klems, Joseph P; Johnston, Murray V

    2013-09-01

    In the nano-aerosol mass spectrometer, individual particles in the 10-30 nm size range are trapped and irradiated with a high pulse energy laser beam. The laser pulse generates a plasma that disintegrates the particle into atomic ions, from which the elemental composition is determined. Particle-to-particle variations among the mass spectra are shown to arise from plasma energetics: Low ionization energy species are enhanced in some spectra while high ionization energy species are enhanced in others. These variations also limit the accuracy and precision of elemental analysis, with higher deviations generally observed when low ionization energy species are dominant in the mass spectrum. For standard datasets generated from nominally identical particles, it is shown that that the error associated with composition measurement is random and that averaging the spectra from a few tens of particles is sufficient for measuring the mole fractions of common elements to within about 10% of the expected value. Averaging a greater number of particles offers limited improvement of the measurement precision but has the deleterious effect of degrading the measurement time-resolution, which is given by the time needed to obtain the required number of particle spectra for averaging. An internally mixed ambient particle dataset was found to give a similar result to the standard datasets, that is, the measured elemental composition converged to the average value after a few tens of particles were averaged.

  8. Safety considerations for magnetic fields of 10 mT to 100 mT amplitude in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz for magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Dössel, Olaf; Bohnert, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality using oscillating magnetic fields in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The duration of data acquisition becomes smaller, and signal-to-noise ratio improves if the amplitude of these fields is increased - technically amplitudes of up to 100 mT might be feasible for human-sized systems. On the other hand, with increasing field strength, adverse health effects must be expected: oscillating magnetic fields can stimulate nerves and muscle and heat up tissue. Thresholds for stimulation with magnetic fields in this frequency range are not precisely known, neither is the local temperature rise following exposure. The ICNIRP guidelines define reference levels for magnetic field exposure for the general public that contain large safety factors - for medical diagnostics, they might be exceeded for a short time. In this article, research and guidelines in this field are briefly reviewed, and new results are presented in order to contribute to a future definition of safety limits for oscillating magnetic fields in MPI. PMID:24176960

  9. Safety considerations for magnetic fields of 10 mT to 100 mT amplitude in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz for magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Dössel, Olaf; Bohnert, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality using oscillating magnetic fields in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The duration of data acquisition becomes smaller, and signal-to-noise ratio improves if the amplitude of these fields is increased - technically amplitudes of up to 100 mT might be feasible for human-sized systems. On the other hand, with increasing field strength, adverse health effects must be expected: oscillating magnetic fields can stimulate nerves and muscle and heat up tissue. Thresholds for stimulation with magnetic fields in this frequency range are not precisely known, neither is the local temperature rise following exposure. The ICNIRP guidelines define reference levels for magnetic field exposure for the general public that contain large safety factors - for medical diagnostics, they might be exceeded for a short time. In this article, research and guidelines in this field are briefly reviewed, and new results are presented in order to contribute to a future definition of safety limits for oscillating magnetic fields in MPI.

  10. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  11. Charged-particle calculations using Boltzmann transport methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Robinson, M.T.; Holmes, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    Several aspects of radiation damage effects in fusion reactor neutron and ion irradiation environments are amenable to treatment by transport theory methods. In this paper, multigroup transport techniques are developed for the calculation of charged particle range distributions, reflection coefficients, and sputtering yields. The Boltzmann transport approach can be implemented, with minor changes, in standard neutral particle computer codes. With the multigroup discrete ordinates code, ANISN, determination of ion and target atom distributions as functions of position, energy, and direction can be obtained without the stochastic error associated with atomistic computer codes such as MARLOWE and TRIM. With the multigroup Monte Carlo code, MORSE, charged particle effects can be obtained for problems associated with very complex geometries. Results are presented for several charged particle problems. Good agreement is obtained between quantities calculated with the multigroup approach and those obtained experimentally or by atomistic computer codes.

  12. Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C

    2014-10-01

    The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a

  13. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise P. Collin

    2012-06-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 ?1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). We’ll say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below 10-7 with only one

  14. AGR-2: The first irradiation of French HTR fuel in Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lambert; B. Grover; P. Guillermier; D. Moulinier; F. Imbault Huart

    2012-10-01

    AGR-2, the second irradiation of the US program for qualification of the NGNP fuel, is open to international participation within the scope of the Generation IV International Forum. In this frame, it includes in its multi-capsule irradiation rig an irradiation of French HTR fuel manufactured in the CAPRI line (GAIA facility at CEA/Cadarache and AREVA/CERCA compacting line at Romans). The AGR-2 irradiation is designed to place our first fabrications of HTR particles under operating conditions that are representative of ANTARES project while keeping close to the test range of the German fuel as much as possible, which is the reference in terms of irradiation behavior. A few batches of particles and 12 fuel compacts were produced and characterized in 2009 by CEA and CERCA. The fuel main characteristics are in conformity with our specifications and in compliance with INL requirements. The AGR-2 experiment is based on the design and devices used in the first experiment of the AGR program. The design makes it possible to monitor the irradiation conditions and in particular, the temperature, the power and the fission products released from fuel particles. The in pile equipment consists of a multi-capsule device designed to simultaneously irradiate six independent capsules with temperature control. The out-of-core part consists of the equipment for actively controlling temperature and measuring the fission products release on-line. The target conditions for the irradiation experiment were defined with the aim of comparing the results obtained under irradiation with German particles along with the objectives of reaching burn-up and fluence targets to validate the behavior of our fuel in a significant range (15% FIMA – 5 × 1025 n/m2 at 600 EFPD with centerline fuel temperature about 1100 degrees C). These conditions have to be representative of ANTARES project characteristics. These target conditions were compared with final results from neutron and thermal design studies

  15. Method of measuring field funneling and range straggling in semiconductor charge-collecting junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor); Malone, Carl J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Electric-field funneling length is measured while irradiating a semiconductor charge-collecting junction with electron-hole-pair generating charged particles at a first junction bias voltage. The bias voltage is then reduced to a second level in order to reduce the depth of the depletion region such that the total charge can no longer be collected by drift and measured in the energy band previously displayed in the multichannel analyzer. This is representative of the maximum electric field funnelling length which may be calculated by measuring the difference at the second bias voltage level of the depletion width and the ion penetration range. The bias voltage is further lowered to a third level at which the particles are collected over a spread of energy levels while at least some of the particles are still collected at the selected energy level. From this the different depths of penetration of the particles are determined while additional effects due to diffusion are minimized.

  16. Determining organ dose conversion coefficients for external neutron irradiation by using a voxel mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Qu, Decheng; Ning, Jing; Zhou, Hongmei; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan

    2016-01-01

    A set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients has been calculated for neutrons with energies <20 MeV using a developed voxel mouse model and Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP), for the purpose of neutron radiation effect evaluation. The calculation used 37 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10−9 MeV to 20 MeV, under five different source irradiation configurations: left lateral, right lateral, dorsal–ventral, ventral–dorsal, and isotropic. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for selected organs of the body were presented in the paper, and the effect of irradiation geometry conditions, neutron energy and the organ location on the organ dose was discussed. The results indicated that neutron dose conversion coefficients clearly show sensitivity to irradiation geometry at neutron energy below 1 MeV. PMID:26661852

  17. Irradiation of dust in molecular clouds. IV. ACR doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghikyan, A. G.; Barsamyan, L.

    2013-09-01

    The fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays inside typical molecular clouds produced during collisions of stars with clouds are calculated. The charged particles formed in the cloud in the neighborhood of the star are accelerated in a shock front in the astrosphere by known statistical mechanisms to energies on the order of a few 100 MeV. It is shown that protons and α-particles with energies in the 1 keV ≤ E ≤ 10 GeV range penetrate deeply enough that, over the time of 1-5 hundred thousand years a star is passing through a cloud, they produce sufficient irradiation doses for the ice mantle of dust particles such that the cumulative effect owing to multiple passages would exceed a threshold value on the order of 0.1-1 eV/amu. The possible use of these results for astrophysical interpretation of laboratory experiments on the irradiation of H2O:CH3OH:NH3:CO ice mixtures is discussed. The complex organic substances formed by radiation-chemical transformation may play an important role in the prebiological evolution of the dust component of molecular clouds.

  18. Neutron irradiation and frequency effects on the electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon carbide (3C-SiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, Elchin

    2016-09-01

    In this present work nanocrystalline silicon carbide (3C-SiC) has been irradiated with neutron flux (∼ 2 ×1013 ncm-2s-1) up to 20 hours at different periods. Electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles (∼18 nm) is comparatively analyzed before and after neutron irradiation. The frequency dependencies of electrical conductivity of 3C-SiC nanoparticles is reviewed at 100 K-400 K temperature range before and after irradiation. The measurements were carried out at 0.1 Hz-2.5 MHz frequency ranges and at different temperatures. Radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) was observed in the nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles after neutron irradiation and this conductivity study as a function of frequency are presented. The type of conductivity has been defined based on the interdependence between real and imaginary parts of electrical conductivity function. Based on the obtained results the mechanism behind the electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC particles is explained in detail.

  19. RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  20. Laboratory Search for a Long-Range T-Odd, P-Odd Interaction from Axionlike Particles Using Dual-Species Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with Polarized Xe129 and Xe131 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, M.; Griffith, R.; Larsen, M.; Mirijanian, J.; Fu, C. B.; Smith, E.; Snow, W. M.; Yan, H.; Walker, T. G.

    2013-09-01

    Various theories beyond the standard model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter. A new P-odd and T-odd interaction between polarized and unpolarized nucleons proportional to K→·r→ is one such possibility, where r→ is the distance between the nucleons and K→ is the spin of the polarized nucleon. Such an interaction involving a scalar coupling gs at one vertex and a pseudoscalar coupling gp at the polarized nucleon vertex can be induced by the exchange of spin-0 bosons. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation to search for NMR frequency shifts in polarized Xe129 and Xe131 when a nonmagnetic zirconia rod is moved near the NMR cell. Long (T2˜20s) spin-relaxation times allow precision measurements of the NMR frequency ratios, which are insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Combined with existing theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum in xenon nuclei, the measurements improve the laboratory upper bound on the product gsgpn by 2 orders of magnitude for distances near 1 mm. The sensitivity of this technique can be increased by at least two more orders of magnitude.

  1. Laboratory search for a long-range T-odd, P-odd interaction from axionlike particles using dual-species nuclear magnetic resonance with polarized 129Xe and 131Xe gas.

    PubMed

    Bulatowicz, M; Griffith, R; Larsen, M; Mirijanian, J; Fu, C B; Smith, E; Snow, W M; Yan, H; Walker, T G

    2013-09-01

    Various theories beyond the standard model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter. A new P-odd and T-odd interaction between polarized and unpolarized nucleons proportional to K·r is one such possibility, where r is the distance between the nucleons and K is the spin of the polarized nucleon. Such an interaction involving a scalar coupling gs at one vertex and a pseudoscalar coupling gp at the polarized nucleon vertex can be induced by the exchange of spin-0 bosons. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation to search for NMR frequency shifts in polarized 129Xe and 131Xe when a nonmagnetic zirconia rod is moved near the NMR cell. Long (T2∼20  s) spin-relaxation times allow precision measurements of the NMR frequency ratios, which are insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Combined with existing theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum in xenon nuclei, the measurements improve the laboratory upper bound on the product gsgp(n) by 2 orders of magnitude for distances near 1 mm. The sensitivity of this technique can be increased by at least two more orders of magnitude.

  2. Hyperparathyroidism after neck irradiation.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Noble, J G; Milroy, E J; Cowie, A G

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective review of 1550 cases of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) treated surgically over a 30-year period reveals a past history of exposure to neck irradiation in 10 cases (0.7 per cent). The indication for radiotherapy was benign disease in nine and papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. The mean interval between radiation exposure and the detection of HPT was 32 years (range 3-63 years). Patients treated with radioactive iodine alone developed HPT after a mean of 5 years while the interval for those treated with external beam therapy alone was a mean of 44 years. The parathyroid histology was adenoma in six cases, carcinoma in three cases and nodular hyperplasia in one case. All patients had coincident benign thyroid disease apart from one that had previously had papillary carcinoma and another with follicular carcinoma. Neck irradiation has been shown to confer an increased risk of HPT due to parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Radiotherapy for benign disease has generally been abandoned and these cases demonstrate a further contra-indication for the use of neck irradiation.

  3. In vitro radiosensitizing effects of ultrasmall gadolinium based particles on tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mowat, P; Mignot, A; Rima, W; Lux, F; Tillement, O; Roulin, C; Dutreix, M; Bechet, D; Huger, S; Humbert, L; Barberi-Heyob, M; Aloy, M T; Armandy, E; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C; Le Duc, G; Roux, S; Perriat, P

    2011-09-01

    Since radiotherapy is widely used in cancer treatment, it is essential to develop strategies which lower the irradiation burden while increasing efficacy and become efficient even in radio resistant tumors. Our new strategy is relying on the development of solid hybrid nanoparticles based on rare-earth such as gadolinium. In this paper, we then evidenced that gadolinium-based particles can be designed to enter efficiently into the human glioblastoma cell line U87 in quantities that can be tuned by modifying the incubation conditions. These sub-5 nm particles consist in a core of gadolinium oxide, a shell of polysiloxane and are functionalized by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Although photoelectric effect is maximal in the [10-100 keV] range, such particles were found to possess efficient in-vitro radiosensitizing properties at an energy of 660 keV by using the "single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay," an assay that measures the number of DNA damage that occurs during irradiation. Even more interesting, the particles have been evidenced by MTT assays to be also efficient radiosensitizers at an energy of 6 MeV for doses comprised between 2 and 8 Gy. The properties of the gadolinium-based particles give promising opening to a particle-assisted radio-therapy by using irradiation systems already installed in the majority of hospitals.

  4. The effect of irradiation on the magnetic properties of rock and synthetic samples: Implications to irradiation of extraterrestrial materials in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Duprat, J.; Rizza, G.; Vernazza, P.; Trukhin, V. I.; Skripnik, A. Ya.

    2015-05-01

    We report here the results of laboratory analog experiments to consider the potential effects of solar energetic particles (SEP or solar-flare-associated particles) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on the magnetic properties of extraterrestrial materials. We carried out proton bombardment experiments (with irradiation energies E 1=400, E 2 =850 keV and three irradiation fluences in 1014-1016 p/cm2 range) and lead-ion bombardment experiments ( E =1 GeV) on (previously demagnetized by 120 mT alternating magnetic field) rock and synthetic samples with the following magnetic carriers: metallic iron and nickel iron, Ti-rich and Ti-free magnetite, pyrrhotite. Irradiation experiments resulted in either further demagnetization or magnetization of irradiated samples depending on the type of magnetic mineralogy and type of ionizing radiation involved. Apart for the formation of radiation-induced remanent magnetization (RIRM), we observed major changes in bulk magnetic properties, i.e., a moderate to dramatic decrease (up to 93%) in the coercivity of remanence B cr for all iron-bearing phases (iron-in-epoxy and Bensour meteorite samples). Contrary to iron-bearing samples, several magnetite-bearing samples experienced a radiation-induced magnetic hardening (increase in B cr ). Magnetic hardening was also observed for Ar2+ ion-irradiated nickel iron-bearing HED meteorites, measured for comparison with the previously stated results. Therefore, the combined effect of SEP with GCR may magnetically soften iron-bearing materials and harden magnetite-bearing materials. In order to answer the question wether RIRM may account for natural remanent magnetization of meteorites and lunar samples, physical mechanism of RIRM formation and potential dependence of RIRM intensity on the background magnetic field present during irradiation event should be investigated.

  5. Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-14

    High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

  6. Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threat of a terrorist-precipitated nuclear event places humans at danger for radiological exposures. Isotopes which emit alpha (α)-particle radiation pose the highest risk. Currently, gene expression signatures are being developed for radiation biodosimetry and triage with respect to ionizing photon radiation. This study was designed to determine if similar gene expression profiles are obtained after exposures involving α-particles. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. Microarray technology was employed to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to unirradiated cells 24 hours post-exposure. Statistical analysis identified modulated genes at each of the individual doses. Results Twenty-nine genes were common to all doses with expression levels ranging from 2-10 fold relative to control treatment group. This subset of genes was further assessed in independent complete white blood cell (WBC) populations exposed to either α-particles or X-rays using quantitative real-time PCR. This 29 gene panel was responsive in the α-particle exposed WBCs and was shown to exhibit differential fold-changes compared to X-irradiated cells, though no α-particle specific transcripts were identified. Conclusion Current gene panels for photon radiation may also be applicable for use in α-particle radiation biodosimetry. PMID:25017500

  7. Thermoluminescence analysis of irradiated oyster shells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Marcazzó, J; Della Monaca, S; Boniglia, C; Gargiulo, R; Bortolin, E

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis performed on the oyster shells powder. TL response of (60)Co gamma-rays irradiated samples were studied in the range from 80 Gy to 8 kGy doses. TL signal of irradiated shell powder was higher as compared to the unirradiated control samples, which allowed to identify the irradiated oysters. Results show that the oyster shells have good TL properties and can be useful for the identification of irradiated seafood as well as for the evaluation of the treatment dose.

  8. Organic chemistry by irradiation in space.

    PubMed

    Bibring, J P; Rocard, F

    1984-01-01

    The irradiation of grains and/or ices by particles from solar or stellar winds, as well as cosmic rays, induces the synthesis of molecular species. We have shown by in-situ infrared spectroscopy of irradiated samples that this chemistry may be responsible for the presence of organic compounds in a large variety of astrophysical sites such as: lunar and asteroidal regoliths, cometary nucleus, rings and satellites of outer planets, circumstellar shells, interstellar clouds. We present our experimental results concerning the mature and efficiency of C and N irradiation chemistries, and give plausible astrophysical implications.